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Sample records for foot move an fmri

  1. Neural correlates of lower limbs proprioception: An fMRI study of foot position matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iandolo, Riccardo; Bellini, Alessandro; Saiote, Catarina; Marre, Ilaria; Bommarito, Giulia; Oesingmann, Niels; Fleysher, Lazar; Mancardi, Giovanni Luigi; Casadio, Maura; Inglese, Matilde

    2018-05-01

    Little is known about the neural correlates of lower limbs position sense, despite the impact that proprioceptive deficits have on everyday life activities, such as posture and gait control. We used fMRI to investigate in 30 healthy right-handed and right-footed subjects the regional distribution of brain activity during position matching tasks performed with the right dominant and the left nondominant foot. Along with the brain activation, we assessed the performance during both ipsilateral and contralateral matching tasks. Subjects had lower errors when matching was performed by the left nondominant foot. The fMRI analysis suggested that the significant regions responsible for position sense are in the right parietal and frontal cortex, providing a first characterization of the neural correlates of foot position matching. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Watching your foot move--an fMRI study of visuomotor interactions during foot movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Petersen, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate brain areas involved in distinguishing sensory events caused by self-generated movements from similar sensory events caused by externally generated movements using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects performed 4 types of movements: 1) sel...

  3. Watching your foot move--an fMRI study of visuomotor interactions during foot movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Petersen, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    are activated during self-generated ankle movements guided by visual feedback as compared with externally generated movements under similar visual and proprioceptive conditions. We found a distinct network, comprising the posterior parietal cortex and lateral cerebellar hemispheres, which showed increased......, and activation related to proprioceptive input. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Aug...

  4. Watching your foot move - an fMRI study of visuomotor interactions during foot movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Petersen, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate brain areas involved in distinguishing sensory events caused by self-generated movements from similar sensory events caused by externally generated movements using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects performed 4 types of movements: 1) self......-generated voluntary movement with visual feedback, 2) externally generated movement with visual feedback, 3) self-generated voluntary movement without visual feedback, and 4) externally generated movement without visual feedback, this design. This factorial design makes it possible to study which brain areas...... are activated during self-generated ankle movements guided by visual feedback as compared with externally generated movements under similar visual and proprioceptive conditions. We found a distinct network, comprising the posterior parietal cortex and lateral cerebellar hemispheres, which showed increased...

  5. Estimation of temporary change of activation areas by moving an analysis time window in fMRI measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Tadanori; Shimada, Takamasa; Akatsuka, Takao; Ishikawa, Fumito; Saito, Yoichi

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to acquire temporal changes of activations by moving an analysis time window. An advantage of this method is that it can acquire rough changes of activated areas even with the data having low time resolution. We ascertained that activations from our method do not contradict previous reports on the oddball paradigm, thus showing its effectiveness. Eight normal subjects participated in the study, which consisted of a random series of 30 target and 70 nontarget stimuli. We investigated the activated area in three kinds of analysis time sections, from stimulus onset to 5 s after the stimulus (time section A), from 2 to 7 s after (B) and from 4 to 9 s after (C). In time section A, representative activated areas were regions including the left and supplementary motor areas (SMA), and cerebellum. In B, regions including the left motor area and SMA, right parahippocampal gyrus (Broadmann Area (BA) 30), right limbic lobe and cerebellum were activated. In C, bilaterally postcentral gyrus (BA 3,40), right anterior cingulate (ACC, BA 32), left middle frontal gyrus (BA 9) and right parahippocampal gyrus were activated. Most activations were consistent with previous studies.

  6. An fMRI study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fMRI data analysis revealed that while performing the task, the alcoholics showed enhanced activations in left supramarginal gyrus, precuneus bilaterally, left angular gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus as compared to control subjects. The extensive activations observed in alcoholics as compared to controls suggest that ...

  7. An FMRI-compatible Symbol Search task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebel, Spencer W; Clark, Uraina S; Xu, Xiaomeng; Riskin-Jones, Hannah H; Hawkshead, Brittany E; Schwarz, Nicolette F; Labbe, Donald; Jerskey, Beth A; Sweet, Lawrence H

    2015-03-01

    Our objective was to determine whether a Symbol Search paradigm developed for functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) is a reliable and valid measure of cognitive processing speed (CPS) in healthy older adults. As all older adults are expected to experience cognitive declines due to aging, and CPS is one of the domains most affected by age, establishing a reliable and valid measure of CPS that can be administered inside an MR scanner may prove invaluable in future clinical and research settings. We evaluated the reliability and construct validity of a newly developed FMRI Symbol Search task by comparing participants' performance in and outside of the scanner and to the widely used and standardized Symbol Search subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). A brief battery of neuropsychological measures was also administered to assess the convergent and discriminant validity of the FMRI Symbol Search task. The FMRI Symbol Search task demonstrated high test-retest reliability when compared to performance on the same task administered out of the scanner (r=.791; pSymbol Search (r=.717; pSymbol Search task were also observed. The FMRI Symbol Search task is a reliable and valid measure of CPS in healthy older adults and exhibits expected sensitivity to the effects of age on CPS performance.

  8. Lessons from dynamic cadaver and invasive bone pin studies: do we know how the foot really moves during gait?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nester Christopher J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper provides a summary of a Keynote lecture delivered at the 2009 Australasian Podiatry Conference. The aim of the paper is to review recent research that has adopted dynamic cadaver and invasive kinematics research approaches to better understand foot and ankle kinematics during gait. It is not intended to systematically cover all literature related to foot and ankle kinematics (such as research using surface mounted markers. Since the paper is based on a keynote presentation its focuses on the authors own experiences and work in the main, drawing on the work of others where appropriate Methods Two approaches to the problem of accessing and measuring the kinematics of individual anatomical structures in the foot have been taken, (i static and dynamic cadaver models, and (ii invasive in-vivo research. Cadaver models offer the advantage that there is complete access to all the tissues of the foot, but the cadaver must be manipulated and loaded in a manner which replicates how the foot would have performed when in-vivo. The key value of invasive in-vivo foot kinematics research is the validity of the description of foot kinematics, but the key difficulty is how generalisable this data is to the wider population. Results Through these techniques a great deal has been learnt. We better understand the valuable contribution mid and forefoot joints make to foot biomechanics, and how the ankle and subtalar joints can have almost comparable roles. Variation between people in foot kinematics is high and normal. This includes variation in how specific joints move and how combinations of joints move. The foot continues to demonstrate its flexibility in enabling us to get from A to B via a large number of different kinematic solutions. Conclusion Rather than continue to apply a poorly founded model of foot type whose basis is to make all feet meet criteria for the mechanical 'ideal' or 'normal' foot, we should embrace variation

  9. Gradient Artefact Correction and Evaluation of the EEG Recorded Simultaneously with fMRI Data Using Optimised Moving-Average

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, coregistered EEG-fMRI has emerged as a powerful tool for neurocognitive research and correlated studies, mainly because of the possibility of integrating the high temporal resolution of the EEG with the high spatial resolution of fMRI. However, additional work remains to be done in order to improve the quality of the EEG signal recorded simultaneously with fMRI data, in particular regarding the occurrence of the gradient artefact. We devised and presented in this paper a novel approach for gradient artefact correction based upon optimised moving-average filtering (OMA. OMA makes use of the iterative application of a moving-average filter, which allows estimation and cancellation of the gradient artefact by integration. Additionally, OMA is capable of performing the attenuation of the periodic artefact activity without accurate information about MRI triggers. By using our proposed approach, it is possible to achieve a better balance than the slice-average subtraction as performed by the established AAS method, regarding EEG signal preservation together with effective suppression of the gradient artefact. Since the stochastic nature of the EEG signal complicates the assessment of EEG preservation after application of the gradient artefact correction, we also propose a simple and effective method to account for it.

  10. An fMRI study of Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charalampaki, Angeliki

    2017-01-01

    Sense of Agency comprises the experience of authorship over voluntarily executed movements. Research related to this phenomenon is substantial, considering altered Sense of Agency has been linked with neurological disorders like Cerebral palsy, Apraxia and Anosognosia for hemiplegia. Previous...... displays. For the purposes of our study twenty participants were recruited. The experimental procedure we considered appropriate to study the Sense of Agency, involved participants laying inside the fMRI scanner and while they had no visual feedback of their hand, they were instructed to draw straight...

  11. Foot problems in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: an unmet need for foot care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Pinar; Ayhan, Figen; Tuncay, Figen; Sahin, Mehtap

    2012-01-01

    found to be correlated with Larsen scores (pfoot involvement and foot symptoms were seen frequently in RA but there is an unmet need for provision and monitoring of foot care in patients suffering from this chronic disease.

  12. Imaging gait analysis: An fMRI dual task study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürki, Céline N; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Reinhardt, Julia; Stippich, Christoph; Kressig, Reto W; Blatow, Maria

    2017-08-01

    In geriatric clinical diagnostics, gait analysis with cognitive-motor dual tasking is used to predict fall risk and cognitive decline. To date, the neural correlates of cognitive-motor dual tasking processes are not fully understood. To investigate these underlying neural mechanisms, we designed an fMRI paradigm to reproduce the gait analysis. We tested the fMRI paradigm's feasibility in a substudy with fifteen young adults and assessed 31 healthy older adults in the main study. First, gait speed and variability were quantified using the GAITRite © electronic walkway. Then, participants lying in the MRI-scanner were stepping on pedals of an MRI-compatible stepping device used to imitate gait during functional imaging. In each session, participants performed cognitive and motor single tasks as well as cognitive-motor dual tasks. Behavioral results showed that the parameters of both gait analyses, GAITRite © and fMRI, were significantly positively correlated. FMRI results revealed significantly reduced brain activation during dual task compared to single task conditions. Functional ROI analysis showed that activation in the superior parietal lobe (SPL) decreased less from single to dual task condition than activation in primary motor cortex and in supplementary motor areas. Moreover, SPL activation was increased during dual tasks in subjects exhibiting lower stepping speed and lower executive control. We were able to simulate walking during functional imaging with valid results that reproduce those from the GAITRite © gait analysis. On the neural level, SPL seems to play a crucial role in cognitive-motor dual tasking and to be linked to divided attention processes, particularly when motor activity is involved.

  13. Humor comprehension and appreciation: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolo, Angela; Benuzzi, Francesca; Nocetti, Luca; Baraldi, Patrizia; Nichelli, Paolo

    2006-11-01

    Humor is a unique ability in human beings. Suls [A two-stage model for the appreciation of jokes and cartoons. In P. E. Goldstein & J. H. McGhee (Eds.), The psychology of humour. Theoretical perspectives and empirical issues. New York: Academic Press, 1972, pp. 81-100] proposed a two-stage model of humor: detection and resolution of incongruity. Incongruity is generated when a prediction is not confirmed in the final part of a story. To comprehend humor, it is necessary to revisit the story, transforming an incongruous situation into a funny, congruous one. Patient and neuroimaging studies carried out until now lead to different outcomes. In particular, patient studies found that right brain-lesion patients have difficulties in humor comprehension, whereas neuroimaging studies suggested a major involvement of the left hemisphere in both humor detection and comprehension. To prevent activation of the left hemisphere due to language processing, we devised a nonverbal task comprising cartoon pairs. Our findings demonstrate activation of both the left and the right hemispheres when comparing funny versus nonfunny cartoons. In particular, we found activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47), the left superior temporal gyrus (BA 38), the left middle temporal gyrus (BA 21), and the left cerebellum. These areas were also activated in a nonverbal task exploring attribution of intention [Brunet, E., Sarfati, Y., Hardy-Bayle, M. C., & Decety, J. A PET investigation of the attribution of intentions with a nonverbal task. Neuroimage, 11, 157-166, 2000]. We hypothesize that the resolution of incongruity might occur through a process of intention attribution. We also asked subjects to rate the funniness of each cartoon pair. A parametric analysis showed that the left amygdala was activated in relation to subjective amusement. We hypothesize that the amygdala plays a key role in giving humor an emotional dimension.

  14. Brain activation in response to randomized visual stimulation as obtained from conjunction and differential analysis: an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasaruddin, N. H.; Yusoff, A. N.; Kaur, S.

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this multiple-subjects functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to identify the common brain areas that are activated when viewing black-and-white checkerboard pattern stimuli of various shapes, pattern and size and to investigate specific brain areas that are involved in processing static and moving visual stimuli. Sixteen participants viewed the moving (expanding ring, rotating wedge, flipping hour glass and bowtie and arc quadrant) and static (full checkerboard) stimuli during an fMRI scan. All stimuli have black-and-white checkerboard pattern. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used in generating brain activation. Differential analyses were implemented to separately search for areas involved in processing static and moving stimuli. In general, the stimuli of various shapes, pattern and size activated multiple brain areas mostly in the left hemisphere. The activation in the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG) was found to be significantly higher in processing moving visual stimuli as compared to static stimulus. In contrast, the activation in the left calcarine sulcus and left lingual gyrus were significantly higher for static stimulus as compared to moving stimuli. Visual stimulation of various shapes, pattern and size used in this study indicated left lateralization of activation. The involvement of the right MTG in processing moving visual information was evident from differential analysis, while the left calcarine sulcus and left lingual gyrus are the areas that are involved in the processing of static visual stimulus.

  15. Brain Activity Associated with Emoticons: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe that brain activities associated with emoticons by using fMRI. In communication over a computer network, we use abstract faces such as computer graphics (CG) avatars and emoticons. These faces convey users' emotions and enrich their communications. However, the manner in which these faces influence the mental process is as yet unknown. The human brain may perceive the abstract face in an entirely different manner, depending on its level of reality. We conducted an experiment using fMRI in order to investigate the effects of emoticons. The results show that right inferior frontal gyrus, which associated with nonverbal communication, is activated by emoticons. Since the emoticons were created to reflect the real human facial expressions as accurately as possible, we believed that they would activate the right fusiform gyrus. However, this region was not found to be activated during the experiment. This finding is useful in understanding how abstract faces affect our behaviors and decision-making in communication over a computer network.

  16. Response inhibition in pedophilia: an FMRI pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermeyer, Benedikt; Esposito, Fabrizio; Händel, Nadja; Lemoine, Patrick; Kuhl, Hans Christian; Klarhöfer, Markus; Mager, Ralph; Mokros, Andreas; Dittmann, Volker; Seifritz, Erich; Graf, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The failure to inhibit pleasurable but inappropriate urges is associated with frontal lobe pathology and has been suggested as a possible cause of pedophilic behavior. However, imaging and neuropsychological findings about frontal pathology in pedophilia are heterogeneous. In our study we therefore address inhibition behaviorally and by means of functional imaging, aiming to assess how inhibition in pedophilia is related to a differential recruitment of frontal brain areas. Eleven pedophilic subjects and 7 nonpedophilic controls underwent fMRI while performing a go/no-go task composed of neutral letters. Pedophilic subjects showed a slower reaction time and less accurate visual target discrimination. fMRI voxel-level ANOVA revealed as a main effect of the go/no-go task an activation of prefrontal and parietal brain regions in the no-go condition, while the left anterior cingulate, precuneus and gyrus angularis became more activated in the go condition. In addition, a group × task interaction was found in the left precuneus and gyrus angularis. This interaction was based on an attenuated deactivation of these brain regions in the pedophilic group during performance of the no-go condition. The positive correlation between blood oxygen level-dependent imaging signal and reaction time in these brain areas indicates that attenuated deactivation is related to the behavioral findings. Slower reaction time and less accurate visual target discrimination in pedophilia was accompanied by attenuated deactivation of brain areas belonging to the default mode network. Our findings thus support the notion that behavioral differences might also derive from self-related processes and not necessarily from frontal lobe pathology. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Moving as an interspecies unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondeme, Chloé

    to the surroundings, visually impaired persons have to rely on their acoustic senses to decide whether they can cross the street or not (Relieu, 1994). Their moments of immobility in front of a junction can therefore be longer, and less normatively projectable by car-drivers – also because there is no possibility......, how can immobility be unproblematically bound to a waiting status? What are the embodied resources used to be ‘doing wainting’ (Ayass, 2015)? In this presentation we will look at a collection of street crossings accomplished by blind persons with their guide-dogs. In the absence of visual access...... to mutually check the others' orientation to a next action (Lee and Watson, 1992). The fact that the blind person is being led by an animal, which is supposedly not a hundred percent trustworthy guide, adds some complexity to the matter. By examining a series of resources used by participants to account...

  18. Emotion-motion interactions in conversion disorder: an FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Aybek

    Full Text Available To evaluate the neural correlates of implicit processing of negative emotions in motor conversion disorder (CD patients.An event related fMRI task was completed by 12 motor CD patients and 14 matched healthy controls using standardised stimuli of faces with fearful and sad emotional expressions in comparison to faces with neutral expressions. Temporal changes in the sensitivity to stimuli were also modelled and tested in the two groups.We found increased amygdala activation to negative emotions in CD compared to healthy controls in region of interest analyses, which persisted over time consistent with previous findings using emotional paradigms. Furthermore during whole brain analyses we found significantly increased activation in CD patients in areas involved in the 'freeze response' to fear (periaqueductal grey matter, and areas involved in self-awareness and motor control (cingulate gyrus and supplementary motor area.In contrast to healthy controls, CD patients exhibited increased response amplitude to fearful stimuli over time, suggesting abnormal emotional regulation (failure of habituation / sensitization. Patients with CD also activated midbrain and frontal structures that could reflect an abnormal behavioral-motor response to negative including threatening stimuli. This suggests a mechanism linking emotions to motor dysfunction in CD.

  19. Emotion-motion interactions in conversion disorder: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aybek, Selma; Nicholson, Timothy R; O'Daly, Owen; Zelaya, Fernando; Kanaan, Richard A; David, Anthony S

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the neural correlates of implicit processing of negative emotions in motor conversion disorder (CD) patients. An event related fMRI task was completed by 12 motor CD patients and 14 matched healthy controls using standardised stimuli of faces with fearful and sad emotional expressions in comparison to faces with neutral expressions. Temporal changes in the sensitivity to stimuli were also modelled and tested in the two groups. We found increased amygdala activation to negative emotions in CD compared to healthy controls in region of interest analyses, which persisted over time consistent with previous findings using emotional paradigms. Furthermore during whole brain analyses we found significantly increased activation in CD patients in areas involved in the 'freeze response' to fear (periaqueductal grey matter), and areas involved in self-awareness and motor control (cingulate gyrus and supplementary motor area). In contrast to healthy controls, CD patients exhibited increased response amplitude to fearful stimuli over time, suggesting abnormal emotional regulation (failure of habituation / sensitization). Patients with CD also activated midbrain and frontal structures that could reflect an abnormal behavioral-motor response to negative including threatening stimuli. This suggests a mechanism linking emotions to motor dysfunction in CD.

  20. Numeric aspects in pitch identification: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwenzer Michael

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pitch identification had yielded unique response patterns compared to other auditory skills. Selecting one out of numerous pitches distinguished this task from detecting a pitch ascent. Encoding of numerous stimuli had activated the intraparietal sulcus in the visual domain. Therefore, we hypothesized that numerosity encoding during pitch identification activates the intraparietal sulcus as well. Methods To assess pitch identification, the participants had to recognize a single pitch from a set of four possible pitches in each trial. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI disentangled neural activation during this four-pitch-choice task from activation during pitch contour perception, tone localization, and pitch discrimination. Results Pitch identification induced bilateral activation in the intraparietal sulcus compared to pitch discrimination. Correct responses in pitch identification correlated with activation in the left intraparietal sulcus. Pitch contour perception activated the superior temporal gyrus conceivably due to the larger range of presented tones. The differentiation between pitch identification and tone localization failed. Activation in an ACC-hippocampus network distinguished pitch discrimination from pitch identification. Conclusion Pitch identification is distinguishable from pitch discrimination on the base of activation in the IPS. IPS activity during pitch identification may be the auditory counterpart of numerosity encoding in the visual domain.

  1. Development of an evaluation system for foot arch types in the elderly using foot pressure distribution data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Kazuya; Iwakami, Yumi; Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Hiejima, Yoshimitsu

    2012-01-01

    The foot arch serves important functions related to shock absorption and the action of walking. Simple and quantitative classifications of foot arch types, such as flat feet and high arches, help to provide health support services for the elderly. To develop an evaluation system for foot arch types using foot pressure distribution data, discriminant analyses were conducted using data from healthy elderly persons. The midfoot pressure ratio was selected and discriminants were derived. For evaluating the performance of the classification method, the derived discriminants were applied to the data from the other group of healthy elderly persons. Results indicate that both sensitivity and specificity of the classified foot arch types were sufficiently high.

  2. A Tailward Moving Current Sheet Normal Magnetic Field Front Followed by an Earthward Moving Dipolarization Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, K.-J.; Goldstein, M. L.; Moore, T. E.; Walsh, B. M.; Baishev, D. G.; Moiseyev, A. V.; Shevtsov, B. M.; Yumoto, K.

    2014-01-01

    A case study is presented using measurements from the Cluster spacecraft and ground-based magnetometers that show a substorm onset propagating from the inner to outer plasma sheet. On 3 October 2005, Cluster, traversing an ion-scale current sheet at the near-Earth plasma sheet, detected a sudden enhancement of Bz, which was immediately followed by a series of flux rope structures. Both the local Bz enhancement and flux ropes propagated tailward. Approximately 5 min later, another Bz enhancement, followed by a large density decrease, was observed to rapidly propagate earthward. Between the two Bz enhancements, a significant removal of magnetic flux occurred, possibly resulting from the tailward moving Bz enhancement and flux ropes. In our scenario, this flux removal caused the magnetotail to be globally stretched so that the thinnest sheet formed tailward of Cluster. The thinned current sheet facilitated magnetic reconnection that quickly evolved from plasma sheet to lobe and generated the later earthward moving dipolarization front (DF) followed by a reduction in density and entropy. Ground magnetograms located near the meridian of Cluster's magnetic foot points show two-step bay enhancements. The positive bay associated with the first Bz enhancement indicates that the substorm onset signatures propagated from the inner to the outer plasma sheet, consistent with the Cluster observation. The more intense bay features associated with the later DF are consistent with the earthward motion of the front. The event suggests that current disruption signatures that originated in the near-Earth current sheet propagated tailward, triggering or facilitating midtail reconnection, thereby preconditioning the magnetosphere for a later strong substorm enhancement.

  3. The Effect of Strategy on Problem Solving: An FMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sharlene D.; Pruce, Benjamin; Rusia, Akash; Burns, Thomas, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    fMRI was used to examine the differential effect of two problem-solving strategies. Participants were trained to use both a pictorial/spatial and a symbolic/algebraic strategy to solve word problems. While these two strategies activated similar cortical regions, a number of differences were noted in the level of activation. These differences…

  4. Foot Problems in a Group of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Unmet Need for Foot Care

    OpenAIRE

    Borman, Pinar; Ayhan, Figen; Tuncay, Figen; Sahin, Mehtap

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the foot involvement in a group of RA patients in regard to symptoms, type and frequency of deformities, location, radiological changes, and foot care. Patients and Methods: A randomized selected 100 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were recruited to the study. Data about foot symptoms, duration and location of foot pain, pain intensity, access to services related to foot, treatment, orthoses and assistive devices, and usefulness of therapie...

  5. [Model of multiple seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model and its application in prediction of the hand-foot-mouth disease incidence in Changsha].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ting; Chen, Lizhang; Liu, Fuqiang

    2014-11-01

    To establish multiple seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model (ARIMA) according to the hand-foot-mouth disease incidence in Changsha, and to explore the feasibility of the multiple seasonal ARIMA in predicting the hand-foot-mouth disease incidence. EVIEWS 6.0 was used to establish multiple seasonal ARIMA according to the hand-foot- mouth disease incidence from May 2008 to August 2013 in Changsha, and the data of the hand- foot-mouth disease incidence from September 2013 to February 2014 were served as the examined samples of the multiple seasonal ARIMA, then the errors were compared between the forecasted incidence and the real value. Finally, the incidence of hand-foot-mouth disease from March 2014 to August 2014 was predicted by the model. After the data sequence was handled by smooth sequence, model identification and model diagnosis, the multiple seasonal ARIMA (1, 0, 1)×(0, 1, 1)12 was established. The R2 value of the model fitting degree was 0.81, the root mean square prediction error was 8.29 and the mean absolute error was 5.83. The multiple seasonal ARIMA is a good prediction model, and the fitting degree is good. It can provide reference for the prevention and control work in hand-foot-mouth disease.

  6. An intersection algorithm for moving parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterling, D. M.; Vanrosendale, J.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of deciding whether moving mechanical parts will collide during motion arises frequently in computer-aided design of machinery and in robotics. In machinery design, the problem becomes acute when there are various complex curved mechanical parts that will follow planned trajectories. There is a need to know at an early stage in the design process whether there will be collisions between parts necessitating changes in part shapes, trajectories, or in the overall design. This paper describes a collision detection algorithm that is guaranteed to detect a collision if one will occur, and it also computes the earliest point of contact.

  7. An automated method for identifying artifact in ICA of resting-state fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik eBhaganagarapu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An enduring issue with data-driven analysis and filtering methods is the interpretation of results. To assist, we present an automatic method for identifaction of artifact in independent components (ICs derived from functional MRI (fMRI. The method was designed with the following features: Does not require temporal information about an fMRI paradigm; Does not require the user to train the algorithm; Requires only the fMRI images (additional acquisition of anatomical imaging not required; Is able to identify a high proportion of artifact-related ICs without removing components that are likely to be of neuronal origin; Can be applied to resting-state fMRI; Is automated, requiring minimal or no human intervention.We applied the method to a MELODIC probabilistic ICA of resting-state functional connectivity data acquired in 50 healthy control subjects, and compared the results to a blinded expert manual classification. The method identified between 26% and 72% of the components as artifact (mean 55%. 0.3% of components identified as artifact were discordant with the manual classification; retrospective examination of these ICs suggested the automated method had correctly identified these as artifact.We have developed an effective automated method which removes a substantial number of unwanted noisy components in ICA analyses of resting-state fMRI data. Source code of our implementation of the method is available.

  8. An optical 6-axis force sensor for brain function analysis using fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Norihisa; Tada, Mitsunori; Ueda, Jun; Matsumoto, Yoshio; Ogasawara, Tsukasa

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an 6-axis optical force sensor which can be used in functional MRI (fMRI). Recently, fMRI are widely used for studying human brain function. Simultaneous measurement of brain activity and peripheral information, such as grip force, enables more precise investigations in studies of motor function. However, conventional force sensors cannot be used in fMRI environment, since metal elements generate noise which severely contaminate the signals of fMRI. An optical 2-axis force sensor has been developed using photo sensors and optical fibers by Tada et al., that resolved these problems. The developed force sensor removed all magnetic components from the sensing part. It detected minute displacements by measure amount of light and light traveled through the optical fibers. However, there still remain several problems on this optical force sensor. Firstly, the accuracy is not high compared to the conventional force sensors. Secondly, the robustness is not enough against the contact force to the optical fibers. In this paper, the problems concerning to the acturacy and the sensor output stability has been improved by novel methods of fixing fibers and arithmetic circuit. An optical 6-axis force is developed based on these improvements, and usefulness of our sensor for brain function analysis is confirmed in fMRI experimentations. (author)

  9. Pycortex: an interactive surface visualizer for fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Shuang Gao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface visualizations of fMRI provide a comprehensive view of cortical activity. However, surface visualizations are difficult to generate and most common visualization techniques rely on unnecessary interpolation which limits the fidelity of the resulting maps. Furthermore, it is difficult to understand the relationship between flattened cortical surfaces and the underlying 3D anatomy using tools available currently. To address these problems we have developed pycortex, a Python toolbox for interactive surface mapping and visualization. Pycortex exploits the power of modern graphics cards to sample volumetric data on a per-pixel basis, allowing dense and accurate mapping of the voxel grid across the surface. Anatomical, functional and fiduciary information can be projected onto the cortical surface. The surface can be inflated and flattened interactively, aiding interpretation of the correspondence between the anatomical surface and the flattened cortical sheet. The output of pycortex can be viewed using WebGL, a technology compatible with modern web browsers. This allows complex fMRI surface maps to be distributed broadly online without requiring installation of complex software.

  10. Non-white noise in fMRI: does modelling have an impact?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torben E; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Sidaros, Karam

    2006-01-01

    not accounted for by rigid body registration. These contributions give rise to temporal autocorrelation in the residuals of the fMRI signal and invalidate the statistical analysis as the errors are no longer independent. The low-frequency drift is often removed by high-pass filtering, and other effects...... are typically modelled as an autoregressive (AR) process. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach: Nuisance Variable Regression (NVR). By inclusion of confounding effects in a general linear model (GLM), we first confirm that the spatial distribution of the various fMRI noise sources is similar...

  11. Dual-Tasking Alleviated Sleep Deprivation Disruption in Visuomotor Tracking: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazes, Yunglin; Rakitin, Brian C.; Steffener, Jason; Habeck, Christian; Butterfield, Brady; Basner, Robert C.; Ghez, Claude; Stern, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    Effects of dual-responding on tracking performance after 49-h of sleep deprivation (SD) were evaluated behaviorally and with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Continuous visuomotor tracking was performed simultaneously with an intermittent color-matching visual detection task in which a pair of color-matched stimuli constituted a…

  12. Working memory of somatosensory stimuli: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, Nicoletta; Brunetti, Marcella; Babiloni, Claudio; Ferretti, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    In a previous study, we have shown that passive recognition of tactile geometrical shapes (i.e. no exploratory movement) engages prefrontal and premotor areas in addition to somatosensory regions (Savini et al., 2010). In the present study we tested the hypothesis that these regions are involved not only in the perception but also during working memory of such somatic information. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the execution of N-BACK tasks, with 2D geometrical shapes blindly pressed on the subjects' right hand palm. Three conditions with increasing memory load (0-BACK, 1-BACK, 2-BACK) were used. Results showed that primary somatosensory area (SI), secondary somatosensory area (SII) and bilateral Insula were active in all conditions, confirming their importance in coding somatosensory stimuli. Activation of fronto-parietal circuit in supplementary motor area (SMA), right superior parietal lobe (rSPL), bilateral middle frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, and right superior frontal sulcus was significantly larger during 1-BACK and 2-BACK than 0-BACK. Left superior parietal lobe and right frontal eye field showed a higher activation during the 2-BACK than 0-BACK. Finally, SMA and rSPL were characterized by a statistically significant higher activation during 2-BACK than 1-BACK, revealing their sensitivity to the memory load. These results suggest that working memory of tactile geometrical shapes (no exploratory movement) involves a complex circuit of modal and supramodal fronto-parietal areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Adults and children processing music: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Fritz, Thomas; Schulze, Katrin; Alsop, David; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2005-05-01

    The present study investigates the functional neuroanatomy of music perception with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Three different subject groups were investigated to examine developmental aspects and effects of musical training: 10-year-old children with varying degrees of musical training, adults without formal musical training (nonmusicians), and adult musicians. Subjects made judgements on sequences that ended on chords that were music-syntactically either regular or irregular. In adults, irregular chords activated the inferior frontal gyrus, orbital frontolateral cortex, the anterior insula, ventrolateral premotor cortex, anterior and posterior areas of the superior temporal gyrus, the superior temporal sulcus, and the supramarginal gyrus. These structures presumably form different networks mediating cognitive aspects of music processing (such as processing of musical syntax and musical meaning, as well as auditory working memory), and possibly emotional aspects of music processing. In the right hemisphere, the activation pattern of children was similar to that of adults. In the left hemisphere, adults showed larger activations than children in prefrontal areas, in the supramarginal gyrus, and in temporal areas. In both adults and children, musical training was correlated with stronger activations in the frontal operculum and the anterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus.

  14. Contradictory reasoning network: an EEG and FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camillo Porcaro

    Full Text Available Contradiction is a cornerstone of human rationality, essential for everyday life and communication. We investigated electroencephalographic (EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in separate recording sessions during contradictory judgments, using a logical structure based on categorical propositions of the Aristotelian Square of Opposition (ASoO. The use of ASoO propositions, while controlling for potential linguistic or semantic confounds, enabled us to observe the spatial temporal unfolding of this contradictory reasoning. The processing started with the inversion of the logical operators corresponding to right middle frontal gyrus (rMFG-BA11 activation, followed by identification of contradictory statement associated with in the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG-BA47 activation. Right medial frontal gyrus (rMeFG, BA10 and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA32 contributed to the later stages of process. We observed a correlation between the delayed latency of rBA11 response and the reaction time delay during inductive vs. deductive reasoning. This supports the notion that rBA11 is crucial for manipulating the logical operators. Slower processing time and stronger brain responses for inductive logic suggested that examples are easier to process than general principles and are more likely to simplify communication.

  15. Contradictory reasoning network: an EEG and FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcaro, Camillo; Medaglia, Maria Teresa; Thai, Ngoc Jade; Seri, Stefano; Rotshtein, Pia; Tecchio, Franca

    2014-01-01

    Contradiction is a cornerstone of human rationality, essential for everyday life and communication. We investigated electroencephalographic (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in separate recording sessions during contradictory judgments, using a logical structure based on categorical propositions of the Aristotelian Square of Opposition (ASoO). The use of ASoO propositions, while controlling for potential linguistic or semantic confounds, enabled us to observe the spatial temporal unfolding of this contradictory reasoning. The processing started with the inversion of the logical operators corresponding to right middle frontal gyrus (rMFG-BA11) activation, followed by identification of contradictory statement associated with in the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG-BA47) activation. Right medial frontal gyrus (rMeFG, BA10) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA32) contributed to the later stages of process. We observed a correlation between the delayed latency of rBA11 response and the reaction time delay during inductive vs. deductive reasoning. This supports the notion that rBA11 is crucial for manipulating the logical operators. Slower processing time and stronger brain responses for inductive logic suggested that examples are easier to process than general principles and are more likely to simplify communication.

  16. Cortical control of gait in healthy humans: an fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ChiHong, Wang; YauYau, Wai; BoCheng, Kuo; Yei-Yu, Yeh; JiunJie Wang

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the cortical control of gait in healthy humans using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Two block-designed fMRI sessions were conducted during motor imagery of a locomotor-related task. Subjects watched a video clip that showed an actor standing and walking in an egocentric perspective. In a control session, additional fMRI images were collected when participants observed a video clip of the clutch movement of a right hand. In keeping with previous studies using SPECT and NIRS, we detected activation in many motor-related areas including supplementary motor area, bilateral precentral gyrus, left dorsal premotor cortex, and cingulate motor area. Smaller additional activations were observed in the bilateral precuneus, left thalamus, and part of right putamen. Based on these findings, we propose a novel paradigm to study the cortical control of gait in healthy humans using fMRI. Specifically, the task used in this study - involving both mirror neurons and mental imagery - provides a new feasible model to be used in functional neuroimaging studies in this area of research. (author)

  17. Assessment of abstract reasoning abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects: an fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagga, Deepika; Singh, Namita; Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Kumar, Pawan; Bhattacharya, D.; Garg, Mohan L.; Khushu, Subash

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse has been traditionally associated with impaired cognitive abilities. The deficits are most evident in higher order cognitive functions, such as abstract reasoning, problem solving and visuospatial processing. The present study sought to increase current understanding of the neuropsychological basis of poor abstract reasoning abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). An abstract reasoning task-based fMRI study was carried out on alcohol-dependent subjects (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 18) to examine neural activation pattern. The study was carried out using a 3-T whole-body magnetic resonance scanner. Preprocessing and post processing was performed using SPM 8 software. Behavioral data indicated that alcohol-dependent subjects took more time than controls for performing the task but there was no significant difference in their response accuracy. Analysis of the fMRI data indicated that for solving abstract reasoning-based problems, alcohol-dependent subjects showed enhanced right frontoparietal neural activation involving inferior frontal gyrus, post central gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and occipito-temporal gyrus. The extensive activation observed in alcohol dependents as compared to controls suggests that alcohol dependents recruit additional brain areas to meet the behavioral demands for equivalent task performance. The results are consistent with previous fMRI studies suggesting decreased neural efficiency of relevant brain networks or compensatory mechanisms for the execution of task for showing an equivalent performance. (orig.)

  18. Assessment of abstract reasoning abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects: an fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagga, Deepika; Singh, Namita; Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Kumar, Pawan [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), NMR Research Centre, Delhi (India); Bhattacharya, D. [Base Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Delhi Cantt (India); Garg, Mohan L. [Panjab University, Department of Biophysics, Chandigarh (India); Khushu, Subash [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), NMR Research Centre, Delhi (India); INMAS, DRDO, NMR Research Centre, Delhi (India)

    2014-01-15

    Chronic alcohol abuse has been traditionally associated with impaired cognitive abilities. The deficits are most evident in higher order cognitive functions, such as abstract reasoning, problem solving and visuospatial processing. The present study sought to increase current understanding of the neuropsychological basis of poor abstract reasoning abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). An abstract reasoning task-based fMRI study was carried out on alcohol-dependent subjects (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 18) to examine neural activation pattern. The study was carried out using a 3-T whole-body magnetic resonance scanner. Preprocessing and post processing was performed using SPM 8 software. Behavioral data indicated that alcohol-dependent subjects took more time than controls for performing the task but there was no significant difference in their response accuracy. Analysis of the fMRI data indicated that for solving abstract reasoning-based problems, alcohol-dependent subjects showed enhanced right frontoparietal neural activation involving inferior frontal gyrus, post central gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and occipito-temporal gyrus. The extensive activation observed in alcohol dependents as compared to controls suggests that alcohol dependents recruit additional brain areas to meet the behavioral demands for equivalent task performance. The results are consistent with previous fMRI studies suggesting decreased neural efficiency of relevant brain networks or compensatory mechanisms for the execution of task for showing an equivalent performance. (orig.)

  19. Implicit Structured Sequence Learning: An FMRI Study of the Structural Mere-Exposure Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki eFolia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this event-related FMRI study we investigated the effect of five days of implicit acquisition on preference classification by means of an artificial grammar learning (AGL paradigm based on the structural mere-exposure effect and preference classification using a simple right-linear unification grammar. This allowed us to investigate implicit AGL in a proper learning design by including baseline measurements prior to grammar exposure. After 5 days of implicit acquisition, the FMRI results showed activations in a network of brain regions including the inferior frontal (centered on BA 44/45 and the medial prefrontal regions (centered on BA 8/32. Importantly, and central to this study, the inclusion of a naive preference FMRI baseline measurement allowed us to conclude that these FMRI findings were the intrinsic outcomes of the learning process itself and not a reflection of a preexisting functionality recruited during classification, independent of acquisition. Support for the implicit nature of the knowledge utilized during preference classification on day 5 come from the fact that the basal ganglia, associated with implicit procedural learning, were activated during classification, while the medial temporal lobe system, associated with explicit declarative memory, was consistently deactivated. Thus, preference classification in combination with structural mere-exposure can be used to investigate structural sequence processing (syntax in unsupervised AGL paradigms with proper learning designs.

  20. The forgotten foot - an assessment of foot and ankle radiograph pathology in final year medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, P J

    2014-04-27

    It has been shown that doctors in Emergency Departments (EDs) have inconsistent knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy. This is most likely due to a deficiency in focused musculoskeletal modules at undergraduate level in medical school. The aims of this study were to evaluate the knowledge of final year medical students on foot anatomy and common foot and ankle pathology as seen on radiographs.

  1. The Influence of an Interdisciplinary Diabetic Foot Team on the Outcome of Patients with Diabetic Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Management of diabetic foot infection (DFI is challenging; a multidisciplinary approach has been shown to reduce amputation rates. There is limited information on the effect of having an interdisciplinary diabetic foot team (IDT on patient load and outcomes at infectious disease departments. We aim to investigate the effect of the IDT approach on patient characteristics, the length of hospitalization, and amputation rates in patients hospitalized for DFI at the department of infectious disease. Material and Method: We retrospectively reviewed the files of patients who were hospitalized in the infectious disease department for DFI between January 2005 and October 2014. Patients hospitalized before the establishment of IDT (October 8, 2013 formed Group-1 and those hospitalized after the establishment of IDT formed Group-2. The members of IDT evaluated and treated all of the patients in Group-2. The groups were compared for patient characteristics, clinical findings, length of hospitalization, laboratory results, and outcome. Results: There were 53 patients in Group-1 and 39 patients in Group-2. The patient hospitalization rate increased after IDT (0.5 patients per month vs. 3.25 patients per month. Patients hospitalized after IDT had more advanced stage (Wagner grade 4-5 wounds (26.4% vs. 51.3%; p=0.013. However, the length of hospitalization did not change after IDT (23.4±11.0 vs. 21.0±14.5; p=0.478. Foot ulcers healed without surgical intervention in 13 (24.5% and 11 (28.2% patients in Group-1 and Group-2, respectively (p=0.691. Minor and major amputation rates were 30.2% and 9.4% in Group-1 and 30.8% and 7.7% in Group-2 (p=0.786. Discussion: Despite the fact that patients admitted after the establishment of IDT had more severe wounds, neither the length of hospitalization nor the amputation rate increased. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of IDT in the management of DFI.

  2. Protocol for the Foot in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis trial (FiJIA: a randomised controlled trial of an integrated foot care programme for foot problems in JIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendry Gordon J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot and ankle problems are a common but relatively neglected manifestation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Studies of medical and non-medical interventions have shown that clinical outcome measures can be improved. However existing data has been drawn from small non-randomised clinical studies of single interventions that appear to under-represent the adult population suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis. To date, no evidence of combined therapies or integrated care for juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients with foot and ankle problems exists. Methods/design An exploratory phase II non-pharmacological randomised controlled trial where patients including young children, adolescents and adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and associated foot/ankle problems will be randomised to receive integrated podiatric care via a new foot care programme, or to receive standard podiatry care. Sixty patients (30 in each arm including children, adolescents and adults diagnosed with juvenile idiopathic arthritis who satisfy the inclusion and exclusion criteria will be recruited from 2 outpatient centres of paediatric and adult rheumatology respectively. Participants will be randomised by process of minimisation using the Minim software package. The primary outcome measure is the foot related impairment measured by the Juvenile Arthritis Disability Index questionnaire's impairment domain at 6 and 12 months, with secondary outcomes including disease activity score, foot deformity score, active/limited foot joint counts, spatio-temporal and plantar-pressure gait parameters, health related quality of life and semi-quantitative ultrasonography score for inflammatory foot lesions. The new foot care programme will comprise rapid assessment and investigation, targeted treatment, with detailed outcome assessment and follow-up at minimum intervals of 3 months. Data will be collected at baseline, 6 months and 12 months from baseline

  3. Conversion Disorder; an Unusual Etiology of Unilateral Foot Drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Saeed Bin; Matee, Sumeera; Malik, Riffat; Ahmad, Khalil

    2015-06-01

    Foot drop is generally a consequence of common peroneal or sciatic nerve injury or L5 radiculopathy but rarely, it can be a manifestation of conversion disorder. A 24-year-old male presented with a foot drop on left side that developed overnight. He had difficulty walking with a trunk tilt towards right side and numbness in left leg up to mid-thigh. The initial diagnosis by the general practitioner was common peroneal nerve injury, which was not supported by the subsequent detailed examination in the physiatry department. Routine laboratory investigations, computed tomographic scan of brain and electrophysiological evaluation were normal. In a multidisciplinary team evaluation involving a psychiatrist, he was diagnosed to be suffering from conversion disorder and was advised gait retraining, cognitive and behavioral therapy and tablet venlafaxine. By sixth day of treatment, the patient was able to walk independently with a normal gait pattern and reported complete recovery of his symptoms. In the absence of an identifiable organic cause of foot drop in a patient, conversion disorder may be considered necessitating early intervention by a psychiatrist.

  4. Foot Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... straight across and not too short Your foot health can be a clue to your overall health. For example, joint stiffness could mean arthritis. Tingling ... foot checks are an important part of your health care. If you have foot problems, be sure ...

  5. An fMRI study of caring vs self-focus during induced compassion and pride

    OpenAIRE

    Simon-Thomas, Emiliana R.; Godzik, Jakub; Castle, Elizabeth; Antonenko, Olga; Ponz, Aurelie; Kogan, Aleksander; Keltner, Dacher J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined neural activation during the experience of compassion, an emotion that orients people toward vulnerable others and prompts caregiving, and pride, a self-focused emotion that signals individual strength and heightened status. Functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) were acquired as participants viewed 55 s continuous sequences of slides to induce either compassion or pride, presented in alternation with sequences of neutral slides. Emotion self-report data were collecte...

  6. Do we have a "mental syllabary" in the brain? An FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, Bettina; Erb, Michael; Riecker, Axel; Grodd, Wolfgang; Ackermann, Hermann; Ziegler, Wolfram

    2011-01-01

    The present study combines functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and reaction time (RT) measurements to further elucidate the influence of syllable frequency and complexity on speech motor control processes, i.e., overt reading of pseudowords. Tying in with a recent fMRI-study of our group we focused on the concept of a mental syllabary housing syllable sized ready-made motor plans for high- (HF), but not low-frequency (LF) syllables. The RT-analysis disclosed a frequency effect weakened by a simultaneous complexity effect for HF-syllables. In contrast, the fMRI data revealed no effect of syllable frequency, but point to an impact of syllable structure: Compared with CV-items, syllables with a complex onset (CCV) yielded higher hemodynamic activation in motor "execution" areas (left sensorimotor cortex, right inferior cerebellum), which is at least partially compatible with our previous study. We discuss the role of the syllable in speech motor control.

  7. Pitfalls in Fractal Time Series Analysis: fMRI BOLD as an Exemplary Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Andras; Herman, Peter; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Mukli, Peter; Nagy, Zoltan

    2012-01-01

    This article will be positioned on our previous work demonstrating the importance of adhering to a carefully selected set of criteria when choosing the suitable method from those available ensuring its adequate performance when applied to real temporal signals, such as fMRI BOLD, to evaluate one important facet of their behavior, fractality. Earlier, we have reviewed on a range of monofractal tools and evaluated their performance. Given the advance in the fractal field, in this article we will discuss the most widely used implementations of multifractal analyses, too. Our recommended flowchart for the fractal characterization of spontaneous, low frequency fluctuations in fMRI BOLD will be used as the framework for this article to make certain that it will provide a hands-on experience for the reader in handling the perplexed issues of fractal analysis. The reason why this particular signal modality and its fractal analysis has been chosen was due to its high impact on today’s neuroscience given it had powerfully emerged as a new way of interpreting the complex functioning of the brain (see “intrinsic activity”). The reader will first be presented with the basic concepts of mono and multifractal time series analyses, followed by some of the most relevant implementations, characterization by numerical approaches. The notion of the dichotomy of fractional Gaussian noise and fractional Brownian motion signal classes and their impact on fractal time series analyses will be thoroughly discussed as the central theme of our application strategy. Sources of pitfalls and way how to avoid them will be identified followed by a demonstration on fractal studies of fMRI BOLD taken from the literature and that of our own in an attempt to consolidate the best practice in fractal analysis of empirical fMRI BOLD signals mapped throughout the brain as an exemplary case of potentially wide interest. PMID:23227008

  8. Frequency domain connectivity identification: an application of partial directed coherence in fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, João R; Takahashi, Daniel Y; Arcuri, Silvia M; Sameshima, Koichi; Morettin, Pedro A; Baccalá, Luiz A

    2009-02-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become an important tool in Neuroscience due to its noninvasive and high spatial resolution properties compared to other methods like PET or EEG. Characterization of the neural connectivity has been the aim of several cognitive researches, as the interactions among cortical areas lie at the heart of many brain dysfunctions and mental disorders. Several methods like correlation analysis, structural equation modeling, and dynamic causal models have been proposed to quantify connectivity strength. An important concept related to connectivity modeling is Granger causality, which is one of the most popular definitions for the measure of directional dependence between time series. In this article, we propose the application of the partial directed coherence (PDC) for the connectivity analysis of multisubject fMRI data using multivariate bootstrap. PDC is a frequency domain counterpart of Granger causality and has become a very prominent tool in EEG studies. The achieved frequency decomposition of connectivity is useful in separating interactions from neural modules from those originating in scanner noise, breath, and heart beating. Real fMRI dataset of six subjects executing a language processing protocol was used for the analysis of connectivity.

  9. Optimization and Evaluation of an Olfactory Stimulator for fMRI Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An automatically-controlled olfactometer that can be used in the magnetic resonance imaging environment was designed and built in this study. The overall system design was in accordance with the general requirements of stimulator and aimed to show improvement over an existing olfactometer in the laboratory. The device included two parts:the control system and the gas transportation system. The control system used LabVIEW platform-based software and adopted a virtual apparatus scheme. It was capable of providing man-machine interaction controlling stimulus sequence and gas paths according to the applications. The gas delivery system consisted of 4 variable gas paths and 1 constant gas path, through which clean air was transmitted to three gas-washing bottles filled with liquids having different odors. The fluctuation of gas flow measured by a Honeywell AWM43600 airflow sensor was within 0.3%, and the switching response time between different branches was about 1.07 s. Founctional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiments on olfaction were performed on 8 subjects with the stimulation device, providing odors of ethanol, pyridine and isoamyl acetate. The fMRI results demonstrated thalamus, amygdala, piriform cortex, orbital frontal cortex activations upon olfactory stimulation. It was concluded that the olfactometer built can deliver quantitative olfactory stimulus and meet the requirements for olfactory fMRI experiments.

  10. Motor function deficits in schizophrenia: an fMRI and VBM study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Namita; Khushu, Subash [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), NMR Research Center, Delhi (India); Goyal, Satnam; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N. [RML Hospital, PGIMER, New Delhi (India)

    2014-05-15

    To investigate whether the motor functional alterations in schizophrenia (SZ) are also associated with structural changes in the related brain areas using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A sample of 14 right-handed SZ patients and 14 right-handed healthy control subjects matched for age, sex, and education were examined with structural high-resolution T1-weighted MRI; fMRI images were obtained during right index finger-tapping task in the same session. fMRI results showed reduced functional activation in the motor areas (contralateral precentral and postcentral gyrus) and ipsilateral cerebellum in SZ subjects as compared to healthy controls (n = 14). VBM analysis also revealed reduced grey matter in motor areas and white matter reduction in cerebellum of SZ subjects as compared to controls. The present study provides an evidence for a possible association between structural alterations in the motor cortex and disturbed functional activation in the motor areas in persons affected with SZ during a simple finger-tapping task. (orig.)

  11. FMRI connectivity analysis of acupuncture effects on an amygdala-associated brain network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Baixiao

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that the primary acupuncture effects are mediated by the central nervous system. However, specific brain networks underpinning these effects remain unclear. Results In the present study using fMRI, we employed a within-condition interregional covariance analysis method to investigate functional connectivity of brain networks involved in acupuncture. The fMRI experiment was performed before, during and after acupuncture manipulations on healthy volunteers at an acupuncture point, which was previously implicated in a neural pathway for pain modulation. We first identified significant fMRI signal changes during acupuncture stimulation in the left amygdala, which was subsequently selected as a functional reference for connectivity analyses. Our results have demonstrated that there is a brain network associated with the amygdala during a resting condition. This network encompasses the brain structures that are implicated in both pain sensation and pain modulation. We also found that such a pain-related network could be modulated by both verum acupuncture and sham acupuncture. Furthermore, compared with a sham acupuncture, the verum acupuncture induced a higher level of correlations among the amygdala-associated network. Conclusion Our findings indicate that acupuncture may change this amygdala-specific brain network into a functional state that underlies pain perception and pain modulation.

  12. Potential Biomolecules and Current Treatment Technologies for Diabetic Foot Ulcer: an Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashim, Zenith; Samuel, Shila; Duraisamy, Nallusamy; Krishnan, Kathiravan

    2017-05-18

    Diabetic foot ulceration remains a major challenge and is one of the most expensive and leading causes of major and minor amputations among patients with diabetic foot ulcer. Hence the purpose of this review is to emphasize on potential molecular markers involved in diabetic foot ulcer physiology, the efficacy of different types of dressing materials, adjunct therapy and newer therapeutic approach like nanoparticles for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer. We conducted a systematic literature review search by using Pubmed and other web searches. The quality evidence of diabetic foot ulcer biomolecules and treatments was collected, summarized and compared with other studies. The present investigation suggested that impaired wound healing in diabetic patients is an influence of several factors. All the advanced therapies and foot ulcer dressing materials are not suitable for all types of diabetic foot ulcers, however more prospective follow ups and in vivo and in vitro studies are needed to draw certain conclusion. Several critical wound biomolecules have been identified and are in need to be investigated in diabetic foot ulcers. The application of biocompatible nanoparticles holds a promising approach for designing dressing materials for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer. Understanding the cellular and molecular events and identifying the appropriate treatment strategies for different foot ulcer grades will reduce recurrence of foot ulcer and lower limb amputation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Validating an image-based fNIRS approach with fMRI and a working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeakumar, Sobanawartiny; Huppert, Theodore J; Magnotta, Vincent A; Buss, Aaron T; Spencer, John P

    2017-02-15

    In the current study, we extend a previous methodological pipeline by adding a novel image reconstruction approach to move functional near-infrared (fNIRS) signals from channel-space on the surface of the head to voxel-space within the brain volume. We validate this methodology by comparing voxel-wise fNIRS results to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results from a visual working memory (VWM) task using two approaches. In the first approach, significant voxel-wise correlations were observed between fNIRS and fMRI measures for all experimental conditions across brain regions in the fronto-parieto-temporal cortices. In the second approach, we conducted separate multi-factorial ANOVAs on fNIRS and fMRI measures and then examined the correspondence between main and interaction effects within common regions of interest. Both fMRI and fNIRS showed similar trends in activation within the VWM network when the number of items held in working memory increases. These results validate the image-based fNIRS approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reality TV and vicarious embarrassment: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchers, Martin; Markett, Sebastian; Montag, Christian; Trautner, Peter; Weber, Bernd; Lachmann, Bernd; Buss, Pauline; Heinen, Rebekka; Reuter, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Vicarious embarrassment (VE) is an emotion triggered by the observation of others' pratfalls or social norm violations. Several explanatory approaches have been suggested to explain the source of this phenomenon, including perspective taking abilities or ingroup identification. Knowledge about its biological bases, however, is scarce. To gain a better understanding, the present study investigated neural activation patterns in response to video clips from reality TV shows. Reality TV is well known for presenting social norm violations, flaws and pratfalls of its protagonists in real life situations thereby qualifying as an ecological valid trigger for VE. N = 60 healthy participants viewed stand stills from previously watched video clips taken from German reality TV-shows while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. The clips were preselected for high versus low VE content in a pilot study. Besides the investigation of differences in brain activation elicited by VE versus control stand stills (blocked design contrast), we performed additional exploratory functional connectivity analyses (psychophysiological interaction; PPI) to detect VE related brain networks. Compared to the low VE condition, participants in the high VE condition showed a higher activation in the middle temporal gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus, the right inferior frontal gyrus and the gyrus rectus. Functional connectivity analyses confirmed increased connectivity of these regions with the anterior cingulate in the VE condition. Moreover, self-ratings of VE and brain activity were correlated positively. Reality TV formats with high VE content activate brain regions associated with Theory of Mind, but also with empathic concern and social identity. Therefore, our results support the idea that the ability to put oneself in other person's shoes is a major prerequisite for VE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The neural basis of event simulation: an FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihito Yomogida

    Full Text Available Event simulation (ES is the situational inference process in which perceived event features such as objects, agents, and actions are associated in the brain to represent the whole situation. ES provides a common basis for various cognitive processes, such as perceptual prediction, situational understanding/prediction, and social cognition (such as mentalizing/trait inference. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to elucidate the neural substrates underlying important subdivisions within ES. First, the study investigated whether ES depends on different neural substrates when it is conducted explicitly and implicitly. Second, the existence of neural substrates specific to the future-prediction component of ES was assessed. Subjects were shown contextually related object pictures implying a situation and performed several picture-word-matching tasks. By varying task goals, subjects were made to infer the implied situation implicitly/explicitly or predict the future consequence of that situation. The results indicate that, whereas implicit ES activated the lateral prefrontal cortex and medial/lateral parietal cortex, explicit ES activated the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and medial/lateral temporal cortex. Additionally, the left temporoparietal junction plays an important role in the future-prediction component of ES. These findings enrich our understanding of the neural substrates of the implicit/explicit/predictive aspects of ES-related cognitive processes.

  16. Neural correlates of creative writing: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Carolin; Erhard, Katharina; Ortheil, Hanns-Josef; Kaza, Evangelia; Kessler, Christof; Lotze, Martin

    2013-05-01

    Cerebral activations involved in actual writing of a new story and the associated correlates with creative performance are still unexplored. To investigate the different aspects of the creative writing process, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging while 28 healthy participants performed a new paradigm related to creative writing: "brainstorming" (planning a story) and "creative writing" (writing a new and creative continuation of a given literary text), as well as an additional control paradigm of "reading" and "copying." Individual verbal creativity was assessed with a verbal creativity test and creative performance with a qualitative rating of the creative products. "brainstorming" engaged cognitive, linguistic, and creative brain functions mainly represented in a parieto-frontal-temporal network, as well as writing preparation, and visual and imaginative processing. "creative writing" activated motor and visual brain areas for handwriting and additionally, cognitive and linguistic areas. Episodic memory retrieval, free-associative and spontaneous cognition, and semantic integration were observed in a right lateralized activation pattern in bilateral hippocampi, bilateral temporal poles (BA 38), and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex in a "creative writing" minus "copying" comparison. A correlation analysis of "creative writing" minus "copying" with the creativity index revealed activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 45) and the left temporal pole (BA 38). Thus, verbal creativity during "creative writing" is associated with verbal and semantic memory as well as semantic integration. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Increased Brain Activation for Foot Movement During 70-Day 6 Deg Head-Down Bed Rest (HDBR): Evidence from Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, P.; Koppelmans, V.; Cassady, K.; Cooke, K.; De Dios, Y. E.; Stepanyan, V.; Szecsy, D.; Gadd, N.; Wood, S. J.; Reuter-Lorenz, P. A.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Bed rest has been widely used as a simulation of weightlessness in studying the effects of microgravity exposure on human physiology and cognition. Changes in muscle function and functional mobility have been reported to be associated with bed rest. Understanding the effect of bed rest on neural control of movement would provide helpful information for spaceflight. In the current study, we evaluated how the brain activation for foot movement changed as a function of bed rest. Eighteen healthy men (aged 25 to 39 years) participated in this HDBR study. They remained continuously in the 6deg head-down tilt position for 70 days. Functional MRI was acquired during 1-Hz right foot tapping, and repeated at 7 time points: 12 days pre-, 8 days pre-, 7 days in-, 50 days in-, 70 days in-, 8 days post-, and 12 days post- HDBR. In all 7 sessions, we observed increased activation in the left motor cortex, right cerebellum and right occipital cortex during foot movement blocks compared to rest. Compared to the pre-HDBR baseline (1st and 2nd sessions), foot movement-induced activation in the left hippocampus increased during HDBR. This increase emerged in the 4th session, enlarged in the 5th session, and remained significant in the 6th and 7th sessions. Furthermore, increased activation relative to the baseline in left precuneus was observed in the 5th, 6th and 7th sessions. In addition, in comparison with baseline, increased activation in the left cerebellum was found in the 4th and 5th sessions, whereas increased activation in the right cerebellum was observed in the 4th, 6th and 7th sessions. No brain region exhibited decreased activation during bed rest compared to baseline. The increase of foot movement related brain activation during HDBR suggests that in a long-term head-down position, more neural control is needed to accomplish foot movements. This change required a couple of weeks to develop in HDBR (between 3rd and 4th sessions), and did not return to baseline even 12

  18. An observational study of foot lifts asymmetry during obstacle avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjawal Singh Tomar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Specific information regarding obstacle-clearance strategies used by community-dwelling young and elderly is scant in the literature, and physical barriers encountered in real-life situations have not been used in most of the studies. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine foot lift asymmetry during obstacle avoidance in young and elderly subjects. Settings and Design: This was an observational study. Materials and Methods: Thirty elderly and 30 young individuals were taken for the study. All the subjects were evaluated using different scales and foot lift asymmetry was measured on a walkway using three obstacles of different heights. Results: The mean and standard deviation (SD value of the asymmetric index of the young was 3.25±0.28 and the mean and SD value of the asymmetric index of the elderly was 3.53±0.47. The asymmetric index of the elderly population was found to be higher than that of the younger population. Conclusion: The asymmetric index of the elderly population was found to be higher than that of the younger population, though it is not clinically significant.

  19. Difference in activity in the supplementary motor area depending on limb combination of hand-foot coordinated movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kento Nakagawa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Periodic interlimb coordination shows lower performance when the ipsilateral hand and foot (e.g. right hand and right foot are simultaneously moved than when the contralateral hand and foot (e.g. right hand and left foot are simultaneously moved. The present study aimed to investigate how brain activity that is related to the dependence of hand-foot coordination on limb combination, using functional magnetic imaging (fMRI. Twenty-one right-handed subjects performed periodic coordinated movements of the ipsilateral or contralateral hand and foot in the same or opposite direction in the sagittal plane. Kinematic data showed that performance was lower for the ipsilateral hand-foot coordination than for the contralateral one. A comparison of brain activity between the same and opposite directions showed that there was a greater activation of supplemental motor area (SMA for ipsilateral hand-foot coordination as compared to that seen during contralateral hand-foot coordination. We speculate that this might reflect a difference in the degree of inhibition of the neural circuit that disrupts opposite directional movements between ipsilateral and contralateral hand-foot coordinated movements.

  20. Convectively driven flow past an infinite moving vertical cylinder with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , free convective flow over an infinite moving vertical cylinder under combined buoyancy effects of heat and mass transfer with thermal and mass stratifications. Laplace transform technique is adopted for finding solutions for velocity, ...

  1. Say it with flowers! An fMRI study of object mediated communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tylén, Kristian; Wallentin, Mikkel; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Human communicational interaction can be mediated by a host of expressive means from words in a natural language to gestures and material symbols. Given the proper contextual setting even an everyday object can gain a mediating function in a communicational situation. In this study we used event......-related fMRI to study the brain activity caused by everyday material objects when they are perceived as signals. We found that comprehension of material signals activates bilaterally areas of the ventral stream and pars triangularis of the inferior frontal cortex, that is, areas traditionally associated...

  2. Pitfalls in fractal time series analysis: fMRI BOLD as an exemplary case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras eEke

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article will be positioned on our previous work demonstrating the importance of adhering to a carefully selected set of criteria when choosing the suitable method from those available ensuring its adequate performance when applied to real temporal signals, such as fMRI BOLD, to evaluate one important facet of their behavior, fractality.Earlier, we have reviewed on a range of monofractal tools and evaluated their performance. Given the advance in the fractal field, in this article we will discuss the most widely used implementations of multifractal analyses, too.Our recommended flowchart for the fractal characterization of spontaneous, low frequency fluctuations in fMRI BOLD will be used as the framework for this article to make certain that it will provide a hands-on experience for the reader in handling the perplexed issues of fractal analysis. The reason why this particular signal modality and its fractal analysis has been chosen was due to its high impact on today's neuroscience given it had powerfully emerged as a new way of interpreting the complex functioning of the brain (see intrinsic activity.The reader will first be presented with the basic concepts of mono and multifractal time series analyses, followed by some of the most relevant implementations, characterization by numerical approaches. The notion of the dichotomy of fractional Gaussian noise (fGn and fractional Brownian motion (fBm signal classes and their impact on fractal time series analyses will be thoroughly discussed as the central theme of our application strategy. Sources of pitfalls and way how to avoid them will be identified followed by a demonstration on fractal studies of fMRI BOLD taken from the literature and that of our own in an attempt to consolidate the best practice in fractal analysis of empirical fMRI-BOLD signals mapped throughout the brain as an exemplary case of potentially wide interest.

  3. Who gets afraid in the MRI-scanner? Neurogenetics of state-anxiety changes during an fMRI experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutschler, Isabella; Wieckhorst, Birgit; Meyer, Andrea H; Schweizer, Tina; Klarhöfer, Markus; Wilhelm, Frank H; Seifritz, Erich; Ball, Tonio

    2014-11-07

    Experiments using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) play a fundamental role in affective neuroscience. When placed in an MR scanner, some volunteers feel safe and relaxed in this situation, while others experience uneasiness and fear. Little is known about the basis and consequences of such inter-individually different responses to the general experimental fMRI setting. In this study emotional stimuli were presented during fMRI and subjects' state-anxiety was assessed at the onset and end of the experiment while they were within the scanner. We show that Val/Val but neither Met/Met nor Val/Met carriers of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met polymorphism-a prime candidate for anxiety vulnerability-became significantly more anxious during the fMRI experiment (N=97 females: 24 Val/Val, 51 Val/Met, and 22 Met/Met). Met carriers demonstrated brain responses with increased stability over time in the right parietal cortex and significantly better cognitive performances likely mediated by lower levels of anxiety. Val/Val, Val/Met and Met/Met did not significantly differ in state-anxiety at the beginning of the experiment. The exposure of a control group (N=56 females) to the same experiment outside the scanner did not cause a significant increase in state-anxiety, suggesting that the increase we observe in the fMRI experiment may be specific to the fMRI setting. Our findings reveal that genetics may play an important role in shaping inter-individual different emotional, cognitive and neuronal responses during fMRI experiments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Foot amputation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amputation - foot - discharge; Trans-metatarsal amputation - discharge ... You have had a foot amputation. You may have had an accident, or your foot may have had an infection or disease and doctors could ...

  5. An analog retina model for detecting dim moving objects against a bright moving background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searfus, R. M.; Colvin, M. E.; Eeckman, F. H.; Teeters, J. L.; Axelrod, T. S.

    1991-01-01

    We are interested in applications that require the ability to track a dim target against a bright, moving background. Since the target signal will be less than or comparable to the variations in the background signal intensity, sophisticated techniques must be employed to detect the target. We present an analog retina model that adapts to the motion of the background in order to enhance targets that have a velocity difference with respect to the background. Computer simulation results and our preliminary concept of an analog 'Z' focal plane implementation are also presented.

  6. Neural mechanisms underlying subsequent memory for personal beliefs:An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Erik A; Iyengar, Vijeth; Hess, Thomas M; LaBar, Kevin S; Huettel, Scott A; Cabeza, Roberto

    2018-04-01

    Many fMRI studies have examined the neural mechanisms supporting emotional memory for stimuli that generate emotion rather automatically (e.g., a picture of a dangerous animal or of appetizing food). However, far fewer studies have examined how memory is influenced by emotion related to social and political issues (e.g., a proposal for large changes in taxation policy), which clearly vary across individuals. In order to investigate the neural substrates of affective and mnemonic processes associated with personal opinions, we employed an fMRI task wherein participants rated the intensity of agreement/disagreement to sociopolitical belief statements paired with neural face pictures. Following the rating phase, participants performed an associative recognition test in which they distinguished identical versus recombined face-statement pairs. The study yielded three main findings: behaviorally, the intensity of agreement ratings was linked to greater subjective emotional arousal as well as enhanced high-confidence subsequent memory. Neurally, statements that elicited strong (vs. weak) agreement or disagreement were associated with greater activation of the amygdala. Finally, a subsequent memory analysis showed that the behavioral memory advantage for statements generating stronger ratings was dependent on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Together, these results both underscore consistencies in neural systems supporting emotional arousal and suggest a modulation of arousal-related encoding mechanisms when emotion is contingent on referencing personal beliefs.

  7. An fMRI pilot study to evaluate brain activation associated with locomotion adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Hollnagel, Christoph; Brügger, Mike; Kollias, Spyros; Riener, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The goal of robotic therapy is to provoke motor plasticity via the application of robotic training strategies. Although robotic haptic guidance is the commonly used motor-training strategy to reduce performance errors while training, research on motor learning has emphasized that errors are a fundamental neural signal that drives motor adaptation. Thus, researchers have proposed robotic therapy algorithms that amplify movement errors rather than decrease them. Studying the particular brain regions involved in learning under different training strategies might help tailoring motor training conditions to the anatomical location of a focal brain insult. In this paper, we evaluate the brain regions involved in locomotion adaptation when training with three different conditions: without robotic guidance, with a random-varying force disturbance, and with repulsive forces proportional to errors. We performed an fMRI pilot study with four healthy subjects who stepped in an fMRI compatible walking robotic device. Subjects were instructed to actively synchronize their left leg with respect to their right leg (passively guided by the robot) while their left leg was affected by any of the three conditions. We observed activation in areas known to be involved in error processing. Although we found that all conditions required the similar cortical network to fulfill the task, we observed a tendency towards more activity in the motor/sensory network as more "challenged" the subjects were. © 2011 IEEE

  8. Brain Activities Associated with Graphic Emoticons: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe the brain activities that are associated with graphic emoticons by using functional MRI (fMRI). We use various types of faces from abstract to photorealistic in computer network applications. A graphics emoticon is an abstract face in communication over computer network. In this research, we created various graphic emoticons for the fMRI study and the graphic emoticons were classified according to friendliness and level of arousal. We investigated the brain activities of participants who were required to evaluate the emotional valence of the graphic emoticons (happy or sad). The experimental results showed that not only the right inferior frontal gyrus and the cingulate gyrus, but also the inferior and middle temporal gyrus and the fusiform gyrus, were found to be activated during the experiment. Forthermore, it is possible that the activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus and the cingulate gyrus is related to the type of abstract face. Since the inferior and middle temporal gyrus were activated, even though the graphic emoticons are static, we may perceive graphic emoticons as dynamic and living agents. Moreover, it is believed that text and graphics emoticons play an important role in enriching communication among users.

  9. An asymmetrical relationship between verbal and visual thinking: Converging evidence from behavior and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Elinor; Hoeflin, Caitlyn; Hamzah, Nada; Fedorenko, Evelina

    2017-05-15

    Humans rely on at least two modes of thought: verbal (inner speech) and visual (imagery). Are these modes independent, or does engaging in one entail engaging in the other? To address this question, we performed a behavioral and an fMRI study. In the behavioral experiment, participants received a prompt and were asked to either silently generate a sentence or create a visual image in their mind. They were then asked to judge the vividness of the resulting representation, and of the potentially accompanying representation in the other format. In the fMRI experiment, participants had to recall sentences or images (that they were familiarized with prior to the scanning session) given prompts, or read sentences and view images, in the control, perceptual, condition. An asymmetry was observed between inner speech and visual imagery. In particular, inner speech was engaged to a greater extent during verbal than visual thought, but visual imagery was engaged to a similar extent during both modes of thought. Thus, it appears that people generate more robust verbal representations during deliberate inner speech compared to when their intent is to visualize. However, they generate visual images regardless of whether their intent is to visualize or to think verbally. One possible interpretation of these results is that visual thinking is somehow primary, given the relatively late emergence of verbal abilities during human development and in the evolution of our species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Supernatural believers attribute more intentions to random movement than skeptics: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riekki, Tapani; Lindeman, Marjaana; Raij, Tuukka T

    2014-01-01

    A host of research has attempted to explain why some believe in the supernatural and some do not. One suggested explanation for commonly held supernatural beliefs is that they are a by-product of theory of mind (ToM) processing. However, this does not explain why skeptics with intact ToM processes do not believe. We employed fMRI to investigate activation differences in ToM-related brain circuitries between supernatural believers (N = 12) and skeptics (N = 11) while they watched 2D animations of geometric objects moving intentionally or randomly and rated the intentionality of the animations. The ToM-related circuitries in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were localized by contrasting intention-rating-related and control-rating-related brain activation. Compared with the skeptics, the supernatural believers rated the random movements as more intentional and had stronger activation of the ToM-related circuitries during the animation with random movement. The strength of the ToM-related activation covaried with the intentionality ratings. These findings provide evidence that differences in ToM-related activations are associated with supernatural believers' tendency to interpret random phenomena in mental terms. Thus, differences in ToM processing may contribute to differences between believing and unbelieving.

  11. Control of a Supernumerary Robotic Hand by Foot: An Experimental Study in Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Elahe; Burdet, Etienne; Bouri, Mohamed; Bleuler, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    In the operational theater, the surgical team could highly benefit from a robotic supplementary hand under the surgeon's full control. The surgeon may so become more autonomous; this may reduce communication errors with the assistants and take over difficult tasks such as holding tools without tremor. In this paper, we therefore examine the possibility to control a third robotic hand with one foot's movements. Three experiments in virtual reality were designed to assess the feasibility of this control strategy, the learning curve of the subjects in different tasks and the coordination of foot movements with the two natural hands. Results show that the limbs are moved simultaneously, in parallel rather than serially. Participants' performance improved within a few minutes of practice without any specific difficulty to complete the tasks. Subjective assessment by the subjects indicated that controlling a third hand by foot has been easy and required only negligible physical and mental efforts. The sense of ownership was reported to improve through the experiments. The mental burden was not directly related to the level of motion required by a task, but depended on the type of activity and practice. The most difficult task was moving two hands and foot in opposite directions. These results suggest that a combination of practice and appropriate tasks can enhance the learning process for controlling a robotic hand by foot.

  12. Control of a Supernumerary Robotic Hand by Foot: An Experimental Study in Virtual Reality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Abdi

    Full Text Available In the operational theater, the surgical team could highly benefit from a robotic supplementary hand under the surgeon's full control. The surgeon may so become more autonomous; this may reduce communication errors with the assistants and take over difficult tasks such as holding tools without tremor. In this paper, we therefore examine the possibility to control a third robotic hand with one foot's movements. Three experiments in virtual reality were designed to assess the feasibility of this control strategy, the learning curve of the subjects in different tasks and the coordination of foot movements with the two natural hands. Results show that the limbs are moved simultaneously, in parallel rather than serially. Participants' performance improved within a few minutes of practice without any specific difficulty to complete the tasks. Subjective assessment by the subjects indicated that controlling a third hand by foot has been easy and required only negligible physical and mental efforts. The sense of ownership was reported to improve through the experiments. The mental burden was not directly related to the level of motion required by a task, but depended on the type of activity and practice. The most difficult task was moving two hands and foot in opposite directions. These results suggest that a combination of practice and appropriate tasks can enhance the learning process for controlling a robotic hand by foot.

  13. Who cares about foot care? Barriers and enablers of foot self-care practices among non-institutionalized older adults diagnosed with diabetes: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matricciani, Lisa; Jones, Sara

    2015-02-01

    Appropriate and timely foot self-care practices may prevent diabetes-related foot complications. However, self-care practices are often neglected, particularly by older adults. The purpose of this study was to conduct an integrative, systematic literature review of the psychosocial barriers and enablers of foot self-care practices among older adults diagnosed with diabetes. An integrative, systematic literature review and a deductive thematic analysis was conducted to determine psychosocial barriers and enablers of foot self-care practices among older adults. A total of 130 different studies were retrieved from the search strategy. From these, 9 studies were identified and included for review. Physical ability, perceived importance, patient knowledge, provision of education, social integration, risk status, and patient-provider communication were identified as key barriers and enablers of foot self-care. Participants at high risk of foot complications were found to perceive themselves at greater risk of complications, receive more education, and engage in better overall foot self-care practices compared to those at low risk of foot complications. Foot self-care practices appear underutilized as primary prevention measures by older adults and are instead adopted only once complications have already occurred. Likewise, facilitators of foot self-care practices, such as education, appear to be reserved for individuals who have already developed foot complications. Health care professionals such as diabetes educators, podiatrists, and general practitioners may play an important role in the prevention of foot complications among older adults by recognizing, referring, and providing early education to older adults. © 2014 The Author(s).

  14. Activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in a dual neuropsychological screening test: An fMRI approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tachibana Atsumichi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kana Pick-out Test (KPT, which uses Kana or Japanese symbols that represent syllables, requires parallel processing of discrete (pick-out and continuous (reading dual tasks. As a dual task, the KPT is thought to test working memory and executive function, particularly in the prefrontal cortex (PFC, and is widely used in Japan as a clinical screen for dementia. Nevertheless, there has been little neurological investigation into PFC activity during this test. Methods We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to evaluate changes in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD signal in young healthy adults during performance of a computerized KPT dual task (comprised of reading comprehension and picking out vowels and compared it to its single task components (reading or vowel pick-out alone. Results Behavioral performance of the KPT degraded compared to its single task components. Performance of the KPT markedly increased BOLD signal intensity in the PFC, and also activated sensorimotor, parietal association, and visual cortex areas. In conjunction analyses, bilateral BOLD signal in the dorsolateral PFC (Brodmann's areas 45, 46 was present only in the KPT. Conclusions Our results support the central bottleneck theory and suggest that the dorsolateral PFC is an important mediator of neural activity for both short-term storage and executive processes. Quantitative evaluation of the KPT with fMRI in healthy adults is the first step towards understanding the effects of aging or cognitive impairment on KPT performance.

  15. Enhancing creativity by means of cognitive stimulation: evidence from an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Andreas; Grabner, Roland H; Gebauer, Daniela; Reishofer, Gernot; Koschutnig, Karl; Ebner, Franz

    2010-10-01

    Cognitive stimulation via the exposure to ideas of other people is an effective tool in stimulating creativity in group-based creativity techniques. In this fMRI study, we investigate whether creative cognition can be enhanced through idea sharing and how performance improvements are reflected in brain activity. Thirty-one participants had to generate alternative uses of everyday objects during fMRI recording. Additionally, participants performed this task after a time period in which they had to reflect on their ideas or in which they were confronted with stimulus-related ideas of others. Cognitive stimulation was effective in improving originality, and this performance improvement was associated with activation increases in a neural network including right-hemispheric temporo-parietal, medial frontal, and posterior cingulate cortices, bilaterally. Given the involvement of these brain areas in semantic integration, memory retrieval, and attentional processes, cognitive stimulation could have resulted in a modulation of bottom-up attention enabling participants to produce more original ideas. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Altered default mode network activity in patient with anxiety disorders: An fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Xiaohu [Imaging Department of Tong Ji Hospital of Tong Ji University, Shanghai 200065 (China) and Bio-X lab, Department of Physics, Zhe Jiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)], E-mail: xhzhao999@263.net; Wang Peijun [Imaging Department of Tong Ji Hospital of Tong Ji University, Shanghai 200065 (China)], E-mail: tongjipjwang@vip.sina.com; Li Chunbo [Department of Psychiatry, Tong Ji Hospital of Tong Ji University, Shanghai 200065 (China)], E-mail: licb@mail.tongji.edu.cn; Hu Zhenghui [Department of Electrical and Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: eezhhu@ust.hk; Xi Qian [Imaging Department of Tong Ji Hospital of Tong Ji University, Shanghai 200065 (China)], E-mail: 96125007@sina.com.cn; Wu Wenyuan [Department of Psychiatry, Tong Ji Hospital of Tong Ji University, Shanghai 200065 (China)], E-mail: wuwy@mail.tongji.edu.cn; Tang Xiaowei [Bio-X lab, Department of Physics, Zhe Jiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)], E-mail: tangxw@zju.edu.cn

    2007-09-15

    Anxiety disorder, a common mental disorder in our clinical practice, is characterized by unprovoked anxiety. Medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), which closely involved in emotional processing, are critical regions in the default mode network. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether default mode network activity is altered in patients with anxiety disorder. Ten anxiety patients and 10 healthy controls underwent fMRI while listening to emotionally neutral words alternating with rest (Experiment 1) and threat-related words alternating with emotionally neutral words (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, regions of deactivation were observed in patients and controls. In Experiment 2, regions of deactivation were observed only in patients. The observed deactivation patterns in the two experiments, which included MPFC, PCC, and inferior parietal cortex, were similar and consistent with the default model network. Less deactivation in MPFC and greater deactivation in PCC were observed for patients group comparing to controls in Experiment 1. Our observations suggest that the default model network is altered in anxiety patients and dysfunction in MPFC and PCC may play an important role in anxiety psychopathology.

  17. Altered default mode network activity in patient with anxiety disorders: An fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaohu; Wang Peijun; Li Chunbo; Hu Zhenghui; Xi Qian; Wu Wenyuan; Tang Xiaowei

    2007-01-01

    Anxiety disorder, a common mental disorder in our clinical practice, is characterized by unprovoked anxiety. Medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), which closely involved in emotional processing, are critical regions in the default mode network. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether default mode network activity is altered in patients with anxiety disorder. Ten anxiety patients and 10 healthy controls underwent fMRI while listening to emotionally neutral words alternating with rest (Experiment 1) and threat-related words alternating with emotionally neutral words (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, regions of deactivation were observed in patients and controls. In Experiment 2, regions of deactivation were observed only in patients. The observed deactivation patterns in the two experiments, which included MPFC, PCC, and inferior parietal cortex, were similar and consistent with the default model network. Less deactivation in MPFC and greater deactivation in PCC were observed for patients group comparing to controls in Experiment 1. Our observations suggest that the default model network is altered in anxiety patients and dysfunction in MPFC and PCC may play an important role in anxiety psychopathology

  18. Ageing differentially affects neural processing of different conflict types – an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarethe eKorsch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interference control and conflict resolution is affected by ageing. There is increasing evidence that ageing does not compromise interference control in general but rather shows distinctive effects on different components of interference control. Different conflict types, (e.g. stimulus-stimulus (S-S or stimulus-response (S-R conflicts trigger different cognitive processes and thus activate different neural networks. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, we used a combined Flanker and Stimulus Response Conflict (SRC task to investigate the effect of ageing on S-S and S-R conflicts. Behavioral data analysis revealed larger SRC effects in elderly. fMRI Results show that both age groups recruited similar regions (caudate nucleus, cingulate gyrus and middle occipital gyrus during Flanker conflict processing. Furthermore, elderly show an additional activation pattern in parietal and frontal areas. In contrast, no common activation of both age groups was found in response to the SRC. These data suggest that ageing has distinctive effects on S-S and S-R conflicts.

  19. An fMRI study of caring vs self-focus during induced compassion and pride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Thomas, Emiliana R; Godzik, Jakub; Castle, Elizabeth; Antonenko, Olga; Ponz, Aurelie; Kogan, Aleksander; Keltner, Dacher J

    2012-08-01

    This study examined neural activation during the experience of compassion, an emotion that orients people toward vulnerable others and prompts caregiving, and pride, a self-focused emotion that signals individual strength and heightened status. Functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) were acquired as participants viewed 55 s continuous sequences of slides to induce either compassion or pride, presented in alternation with sequences of neutral slides. Emotion self-report data were collected after each slide condition within the fMRI scanner. Compassion induction was associated with activation in the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG), a region that is activated during pain and the perception of others' pain, and that has been implicated in parental nurturance behaviors. Pride induction engaged the posterior medial cortex, a region that has been associated with self-referent processing. Self-reports of compassion experience were correlated with increased activation in a region near the PAG, and in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Self-reports of pride experience, in contrast, were correlated with reduced activation in the IFG and the anterior insula. These results provide preliminary evidence towards understanding the neural correlates of important interpersonal dimensions of compassion and pride. Caring (compassion) and self-focus (pride) may represent core appraisals that differentiate the response profiles of many emotions.

  20. Enhanced emotional reactivity after selective REM sleep deprivation in humans: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra eRosales-Lagarde

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Converging evidence from animal and human studies suggest that REM sleep modulates emotional processing. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of selective REM sleep deprivation on emotional responses to threatening visual stimuli and their brain correlates using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Twenty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: selective REM sleep deprivation (REM-D, by awakening them at each REM sleep onset, or NREM sleep interruptions (NREM-I as control for potential non-specific effects of awakenings and lack of sleep. In a within-subject design, a visual emotional-reactivity task was performed in the scanner before and 24 hours after sleep manipulation. Behaviorally, emotional reactivity was enhanced relative to baseline in the REM deprived group only. In terms of fMRI signal, there was an overall decrease in activity in the NREM-I group the second time subjects performed the task, particularly in regions involved in emotional processing, such as occipital and temporal areas, as well as in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, involved in top-down emotion regulation. In contrast, activity in these areas remained the same level or even increased in the REM-D group, compared to their baseline level.Taken together, these results suggest that lack of REM sleep in humans is associated with enhanced emotional reactivity, both at behavioral and neural levels, and thus highlight the specific role of REM sleep in regulating the neural substrates for emotional responsiveness.

  1. An epidemiologic study of flat foot in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamy B

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Among 880 studied feet of 7-14 years old children 6.9% suffered mild and severe flat foot. 53.8% of the affected children were symptomatic. As 40.1% of the general population experiences symptoms, in a small proportion of affected persons, symptoms are due to flat foot. The prevalence of symptoms rises with increasing severity of the disorder. In this article, reviewing general aspects of flat food, prevalence and other epidemiological aspects of flat foot for the first time in Iran have been presented

  2. An Investigation of Structure, Flexibility, and Function Variables that Discriminate Asymptomatic Foot Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Sarah P; Song, Jinsup; Kraszewski, Andrew P; Hafer, Jocelyn F; Rao, Smita; Backus, Sherry; Hillstrom, Rajshree M; Hillstrom, Howard J

    2017-07-01

    It has been suggested that foot type considers not only foot structure (high, normal, low arch), but also function (overpronation, normal, oversupination) and flexibility (reduced, normal, excessive). Therefore, this study used canonical regression analyses to assess which variables of foot structure, function, and flexibility can accurately discriminate between clinical foot type classifications. The feet of 61 asymptomatic, healthy adults (18-77 years) were classified as cavus (N = 24), rectus (N = 54), or planus (N = 44) using standard clinical measures. Custom jigs assessed foot structure and flexibility. Foot function was assessed using an emed-x plantar pressure measuring device. Canonical regression analyses were applied separately to extract essential structure, flexibility, and function variables. A third canonical regression analysis was performed on the extracted variables to identify a combined model. The initial combined model included 30 extracted variables; however 5 terminal variables (malleolar valgus index, arch height index while sitting, first metatarsophalangeal joint laxity while standing, pressure-time integral and maximum contact area of medial arch) were able to correctly predict 80.7% of foot types. These remaining variables focused on specific foot characteristics (hindfoot alignment, arch height, midfoot mechanics, Windlass mechanism) that could be essential to discriminating foot type.

  3. Anatomical and functional properties of the foot and leg representation in areas 3b, 1 and 2 of primary somatosensory cortex in humans: A 7T fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akselrod, Michel; Martuzzi, Roberto; Serino, Andrea; van der Zwaag, Wietske; Gassert, Roger; Blanke, Olaf

    2017-10-01

    Primary somatosensory cortex (S1) processes somatosensory information and is composed of multiple subregions. In particular, tactile information from the skin is encoded in three subregions, namely Brodmann areas (BAs) 3b, 1 and 2, with each area representing a complete map of the contralateral body. Although, much is known about the somatotopic organization of the hand in human S1, less research has been carried out regarding the somatotopic maps of the foot and leg in S1. Moreover, a latero-medial S1 organization along the superior part of the postcentral gyrus has been reported when moving from hip to toes, yet to date there is no study investigating leg/foot maps within the different subregions of S1. Using ultra-high field MRI (7T), we mapped six cortical representations of the lower limb (hip to toes) at the single subject level and performed this analysis separately for BAs 3b, 1 and 2. Analyzing the BOLD responses associated with tactile stimulations of the mapped foot and leg regions on each side, we quantified the extent and the strength of activation to determine somatotopic organization. In addition, we investigated whether each mapped representation also responded to the stimulation of other body parts (i.e. response selectivity) and conducted dissimilarity analysis relating these anatomical and functional properties of S1 to the physical structure of the lower limbs. Our data reveal somatotopy for the leg, but not for the foot in all investigated BAs, with large inter-subject variability. We found only minor differences between the properties of the three investigated BAs, suggesting that S1 maps for the lower limbs differ from those described for the hand. We also describe greater extent/strength of S1 activation for the big toe representation (compared to the other mapped representations) within all BAs, suggesting a possible homology between the first digit of upper and lower extremity in humans, and report different patterns of selectivity in the

  4. Effect of peroneal electrical stimulation versus an ankle-foot orthosis on obstacle avoidance ability in people with stroke-related foot drop.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swigchem, R. van; Duijnhoven, H.J.R. van; Boer, J. den; Geurts, A.C.H.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Walking ability of people with foot drop in the chronic phase after stroke is better with functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the peroneal nerve than without an orthotic device. However, the literature is not conclusive on whether peroneal FES also is better than an ankle-foot

  5. Adaptation of a haptic robot in a 3T fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Joseph; Plank, Markus; May, Larry; Liu, Thomas T; Poizner, Howard

    2011-10-04

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides excellent functional brain imaging via the BOLD signal with advantages including non-ionizing radiation, millimeter spatial accuracy of anatomical and functional data, and nearly real-time analyses. Haptic robots provide precise measurement and control of position and force of a cursor in a reasonably confined space. Here we combine these two technologies to allow precision experiments involving motor control with haptic/tactile environment interaction such as reaching or grasping. The basic idea is to attach an 8 foot end effecter supported in the center to the robot allowing the subject to use the robot, but shielding it and keeping it out of the most extreme part of the magnetic field from the fMRI machine (Figure 1). The Phantom Premium 3.0, 6DoF, high-force robot (SensAble Technologies, Inc.) is an excellent choice for providing force-feedback in virtual reality experiments, but it is inherently non-MR safe, introduces significant noise to the sensitive fMRI equipment, and its electric motors may be affected by the fMRI's strongly varying magnetic field. We have constructed a table and shielding system that allows the robot to be safely introduced into the fMRI environment and limits both the degradation of the fMRI signal by the electrically noisy motors and the degradation of the electric motor performance by the strongly varying magnetic field of the fMRI. With the shield, the signal to noise ratio (SNR: mean signal/noise standard deviation) of the fMRI goes from a baseline of ~380 to ~330, and ~250 without the shielding. The remaining noise appears to be uncorrelated and does not add artifacts to the fMRI of a test sphere (Figure 2). The long, stiff handle allows placement of the robot out of range of the most strongly varying parts of the magnetic field so there is no significant effect of the fMRI on the robot. The effect of the handle on the robot's kinematics is minimal since it is lightweight (~2

  6. Cognitive control and unusual decisions about beauty: An fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert eFlexas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of visual aesthetic preference have shown that people without art training generally prefer representational paintings to abstract paintings. This, however, is not always the case: preferences can sometimes go against this usual tendency. We aimed to explore this issue, investigating the relationship between ‘unusual responses’ and reaction time in an aesthetic appreciation task. Results of a behavioural experiment confirmed the trend for laypeople to consider as beautiful mostly representational stimuli and as not beautiful mostly abstract ones (‘usual response’. Furthermore, when participants gave unusual responses, they needed longer time, especially when considering abstract stimuli as beautiful. We interpreted this longer time as greater involvement of the cognitive mastering and evaluation stages during the unusual responses. Results of an fMRI experiment indicated that the anterior cingulate, orbitofrontal cortex and insula were the main structures involved in this effect. We discuss the possible role of these areas in an aesthetic appreciation task.

  7. The capacity to restore steady gait after a step modification is reduced in people with poststroke foot drop using an ankle-foot orthosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swigchem, R. van; Roerdink, M.; Weerdesteyn, V.G.M.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Daffertshofer, A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A reduced capacity to modify gait to the environment may contribute to the risk of falls in people with poststroke foot drop using an ankle-foot orthosis. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to quantify their capacity to restore steady gait after a step modification. DESIGN: This was a

  8. The Capacity to Restore Steady Gait After a Step Modification Is Reduced in People With Poststroke Foot Drop Using an Ankle-Foot Orthosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Swigchem, R.; Roerdink, M.; Weerdesteyn, V.; Geurts, A.C.; Daffertshofer, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. A reduced capacity to modify gait to the environment may contribute to the risk of falls in people with poststroke foot drop using an ankle-foot orthosis. Objective. This study aimed to quantify their capacity to restore steady gait after a step modification. Design. This was a

  9. The processing of syntactic islands – an fMRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj; Kizach, Johannes; Nyvad, Anne Mette

    2013-01-01

    -related fMRI (n=30) was used to measure the cortical effects of the differences in acceptability between ungrammatical sentences and three types of wh-movement in Danish: short movement (to the front of an embedded clause), long movement (to the beginning of the matrix clause), and movement across another...... wh-phrase. The neural activation in LIFG was predicted to correlate negatively with the level of acceptability. Ungrammatical sentences were predicted to engage LIFG, potentially overlapping with the effects of acceptability. The behavioral results replicated the findings from an earlier study...... showing that acceptability correlates negatively with demands on syntactic working memory. Short movement is more acceptable than long movement, which is more acceptable than movement across another wh-phrase. Contrary to prediction, the imaging data showed no significant difference between long movement...

  10. Psychophysiological interaction between superior temporal gyrus (STG) and cerebellum: An fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, A. N.; Teng, X. L.; Ng, S. B.; Hamid, A. I. A.; Mukari, S. Z. M.

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to model the psychophysiological interaction (PPI) between the bilateral STG and cerebellum (lobule VI and lobule VII) during an arithmetic addition task. Eighteen young adults participated in this study. They were instructed to solve single-digit addition tasks in quiet and noisy backgrounds during an fMRI scan. Results showed that in both hemispheres, the response in the cerebellum was found to be linearly influenced by the activity in STG (vice-versa) for both in-quiet and in-noise conditions. However, the influence of the cerebellum on STG seemed to be modulated by noise. A two-way PPI model between STG and cerebellum is suggested. The connectivity between the two regions during a simple addition task in a noisy condition is modulated by the participants’ higher attention to perceive.

  11. Estimation of the neuronal activation using fMRI data: An observer-based approach

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2013-06-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of the neuronal activation and some unmeasured physiological information using the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signal measured using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). We propose to use an observer-based approach applied to the balloon hemodynamic model. The latter describes the relation between the neural activity and the BOLD signal. The balloon model can be expressed in a nonlinear state-space representation where the states, the parameters and the input (neuronal activation), are unknown. This study focuses only on the estimation of the hidden states and the neuronal activation. The model is first linearized around the equilibrium and an observer is applied to this linearized version. Numerical results performed on synthetic data are presented.

  12. Predictors of lower-extremity amputation in patients with an infected diabetic foot ulcer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pickwell, Kirsty; Siersma, Volkert; Kars, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    of the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF) classification system and to develop a risk score for predicting amputation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We prospectively studied 575 patients with an infected diabetic foot ulcer presenting to 1 of 14 diabetic foot clinics in 10 European countries......OBJECTIVE Infection commonly complicates diabetic foot ulcers and is associated with a poor outcome. In a cohort of individuals with an infected diabetic foot ulcer, we aimed to determine independent predictors of lower-extremity amputation and the predictive value for amputation....... RESULTS Among these patients, 159 (28%) underwent an amputation. Independent risk factors for amputation were as follows: periwound edema, foul smell, (non)purulent exudate, deep ulcer, positive probe-to-bone test, pretibial edema, fever, and elevated C-reactive protein. Increasing IWGDF severity...

  13. Aging effects on the control of grip force magnitude: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Jeremy W; Eng, Janice J; Kokotilo, Kristen J; Boyd, Lara A

    2011-06-01

    Functional neuroimaging techniques have allowed for investigations into the mechanisms of age-related deterioration in motor control. This study used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to investigate age related differences in the control of grip force magnitude. Using an event-related design, fMRI scans were completed on 13 older adults, and 13 gender matched younger adults, while using their dominant hand to squeeze a rubber bulb for 4s at 10%, 40% or 70% of their maximum voluntary contraction. Both groups were able to match the relative force targets, however the older adults produced significantly lower levels of absolute force. fMRI analysis consisted of a 1) region of interest (ROI) approach to detect differences in selected motor areas within brain and 2) a voxel-wise whole brain comparison to find areas of differential activation that were not defined a priori between the older and younger group. The ROI analysis revealed that despite producing lower levels of absolute force, the older adults showed higher levels of activity predominantly in subcortical structures (putamen, thalamus and cerebellum) when compared to the younger group. The older adults also showed higher levels of activity in the ipsilateral ventral premotor cortex. A total of 19 of the 22 ROIs analyzed showed a significant main effect of the required force-level. In the majority of the ROIs that showed a significant force effect there were no significant differences in the magnitude of the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal between the 10% and 40% conditions but a significantly higher BOLD signal in the 70% condition, suggesting that the modulation of brain activation with grip force may not be controlled in a linear fashion. It was also found that the older adult group demonstrate higher levels of activation in 7 areas during a force production task at higher force levels using a voxel-wise analysis. The 7 clusters that showed significant differences tended to be areas

  14. Neural Correlates of Direct Access Trading in a Real Stock Market: An fMRI Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GianMario Raggetti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: While financial decision making has been barely explored, no study has previously investigated the neural correlates of individual decisions made by professional traders involved in real stock market negotiations, using their own financial resources.Aim: We sought to detect how different brain areas are modulated by factors like age, expertise, psychological profile (speculative risk seeking or aversion and, eventually, size and type (Buy/Sell of stock negotiations, made through Direct Access Trading (DAT platforms.Subjects and methods: Twenty male traders underwent fMRI while negotiating in the Italian stock market using their own preferred trading platform.Results: At least 20 decision events were collected during each fMRI session. Risk averse traders performed a lower number of financial transactions with respect to risk seekers, with a lower average economic value, but with a higher rate of filled proposals. Activations were observed in cortical and subcortical areas traditionally involved in decision processes, including the ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC, dlPFC, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc, and dorsal striatum. Regression analysis indicated an important role of age in modulating activation of left NAcc, while traders' expertise was negatively related to activation of vlPFC. High value transactions were associated with a stronger activation of the right PPC when subjects' buy rather than sell. The success of the trading activity, based on a large number of filled transactions, was related with higher activation of vlPFC and dlPFC. Independent of chronological and professional age, traders differed in their attitude to DAT, with distinct brain activity profiles being detectable during fMRI sessions. Those subjects who described themselves as very self-confident, showed a lower or absent activation of both the caudate nucleus and the dlPFC, while more reflexive traders

  15. Neural Correlates of Direct Access Trading in a Real Stock Market: An fMRI Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggetti, GianMario; Ceravolo, Maria G; Fattobene, Lucrezia; Di Dio, Cinzia

    2017-01-01

    Background: While financial decision making has been barely explored, no study has previously investigated the neural correlates of individual decisions made by professional traders involved in real stock market negotiations, using their own financial resources. Aim: We sought to detect how different brain areas are modulated by factors like age, expertise, psychological profile (speculative risk seeking or aversion) and, eventually, size and type (Buy/Sell) of stock negotiations, made through Direct Access Trading (DAT) platforms. Subjects and methods: Twenty male traders underwent fMRI while negotiating in the Italian stock market using their own preferred trading platform. Results: At least 20 decision events were collected during each fMRI session. Risk averse traders performed a lower number of financial transactions with respect to risk seekers, with a lower average economic value, but with a higher rate of filled proposals. Activations were observed in cortical and subcortical areas traditionally involved in decision processes, including the ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC, dlPFC), the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and dorsal striatum. Regression analysis indicated an important role of age in modulating activation of left NAcc, while traders' expertise was negatively related to activation of vlPFC. High value transactions were associated with a stronger activation of the right PPC when subjects' buy rather than sell. The success of the trading activity, based on a large number of filled transactions, was related with higher activation of vlPFC and dlPFC. Independent of chronological and professional age, traders differed in their attitude to DAT, with distinct brain activity profiles being detectable during fMRI sessions. Those subjects who described themselves as very self-confident, showed a lower or absent activation of both the caudate nucleus and the dlPFC, while more reflexive traders showed

  16. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Dorsal Foot: An Update and Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tiffany Y; Rubin, Ashley G; Jiang, Shang I Brian

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is a well-known risk factor for basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Therefore, the high incidence of BCCs in sun-exposed areas such as the head and neck is unsurprising. However, unexpectedly, BCCs on the sun-protected dorsal foot have also been reported, and tumor occurrence here suggests that other factors besides ultraviolet radiation may play a role in BCC pathogenesis. Because only few dorsal foot BCCs have been reported, data on their clinical features and management are limited. To perform an updated review of the literature on clinical characteristics and treatment of dorsal foot BCCs. We conducted a comprehensive literature review by searching the PubMed database with the key phrases "basal cell carcinoma dorsal foot," "basal cell carcinoma foot," and "basal cell carcinoma toe." We identified 20 cases of dorsal foot BCCs in the literature, 17 of which had sufficient data for analysis. Only 1 case was treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. We present 8 additional cases of dorsal foot BCCs treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. Basal cell carcinomas on the dorsal foot are rare, and potential risk factors include Caucasian descent and personal history of skin cancer. Mohs micrographic surgery seems to be an effective treatment option.

  17. Ecphory of Autobiographical Memories: an fMRI Study on Recent and Remote Memory Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinvorth, Sarah; Corkin, Suzanne; Halgren, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Ecphory occurs when one recollects a past event cued by a trigger, such as a picture, odor, or name. It is a central component of autobiographical memory, which allows us to “travel mentally back in time” and re-experience specific events from our personal past. Using fMRI and focusing on the role of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures, we investigated the brain bases of autobiographical memory and whether they change with the age of memories. Importantly, we used an ecphory task in which the remote character of the memories was ensured. The results showed that a large bilateral network supports autobiographical memory: temporal lobe, temporo-occipito-parietal junction, dorsal prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, retrosplenial cortex and surrounding areas, and MTL structures. This network, including MTL structures, changed little with the age of the memories. PMID:16257547

  18. An fMRI study of implicit language learning in developmental language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Plante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with developmental language impairment can show deficits into adulthood. This suggests that neural networks related to their language do not normalize with time. We examined the ability of 16 adults with and without impaired language to learn individual words in an unfamiliar language. Adults with impaired language were able to segment individual words from running speech, but needed more time to do so than their normal-language peers. ICA analysis of fMRI data indicated that adults with language impairment activate a neural network that is comparable to that of adults with normal language. However, a regional analysis indicated relative hyperactivation of a collection of regions associated with language processing. These results are discussed with reference to the Statistical Learning Framework and the sub-skills thought to relate to word segmentation.

  19. Enhanced brain connectivity in math-gifted adolescents: An fMRI study using mental rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, James; Gavrilescu, Maria; Cunnington, Ross; O'Boyle, Michael W; Egan, Gary F

    2010-12-01

    Mathematical giftedness is a form of intelligence related to enhanced mathematical reasoning that can be tested using a variety of numerical and spatial tasks. A number of neurobiological mechanisms related to exceptional mathematical reasoning ability have been postulated, including enhanced brain connectivity. We aimed to further investigate this possibility by comparing a group of mathematically gifted adolescents with an average math ability control group performing mental rotation of complex three-dimensional block figures. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected and differences in intrahemispheric and interhemispheric connectivity between the groups were assessed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The math-gifted showed heightened intrahemispheric frontoparietal connectivity, as well as enhanced interhemispheric frontal connectivity between the dorsolateral prefrontal and premotor cortex. These enhanced connectivity patterns are consistent with previous studies linking increased activation of the frontal and parietal regions with high fluid intelligence, and may be a unique neural characteristic of the mathematically gifted brain.

  20. Moving towards global health equity: Opportunities and threats: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The theme of the 13th World Congress on Public Health, “Moving Towards Global Health Equity: Opportunities and Threats”, strikes an optimistic note as the gaps within and between countries are greater than at any time in recent history. There is no consensus on what globalization is, but most agree that it will ...

  1. Sensory-motor networks involved in speech production and motor control: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Shebek, Rachel; Hansen, Daniel R; Oya, Hiroyuki; Robin, Donald A; Howard, Matthew A; Greenlee, Jeremy D W

    2015-04-01

    Speaking is one of the most complex motor behaviors developed to facilitate human communication. The underlying neural mechanisms of speech involve sensory-motor interactions that incorporate feedback information for online monitoring and control of produced speech sounds. In the present study, we adopted an auditory feedback pitch perturbation paradigm and combined it with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings in order to identify brain areas involved in speech production and motor control. Subjects underwent fMRI scanning while they produced a steady vowel sound /a/ (speaking) or listened to the playback of their own vowel production (playback). During each condition, the auditory feedback from vowel production was either normal (no perturbation) or perturbed by an upward (+600 cents) pitch-shift stimulus randomly. Analysis of BOLD responses during speaking (with and without shift) vs. rest revealed activation of a complex network including bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG), Heschl's gyrus, precentral gyrus, supplementary motor area (SMA), Rolandic operculum, postcentral gyrus and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Performance correlation analysis showed that the subjects produced compensatory vocal responses that significantly correlated with BOLD response increases in bilateral STG and left precentral gyrus. However, during playback, the activation network was limited to cortical auditory areas including bilateral STG and Heschl's gyrus. Moreover, the contrast between speaking vs. playback highlighted a distinct functional network that included bilateral precentral gyrus, SMA, IFG, postcentral gyrus and insula. These findings suggest that speech motor control involves feedback error detection in sensory (e.g. auditory) cortices that subsequently activate motor-related areas for the adjustment of speech parameters during speaking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Resting-state fMRI activity predicts unsupervised learning and memory in an immersive virtual reality environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chi Wah; Olafsson, Valur; Plank, Markus; Snider, Joseph; Halgren, Eric; Poizner, Howard; Liu, Thomas T

    2014-01-01

    In the real world, learning often proceeds in an unsupervised manner without explicit instructions or feedback. In this study, we employed an experimental paradigm in which subjects explored an immersive virtual reality environment on each of two days. On day 1, subjects implicitly learned the location of 39 objects in an unsupervised fashion. On day 2, the locations of some of the objects were changed, and object location recall performance was assessed and found to vary across subjects. As prior work had shown that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures of resting-state brain activity can predict various measures of brain performance across individuals, we examined whether resting-state fMRI measures could be used to predict object location recall performance. We found a significant correlation between performance and the variability of the resting-state fMRI signal in the basal ganglia, hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, insula, and regions in the frontal and temporal lobes, regions important for spatial exploration, learning, memory, and decision making. In addition, performance was significantly correlated with resting-state fMRI connectivity between the left caudate and the right fusiform gyrus, lateral occipital complex, and superior temporal gyrus. Given the basal ganglia's role in exploration, these findings suggest that tighter integration of the brain systems responsible for exploration and visuospatial processing may be critical for learning in a complex environment.

  3. Incidental Retrieval of Emotional Contexts in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Depression: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Matthew G.; Rugg, Michael D.; Smith, Adam P. R.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Brewin, Chris R.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we used fMRI to assess patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or depression, and trauma-exposed controls, during an episodic memory retrieval task that included non-trauma-related emotional information. In the study phase of the task neutral pictures were presented in emotional or neutral contexts.…

  4. Towards an efficient and robust foot classification from pedobarographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Francisco P M; Sousa, Andreia; Santos, Rubim; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new computational framework for automatic foot classification from digital plantar pressure images. It classifies the foot as left or right and simultaneously calculates two well-known footprint indices: the Cavanagh's arch index (AI) and the modified AI. The accuracy of the framework was evaluated using a set of plantar pressure images from two common pedobarographic devices. The results were outstanding, as all feet under analysis were correctly classified as left or right and no significant differences were observed between the footprint indices calculated using the computational solution and the traditional manual method. The robustness of the proposed framework to arbitrary foot orientations and to the acquisition device was also tested and confirmed.

  5. Visual, Auditory, and Cross Modal Sensory Processing in Adults with Autism: An EEG Power and BOLD fMRI Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Elizabeth’ C.; Murphy, Brandi; Rajmohan, Ravi; Anderson, Ronald C.; Baker, Mary; Zupancic, Stephen; O’Boyle, Michael; Richman, David

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) and blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imagining (BOLD fMRI) assessed the neurocorrelates of sensory processing of visual and auditory stimuli in 11 adults with autism (ASD) and 10 neurotypical (NT) controls between the ages of 20–28. We hypothesized that ASD performance on combined audiovisual trials would be less accurate with observable decreased EEG power across frontal, temporal, and occipital channels and decreased BOLD fMRI activity in these same regions; reflecting deficits in key sensory processing areas. Analysis focused on EEG power, BOLD fMRI, and accuracy. Lower EEG beta power and lower left auditory cortex fMRI activity were seen in ASD compared to NT when they were presented with auditory stimuli as demonstrated by contrasting the activity from the second presentation of an auditory stimulus in an all auditory block vs. the second presentation of a visual stimulus in an all visual block (AA2-VV2).We conclude that in ASD, combined audiovisual processing is more similar than unimodal processing to NTs. PMID:27148020

  6. Tinnitus- related distress: evidence from fMRI of an emotional stroop task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Golm

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic tinnitus affects 5 % of the population, 17 % suffer under the condition. This distress seems mainly to be dependent on negative cognitive-emotional evaluation of the tinnitus and selective attention to the tinnitus. A well-established paradigm to examine selective attention and emotional processing is the Emotional Stroop Task (EST. Recent models of tinnitus distress propose limbic, frontal and parietal regions to be more active in highly distressed tinnitus patients. Only a few studies have compared high and low distressed tinnitus patients. Thus, this study aimed to explore neural correlates of tinnitus-related distress. Methods Highly distressed tinnitus patients (HDT, n = 16, low distressed tinnitus patients (LDT, n = 16 and healthy controls (HC, n = 16 underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during an EST, that used tinnitus-related words and neutral words as stimuli. A random effects analysis of the fMRI data was conducted on the basis of the general linear model. Furthermore correlational analyses between the blood oxygen level dependent response and tinnitus distress, loudness, depression, anxiety, vocabulary and hypersensitivity to sound were performed. Results Contradictory to the hypothesis, highly distressed patients showed no Stroop effect in their reaction times. As hypothesized HDT and LDT differed in the activation of the right insula and the orbitofrontal cortex. There were no hypothesized differences between HDT and HC. Activation of the orbitofrontal cortex and the right insula were found to correlate with tinnitus distress. Conclusions The results are partially supported by earlier resting-state studies and corroborate the role of the insula and the orbitofrontal cortex in tinnitus distress.

  7. Unique functional abnormalities in youth with combined marijuana use and depression: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen A Ford

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has shown a relationship between early onset marijuana (MJ use and depression, however this relationship is complex and poorly understood. Here, we utilized passive music listening and fMRI to examine functional brain activation to a rewarding stimulus in 75 participants (healthy controls (HC, patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, frequent MJ users (MJ, and the combination of MDD and MJ (MDD+MJ. For each participant a preferred and neutral piece of instrumental music was determined (utilizing ratings on a standardized scale, and each completed two 6-minute fMRI scans of a passive music listening task. Data underwent preprocessing and 61 participants were carried forward for analysis (17 HC, 15 MDD, 15 MJ, 14 MDD+MJ. Two statistical analyses were performed using SPM8, an ANCOVA with two factors (group x music-type and a whole brain, multiple regression analysis incorporating two predictors of interest (MJ use in past 28 days; and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI score. We identified a significant group x music-type interaction. Post hoc comparisons showed the preferred music had significantly greater activation in the MDD+MJ group in areas including the right middle and inferior frontal gyri extending into the claustrum and putamen and the anterior cingulate. No significant differences were identified in MDD, MJ or HC groups. Multiple regression analysis showed that activation in medial frontal cortex was positively correlated with amount of MJ use, and activation in areas including the insula was negatively correlated with BDI score. Results showed modulation in brain activation during passive music listening specific to MDD, frequent MJ users. This supports the suggestion that frequent MJ use, when combined with MDD, is associated with changes in neurocircuitry involved in reward-processing in ways that are absent with either frequent marijuana use or MDD alone. This could help inform clinical recommendations for youth with

  8. Implicit affectivity and rapid processing of affective body language: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslow, Thomas; Ihme, Klas; Quirin, Markus; Lichev, Vladimir; Rosenberg, Nicole; Bauer, Jochen; Bomberg, Luise; Kersting, Anette; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Lobsien, Donald

    2015-10-01

    Previous research has revealed affect-congruity effects for the recognition of affects from faces. Little is known about the impact of affect on the perception of body language. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of implicit (versus explicit) affectivity with the recognition of briefly presented affective body expressions. Implicit affectivity, which can be measured using indirect assessment methods, has been found to be more predictive of spontaneous physiological reactions than explicit (self-reported) affect. Thirty-four healthy women had to label the expression of body postures (angry, fearful, happy, or neutral) presented for 66 ms and masked by a neutral body posture in a forced-choice format while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants' implicit affectivity was assessed using the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test. Measures of explicit state and trait affectivity were also administered. Analysis of the fMRI data was focused on a subcortical network involved in the rapid perception of affective body expressions. Only implicit negative affect (but not explicit affect) was correlated with correct labeling performance for angry body posture. As expected, implicit negative affect was positively associated with activation of the subcortical network in response to fearful and angry expression (compared to neutral expression). Responses of the caudate nucleus to affective body expression were especially associated with its recognition. It appears that processes of rapid recognition of affects from body postures could be facilitated by an individual's implicit negative affect. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effects of marijuana on visuospatial working memory: an fMRI study in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andra M; Longo, Carmelinda A; Fried, Peter A; Hogan, Matthew J; Cameron, Ian

    2010-06-01

    The effects of marijuana use on visuospatial working memory were investigated in 19-21-year-olds using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were members of the Ottawa Prenatal Prospective Study, a longitudinal study that collected a unique body of information on participants from infancy to young adulthood including: prenatal drug history, detailed cognitive/behavioral performance, and current and past drug usage. This information allowed for the measurement of an unprecedented number of potentially confounding drug exposure variables including: prenatal marijuana, nicotine, alcohol, and caffeine exposure and offspring alcohol, marijuana, and nicotine use. Ten marijuana users and 14 nonusing controls performed a visuospatial 2-back task while fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent response was examined. Despite similar task performance, marijuana users had significantly greater activation in the inferior and middle frontal gyri, regions of the brain normally associated with visuospatial working memory. Marijuana users also had greater activation in the right superior temporal gyrus, a region of the brain not typically associated with visuospatial working memory tasks. These results suggest that marijuana use leads to altered neural functioning during visuospatial working memory after controlling for other prenatal and current drug use. This alteration appears to be compensated for by the recruitment of blood flow in additional brain regions. It is possible that this compensation may not be sufficient in more real-life situations where this type of processing is required and thus deficits may be observed. Awareness of these neural physiological effects of marijuana in youth is critical.

  10. Sequential neural processes in abacus mental addition: an EEG and FMRI case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixuan Ku

    Full Text Available Abacus experts are able to mentally calculate multi-digit numbers rapidly. Some behavioral and neuroimaging studies have suggested a visuospatial and visuomotor strategy during abacus mental calculation. However, no study up to now has attempted to dissociate temporally the visuospatial neural process from the visuomotor neural process during abacus mental calculation. In the present study, an abacus expert performed the mental addition tasks (8-digit and 4-digit addends presented in visual or auditory modes swiftly and accurately. The 100% correct rates in this expert's task performance were significantly higher than those of ordinary subjects performing 1-digit and 2-digit addition tasks. ERPs, EEG source localizations, and fMRI results taken together suggested visuospatial and visuomotor processes were sequentially arranged during the abacus mental addition with visual addends and could be dissociated from each other temporally. The visuospatial transformation of the numbers, in which the superior parietal lobule was most likely involved, might occur first (around 380 ms after the onset of the stimuli. The visuomotor processing, in which the superior/middle frontal gyri were most likely involved, might occur later (around 440 ms. Meanwhile, fMRI results suggested that neural networks involved in the abacus mental addition with auditory stimuli were similar to those in the visual abacus mental addition. The most prominently activated brain areas in both conditions included the bilateral superior parietal lobules (BA 7 and bilateral middle frontal gyri (BA 6. These results suggest a supra-modal brain network in abacus mental addition, which may develop from normal mental calculation networks.

  11. Sequential neural processes in abacus mental addition: an EEG and FMRI case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Yixuan; Hong, Bo; Zhou, Wenjing; Bodner, Mark; Zhou, Yong-Di

    2012-01-01

    Abacus experts are able to mentally calculate multi-digit numbers rapidly. Some behavioral and neuroimaging studies have suggested a visuospatial and visuomotor strategy during abacus mental calculation. However, no study up to now has attempted to dissociate temporally the visuospatial neural process from the visuomotor neural process during abacus mental calculation. In the present study, an abacus expert performed the mental addition tasks (8-digit and 4-digit addends presented in visual or auditory modes) swiftly and accurately. The 100% correct rates in this expert's task performance were significantly higher than those of ordinary subjects performing 1-digit and 2-digit addition tasks. ERPs, EEG source localizations, and fMRI results taken together suggested visuospatial and visuomotor processes were sequentially arranged during the abacus mental addition with visual addends and could be dissociated from each other temporally. The visuospatial transformation of the numbers, in which the superior parietal lobule was most likely involved, might occur first (around 380 ms) after the onset of the stimuli. The visuomotor processing, in which the superior/middle frontal gyri were most likely involved, might occur later (around 440 ms). Meanwhile, fMRI results suggested that neural networks involved in the abacus mental addition with auditory stimuli were similar to those in the visual abacus mental addition. The most prominently activated brain areas in both conditions included the bilateral superior parietal lobules (BA 7) and bilateral middle frontal gyri (BA 6). These results suggest a supra-modal brain network in abacus mental addition, which may develop from normal mental calculation networks.

  12. Neural bases of falsification in conditional proposition testing: evidence from an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jimei; Zhang, Meng; Jou, Jerwen; Wu, Xin; Li, Wei; Qiu, Jiang

    2012-08-01

    The ability of testing the validity of a conditional statement is important in our everyday life. However, the brain mechanisms underlying this process, especially falsification process which is important in daily life, but especially crucial to scientific reasoning and research is not as yet completely clear. Therefore, in the present study, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural bases of the falsification process in testing the validity of a conditional statement as used in Wason's (1966) selection task. Our fMRI results showed that: (1) compared with the baseline condition, both Falsification (by using Modus Ponens, and Modus Tollens) and Non-Falsification conditions (affirming the consequent, and denying the antecedent) activated the left frontal areas (BA44/45, or BA6), and basal ganglia, the areas previously found in the rule-guided conditional reasoning operations; the parietal area (BA40, BA7) for recruiting cognitive resources to represent and maintain the different evidential information in working memory. (2) The left middle frontal gyrus (BA9) and cerebellum were shown to be activated in the contrast of Falsification condition versus Non-Falsification condition and in the contrast of MT versus Non-Falsification condition. These results indicated that the left middle frontal gyrus (BA9) might be the key brain region involved in the falsification process of conditional statement for which abstracting and integrating logical relationships, and inhibiting the distraction of the irrelevant information were the essential processes. Moreover, the cerebellum was found to be responsible for constructing an internal working model. In addition, our brain imaging results might support the dual-process theory of reasoning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Stroop effect in kana and kanji scripts in native Japanese speakers: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, Emily L; Filippi, Christopher G; Newhouse, Paul A; Dumas, Julie A

    2008-11-01

    Prior research has shown that the two writing systems of the Japanese orthography are processed differently: kana (syllabic symbols) are processed like other phonetic languages such as English, while kanji (a logographic writing system) are processed like other logographic languages such as Chinese. Previous work done with the Stroop task in Japanese has shown that these differences in processing strategies create differences in Stroop effects. This study investigated the Stroop effect in kana and kanji using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the similarities and differences in brain processing between logographic and phonetic languages. Nine native Japanese speakers performed the Stroop task in both kana and kanji scripts during fMRI. Both scripts individually produced significant Stroop effects as measured by the behavioral reaction time data. The imaging data for both scripts showed brain activation in the anterior cingulate gyrus, an area involved in inhibiting automatic processing. Though behavioral data showed no significant differences between the Stroop effects in kana and kanji, there were differential areas of activation in fMRI found for each writing system. In fMRI, the Stroop task activated an area in the left inferior parietal lobule during the kana task and the left inferior frontal gyrus during the kanji task. The results of the present study suggest that the Stroop task in Japanese kana and kanji elicits differential activation in brain regions involved in conflict detection and resolution for syllabic and logographic writing systems.

  14. An Optimal Moving Horizon Estimation for Aerial Vehicular Navigation Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaid Gul, Haris; Kai, Yang Dong

    2017-03-01

    In this article, an optimal state is estimated using the moving horizon estimation technique (MHE), based on the minimizing the deterministic cost function defined for moving window with a finite number of samples at specific time interval. The optimal moving horizon observer was designed and implemented for the non-linear dynamic problem of aerial vehicle integrated navigation. The low grade commercial inertial measuring instrument (IMU) equipped with accelerometers and gyros sensors instrumented on-board in the strapdown configuration, is employed for collection of the real time experimental data. The data fusion algorithm of moving horizon estimation is realized and the results are collected from the offline algorithm testing on the Matlab software platform. Essential data processing and cleaning of data processing was conducted before algorithm application i.e. solving the multi rate sensors data synching and removing high frequency unwanted contents. Finally, the aerial vehicle dead reckoning integrated navigation was performed with recursive observer using IMU/GPS avionics. Contrary to the widely practiced extended Kalman filter results, recursive observer of MHE exhibited performance enhancement in the response and precision aspect, regardless of environmental noise and failure scenarios.

  15. Functional Topography of Human Corpus Callosum: An fMRI Mapping Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fabri, Mara; Polonara, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a topographical map of the corpus callosum (CC) has emerged from human lesion studies and from electrophysiological and anatomical tracing investigations in other mammals. Over the last few years a rising number of researchers have been reporting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation in white matter, particularly the CC. In this study the scope for describing CC topography with fMRI was explored by evoking activation through simple sensory stimulation and moto...

  16. Imaging learned fear circuitry in awake mice using fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anjanette P; Lennen, Ross J; Marshall, Ian; Jansen, Maurits A; Pernet, Cyril R; Brydges, Nichola M; Duguid, Ian C; Holmes, Megan C

    2015-09-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of learned behaviour in 'awake rodents' provides the opportunity for translational preclinical studies into the influence of pharmacological and genetic manipulations on brain function. fMRI has recently been employed to investigate learned behaviour in awake rats. Here, this methodology is translated to mice, so that future fMRI studies may exploit the vast number of genetically modified mouse lines that are available. One group of mice was conditioned to associate a flashing light (conditioned stimulus, CS) with foot shock (PG; paired group), and another group of mice received foot shock and flashing light explicitly unpaired (UG; unpaired group). The blood oxygen level-dependent signal (proxy for neuronal activation) in response to the CS was measured 24 h later in awake mice from the PG and UG using fMRI. The amygdala, implicated in fear processing, was activated to a greater degree in the PG than in the UG in response to the CS. Additionally, the nucleus accumbens was activated in the UG in response to the CS. Because the CS signalled an absence of foot shock in the UG, it is possible that this region is involved in processing the safety aspect of the CS. To conclude, the first use of fMRI to visualise brain activation in awake mice that are completing a learned emotional task is reported. This work paves the way for future preclinical fMRI studies to investigate genetic and environmental influences on brain function in transgenic mouse models of disease and aging. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. An input shaping controller enabling cranes to move without sway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, N.; Singhose, W.; Kriikku, E.

    1997-01-01

    A gantry crane at the Savannah River Technology Center was retrofitted with an Input Shaping controller. The controller intercepts the operator's pendant commands and modifies them in real time so that the crane is moved without residual sway in the suspended load. Mechanical components on the crane were modified to make the crane suitable for the anti-sway algorithm. This paper will describe the required mechanical modifications to the crane, as well as, a new form of Input Shaping that was developed for use on the crane. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the effectiveness of the new process. Several practical considerations will be discussed including a novel (patent pending) approach for making small, accurate moves without residual oscillations

  18. Pneumococcal Meningitis in an Adolescent with Fever and Foot Ache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Dias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive pneumococcal disease predominantly affects younger children, elderly, and immunocompromised patients. Pneumococcal meningitis is a particularly important form of presentation, considering its high rate of morbimortality. We present the case of a previously healthy 12-year-old adolescent male who was hospitalized due to suspicion of osteoarticular infection in his left foot. A few hours later, he developed meningeal signs, exhibiting slight pleocytosis and Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in both cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Imaging studies were inconclusive regarding the nature of the foot disorder. We considered the hypothesis of osteomyelitis of the navicular bone as the most likely, for which he completed six weeks of antibiotic therapy. There was a favorable clinical evolution, along with complete absence of osteoarticular or neurological sequelae. The relevance of this clinical case resides in the unusual presentation of invasive pneumococcal disease in this age group, as well as in the rare form of orthopedic involvement.

  19. Foot motions in manual material handling transfer tasks: a taxonomy and data from an automotive assembly plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, David W; Kirschweng, Rebecca L; Reed, Matthew P

    2009-03-01

    Ergonomic job analysis commonly applies static postural and biomechanical analysis tools to particular postures observed during manual material handling (MMH) tasks, usually focusing on the most extreme postures or those involving the highest loads. When these analyses are conducted prospectively using digital human models, accurate prediction of the foot placements is critical to realistic postural analyses. In automotive assembly jobs, workers frequently take several steps between task elements, for example, picking up a part at one location and moving to another location to place it on the vehicle. A detailed understanding of the influence of task type and task sequence on the stepping pattern is necessary to accurately predict the foot placements associated with MMH tasks. The current study examined the patterns of foot motions observed during automotive assembly tasks. Video data for 529 pickup and delivery tasks from 32 automotive assembly jobs were analysed. A minimum of five cycles was analysed for each task. The approach angle, departure angle, hand(s) used, manipulation height and patterns of footsteps were coded from the video. Object mass was identified from the job information sheet provided by the assembly plant. Three independent raters coded each video and demonstrated an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.54 for identification of the configuration of the lower extremities during terminal stance. Based on an analysis of the distribution of stepping behaviours during object transitions (pickups or deliveries), a transition classification system (TRACS) was developed. TRACS uses a compact notation to quantify the sequence of steps associated with a MMH transition. Five TRACS behaviour groups accounted for over 90% of the transition stepping behaviours observed in the assembly plant. Approximately two-thirds (68.4%) of the object transfers observed were performed with only one foot in contact with the ground during the terminal posture. The

  20. A basic study on quantitative evaluation of 3-dimensional foot contact with an inertial sensor for FES foot drop correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotani, Maho; Watanabe, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    In these days, FES is used to control ankle dorsiflexion of hemiplegic gait. Since not only dorsiflexion but also 3-dimensional foot contact isimportant for gait stability in hemiplegic gait, evaluation and control system of 3-dimensional foot contact with FES is needed to correct foot movement. In this study, the timing of initial contact and the timing when foot movement became stationary in the sagittal plane were detected, and the inclination angles in the sagittal and the frontal planes at these timings were used for evaluation. Using the inclination angles, 10 m walking of a hemiplegic subject under the 4 different gait conditions were quantitatively evaluated. The gait conditions were without FES, stimulation to the tibialis anterior, stimulation to the common peroneal nerve, and stimulation to both the tibialis anterior and the common peroneal nerve. Result of evaluation with the inclination angles showed that stimulation to the tibialis anterior could control foot contact appropriately in the sagittal plane, and stimulation to the common peroneal nerve was better to control foot inclination angle in the frontal plane. Inclination angle at the beginning of the stance phase indicated that FES system which used in clinical site commonly is not appropriate to control 3-dimensional foot contact. It was shown that inclination angle at the beginning of the stance phase was useful to evaluate 3-dimensional foot movements for FES foot drop correction.

  1. Abnormal Social Reward Responses in Anorexia Nervosa: An fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Via

    Full Text Available Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN display impaired social interactions, implicated in the development and prognosis of the disorder. Importantly, social behavior is modulated by reward-based processes, and dysfunctional at-brain-level reward responses have been involved in AN neurobiological models. However, no prior evidence exists of whether these neural alterations would be equally present in social contexts. In this study, we conducted a cross-sectional social-judgment functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study of 20 restrictive-subtype AN patients and 20 matched healthy controls. Brain activity during acceptance and rejection was investigated and correlated with severity measures (Eating Disorder Inventory -EDI-2 and with personality traits of interest known to modulate social behavior (The Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire. Patients showed hypoactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC during social acceptance and hyperactivation of visual areas during social rejection. Ventral striatum activation during rejection was positively correlated in patients with clinical severity scores. During acceptance, activation of the frontal opercula-anterior insula and dorsomedial/dorsolateral prefrontal cortices was differentially associated with reward sensitivity between groups. These results suggest an abnormal motivational drive for social stimuli, and involve overlapping social cognition and reward systems leading to a disruption of adaptive responses in the processing of social reward. The specific association of reward-related regions with clinical and psychometric measures suggests the putative involvement of reward structures in the maintenance of pathological behaviors in AN.

  2. Resting-State Seed-Based Analysis: An Alternative to Task-Based Language fMRI and Its Laterality Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, K A; Arun, K M; Rajesh, P G; Thomas, B; Kesavadas, C

    2017-06-01

    Language is a cardinal function that makes human unique. Preservation of language function poses a great challenge for surgeons during resection. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of resting-state fMRI in the lateralization of language function in healthy subjects to permit its further testing in patients who are unable to perform task-based fMRI. Eighteen healthy right-handed volunteers were prospectively evaluated with resting-state fMRI and task-based fMRI to assess language networks. The laterality indices of Broca and Wernicke areas were calculated by using task-based fMRI via a voxel-value approach. We adopted seed-based resting-state fMRI connectivity analysis together with parameters such as amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation and fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF). Resting-state fMRI connectivity maps for language networks were obtained from Broca and Wernicke areas in both hemispheres. We performed correlation analysis between the laterality index and the z scores of functional connectivity, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, and fALFF. Pearson correlation analysis between signals obtained from the z score of fALFF and the laterality index yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.849 ( P laterality index yielded an R 2 value of 0.721, indicating that 72.1% of the variance in the laterality index of task-based fMRI could be predicted from the fALFF of resting-state fMRI. The present study demonstrates that fALFF can be used as an alternative to task-based fMRI for assessing language laterality. There was a strong positive correlation between the fALFF of the Broca area of resting-state fMRI with the laterality index of task-based fMRI. Furthermore, we demonstrated the efficacy of fALFF for predicting the laterality of task-based fMRI. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  3. Impaired sense of agency in functional movement disorders: An fMRI study.

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    Fatta B Nahab

    Full Text Available The sense of agency (SA is an established framework that refers to our ability to exert and perceive control over our own actions. Having an intact SA provides the basis for the human perception of voluntariness, while impairments in SA are hypothesized to lead to the perception of movements being involuntary that may be seen many neurological or psychiatric disorders. Individuals with functional movement disorders (FMD experience a lack of control over their movements, yet these movements appear voluntary by physiology. We used fMRI to explore whether alterations in SA in an FMD population could explain why these patients feel their movements are involuntary. We compared the FMD group to a control group that was previously collected using an ecologically valid, virtual-reality movement paradigm that could modulate SA. We found selective dysfunction of the SA neural network, whereby the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and pre-supplementary motor area on the right did not respond differentially to the loss of movement control. These findings provide some of the strongest evidence to date for a physiological basis underlying these disabling disorders.

  4. Reducing length of stay for acute diabetic foot episodes: employing an extended scope of practice podiatric high-risk foot coordinator in an acute foundation trust hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichero, Matthew J; Bower, Virginia M; Walsh, Tom P; Yates, Ben J

    2013-12-11

    To enhance the acute management of people with diabetic foot disease requiring admission, an extended scope of practice, podiatric high-risk foot coordinator position, was established at the Great Western Hospital, Swindon in 2010. The focus of this new role was to facilitate more efficient and timely management of people with complex diabetic foot disease. The aim of this project was to investigate the impact of the podiatric high-risk foot coordinator role on length of stay, rate of re-admission and bed cost. This study evaluated the difference in length of stay and rate of re-admission between an 11- month pre-pilot period (November 2008 to October 2009) and a 10-month pilot period (August 2010 to June 2011). The estimated difference in bed cost between the pre-pilot and pilot audits was also calculated. Inclusion criteria were restricted to inpatients admitted with a diabetic foot ulcer, gangrene, cellulitis or infection as the primary cause for admission. Eligible records were retrieved using ICD-10 (V9) coding via the hospital clinical audit department for the pre-pilot period and a unique database was used to source records for the pilot phase. Following the introduction of the podiatric high-risk foot coordinator, the average length of stay reduced from 33.7 days to 23.3 days (mean difference 10.4 days, 95% CI 0.0 to 20.8, p = 0.050). There was no statistically significant difference in re-admission rate between the two study periods, 17.2% (95% CI 12.2% to 23.9%) in the pre-pilot phase and 15.4% (95% CI 12.0% to 19.5%) in the pilot phase (p = 0.820). The extrapolated annual cost saving following the implementation of the new coordinator role was calculated to be £234,000 for the 2010/2011 year. This audit found that the extended scope of practice coordinator role may have a positive impact on reducing length of stay for diabetic foot admissions. This paper advocates the role of a podiatric high-risk foot coordinator utilising an extended scope of

  5. Motor Imagery as a Function of Disease Severity in Multiple Sclerosis: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Tacchino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor imagery (MI is defined as mental execution without any actual movement. While healthy adults usually show temporal equivalence, i.e., isochrony, between the mental simulation of an action and its actual performance, neurological disorders are associated with anisochrony. Unlike in patients with stroke and Parkinson disease, only a few studies have investigated differences of MI ability in multiple sclerosis (MS. However, the relationship among disease severity, anisochrony and brain activation patterns during MI has not been investigated yet. Here, we propose to investigate MI in MS patients using fMRI during a behavioral task executed with dominant/non-dominant hand and to evaluate whether anisochrony is associated with disease severity. Thirty-seven right-handed MS patients, 17 with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS suggestive of MS and 20 with relapsing-remitting MS (RR-MS and 20 right-handed healthy controls (HC underwent fMRI during a motor task consisting in the actual or imaged movement of squeezing a foam ball with the dominant and non-dominant hand. The same tasks were performed outside the MRI room to record the number of actual and imagined ball squeezes, and calculate an Index of performance (IP based on the ratio between actual and imagined movements. IP showed that a progressive loss of ability in simulating actions (i.e., anisochrony more pronounced for non-dominant hand, was found as function of the disease course. Moreover, anisochrony was associated with activation of occipito-parieto-frontal areas that were more extensive at the early stages of the disease, probably in order to counteract the changes due to MS. However, the neural engagement of compensatory brain areas becomes more difficult with more challenging tasks, i.e., dominant vs. non-dominant hand, with a consequent deficit in behavioral performance. These results show a strict association between MI performance and disease severity, suggesting that, at early

  6. An improved local remeshing algorithm for moving boundary problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjing Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three issues are tackled in this study to improve the robustness of local remeshing techniques. Firstly, the local remeshing region (hereafter referred to as ‘hole’ is initialized by removing low-quality elements and then continuously expanded until a certain element quality is reached after remeshing. The effect of the number of the expansion cycle on the hole size and element quality after remeshing is experimentally analyzed. Secondly, the grid sources for element size control are attached to moving bodies and will move along with their host bodies to ensure reasonable grid resolution inside the hole. Thirdly, the boundary recovery procedure of a Delaunay grid generation approach is enhanced by a new grid topology transformation technique (namely shell transformation so that the new grid created inside the hole is therefore free of elements of extremely deformed/skewed shape, whilst also respecting the hole boundary. The proposed local remeshing algorithm has been integrated with an in-house unstructured grid-based simulation system for solving moving boundary problems. The robustness and accuracy of the developed local remeshing technique are successfully demonstrated via industry-scale applications for complex flow simulations.

  7. Brain activity during driving with distraction: an immersive fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom A Schweizer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-invasive measurements of brain activity have an important role to play in understanding driving ability. The current study aimed to identify the neural underpinnings of human driving behavior by visualizing the areas of the brain involved in driving under different levels of demand, such as driving while distracted or making left turns at busy intersections. Methods: To capture brain activity during driving, we placed a driving simulator with a fully functional steering wheel and pedals in a 3.0 Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI system. To identify the brain areas involved while performing different real-world driving maneuvers, participants completed tasks ranging from simple (right turns to more complex (left turns at busy intersections. To assess the effects of driving while distracted, participants were asked to perform an auditory task while driving analogous to speaking on a hands-free device and driving. Results: A widely distributed brain network was identified, especially when making left turns at busy intersections compared to more simple driving tasks. During distracted driving, brain activation shifted dramatically from the posterior, visual and spatial areas to the prefrontal cortex. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the distracted brain sacrificed areas in the posterior brain important for visual attention and alertness to recruit enough brain resources to perform a secondary, cognitive task. The present findings offer important new insights into the scientific understanding of the neuro-cognitive mechanisms of driving behavior and lay down an important foundation for future clinical research.

  8. Planus Foot Posture and Pronated Foot Function are Associated with Foot Pain: The Framingham Foot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Riskowski, Jody L.; Hillstrom, Howard J.; Hannan, Marian T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations of foot posture and foot function to foot pain. Methods Data were collected on 3,378 members of the Framingham Study who completed foot examinations in 2002–2008. Foot pain (generalized and at six locations) was based on the response to the question “On most days, do you have pain, aching or stiffness in either foot?” Foot posture was categorized as normal, planus or cavus using static pressure measurements of the arch index. Foot function was categorized as normal, pronated or supinated using the center of pressure excursion index from dynamic pressure measurements. Sex-specific multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the effect of foot posture and function on generalized and location-specific foot pain, adjusting for age and weight. Results Planus foot posture was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of arch pain in men (odds ratio [OR] 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 – 1.90), while cavus foot posture was protective against ball of foot pain (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55 – 1.00) and arch pain (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.48 – 0.85) in women. Pronated foot function was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of generalized foot pain (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.04 – 1.56) and heel pain (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.04 – 2.27) in men, while supinated foot function was protective against hindfoot pain in women (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55 – 1.00). Conclusion Planus foot posture and pronated foot function are associated with foot symptoms. Interventions that modify abnormal foot posture and function may therefore have a role in the prevention and treatment of foot pain. PMID:23861176

  9. Association of planus foot posture and pronated foot function with foot pain: the Framingham foot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Dufour, Alyssa B; Riskowski, Jody L; Hillstrom, Howard J; Hannan, Marian T

    2013-12-01

    To examine the associations of foot posture and foot function to foot pain. Data were collected on 3,378 members of the Framingham Study cohort who completed foot examinations in 2002-2008. Foot pain (generalized and at 6 locations) was based on the response to the following question: "On most days, do you have pain, aching or stiffness in either foot?" Foot posture was categorized as normal, planus, or cavus using static pressure measurements of the arch index. Foot function was categorized as normal, pronated, or supinated using the center of pressure excursion index from dynamic pressure measurements. Sex-specific multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the effect of foot posture and function on generalized and location-specific foot pain, adjusting for age and weight. Planus foot posture was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of arch pain in men (odds ratio [OR] 1.38, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.01-1.90), while cavus foot posture was protective against ball of foot pain (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55-1.00) and arch pain (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.48-0.85) in women. Pronated foot function was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of generalized foot pain (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.04-1.56) and heel pain (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.04-2.27) in men, while supinated foot function was protective against hindfoot pain in women (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55-1.00). Planus foot posture and pronated foot function are associated with foot symptoms. Interventions that modify abnormal foot posture and function may therefore have a role in the prevention and treatment of foot pain. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  10. An Updated Survey on Statistical Thresholding and Sample Size of fMRI Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy W. K. Yeung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the early 2010s, the neuroimaging field has paid more attention to the issue of false positives. Several journals have issued guidelines regarding statistical thresholds. Three papers have reported the statistical analysis of the thresholds used in fMRI literature, but they were published at least 3 years ago and surveyed papers published during 2007–2012. This study revisited this topic to evaluate the changes in this field.Methods: The PubMed database was searched to identify the task-based (not resting-state fMRI papers published in 2017 and record their sample sizes, inferential methods (e.g., voxelwise or clusterwise, theoretical methods (e.g., parametric or non-parametric, significance level, cluster-defining primary threshold (CDT, volume of analysis (whole brain or region of interest and software used.Results: The majority (95.6% of the 388 analyzed articles reported statistics corrected for multiple comparisons. A large proportion (69.6% of the 388 articles reported main results by clusterwise inference. The analyzed articles mostly used software Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM, Analysis of Functional NeuroImages (AFNI, or FMRIB Software Library (FSL to conduct statistical analysis. There were 70.9%, 37.6%, and 23.1% of SPM, AFNI, and FSL studies, respectively, that used a CDT of p ≤ 0.001. The statistical sample size across the articles ranged between 7 and 1,299 with a median of 33. Sample size did not significantly correlate with the level of statistical threshold.Conclusion: There were still around 53% (142/270 studies using clusterwise inference that chose a more liberal CDT than p = 0.001 (n = 121 or did not report their CDT (n = 21, down from around 61% reported by Woo et al. (2014. For FSL studies, it seemed that the CDT practice had no improvement since the survey by Woo et al. (2014. A few studies chose unconventional CDT such as p = 0.0125 or 0.004. Such practice might create an impression that the

  11. On neural correlates of individual differences in novel grammar learning: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepinska, Olga; de Rover, Mischa; Caspers, Johanneke; Schiller, Niels O

    2017-04-01

    We examine the role of language analytical ability, one of the components of language aptitude - a specific ability for learning languages - during acquisition of a novel grammar. We investigated whether the neural basis of Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL) differs between populations of highly and moderately skilled learners. Participants performed an AGL task during an fMRI scan and data from task's test phases were analysed. Highly skilled learners performed better than moderately skilled ones and engaged during the task more neural resources in the right hemisphere, i.e. in the right angular/supramarginal gyrus and superior frontal and middle frontal gyrus and in the posterior cingulate gyrus. Additional analyses investigating the temporal dynamics of brain activity during learning revealed lateralisation differences in the modulation of activity in the parietal and temporal cortex. In particular, the left angular gyrus BOLD activity was coupled with high performance on the AGL task and with a steep learning curve. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Music and Language Syntax Interact in Broca's Area: An fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kunert

    Full Text Available Instrumental music and language are both syntactic systems, employing complex, hierarchically-structured sequences built using implicit structural norms. This organization allows listeners to understand the role of individual words or tones in the context of an unfolding sentence or melody. Previous studies suggest that the brain mechanisms of syntactic processing may be partly shared between music and language. However, functional neuroimaging evidence for anatomical overlap of brain activity involved in linguistic and musical syntactic processing has been lacking. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in conjunction with an interference paradigm based on sung sentences. We show that the processing demands of musical syntax (harmony and language syntax interact in Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus (without leading to music and language main effects. A language main effect in Broca's area only emerged in the complex music harmony condition, suggesting that (with our stimuli and tasks a language effect only becomes visible under conditions of increased demands on shared neural resources. In contrast to previous studies, our design allows us to rule out that the observed neural interaction is due to: (1 general attention mechanisms, as a psychoacoustic auditory anomaly behaved unlike the harmonic manipulation, (2 error processing, as the language and the music stimuli contained no structural errors. The current results thus suggest that two different cognitive domains-music and language-might draw on the same high level syntactic integration resources in Broca's area.

  13. An fMRI study on the influence of sommeliers’ expertise on the integration of flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel ePazart

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flavors guide consumers' choice of foodstuffs, preferring those that they like and meet their needs, and dismissing those for which they have a conditioned aversion. Flavor affects the learning and consumption of foods and drinks; what is already well-known is favored and what is new is apprehended. The flavor of foodstuffs is also crucial in explaining some eating behaviors such as overconsumption. The blind taste test of wine is a good model for assessing the ability of people to convert mouth feelings into flavor. To determine the relative importance of memory and sensory capabilities, we present the results of an fMRI neuro-imaging study involving 10 experts and 10 matched control subjects using wine as a stimulus in a blind taste test, focusing primarily on the assessment of flavor integration.The results revealed activations in the brain areas involved in sensory integration, both in experts and control subjects (insula, frontal operculum, orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala. However, experts were mainly characterized by a more immediate and targeted sensory reaction to wine stimulation with an economic mechanism reducing effort than control subjects. Wine experts showed brainstem and left-hemispheric activations in the hippocampal and parahippocampal formations and the temporal pole, whereas control subjects showed activations in different associative cortices, predominantly in the right hemisphere. These results also confirm that wine experts work simultaneously on sensory quality assessment and on label recognition of wine.

  14. Old Proverbs in new Skins – An fMRI Study on Defamiliarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C Bohrn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how processing fluency and defamiliarization contribute to the affective and aesthetic processing of reading in an event-related fMRI experiment with 26 participants. We compared the neural correlates of processing (a familiar German proverbs, (b unfamiliar proverbs, (c twisted variations which altered the concept of the original proverb (anti-proverbs, (d variations with incorrect wording but the same concept as the original proverb (violated proverbs, and (e non-rhetorical sentences. We report processing differences between anti-proverbs and violated proverbs. Anti-proverbs triggered a process of affective evaluation relying on self-referential thinking and semantic memory in contrast to violated proverbs, which recruited the frontotemporal attention and error detection network. In consistence with the coarse semantic coding theory, proverb familiarity affected lateralization: relative to non-rhetorical sentences highly familiar proverbs activated the left parahippocampal gyrus, whereas unfamiliar proverbs activated an extensive network, covering bilateral frontotemporal cortex. Despite affective processing being enhanced for anti-proverbs, familiar proverbs received the highest beauty ratings. Effects of familiarity and defamiliarization on the aesthetic perception of literature will be discussed.

  15. Music and Language Syntax Interact in Broca's Area: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, Richard; Willems, Roel M; Casasanto, Daniel; Patel, Aniruddh D; Hagoort, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental music and language are both syntactic systems, employing complex, hierarchically-structured sequences built using implicit structural norms. This organization allows listeners to understand the role of individual words or tones in the context of an unfolding sentence or melody. Previous studies suggest that the brain mechanisms of syntactic processing may be partly shared between music and language. However, functional neuroimaging evidence for anatomical overlap of brain activity involved in linguistic and musical syntactic processing has been lacking. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in conjunction with an interference paradigm based on sung sentences. We show that the processing demands of musical syntax (harmony) and language syntax interact in Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus (without leading to music and language main effects). A language main effect in Broca's area only emerged in the complex music harmony condition, suggesting that (with our stimuli and tasks) a language effect only becomes visible under conditions of increased demands on shared neural resources. In contrast to previous studies, our design allows us to rule out that the observed neural interaction is due to: (1) general attention mechanisms, as a psychoacoustic auditory anomaly behaved unlike the harmonic manipulation, (2) error processing, as the language and the music stimuli contained no structural errors. The current results thus suggest that two different cognitive domains-music and language-might draw on the same high level syntactic integration resources in Broca's area.

  16. An fMRI investigation of expectation violation in magic tricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amory H. Danek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Magic tricks violate the expected causal relationships that form an implicit belief system about what is possible in the world around us. Observing a magic effect seemingly invalidates our implicit assumptions about what action causes which outcome. We aimed at identifying the neural correlates of such expectation violations by contrasting 24 video clips of magic tricks with 24 control clips in which the expected action-outcome relationship is upheld. Using fMRI, we measured the brain activity of 25 normal volunteers while they watched the clips in the scanner. Additionally, we measured the professional magician who had performed the magic tricks under the assumption that, in contrast to naïve observers, the magician himself would not perceive his own magic tricks as an expectation violation. As the main effect of magic – control clips in the normal sample, we found higher activity for magic in the head of the caudate nucleus bilaterally, the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left anterior insula. As expected, the magician’s brain activity substantially differed from these results, with mainly parietal areas (supramarginal gyrus bilaterally activated, supporting our hypothesis that he did not experience any expectation violation. These findings are in accordance with previous research that has implicated the head of the caudate nucleus in processing changes in the contingency between action and outcome, even in the absence of reward or feedback.

  17. An fMRI investigation of expectation violation in magic tricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danek, Amory H; Öllinger, Michael; Fraps, Thomas; Grothe, Benedikt; Flanagin, Virginia L

    2015-01-01

    Magic tricks violate the expected causal relationships that form an implicit belief system about what is possible in the world around us. Observing a magic effect seemingly invalidates our implicit assumptions about what action causes which outcome. We aimed at identifying the neural correlates of such expectation violations by contrasting 24 video clips of magic tricks with 24 control clips in which the expected action-outcome relationship is upheld. Using fMRI, we measured the brain activity of 25 normal volunteers while they watched the clips in the scanner. Additionally, we measured the professional magician who had performed the magic tricks under the assumption that, in contrast to naïve observers, the magician himself would not perceive his own magic tricks as an expectation violation. As the main effect of magic - control clips in the normal sample, we found higher activity for magic in the head of the caudate nucleus (CN) bilaterally, the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left anterior insula. As expected, the magician's brain activity substantially differed from these results, with mainly parietal areas (supramarginal gyrus bilaterally) activated, supporting our hypothesis that he did not experience any expectation violation. These findings are in accordance with previous research that has implicated the head of the CN in processing changes in the contingency between action and outcome, even in the absence of reward or feedback.

  18. Training in the adolescent brain: An fMRI training study on divergent thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleibeuker, Sietske W; Stevenson, Claire E; van der Aar, Laura; Overgaauw, Sandy; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C; Crone, Eveline A

    2017-02-01

    Prior research suggests that adolescence is a time of enhanced sensitivity for practice and learning. In this study we tested the neural correlates of divergent thinking training in 15- to 16-year-old adolescents relative to an age-matched active control group. All participants performed an alternative uses task, a valid measure to test divergent thinking, while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) images were acquired before and after a training program. In between the 2 scanning sessions the experimental group completed 2 weeks of divergent thinking training (8 sessions) and the control group completed 2 weeks of rule switching training (8 session). A Group × Time interaction demonstrated stable divergent thinking performance for the experimental group, whereas in the control group performance declined. Generating alternative uses (experimental task condition) relative to generating ordinary characteristics of objects (control task condition) was associated with increased activation in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG), angular gyrus (AG), and middle temporal gyrus (MTG). Test-retest analyses showed that within-individuals-activation in these regions was stable over time in both groups. Changes in alternative uses fluency over time, however, were positively associated with changes in superior lateral PFC activation over time. Together, the results indicate that core brain regions for creativity (SMG, AG, and MTG) are consistently recruited in adolescence, and that changes in performance are associated with changes in activation in lateral PFC. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Music and Language Syntax Interact in Broca’s Area: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, Richard; Willems, Roel M.; Casasanto, Daniel; Patel, Aniruddh D.; Hagoort, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental music and language are both syntactic systems, employing complex, hierarchically-structured sequences built using implicit structural norms. This organization allows listeners to understand the role of individual words or tones in the context of an unfolding sentence or melody. Previous studies suggest that the brain mechanisms of syntactic processing may be partly shared between music and language. However, functional neuroimaging evidence for anatomical overlap of brain activity involved in linguistic and musical syntactic processing has been lacking. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in conjunction with an interference paradigm based on sung sentences. We show that the processing demands of musical syntax (harmony) and language syntax interact in Broca’s area in the left inferior frontal gyrus (without leading to music and language main effects). A language main effect in Broca’s area only emerged in the complex music harmony condition, suggesting that (with our stimuli and tasks) a language effect only becomes visible under conditions of increased demands on shared neural resources. In contrast to previous studies, our design allows us to rule out that the observed neural interaction is due to: (1) general attention mechanisms, as a psychoacoustic auditory anomaly behaved unlike the harmonic manipulation, (2) error processing, as the language and the music stimuli contained no structural errors. The current results thus suggest that two different cognitive domains—music and language—might draw on the same high level syntactic integration resources in Broca’s area. PMID:26536026

  20. Diabetic Foot

    OpenAIRE

    Halil Akbulut; Umit Aydogan; Y. Cetin Doganer

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is a multisystemic disease progressively seen more frequently in the general population. Diabetes foot, seen in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus, is a frequent result of improper foot care and requires long and serious treatment. The disease plays an important role in terms of public health and can be a cause for high morbidity and mortality rates. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(4.000): 375-382

  1. Mycetoma foot

    OpenAIRE

    Gooptu, Somnath; Ali, Iqbal; Singh, Gurjit; Mishra, R. N.

    2013-01-01

    Mycetoma is an uncommon chronic granulomatous infective disease of the skin, dermis and subcutaneous tissues predominantly seen in tropical countries. A patient presented to our hospital with the swelling of the left foot with a healed sinus and a painful nodule. He gave a history of sinuses in the left foot from which there was discharge of yellow granules. Culture of the ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology of the nodule revealed growths of Nocardia species. The patient was tre...

  2. Club foot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell, V; Damborg, F; Andersen, M

    2006-01-01

    The aetiology of congenital club foot is unclear. Although studies on populations, families and twins suggest a genetic component, the mode of inheritance does not comply with distinctive patterns. The Odense-based Danish Twin Registry contains data on all 73,000 twin pairs born in Denmark over...... the last 130 years. In 2002 all 46 418 twins born between 1931 and 1982 received a 17-page questionnaire, one question of which was 'Were you born with club foot?' A total of 94 twins answered 'Yes', giving an overall self-reported prevalence of congenital club foot of 0.0027 (95% confidence interval (CI.......09 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.32) for DZss and 0.05 (95% CI 0.006 to 0.18) for all dizygotic (DZtot) twins. We have found evidence of a genetic component in congenital club foot, although non-genetic factors must play a predominant role....

  3. Movements and survival of black-footed ferrets associated with an experimental translocation in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, D.E.; Godbey, J.L.; Horton, B.M.; Livieri, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) apparently were extirpated from all native habitats by 1987, and their repatriation requires a combination of captive breeding, reintroductions, and translocations among sites. Improvements in survival rates of released ferrets have resulted from experience in quasi-natural environments during their rearing. Reestablishment of a self-sustaining wild population by 1999 provided the 1st opportunity to initiate new populations by translocating wild-born individuals. Using radiotelemetry, we compared behaviors and survival of 18 translocated wild-born ferrets and 18 pen-experienced captive-born ferrets after their release into a prairie dog colony not occupied previously by ferrets. Translocated wild-born ferrets moved significantly less and had significantly higher short-term survival rates than their captive-born counterparts. Using markrecapture methods, we also assessed potential impacts to the established donor population of removing 37% of its estimated annual production of kits. Annual survival rates for 30 ferret kits remaining at the donor subcomplex were higher than rates for 54 ferret kits at the control subcomplex (unmanipulated) for males (+82%) and females (+32%). Minimum survival of translocated kits did not differ significantly from survival of those at the control subcomplex. Direct translocation of young, wild-born ferrets from site to site appears to be an efficient method to establish new populations. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  4. Chemosensory anxiety cues enhance the perception of fearful faces - An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wudarczyk, Olga A; Kohn, Nils; Bergs, Rene; Goerlich, Katharina S; Gur, Raquel E; Turetsky, Bruce; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2016-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that humans can communicate emotion via chemosensory signals. Olfactory cues signaling anxiety can bias the perception of ambiguous stimuli, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of this effect are currently unknown. Here, we investigated the brain responses to subtle changes in facial expressions in response to anxiety chemosensory cues. Ten healthy individuals donated their sweat in two situations: while anticipating an important oral examination (anxiety condition) and during physical exercise (control condition). Subsequently, 24 participants completed a parametrically morphed (neutral to fearful) emotion recognition task under exposure to the olfactory cues of anxiety and sports, in the fMRI scanner. Behaviorally, the participants rated more discernible fearful faces as more fearful and neutral faces as more neutral under exposure to the anxiety cues. For brain response, under exposure to the anxiety cues, increased fearfulness of the face corresponded to increased activity in the left insula and the left middle occipital gyrus extending into fusiform gyrus. Moreover, with higher subjective ratings of facial fearfulness, participants additionally showed increased activity in the left hippocampus. These results suggest that chemosensory anxiety cues facilitate processing of socially relevant fearful stimuli and boost memory retrieval due to enhanced emotional context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. How verbal and spatial manipulation networks contribute to calculation: An fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zago, L.; Petit, L.; Turbelin, M.R.; Anderson, F.; Vigneau, M.; Tzourio-Mazoyer, N. [Univ Paris 05, Univ Caen Basse Normandie, CEA, DSV, CNRS, CI NAPSUMR 6232, Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    The manipulation of numbers required during calculation is known to rely on working memory (WM) resources. Here, we investigated the respective contributions of verbal and/or spatial WM manipulation brain networks during the addition of four numbers performed by adults, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Both manipulation and maintenance tasks were proposed with syllables, locations, or two-digit numbers. As compared to their maintenance, numbers manipulation (addition) elicited increased activation within a widespread cortical network including inferior temporal, parietal, and prefrontal regions. Our results demonstrate that mastery of arithmetic calculation requires the cooperation of three WM manipulation systems: an executive manipulation system conjointly recruited by the three manipulation tasks, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the orbital part of the inferior frontal gyrus, and the caudate nuclei; a left-lateralized, language-related, inferior fronto-temporal system elicited by numbers and syllables manipulation tasks required for retrieval, selection, and association of symbolic information; and a right superior and posterior fronto-parietal system elicited by numbers and locations manipulation tasks for spatial WM and attentional processes. Our results provide new information that the anterior intra-parietal sulcus (IPS) is involved in tasks requiring a magnitude processing with symbolic (numbers) and non-symbolic (locations) stimuli. Furthermore, the specificity of arithmetic processing is mediated by a left-hemispheric specialization of the anterior and posterior parts of the IPS as compared to a spatial task involving magnitude processing with non-symbolic material. (authors)

  6. Are batterers different from other criminals? An fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo-Román, Juan; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Carmona-Perera, Martina; Pérez-García, Miguel; Hidalgo-Ruzzante, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a complex and global phenomenon that requires a multi-perspective analysis. Nevertheless, the number of neuroscientific studies conducted on this issue is scarce as compared with studies of other types of violence, and no neuroimaging studies comparing batterers to other criminals have been conducted. Thus, the main aim of this study was to compare the brain functioning of batterers to that of other criminals when they are exposed to IPV or general violence pictures. An fMRI study was conducted in 21 batterers and 20 other criminals while they observed IPV images (IPVI), general violence images (GVI) and neutral images (NI). Results demonstrated that batterers, compared with other criminals, exhibited a higher activation in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex and in the middle prefrontal cortex and a decreased activation in the superior prefrontal cortex to IPVI compared to NI. The paired t-test comparison between IPVI and GVI for each group showed engagement of the medial prefrontal cortex, the posterior cingulate and the left angular cortices to IPVI in the batterer group only. These results could have important implications for a better understanding of the IPV phenomenon. PMID:26884544

  7. Left lateralization in autobiographical memory: an fMRI study using the expert archival paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campitelli, Guillermo; Parker, Amanda; Head, Kay; Gobet, Fernand

    2008-02-01

    In brain-imaging and behavioral research, studies of autobiographical memory have higher ecological validity than controlled laboratory memory studies. However, they also have less controllability over the variables investigated. This article presents a novel technique - the expert archival paradigm - that increases controllability while maintaining ecological validity. Stimuli were created from games played by two international-level chess masters. The two players were asked to perform a memory task with stimuli generated from their own games and stimuli generated from other players' games while they were scanned using fMRI. The study found a left lateralized pattern of brain activity that was very similar in both masters. The brain areas activated were the left temporo-parietal junction and left frontal areas. The expert archival paradigm has the advantage of not requiring an interview to assess the participants' autobiographical memories, and affords the possibility of measuring their accuracy of remembering as well as their brain activity related to remote and recent memories. It can also be used in any field of expertise, including arts, sciences, and sports, in which archival data are available.

  8. Are autobiographical memories inherently social? Evidence from an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Wilbers

    Full Text Available The story of our lifetime - our narrative self - is constructed from our autobiographical memories. A central claim of social psychology is that this narrative self is inherently social: When we construct our lives, we do so in a real or imagined interaction. This predicts that self-referential processes which are involved in recall of autobiographical memories overlap with processes involved in social interactions. Indeed, previous functional MRI studies indicate that regions in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC are activated during autobiographical memory recall and virtual communication. However, no fMRI study has investigated recall of autobiographical memories in a real-life interaction. We developed a novel paradigm in which participants overtly reported self-related and other-related memories to an experimenter, whose non-verbal reactions were being filmed and online displayed to the participants in the scanner. We found that recall of autobiographical vs. non-autobiographical memories was associated with activation of the mPFC, as was recall in the social as compared to a non-social control condition; however, both contrasts involved different non-overlapping regions within the mPFC. These results indicate that self-referential processes involved in autobiographical memory recall are different from processes supporting social interactions, and argue against the hypothesis that autobiographical memories are inherently social.

  9. An fMRI investigation of the cultural specificity of music memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Steven J.; Stambaugh, Laura A.; Beken, Münir; Richards, Todd L.; Johnson, Clark

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the role of culture in shaping music perception and memory. We tested the hypothesis that listeners demonstrate different patterns of activation associated with music processing—particularly right frontal cortex—when encoding and retrieving culturally familiar and unfamiliar stimuli, with the latter evoking broader activation consistent with more complex memory tasks. Subjects (n = 16) were right-handed adults born and raised in the USA (n = 8) or Turkey (n = 8) with minimal music training. Using fMRI procedures, we scanned subjects during two tasks: (i) listening to novel musical examples from their own culture and an unfamiliar culture and (ii) identifying which among a series of brief excerpts were taken from the longer examples. Both groups were more successful remembering music of their home culture. We found greater activation for culturally unfamiliar music listening in the left cerebellar region, right angular gyrus, posterior precuneus and right middle frontal area extending into the inferior frontal cortex. Subjects demonstrated greater activation in the cingulate gyrus and right lingual gyrus when engaged in recall of culturally unfamiliar music. This study provides evidence for the influence of culture on music perception and memory performance at both a behavioral and neurological level. PMID:20035018

  10. Acupuncture induce the different modulation patterns of the default mode network: an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie; Zhang, Yi

    2009-02-01

    According to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory and certain clinical treatment reports, the sustained effects of acupuncture indeed exist, which may last several minutes or hours. Furthermore, increased attention has fallen on the sustained effects of acupuncture. Recently, it is reported that the sustained acupuncture effects may alter the default mode network (DMN). It raises interesting questions: whether the modulations of acupuncture effects to the DMN are still detected at other acupoints and whether the modulation patterns are different induced by different acupoints. In the present study, we wanted to investigate the questions. An experiment fMRI design was carried out on 36 subjects with the electroacupuncture stimulation (EAS) at the three acupoints: Guangming (GB37), Kunlun (BL60) and Jiaoxin (KI8) on the left leg. The data sets were analyzed by a data driven method named independent component analysis (ICA). The results indicated that the three acupoints stimulations may modulate the DMN. Moreover, the modulation patterns were distinct. We suggest the different modulation patterns on the DMN may attribute to the distinct functional effects of acupoints.

  11. Situation and person attributions under spontaneous and intentional instructions: an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestemont, Jenny; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Ma, Ning; Van Hoeck, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research explores how observers make causal beliefs about an event in terms of the person or situation. Thirty-four participants read various short descriptions of social events that implied either the person or the situation as the cause. Half of them were explicitly instructed to judge whether the event was caused by something about the person or the situation (intentional inferences), whereas the other half was instructed simply to read the material carefully (spontaneous inferences). The results showed common activation in areas related to mentalizing, across all types of causes or instructions (posterior superior temporal sulcus, temporo-parietal junction, precuneus). However, the medial prefrontal cortex was activated only under spontaneous instructions, but not under intentional instruction. This suggests a bias toward person attributions (e.g. fundamental attribution bias). Complementary to this, intentional situation attributions activated a stronger and more extended network compared to intentional person attributions, suggesting that situation attributions require more controlled, extended and broader processing of the information. PMID:22345370

  12. Neural Basis of Enhanced Executive Function in Older Video Game Players: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Zhu, Xing-Ting; Qi, Zhigang; Huang, Silin; Li, Hui-Jie

    2017-01-01

    Video games have been found to have positive influences on executive function in older adults; however, the underlying neural basis of the benefits from video games has been unclear. Adopting a task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study targeted at the flanker task, the present study aims to explore the neural basis of the improved executive function in older adults with video game experiences. Twenty video game players (VGPs) and twenty non-video game players (NVGPs) of 60 years of age or older participated in the present study, and there are no significant differences in age ( t = 0.62, p = 0.536), gender ratio ( t = 1.29, p = 0.206) and years of education ( t = 1.92, p = 0.062) between VGPs and NVGPs. The results show that older VGPs present significantly better behavioral performance than NVGPs. Older VGPs activate greater than NVGPs in brain regions, mainly in frontal-parietal areas, including the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the left supramarginal gyrus, the right angular gyrus, the right precuneus and the left paracentral lobule. The present study reveals that video game experiences may have positive influences on older adults in behavioral performance and the underlying brain activation. These results imply the potential role that video games can play as an effective tool to improve cognitive ability in older adults.

  13. An fMRI investigation of the cultural specificity of music memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demorest, Steven M; Morrison, Steven J; Stambaugh, Laura A; Beken, Münir; Richards, Todd L; Johnson, Clark

    2010-06-01

    This study explored the role of culture in shaping music perception and memory. We tested the hypothesis that listeners demonstrate different patterns of activation associated with music processing-particularly right frontal cortex-when encoding and retrieving culturally familiar and unfamiliar stimuli, with the latter evoking broader activation consistent with more complex memory tasks. Subjects (n = 16) were right-handed adults born and raised in the USA (n = 8) or Turkey (n = 8) with minimal music training. Using fMRI procedures, we scanned subjects during two tasks: (i) listening to novel musical examples from their own culture and an unfamiliar culture and (ii) identifying which among a series of brief excerpts were taken from the longer examples. Both groups were more successful remembering music of their home culture. We found greater activation for culturally unfamiliar music listening in the left cerebellar region, right angular gyrus, posterior precuneus and right middle frontal area extending into the inferior frontal cortex. Subjects demonstrated greater activation in the cingulate gyrus and right lingual gyrus when engaged in recall of culturally unfamiliar music. This study provides evidence for the influence of culture on music perception and memory performance at both a behavioral and neurological level.

  14. Correlates of Social Exclusion in Social Anxiety Disorder: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeren, Alexandre; Dricot, Laurence; Billieux, Joël; Philippot, Pierre; Grynberg, Delphine; de Timary, Philippe; Maurage, Pierre

    2017-03-21

    Cognitive models posit that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is maintained by biased information-processing vis-à-vis threat of social exclusion. However, uncertainty still abounds regarding the very nature of this sensitivity to social exclusion in SAD. Especially, brain alterations related to social exclusion have not been explored in SAD. Our primary purpose was thus to determine both the self-report and neural correlates of social exclusion in this population. 23 patients with SAD and 23 matched nonanxious controls played a virtual game ("Cyberball") during fMRI recording. Participants were first included by other players, then excluded, and finally re-included. At the behavioral level, patients with SAD exhibited significantly higher levels of social exclusion feelings than nonanxious controls. At the brain level, patients with SAD exhibited significantly higher activation within the left inferior frontal gyrus relative to nonanxious controls during the re-inclusion phase. Moreover, self-report of social exclusion correlates with the activity of this cluster among individuals qualifying for SAD diagnosis. Our pattern of findings lends strong support to the notion that SAD may be better portrayed by a poor ability to recover following social exclusion than during social exclusion per se. These findings value social neuroscience as an innovative procedure to gain new insight into the underlying mechanisms of SAD.

  15. Mechanism of case processing in the brain: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Yokoyama

    Full Text Available In sentence comprehension research, the case system, which is one of the subsystems of the language processing system, has been assumed to play a crucial role in signifying relationships in sentences between noun phrases (NPs and other elements, such as verbs, prepositions, nouns, and tense. However, so far, less attention has been paid to the question of how cases are processed in our brain. To this end, the current study used fMRI and scanned the brain activity of 15 native English speakers during an English-case processing task. The results showed that, while the processing of all cases activates the left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior part of the middle temporal gyrus, genitive case processing activates these two regions more than nominative and accusative case processing. Since the effect of the difference in behavioral performance among these three cases is excluded from brain activation data, the observed different brain activations would be due to the different processing patterns among the cases, indicating that cases are processed differently in our brains. The different brain activations between genitive case processing and nominative/accusative case processing may be due to the difference in structural complexity between them.

  16. Brain activation profiles during kinesthetic and visual imagery: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilintari, Marina; Narayana, Shalini; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas; Rezaie, Roozbeh; Papanicolaou, Andrew C

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify brain regions involved in motor imagery and differentiate two alternative strategies in its implementation: imagining a motor act using kinesthetic or visual imagery. Fourteen adults were precisely instructed and trained on how to imagine themselves or others perform a movement sequence, with the aim of promoting kinesthetic and visual imagery, respectively, in the context of an fMRI experiment using block design. We found that neither modality of motor imagery elicits activation of the primary motor cortex and that each of the two modalities involves activation of the premotor area which is also activated during action execution and action observation conditions, as well as of the supplementary motor area. Interestingly, the visual and the posterior cingulate cortices show reduced BOLD signal during both imagery conditions. Our results indicate that the networks of regions activated in kinesthetic and visual imagery of motor sequences show a substantial, while not complete overlap, and that the two forms of motor imagery lead to a differential suppression of visual areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Situation and person attributions under spontaneous and intentional instructions: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestemont, Jenny; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Ma, Ning; Van Hoeck, Nicole; Van Overwalle, Frank

    2013-06-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research explores how observers make causal beliefs about an event in terms of the person or situation. Thirty-four participants read various short descriptions of social events that implied either the person or the situation as the cause. Half of them were explicitly instructed to judge whether the event was caused by something about the person or the situation (intentional inferences), whereas the other half was instructed simply to read the material carefully (spontaneous inferences). The results showed common activation in areas related to mentalizing, across all types of causes or instructions (posterior superior temporal sulcus, temporo-parietal junction, precuneus). However, the medial prefrontal cortex was activated only under spontaneous instructions, but not under intentional instruction. This suggests a bias toward person attributions (e.g. fundamental attribution bias). Complementary to this, intentional situation attributions activated a stronger and more extended network compared to intentional person attributions, suggesting that situation attributions require more controlled, extended and broader processing of the information.

  18. Cross-cultural music phrase processing: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Yun; Knösche, Thomas R; Zysset, Stefan; Friederici, Angela D

    2008-03-01

    The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural basis of musical phrase boundary processing during the perception of music from native and non-native cultures. German musicians performed a cultural categorization task while listening to phrased Western (native) and Chinese (non-native) musical excerpts as well as modified versions of these, where the impression of phrasing has been reduced by removing the phrase boundary marking pause (henceforth called "unphrased"). Bilateral planum temporale was found to be associated with an increased difficulty of identifying phrase boundaries in unphrased Western melodies. A network involving frontal and parietal regions showed increased activation for the phrased condition with the orbital part of left inferior frontal gyrus presumably reflecting working memory aspects of the temporal integration between phrases, and the middle frontal gyrus and intraparietal sulcus probably reflecting attention processes. Areas more active in the culturally familiar, native (Western) condition included, in addition to the left planum temporale and right ventro-medial prefrontal cortex, mainly the bilateral motor regions. These latter results are interpreted in light of sensorimotor integration. Regions with increased signal for the unfamiliar, non-native music style (Chinese) included a right lateralized network of angular gyrus and the middle frontal gyrus, possibly reflecting higher demands on attention systems, and the right posterior insula suggesting higher loads on basic auditory processing.

  19. An fMRI investigation of the cognitive reappraisal of negative memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory retrieval can be influenced by individuals’ current goals, including those that are emotional in nature. Participants underwent an fMRI scan while reappraising, or changing the way they thought about aversive images they had previously encoded, to down-regulate (i.e., decrease), up-regulate (i.e., increase), or maintain the emotional intensity associated with their recall. A conjunction analysis between down- and up-regulation during the entire 12-sec recall period revealed that both commonly activated reappraisal-related regions, particularly in the lateral and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, when we analyzed a reappraisal instruction phase prior to recall and then divided the recall phase into the time when individuals were first searching for their memories and later elaborating on their details, we found that down- and up-regulation engaged greater neural activity at different time points. Up-regulation engaged greater PFC activity than down-regulation or maintenance during the reappraisal instruction phase. In contrast, down-regulation engaged greater lateral PFC activity as images were being searched for and retrieved. Maintaining the emotional intensity associated with the aversive images engaged similar regions to a greater extent than either reappraisal condition as participants elaborated on the details of the images they were holding in mind. Our findings suggest that down- and up-regulation engage similar neural regions during memory retrieval, but differ in the timing of this engagement. PMID:23500898

  20. An fMRI study of the functional mechanisms of Stroop/reverse-Stroop effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yongning; Hakoda, Yuji

    2015-09-01

    Many previous behavioral inhibition studies have employed the classic Stroop and reverse-Stroop paradigm. Although an experimental dissociation has been demonstrated between Stroop interference (SI) and reverse-Stroop interference (RI), the mechanisms that underlie these phenomena remain unclear. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the functional mechanisms of SI and RI. We identified the brain regions activated by the Stroop word-color matching task using four tests: the Stroop control test (Test 1), Stroop test (Test 2), reverse-Stroop control test (Test 3), and reverse-Stroop test (Test 4). Neuroimaging results revealed that SI elicited activation in the bilateral middle frontal gyrus (BA9). In contrast, a number of other regions, including the bilateral middle frontal gyrus (BA 9 and BA10), medial frontal gyrus (BA 8), and cingulate gyrus (BA6 and BA 32) exhibited significant activation during RI. Our results indicate that there is a dissociation between the types of interference and brain activation. These findings suggest that SI and RI interference can be attributable to different neural mechanisms. It also suggests that the prefrontal cortex and the cingulate cortex are differentially sensitive to various types of interference, and that the reverse-Stroop task may be more useful than the Stroop task for evaluating interference control in psychiatric patients with frontal dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Neural Basis of Enhanced Executive Function in Older Video Game Players: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Video games have been found to have positive influences on executive function in older adults; however, the underlying neural basis of the benefits from video games has been unclear. Adopting a task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study targeted at the flanker task, the present study aims to explore the neural basis of the improved executive function in older adults with video game experiences. Twenty video game players (VGPs and twenty non-video game players (NVGPs of 60 years of age or older participated in the present study, and there are no significant differences in age (t = 0.62, p = 0.536, gender ratio (t = 1.29, p = 0.206 and years of education (t = 1.92, p = 0.062 between VGPs and NVGPs. The results show that older VGPs present significantly better behavioral performance than NVGPs. Older VGPs activate greater than NVGPs in brain regions, mainly in frontal-parietal areas, including the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the left supramarginal gyrus, the right angular gyrus, the right precuneus and the left paracentral lobule. The present study reveals that video game experiences may have positive influences on older adults in behavioral performance and the underlying brain activation. These results imply the potential role that video games can play as an effective tool to improve cognitive ability in older adults.

  2. Neural correlates of ambient thermal sensation: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Hajime; Hashimoto, Teruo; Nozawa, Takayuki; Kanno, Akitake; Kawata, Natasha; Hirano, Kanan; Yamamoto, Yuki; Sugiura, Motoaki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2017-09-12

    An increasing number of biometeorological and psychological studies have demonstrated the importance and complexity of the processes involved in environmental thermal perception in humans. However, extant functional imaging data on thermal perception have yet to fully reveal the neural mechanisms underlying these processes because most studies were performed using local thermal stimulation and did not dissociate thermal sensation from comfort. Thus, for the first time, the present study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and manipulated ambient temperature during brain measurement to independently explore the neural correlates of thermal sensation and comfort. There were significant correlations between the sensation of a lower temperature and activation in the left dorsal posterior insula, putamen, amygdala, and bilateral retrosplenial cortices but no significant correlations were observed between brain activation and thermal comfort. The dorsal posterior insula corresponds to the phylogenetically new thermosensory cortex whereas the limbic structures (i.e., amygdala and retrosplenial cortex) and dorsal striatum may be associated with supramodal emotional representations and the behavioral motivation to obtain heat, respectively. The co-involvement of these phylogenetically new and old systems may explain the psychological processes underlying the flexible psychological and behavioral thermo-environmental adaptations that are unique to humans.

  3. FMRI activation with an "affective speech" paradigm in vegetative and minimally conscious States: applicability and prognostic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperno, R; Battistini, A; Cevolani, D; Maffei, M; Leonardi, M; Agati, R

    2012-07-01

    Vegetative state (VS) and minimally conscious state (MCS) are considered different clinical entities but their differential diagnosis remains challenging. Some VS patients can show an MCS-like activation in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies that seems to predict recovery from VS. We studied fMRI activation with an affective speech paradigm in a cohort of non-communicative brain-injured individuals consecutively admitted to a post-acute neurorehabilitation facility in five years. Among 93 eligible subjects, 65 met the clinical criteria for VS and 28 for MCS. Because of exclusion criteria, activation studies were performed in only 30 cases out of 93 and analysed in only 24 (about ¼ of the eligible cases): 19 VS and five MCS patients. The passive acoustic stimulus consisted in a familiar voice narrating a significant episode in the patient's life, administered by nonmagnetic earphones. All the MCS patients showed an activation spread to secondary associative cortices but also 52.7% of the VS patients displayed an "atypical" large-scale activation pattern. Regarding the clinical outcome, 80% of the patients with large-scale network activation (LSNA) had some recovery of consciousness. Our results confirm that the VS patients with LSNA at fMRI study have potential for further recovery of consciousness, whereas no patient without activation or only typical activation improved. fMRI study with an affective speech paradigm, when applicable, seems to have a valuable prognostic value in VS patients, even if there are major limitations in terms of applicability.

  4. Emotional Intent Modulates The Neural Substrates Of Creativity: An fMRI Study of Emotionally Targeted Improvisation in Jazz Musicians

    OpenAIRE

    Malinda J. McPherson; Frederick S. Barrett; Monica Lopez-Gonzalez; Patpong Jiradejvong; Charles J. Limb

    2016-01-01

    Emotion is a primary motivator for creative behaviors, yet the interaction between the neural systems involved in creativity and those involved in emotion has not been studied. In the current study, we addressed this gap by using fMRI to examine piano improvisation in response to emotional cues. We showed twelve professional jazz pianists photographs of an actress representing a positive, negative or ambiguous emotion. Using a non-ferromagnetic thirty-five key keyboard, the pianists improvise...

  5. Potential brain language reorganization in a boy with refractory epilepsy; an fNIRS–EEG and fMRI comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phetsamone Vannasing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of a presurgical investigation for a resection of a tumor located in the left temporal brain region, we evaluated pre- and postsurgical language lateralization in a right-handed boy with refractory epilepsy. In this study, we compared functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS results obtained while the participant performed expressive and receptive language tasks with those obtained using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. This case study illustrates the potential for NIRS to contribute favorably to the localization of language functions in children with epilepsy and cognitive or behavioral problems and its potential advantages over fMRI in presurgical assessment. Moreover, it suggests that fNIRS is sensitive in localizing an atypical language network or potential brain reorganization related to epilepsy in young patients.

  6. [Foot drop: an iatrogenic complication of spinal anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Vipin Kumar; Mathur, Vijay

    2018-01-16

    Foot drop in postoperative period is very rare after spinal anesthesia. Early clinical assessment and diagnostic interventions is of prime importance to establish the etiology and to start appropriate management. Close follow-up is warranted in early postoperative period in cases when patient complain paresthesia or pain during needle insertion or drug injection. A 22-year-old male was undergone lower limb orthopedic surgery in spinal anesthesia. During shifting from postoperative ward footdrop was suspected during routine assessment of regression of spinal level. Immediately the patient was referred to a neurologist and magnetic resonance imaging was done, which was inconclusive. Conservative management was started and nerve conduction study was done on the 4th postoperative day that confirmed pure motor neuropathy of right peroneal nerve. Patient was discharged with ankle splint and physiotherapy after slight improvement in motor power (2/5). Foot drop is very rare after spinal anesthesia. Any suspected patient must undergo emergent neurological consultation and magnetic resonance imaging to exclude major finding and need for early surgical intervention. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. An efficient feedback active noise control algorithm based on reduced-order linear predictive modeling of FMRI acoustic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Govind; Milani, Ali A; Panahi, Issa M S; Briggs, Richard W

    2011-12-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acoustic noise exhibits an almost periodic nature (quasi-periodicity) due to the repetitive nature of currents in the gradient coils. Small changes occur in the waveform in consecutive periods due to the background noise and slow drifts in the electroacoustic transfer functions that map the gradient coil waveforms to the measured acoustic waveforms. The period depends on the number of slices per second, when echo planar imaging (EPI) sequencing is used. Linear predictability of fMRI acoustic noise has a direct effect on the performance of active noise control (ANC) systems targeted to cancel the acoustic noise. It is shown that by incorporating some samples from the previous period, very high linear prediction accuracy can be reached with a very low order predictor. This has direct implications on feedback ANC systems since their performance is governed by the predictability of the acoustic noise to be cancelled. The low complexity linear prediction of fMRI acoustic noise developed in this paper is used to derive an effective and low-cost feedback ANC system.

  8. Non-white noise in fMRI: Does modelling have an impact?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torben Ellegaard; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Sidaros, Karam

    2006-01-01

    The sources of non-white noise in Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are many. Familiar sources include low-frequency drift due to hardware imperfections, oscillatory noise due to respiration and cardiac pulsation and residual movement artefacts ...

  9. An fMRI Study of the Social Competition in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polosan, M.; Baciu, M.; Cousin, E.; Perrone, M.; Pichat, C.; Bougerol, T.

    2011-01-01

    Social interaction requires the ability to infer another person's mental state (Theory of Mind, ToM) and also executive functions. This fMRI study aimed to identify the cerebral correlates activated by ToM during a specific social interaction, the human-human competition. In this framework, we tested a conflict resolution task (Stroop) adapted to…

  10. Neural Substrates of the Topology Test to Measure Fluid Reasoning: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, Hiromi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Horn, John L.; Sassa, Yuko; Sekiguchi, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    In our prior study the negative correlation between Topology, a behavioral measure of fluid reasoning, and adult age diminished with the increase in the level of expertise in a cognitively-demanding domain of expertise in the game of GO. The present fMRI study was designed to investigate neural substrates of Topology. The modified topology…

  11. Resting-state fMRI and social cognition: An opportunity to connect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doruyter, Alex; Groenewold, Nynke A; Dupont, Patrick; Stein, Dan J; Warwick, James M

    2017-09-01

    Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by altered social cognition. The importance of social cognition has previously been recognized by the National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria project, in which it features as a core domain. Social task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) currently offers the most direct insight into how the brain processes social information; however, resting-state fMRI may be just as important in understanding the biology and network nature of social processing. Resting-state fMRI allows researchers to investigate the functional relationships between brain regions in a neutral state: so-called resting functional connectivity (RFC). There is evidence that RFC is predictive of how the brain processes information during social tasks. This is important because it shifts the focus from possibly context-dependent aberrations to context-independent aberrations in functional network architecture. Rather than being analysed in isolation, the study of resting-state brain networks shows promise in linking results of task-based fMRI results, structural connectivity, molecular imaging findings, and performance measures of social cognition-which may prove crucial in furthering our understanding of the social brain. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Becoming a pianist. An fMRI study of musical literacy acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Lauren; Henson, Rik; Kampe, Knut; Walsh, Vincent; Turner, Robert; Frith, Uta

    2003-11-01

    Musically naïve subjects were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after they had been taught to read music and play keyboard. When subjects played melodies from musical notation after training, activation was seen in a cluster of voxels within the right superior parietal cortex consistent with the view that music reading involves spatial sensorimotor mapping.

  13. An action research approach to facilitating the adoption of a foot health assessment tool in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison-Blount, Michael; Cullen, Michelle; Nester, Christopher J; Williams, Anita E

    2015-01-01

    India has a diabetes population that is growing and alongside this, the incidence of limb threatening foot problems is increasing. Foot health care provision does not yet meet this demand. In one locality in India, clinicians had an unstructured approach to foot health assessments resulting in poor adoption of evidence based guidelines from the West and a persistence of serious foot complications. There was the perception that existing assessment tools did not take into account the local cultural, organizational and professional needs and there was a lack of ownership of any potential solution to the problem. Therefore, the aim of this work was to facilitate the ownership and development of a foot health assessment tool for use in the Indian context. In order to achieve this an action research approach was chosen. Participants were facilitated through the action and implementation phases of the action research cycle by the researchers. The action phase included generating a list of potential items for inclusion in the tool from a review of the literature to provide an evidence based foundation for the foot health assessment tool. A modified Delphi method was used to further refine the contents of the tool. Members of the Delphi Panel (n = 8) were experts in their field of medicine and experts in delivering health care within services in India. The outcome of the study was the adoption of a locally developed foot health assessment tool (Salford Indian Foot Health Assessment Tool, SIFT). It contains thirteen sections, which reflect the risk factors identified for assessing foot health agreed by the participants to fit the Indian context. The SIFT is supported with evidence based guidelines from the West and a training program was delivered by the researchers in order to support its implementation into clinical practice. An action research approach has facilitated the development and implementation of a locally created and owned foot health assessment tool. This

  14. Dissociating dynamic probability and predictability in observed actions – an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane eAhlheim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present fMRI study investigated whether human observers spontaneously exploit the statistical structure underlying continuous action sequences. In particular, we tested whether two different statistical properties can be distinguished with regard to their neural correlates: an action step’s predictability and its probability. To assess these properties we used measures from information theory. Predictability of action steps was operationalized by its inverse, conditional entropy, which combines the number of possible action steps with their respective probabilities. Probability of action steps was assessed using conditional surprisal, which increases with decreasing probability.Participants were trained in an action observation paradigm with video clips showing sequences of 9 to 33 seconds length with varying numbers of action steps that were statistically structured according to a Markov chain. Behavioral tests revealed that participants implicitly learned this statistical structure, showing that humans are sensitive towards these probabilistic regularities. Surprisal (lower probability enhanced the BOLD signal in the anterior intraparietal sulcus. In contrast, high conditional entropy, i.e. low predictability, was correlated with higher activity in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal gyrus, and posterior intraparietal sulcus. Furthermore, we found a correlation between the anterior hippocampus’ response to conditional entropy with the extent of learning, such that the more participants had learnt the structure, the greater the magnitude of hippocampus activation in response to conditional entropy.Findings show that two aspects of predictions can be dissociated: an action’s predictability is reflected in a top-down modulation of attentional focus, evident in increased fronto-parietal activation. In contrast, an action’s probability depends on the identity of the stimulus itself, resulting in bottom-up driven processing

  15. Origins of spatial working memory deficits in schizophrenia: an event-related FMRI and near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghee Lee

    2008-03-01

    that the etiology of memory errors must be considered when comparing group performances. Finally, the concordance of fMRI and NIRS data supports NIRS as an alternative functional neuroimaging method for psychiatric research.

  16. Brain Network Response to Acupuncture Stimuli in Experimental Acute Low Back Pain: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that acupuncture can significantly modulate brain activation patterns in healthy subjects, while only a few studies have examined clinical pain. In the current study, we combined an experimental acute low back pain (ALBP model and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to explore the neural mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia. All ALBP subjects first underwent two resting state fMRI scans at baseline and during a painful episode and then underwent two additional fMRI scans, once during acupuncture stimulation (ACUP and once during tactile stimulation (SHAM pseudorandomly, at the BL40 acupoint. Our results showed that, compared with the baseline, the pain state had higher regional homogeneity (ReHo values in the pain matrix, limbic system, and default mode network (DMN and lower ReHo values in frontal gyrus and temporal gyrus; compared with the OFF status, ACUP yielded broad deactivation in subjects, including nearly all of the limbic system, pain status, and DMN, and also evoked numerous activations in the attentional and somatosensory systems; compared with SHAM, we found that ACUP induced more deactivations and fewer activations in the subjects. Multiple brain networks play crucial roles in acupuncture analgesia, suggesting that ACUP exceeds a somatosensory-guided mind-body therapy for ALBP.

  17. Sentence Syntax and Content in the Human Temporal Lobe: An fMRI Adaptation Study in Auditory and Visual Modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devauchelle, A.D.; Dehaene, S.; Pallier, C.; Devauchelle, A.D.; Dehaene, S.; Pallier, C.; Devauchelle, A.D.; Pallier, C.; Oppenheim, C.; Rizzi, L.; Dehaene, S.

    2009-01-01

    Priming effects have been well documented in behavioral psycho-linguistics experiments: The processing of a word or a sentence is typically facilitated when it shares lexico-semantic or syntactic features with a previously encountered stimulus. Here, we used fMRI priming to investigate which brain areas show adaptation to the repetition of a sentence's content or syntax. Participants read or listened to sentences organized in series which could or not share similar syntactic constructions and/or lexico-semantic content. The repetition of lexico-semantic content yielded adaptation in most of the temporal and frontal sentence processing network, both in the visual and the auditory modalities, even when the same lexico-semantic content was expressed using variable syntactic constructions. No fMRI adaptation effect was observed when the same syntactic construction was repeated. Yet behavioral priming was observed at both syntactic and semantic levels in a separate experiment where participants detected sentence endings. We discuss a number of possible explanations for the absence of syntactic priming in the fMRI experiments, including the possibility that the conglomerate of syntactic properties defining 'a construction' is not an actual object assembled during parsing. (authors)

  18. Sentence Syntax and Content in the Human Temporal Lobe: An fMRI Adaptation Study in Auditory and Visual Modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devauchelle, A.D.; Dehaene, S.; Pallier, C. [INSERM, Gif sur Yvette (France); Devauchelle, A.D.; Dehaene, S.; Pallier, C. [CEA, DSV, I2BM, NeuroSpin, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Devauchelle, A.D.; Pallier, C. [Univ. Paris 11, Orsay (France); Oppenheim, C. [Univ Paris 05, Ctr Hosp St Anne, Paris (France); Rizzi, L. [Univ Siena, CISCL, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Dehaene, S. [Coll France, F-75231 Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Priming effects have been well documented in behavioral psycho-linguistics experiments: The processing of a word or a sentence is typically facilitated when it shares lexico-semantic or syntactic features with a previously encountered stimulus. Here, we used fMRI priming to investigate which brain areas show adaptation to the repetition of a sentence's content or syntax. Participants read or listened to sentences organized in series which could or not share similar syntactic constructions and/or lexico-semantic content. The repetition of lexico-semantic content yielded adaptation in most of the temporal and frontal sentence processing network, both in the visual and the auditory modalities, even when the same lexico-semantic content was expressed using variable syntactic constructions. No fMRI adaptation effect was observed when the same syntactic construction was repeated. Yet behavioral priming was observed at both syntactic and semantic levels in a separate experiment where participants detected sentence endings. We discuss a number of possible explanations for the absence of syntactic priming in the fMRI experiments, including the possibility that the conglomerate of syntactic properties defining 'a construction' is not an actual object assembled during parsing. (authors)

  19. The role of emotional inhibitory control in specific internet addiction - an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, Julia; Hoffmann, Sabine; Mier, Daniela; Reinhard, Iris; Beutel, Martin; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Kiefer, Falk; Mann, Karl; Leménager, Tagrid

    2017-05-01

    Addicts to specific internet applications involving communication features showed increased social anxiety, emotional competence deficits and impaired prefrontal-related inhibitory control. The dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex (dACC) likely plays an important role in cognitive control and negative affect (such as social exclusion, pain or anxiety). To assess (social) anxiety-related inhibitory control in specific internet addiction (addicted use of games and social networks) and its relation to altered dACC activation. N=44 controls and n=51 specific internet addicts completed an anxious words-based Affective Go/No-Go task (AGN). A subsample of n=23 healthy controls and n=25 specific internet addicts underwent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) while completing an Emotional Stroop Task (EST) with socially anxious, positive, negative and neutral words. Subgroups of internet gaming and social network addicts were exploratively assessed. Psychometric measures of social anxiety, emotional competence and impulsivity were additionally explored. Specific internet addicts showed higher impulsivity, social anxiety and reduced emotional competence. Between-group differences in AGN and EST behavioral measures were not detected. No group differences were found in the dACC, but explorative analyses revealed decreased left middle and superior temporal gyrus activation during interference of socially anxious words in internet gaming and relative to social network addicts. Given the function of the left middle temporal gyrus in the retrieval of words or expressions during communication, our findings give a first hint that social words might be less retrievable in the semantic storage of internet gaming addicts, possibly indicating deficiencies in handling speech in social situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The incidence and prevention of foot problems among male Phase One British Army recruits at an Army Training Regiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Rhonda Alice

    2015-12-01

    Studies have demonstrated that there is an excessive number of foot problems among personnel entering the military, which leads to disruption to training resulting in an increase in both costs and wastage. Days are lost in training due to foot problems, most commonly blisters, causing a loss of working/training days with a resultant low morale and a financial loss to the army. A cohort of Phase One British Army recruits completed a questionnaire in week 3 of training to identify previous and current foot problems and assess what education on the topic they received during their training. Also, 43 foot risk assessment tools were used by the medical staff to identify incidence, severity and working days lost. Questionnaires were completed by 31 instructors to gain data on prevention and management of foot problems. Focus groups were conducted among instructors to investigate their knowledge of prevention and management, and problems identified among recruits. A lack of formal training on foot care exists among recruits and instructors. Blisters were reported to be the main foot problem, and army-issue boots were reported to be the main cause of problems. Sizing of boots was inconsistent, and manufacturers can vary in their sizings. There were no policies available, and only one lesson on foot care was given. Currently, no policies exist on foot care at the Army Training Regiment (ATR). Foot clinics were available daily, and blisters and foot problems were already present; therefore, foot education is required in the early stages of training. The field craft exercise resulted in half of the recruits reporting blisters. Poor foot hygiene remained a problem when recruits arrived at the ATR for their training. Foot care instruction included in the training would reduce days and hours lost in training. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Moving on from interpretivism: an argument for constructivist evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, E; Dewar, B J

    2000-09-01

    Moving on from interpretivism: an argument for constructivist evaluation This paper examines the research process in the context of an evaluation of work-based learning. The findings of the evaluation are used to illustrate issues around roles and relationships within interpretivist research where a separation is maintained between the researcher, as investigator, and the participants, as the subject of their investigation. The discussion focuses on: the threatening nature of evaluation and the way in which that affects the process of inquiry and learning; the ways in which people's perceptions of research can act as barriers to the implementation of change; and the consequences of this role separation for practice development. In exploring these issues the paper argues for an approach to evaluation research which (a) emphasizes collaboration, (b) is orientated to change and (c) treats the evaluation process as a learning opportunity through which professionals acquire the skills and knowledge to investigate and advance their own practice.

  2. Copy Move Forgery Detection Using SIFT Features- An Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupal Amit Kapdi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Emphasis on the need for authentication of image content has increased since images have been inferred to have some cognitive effects on human brain coupled along with the pervasiveness of images. General form of malicious image manipulations is Copy Move Forgery (CMF in which a region is cloned from source location and pasted onto the same image at a target location. Techniques often used to hide or increase presence of an object in the image. This need to establish detection of image originality and authentication without using any prior details of the image has increased by many folds. In this paper, we present a list of comparisons on the detection of image forgeries mostly pertaining to CMF using SIFT method. An effort has been made to produce suffused paper by quoting most of the recent practices by providing an in depth analysis of range of different techniques for forgery localization.

  3. Romantic love: an fMRI study of a neural mechanism for mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Helen; Aron, Arthur; Brown, Lucy L

    2005-12-05

    Scientists have described myriad traits in mammalian and avian species that evolved to attract mates. But the brain mechanisms by which conspecifics become attracted to these traits is largely unknown. Yet mammals and birds express mate preferences and make mate choices, and data suggest that this "attraction system" is associated with the dopaminergic reward system. It has been proposed that intense romantic love, a cross-cultural universal, is a developed form of this attraction system. To determine the neural mechanisms associated with romantic love we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and studied 17 people who were intensely "in love" (Aron et al. [2005] J Neurophysiol 94:327-337). Activation specific to the beloved occurred in the right ventral tegmental area and right caudate nucleus, dopamine-rich areas associated with mammalian reward and motivation. These and other results suggest that dopaminergic reward pathways contribute to the "general arousal" component of romantic love; romantic love is primarily a motivation system, rather than an emotion; this drive is distinct from the sex drive; romantic love changes across time; and romantic love shares biobehavioral similarities with mammalian attraction. We propose that this attraction mechanism evolved to enable individuals to focus their mating energy on specific others, thereby conserving energy and facilitating mate choice-a primary aspect of reproduction. Last, the corticostriate system, with its potential for combining diverse cortical information with reward signals, is an excellent anatomical substrate for the complex factors contributing to romantic love and mate choice. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Activation of sensory cortex by imagined genital stimulation: an fMRI analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan J. Wise

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the course of a previous study, our laboratory made a serendipitous finding that just thinking about genital stimulation resulted in brain activations that overlapped with, and differed from, those generated by physical genital stimulation. Objective: This study extends our previous findings by further characterizing how the brain differentially processes physical ‘touch’ stimulation and ‘imagined’ stimulation. Design: Eleven healthy women (age range 29–74 participated in an fMRI study of the brain response to imagined or actual tactile stimulation of the nipple and clitoris. Two additional conditions – imagined dildo self-stimulation and imagined speculum stimulation – were included to characterize the effects of erotic versus non-erotic imagery. Results: Imagined and tactile self-stimulation of the nipple and clitoris each activated the paracentral lobule (the genital region of the primary sensory cortex and the secondary somatosensory cortex. Imagined self-stimulation of the clitoris and nipple resulted in greater activation of the frontal pole and orbital frontal cortex compared to tactile self-stimulation of these two bodily regions. Tactile self-stimulation of the clitoris and nipple activated the cerebellum, primary somatosensory cortex (hand region, and premotor cortex more than the imagined stimulation of these body regions. Imagining dildo stimulation generated extensive brain activation in the genital sensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, insula, nucleus accumbens, and medial prefrontal cortex, whereas imagining speculum stimulation generated only minimal activation. Conclusion: The present findings provide evidence of the potency of imagined stimulation of the genitals and that the following brain regions may participate in erogenous experience: primary and secondary sensory cortices, sensory-motor integration areas, limbic structures, and components of the

  5. Activation of sensory cortex by imagined genital stimulation: an fMRI analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Nan J; Frangos, Eleni; Komisaruk, Barry R

    2016-01-01

    During the course of a previous study, our laboratory made a serendipitous finding that just thinking about genital stimulation resulted in brain activations that overlapped with, and differed from, those generated by physical genital stimulation. This study extends our previous findings by further characterizing how the brain differentially processes physical 'touch' stimulation and 'imagined' stimulation. Eleven healthy women (age range 29-74) participated in an fMRI study of the brain response to imagined or actual tactile stimulation of the nipple and clitoris. Two additional conditions - imagined dildo self-stimulation and imagined speculum stimulation - were included to characterize the effects of erotic versus non-erotic imagery. Imagined and tactile self-stimulation of the nipple and clitoris each activated the paracentral lobule (the genital region of the primary sensory cortex) and the secondary somatosensory cortex. Imagined self-stimulation of the clitoris and nipple resulted in greater activation of the frontal pole and orbital frontal cortex compared to tactile self-stimulation of these two bodily regions. Tactile self-stimulation of the clitoris and nipple activated the cerebellum, primary somatosensory cortex (hand region), and premotor cortex more than the imagined stimulation of these body regions. Imagining dildo stimulation generated extensive brain activation in the genital sensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, insula, nucleus accumbens, and medial prefrontal cortex, whereas imagining speculum stimulation generated only minimal activation. The present findings provide evidence of the potency of imagined stimulation of the genitals and that the following brain regions may participate in erogenous experience: primary and secondary sensory cortices, sensory-motor integration areas, limbic structures, and components of the 'reward system'. In addition, these results suggest a mechanism by which some individuals may

  6. Importance of punishment frequency in the Iowa gambling task: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuangye; Zang, Yufeng; Cheung, Vinci; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2015-12-01

    It has been widely found that in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; Bechara et al. Cognition, 50(1), 7-15 1994) normal subjects would gradually learn to prefer obtaining rewards for long-term benefits than seeking immediate rewards to maximize the overall profit. The current study aimed to gain an understanding of how punishment frequency in the IGT would be processed and its association with subjects' reward preferences. In this study, we employed the clinical version of the IGT, in which response options are not only different in the long-term outcome, but also associated with different punishment frequencies. Event-related functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was used to capture the subjects' brain activity when performing the IGT. A total of 24 male subjects (mean age = 21.7 years, SD = 1.8 years), who were university students, participated in the experiment. It is found that subjects learned to select more from the decks that were advantageous in the long-term, but they were more sensitive to the effect of long-term outcome under the condition of high punishment frequency. The corresponding brain activation showed that the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) had significantly higher activation during the disadvantageous choices than the advantageous choices. Such activity difference between the two conditions of long-term outcome was more prominent with high punishment frequency than low punishment frequency; and this brain activity difference was significantly correlated with the behavioral performance under the condition of high punishment frequency. The results suggested that only in the context with high punishment frequency, there would be increased neural activity in ACC when subjects intended to select from the disadvantageous choices so that these choices would be inhibited and advantageous choices would be selected.

  7. Cerebrovascular reactivity among native-raised high altitude residents: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiaxing

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of long term residence on high altitude (HA on human brain has raised concern among researchers in recent years. This study investigated the cerebrovascular reactivity among native-born high altitude (HA residents as compared to native sea level (SL residents. The two groups were matched on the ancestral line, ages, gender ratios, and education levels. A visual cue guided maximum inspiration task with brief breath holding was performed by all the subjects while Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI data were acquired from them. Results Compared to SL controls, the HA group showed generally decreased cerebrovascular reactivity and longer delay in hemodynamic response. Clusters showing significant differences in the former aspect were located at the bilateral primary motor cortex, the right somatosensory association cortex, the right thalamus and the right caudate, the bilateral precuneus, the right cingulate gyrus and the right posterior cingulate cortex, as well as the left fusiform gyrus and the right lingual cortex; clusters showing significant differences in the latter aspect were located at the precuneus, the insula, the superior frontal and temporal gyrus, the somatosensory cortex (the postcentral gyrus and the cerebellar tonsil. Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV, which is an important aspect of pulmonary function, demonstrated significant correlation with the amount of BOLD signal change in multiple brain regions, particularly at the bilateral insula among the HA group. Conclusions Native-born HA residents generally showed reduced cerebrovascular reactivity as demonstrated in the hemodynamic response during a visual cue guided maximum inspiration task conducted with BOLD-fMRI. This effect was particularly manifested among brain regions that are typically involved in cerebral modulation of respiration.

  8. Neural correlates of outcome processing post dishonest choice: an fMRI and ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Delin; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Hu, Yang; Wang, Zhaoxin; Lee, Tatia M C

    2015-02-01

    A dishonest person often utilizes another person's obliviousness to appropriate the property that belongs to the other person. Previous researchers have studied the making of a dishonest choice and the manipulation of truthful information. Here, we have investigated the neural correlates of processing the outcomes of dishonest decisions. Participants in this study were asked to interact with counterparts in an economic game. They could accept the counterparts' proposals on how to divide the profits (honest choice) or choose the alternative plan that was advantageous to themselves (dishonest choice), playing to the ignorance of their counterparts who had a 50% chance of detecting the situation. Successful dishonest choices (not being detected) would bring large rewards, whereas honest choices would lead to less of a reward, and failed dishonest choices (being caught) would result in no reward. Participants' neural responses during the outcome presentations were recorded by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potential (ERP) methods in different sessions. We found that the outcomes of successful dishonest (vs. honest) choices elicited stronger activations in the ventral striatum and posterior cingulate cortex and a smaller ERP component called feedback-related negativity (FRN), which suggests that positive outcome evaluation and attention processing were aroused by successful dishonest choices. Moreover, the outcomes of failed dishonest (relative to honest) choices were associated with different neural response patterns in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and P3b ERP component between human and computer counterparts, suggesting that processing the output of social decision making (playing human) is different from that of risk taking (playing computer). The findings advanced our understanding about the neural processing of outcome presentation after a dishonest choice has been made. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  9. Alcohol sensitizes cerebral responses to the odors of alcoholic drinks: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragulat, Veronique; Dzemidzic, Mario; Talavage, Thomas; Davidson, Dena; O'Connor, Sean J; Kareken, David A

    2008-07-01

    Small, priming doses of alcohol enhance desire to drink, and thus play a role in the loss of control of alcohol consumption. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we previously showed that alcoholic drink odors (AO; subjects' drinks of choice) induce greater nucleus accumbens (NAc) activity than non-appetitive odors (NApO; grass, leather) in subjects at risk for alcoholism. Here we hypothesized that priming exposure to alcohol would enhance responses to AO in the NAc and orbitofrontal cortex in comparison to NApO (grass, leather) and to the appetitive control odors (ApCO) of chocolate and grape. Ten hazardous drinkers (mean age = 22.7; SD = 2.9, average drinks per drinking day = 5.9, SD = 2.3; drinking days/90 days = 50.4, SD = 13.7) were scanned on a 1.5 T GE Signa MR scanner during intravenous infusion of lactated Ringer's or 6% ethanol in lactated Ringer's that was pharmacokinetically modeled to achieve a constant breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) of 50 mg% throughout imaging. During scanning, subjects sniffed AO, NApO, and ApCO. Alcohol infusion enhanced the contrast between AO and NApO in the NAc, and in orbitofrontal, medial frontal, and precuneus/posterior cingulate regions. The contrast between AO and appetitive control odors (ApCO; chocolate and grape) was similarly larger in the orbital, medial frontal, precuneus, and posterior cingulate/retrosplenial areas, with the most robust finding being a potentiated response in the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial area. The orbital region is similar to an area previously shown to manifest satiety-related decreases in activity induced by food cues. The results suggest that priming exposure to alcohol renders a limbic network more responsive to alcohol cues, potentially enhancing desire to drink.

  10. WASICA: An effective wavelet-shrinkage based ICA model for brain fMRI data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nizhuan; Zeng, Weiming; Shi, Yingchao; Ren, Tianlong; Jing, Yanshan; Yin, Jun; Yang, Jiajun

    2015-05-15

    Researches declared that the super-Gaussian property contributed to the success of some spatial independent component analysis (ICA) algorithms in brain fMRI source separation (e.g., Infomax and FastICA), which implied that sparse approximation transforming the sources (super-Gaussian or Gaussian-like) with stronger super-Gaussian feature would possibly improve the separation performance of these algorithms. This paper presented a novel wavelet-shrinkage based ICA (WASICA) model, an extension of our previous SACICA, for single-subject analysis. In contrast, two main aspects had been effectively enhanced: (1) sparse approximation coefficients set formation, made up of two sub-procedures: the wavelet-shrinkage of wavelet packet (WP) tree nodes, and the automatic nodes selection and integration based on the relative WP energy; (2) ICA-based decomposition and reconstruction, composed of temporal dynamics extraction using ICA, WP reconstruction based on the sparse approximation coefficients set and least-square-based functional networks reconstruction. The wavelet-shrinkage and the automatic nodes selection and integration simultaneously transformed both the mixtures and underlying sources into effective sparse approximation coefficients sets, exhibiting stronger super-Gaussian distribution; WP projected-back approximation with nuisance-exclusion contributed to networks reconstruction. Simulation 1 revealed WASICA successfully recovered super-Gaussian and some Gaussian-like sources. Simulation 2 and hybrid data experiments showed that WASICA with good temporal performance had stronger source recovery ability and signal detection sensitivity spatially than FastICA, Infomax and SACICA did; the higher intra-consistency in task-related experiments denoted WASICA occupied stronger spatial robustness against smooth kernels. WASICA was a promising brain signal separation model with charming spatial-temporal performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An fMRI investigation of cognitive stages in reasoning by analogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Daniel C; McClelland, M Michelle; Donovan, Colin M; Tillman, Gail D; Maguire, Mandy J

    2010-06-25

    We compared reasoning about four-term analogy problems in the format (A:B::C: D) to semantic and perceptual control conditions that required matching without analogical mapping. We investigated distinct phases of the problem solving process divided into encoding, mapping/inference, and response. Using fMRI, we assessed the brain activation relevant to each of these phases with an emphasis on achieving a better understanding of analogical reasoning relative to these other matching conditions. We predicted that the analogical condition would involve the most cognitive effort in the encoding and mapping/inference phases, while the control conditions were expected to engage greater prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation at the response period. Results showed greater activation for the analogical condition relative to the control conditions at the encoding phase in several predominantly left lateralized and medial areas of the PFC. Similar results were observed for the mapping/inference phase, though this difference was limited to the left PFC and rostral PFC. The response phase resulted in the fastest and most accurate responses in the analogy condition relative to the control conditions. This was accompanied by greater processing within the left lateral and the medial PFC for the control conditions relative to the analogy condition, consistent with most of the cognitive processing of the analogy condition having occurred in the prior task phases. Overall we demonstrate that the left ventral and dorsal lateral, medial, and rostral PFC are important in both the encoding of relational information, mapping and inference processes, and verification of semantic and perceptual responses in four term analogical reasoning. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Flexible transfer of knowledge in mental arithmetic--an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ischebeck, Anja; Zamarian, Laura; Schocke, Michael; Delazer, Margarete

    2009-02-01

    Recent imaging studies could show that fact acquisition in arithmetic is associated with decreasing activation in several frontal and parietal areas, and relatively increasing activation within the angular gyrus, indicating a switch from direct calculation to retrieval of a learned fact from memory. So far, however, little is known about the transfer of learned facts between arithmetic operations. The aim of the present fMRI study was to investigate whether and how newly acquired arithmetic knowledge might transfer from trained multiplication problems to related division problems. On the day before scanning, ten complex multiplication problems were trained. Within the scanner, trained multiplication problems were compared with untrained multiplication problems, and division problems related to multiplication (transfer condition) were compared with unrelated division problems (no-transfer condition). Replicating earlier results, untrained multiplication problems activated several frontal and parietal brain areas more strongly than trained multiplication problems, while trained multiplication problems showed relatively stronger activation in the left angular gyrus than untrained multiplication problems. Concerning division, an ROI analysis indicated that activation in the left angular gyrus was relatively stronger for the transfer condition than for the no-transfer condition. We also observed distinct inter-individual differences with regard to transfer that modulated activation within the left angular gyrus. Activation within the left angular gyrus was generally higher for participants who showed a transfer effect for division problems. In conclusion, the present study yielded some evidence that successful transfer of knowledge between arithmetic operations is accompanied by modifications of brain activation patterns. The left angular gyrus seems not only to be involved in the retrieval of stored arithmetic facts, but also in the transfer between arithmetic

  13. Stretched, jumped, and fell: an fMRI investigation of reflexive verbs and other intransitives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetreet, Einat; Friedmann, Naama

    2012-04-15

    This study used fMRI to inform a debate between two theories concerning the representation of reflexive verbs. Reflexives are verbs that denote an action that the subject applies on herself (e.g., The woman stretched). These verbs are derived by a lexical operation that creates a reflexive from its transitive counterpart. Theories differ with respect to which thematic role is reduced by the lexical operation: the agent or the theme, and, consequently, whether the construction of sentences with reflexives in subject-verb order includes movement of the object to the subject position. To test this, we compared reflexive verbs with unaccusative verbs (e.g., The woman fell), and with unergative verbs (e.g., The woman jumped). Unaccusatives are derived by reduction of the role of the agent, and thus SV sentences with unaccusatives include movement to subject position. Unergatives do not undergo lexical operations and do not involve movement in SV sentences. The reflexives behaved like unergatives, and differently from unaccusatives: the activation pattern of unaccusatives compared with reflexives showed similar cortical pattern to that of unaccusatives compared with unergatives, with activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG). Comparing reflexives and unergatives revealed activation in the right MTG. These results indicate that reflexives differ from unaccusatives in their derivation. That is, reflexives do not involve the reduction of the agent of the parallel transitive, and hence no syntactic movement is involved in sentences in which the subject precedes the reflexive verb. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. fMRI activation patterns in an analytic reasoning task: consistency with EEG source localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bian; Vasanta, Kalyana C.; O'Boyle, Michael; Baker, Mary C.; Nutter, Brian; Mitra, Sunanda

    2010-03-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is used to model brain activation patterns associated with various perceptual and cognitive processes as reflected by the hemodynamic (BOLD) response. While many sensory and motor tasks are associated with relatively simple activation patterns in localized regions, higher-order cognitive tasks may produce activity in many different brain areas involving complex neural circuitry. We applied a recently proposed probabilistic independent component analysis technique (PICA) to determine the true dimensionality of the fMRI data and used EEG localization to identify the common activated patterns (mapped as Brodmann areas) associated with a complex cognitive task like analytic reasoning. Our preliminary study suggests that a hybrid GLM/PICA analysis may reveal additional regions of activation (beyond simple GLM) that are consistent with electroencephalography (EEG) source localization patterns.

  15. Serial changes of humor comprehension for four-frame comic Manga: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Mariko; Yaoi, Ken; Minamoto, Takehiro; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-07-25

    Serial changes of humor comprehension evoked by a well organized four-frame comic Manga were investigated by fMRI in each step of humor comprehension. The neural substrates underlying the amusing effects in response to funny and mixed order manga were compared. In accordance with the time course of the four frames, fMRI activations changed serially. Beginning with the second frame (development scene), activation of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) was observed, followed by activations in the temporal and frontal areas during viewing of the third frame (turn scene). For the fourth frame (punch line), strong increased activations were confirmed in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and cerebellum. Interestingly, distinguishable activation differences in the cerebellum between funny and non-funny conditions were also found for the fourth frame. These findings suggest that humor comprehension evokes activation that initiates in the TPJ and expands to the MPFC and cerebellum at the convergence level.

  16. Clinical application of fMRI: Activation of the motor cortex in an LIS patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, H.; Popp, C.A.; Song, A.W.; Kennedy, P.R.

    1999-01-01

    Patients suffering from the Locked-in Syndrome are completely paralyzed over their entire body, while their brain retains full consciousness. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a method applied to identify those areas of the brain where activities of neurons indicate motor performance, and which might be electronically stimulated and used for controlling electronic aids expressing intended movements of the patient. (orig./CB) [de

  17. The spinning dancer illusion and spontaneous brain fluctuations: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Byron; Guillen, Magno; Marquez, Juan Camilo

    2014-01-01

    The brain activation associated with the Spinning Dancer Illusion, a cognitive visual illusion, is not entirely known. Inferences from other study modalities point to the involvement of the dorso-parieto-occipital areas in the spontaneous switchings of perception in other bistable non-kinetic illusions. fMRI is a mature technique used to investigate the brain responses associated with mental changes. Resting-state fMRI is a novel technique that may help ascertain the effects of spontaneous brain changes in the top-down regulation of visual perception. The purpose of this report is to describe the brain activation associated with the subjective illusory changes of perception of a kinetic bistable stimulus. We hypothesize that there is a relationship between the perception phases with the very slow cortical spontaneous fluctuations, recently described. A single normal subject who was trained to produce voluntarily perception phase switches underwent a series of fMRI studies whose blocks were either defined post-hoc or accordingly with a predefined timeline to assess spontaneous and voluntarily evoked visual perception switches, respectively. Correlation of findings with resting-state fMRI and independent component analysis of the task series was sought. Phases of the rotation direction were found associated with right parietal activity. Independent component analysis of the task series and their comparison with basal resting-state components suggest that this activity is related to one of the very slow spontaneous brain fluctuations. The spontaneous fluctuations of the cortical activity may explain the subjective changes in perception of direction of the Spinning Dancer Illusion. This observation is a proof-of-principle, suggesting that the spontaneous brain oscillations may influence top-down sensory regulation.

  18. Global integration of local color differences in transparency perception: An fMRI study.

    OpenAIRE

    Dojat, Michel; Piettre, Loÿs; Delon-Martin, Chantal; Pachot-Clouard, Mathilde; Segebarth, Christoph; Knoblauch, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    In normal viewing, the visual system effortlessly assigns approximately constant attributes of color and shape to perceived objects. A fundamental component of this process is the compensation for illuminant variations and intervening media to recover reflectance properties of natural surfaces. We exploited the phenomenon of transparency perception to explore what cortical regions are implicated in such processes, using fMRI. By manipulating the coherence of local color differences around a r...

  19. Acute Cannabis Intoxication and the Brain's Response to Visual Erotica: An Fmri Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Androvičová, R.; Horáček, J.; Tintěra, J.; Rydlo, J.; Ježová, D.; Balíková, M.; Hložek, T.; Mikšátková, P.; Kuchař, M.; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Roman, M.; Tomíček, P.; Viktorínová, M.; Tylš, F.; Páleníček, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 5 (2017), e253-e253 ISSN 1743-6095. [Congress of the World Association for Sexual Health /23./. 28.05.2017-31.05.2017, Prague] Grant - others:GA MV(CZ) VG20122015080; GA MZd NT13145; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1611 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : fMRI * cannabis * sexuality Subject RIV: FH - Neurology http://www.jsm.jsexmed.org/article/S1743-6095(17)30689-6/pdf

  20. Change detection in children with autism: an auditory event-related fMRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Gomot, M; Bernard, FA; Davis, MH; Belmonte, MK; Ashwin, C; Bullmore, ET; Baron-Cohen, S

    2006-01-01

    Autism involves impairments in communication and social interaction, as well as high levels of repetitive, stereotypic and ritualistic behaviours, and extreme resistance to change. This latter dimension, whilst required for a diagnosis, has received less research attention. We hypothesise that this extreme resistance to change in autism is rooted in atypical processing of unexpected stimuli. We tested this using auditory event-related fMRI to determine regional brain activity associated with ...

  1. Cognitive dissonance induction in everyday life: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jan; Byrne, Mark; Kehoe, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explored the neural substrates of cognitive dissonance during dissonance "induction." A novel task was developed based on the results of a separate item selection study (n = 125). Items were designed to generate dissonance by prompting participants to reflect on everyday personal experiences that were inconsistent with values they had expressed support for. One experimental condition (dissonance) and three control conditions (justification, consonance, and non-self-related inconsistency) were used for comparison. Items of all four types were presented to each participant (n = 14) in a randomized design. The fMRI analysis used a whole-brain approach focusing on the moments dissonance was induced. Results showed that in comparison with the control conditions the dissonance experience led to higher levels of activation in several brain regions. Specifically dissonance was associated with increased neural activation in key brain regions including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus, and precuneus. This supports current perspectives that emphasize the role of anterior cingulate and insula in dissonance processing. Less extensive activation in the prefrontal cortex than in some previous studies is consistent with this study's emphasis on dissonance induction, rather than reduction. This article also contains a short review and comparison with other fMRI studies of cognitive dissonance.

  2. Probing the Interoceptive Network by Listening to Heartbeats: An fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina I Kleint

    Full Text Available Exposure to cues of homeostatic relevance (i.e. heartbeats is supposed to increase the allocation of attentional resources towards the cue, due to its importance for self-regulatory, interoceptive processes. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study aimed at determining whether listening to heartbeats is accompanied by activation in brain areas associated with interoception, particularly the insular cortex. Brain activity was measured with fMRI during cue-exposure in 36 subjects while listening to heartbeats vs. sinus tones. Autonomic markers (skin conductance and subjective measures of state and trait anxiety were assessed. Stimulation with heartbeat sounds triggered activation in brain areas commonly associated with the processing of interoceptive information, including bilateral insular cortices, the inferior frontal operculum, and the middle frontal gyrus. A psychophysiological interaction analysis indicated a functional connectivity between the middle frontal gyrus (seed region and bilateral insular cortices, the left amygdala and the supplementary motor area. The magnitude of neural activation in the right anterior insular cortex was positively associated with autonomic arousal. The present findings indicate that listening to heartbeats induced activity in areas of the interoception network as well as changes in psychophysiological arousal and subjective emotional experience. As this approach constitutes a promising method for studying interoception in the fMRI environment, a clinical application in anxiety prone populations should be addressed by future studies.

  3. Modality Specific Cerebro-Cerebellar Activations in Verbal Working Memory: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Kirschen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbal working memory (VWM engages frontal and temporal/parietal circuits subserving the phonological loop, as well as, superior and inferior cerebellar regions which have projections from these neocortical areas. Different cerebro-cerebellar circuits may be engaged for integrating aurally- and visually-presented information for VWM. The present fMRI study investigated load (2, 4, or 6 letters and modality (auditory and visual dependent cerebro-cerebellar VWM activation using a Sternberg task. FMRI revealed modality-independent activations in left frontal (BA 6/9/44, insular, cingulate (BA 32, and bilateral inferior parietal/supramarginal (BA 40 regions, as well as in bilateral superior (HVI and right inferior (HVIII cerebellar regions. Visual presentation evoked prominent activations in right superior (HVI/CrusI cerebellum, bilateral occipital (BA19 and left parietal (BA7/40 cortex while auditory presentation showed robust activations predominately in bilateral temporal regions (BA21/22. In the cerebellum, we noted a visual to auditory emphasis of function progressing from superior to inferior and from lateral to medial regions. These results extend our previous findings of fMRI activation in cerebro-cerebellar networks during VWM, and demonstrate both modality dependent commonalities and differences in activations with increasing memory load.

  4. Modality Specific Cerebro-Cerebellar Activations in Verbal Working Memory: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschen, Matthew P.; Chen, S. H. Annabel; Desmond, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Verbal working memory (VWM) engages frontal and temporal/parietal circuits subserving the phonological loop, as well as, superior and inferior cerebellar regions which have projections from these neocortical areas. Different cerebro-cerebellar circuits may be engaged for integrating aurally- and visually-presented information for VWM. The present fMRI study investigated load (2, 4, or 6 letters) and modality (auditory and visual) dependent cerebro-cerebellar VWM activation using a Sternberg task. FMRI revealed modality-independent activations in left frontal (BA 6/9/44), insular, cingulate (BA 32), and bilateral inferior parietal/supramarginal (BA 40) regions, as well as in bilateral superior (HVI) and right inferior (HVIII) cerebellar regions. Visual presentation evoked prominent activations in right superior (HVI/CrusI) cerebellum, bilateral occipital (BA19) and left parietal (BA7/40) cortex while auditory presentation showed robust activations predominately in bilateral temporal regions (BA21/22). In the cerebellum, we noted a visual to auditory emphasis of function progressing from superior to inferior and from lateral to medial regions. These results extend our previous findings of fMRI activation in cerebro-cerebellar networks during VWM, and demonstrate both modality dependent commonalities and differences in activations with increasing memory load. PMID:20714061

  5. A word expressing affective pain activates the anterior cingulate cortex in the human brain: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Naoyuki; Osaka, Mariko; Morishita, Masanao; Kondo, Hirohito; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2004-08-12

    We present an fMRI study demonstrating that an onomatopoeia word highly suggestive of subjective pain, heard by the ear, significantly activates the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) while hearing non-sense words that did not imply affective pain under the same task does not activate this area in humans. We concluded that the ACC would be a pivotal locus for perceiving affective pain evoked by an onomatopoeia word that implied affective pain closely associated with the unpleasantness of pain. We suggest that the pain affect sustained by pain unpleasantness may depend on ACC-prefrontal cortical interactions that modify cognitive evaluation of emotions associated with word-induced pain.

  6. Evidence for thalamic involvement in the thermal grill illusion: an FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Lindstedt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Perceptual illusions play an important role in untangling neural mechanisms underlying conscious phenomena. The thermal grill illusion (TGI has been suggested as a promising model for exploring percepts involved in neuropathic pain, such as cold-allodynia (pain arising from contact with innocuous cold. The TGI is an unpleasant/painful sensation from touching juxtapositioned bars of cold and warm innocuous temperatures. AIM: To develop an MRI-compatible TGI-unit and explore the supraspinal correlates of the illusion, using fMRI, in a group of healthy volunteers. METHODS: We constructed a TGI-thermode allowing the rapid presentation of warm(41°C, cold(18°C and interleaved(41°C+18°C = TGI temperatures in an fMRI-environment. Twenty volunteers were tested. The affective-motivational ("unpleasantness" and sensory-disciminatory ("pain-intensity" dimensions of each respective stimulus were rated. Functional images were analyzed at a corrected α-level <0.05. RESULTS: The TGI was rated as significantly more unpleasant and painful than stimulation with each of its constituent temperatures. Also, the TGI was rated as significantly more unpleasant than painful. Thermal stimulation versus neutral baseline revealed bilateral activations of the anterior insulae and fronto-parietal regions. Unlike its constituent temperatures the TGI displayed a strong activation of the right (contralateral thalamus. Exploratory contrasts at a slightly more liberal threshold-level also revealed a TGI-activation of the right mid/anterior insula, correlating with ratings of unpleasantness (rho = 0.31. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first fMRI-study of the TGI. The activation of the anterior insula is consistent with this region's putative role in processing of homeostatically relevant feeling-states. Our results constitute the first neurophysiologic evidence of thalamic involvement in the TGI. Similar thalamic activity

  7. Predictors of lower-extremity amputation in patients with an infected diabetic foot ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickwell, Kristy; Siersma, Volkert; Kars, Marleen; Apelqvist, Jan; Bakker, Karel; Edmonds, Michael; Holstein, Per; Jirkovská, Alexandra; Jude, Edward; Mauricio, Didac; Piaggesi, Alberto; Ragnarson Tennvall, Gunnel; Reike, Heinrich; Spraul, Maximilian; Uccioli, Luigi; Urbancic, Vilma; van Acker, Kristien; van Baal, Jeff; Schaper, Nicolaas

    2015-05-01

    Infection commonly complicates diabetic foot ulcers and is associated with a poor outcome. In a cohort of individuals with an infected diabetic foot ulcer, we aimed to determine independent predictors of lower-extremity amputation and the predictive value for amputation of the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF) classification system and to develop a risk score for predicting amputation. We prospectively studied 575 patients with an infected diabetic foot ulcer presenting to 1 of 14 diabetic foot clinics in 10 European countries. Among these patients, 159 (28%) underwent an amputation. Independent risk factors for amputation were as follows: periwound edema, foul smell, (non)purulent exudate, deep ulcer, positive probe-to-bone test, pretibial edema, fever, and elevated C-reactive protein. Increasing IWGDF severity of infection also independently predicted amputation. We developed a risk score for any amputation and for amputations excluding the lesser toes (including the variables sex, pain on palpation, periwound edema, ulcer size, ulcer depth, and peripheral arterial disease) that predicted amputation better than the IWGDF system (area under the ROC curves 0.80, 0.78, and 0.67, respectively). For individuals with an infected diabetic foot ulcer, we identified independent predictors of amputation, validated the prognostic value of the IWGDF classification system, and developed a new risk score for amputation that can be readily used in daily clinical practice. Our risk score may have better prognostic accuracy than the IWGDF system, the only currently available system, but our findings need to be validated in other cohorts. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  8. Walk-related mimic word activates the extrastriate visual cortex in the human brain: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Naoyuki

    2009-03-02

    I present an fMRI study demonstrating that a mimic word highly suggestive of human walking, heard by the ear with eyes closed, significantly activates the visual cortex located in extrastriate occipital region (BA19, 18) and superior temporal sulcus (STS) while hearing non-sense words that do not imply walk under the same task does not activate these areas in humans. I concluded that BA19 and 18 would be a critical region for generating visual images of walking and related intentional stance, respectively, evoked by an onomatopoeia word that implied walking.

  9. An fMRI Study Dissociating Distance Measures Computed by Broca’s Area in Movement Processing: Clause boundary vs Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eSanti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies of sentence comprehension suggest that processing long-distance dependencies is subject to interference effects when Noun Phrases (NP similar to the dependency head intervene the dependency. Neuroimaging studies converge in localizing such effects to Broca’s area, showing that activity in Broca’s area increases with the number of NP interveners crossed by a moved NP of the same type. To test if NP interference effects are modulated by adding an intervening clause boundary, which should by hypothesis increase the number of successive-cyclic movements, we conducted an fMRI study contrasting NP interveners with clausal (CP interveners. Our design thus had two components: (I the number of NP interveners crossed by movement was parametrically modulated; (II CP-intervention was contrasted with NP-intervention. The number of NP interveners parametrically modulated a cluster straddling left BA44/45 of Broca’s area, replicating earlier studies. Adding an intervening clause boundary did not significantly modulate the size of the NP interference effect in Broca’s area. Yet, such an interaction effect was observed in the Superior Frontal Gyrus (SFG. Therefore, the involvement of Broca’s area in processing syntactic movement is best captured by memory mechanisms affected by a grammatically instantiated type-identity (ie, NP intervention.

  10. Proximal Tibia Bone Graft: An alternative Donor Source especially for Foot and Ankle Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia TY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the many donor sites for harvesting autologous bone graft, the iliac crest has been the most commonly used. However, for foot and ankle procedures the proximal tibia has gained popularity as an alternative donor site due to its anatomic proximity to the primary surgical site. In this article we evaluated the possible complications associated with harvesting proximal tibia bone graft. Our study showed the low incidence of morbidity in harvesting proximal tibia bone graft, thereby providing a good alternative donor for foot and ankle procedures.

  11. Multimodal investigation of fMRI and fNIRS derived breath hold BOLD signals with an expanded balloon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emir, U E; Ozturk, C; Akin, A

    2008-01-01

    Multimodal investigation of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals, using both functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), may give further insight to the underlying physiological principles and the detailed transient dynamics of the vascular response. Utilizing a breath hold task (BHT), we measured deoxy-hemoglobin (HbR) and oxy-hemoglobin (HbO) changes via fNIRS and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) changes by fMRI. Measurements were taken in four volunteers asynchronously and carefully aligned for comparative analysis. In order to describe the main stimulus in BHT, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO 2 ) parameter was integrated into the balloon model as the driving function of cerebral blood flow (CBF) which led to the development of an expanded balloon model (EBM). During BHT, the increase in HbR was observed later than the BOLD peak and coincided temporally with its post-stimulus undershoot. Further investigation of these transients with a PaCO 2 integrated balloon model suggests that post-stimulus undershoot measured by fMRI is dominated by slow return of cerebral blood volume (CBV). This was confirmed by fNIRS measurements. In addition, the BOLD signal decreased with the increase of the initial level of PaCO 2 derived from EBM, indicating an effect of basal CBF level on the BOLD signal. In conclusion, a multimodal approach with an appropriate biophysical model gave a comprehensive description of the hemodynamic response during BHT

  12. Functional anatomy of the masking level difference, an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Wack

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Masking level differences (MLDs are differences in the hearing threshold for the detection of a signal presented in a noise background, where either the phase of the signal or noise is reversed between ears. We use N0/Nπ to denote noise presented in-phase/out-of-phase between ears and S0/Sπ to denote a 500 Hz sine wave signal as in/out-of-phase. Signal detection level for the noise/signal combinations N0Sπ and NπS0 is typically 10-20 dB better than for N0S0. All combinations have the same spectrum, level, and duration of both the signal and the noise. METHODS: Ten participants (5 female, age: 22-43, with N0Sπ-N0S0 MLDs greater than 10 dB, were imaged using a sparse BOLD fMRI sequence, with a 9 second gap (1 second quiet preceding stimuli. Band-pass (400-600 Hz noise and an enveloped signal (.25 second tone burst, 50% duty-cycle were used to create the stimuli. Brain maps of statistically significant regions were formed from a second-level analysis using SPM5. RESULTS: The contrast NπS0- N0Sπ had significant regions of activation in the right pulvinar, corpus callosum, and insula bilaterally. The left inferior frontal gyrus had significant activation for contrasts N0Sπ-N0S0 and NπS0-N0S0. The contrast N0S0-N0Sπ revealed a region in the right insula, and the contrast N0S0-NπS0 had a region of significance in the left insula. CONCLUSION: Our results extend the view that the thalamus acts as a gating mechanism to enable dichotic listening, and suggest that MLD processing is accomplished through thalamic communication with the insula, which communicate across the corpus callosum to either enhance or diminish the binaural signal (depending on the MLD condition. The audibility improvement of the signal with both MLD conditions is likely reflected by activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus, a late stage in the what/where model of auditory processing.

  13. An fMRI investigation of the relationship between future imagination and cognitive flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R P; Wiebels, K; Sumner, R L; van Mulukom, V; Grady, C L; Schacter, D L; Addis, D R

    2017-01-27

    While future imagination is largely considered to be a cognitive process grounded in default mode network activity, studies have shown that future imagination recruits regions in both default mode and frontoparietal control networks. In addition, it has recently been shown that the ability to imagine the future is associated with cognitive flexibility, and that tasks requiring cognitive flexibility result in increased coupling of the default mode network with frontoparietal control and salience networks. In the current study, we investigated the neural correlates underlying the association between cognitive flexibility and future imagination in two ways. First, we experimentally varied the degree of cognitive flexibility required during future imagination by manipulating the disparateness of episodic details contributing to imagined events. To this end, participants generated episodic details (persons, locations, objects) within three social spheres; during fMRI scanning they were presented with sets of three episodic details all taken from the same social sphere (Congruent condition) or different social spheres (Incongruent condition) and required to imagine a future event involving the three details. We predicted that, relative to the Congruent condition, future simulation in the Incongruent condition would be associated with increased activity in regions of the default mode, frontoparietal and salience networks. Second, we hypothesized that individual differences in cognitive flexibility, as measured by performance on the Alternate Uses Task, would correspond to individual differences in the brain regions recruited during future imagination. A task partial least squares (PLS) analysis showed that the Incongruent condition resulted in an increase in activity in regions in salience networks (e.g. the insula) but, contrary to our prediction, reduced activity in many regions of the default mode network (including the hippocampus). A subsequent functional

  14. An fMRI study of concreteness effects during spoken word recognition in aging. Preservation or attenuation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy eRoxbury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether healthy aging influences concreteness effects (ie. the processing advantage seen for concrete over abstract words and its associated neural mechanisms. We conducted an fMRI study on young and older healthy adults performing auditory lexical decisions on concrete versus abstract words. We found that spoken comprehension of concrete and abstract words appears relatively preserved for healthy older individuals, including the concreteness effect. This preserved performance was supported by altered activity in left hemisphere regions including the inferior and middle frontal gyri, angular gyrus, and fusiform gyrus. This pattern is consistent with age-related compensatory mechanisms supporting spoken word processing.

  15. Cortical Activation during Landmark-Centered vs. Gaze-Centered Memory of Saccade Targets in the Human: An FMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ying; Crawford, J. D.

    2017-01-01

    A remembered saccade target could be encoded in egocentric coordinates such as gaze-centered, or relative to some external allocentric landmark that is independent of the target or gaze (landmark-centered). In comparison to egocentric mechanisms, very little is known about such a landmark-centered representation. Here, we used an event-related fMRI design to identify brain areas supporting these two types of spatial coding (i.e., landmark-centered vs. gaze-centered) for target memory during t...

  16. Induction of electromotive force by an autonomously moving magnetic bot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailapu, Sunil Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Arun

    2014-02-03

    We report the observation of the induction of electromotive force (emf) into a Faraday coil by an autonomously moving composite magnetic particle in aqueous medium. The particle consisted of a micron-sized polymer sphere, which was decorated with catalytic Pd nanoparticles (NPs) and attached to a micron-scale (N-42 grade) rare-earth magnet. The Pd NPs catalytically decomposed H2 O2 to generate O2 , resulting in buoyancy-driven vertical motion of the particle, while the micromagnet induced emf during the flight. Because a small volume of ethanol was layered on top of the liquid, the bubble burst when the particle ascended to the top and thus nearly continuous vertical motion was achieved. Spikes of alternating electrical signal could be observed up to 20 times per minute. The signal was sufficiently strong to illuminate light-emitting diodes following appropriate amplification. This distinctive approach is expected to pave the way to developing synthetic bots which are autonomously propelled, generating their own signal for running complex circuitry. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Real-time fMRI pattern decoding and neurofeedback using FRIEND: an FSL-integrated BCI toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, João R; Basilio, Rodrigo; Paiva, Fernando F; Garrido, Griselda J; Bramati, Ivanei E; Bado, Patricia; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Zahn, Roland; Moll, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The demonstration that humans can learn to modulate their own brain activity based on feedback of neurophysiological signals opened up exciting opportunities for fundamental and applied neuroscience. Although EEG-based neurofeedback has been long employed both in experimental and clinical investigation, functional MRI (fMRI)-based neurofeedback emerged as a promising method, given its superior spatial resolution and ability to gauge deep cortical and subcortical brain regions. In combination with improved computational approaches, such as pattern recognition analysis (e.g., Support Vector Machines, SVM), fMRI neurofeedback and brain decoding represent key innovations in the field of neuromodulation and functional plasticity. Expansion in this field and its applications critically depend on the existence of freely available, integrated and user-friendly tools for the neuroimaging research community. Here, we introduce FRIEND, a graphic-oriented user-friendly interface package for fMRI neurofeedback and real-time multivoxel pattern decoding. The package integrates routines for image preprocessing in real-time, ROI-based feedback (single-ROI BOLD level and functional connectivity) and brain decoding-based feedback using SVM. FRIEND delivers an intuitive graphic interface with flexible processing pipelines involving optimized procedures embedding widely validated packages, such as FSL and libSVM. In addition, a user-defined visual neurofeedback module allows users to easily design and run fMRI neurofeedback experiments using ROI-based or multivariate classification approaches. FRIEND is open-source and free for non-commercial use. Processing tutorials and extensive documentation are available.

  18. Topologic analysis and comparison of brain activation in children with epilepsy versus controls: an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oweis, Khalid J.; Berl, Madison M.; Gaillard, William D.; Duke, Elizabeth S.; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Loew, Murray H.; Zara, Jason M.

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes the development of novel computer-aided analysis algorithms to identify the language activation patterns at a certain Region of Interest (ROI) in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Previous analysis techniques have been used to compare typical and pathologic activation patterns in fMRI images resulting from identical tasks but none of them analyzed activation topographically in a quantitative manner. This paper presents new analysis techniques and algorithms capable of identifying a pattern of language activation associated with localization related epilepsy. fMRI images of 64 healthy individuals and 31 patients with localization related epilepsy have been studied and analyzed on an ROI basis. All subjects are right handed with normal MRI scans and have been classified into three age groups (4-6, 7-9, 10-12 years). Our initial efforts have focused on investigating activation in the Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus (LIFG). A number of volumetric features have been extracted from the data. The LIFG has been cut into slices and the activation has been investigated topographically on a slice by slice basis. Overall, a total of 809 features have been extracted, and correlation analysis was applied to eliminate highly correlated features. Principal Component analysis was then applied to account only for major components in the data and One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) has been applied to test for significantly different features between normal and patient groups. Twenty Nine features have were found to be significantly different (p<0.05) between patient and control groups

  19. Real-time fMRI pattern decoding and neurofeedback using FRIEND: an FSL-integrated BCI toolbox.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João R Sato

    Full Text Available The demonstration that humans can learn to modulate their own brain activity based on feedback of neurophysiological signals opened up exciting opportunities for fundamental and applied neuroscience. Although EEG-based neurofeedback has been long employed both in experimental and clinical investigation, functional MRI (fMRI-based neurofeedback emerged as a promising method, given its superior spatial resolution and ability to gauge deep cortical and subcortical brain regions. In combination with improved computational approaches, such as pattern recognition analysis (e.g., Support Vector Machines, SVM, fMRI neurofeedback and brain decoding represent key innovations in the field of neuromodulation and functional plasticity. Expansion in this field and its applications critically depend on the existence of freely available, integrated and user-friendly tools for the neuroimaging research community. Here, we introduce FRIEND, a graphic-oriented user-friendly interface package for fMRI neurofeedback and real-time multivoxel pattern decoding. The package integrates routines for image preprocessing in real-time, ROI-based feedback (single-ROI BOLD level and functional connectivity and brain decoding-based feedback using SVM. FRIEND delivers an intuitive graphic interface with flexible processing pipelines involving optimized procedures embedding widely validated packages, such as FSL and libSVM. In addition, a user-defined visual neurofeedback module allows users to easily design and run fMRI neurofeedback experiments using ROI-based or multivariate classification approaches. FRIEND is open-source and free for non-commercial use. Processing tutorials and extensive documentation are available.

  20. Investigating Inhibitory Control in Children with Epilepsy: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Regina L.; Velanova, Katerina; Luna, Beatriz; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Gaillard, William D.; Asato, Miya R.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Deficits in executive function are increasingly noted in children with epilepsy and have been associated with poor academic and psychosocial outcomes. Impaired inhibitory control contributes to executive dysfunction in children with epilepsy; however, its neuroanatomic basis has not yet been investigated. We used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to probe the integrity of activation in brain regions underlying inhibitory control in children with epilepsy. Methods This cross-sectional study consisted of 34 children aged 8 to 17 years: 17 with well-controlled epilepsy and 17 age-and sex-matched controls. Participants performed the antisaccade (AS) task, representative of inhibitory control, during fMRI scanning. We compared AS performance during neutral and reward task conditions and evaluated task-related blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation. Results Children with epilepsy demonstrated impaired AS performance compared to controls during both neutral (non-reward) and reward trials, but exhibited significant task improvement during reward trials. Post-hoc analysis revealed that younger patients made more errors than older patients and all controls. fMRI results showed preserved activation in task-relevant regions in patients and controls, with the exception of increased activation in the left posterior cingulate gyrus in patients specifically with generalized epilepsy across neutral and reward trials. Significance Despite impaired inhibitory control, children with epilepsy accessed typical neural pathways as did their peers without epilepsy. Children with epilepsy showed improved behavioral performance in response to the reward condition, suggesting potential benefits of the use of incentives in cognitive remediation. PMID:25223606

  1. Material specific lateralization of medial temporal lobe function: An fMRI investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Marshall A; Hornberger, Michael; Piguet, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    The theory of material specific lateralization of memory function posits that left and right MTL regions are asymmetrically involved in mnemonic processing of verbal and nonverbal material respectively. Lesion and functional imaging (fMRI) studies provide robust evidence for a left MTL asymmetry in the verbal memory domain. Evidence for a right MTL/nonverbal asymmetry is not as robust. A handful of fMRI studies have investigated this issue but have generally utilised nonverbal stimuli which are amenable to semantic elaboration. This fMRI study aimed to investigate the neural correlates of recognition memory processing in 20 healthy young adults (mean age = 26 years) for verbal stimuli and nonverbal stimuli that were specifically designed to minimize verbalisation. Analyses revealed that the neural correlates of recognition memory processing for verbal and nonverbal stimuli were differentiable and asymmetrically recruited the left and right MTL respectively. The right perirhinal cortex and hippocampus were preferentially involved in successful recognition memory of items devoid of semantic information. In contrast, the left anterior hippocampus was preferentially involved in successful recognition memory of stimuli which contained semantic meaning. These results suggest that the left MTL is preferentially involved in mnemonic processing of verbal/semantic information. In contrast, the right MTL is preferentially involved in visual/non-semantic mnemonic processing. We propose that during development, the left MTL becomes specialised for verbal mnemonic processing due to its proximity with left lateralised cortical language processing areas while visual/non-semantic mnemonic processing gets 'crowded out' to become predominantly, but not completely, the domain of the right MTL. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Age differences in the motor control of speech: An fMRI study of healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pascale; Sato, Marc; Deschamps, Isabelle

    2017-05-01

    Healthy aging is associated with a decline in cognitive, executive, and motor processes that are concomitant with changes in brain activation patterns, particularly at high complexity levels. While speech production relies on all these processes, and is known to decline with age, the mechanisms that underlie these changes remain poorly understood, despite the importance of communication on everyday life. In this cross-sectional group study, we investigated age differences in the neuromotor control of speech production by combining behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Twenty-seven healthy adults underwent fMRI while performing a speech production task consisting in the articulation of nonwords of different sequential and motor complexity. Results demonstrate strong age differences in movement time (MT), with longer and more variable MT in older adults. The fMRI results revealed extensive age differences in the relationship between BOLD signal and MT, within and outside the sensorimotor system. Moreover, age differences were also found in relation to sequential complexity within the motor and attentional systems, reflecting both compensatory and de-differentiation mechanisms. At very high complexity level (high motor complexity and high sequence complexity), age differences were found in both MT data and BOLD response, which increased in several sensorimotor and executive control areas. Together, these results suggest that aging of motor and executive control mechanisms may contribute to age differences in speech production. These findings highlight the importance of studying functionally relevant behavior such as speech to understand the mechanisms of human brain aging. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2751-2771, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Brain responses to mechanical rectal stimulation in patients with faecal incontinence: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbagheri, N; Hatton, S; Ng, K-S; Lagopoulos, J; Gladman, M A

    2017-10-01

    Continence is dependent on anorectal-brain interactions. Consequently, aberrations of the brain-gut axis may be important in the pathophysiology of faecal incontinence (FI) in certain patients. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of recording brain responses to rectal mechanical stimulation in patients with FI using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A prospective, cohort pilot study was performed to assess brain responses during rectal stimulation in 14 patients [four men, mean (SD) age 62 (15) years]. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals were measured by fMRI during rest and mechanical distension, involving random repetitions of isobaric phasic rectal distensions at fixed (15 and 45 mmHg) and variable (10% above sensory perception threshold) pressures. Increases in BOLD signals in response to high pressure rectal distension (45 mmHg) and maximum toleration were observed in the cingulate gyrus, thalamus, insular cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, cerebellum, caudate nucleus, supramarginal gyrus, putamen and amygdala. Additionally, activation of the supplementary motor cortex and caudate nucleus with inconsistent activity in the frontal lobe was observed. This study has demonstrated the feasibility of recording brain responses to rectal mechanical stimulation using fMRI in patients with FI, revealing activity in widespread areas of the brain involved in visceral sensory processing. The observed activity in the supplementary motor cortex and caudate nucleus, with relative paucity of activity in the frontal lobes, warrants investigation in future studies to determine whether aberrations in cerebral processing of rectal stimuli play a role in the pathogenesis of FI. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  4. Distinguishing the processing of gestures from signs in deaf individuals: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Fatima T; Patkin, Debra J; Thai-Van, Hung; Braun, Allen R; Horwitz, Barry

    2009-06-18

    Manual gestures occur on a continuum from co-speech gesticulations to conventionalized emblems to language signs. Our goal in the present study was to understand the neural bases of the processing of gestures along such a continuum. We studied four types of gestures, varying along linguistic and semantic dimensions: linguistic and meaningful American Sign Language (ASL), non-meaningful pseudo-ASL, meaningful emblematic, and nonlinguistic, non-meaningful made-up gestures. Pre-lingually deaf, native signers of ASL participated in the fMRI study and performed two tasks while viewing videos of the gestures: a visuo-spatial (identity) discrimination task and a category discrimination task. We found that the categorization task activated left ventral middle and inferior frontal gyrus, among other regions, to a greater extent compared to the visual discrimination task, supporting the idea of semantic-level processing of the gestures. The reverse contrast resulted in enhanced activity of bilateral intraparietal sulcus, supporting the idea of featural-level processing (analogous to phonological-level processing of speech sounds) of the gestures. Regardless of the task, we found that brain activation patterns for the nonlinguistic, non-meaningful gestures were the most different compared to the ASL gestures. The activation patterns for the emblems were most similar to those of the ASL gestures and those of the pseudo-ASL were most similar to the nonlinguistic, non-meaningful gestures. The fMRI results provide partial support for the conceptualization of different gestures as belonging to a continuum and the variance in the fMRI results was best explained by differences in the processing of gestures along the semantic dimension.

  5. Measuring Quality of Life in Stroke Subjects Receiving an Implanted Neural Prosthesis for Drop Foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kottink, Anke I.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina Gerarda Maria; Kottink, A.I.R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to determine if the treatment of a drop foot by means of an implantable two-channel peroneal nerve stimulator improves health-related quality of life (HRQoL). All subjects were measured at baseline and after a follow-up period of 12 and 26 weeks. Twenty-nine stroke survivors with chronic

  6. Foot pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain - foot ... Foot pain may be due to: Aging Being on your feet for long periods of time Being overweight A ... sports activity Trauma The following can cause foot pain: Arthritis and gout . Common in the big toe, ...

  7. The effect of an ankle-foot orthosis in walking ability and coordination by hd patients: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burer, B.; Houdijk, H.; Lamoth, C.; De Boer, K.; Van Den Bogaard, S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: During the swing phase of the gait of HD patients, some patients show an irregular, uncoordinated movement of the foot, or the foot can not be held in dorsal flexion. These symptoms affect the manner of walking and therefore an individual's ability to participate in daily living. In

  8. Studies on the Estimation of Stature from Hand and Foot Length of an Individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Saka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies on the estimation of stature from hand and foot length of an individual are essential study in personal identification. Aim and Objectives: This study is to find out correlation between statures with hand and foot dimensions in both sexes and gender comparison from an individual in Lautech Staff College in Ogbomoso and College ogbomoso and College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Material and Methods: A sample of 140 students and staff; 70 male and 70 female Students and staff of Lautech Staff College in Ogbomoso and College ogbomoso and College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, between 16-35years were considered and measurements were taken for each of the parameters. Gender differences for the two parameters were determined using Student t-test. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r was used to examine the relationship between two anthropometric parameters and standing height (stature. All these measurements were done by using standard anthropometric instruments and standard anthropometric techniques. Results: The findings of the study indicated that the males mean values are not significantly difference when compared with females mean values in all measured parameters. The study showed significant (p<0.001 positive correlation between the stature with hand lengths and foot lengths. The hand and foot length provide accurate and reliable means in establishing the height of an individual. Conclusion: This study will be useful for forensic scientists and anthropologists as well as anatomists in ascertain medico-legal cases

  9. Cerebral responses and role of the prefrontal cortex in conditioned pain modulation: an fMRI study in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Volodymyr B.; Viganò, Alessandro; Noirhomme, Quentin; Bogdanova, Olena V.; Guy, Nathalie; Laureys, Steven; Renshaw, Perry F.; Dallel, Radhouane; Phillips, Christophe; Schoenen, Jean

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying conditioned pain modulation (CPM) are multifaceted. We searched for a link between individual differences in prefrontal cortex activity during multi-trial heterotopic noxious cold conditioning and modulation of the cerebral response to phasic heat pain. In 24 healthy female subjects, we conditioned laser heat stimuli to the left hand by applying alternatively ice-cold or lukewarm compresses to the right foot. We compared pain ratings with cerebral fMRI BOLD responses. We also analyzed the relation between CPM and BOLD changes produced by the heterotopic cold conditioning itself, as well as the impact of anxiety and habituation of cold-pain ratings. Specific cerebral activation was identified in precuneus and left posterior insula/SII, respectively, during early and sustained phases of cold application. During cold conditioning, laser pain decreased (n = 7), increased (n = 10) or stayed unchanged (n = 7). At the individual level, the psychophysical effect was directly proportional to the cold-induced modulation of the laser-induced BOLD response in left posterior insula/SII. The latter correlated with the BOLD response recorded 80 s earlier during the initial 10-s phase of cold application in anterior cingulate, orbitofrontal and lateral prefrontal cortices. High anxiety and habituation of cold pain were associated with greater laser heat-induced pain during heterotopic cold stimulation. The habituation was also linked to the early cold-induced orbitofrontal responses. We conclude that individual differences in conditioned pain modulation are related to different levels of prefrontal cortical activation by the early part of the conditioning stimulus, possibly due to different levels in trait anxiety. PMID:25461267

  10. Visual Mislocalization of Moving Objects in an Audiovisual Event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuke Kawachi

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the influence of an auditory tone on the localization of visual objects in the stream/bounce display (SBD. In this display, two identical visual objects move toward each other, overlap, and then return to their original positions. These objects can be perceived as either streaming through or bouncing off each other. In this study, the closest distance between object centers on opposing trajectories and tone presentation timing (none, 0 ms, ± 90 ms, and ± 390 ms relative to the instant for the closest distance were manipulated. Observers were asked to judge whether the two objects overlapped with each other and whether the objects appeared to stream through, bounce off each other, or reverse their direction of motion. A tone presented at or around the instant of the objects' closest distance biased judgments toward "non-overlapping," and observers overestimated the physical distance between objects. A similar bias toward direction change judgments (bounce and reverse, not stream judgments was also observed, which was always stronger than the non-overlapping bias. Thus, these two types of judgments were not always identical. Moreover, another experiment showed that it was unlikely that this observed mislocalization could be explained by other previously known mislocalization phenomena (i.e., representational momentum, the Fröhlich effect, and a turn-point shift. These findings indicate a new example of crossmodal mislocalization, which can be obtained without temporal offsets between audiovisual stimuli. The mislocalization effect is also specific to a more complex stimulus configuration of objects on opposing trajectories, with a tone that is presented simultaneously. The present study promotes an understanding of relatively complex audiovisual interactions beyond simple one-to-one audiovisual stimuli used in previous studies.

  11. Counterfactual thinking: an fMRI study on changing the past for a better future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoeck, Nicole; Ma, Ning; Ampe, Lisa; Baetens, Kris; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Van Overwalle, Frank

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that a brain network mainly associated with episodic memory has a more general function in imagining oneself in another time, place or perspective (e.g. episodic future thought, theory of mind, default mode). If this is true, counterfactual thinking (e.g. 'If I had left the office earlier, I wouldn't have missed my train.') should also activate this network. Present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explores the common and distinct neural activity of counterfactual and episodic thinking by directly comparing the imagining of upward counterfactuals (creating better outcomes for negative past events) with the re-experiencing of negative past events and the imagining of positive future events. Results confirm that episodic and counterfactual thinking share a common brain network, involving a core memory network (hippocampal area, temporal lobes, midline, and lateral parietal lobes) and prefrontal areas that might be related to mentalizing (medial prefrontal cortex) and performance monitoring (right prefrontal cortex). In contrast to episodic past and future thinking, counterfactual thinking recruits some of these areas more strongly and extensively, and additionally activates the bilateral inferior parietal lobe and posterior medial frontal cortex. We discuss these findings in view of recent fMRI evidence on the working of episodic memory and theory of mind.

  12. Neurobiology of Insight Deficits in Schizophrenia: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shad, Mujeeb U.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has shown insight deficits in schizophrenia to be associated with specific neuroimaging changes (primarily structural) especially in the prefrontal sub-regions. However, little is known about the functional correlates of impaired insight. Seventeen patients with schizophrenia (mean age 40.0±10.3; M/F= 14/3) underwent fMRI on a Philips 3.0 T Achieva system while performing on a self-awareness task containing self- vs. other-directed sentence stimuli. SPM5 was used to process the imaging data. Preprocessing consisted of realignment, coregistration, and normalization, and smoothing. A regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between brain activation in response to self-directed versus other-directed sentence stimuli and average scores on behavioral measures of awareness of symptoms and attribution of symptoms to the illness from Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorders. Family Wise Error correction was employed in the fMRI analysis. Average scores on awareness of symptoms (1 = aware; 5 = unaware) were associated with activation of multiple brain regions, including prefrontal, parietal and limbic areas as well as basal ganglia. However, average scores on correct attribution of symptoms (1 = attribute; 5 = misattribute) were associated with relatively more localized activation of prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia. These findings suggest that unawareness and misattribution of symptoms may have different neurobiological basis in schizophrenia. While symptom unawareness may be a function of a more complex brain network, symptom misattribution may be mediated by specific brain regions. PMID:25957484

  13. Aging affects the interaction between attentional control and source memory: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulas, Michael R; Duarte, Audrey

    2014-12-01

    Age-related source memory impairments may be due, at least in part, to deficits in executive processes mediated by the PFC at both study and test. Behavioral work suggests that providing environmental support at encoding, such as directing attention toward item-source associations, may improve source memory and reduce age-related deficits in the recruitment of these executive processes. The present fMRI study investigated the effects of directed attention and aging on source memory encoding and retrieval. At study, participants were shown pictures of objects. They were either asked to attend to the objects and their color (source) or to their size. At test, participants determined if objects were seen before, and if so, whether they were the same color as previously. Behavioral results showed that direction of attention improved source memory for both groups; however, age-related deficits persisted. fMRI results revealed that, across groups, direction of attention facilitated medial temporal lobe-mediated contextual binding processes during study and attenuated right PFC postretrieval monitoring effects at test. However, persistent age-related source memory deficits may be related to increased recruitment of medial anterior PFC during encoding, indicative of self-referential processing, as well as underrecruitment of lateral anterior PFC-mediated relational processes. Taken together, this study suggests that, even when supported, older adults may fail to selectively encode goal-relevant contextual details supporting source memory performance.

  14. An fMRI Study of Intra-Individual Functional Topography in the Human Cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J. Stoodley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies report cerebellar activation during both motor and non-motor paradigms, and suggest a functional topography within the cerebellum. Sensorimotor tasks activate the anterior lobe, parts of lobule VI, and lobule VIII, whereas higher-level tasks activate lobules VI and VII in the posterior lobe. To determine whether these activation patterns are evident at a single-subject level, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during five tasks investigating sensorimotor (finger tapping, language (verb generation, spatial (mental rotation, working memory (N-back, and emotional processing (viewing images from the International Affective Picture System. Finger tapping activated the ipsilateral anterior lobe (lobules IV-V as well as lobules VI and VIII. Activation during verb generation was found in right lobules VII and VIIIA. Mental rotation activated left-lateralized clusters in lobules VII-VIIIA, VI-Crus I, and midline VIIAt. The N-back task showed bilateral activation in right lobules VI-Crus I and left lobules VIIB-VIIIA. Cerebellar activation was evident bilaterally in lobule VI while viewing arousing vs. neutral images. This fMRI study provides the first proof of principle demonstration that there is topographic organization of motor execution vs. cognitive/emotional domains within the cerebellum of a single individual, likely reflecting the anatomical specificity of cerebro-cerebellar circuits underlying different task domains. Inter-subject variability of motor and non-motor topography remains to be determined.

  15. Compromised fronto-striatal functioning in HIV: an fMRI investigation of semantic event sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melrose, Rebecca J; Tinaz, Sule; Castelo, J Mimi Boer; Courtney, Maureen G; Stern, Chantal E

    2008-04-09

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) damages fronto-striatal regions, and is associated with deficits in executive functioning. We recently developed a semantic event sequencing task based on the Picture Arrangement subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III for use with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and found recruitment of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia in healthy participants. To assess the impact of HIV on the functioning of the basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex, we administered this task to 11 HIV+ and 11 Control participants matched for age and education. Neuropsychological evaluation demonstrated that the HIV+ group had mild impairment in memory retrieval and motor functioning, but was not demented. Morphometric measurements suggested no atrophy in basal ganglia regions. The results of the fMRI analysis revealed hypoactivation of the left caudate, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and bilateral ventral prefrontal cortex in the HIV+ group. Functional connectivity analysis demonstrated less functional connectivity between the caudate and prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia regions in the HIV+ group. In contrast, the HIV+ group demonstrated increased activation of right postcentral/supramarginal gyrus, and greater connectivity between the caudate and this same anterior parietal region. The results of this study extend previous investigations by demonstrating compromised function of the caudate and connected prefrontal regions in HIV during cognition. This disruption of fronto-striatal circuitry likely precedes the development of cognitive impairment in HIV.

  16. Specificity of Esthetic Experience for Artworks: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Dio, Cinzia; Canessa, Nicola; Cappa, Stefano F.; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    In a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, where we investigated the neural correlates of esthetic experience, we found that observing canonical sculptures, relative to sculptures whose proportions had been modified, produced the activation of a network that included the lateral occipital gyrus, precuneus, prefrontal areas, and, most interestingly, the right anterior insula. We interpreted this latter activation as the neural signature underpinning hedonic response during esthetic experience. With the aim of exploring whether this specific hedonic response is also present during the observation of non-art biological stimuli, in the present fMRI study we compared the activations associated with viewing masterpieces of classical sculpture with those produced by the observation of pictures of young athletes. The two stimulus-categories were matched on various factors, including body postures, proportion, and expressed dynamism. The stimuli were presented in two conditions: observation and esthetic judgment. The two stimulus-categories produced a rather similar global activation pattern. Direct comparisons between sculpture and real-body images revealed, however, relevant differences, among which the activation of right antero-dorsal insula during sculptures viewing only. Along with our previous data, this finding suggests that the hedonic state associated with activation of right dorsal anterior insula underpins esthetic experience for artworks. PMID:22121344

  17. Verbal to visual code switching improves working memory in older adults: An fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko eOsaka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of verbal to visual code switching training on working memory performance were investigated in the elderly. Twenty-five elderly people were introduced to a verbal to visual code switching strategy (training group while the other 25 were not (control group. During this strategy training period, participants in the training group practiced focusing their attention on a target word both by drawing the target’s figure and by forming mental images of the target. To explore the neural substrates underlying strategy effects, fMRI was used to measure brain activity of the elderly in both groups while they performed a working memory task (reading span test, RST, before and after the attention training period. RST recognition accuracy was enhanced only in the training group. fMRI data for this group showed increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, a region that typically shows activation in young adults performing the RST. Furthermore, activation was found both in the left and right inferior parietal lobule (IPL and right superior parietal lobule (SPL, while there was no activation in these areas for the control group. These findings suggest that using a strategy of verbal to visual code switching helped the elderly participants to maintain the words in working memory.

  18. Activation on occipital lobe in children with abacus mental calculation training: an fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Xiaojun; Long Jinfeng; Zhao Kunyuan; Li Lixin; Sun Jining; Wang Bin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: By exploring the activation on occipital lobe in children with and without abacus mental calculation training when they engaged in different calculation tasks with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), to identify the possible mechanism of occipital lobe in abacus mental calculation. Methods: fMRI was performed in children trained with and without (sixteen in each group) abacus mental calculation when they engaged in addition, subtraction. multiplication, division, and number-object control judging tasks. The data processing and statistical analysis were performed on SPM 2.0 (statistical parametric mapping 2.0) and the related-brain functional areas were identified. The activation on occipital lobe was observed carefully. The difference in activated areas of occipital lobe was statistically significant between two groups engaged in different tasks of calculations (P<0.01). Result: Bilateral occipital lobe, especially in the cuneus and lingual gyrus, were activated in children trained with abacus mental calculation. The main activated area was lingual gyrus in children without abacus mental calculation. Conclusion: The occipital lobe participates visuospatial processing in the abacus mental calculations. The neuromechanism maybe account for the specific activation in occipital lobe. (authors)

  19. Counterfactual thinking: an fMRI study on changing the past for a better future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Ampe, Lisa; Baetens, Kris; Van Overwalle, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that a brain network mainly associated with episodic memory has a more general function in imagining oneself in another time, place or perspective (e.g. episodic future thought, theory of mind, default mode). If this is true, counterfactual thinking (e.g. ‘If I had left the office earlier, I wouldn’t have missed my train.’) should also activate this network. Present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explores the common and distinct neural activity of counterfactual and episodic thinking by directly comparing the imagining of upward counterfactuals (creating better outcomes for negative past events) with the re-experiencing of negative past events and the imagining of positive future events. Results confirm that episodic and counterfactual thinking share a common brain network, involving a core memory network (hippocampal area, temporal lobes, midline, and lateral parietal lobes) and prefrontal areas that might be related to mentalizing (medial prefrontal cortex) and performance monitoring (right prefrontal cortex). In contrast to episodic past and future thinking, counterfactual thinking recruits some of these areas more strongly and extensively, and additionally activates the bilateral inferior parietal lobe and posterior medial frontal cortex. We discuss these findings in view of recent fMRI evidence on the working of episodic memory and theory of mind. PMID:22403155

  20. Moving a Small Library in an African Setting | Swanepoel | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents ideas and practical experiences gained by the in his involvement in moving some small special and academic libraries. The emphasis is on ways to calculate shelf space, mark and prepare shelves, pack, unpack and re-shelve books and periodicals. Considering the importance and necessity of timely ...

  1. Moving Base Simulation of an ASTOVL Lift-Fan Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Using a generalized simulation model, a moving-base simulation of a lift-fan : short takeoff/vertical landing fighter aircraft was conducted on the Vertical : Motion Simulator at Ames Research Center. Objectives of the experiment were to : (1)assess ...

  2. Cortical inefficiency in patients with unipolar depression: an event-related FMRI study with the Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gerd; Sinsel, Esther; Sobanski, Thomas; Köhler, Sabine; Marinou, Varvara; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Sauer, Heinrich; Schlösser, Ralf G M

    2006-05-15

    The present study is aimed to examine the neuronal correlates of Stroop interference in medication-free patients with major depressive disorder. Sixteen patients fulfilling Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for unipolar depression and 16 healthy control subjects matched for age, gender, and education were included. All subjects underwent an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design with an adapted version of the Stroop task including congruent and incongruent task conditions. The fMRI experiment was conducted on a 1.5 T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner, and item responses were given manually by the subjects. With regard to behavioral performance, patients revealed no differences in both reaction time and accuracy relative to control subjects. With regard to brain activations, direct comparison of patients with control subjects in the interference condition revealed hyperactivity in rostral anterior cingulate gyrus (rACG) and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in depressive patients, which correlated strongly with the Stroop interference. The study provides new evidence for the functioning and dissociation of the anterior cingulate in depressed patients. The greater prefrontal activation may reflect a cortical inefficiency due to hyperactivity in rACG enhancing the cognitive interferences from the emotional state.

  3. Differential neural processing of social exclusion in adolescents with non-suicidal self-injury: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groschwitz, Rebecca C; Plener, Paul L; Groen, Georg; Bonenberger, Martina; Abler, Birgit

    2016-09-30

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is highly prevalent in adolescence and has been suggested as an autonomous diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5). Social rejection is as potential risk-factor for NSSI and depression in adolescence. Objectives of this study were to identify differences in neural processing of social rejection in depressed adolescents with and without co-morbid NSSI and healthy controls. Participants were 28 depressed adolescents (14 with co-morbid NSSI, 79% females) and 15 healthy controls, with an average age of 15.2 years (SD=1.8). Social exclusion was implemented using the Cyberball paradigm 'Cyberball' during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). All participants reported feelings of social exclusion after fMRI scanning. Investigating the effects of NSSI, we found that depressed adolescents with NSSI showed relatively enhanced activation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) compared to depressed adolescents without NSSI and also compared to healthy controls. Results point towards divergent processing of social exclusion in depressed adolescents with NSSI as compared to adolescents with mere depression in brain regions previously related to the processing of social exclusion. This finding of distinct neurophysiological responses may stimulate further research on individual treatment approaches. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. 75 FR 54589 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...] Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine, Live Adenovirus... unlicensed foot-and-mouth disease vaccine, live adenovirus vector. The EA, which is based on a risk analysis... testing following the close of the comment period for this notice unless new substantial issues bearing on...

  5. Foot claudication with plantar flexion as a result of dorsalis pedis artery impingement in an Irish dancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brigitte K; Engelbert, Travis; Turnipseed, William D

    2013-07-01

    Dorsalis pedis artery impingement is an extremely rare cause of foot claudication, with a single case reported in the literature. In this report, we describe the case of a 17-year-old female Irish dancer who presented with intermittent bilateral foot pain and discoloration during active plantar flexion. Copyright © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Processing of targets in smooth or apparent motion along the vertical in the human brain: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Vincenzo; Macaluso, Emiliano; Indovina, Iole; Orban, Guy; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Neural substrates for processing constant speed visual motion have been extensively studied. Less is known about the brain activity patterns when the target speed changes continuously, for instance under the influence of gravity. Using functional MRI (fMRI), here we compared brain responses to accelerating/decelerating targets with the responses to constant speed targets. The target could move along the vertical under gravity (1g), under reversed gravity (-1g), or at constant speed (0g). In the first experiment, subjects observed targets moving in smooth motion and responded to a GO signal delivered at a random time after target arrival. As expected, we found that the timing of the motor responses did not depend significantly on the specific motion law. Therefore brain activity in the contrast between different motion laws was not related to motor timing responses. Average BOLD signals were significantly greater for 1g targets than either 0g or -1g targets in a distributed network including bilateral insulae, left lingual gyrus, and brain stem. Moreover, in these regions, the mean activity decreased monotonically from 1g to 0g and to -1g. In the second experiment, subjects intercepted 1g, 0g, and -1g targets either in smooth motion (RM) or in long-range apparent motion (LAM). We found that the sites in the right insula and left lingual gyrus, which were selectively engaged by 1g targets in the first experiment, were also significantly more active during 1g trials than during -1g trials both in RM and LAM. The activity in 0g trials was again intermediate between that in 1g trials and that in -1g trials. Therefore in these regions the global activity modulation with the law of vertical motion appears to hold for both RM and LAM. Instead, a region in the inferior parietal lobule showed a preference for visual gravitational motion only in LAM but not RM.

  7. The neural circuitry of reward processing in complex social comparison: evidence from an event-related FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Du

    Full Text Available In this study, Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was conducted to investigate the mechanisms by which the brain activity in a complex social comparison context. One true subject and two pseudo-subjects were asked to complete a simple number estimate task at the same time which including upward and downward comparisons. Two categories of social comparison rewards (fair and unfair rewards distributions were mainly presented by comparing the true subject with other two pseudo-subjects. Particularly, there were five conditions of unfair distribution when all the three subjects were correct but received different rewards. Behavioral data indicated that the ability to self-regulate was important in satisfaction judgment when the subject perceived an unfair reward distribution. fMRI data indicated that the interaction between the ventral striatum and the prefrontal cortex was important in self-regulation under specific conditions in complex social comparison, especially under condition of reward processing when there were two different reward values and the subject failed to exhibit upward comparison.

  8. Neural signatures of human fear conditioning: an updated and extended meta-analysis of fMRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullana, M A; Harrison, B J; Soriano-Mas, C; Vervliet, B; Cardoner, N; Àvila-Parcet, A; Radua, J

    2016-04-01

    Classical Pavlovian fear conditioning remains the most widely employed experimental model of fear and anxiety, and continues to inform contemporary pathophysiological accounts of clinical anxiety disorders. Despite its widespread application in human and animal studies, the neurobiological basis of fear conditioning remains only partially understood. Here we provide a comprehensive meta-analysis of human fear-conditioning studies carried out with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), yielding a pooled sample of 677 participants from 27 independent studies. As a distinguishing feature of this meta-analysis, original statistical brain maps were obtained from the authors of 13 of these studies. Our primary analyses demonstrate that human fear conditioning is associated with a consistent and robust pattern of neural activation across a hypothesized genuine network of brain regions resembling existing anatomical descriptions of the 'central autonomic-interoceptive network'. This finding is discussed with a particular emphasis on the neural substrates of conscious fear processing. Our associated meta-analysis of functional deactivations-a scarcely addressed dynamic in fMRI fear-conditioning studies-also suggests the existence of a coordinated brain response potentially underlying the 'safety signal' (that is, non-threat) processing. We attempt to provide an integrated summary on these findings with the view that they may inform ongoing studies of fear-conditioning processes both in healthy and clinical populations, as investigated with neuroimaging and other experimental approaches.

  9. Enhancing insight in scientific problem solving by highlighting the functional features of prototypes: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xin; Cui, Shuai; Li, Wenfu; Yang, Wenjing; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2013-10-09

    Insight can be the first step toward creating a groundbreaking product. As evident in anecdotes and major inventions in history, heuristic events (heuristic prototypes) prompted inventors to acquire insight when solving problems. Bionic imitation in scientific innovation is an example of this kind of problem solving. In particular, heuristic prototypes (e.g., the lotus effect; the very high water repellence exhibited by lotus leaves) help solve insight problems (e.g., non-stick surfaces). We speculated that the biological functional feature of prototypes is a critical factor in inducing insightful scientific problem solving. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we selected scientific innovation problems and utilized "learning prototypes-solving problems" two-phase paradigm to test the supposition. We also explored its neural mechanisms. Functional MRI data showed that the activation of the middle temporal gyrus (MTG, BA 37) and the middle occipital gyrus (MOG, BA 19) were associated with the highlighted functional feature condition. fMRI data also indicated that the MTG (BA 37) could be responsible for the semantic processing of functional features and for the formation of novel associations based on related functions. In addition, the MOG (BA 19) could be involved in the visual imagery of formation and application of function association between the heuristic prototype and problem. Our findings suggest that both semantic processing and visual imagery could be crucial components underlying scientific problem solving. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An FMRI study of the neural systems involved in visually cued auditory top-down spatial and temporal attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlin Li

    Full Text Available Top-down attention to spatial and temporal cues has been thoroughly studied in the visual domain. However, because the neural systems that are important for auditory top-down temporal attention (i.e., attention based on time interval cues remain undefined, the differences in brain activity between directed attention to auditory spatial location (compared with time intervals are unclear. Using fMRI (magnetic resonance imaging, we measured the activations caused by cue-target paradigms by inducing the visual cueing of attention to an auditory target within a spatial or temporal domain. Imaging results showed that the dorsal frontoparietal network (dFPN, which consists of the bilateral intraparietal sulcus and the frontal eye field, responded to spatial orienting of attention, but activity was absent in the bilateral frontal eye field (FEF during temporal orienting of attention. Furthermore, the fMRI results indicated that activity in the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC was significantly stronger during spatial orienting of attention than during temporal orienting of attention, while the DLPFC showed no significant differences between the two processes. We conclude that the bilateral dFPN and the right VLPFC contribute to auditory spatial orienting of attention. Furthermore, specific activations related to temporal cognition were confirmed within the superior occipital gyrus, tegmentum, motor area, thalamus and putamen.

  11. Evidence for the importance of basal ganglia output nuclei in semantic event sequencing: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinaz, Sule; Schendan, Haline E; Schon, Karin; Stern, Chantal E

    2006-01-05

    Semantic event sequencing is the ability to plan ahead and order meaningful events chronologically. To investigate the neural systems supporting this ability, an fMRI picture sequencing task was developed. Participants sequenced a series of four pictures presented in random order based on the temporal relationship among them. A control object discrimination task was designed to be comparable to the sequencing task regarding semantic, visuospatial, and motor processing requirements but without sequencing demands. fMRI revealed significant activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and globus pallidus internal part in the picture sequencing task compared with the control task. The findings suggest that circuits involving the frontal lobe and basal ganglia output nuclei are important for picture sequencing and more generally for the sequential ordering of events. This is consistent with the idea that the basal ganglia output nuclei are critical not only for motor but also for high-level cognitive function, including behaviors involving meaningful information. We suggest that the interaction between the frontal lobes and basal ganglia output nuclei in semantic event sequencing can be generalized to include the sequential ordering of behaviors in which the selective updating of neural representations is the key computation.

  12. The Hand-Foot Skin Reaction and Quality of Life Questionnaire: An Assessment Tool for Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Roger T; Keating, Karen N; Doll, Helen A; Camacho, Fabian

    2015-07-01

    Skin toxicity (hand-foot syndrome/hand-foot skin reaction, HFS/R) related to antineoplastic therapy is a significant issue in oncology practice, with potentially large impacts on health-related quality of life (HRQL). A patient-reported questionnaire, the hand-foot skin reaction and quality of life (HF-QoL) questionnaire was developed to measure the HFS/R symptoms associated with cancer therapeutic agents and their effect on daily activities. The validity and reliability of the HF-QoL questionnaire was tested in a randomized trial of capecitabine with sorafenib/placebo in 223 patients with locally advanced/metastatic breast cancer. Other measures completed included patient ratings of condition severity, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast cancer (FACT-B), and the clinician-rated National Cancer Institute-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI-CTCAE), version 3.0, hand-foot skin reaction grade. The psychometric properties of the HF-QoL tested included structural validity, internal consistency, construct validity, discriminant validity, and responsiveness. Finally, the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was estimated. The HF-QoL instrument comprises a 20-item symptom scale and an 18-item daily activity scale. Each scale demonstrated excellent measurement properties and discriminated between NCI-CTCAE grade and patient-rated condition severity with large effect sizes. The daily activity scale had excellent internal consistency and correlated with the FACT-B and HF-QoL symptom scores. Both HF-QoL scale scores increased linearly with increasing patient-rated condition severity. The MCIDs were estimated as 5 units for daily activities and 8 units for symptoms mean scores. The HF-QoL was sensitive to symptoms and HRQL issues associated with HFS/R among participants treated with capecitabine with and without sorafenib. The HF-QoL appears suitable for assessing the HRQL impairment associated with HFS/R to cancer therapies. Skin

  13. Petroleum producers and Canada's north : an industry moving forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    Efforts were made by northern industries over the last 20 years to reduce their impact on the environment. The minimization of the footprint on the environment was researched and new exploration and production techniques were developed by petroleum companies, so that clean air, clear water, healthy land and abundant wildlife could be maintained in the north. An example of such techniques is provided by directional drilling technology, which enables oil and gas producers to assess reserves under lakes or other sensitive areas without leaving an impact. Everyone in the north benefits from the oil and gas industry as a result of local employment policies, increased government revenues. Job creation is probably the most obvious benefit derived from oil and gas activities in the north. At present, the jobs are mainly concentrated in the seismic field, drilling and support services sector, as the industry is in the exploration stage. As the industry evolves into the development phase, the jobs and business opportunities will also mature. Training programs are being created by the governments of the Northwest Territories and Canada in partnership with the petroleum industry to enable northern residents to take advantage of the new opportunities. The traditional economies of the north will be strengthened by a strong oil and gas industry. Industry and communities must be ready to share their vision of the north to develop a sustainable northern oil and gas industry. Abundant oil and gas resources are located in the Northwest Territories, and numerous challenges make getting the resources and moving them to market difficult. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers has a vision of a strong industry in the north employing local people and where the respect of local knowledge and traditions dominates. The members companies are responsible for the production of 95 per cent of the crude oil and natural gas in Canada. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers has a

  14. Correlates between kinematics and baropodometric measurements for an integrated in-vivo assessment of the segmental foot function in gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomozzi, Claudia; Leardini, Alberto; Caravaggi, Paolo

    2014-08-22

    Baropodometry and multi-segmental foot kinematics are frequently employed to obtain insight into the mechanics of the foot-ground interaction in both basic research and clinical settings. However, nothing hitherto has been reported on the full integration of kinematics with baropodometric parameters, and only a few studies have addressed the association between intersegmental kinematics and plantar loading within specific foot regions. The aim of this study was to understanding the relationships between foot joint mobility and plantar loading by focusing on the correlation between these two measures. An integrated pressure-force-kinematics system was used to measure plantar pressure and rotations between foot segments during the stance phase of walking in 10 healthy subjects. An anatomically-based mask was applied to each footprint to obtain six regions according to the position of the markers; hence each kinematic segment was paired with a corresponding area of the plantar surface. Relationships between segmental motion and relevant baropodometric data were explored by means of correlation analysis. Negative, weak-to-moderate correlations (R(2)foot joints except the Calcaneus-Midfoot. Temporal profiles of sagittal-plane kinematics and baropodometric parameters were well correlated, particularly at the ankle joint. Larger motion in the foot joints during walking was associated with lower plantar pressure in almost all regions. The study helps improve our understanding of the relationship between joint mobility and plantar loading in the healthy foot and represents a critical preliminary analysis before addressing possible clinical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An extended k-means technique for clustering moving objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omnia Ossama

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available k-means algorithm is one of the basic clustering techniques that is used in many data mining applications. In this paper we present a novel pattern based clustering algorithm that extends the k-means algorithm for clustering moving object trajectory data. The proposed algorithm uses a key feature of moving object trajectories namely, its direction as a heuristic to determine the different number of clusters for the k-means algorithm. In addition, we use the silhouette coefficient as a measure for the quality of our proposed approach. Finally, we present experimental results on both real and synthetic data that show the performance and accuracy of our proposed technique.

  16. Posterior midline activation during symptom provocation in acute stress disorder: An fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Christopher Cwik

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional imaging studies of patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder showed wide-spread activation of mid-line cortical areas during symptom provocation i.e., exposure to trauma-related cues. The present study aimed at investigating neural activation during exposure to trauma-related pictures in patients with Acute Stress Disorder (ASD shortly after the traumatic event. Nineteen ASD patients and 19 healthy control participants were presented with individualized pictures of the traumatic event and emotionally neutral control pictures during the acquisition of whole-brain data with a 3-T fMRI scanner. Compared to the control group and to control pictures, ASD patients showed significant activation in mid-line cortical areas in response to trauma-related pictures including precuneus, cuneus, postcentral gyrus and pre-supplementary motor area. The results suggest that the trauma-related pictures evoke emotionally salient self-referential processing in ASD patients.

  17. Why do some find it hard to disagree? An fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Dominguez D

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available People often find it hard to disagree with others, but how this disposition varies across individuals or how it is influenced by social factors like other people’s level of expertise remains little understood. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we found that activity across a network of brain areas (comprising posterior medial frontal cortex, anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, and angular gyrus was modulated by individual differences in the frequency with which participants actively disagreed with statements made by others. Specifically, participants who disagreed less frequently exhibited greater brain activation in these areas when they actually disagreed. Given the role of this network in cognitive dissonance, our results suggest that some participants had more trouble disagreeing due to a heightened cognitive dissonance response. Contrary to expectation, the level of expertise (high or low had no effect on behavior or brain activity.

  18. Is the self special in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex? An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Naoyuki; Osaka, Mariko

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, several neuroimaging studies have suggested that the neural basis of the self-referential process1 is special, especially in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). However, it remains controversial whether activity of the MPFC (and other related brain regions) appears only during the self-referential process. We investigated the neural correlates during the processing of references to the self, close other (friend), and distant other (prime minister) using fMRI. In comparison with baseline findings, referential processing to the three kinds of persons defined above showed common activation patterns in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), left middle temporal gyrus, left angular gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex and right cerebellum. Additionally, percent changes in BOLD signal in five regions of interest demonstrated the same findings. The result indicated that DMPFC was not special for the self-referential process, while there are common neural bases for evaluating the personalities of the self and others.

  19. The Brain Functional State of Music Creation: an fMRI Study of Composers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Xingxing; He, Hui; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-07-23

    In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the functional networks in professional composers during the creation of music. We compared the composing state and resting state imagery of 17 composers and found that the functional connectivity of primary networks in the bilateral occipital lobe and bilateral postcentral cortex decreased during the composing period. However, significantly stronger functional connectivity appeared between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the right angular gyrus and the bilateral superior frontal gyrus during composition. These findings indicate that a specific brain state of musical creation is formed when professional composers are composing, in which the integration of the primary visual and motor areas is not necessary. Instead, the neurons of these areas are recruited to enhance the functional connectivity between the ACC and the default mode network (DMN) to plan the integration of musical notes with emotion.

  20. Activation of somatosensory cortical areas varies with attentional state: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, H; Hiltunen, J; Titievskaja, I

    2002-09-20

    The differing roles of SI and SII areas in the somatosensory system have received relatively little interest in previous research. In the present study fMRI was applied to determine possible changes in activations of these areas as a function of attentional modulation (attending vs. not attending to the stimulation of a finger). The results showed that attention induced larger regional changes, mostly enlargements of activated areas, at SII than at SI. The number of instances where new, emerging activations, not present in the non-attend condition, were observed was larger at SII than at SI. These differential attentional effects indicate that SII areas may have a role in more complex tactile functions such as tactile working memory mechanisms.

  1. Why Do Some Find it Hard to Disagree? An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez D, Juan F.; Taing, Sreyneth A.; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    People often find it hard to disagree with others, but how this disposition varies across individuals or how it is influenced by social factors like other people's level of expertise remains little understood. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that activity across a network of brain areas [comprising posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC), anterior insula (AI), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), lateral orbitofrontal cortex, and angular gyrus] was modulated by individual differences in the frequency with which participants actively disagreed with statements made by others. Specifically, participants who disagreed less frequently exhibited greater brain activation in these areas when they actually disagreed. Given the role of this network in cognitive dissonance, our results suggest that some participants had more trouble disagreeing due to a heightened cognitive dissonance response. Contrary to expectation, the level of expertise (high or low) had no effect on behavior or brain activity. PMID:26858629

  2. Top-down modulations from dorsal stream in lexical recognition: an effective connectivity FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Deng

    Full Text Available Both the ventral and dorsal visual streams in the human brain are known to be involved in reading. However, the interaction of these two pathways and their responses to different cognitive demands remains unclear. In this study, activation of neural pathways during Chinese character reading was acquired by using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI technique. Visual-spatial analysis (mediated by the dorsal pathway was disassociated from lexical recognition (mediated by the ventral pathway via a spatial-based lexical decision task and effective connectivity analysis. Connectivity results revealed that, during spatial processing, the left superior parietal lobule (SPL positively modulated the left fusiform gyrus (FG, while during lexical processing, the left SPL received positive modulatory input from the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and sent negative modulatory output to the left FG. These findings suggest that the dorsal stream is highly involved in lexical recognition and acts as a top-down modulator for lexical processing.

  3. The brain effects of laser acupuncture in healthy individuals: an FMRI investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Im Quah-Smith

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As laser acupuncture is being increasingly used to treat mental disorders, we sought to determine whether it has a biologically plausible effect by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate the cerebral activation patterns from laser stimulation of relevant acupoints.Ten healthy subjects were randomly stimulated with a fibreoptic infrared laser on 4 acupoints (LR14, CV14, LR8 and HT7 used for depression following the principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM, and 1 control non-acupoint (sham point in a blocked design (alternating verum laser and placebo laser/rest blocks, while the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD fMRI response was recorded from the whole brain on a 3T scanner. Many of the acupoint laser stimulation conditions resulted in different patterns of neural activity. Regions with significantly increased activation included the limbic cortex (cingulate and the frontal lobe (middle and superior frontal gyrus. Laser acupuncture tended to be associated with ipsilateral brain activation and contralateral deactivation that therefore cannot be simply attributed to somatosensory stimulation.We found that laser stimulation of acupoints lead to activation of frontal-limbic-striatal brain regions, with the pattern of neural activity somewhat different for each acupuncture point. This is the first study to investigate laser acupuncture on a group of acupoints useful in the management of depression. Differing activity patterns depending on the acupoint site were demonstrated, suggesting that neurological effects vary with the site of stimulation. The mechanisms of activation and deactivation and their effects on depression warrant further investigation.

  4. Age-related functional changes in gustatory and reward processing regions: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Aaron; Green, Erin; Murphy, Claire

    2010-11-01

    Changes in appetite in older adults may result in unhealthy weight change and negatively affect overall nutrition. Research examining gustatory processing in young adults has linked changes in patterns of the hemodynamic response of gustatory and motivation related brain regions to the physiological states of hunger and satiety. Whether the same brain regions are involved in taste processing in older adults is unknown. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine age-related changes in gustatory processing during hedonic assessment. Caffeine, citric acid, sucrose, and NaCl were administered orally during two event-related fMRI sessions, one during hunger and one after a pre-load. Participants assessed the pleasantness of the solutions in each session. Increased activity of the insula was seen in both age groups during hunger. Activity of secondary and higher order taste processing and reward regions such as the orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, and caudate nucleus was also observed. Hunger and satiety differentially affected the hemodynamic response, resulting in positive global activation during hunger and negative during satiety in both age groups. While in a state of hunger, the frequency and consistency of positive activation in gustatory and reward processing regions was greater in older adults. Additional regions not commonly associated with taste processing were also activated in older adults. Investigating the neurological response of older adults to taste stimuli under conditions of hunger and satiety may aid in understanding appetite, health, and functional changes in this population. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The supraspinal neural correlate of bladder cold sensation--an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnert, Ulrich; Michels, Lars; Zempleni, Monika-Zita; Schurch, Brigitte; Kollias, Spyros

    2011-06-01

    In recent years, functional imaging studies have revealed a supraspinal network, which is involved in perception and processing of bladder distention. Very little information exists on the cortical representation of C-fiber transmitted temperature sensation of the human bladder, although C-fibers seem to be involved in the pathomechanisms of bladder dysfunctions. Our aim was, therefore, to evaluate the outcome of bladder cold stimulation on supraspinal activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A block design fMRI study was performed in 14 healthy females at the MR-center of the University of Zurich. After catheterization, all subjects were investigated in a 3.0-Tesla Scanner. The scanning consisted of 10 repetitive cycles. Each cycle consisted of five conditions: REST, INFUSION, SENSATION, DRAIN 1, and DRAIN 2. Cold saline was passively infused at 4-8°C during scanning. Not more than 100 ml were infused per cycle. Blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal analysis of the different conditions was compared to REST. All activations were evaluated on a random effects level at P = 0.001. Activation of brain regions for bladder cold stimulation (DRAIN 1 period) was found bilaterally in the inferior parietal lobe [Brodmann area (BA) 40], the right insula (BA 13), the right cerebellar posterior lobe, the right middle temporal gyrus (BA 20), and the right postcentral gyrus (BA 3). In conclusion, bladder cooling caused a different supraspinal activation pattern compared to what is known to occur during bladder distention. This supports our hypothesis that cold sensation is processed differently from bladder distension at the supraspinal level. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. How do we think machines think? An fMRI study of alleged competition with an artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaminade, Thierry; Rosset, Delphine; Da Fonseca, David; Nazarian, Bruno; Lutcher, Ewald; Cheng, Gordon; Deruelle, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Mentalizing is defined as the inference of mental states of fellow humans, and is a particularly important skill for social interactions. Here we assessed whether activity in brain areas involved in mentalizing is specific to the processing of mental states or can be generalized to the inference of non-mental states by comparing brain responses during the interaction with an intentional and an artificial agent. Participants were scanned using fMRI during interactive rock-paper-scissors games while believing their opponent was a fellow human (Intentional agent, Int), a humanoid robot endowed with an artificial intelligence (Artificial agent, Art), or a computer playing randomly (Random agent, Rnd). Participants' subjective reports indicated that they adopted different stances against the three agents. The contrast of brain activity during interaction with the artificial and the random agents didn't yield any cluster at the threshold used, suggesting the absence of a reproducible stance when interacting with an artificial intelligence. We probed response to the artificial agent in regions of interest corresponding to clusters found in the contrast between the intentional and the random agents. In the precuneus involved in working memory, the posterior intraparietal suclus, in the control of attention and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, in executive functions, brain activity for Art was larger than for Rnd but lower than for Int, supporting the intrinsically engaging nature of social interactions. A similar pattern in the left premotor cortex and anterior intraparietal sulcus involved in motor resonance suggested that participants simulated human, and to a lesser extend humanoid robot actions, when playing the game. Finally, mentalizing regions, the medial prefrontal cortex and right temporoparietal junction, responded to the human only, supporting the specificity of mentalizing areas for interactions with intentional agents.

  7. How do we think machines think? An fMRI study of alleged competition with an artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaminade, Thierry; Rosset, Delphine; Da Fonseca, David; Nazarian, Bruno; Lutcher, Ewald; Cheng, Gordon; Deruelle, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Mentalizing is defined as the inference of mental states of fellow humans, and is a particularly important skill for social interactions. Here we assessed whether activity in brain areas involved in mentalizing is specific to the processing of mental states or can be generalized to the inference of non-mental states by comparing brain responses during the interaction with an intentional and an artificial agent. Participants were scanned using fMRI during interactive rock-paper-scissors games while believing their opponent was a fellow human (Intentional agent, Int), a humanoid robot endowed with an artificial intelligence (Artificial agent, Art), or a computer playing randomly (Random agent, Rnd). Participants' subjective reports indicated that they adopted different stances against the three agents. The contrast of brain activity during interaction with the artificial and the random agents didn't yield any cluster at the threshold used, suggesting the absence of a reproducible stance when interacting with an artificial intelligence. We probed response to the artificial agent in regions of interest corresponding to clusters found in the contrast between the intentional and the random agents. In the precuneus involved in working memory, the posterior intraparietal suclus, in the control of attention and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, in executive functions, brain activity for Art was larger than for Rnd but lower than for Int, supporting the intrinsically engaging nature of social interactions. A similar pattern in the left premotor cortex and anterior intraparietal sulcus involved in motor resonance suggested that participants simulated human, and to a lesser extend humanoid robot actions, when playing the game. Finally, mentalizing regions, the medial prefrontal cortex and right temporoparietal junction, responded to the human only, supporting the specificity of mentalizing areas for interactions with intentional agents. PMID:22586381

  8. Voluntary out-of-body experience: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra M Smith

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment examined functional brain imaging patterns in a participant that reported being able, at will, to produce somatosensory sensations that are experienced as her body moving outside the boundaries of her physical body all the while remaining aware of her unmoving physical body. We found that the brain functional changes associated with the reported extra-corporeal experience were different than those observed in motor imagery. Activations were mainly left-sided and involved the left supplementary motor area, supramarginal and posterior superior temporal gyri, the last two overlapping with the temporo-parietal junction that has been associated with out-of-body experiences. The cerebellum also showed activation that is consistent with the participant’s report of the impression of movement during the extra-corporeal experience. There was also left middle and superior orbital frontal gyri activity, regions often associated with action monitoring. The results suggest that the extra-corporeal experience reported here represents an unusual type of kinaesthetic imagery.

  9. Neural mechanisms underlying sound-induced visual motion perception: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Souta; Higuchi, Satomi; Teramoto, Wataru; Sugita, Yoichi

    2017-07-01

    Studies of crossmodal interactions in motion perception have reported activation in several brain areas, including those related to motion processing and/or sensory association, in response to multimodal (e.g., visual and auditory) stimuli that were both in motion. Recent studies have demonstrated that sounds can trigger illusory visual apparent motion to static visual stimuli (sound-induced visual motion: SIVM): A visual stimulus blinking at a fixed location is perceived to be moving laterally when an alternating left-right sound is also present. Here, we investigated brain activity related to the perception of SIVM using a 7T functional magnetic resonance imaging technique. Specifically, we focused on the patterns of neural activities in SIVM and visually induced visual apparent motion (VIVM). We observed shared activations in the middle occipital area (V5/hMT), which is thought to be involved in visual motion processing, for SIVM and VIVM. Moreover, as compared to VIVM, SIVM resulted in greater activation in the superior temporal area and dominant functional connectivity between the V5/hMT area and the areas related to auditory and crossmodal motion processing. These findings indicate that similar but partially different neural mechanisms could be involved in auditory-induced and visually-induced motion perception, and neural signals in auditory, visual, and, crossmodal motion processing areas closely and directly interact in the perception of SIVM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Beyond the Bottom of the Foot: Topographic Organization of the Foot Dorsum in Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarner, Taryn; Pearcey, Gregory E P; Sun, Yao; Barss, Trevor S; Kaupp, Chelsea; Munro, Bridget; Frank, Nick; Zehr, E Paul

    2017-12-01

    Sensory feedback from the foot dorsum during walking has only been studied globally by whole nerve stimulation. Stimulating the main nerve innervating the dorsal surface produces a functional stumble corrective response that is phase-dependently modulated. We speculated that effects evoked by activation of discrete skin regions on the foot dorsum would be topographically organized, as with the foot sole. Nonnoxious electrical stimulation was delivered to five discrete locations on the dorsal surface of the foot during treadmill walking. Muscle activity from muscles acting at the ankle, knee, hip, and shoulder were recorded along with ankle, knee, and hip kinematics and kinetic information from forces under the foot. All data were sorted on the basis of stimulus occurrence in 12 step cycle phases, before being averaged together within a phase for subsequent analysis. Results reveal dynamic changes in reflex amplitudes and kinematics that are site specific and phase dependent. Most responses from discrete sites on the foot dorsum were seen in the swing phase suggesting function to conform foot trajectory to maintain stability of the moving limb. In general, responses from lateral stimulation differed from medial stimulation, and effects were largest from stimulation at the distal end of the foot at the metatarsals; that is, in anatomical locations where actual impact with an object in the environment is most likely during swing. Responses to stimulation extend to include muscles at the hip and shoulder. We reveal that afferent feedback from specific cutaneous locations on the foot dorsum influences stance and swing phase corrective responses. This emphasizes the critical importance of feedback from the entire foot surface in locomotor control and has application for rehabilitation after neurological injury and in footwear development.

  11. Mechatronics Approach for a Controlled Actuation of the Presser Foot Mechanism on an Industrial Sewing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Silva

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the study of the research program being carried out on the feeding system of an industrial overlock sewing machine. The results obtained from the presser foot bar displacement and compression force, together with the graphic kinematic analysis, which includes the velocity and acceleration taken from the displacement-time curves of the presser bar, led to further understanding of the feeding system dynamics. This study is providing the basis for the development of a redesigned and optimized fabric feeding system. The new actuation system, based on a proportional force solenoid integrated in the presser foot bar, will be also discussed as an important contribution to achieving a desired dynamic behaviour at high sewing speeds.

  12. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of foot-and-mouth disease ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O is the most predominant among the endemic serotypes in India. A stable, full-length cDNA clone of FMDV type O1BFS 1860 preceded by a bacteriophage T7 polymerase promoter was assembled in a plasmid vector pGEMR-7Zf(–). An ~8.2 kb PCR product was amplified ...

  13. Motor planning is facilitated by adopting an action's goal posture: An fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.; Lange, F.P. de

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Motor planning is a hierarchical process that is typically organized around an action's goal (e.g., drinking from a cup). However, the motor plan depends not only on the goal but also on the current body state. Here, we investigated how one's own body posture interacts with planning of

  14. Analysis of Foot Slippage Effects on an Actuated Spring-Mass Model of Dynamic Legged Locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhar Or

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The classical model of spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP and its extensions have been widely accepted as a simple description of dynamic legged locomotion at various scales in humans, legged robots and animals. Similar to the majority of models in the literature, the SLIP model assumes ideal sticking contact of the foot. However, there are practical scenarios of low ground friction that causes foot slippage, which can have a significant influence on dynamic behaviour. In this work, an extension of the SLIP model with two masses and torque actuation is considered, which accounts for possible slippage under Coulomb's friction law. The hybrid dynamics of this model is formulated and numerical simulations under representative parameter values reveal several types of stable periodic solutions with stick-slip transitions. Remarkably, it is found that slippage due to low friction can sometimes increase average speed and improve energetic efficiency by significantly reducing the mechanical cost of transport.

  15. Black-foot disease of grapevine: an update on taxonomy, epidemiology and management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos AGUSTÍ-BRISACH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Black-foot is one of the most destructive grapevine trunk diseases in nurseries and young vineyards, causing necrotic root lesions, wood necrosis of the rootstock base, and a gradual decline and death of grapevines. Causal agents of the disease are included into the genera Campylocarpon, “Cylindrocarpon”, Cylindrocladiella and Ilyonectria. Recent taxonomical studies of Neonectria and related genera with “Cylindrocarpon”-like anamorphs based on morphological and phylogenetic studies, divided Neonectria into five genera. Thus, the current taxonomical position and classification of the causal agents of black-foot disease, mainly “Cylindrocarpon”/Ilyonectria, comprises one of the main topics of this review. The review also provides an update on geographical distribution, epidemiology and management strategies of the disease.  

  16. Evaluation of an indirect ELISA for detection and typing of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    An indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit was used for diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) types O1, A23, C3 which occurred in Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil during 1984-1994. The samples were randomly selected and tested by ELISA, Complement Fixation Test (CFT) and in tissue culture. Out of 106 samples 78 (73,5%) were positive by ELISA and 39 (36,8%) were found positive in CFT, when original suspensions were used. Once these samples were inoculated onto tissue culture both tests gave similar results, although ELISA picked up more positive samples during the 1st passage in tissue culture. The negative samples (16) included in this study were negative in all tests. The ELISA was more sensitive than and as specific as CFT. ELISA and tissue culture together were shown to be a better system for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen than CFT. (author)

  17. Emotional Intent Modulates The Neural Substrates Of Creativity: An fMRI Study of Emotionally Targeted Improvisation in Jazz Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Malinda J; Barrett, Frederick S; Lopez-Gonzalez, Monica; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Limb, Charles J

    2016-01-04

    Emotion is a primary motivator for creative behaviors, yet the interaction between the neural systems involved in creativity and those involved in emotion has not been studied. In the current study, we addressed this gap by using fMRI to examine piano improvisation in response to emotional cues. We showed twelve professional jazz pianists photographs of an actress representing a positive, negative or ambiguous emotion. Using a non-ferromagnetic thirty-five key keyboard, the pianists improvised music that they felt represented the emotion expressed in the photographs. Here we show that activity in prefrontal and other brain networks involved in creativity is highly modulated by emotional context. Furthermore, emotional intent directly modulated functional connectivity of limbic and paralimbic areas such as the amygdala and insula. These findings suggest that emotion and creativity are tightly linked, and that the neural mechanisms underlying creativity may depend on emotional state.

  18. Effective methylphenidate treatment of an adult Aspergers Syndrome and a comorbid ADHD: a clinical investigation with fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mandy; Dillo, Wolfgang; Bessling, Svenja; Emrich, Hinderk M; Ohlmeier, Martin D

    2009-01-01

    Aspergers Syndrome can present as comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Very few cases of the assessment and treatment of this comorbidity in adulthood are described in the research literature. A 26-year-old patient as suffering from ADHD in combination with Aspergers Syndrome is diagnosed. Treatment is started with methylphenidate (MPH), and the patient's clinical response is observed, psychological tests concerning attention are analyzed, and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examination is performed during an attention-task. On the functional magnetic resonance imaging, a reduction of cerebral activity bilaterally in the parietal lobe under the influence of MPH is detected. Besides the neurophysiological findings, this case reports the complex impairment caused by the combination of AD/HD with Aspergers Syndrome and the broad social and behavioral benefits of treatment with MPH for this comorbidity.

  19. Does obtaining an initial magnetic resonance imaging decrease the reamputation rates in the diabetic foot?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Jbara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes mellitus (DM through its over glycosylation of neurovascular structures and resultant peripheral neuropathy continues to be the major risk factor for pedal amputation. Repetitive trauma to the insensate foot results in diabetic foot ulcers, which are at high risk to develop osteomyelitis. Many patients who present with diabetic foot complications will undergo one or more pedal amputations during the course of their disease. The purpose of this study was to determine if obtaining an initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, prior to the first amputation, is associated with a decreased rate of reamputation in the diabetic foot. Our hypothesis was that the rate of reamputation may be associated with underutilization of obtaining an initial MRI, useful in presurgical planning. This study was designed to determine whether there was an association between the reamputation rate in diabetic patients and utilization of MRI in the presurgical planning and prior to initial forefoot amputations. Methods: Following approval by our institutional review board, our study design consisted of a retrospective cohort analysis of 413 patients at Staten Island University Hospital, a 700-bed tertiary referral center between 2008 and 2013 who underwent an initial great toe (hallux amputation. Of the 413 patients with a hallux amputation, there were 368 eligible patients who had a history of DM with documented hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c within 3 months of the initial first ray (hallux and first metatarsal amputation and available radiographic data. Statistical analysis compared the incidence rates of reamputation between patients who underwent initial MRI and those who did not obtain an initial MRI prior to their first amputation. The reamputation rate was compared after adjustment for age, gender, ethnicity, HbA1c, cardiovascular disease, hypoalbuminemia, smoking, body mass index, and prior antibiotic treatment. Results: The results of our statistical

  20. Effects of syntactic complexity in L1 and L2; an fMRI study of Korean-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Soyoung; Yoon, Hyo Woon; Lee, Seungbok; Chung, Jun-Young; Cho, Zang-Hee; Park, Hyunwook

    2007-03-09

    The neural mechanisms underlying the syntactic processing of sentence comprehension in Korean (L1) and English (L2) by late bilinguals were investigated using functional MRI. The Korean native speakers were asked to read sentences with different levels of syntactic complexity in L1 and L2 and respond to comprehension questions concerning the sentences. The syntactic complexity was varied using a center-embedded sentence "The director that the maid introduced ignored the farmer" or a conjoined sentence "The maid introduced the director and ignored the farmer". It was found that the major areas involved in sentence processing such as the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), bilateral inferior parietal gyrus, and occipital lobe including cuneus, and lingual gyrus were commonly activated during the processing of both L1 and L2. However, the pattern of activation was different for L1 and L2 in the left IFG. The amount of activation was greater for embedded sentences than for conjoined sentences in L1 while no difference was found in L2. These results suggest that the cortical areas involved with syntactic processing in L1 and L2 are shared, but that the underlying neural mechanisms are different. The findings of the present study are discussed in comparison with Hasegawa et al.'s (Hasegawa, M., Carpenter, P.A., Just, M.A., 2002. An fMRI study of bilingual sentence comprehension and workload. NeuroImage 15, 647-660.) and Yokoyama et al.'s (Yokoyama, S., Okamoto, H., Miyamoto, T., Yoshimoto, K., Kim, J., Iwata, K., Jeong, H., Uchida, S., Ikuta, N., Sassa, Y., Nakamura, W., Horie, K., Sato, S., Kawashima, R., 2006. Cortical activation in the processing of passive sentences in L1 and L2: An fMRI study. NeuroImage 30, 570-579.) studies which also found common areas of activation but different patterns of activation during the processing of L1 and L2.

  1. Further fMRI Validation of the Visual Half Field Technique as an Indicator of Language Laterality: A Large-Group Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Haegen, Lise; Cai, Qing; Seurinck, Ruth; Brysbaert, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The best established lateralized cerebral function is speech production, with the majority of the population having left hemisphere dominance. An important question is how to best assess the laterality of this function. Neuroimaging techniques such as functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) are increasingly used in clinical settings to…

  2. Effectiveness of a Patient Education Module on Diabetic Foot Care in Outpatient Setting: An Open-label Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Hammadur Sk; Jyotsna, Viveka P; Sreenivas, V; Krishnan, Anand; Tandon, Nikhil

    2018-01-01

    A large number of patients with diabetes mellitus are unaware of foot care and are at risk of developing foot ulcer and amputation. This increases healthcare burden due to preventable complication of diabetes. We conducted this study to assess the effectiveness of a foot care education module for diabetes developed by us. One hundred and twenty-seven patients with diabetes mellitus attending our outpatient were randomized into intervention ( n = 63) and control groups ( n = 64). At first visit, 1 and 3 months later, both groups filled a questionnaire regarding foot care knowledge and practice. The intervention group was administered foot care education module and the control group received routine care at baseline and 1 month. Patient education module consisted of an audio-visual display and a pamphlet on diabetes foot care. Change in score at 3 months was assessed by Student's t -test. Knowledge scores in the intervention group at first, second, and third visits were 9.8 ± 1.8, 10.2 ± 1.6, and 11.0 ± 1.7, respectively. The knowledge scores in the control group at first, second, and third visits were 9.9 ± 1.7, 9.8 ± 1.6, and 10.0 ± 1.8, respectively. The change in knowledge score was statistically significant ( P education module in outpatient setting is an effective means to improve foot care knowledge and practice in patients with diabetes.

  3. Lexical processing in deaf readers: an FMRI investigation of reading proficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Corina

    Full Text Available Individuals with significant hearing loss often fail to attain competency in reading orthographic scripts which encode the sound properties of spoken language. Nevertheless, some profoundly deaf individuals do learn to read at age-appropriate levels. The question of what differentiates proficient deaf readers from less-proficient readers is poorly understood but topical, as efforts to develop appropriate and effective interventions are needed. This study uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to examine brain activation in deaf readers (N = 21, comparing proficient (N = 11 and less proficient (N = 10 readers' performance in a widely used test of implicit reading. Proficient deaf readers activated left inferior frontal gyrus and left middle and superior temporal gyrus in a pattern that is consistent with regions reported in hearing readers. In contrast, the less-proficient readers exhibited a pattern of response characterized by inferior and middle frontal lobe activation (right>left which bears some similarity to areas reported in studies of logographic reading, raising the possibility that these individuals are using a qualitatively different mode of orthographic processing than is traditionally observed in hearing individuals reading sound-based scripts. The evaluation of proficient and less-proficient readers points to different modes of processing printed English words. Importantly, these preliminary findings allow us to begin to establish the impact of linguistic and educational factors on the neural systems that underlie reading achievement in profoundly deaf individuals.

  4. An fMRI study to investigate auditory attention. A model of the cocktail party phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Toshiharu; Kato, Chikako; Matsuo, Kayako

    2005-01-01

    In human life, discrimination of a target voice from other voices or sounds is indispensable, and inability for such discrimination results in sensory aphasia. To investigate the neuronal basis of the attentional system for human voices, we evaluated brain activity during listening comprehension tasks using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3T. Diotic listening comprehension tasks, in which a narration was superimposed by another given by the same speaker (SV experiment) or by a different speaker (DV experiment), were presented to normal volunteers. The story indicated in the baseline task blocks, in which only one narration was presented, was intensively followed during the superimposed task blocks. In each experiment, 6 task blocks, 3 blocks for each condition, and 7 rest blocks were alternatively repeated, and the contrast of the superimposed condition to the baseline condition in each session was obtained. In the DV experiment, compared with the control condition, activation in Wernicke's area (BA22) was increased. In the SV experiment, activation in the frontal association cortex (BA6, BA9/46, BA32, BA13/47) was additionally increased. These results suggested that difficulty in phonological processing to discriminate human voices calls for further semantic, syntactic, and prosodic processing, as well as augmented selective attention. (author)

  5. Reduced empathic responses for sexually objectified women: An fMRI investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogoni, Carlotta; Carnaghi, Andrea; Silani, Giorgia

    2018-02-01

    Sexual objectification is a widespread phenomenon characterized by a focus on the individual's physical appearance over his/her mental state. This has been associated with negative social consequences, as objectified individuals are judged to be less human, competent, and moral. Moreover, behavioral responses toward the person change as a function of the degree of the perceived sexual objectification. In the present study, we investigated how behavioral and neural representations of other social pain are modulated by the degree of sexual objectification of the target. Using a within-subject fMRI design, we found reduced empathic feelings for positive (but not negative) emotions toward sexually objectified women as compared to non-objectified (personalized) women when witnessing their participation to a ball-tossing game. At the brain level, empathy for social exclusion of personalized women recruited areas coding the affective component of pain (i.e., anterior insula and cingulate cortex), the somatosensory components of pain (i.e., posterior insula and secondary somatosensory cortex) together with the mentalizing network (i.e., middle frontal cortex) to a greater extent than for the sexually objectified women. This diminished empathy is discussed in light of the gender-based violence that is afflicting the modern society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Recruitment of the ventral and dorsal streams in statistical graph comprehension: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mi; Lu, Shengfu; Zhong, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Although many previous studies have focused on statistical graph comprehension in cognitive psychology, there is no consensus among them. Brain neuroimaging studies on the statistical graph comprehension are useful to account for the cognitive mechanism of interpreting statistical graphic information. The present study used two experimental conditions, a statistical graph (SG) and a statistical graph with text (SGT), and one control condition, a text (ST), where the ST task was a verbal description of the information from the SG, and when the SGT is a mixed graph + textual description. We used fMRI to investigate the brain activity of 36 normal subjects while they passively viewed the statistical information presented in visual forms as SG, ST or SGT. The results showed that compared with the control tasks, both SG and SGT consistently activated ventral and dorsal streams and that compared with SGT, SG significantly activated the ventral stream but not the dorsal stream. These results suggest that the portions of the ventral and dorsal streams related to object recognition are commonly involved in statistical graph comprehension. These findings provide neuroimaging evidence for the cognitive processing of statistical graphs.

  7. Audio-visual speech perception in adult readers with dyslexia: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsseler, Jascha; Ye, Zheng; Gerth, Ivonne; Szycik, Gregor R; Münte, Thomas F

    2018-04-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a specific deficit in reading and spelling that often persists into adulthood. In the present study, we used slow event-related fMRI and independent component analysis to identify brain networks involved in perception of audio-visual speech in a group of adult readers with dyslexia (RD) and a group of fluent readers (FR). Participants saw a video of a female speaker saying a disyllabic word. In the congruent condition, audio and video input were identical whereas in the incongruent condition, the two inputs differed. Participants had to respond to occasionally occurring animal names. The independent components analysis (ICA) identified several components that were differently modulated in FR and RD. Two of these components including fusiform gyrus and occipital gyrus showed less activation in RD compared to FR possibly indicating a deficit to extract face information that is needed to integrate auditory and visual information in natural speech perception. A further component centered on the superior temporal sulcus (STS) also exhibited less activation in RD compared to FR. This finding is corroborated in the univariate analysis that shows less activation in STS for RD compared to FR. These findings suggest a general impairment in recruitment of audiovisual processing areas in dyslexia during the perception of natural speech.

  8. Cortical activation during power grip task with pneumatic pressure gauge: an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, M.; Mardan, N. H.; Ismail, S. S.

    2017-05-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in cognitive and motor function. But, the relationships with motor performance are less well understood. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to assess cortical activation in older adults. This study employed power grip task that utilised block paradigm consisted of alternate 30s rest and active. A visual cue was used to pace the hand grip movement that clenched a cylindrical rubber bulb connected with pressure pneumatic gauge that measure the pressure (Psi). The objective of this study is determined the brain areas activated during motor task and the correlation between percentage signal change of each motor area (BA 4 and 6) and hand grip pressure. Result showed there was a significant difference in mean percentage signal change in BA 4 and BA 6 in both hemispheres and negative correlation obtained in BA 4 and BA 6. These results indicate that a reduced ability in the motor networks contribute to age-related decline in motor performance.

  9. Cortical activation during power grip task with pneumatic pressure gauge: an fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, M; Ismail, S S; Mardan, N H

    2017-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in cognitive and motor function. But, the relationships with motor performance are less well understood. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to assess cortical activation in older adults. This study employed power grip task that utilised block paradigm consisted of alternate 30s rest and active. A visual cue was used to pace the hand grip movement that clenched a cylindrical rubber bulb connected with pressure pneumatic gauge that measure the pressure (Psi). The objective of this study is determined the brain areas activated during motor task and the correlation between percentage signal change of each motor area (BA 4 and 6) and hand grip pressure. Result showed there was a significant difference in mean percentage signal change in BA 4 and BA 6 in both hemispheres and negative correlation obtained in BA 4 and BA 6. These results indicate that a reduced ability in the motor networks contribute to age-related decline in motor performance. (paper)

  10. Neural correlates of incidental memory in mild cognitive impairment: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandzia, Jennifer L; McAndrews, Mary Pat; Grady, Cheryl L; Graham, Simon J; Black, Sandra E

    2009-05-01

    Behaviour and fMRI brain activation patterns were compared during encoding and recognition tasks in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n=14) and normal controls (NC) (n=14). Deep (natural vs. man-made) and shallow (color vs. black and white) decisions were made at encoding and pictures from each condition were presented for yes/no recognition 20 min later. MCI showed less inferior frontal activation during deep (left only) and superficial encoding (bilaterally) and in both medial temporal lobes (MTL). When performance was equivalent (recognition of words encoded superficially), MTL activation was similar for the two groups, but during recognition testing of deeply encoded items NC showed more activation in both prefrontal and left MTL region. In a region of interest analysis, the extent of activation during deep encoding in the parahippocampi bilaterally and in left hippocampus correlated with subsequent recognition accuracy for those items in controls but not in MCI, which may reflect the heterogeneity of activation responses in conjunction with different degrees of pathology burden and progression status in the MCI group.

  11. Prenatal marijuana exposure impacts executive functioning into young adulthood: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andra M; Mioduszewski, Ola; Hatchard, Taylor; Byron-Alhassan, Aziza; Fall, Carley; Fried, Peter A

    Understanding the potentially harmful long term consequences of prenatal marijuana exposure is important given the increase in number of pregnant women smoking marijuana to relieve morning sickness. Altered executive functioning is one area of research that has suggested negative consequences of prenatal marijuana exposure into adolescence. Investigating if these findings continue into young adulthood and exploring the neural basis of these effects was the purpose of this research. Thirty one young adults (ages 18-22years) from the longitudinal Ottawa Prenatal Prospective Study (OPPS) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during four tasks; 1) Visuospatial 2-Back, 2) Go/NoGo, 3) Letter 2-Back and 4) Counting Stroop task. Sixteen participants were prenatally exposed to marijuana while 15 had no prenatal marijuana exposure. Task performance was similar for both groups but blood flow was significantly different between the groups. This paper presents the results for all 4 tasks, highlighting the consistently increased left posterior brain activity in the prenatally exposed group compared with the control group. These alterations in neurophysiological functioning of young adults prenatally exposed to marijuana emphasizes the importance of education for women in child bearing years, as well as for policy makers and physicians interested in the welfare of both the pregnant women and their offspring's future success. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Strategic Motives Drive Proposers to Offer Fairly in Ultimatum Games: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin-Hua; Chen, Ying-Chun; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Kan, Kamhon; Yang, C C; Yen, Nai-Shing

    2017-04-03

    The hypothesis of strategic motives postulates that offering fairly in the Ultimatum Game (UG) is to avoid rejection and receive money. In this fMRI study, we used a modified UG to elucidate how proposers reached decisions of offering fairly and to what extent they considered offering selfishly with different stakes. We had proposers choose between a fair and a selfish offer with different degrees of selfishness and stake sizes. Proposers were less likely and spent more time choosing the fair offer over a slightly-selfish offer than a very selfish offer independent of stakes. Such choices evoked greater activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortices that typically involve in allocation of cognitive control for cost/benefit decision making. Choosing a fair offer in higher stakes evoked greater activation in the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACCg) and the areas that previously have been implicated in reward and theory of mind. Furthermore, choosing a slightly selfish offer over a fair offer evoked greater activation in the anterior cingulate sulcus, ACCg, ventral tegmental area (or substantia nigra) and anterior insular cortex signalling the higher gain and implying higher rejection risk. In conclusion, our findings favoured the hypothesis that proposers offer fairly based on the strategic motives.

  13. Altered effective connectivity among core neurocognitive networks in idiopathic generalized epilepsy: An fMRI evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huilin Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS suffer long-term cognitive impairments, and present a higher incidence of psychosocial and psychiatric disturbances than healthy people. It is possible that the cognitive dysfunctions and higher psychopathological risk in IGE-GTCS derive from disturbed causal relationship among core neurocognitive brain networks. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effective connectivity across the salience network (SN, default mode network (DMN, and central executive network (CEN using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data collected from 27 IGE-GTCS patients and 29 healthy controls. In the study, a combination framework of time domain and frequency domain multivariate Granger causality analysis was firstly proposed, and proved to be valid and accurate by simulation experiments. Using this method, we then observed significant differences in the effective connectivity graphs between the patient and control groups. Specifically, between-group statistical analysis revealed that relative to the healthy controls, the patients established significantly enhanced Granger causal influence from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, which is coherent both in the time and frequency domains analyses. Meanwhile, time domain analysis also revealed decreased Granger causal influence from the right fronto-insular cortex to the posterior cingulate cortex in the patients. These findings may provide new evidence for functional brain organization disruption underlying cognitive dysfunctions and psychopathological risk in IGE-GTCS.

  14. Intense passionate love attenuates cigarette cue-reactivity in nicotine-deprived smokers: an FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Xu

    Full Text Available Self-expanding experiences like falling in love or engaging in novel, exciting and interesting activities activate the same brain reward mechanism (mesolimbic dopamine pathway that reinforces drug use and abuse, including tobacco smoking. This suggests the possibility that reward from smoking is substitutable by self-expansion (through competition with the same neural system, potentially aiding cessation efforts. Using a model of self-expansion in the context of romantic love, the present fMRI experiment examined whether, among nicotine-deprived smokers, relationship self-expansion is associated with deactivation of cigarette cue-reactivity regions. Results indicated that among participants who were experiencing moderate levels of craving, cigarette cue-reactivity regions (e.g., cuneus and posterior cingulate cortex showed significantly less activation during self-expansion conditions compared with control conditions. These results provide evidence that rewards from one domain (self-expansion can act as a substitute for reward from another domain (nicotine to attenuate cigarette cue reactivity.

  15. Intense passionate love attenuates cigarette cue-reactivity in nicotine-deprived smokers: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaomeng; Wang, Jin; Aron, Arthur; Lei, Wei; Westmaas, J Lee; Weng, Xuchu

    2012-01-01

    Self-expanding experiences like falling in love or engaging in novel, exciting and interesting activities activate the same brain reward mechanism (mesolimbic dopamine pathway) that reinforces drug use and abuse, including tobacco smoking. This suggests the possibility that reward from smoking is substitutable by self-expansion (through competition with the same neural system), potentially aiding cessation efforts. Using a model of self-expansion in the context of romantic love, the present fMRI experiment examined whether, among nicotine-deprived smokers, relationship self-expansion is associated with deactivation of cigarette cue-reactivity regions. Results indicated that among participants who were experiencing moderate levels of craving, cigarette cue-reactivity regions (e.g., cuneus and posterior cingulate cortex) showed significantly less activation during self-expansion conditions compared with control conditions. These results provide evidence that rewards from one domain (self-expansion) can act as a substitute for reward from another domain (nicotine) to attenuate cigarette cue reactivity.

  16. Prosodic and narrative processing in American Sign Language: An fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Aaron J.; Supalla, Ted; Hauser, Peter; Newport, Elissa; Bavelier, Daphne

    2010-01-01

    Signed languages such as American Sign Language (ASL) are natural human languages that share all of the core properties of spoken human languages, but differ in the modality through which they are communicated. Neuroimaging and patient studies have suggested similar left hemisphere (LH)-dominant patterns of brain organization for signed and spoken languages, suggesting that the linguistic nature of the information, rather than modality, drives brain organization for language. However, the role of the right hemisphere (RH) in sign language has been less explored. In spoken languages, the RH supports the processing of numerous types of narrative-level information, including prosody, affect, facial expression, and discourse structure. In the present fMRI study, we contrasted the processing of ASL sentences that contained these types of narrative information with similar sentences without marked narrative cues. For all sentences, Deaf native signers showed robust bilateral activation of perisylvian language cortices, as well as the basal ganglia, medial frontal and medial temporal regions. However, RH activation in the inferior frontal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus was greater for sentences containing narrative devices, including areas involved in processing narrative content in spoken languages. These results provide additional support for the claim that all natural human languages rely on a core set of LH brain regions, and extend our knowledge to show that narrative linguistic functions typically associated with the RH in spoken languages are similarly organized in signed languages. PMID:20347996

  17. Anatomy and time course of discrimination and categorization processes in vision: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernet, C; Franceries, X; Basan, S; Cassol, E; Démonet, J F; Celsis, P

    2004-08-01

    Studies investigating the cerebral areas involved in visual processes generally oppose either different tasks or different stimulus types. This work addresses, by fMRI, the interaction between the type of task (discrimination vs. categorization) and the type of stimulus (Latin letters, well-known geometrical figures, and Korean letters). Behavioral data revealed that the two tasks did not differ in term of percentage of errors or correct responses, but a delay of 185 ms was observed for the categorization task in comparison with the discrimination task. All conditions activated a common neural network that includes both striate and extrastriate areas, especially the fusiform gyri, the precunei, the insulae, and the dorsolateral frontal cortex. In addition, interaction analysis revealed that the right insula was sensitive to both tasks and stimuli, and that stimulus type induced several significant signal variations for the categorization task in right frontal cortex, the right middle occipital gyrus, the right cuneus, and the left and right fusiform gyri, whereas for the discrimination task, significant signal variations were observed in the right occipito-parietal junction only. Finally, analyzing the latency of the BOLD signal also revealed a differential neural dynamics according to tasks but not to stimulus type. These temporal differences suggest a parallel hemisphere processing in the discrimination task vs. a cooperative interhemisphere processing in the categorization task that may reflect the observed differences in reaction time.

  18. Visioning in the brain: an fMRI study of inspirational coaching and mentoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Anthony I; Boyatzis, Richard E; Khawaja, Masud S; Passarelli, Angela M; Leckie, Regina L

    2013-01-01

    Effective coaching and mentoring is crucial to the success of individuals and organizations, yet relatively little is known about its neural underpinnings. Coaching and mentoring to the Positive Emotional Attractor (PEA) emphasizes compassion for the individual's hopes and dreams and has been shown to enhance a behavioral change. In contrast, coaching to the Negative Emotional Attractor (NEA), by focusing on externally defined criteria for success and the individual's weaknesses in relation to them, does not show sustained change. We used fMRI to measure BOLD responses associated with these two coaching styles. We hypothesized that PEA coaching would be associated with increased global visual processing and with engagement of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS), while the NEA coaching would involve greater engagement of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Regions showing more activity in PEA conditions included the lateral occipital cortex, superior temporal cortex, medial parietal, subgenual cingulate, nucleus accumbens, and left lateral prefrontal cortex. We relate these activations to visioning, PNS activity, and positive affect. Regions showing more activity in NEA conditions included medial prefrontal regions and right lateral prefrontal cortex. We relate these activations to SNS activity, self-trait attribution and negative affect.

  19. Visual and auditory stimuli associated with swallowing. An fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Takeshi; Watanabe, Yutaka; Tonogi, Morio; Yamane, Gen-yuki; Abe, Shinichi; Yamada, Yoshiaki; Callan, Akiko

    2009-01-01

    We focused on brain areas activated by audiovisual stimuli related to swallowing motions. In this study, three kinds of stimuli related to human swallowing movement (auditory stimuli alone, visual stimuli alone, or audiovisual stimuli) were presented to the subjects, and activated brain areas were measured using functional MRI (fMRI) and analyzed. When auditory stimuli alone were presented, the supplementary motor area was activated. When visual stimuli alone were presented, the premotor and primary motor areas of the left and right hemispheres and prefrontal area of the left hemisphere were activated. When audiovisual stimuli were presented, the prefrontal and premotor areas of the left and right hemispheres were activated. Activation of Broca's area, which would have been characteristic of mirror neuron system activation on presentation of motion images, was not observed; however, activation of brain areas related to swallowing motion programming and performance was verified for auditory, visual and audiovisual stimuli related to swallowing motion. These results suggest that audiovisual stimuli related to swallowing motion could be applied to the treatment of patients with dysphagia. (author)

  20. Neuroticism related differences in the functional neuroanatomical correlates of multitasking. An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szameitat, Andre J; Saylik, Rahmi; Parton, Andrew

    2016-12-02

    It is known that neuroticism impairs cognitive performance mostly in difficult tasks, but not so much in easier tasks. One pervasive situation of this type is multitasking, in which the combination of two simple tasks creates a highly demanding dual-task, and consequently high neurotics show higher dual-task costs than low neurotics. However, the functional neuroanatomical correlates of these additional performance impairments in high neurotics are unknown. To test for this, we assessed brain activity by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 17 low and 15 high neurotics while they were performing a demanding dual-task and the less demanding component tasks as single-tasks. Behavioural results showed that performance (response times and error rates) was lower in the dual-task than in the single-tasks (dual-task costs), and that these dual-task costs were significantly higher in high neurotics. Imaging data showed that high neurotics showed less dual-task specific activation in lateral (mainly middle frontal gyrus) and medial prefrontal cortices. We conclude that high levels of neuroticism impair behavioural performance in demanding tasks, and that this impairment is accompanied by reduced activation of the task-associated brain areas. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Change detection in children with autism: an auditory event-related fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomot, Marie; Bernard, Frédéric A; Davis, Matthew H; Belmonte, Matthew K; Ashwin, Chris; Bullmore, Edward T; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2006-01-15

    Autism involves impairments in communication and social interaction, as well as high levels of repetitive, stereotypic, and ritualistic behaviours, and extreme resistance to change. This latter dimension, whilst required for a diagnosis, has received less research attention. We hypothesise that this extreme resistance to change in autism is rooted in atypical processing of unexpected stimuli. We tested this using auditory event-related fMRI to determine regional brain activity associated with passive detection of infrequently occurring frequency-deviant and complex novel sounds in a no-task condition. Participants were twelve 10- to 15-year-old children with autism and a group of 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. During deviance detection, significant activation common to both groups was located in the superior temporal and inferior frontal gyri. During 'novelty detection', both groups showed activity in the superior temporal gyrus, the temporo-parietal junction, the superior and inferior frontal gyri, and the cingulate gyrus. Children with autism showed reduced activation of the left anterior cingulate cortex during both deviance and novelty detection. During novelty detection, children with autism also showed reduced activation in the bilateral temporo-parietal region and in the right inferior and middle frontal areas. This study confirms previous evidence from ERP studies of atypical brain function related to automatic change detection in autism. Abnormalities involved a cortical network known to have a role in attention switching and attentional resource distribution. These results throw light on the neurophysiological processes underlying autistic 'resistance to change'.

  2. Effects of implantable peroneal nerve stimulation on gait quality, energy expenditure, participation and user satisfaction in patients with post-stroke drop foot using an ankle-foot orthosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiemanck, Sven; Berenpas, Frank; van Swigchem, Roos; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; de Vries, Joost; Beelen, Anita; Nollet, Frans; Geurts, Alexander C.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether an implantable functional electrical stimulation (FES) system of the common peroneal nerve (ActiGait®) improves relevant aspects of gait in chronic stroke patients with a drop foot typically using an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO). Ten community-dwelling patients participated, of

  3. Visual, Auditory, and Cross Modal Sensory Processing in Adults with Autism:An EEG Power and BOLD fMRI Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C Hames

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG and Blood Oxygen Level Dependent Functional Magnetic Resonance Imagining (BOLD fMRI assessed the neurocorrelates of sensory processing of visual and auditory stimuli in 11 adults with autism (ASD and 10 neurotypical (NT controls between the ages of 20-28. We hypothesized that ASD performance on combined audiovisual trials would be less accurate with observable decreased EEG power across frontal, temporal, and occipital channels and decreased BOLD fMRI activity in these same regions; reflecting deficits in key sensory processing areas. Analysis focused on EEG power, BOLD fMRI, and accuracy. Lower EEG beta power and lower left auditory cortex fMRI activity were seen in ASD compared to NT when they were presented with auditory stimuli as demonstrated by contrasting the activity from the second presentation of an auditory stimulus in an all auditory block versus the second presentation of a visual stimulus in an all visual block (AA2­VV2. We conclude that in ASD, combined audiovisual processing is more similar than unimodal processing to NTs.

  4. Single trial classification for the categories of perceived emotional facial expressions: an event-related fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sutao; Huang, Yuxia; Long, Zhiying; Zhang, Jiacai; Chen, Gongxiang; Wang, Shuqing

    2016-03-01

    Recently, several studies have successfully applied multivariate pattern analysis methods to predict the categories of emotions. These studies are mainly focused on self-experienced emotions, such as the emotional states elicited by music or movie. In fact, most of our social interactions involve perception of emotional information from the expressions of other people, and it is an important basic skill for humans to recognize the emotional facial expressions of other people in a short time. In this study, we aimed to determine the discriminability of perceived emotional facial expressions. In a rapid event-related fMRI design, subjects were instructed to classify four categories of facial expressions (happy, disgust, angry and neutral) by pressing different buttons, and each facial expression stimulus lasted for 2s. All participants performed 5 fMRI runs. One multivariate pattern analysis method, support vector machine was trained to predict the categories of facial expressions. For feature selection, ninety masks defined from anatomical automatic labeling (AAL) atlas were firstly generated and each were treated as the input of the classifier; then, the most stable AAL areas were selected according to prediction accuracies, and comprised the final feature sets. Results showed that: for the 6 pair-wise classification conditions, the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were all above chance prediction, among which, happy vs. neutral , angry vs. disgust achieved the lowest results. These results suggested that specific neural signatures of perceived emotional facial expressions may exist, and happy vs. neutral, angry vs. disgust might be more similar in information representation in the brain.

  5. The Difference between Aesthetic Appreciation of Artistic and Popular Music: Evidence from an fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiuling; Mo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that pleasure from artistic music is intellectual while that from popular music is physiological, this study investigated the different functional mechanisms between aesthetic appreciation of artistic and popular music using fMRI. 18 male non-musicians were scanned while they performed an aesthetic rating task for excerpts of artistic music, popular music and musical notes playing and singing (control). The rating scores of artistic and popular music excerpts were both significantly higher than that of control materials while the scores of them were not different. The fMRI results showed both artistic and popular conditions activated the VS and vmPFC, compared with control condition. When contrasted popular and artistic condition directly, we found popular music activated right putamen, while artistic music activated right mPFC. By parametric analysis, we found the activation of right putamen tracked the aesthetic ratings of popular music, whereas the BOLD signal in right mPFC tracked the aesthetic ratings of artistic music. These results indicate the reward induced by popular music is closer to a primary reward while that induced by artistic music is closer to a secondary reward. We also found artistic music activated ToM areas, including PCC/PC, arMFC and TPJ, when compared with popular music. And these areas also tracked aesthetic ratings of artistic music but not those of popular music. These results imply that the pleasure from former comes from cognitive empathy. In conclusion, this study gives clear neuronal evidences supporting the view that artistic music is of intelligence and social cognition involved while the popular music is of physiology. PMID:27814379

  6. An in vivo MRI template set for morphometry, tissue segmentation and fMRI localization in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Antonio Valdes Hernandez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, several papers have focused on the construction of highly detailed mouse high field MRI templates via nonlinear registration to unbiased reference spaces, allowing for a variety of neuroimaging applications such as robust morphometric analyses. However, work in rats has only provided medium field MRI averages based on linear registration to biased spaces with the sole purpose of approximate fMRI localization. This precludes any morphometric analysis in spite of the need of exploring in detail the neuroanatomical substrates of diseases in a recent advent of rat models. In this paper we present a new in vivo rat T2 MRI template set, comprising average images of both intensity and shape, obtained via nonlinear registration. Also, unlike previous rat template sets, we include white and gray matter probabilistic segmentations, expanding its use to those applications demanding prior-based tissue segmentation, e.g. SPM voxel-based morphometry. We also provide a preliminary digitalization of latest Paxinos & Watson atlas for anatomical and functional interpretations within the cerebral cortex. We confirmed that, like with previous templates, forepaw and hindpaw fMRI activations can be correctly localized in the expected atlas structure. To exemplify the use of our new MRI template set, we reported the volumes of brain tissues and cortical structures and probed their relationships with ontogenetic development. Other in vivo applications in the near future can be tensor-, deformation- or voxel-based morphometry, morphological connectivity and diffusion tensor-based anatomical connectivity. Our template set, freely available through the SPM extension website, could be an important tool for future longitudinal and/or functional extensive preclinical studies.

  7. The Difference between Aesthetic Appreciation of Artistic and Popular Music: Evidence from an fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping; Huang, Hanhua; Luo, Qiuling; Mo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that pleasure from artistic music is intellectual while that from popular music is physiological, this study investigated the different functional mechanisms between aesthetic appreciation of artistic and popular music using fMRI. 18 male non-musicians were scanned while they performed an aesthetic rating task for excerpts of artistic music, popular music and musical notes playing and singing (control). The rating scores of artistic and popular music excerpts were both significantly higher than that of control materials while the scores of them were not different. The fMRI results showed both artistic and popular conditions activated the VS and vmPFC, compared with control condition. When contrasted popular and artistic condition directly, we found popular music activated right putamen, while artistic music activated right mPFC. By parametric analysis, we found the activation of right putamen tracked the aesthetic ratings of popular music, whereas the BOLD signal in right mPFC tracked the aesthetic ratings of artistic music. These results indicate the reward induced by popular music is closer to a primary reward while that induced by artistic music is closer to a secondary reward. We also found artistic music activated ToM areas, including PCC/PC, arMFC and TPJ, when compared with popular music. And these areas also tracked aesthetic ratings of artistic music but not those of popular music. These results imply that the pleasure from former comes from cognitive empathy. In conclusion, this study gives clear neuronal evidences supporting the view that artistic music is of intelligence and social cognition involved while the popular music is of physiology.

  8. Adult Attachment Affects Neural Response to Preference-Inferring in Ambiguous Scenarios: Evidence From an fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Ran, Guangming; Xu, Wenjian; Ma, Yuanxiao; Chen, Xu

    2018-01-01

    Humans are highly social animals, and the ability to cater to the preferences of other individuals is encouraged by society. Preference-inferring is an important aspect of the theory of mind (TOM). Many previous studies have shown that attachment style is closely related to TOM ability. However, little is known about the effects of adult attachment style on preferences inferring under different levels of certainty. Here, we investigated how adult attachment style affects neural activity underlying preferences inferred under different levels of certainty by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The fMRI results demonstrated that adult attachment influenced the activation of anterior insula (AI) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL) in response to ambiguous preference-inferring. More specifically, in the ambiguous preference condition, the avoidant attached groups exhibited a significantly enhanced activation than secure and anxious attached groups in left IPL; the anxious attached groups exhibited a significantly reduced activation secure attached group in left IPL. In addition, the anxious attached groups exhibited a significantly reduced activation than secure and avoidant attached groups in left AI. These results were also further confirmed by the subsequent PPI analysis. The results from current study suggest that, under ambiguous situations, the avoidant attached individuals show lower sensitivity to the preference of other individuals and need to invest more cognitive resources for preference-reasoning; while compared with avoidant attached group, the anxious attached individuals express high tolerance for uncertainty and a higher ToM proficiency. Results from the current study imply that differences in preference-inferring under ambiguous conditions associated with different levels of individual attachment may explain the differences in interpersonal interaction. PMID:29559932

  9. Adult Attachment Affects Neural Response to Preference-Inferring in Ambiguous Scenarios: Evidence From an fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans are highly social animals, and the ability to cater to the preferences of other individuals is encouraged by society. Preference-inferring is an important aspect of the theory of mind (TOM. Many previous studies have shown that attachment style is closely related to TOM ability. However, little is known about the effects of adult attachment style on preferences inferring under different levels of certainty. Here, we investigated how adult attachment style affects neural activity underlying preferences inferred under different levels of certainty by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The fMRI results demonstrated that adult attachment influenced the activation of anterior insula (AI and inferior parietal lobule (IPL in response to ambiguous preference-inferring. More specifically, in the ambiguous preference condition, the avoidant attached groups exhibited a significantly enhanced activation than secure and anxious attached groups in left IPL; the anxious attached groups exhibited a significantly reduced activation secure attached group in left IPL. In addition, the anxious attached groups exhibited a significantly reduced activation than secure and avoidant attached groups in left AI. These results were also further confirmed by the subsequent PPI analysis. The results from current study suggest that, under ambiguous situations, the avoidant attached individuals show lower sensitivity to the preference of other individuals and need to invest more cognitive resources for preference-reasoning; while compared with avoidant attached group, the anxious attached individuals express high tolerance for uncertainty and a higher ToM proficiency. Results from the current study imply that differences in preference-inferring under ambiguous conditions associated with different levels of individual attachment may explain the differences in interpersonal interaction.

  10. Adult Attachment Affects Neural Response to Preference-Inferring in Ambiguous Scenarios: Evidence From an fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Ran, Guangming; Xu, Wenjian; Ma, Yuanxiao; Chen, Xu

    2018-01-01

    Humans are highly social animals, and the ability to cater to the preferences of other individuals is encouraged by society. Preference-inferring is an important aspect of the theory of mind (TOM). Many previous studies have shown that attachment style is closely related to TOM ability. However, little is known about the effects of adult attachment style on preferences inferring under different levels of certainty. Here, we investigated how adult attachment style affects neural activity underlying preferences inferred under different levels of certainty by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The fMRI results demonstrated that adult attachment influenced the activation of anterior insula (AI) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL) in response to ambiguous preference-inferring. More specifically, in the ambiguous preference condition, the avoidant attached groups exhibited a significantly enhanced activation than secure and anxious attached groups in left IPL; the anxious attached groups exhibited a significantly reduced activation secure attached group in left IPL. In addition, the anxious attached groups exhibited a significantly reduced activation than secure and avoidant attached groups in left AI. These results were also further confirmed by the subsequent PPI analysis. The results from current study suggest that, under ambiguous situations, the avoidant attached individuals show lower sensitivity to the preference of other individuals and need to invest more cognitive resources for preference-reasoning; while compared with avoidant attached group, the anxious attached individuals express high tolerance for uncertainty and a higher ToM proficiency. Results from the current study imply that differences in preference-inferring under ambiguous conditions associated with different levels of individual attachment may explain the differences in interpersonal interaction.

  11. Mechanical performance of artificial pneumatic muscles to power an ankle-foot orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith E; Sawicki, Gregory S; Ferris, Daniel P

    2006-01-01

    We developed a powered ankle-foot orthosis that uses artificial pneumatic muscles to produce active plantar flexor torque. The purpose of this study was to quantify the mechanical performance of the orthosis during human walking. Three subjects walked at a range of speeds wearing ankle-foot orthoses with either one or two artificial muscles working in parallel. The orthosis produced similar total peak plantar flexor torque and network across speeds independent of the number of muscles used. The orthosis generated approximately 57% of the peak ankle plantar flexor torque during stance and performed approximately 70% of the positive plantar flexor work done during normal walking. Artificial muscle bandwidth and force-length properties were the two primary factors limiting torque production. The lack of peak force and work differences between single and double muscle conditions can be explained by force-length properties. Subjects altered their ankle kinematics between conditions resulting in changes in artificial muscle length. In the double muscle condition greater plantar flexion yielded shorter artificial muscles lengths and decreased muscle forces. This finding emphasizes the importance of human testing in the design and development of robotic exoskeleton devices for assisting human movement. The results of this study outline the mechanical performance limitations of an ankle-foot orthosis powered by artificial pneumatic muscles. This orthosis could be valuable for gait rehabilitation and for studies investigating neuromechanical control of human walking.

  12. Lower-limb amputee recovery response to an imposed error in mediolateral foot placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Ava D; Klute, Glenn K

    2014-09-22

    Despite walking with a wider step width, amputees remain 20% more likely to fall than non-amputees. Since mediolateral (ML) balance is critical for ambulation and contingent on ML foot placement, we used a ML disturbance to perturb walking balance and explore the influence of prosthetic foot stiffness on balance recovery. Ten transtibial amputees were fit with two commonly prescribed prosthetic feet with differing stiffness characteristics; 12 non-amputees also participated. A perturbation device that released an air burst just before heel strike imposed a repeatable medial or lateral disturbance in foot placement. After a medial disturbance, the first recovery step width was narrowed (pprosthetic limb (-103%), the sound limb (-51%) and non-amputees (-41%) and more than twice as variable. The ML inclination angle remained reduced (-109%) for the prosthetic limb, while the sound limb and non-amputees approached undisturbed levels (pprosthetic medial disturbance versus two steps for the sound limb and for non-amputees. After a lateral disturbance, the first recovery step was widened for the prosthetic limb (+82%), sound limb (+75%), and wider than non-amputees (+51%; pProsthetic feet with different stiffness properties did not have a significant effect. In conclusion, amputee balance was particularly challenged by medial disturbances to the prosthetic limb implying a need for improved interventions that address these balance deficits. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Development of an IMU-based foot-ground contact detection (FGCD) algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeongkyu; Lee, Donghun

    2017-03-01

    It is well known that, to locate humans in GPS-denied environments, a lower limb kinematic solution based on Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), force plate, and pressure insoles is essential. The force plate and pressure insole are used to detect foot-ground contacts. However, the use of multiple sensors is not desirable in most cases. This paper documents the development of an IMU-based FGCD (foot-ground contact detection) algorithm considering the variations of both walking terrain and speed. All IMU outputs showing significant changes on the moments of foot-ground contact phases are fully identified through experiments in five walking terrains. For the experiment on each walking terrain, variations of walking speeds are also examined to confirm the correlations between walking speed and the main parameters in the FGCD algorithm. As experimental results, FGCD algorithm successfully detecting four contact phases is developed, and validation of performance of the FGCD algorithm is also implemented. Practitioner Summary: In this research, it was demonstrated that the four contact phases of Heel strike (or Toe strike), Full contact, Heel off and Toe off can be independently detected regardless of the walking speed and walking terrain based on the detection criteria composed of the ranges and the rates of change of the main parameters measured from the Inertial Measurement Unit sensors.

  14. Estimation of foot joint kinetics in three and four segment foot models using an existing proportionality scheme: Application in paediatric barefoot walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Kevin; Eerdekens, Maarten; Desmet, Dirk; Matricali, Giovanni Arnoldo; Wuite, Sander; Staes, Filip

    2017-08-16

    Recent studies which estimated foot segment kinetic patterns were found to have inconclusive data on one hand, and did not dissociate the kinetics of the chopart and lisfranc joint. The current study aimed therefore at reproducing independent, recently published three-segment foot kinetic data (Study 1) and in a second stage expand the estimation towards a four-segment model (Study 2). Concerning the reproducibility study, two recently published three segment foot models (Bruening et al., 2014; Saraswat et al., 2014) were reproduced and kinetic parameters were incorporated in order to calculate joint moments and powers of paediatric cohorts during gait. Ground reaction forces were measured with an integrated force/pressure plate measurement set-up and a recently published proportionality scheme was applied to determine subarea total ground reaction forces. Regarding Study 2, moments and powers were estimated with respect to the Instituto Ortopedico Rizzoli four-segment model. The proportionality scheme was expanded in this study and the impact of joint centre location on kinetic data was evaluated. Findings related to Study 1 showed in general good agreement with the kinetic data published by Bruening et al. (2014). Contrarily, the peak ankle, midfoot and hallux powers published by Saraswat et al. (2014) are disputed. Findings of Study 2 revealed that the chopart joint encompasses both power absorption and generation, whereas the Lisfranc joint mainly contributes to power generation. The results highlights the necessity for further studies in the field of foot kinetic models and provides a first estimation of the kinetic behaviour of the Lisfranc joint. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 12 CFR 303.184 - Moving an insured branch of a foreign bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving an insured branch of a foreign bank. 303.184 Section 303.184 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES International Banking § 303.184 Moving an insured branch of a foreign bank. (a...

  16. On the multiplicity effect of an m-fold moving point load on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work the response of an elastic beam supported by viscoelastic foundation (Winkler Model) to an external excitation (force) is investigated with particular attention to the efect of the excitation by a multipple cyclic moving load. The effect of the multiplicity of the cyclic - moving load with respect to the amplitude of ...

  17. An Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Control Chart for Bernoulli Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spliid, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    We consider a production process in which units are produced in a sequential manner. The units can, for example, be manufactured items or services, provided to clients. Each unit produced can be a failure with probability p or a success (non-failure) with probability (1-p). A novel exponentially ...... weighted moving average (EWMA) control chart intended for surveillance of the probability of failure, p, is described. The chart is based on counting the number of non-failures produced between failures in combination with a variance-stabilizing transformation. The distribution function...... of the transformation is given and its limit for small values of p is derived. Control of high yield processes is discussed and the chart is shown to perform very well in comparison with both the most common alternative EWMA chart and the CUSUM chart. The construction and the use of the proposed EWMA chart...... are described and a practical example is given. It is demonstrated how the method communicates the current failure probability in a direct and interpretable way, which makes it well suited for surveillance of a great variety of activities in industry or in the service sector such as in hospitals, for example...

  18. Factors in sensory processing of prosody in schizotypal personality disorder: an fMRI experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Chandlee C; Morocz, Istvan A; Minney, Daniel; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A; Voglmaier, Martina M; Panych, Lawrence P; Khan, Usman; Zacks, Rayna; Terry, Douglas P; Shenton, Martha E; McCarley, Robert W

    2010-08-01

    Persons diagnosed with schizophrenia demonstrate deficits in prosody recognition. To examine prosody along the schizophrenia spectrum, antipsychotic-naïve schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) subjects and healthy control subjects were compared. It was hypothesized that SPD subjects would perform more poorly; with cognitive and demographic factors contributing to the poor performance. The superior temporal gyrus (STG) was selected as the region-of-interest (ROI) given its known abnormalities in SPD and its important role in the processing of prosody. SPD and healthy comparison (HC) subjects were matched on age, IQ, and parental social-economic status (PSES). Cognitive measures included the Speech Sound Perception Test (SSPT) to examine phonological processing (SPD=68, HC=74) and the Verbal Fluency task to examine executive functioning (SPD=129, HC=138). The main experiment was a novel fMRI task of prosody identification using semantically neutral sentences spoken with emotional prosody (SPD=16, HC=13). Finally, volumetric measurement of the superior temporal sulcus (STS), a key region for processing prosody, and partially overlapping with the STG, was performed (SPD=30, HC=30). Phonological processing and executive functioning were both impaired in SPD subjects compared with HC subjects. Contrary to the prediction, SPD subjects, as a group, were similar to HC subjects in terms of correctly indentifying the emotion conveyed and reaction time. Within the SPD group, prosody identification accuracy was influenced by executive functioning, IQ and perhaps PSES, relationships not found with HC subjects. Phonological perception aided prosody identification in both diagnostic groups. As expected, both groups activated the STG while performing the prosody identification task. However, SPD subjects may have been less "efficient" in their recruitment of STG neurons. Finally, SPD subjects demonstrated a trend toward smaller STS volumes on the left, particularly the lower bank

  19. Neural circuit of verbal humor comprehension in schizophrenia - an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Adamczyk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit problems with understanding the figurative meaning of language. This study evaluates neural correlates of diminished humor comprehension observed in schizophrenia. The study included chronic schizophrenia (SCH outpatients (n = 20, and sex, age and education level matched healthy controls (n = 20. The fMRI punchline based humor comprehension task consisted of 60 stories of which 20 had funny, 20 nonsensical and 20 neutral (not funny punchlines. After the punchlines were presented, the participants were asked to indicate whether the story was comprehensible and how funny it was. Three contrasts were analyzed in both groups reflecting stages of humor processing: abstract vs neutral stories - incongruity detection; funny vs abstract - incongruity resolution and elaboration; and funny vs neutral – complete humor processing. Additionally, parametric modulation analysis was performed using both subjective ratings separately. Between-group comparisons revealed that the SCH subjects had attenuated activation in the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (BA 41 in case of irresolvable incongruity processing of nonsensical puns; in the left dorsomedial middle and superior frontal gyri (BA 8/9 in case of incongruity resolution and elaboration processing of funny puns; and in the interhemispheric dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24 in case of complete processing of funny puns. Additionally, during comprehensibility ratings the SCH group showed a suppressed activity in the left dorsomedial middle and superior frontal gyri (BA 8/9 and revealed weaker activation during funniness ratings in the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24. Interestingly, these differences in the SCH group were accompanied behaviorally by a protraction of time in both types of rating responses and by indicating funny punchlines less comprehensible. Summarizing, our results indicate neural substrates of humor comprehension

  20. Neural effects of environmental advertising: An fMRI analysis of voice age and temporal framing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado-Aranda, Luis-Alberto; Martínez-Fiestas, Myriam; Sánchez-Fernández, Juan

    2018-01-15

    Ecological information offered to society through advertising enhances awareness of environmental issues, encourages development of sustainable attitudes and intentions, and can even alter behavior. This paper, by means of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and self-reports, explores the underlying mechanisms of processing ecological messages. The study specifically examines brain and behavioral responses to persuasive ecological messages that differ in temporal framing and in the age of the voice pronouncing them. The findings reveal that attitudes are more positive toward future-framed messages presented by young voices. The whole-brain analysis reveals that future-framed (FF) ecological messages trigger activation in brain areas related to imagery, prospective memories and episodic events, thus reflecting the involvement of past behaviors in future ecological actions. Past-framed messages (PF), in turn, elicit brain activations within the episodic system. Young voices (YV), in addition to triggering stronger activation in areas involved with the processing of high-timbre, high-pitched and high-intensity voices, are perceived as more emotional and motivational than old voices (OV) as activations in anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala. Messages expressed by older voices, in turn, exhibit stronger activation in areas formerly linked to low-pitched voices and voice gender perception. Interestingly, a link is identified between neural and self-report responses indicating that certain brain activations in response to future-framed messages and young voices predicted higher attitudes toward future-framed and young voice advertisements, respectively. The results of this study provide invaluable insight into the unconscious origin of attitudes toward environmental messages and indicate which voice and temporal frame of a message generate the greatest subconscious value. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Brain deactivation in the outperformance in bimodal tasks: an FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Ching Chiang

    Full Text Available While it is known that some individuals can effectively perform two tasks simultaneously, other individuals cannot. How the brain deals with performing simultaneous tasks remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to assess which brain areas corresponded to various phenomena in task performance. Nineteen subjects were requested to sequentially perform three blocks of tasks, including two unimodal tasks and one bimodal task. The unimodal tasks measured either visual feature binding or auditory pitch comparison, while the bimodal task required performance of the two tasks simultaneously. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI results are compatible with previous studies showing that distinct brain areas, such as the visual cortices, frontal eye field (FEF, lateral parietal lobe (BA7, and medial and inferior frontal lobe, are involved in processing of visual unimodal tasks. In addition, the temporal lobes and Brodmann area 43 (BA43 were involved in processing of auditory unimodal tasks. These results lend support to concepts of modality-specific attention. Compared to the unimodal tasks, bimodal tasks required activation of additional brain areas. Furthermore, while deactivated brain areas were related to good performance in the bimodal task, these areas were not deactivated where the subject performed well in only one of the two simultaneous tasks. These results indicate that efficient information processing does not require some brain areas to be overly active; rather, the specific brain areas need to be relatively deactivated to remain alert and perform well on two tasks simultaneously. Meanwhile, it can also offer a neural basis for biofeedback in training courses, such as courses in how to perform multiple tasks simultaneously.

  2. An fMRI study of acupuncture-induced brain activation of aphasia stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geng; Yang, Edward S

    2011-01-01

    This investigation aims to test the effect of acupuncture on word generation activation (WGA) in post-stroke aphasia patients. Seven vascular aphasia patients and 14 control subjects were studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Each performed: (1) a word generation (WG) task alone, followed by (2) repeating WG after insertion of acupuncture needles (WGN) into SJ 8 (a language-implicated acupoint), followed by (3) repeating WGN reinforced by electrical stimulation (WGA) of SJ 8, and finally (4) electrical stimulation (ES) of SJ 8 alone. Significant activation was found in the opercular, triangular, or insula during the ES stimulation in patients when comparing each patient to 14 normal controls. For the WG task, significant activation was found in the inferior frontal gyrus when comparing each patient to 14 normal controls. The signal induced by acupuncture was larger than that of the WG task in the left middle frontal gyrus with the comparison of WGA vs. WGN in seven patients. Further, main significant effects in the right insula in patients were observed when comparing seven patients to 14 normal controls. The activation induced by ES stimulation was only found on the left side in controls. This activation was observed on the lesion side of superior and middle frontal gyrus (SMFG) in patients. This study demonstrates for the first time that language-deficit-implicated acupoint stimulation can selectively activate the brain on the lesion side in post-stroke aphasia patients. These results suggest that acupuncture may have therapeutic benefits in post-stroke aphasia patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of menstrual cycle and androstadienone on female stress reactions: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka Chun eChung

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Communicating threats and stress via biological signaling is common in animals. In humans, androstadienone (ANDR, a synthetic male steroid, is a socially relevant chemosignal exhibited to increase positive mood and cortisol levels specifically in (periovulatory females in positively arousing contexts. In a negative context, we expected that such effects of ANDR could amplify social evaluative threat depending on the stress sensitivity, which differs between menstrual cycle phases. Therefore, this fMRI study aimed to examine psychosocial stress reactions on behavioral, hormonal and neural levels in 31 naturally cycling females, between 15 early follicular (EF and 16 mid-luteal (ML females tested with ANDR and placebo treatment in a repeated-measures design.Regardless of odor stimulation, psychosocial stress (i.e. mental arithmetic task with social evaluative threat led to elevated negative mood and anxiety in all females. A negative association of social threat related amygdala activation and competence ratings appeared in ML-females, indicating enhanced threat processing by ANDR, particularly in ML-females who felt less competent early in the stress experience. Further, ML-females showed reduced performance and stronger stress-related hippocampus activation compared to EF-females under ANDR. Hippocampal activation in ML-females also correlated positively with post-stress subjective stress. Contrarily, such patterns were not observed in EF-females or under placebo in either group. Strikingly, unlike passive emotional processing, ANDR in a stressful context decreased cortisol concentration in all females. This points to a more complex interaction of ovarian/gonadal hormones in social threat processing and stress reactivity.Our findings suggest that ANDR enhanced initial evaluation of self-related social threat in ML-females. Female stress reactions are related to stress sensitivity through enhanced awareness and processing of social cues in a

  4. Neural competition for conscious representation across time: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen A Slagter

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The information processing capacity of the human mind is limited, as is evidenced by the attentional blink (AB--a deficit in identifying the second of two temporally-close targets (T1 and T2 embedded in a rapid stream of distracters. Theories of the AB generally agree that it results from competition between stimuli for conscious representation. However, they disagree in the specific mechanisms, in particular about how attentional processing of T1 determines the AB to T2.The present study used the high spatial resolution of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to examine the neural mechanisms underlying the AB. Our research approach was to design T1 and T2 stimuli that activate distinguishable brain areas involved in visual categorization and representation. ROI and functional connectivity analyses were then used to examine how attentional processing of T1, as indexed by activity in the T1 representation area, affected T2 processing. Our main finding was that attentional processing of T1 at the level of the visual cortex predicted T2 detection rates Those individuals who activated the T1 encoding area more strongly in blink versus no-blink trials generally detected T2 on a lower percentage of trials. The coupling of activity between T1 and T2 representation areas did not vary as a function of conscious T2 perception.These data are consistent with the notion that the AB is related to attentional demands of T1 for selection, and indicate that these demands are reflected at the level of visual cortex. They also highlight the importance of individual differences in attentional settings in explaining AB task performance.

  5. Neural circuit of verbal humor comprehension in schizophrenia - an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Przemysław; Wyczesany, Miroslaw; Domagalik, Aleksandra; Daren, Artur; Cepuch, Kamil; Błądziński, Piotr; Cechnicki, Andrzej; Marek, Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit problems with understanding the figurative meaning of language. This study evaluates neural correlates of diminished humor comprehension observed in schizophrenia. The study included chronic schizophrenia (SCH) outpatients (n = 20), and sex, age and education level matched healthy controls (n = 20). The fMRI punchline based humor comprehension task consisted of 60 stories of which 20 had funny, 20 nonsensical and 20 neutral (not funny) punchlines. After the punchlines were presented, the participants were asked to indicate whether the story was comprehensible and how funny it was. Three contrasts were analyzed in both groups reflecting stages of humor processing: abstract vs neutral stories - incongruity detection; funny vs abstract - incongruity resolution and elaboration; and funny vs neutral - complete humor processing. Additionally, parametric modulation analysis was performed using both subjective ratings separately. Between-group comparisons revealed that the SCH subjects had attenuated activation in the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (BA 41) in case of irresolvable incongruity processing of nonsensical puns; in the left dorsomedial middle and superior frontal gyri (BA 8/9) in case of incongruity resolution and elaboration processing of funny puns; and in the interhemispheric dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24) in case of complete processing of funny puns. Additionally, during comprehensibility ratings the SCH group showed a suppressed activity in the left dorsomedial middle and superior frontal gyri (BA 8/9) and revealed weaker activation during funniness ratings in the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24). Interestingly, these differences in the SCH group were accompanied behaviorally by a protraction of time in both types of rating responses and by indicating funny punchlines less comprehensible. Summarizing, our results indicate neural substrates of humor comprehension processing

  6. Age of second language acquisition affects nonverbal conflict processing in children: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Struys, Esli; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Baeken, Chris; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert

    2014-09-01

    In their daily communication, bilinguals switch between two languages, a process that involves the selection of a target language and minimization of interference from a nontarget language. Previous studies have uncovered the neural structure in bilinguals and the activation patterns associated with performing verbal conflict tasks. One question that remains, however is whether this extra verbal switching affects brain function during nonverbal conflict tasks. In this study, we have used fMRI to investigate the impact of bilingualism in children performing two nonverbal tasks involving stimulus-stimulus and stimulus-response conflicts. Three groups of 8-11-year-old children--bilinguals from birth (2L1), second language learners (L2L), and a control group of monolinguals (1L1)--were scanned while performing a color Simon and a numerical Stroop task. Reaction times and accuracy were logged. Compared to monolingual controls, bilingual children showed higher behavioral congruency effect of these tasks, which is matched by the recruitment of brain regions that are generally used in general cognitive control, language processing or to solve language conflict situations in bilinguals (caudate nucleus, posterior cingulate gyrus, STG, precuneus). Further, the activation of these areas was found to be higher in 2L1 compared to L2L. The coupling of longer reaction times to the recruitment of extra language-related brain areas supports the hypothesis that when dealing with language conflicts the specialization of bilinguals hampers the way they can process with nonverbal conflicts, at least at early stages in life.

  7. Athlete's Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athlete's foot is a common infection caused by a fungus. It most often affects the space between the toes. ... skin between your toes. You can get athlete's foot from damp surfaces, such as showers, swimming pools, ...

  8. fMRI activation in the middle frontal gyrus as an indicator of hemispheric dominance for language in brain tumor patients: a comparison with Broca's area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jian W; Brennan, Nicole M Petrovich; Izzo, Giana; Peck, Kyung K; Holodny, Andrei I

    2016-05-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) can assess language lateralization in brain tumor patients; however, this can be limited if the primary language area-Broca's area (BA)-is affected by the tumor. We hypothesized that the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) can be used as a clinical indicator of hemispheric dominance for language during presurgical workup. Fifty-two right-handed subjects with solitary left-hemispheric primary brain tumors were retrospectively studied. Subjects performed a verbal fluency task during fMRI. The MFG was compared to BA for fMRI voxel activation, language laterality index (LI), and the effect of tumor grade on the LI. Language fMRI (verbal fluency) activated more voxels in MFG than in BA (MFG = 315, BA = 216, p language lateralization than those with low-grade tumors in both BA and MFG (p = 0.02, p = 0.02, respectively). MFG is comparable to BA in its ability to indicate hemispheric dominance for language using a measure of verbal fluency and may be an adjunct measure in the clinical determination of language laterality for presurgical planning.

  9. Cue-Elicited Craving in Heroin Addicts at Different Abstinent Time: An fMRI Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Mingwu; Wang, Erlei; Shen, Yunxia; Wang, Jiping

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the effect of short-term and long-term heroin abstinence on brain responses to heroin-related cues using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: Eighteen male heroin addicts following short-term abstinence and 19 male heroin addicts following long-term abstinence underwent fMRI scanning while viewing heroin-related and neutral images. Cue-elicited craving and withdrawal symptoms in the subjects were measured. Results: Following short-term abstinence, gre...

  10. An investigation of correlation factors linking footing resistance on sand with cone penetration test results

    OpenAIRE

    Gavin, Kenneth; Tolooiyan, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Significant research effort has led to improvements in our ability to estimate the ultimate bearing resistance of footings in sand. These techniques often estimate the footing resistance at relatively large displacements, typically 10% of the footing width, qb0.1. Cone Penetration Test (CPT) design methods typically link qb0.1 and qc through a constant reduction factor, a. A range of a factors for shallow footings have been proposed, some methods suggest that a is constant and while ...

  11. Foot Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can also cause foot problems. The Most Common Types of Foot Problems In older adults, the foot complaints encountered ... people include: Arch pain . From fallen arches (flat feet), or abnormally high arches. Tarsal tunnel syndrome . A type of pinched nerve disorder. Achilles tendonitis . Inflammation of ...

  12. Foot pain

    OpenAIRE

    Formosa, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    Foot complaints are very common in general practice and their incidence increases with age. Three out of four people complain of foot pain during the course of a lifetime, while approximately 20% of people aged 65 years or older complain of non-traumatic foot problems.

  13. Move/Bevæg Dig: An Interactive Sound Art Installation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina; Snyder, Jeff

    The Move/Bevæg Dig installation explores listeners' experiences of words as musical expressions and sonic experiences. Depending on how the listener moves around in an environment while wearing the custom - designed headphones, a voice will try to speak the words “Move” or “Bevæg Dig”, the Danish...

  14. The cost utility of a multi-disciplinary foot protection clinic (MDFPC) in an Irish hospital setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nason, G J

    2012-04-21

    BACKGROUND: Foot ulceration which may result in lower limb amputation is one of the most feared complications among patients with diabetes and the prevention of both ulceration and amputation is a major challenge facing the health service. Many studies have proposed dedicated diabetic foot teams as the future of diabetic foot care. AIMS: We aimed to quantify the cost benefit and sustainability of a multi-disciplinary foot protection clinic (MDFPC) in an Irish university hospital setting. METHODS: A dedicated bi-weekly consultant-led MDFPC including Vascular Surgery, Endocrinology, Orthopaedic Surgery, Podiatry, Orthotics and Tissue Viability was established in June 2008. RESULTS: Between 2006 and 2010, a total of 221 lower limb procedures (major\\/minor amputations and debridement) were performed. The number of major amputations decreased from 12 during the control period (2 years before the clinic) to 7 in the study period (2 years after the clinic). After costing all activity associated with the clinic, there was an overall saving of 114,063 per year associated with the introduction of the MDFPC. CONCLUSION: This is the first study in an Irish context, and one of few international studies, to demonstrate that an aggressive-coordinated approach to diabetic foot care is both cost effective and clinically efficient in reducing the burden of foot-related complications in a diabetic population.

  15. The Hand-Foot Skin Reaction and Quality of Life Questionnaire: An Assessment Tool for Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Karen N.; Doll, Helen A.; Camacho, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Background. Skin toxicity (hand-foot syndrome/hand-foot skin reaction, HFS/R) related to antineoplastic therapy is a significant issue in oncology practice, with potentially large impacts on health-related quality of life (HRQL). Materials and Methods. A patient-reported questionnaire, the hand-foot skin reaction and quality of life (HF-QoL) questionnaire was developed to measure the HFS/R symptoms associated with cancer therapeutic agents and their effect on daily activities. The validity and reliability of the HF-QoL questionnaire was tested in a randomized trial of capecitabine with sorafenib/placebo in 223 patients with locally advanced/metastatic breast cancer. Other measures completed included patient ratings of condition severity, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast cancer (FACT-B), and the clinician-rated National Cancer Institute-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI-CTCAE), version 3.0, hand-foot skin reaction grade. The psychometric properties of the HF-QoL tested included structural validity, internal consistency, construct validity, discriminant validity, and responsiveness. Finally, the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was estimated. Results. The HF-QoL instrument comprises a 20-item symptom scale and an 18-item daily activity scale. Each scale demonstrated excellent measurement properties and discriminated between NCI-CTCAE grade and patient-rated condition severity with large effect sizes. The daily activity scale had excellent internal consistency and correlated with the FACT-B and HF-QoL symptom scores. Both HF-QoL scale scores increased linearly with increasing patient-rated condition severity. The MCIDs were estimated as 5 units for daily activities and 8 units for symptoms mean scores. Conclusion. The HF-QoL was sensitive to symptoms and HRQL issues associated with HFS/R among participants treated with capecitabine with and without sorafenib. The HF-QoL appears suitable for assessing the HRQL

  16. An evaluation of an ultrasonic debridement system in patients with diabetic foot ulcers: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campitiello, Ferdinando; Mancone, Manfredi; Corte, Angela Della; Guerniero, Raffaella; Canonico, Silvestro

    2018-04-02

    This study evaluated the use of ultrasonic debridement in patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). In this prospective, single-arm, open-label study, all patients with DFUs underwent wound debridement by ultrasonic debridement system (SonicOne OR Ultrasonic debridement system). Wherever possible, the edges were approximated by means of stitches. In other cases, the surgical breach healed by secondary intention, or a partial thickness skin graft (with or without Integra Dermal Regeneration Template or Integra Flowable Wound Matrix) was applied, and subsequently healed by primary intention. We assessed 15 patients with a DFU. The time required for debridement was short (an average 15.06±4.02 minutes). Complete wound healing (defined as 100% re-epithelialisation) was achieved in all 15 cases. Median time to heal was 39.20±16.05 days. The ultrasonic debridement system was found to show adequate debridement while preserving more viable tissue to promote rapid healing. Our findings show that the device demonstrates advantages in the reduction of debridement times, and efficacy in safely preserving the viable tissue, with a low complication rate in surgery of DFUs. A study that uses a larger cohort is required to fully evaluate the effectiveness, or otherwise, of the ultrasonic debridement system.

  17. An interesting case of 'diabetic foot ulcer' in an HIV-positive patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaprakasam, Venkat; Chima-Okereke, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Kaposi sarcoma is a highly vascularised tumour affecting the skin, lymph nodes and viscera. Kaposi sarcoma is most common in HIV-infected homosexual or bisexual men. We present here a 70-year-old white British male patient, who was under the care of the podiatric team for longstanding 'diabetic foot ulcers'. He was later referred to the Dermatology team who took a biopsy; this revealed features of Kaposi sarcoma which prompted an HIV test which was positive. This patient had previously presented to several healthcare professionals with symptoms suggestive of HIV infection. He was started on antiretroviral therapy and the HIV and human herpesvirus-8 viral loads became undetectable in the blood within weeks and he showed significant clinical improvement. This case report is a reminder to clinicians to have a high index of suspicion in patients presenting with symptoms and signs suggestive of HIV infection. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Management of foot/ankle osteoarthritis by Australian General Practitioners: an analysis of national patient-encounter records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Kade L; Harrison, Christopher; Britt, Helena; Hinman, Rana S; Bennell, Kim L

    2018-04-12

    To document the management of foot/ankle osteoarthritis/arthritis (OA) by general practitioners (GP) in Australia. We analysed data from the Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health Program April 2010-March 2016 inclusive. Patient and GP encounter characteristics were extracted. Data were classified by the International Classification of Primary Care, Version 2, and summarised using descriptive statistics and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) around point estimates. The dataset included 583,900 patient-encounter records among which foot/ankle OA was managed 621 times, at a rate of 1.1 per 1,000 encounters, with an annual estimated 152,000 GP encounters nationally. The management rate was most frequent among patients aged 65-74 years (2.25 per 1,000 encounters). Comorbidities were managed at a rate of 105.8 per 100 encounters, the most common being hypertension, and few being other musculoskeletal problems. Foot/ankle OA was mostly managed using medication (64.6 per 100 problems), with prescription rates far exceeding non-pharmacological strategies such as counselling, advice or education (17.7 per 100), or allied health referral (10.1 per 100). When considering specific health/medical professionals, patients were referred to orthopaedic surgeons 8.4 times per 100 foot/ankle problems, podiatrists 6.3 times per 100 foot/ankle problems, and physiotherapists 2.6 times per 100 foot/ankle problems. Pharmacological management rates of foot/ankle OA were high and substantially exceeded non-pharmacological management such as lifestyle advice and allied health referral. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of this care compared to self-management and conservative non-drug treatment in people with foot/ankle OA. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Quantifying performance on an outdoor agility drill using foot-mounted inertial measurement units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia M Zaferiou

    Full Text Available Running agility is required for many sports and other physical tasks that demand rapid changes in body direction. Quantifying agility skill remains a challenge because measuring rapid changes of direction and quantifying agility skill from those measurements are difficult to do in ways that replicate real task/game play situations. The objectives of this study were to define and to measure agility performance for a (five-cone agility drill used within a military obstacle course using data harvested from two foot-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs. Thirty-two recreational athletes ran an agility drill while wearing two IMUs secured to the tops of their athletic shoes. The recorded acceleration and angular rates yield estimates of the trajectories, velocities and accelerations of both feet as well as an estimate of the horizontal velocity of the body mass center. Four agility performance metrics were proposed and studied including: 1 agility drill time, 2 horizontal body speed, 3 foot trajectory turning radius, and 4 tangential body acceleration. Additionally, the average horizontal ground reaction during each footfall was estimated. We hypothesized that shorter agility drill performance time would be observed with small turning radii and large tangential acceleration ranges and body speeds. Kruskal-Wallis and mean rank post-hoc statistical analyses revealed that shorter agility drill performance times were observed with smaller turning radii and larger tangential acceleration ranges and body speeds, as hypothesized. Moreover, measurements revealed the strategies that distinguish high versus low performers. Relative to low performers, high performers used sharper turns, larger changes in body speed (larger tangential acceleration ranges, and shorter duration footfalls that generated larger horizontal ground reactions during the turn phases. Overall, this study advances the use of foot-mounted IMUs to quantify agility performance in

  20. Collagen implant with gentamicin sulphate as an option to treat a neuroischaemic diabetic foot ulcer: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Almeida, C E

    2016-01-01

    The ischaemic diabetic foot is associated with a faster evolving atherosclerosis affecting preferentially the bellow knee arteries. This distal ischemia associated with a wide distribution of multiple stenosis and occlusions throughout lower limb arteries, makes revascularization very hard or even impossible. This represents a major factor responsible for non-healing diabetic foot ulcer. In these cases all efforts should be made to find treatment alternatives that can promote ulcer healing. Male patient with neuroischaemic diabetic foot ulcer with exposure tendon, without possibility for endovascular or surgical revascularization, was treated unsuccessfully with prostaglandin and several types of dressings for 7 months. Skin graft failed. Weekly dressings with collagen implant impregnated with gentamicin sulphate were then started and continued in an outpatient setting. Evolution was very positive, with 99% of epithelisation in 9 months. No pain or infection since the beginning of this treatment. Successful treatment of a neuroischaemic diabetic foot ulcer rests with the possibility of increasing the perfusion to the foot. Whether or not a revascularization procedure is possible will set the tone for the ensuing treatment. Using collagen implant with gentamicin sulphate, collagen is delivered to the wound bed helping in the granulation tissue formation, will increase microcirculation, and topic gentamicin will decrease bacterial load, exudate and proteases production, increasing cicatrisation. In neuroischaemic diabetic foot ulcer weekly dressings with collagen implant impregnated with gentamicin sulphate can be a good option for ulcer healing. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Are There Multiple Kinds of Episodic Memory? An fMRI Investigation Comparing Autobiographical and Recognition Memory Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Yu; Gilmore, Adrian W; Nelson, Steven M; McDermott, Kathleen B

    2017-03-08

    What brain regions underlie retrieval from episodic memory? The bulk of research addressing this question with fMRI has relied upon recognition memory for materials encoded within the laboratory. Another, less dominant tradition has used autobiographical methods, whereby people recall events from their lifetime, often after being cued with words or pictures. The current study addresses how the neural substrates of successful memory retrieval differed as a function of the targeted memory when the experimental parameters were held constant in the two conditions (except for instructions). Human participants studied a set of scenes and then took two types of memory test while undergoing fMRI scanning. In one condition (the picture memory test), participants reported for each scene (32 studied, 64 nonstudied) whether it was recollected from the prior study episode. In a second condition (the life memory test), participants reported for each scene (32 studied, 64 nonstudied) whether it reminded them of a specific event from their preexperimental lifetime. An examination of successful retrieval (yes responses) for recently studied scenes for the two test types revealed pronounced differences; that is, autobiographical retrieval instantiated with the life memory test preferentially activated the default mode network, whereas hits in the picture memory test preferentially engaged the parietal memory network as well as portions of the frontoparietal control network. When experimental cueing parameters are held constant, the neural underpinnings of successful memory retrieval differ when remembering life events and recently learned events. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Episodic memory is often discussed as a solitary construct. However, experimental traditions examining episodic memory use very different approaches, and these are rarely compared to one another. When the neural correlates associated with each approach have been directly contrasted, results have varied considerably

  2. Is dorsal anterior cingulate cortex activation in response to social exclusion due to expectancy violation? An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Taishi; Onoda, Keiichi; Nakashima, Ken'ichiro; Nittono, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    People are typically quite sensitive about being accepted or excluded by others. Previous studies have suggested that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is a key brain region involved in the detection of social exclusion. However, this region has also been shown to be sensitive to non-social expectancy violations. We often expect other people to follow an unwritten rule in which they include us as they would expect to be included, such that social exclusion likely involves some degree of expectancy violation. The present event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study sought to separate the effects of expectancy violation from those of social exclusion, such that we employed an "overinclusion" condition in which a player was unexpectedly overincluded in the game by the other players. With this modification, we found that the dACC and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) were activated by exclusion, relative to overinclusion. In addition, we identified a negative correlation between exclusion-evoked brain activity and self-rated social pain in the rVLPFC, but not in the dACC. These findings suggest that the rVLPFC is critical for regulating social pain, whereas the dACC plays an important role in the detection of exclusion. The neurobiological basis of social exclusion is different from that of mere expectancy violation.

  3. Adaptive coding of the value of social cues with oxytocin, an fMRI study in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andari, Elissar; Richard, Nathalie; Leboyer, Marion; Sirigu, Angela

    2016-03-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is one of the major targets of research in neuroscience, with respect to social functioning. Oxytocin promotes social skills and improves the quality of face processing in individuals with social dysfunctions such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although one of OT's key functions is to promote social behavior during dynamic social interactions, the neural correlates of this function remain unknown. Here, we combined acute intranasal OT (IN-OT) administration (24 IU) and fMRI with an interactive ball game and a face-matching task in individuals with ASD (N = 20). We found that IN-OT selectively enhanced the brain activity of early visual areas in response to faces as compared to non-social stimuli. OT inhalation modulated the BOLD activity of amygdala and hippocampus in a context-dependent manner. Interestingly, IN-OT intake enhanced the activity of mid-orbitofrontal cortex in response to a fair partner, and insula region in response to an unfair partner. These OT-induced neural responses were accompanied by behavioral improvements in terms of allocating appropriate feelings of trust toward different partners' profiles. Our findings suggest that OT impacts the brain activity of key areas implicated in attention and emotion regulation in an adaptive manner, based on the value of social cues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Brain network involved in visual processing of movement stimuli used in upper limb robotic training: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nocchi Federico

    2012-07-01

    , activations were elicited in cerebral areas involved in visual perception, sensory integration, recognition of movement, re-mapping on the somatosensory and motor cortex, storage in memory, and response control. Results from the congruent vs. incongruent trials revealed greater activity for the former condition than the latter in a network including cingulate cortex, right inferior and middle frontal gyrus that are involved in the go-signal and in decision control. Results on healthy subjects would suggest the appropriateness of an abstract visual feedback provided during motor training. The task contributes to highlight the potential of fMRI in improving the understanding of visual motor processes and may also be useful in detecting brain reorganisation during training.

  5. Probing community nurses' professional basis: a situational case study in diabetic foot ulcer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaarup, Clara; Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Jensen, Merete Hartun; Laursen, Anders Christian; Bermark, Susan; Hejlesen, Ole Kristian

    2017-03-01

    Complicated and long-lasting wound care of diabetic foot ulcers are moving from specialists in wound care at hospitals towards community nurses without specialist diabetic foot ulcer wound care knowledge. The aim of the study is to elucidate community nurses' professional basis for treating diabetic foot ulcers. A situational case study design was adopted in an archetypical Danish community nursing setting. Experience is a crucial component in the community nurses' professional basis for treating diabetic foot ulcers. Peer-to-peer training is the prevailing way to learn about diabetic foot ulcer, however, this contributes to the risk of low evidence-based practice. Finally, a frequent behaviour among the community nurses is to consult colleagues before treating the diabetic foot ulcers.

  6. Painless Legs and Moving Toes as an Initial Presentation of Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Mi Oh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Painless legs and moving toes is an unusual syndrome, which has not previously been reported as an initial presentation of ischemic stroke. We encountered a 78-year-old woman who developed dysarthria and involuntary movement of her left toes that was clinically regarded as painless legs and moving toes. These symptoms appeared abruptly and simultaneously as the initial symptoms of stroke, and improved gradually with conservative management by intravenous hydration for a month. We suggest that, in our case, a cortical brain lesion caused by ischemic stroke might be associated with the development of painless legs and moving toes.

  7. Contributions to the Transient Study of an Electric Motor with Shorted Moving Coil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgescu Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article is studied the transient regime of an electric motor with a shorted moving coil, into alternating current supplied. The authors present their contributions related to the conceiving, achieving and testing of experimental stands of an electric motor with a shorted moving coil and to the identification of the mathematical model, indexical function parameters and the coefficients of the mathematical equation of this engine. Finally, the authors' conclusions are presented on the results of experimental studies and moving coil motor behavior in transient regime.

  8. The effects of sleep deprivation on brain fMRI activation during motion detection and tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, G.

    2008-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is common and leads to inattention and impaired vigilance. Sleep deprived drivers have an increased road traffic accident rate. Police data suggest that sleep deprivation accounts for up to 23% of all accidents on UK roads. How sleep deprivation leads to impaired driving is uncertain. The skills needed for error free driving are the detection of moving objects, and the ability to track. Work using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has established which brain areas...

  9. An umbilical data-acquisition system for measuring pressures between the foot and shoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H S; Maalej, N; Webster, J G; Tompkins, W J; Bach-y-Rita, P; Wertsch, J J

    1990-09-01

    We have developed an umbilical data-acquisition system for measuring pressures between the foot and shoe during walking. It consists of pressure sensors in the insoles of shoes, amplifier circuits, umbilical cables, an analog-to-digital converter, and a graphics display card in an IBM PC for real-time data collection and display. The applied pressure on a sensor decreases its resistance, which causes the output voltage of the amplifier circuit to increase. We attach seven sensors to the surface of each insole of a pair of extra-depth shoes and calibrate all the sensors in the insole before and after each test using a load cell as a reference. The IBM PC samples the outputs from the sensor and the load cell and stores a piecewise linear lookup table for use in compensation for the nonlinearity of the sensor. On the PC's graphics display, two programs provide displays of foot pressures as real-time bar graphs or as analog pressure versus time curves.

  10. An fMRI study exploring the overlap and differences between neural representations of physical and recalled pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merle Fairhurst

    Full Text Available Implementing a recall paradigm without hypnosis, we use functional MRI (fMRI to explore and compare nociceptive and centrally-driven pain experiences. We posit that a trace of a recent nociceptive event can be used to create sensory-re-experiencing of pain that can be qualified in terms of intensity and vividness. Fifteen healthy volunteers received three levels of thermal stimuli (warm, low pain and high pain and subsequently were asked to recall and then rate this experience. Neuroimaging results reveal that recalling a previous sensory experience activates an extensive network of classical pain processing structures except the contralateral posterior insular cortex. Nociceptive-specific activation of this structure and the rated intensity difference between physical and recalled pain events allow us to investigate the link between the quality of the original nociceptive stimulus and the mental trace, as well as the differences between the accompanying neural responses. Additionally, by incorporating the behavioural ratings, we explored which brain regions were separately responsible for generating either an accurate or vivid recall of the physical experience. Together, these observations further our understanding of centrally-mediated pain experiences and pain memory as well as the potential relevance of these factors in the maintenance of chronic pain.

  11. Moving antiphase boundaries using an external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaideeswaran, Kaushik, E-mail: kaushik.vaideeswaran@alumni.epfl.ch; Shapovalov, Konstantin; Yudin, Petr V.; Setter, Nava [Ceramics Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Tagantsev, Alexander K. [Ceramics Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Ferroics Laboratory, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-09

    Antiphase boundaries (APBs) are unique domain walls that may demonstrate switchable polarization in otherwise non-ferroelectric materials such as SrTiO{sub 3} and PbZrO{sub 3}. The current study explores the possibility of displacing such domain walls at the nanoscale. We suggest the possibility of manipulating APBs using the inhomogeneous electric field of an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) tip with an applied voltage placed in their proximity. The displacement is studied as a function of applied voltage, film thickness, and initial separation of the AFM tip from the APB. It is established, for example, that for films with thickness of 15 nm, an APB may be attracted under the tip with a voltage of 25 V from initial separation of 30 nm. We have also demonstrated that the displacement is appreciably retained after the voltage is removed, rendering it favorable for potential applications.

  12. Fermi Coordinates of an Observer Moving in a Circle in Minkowski Space: Apparent Behavior of Clocks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bahder, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Space-time coordinate transformations valid for arbitrarily long coordinate time are derived from global Minkowski coordinates to the Fermi coordinates of an observer moving in a circle in three-dimensional space...

  13. Moving beyond the "Mommy Track": An Organization Change Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Douglas T.

    1989-01-01

    Reacts to two points in an article by Felice Schwartz that has drawn reactions from a variety of sources: (1) the cost of employing women is greater than that of employing men, and (2) to reduce this cost, corporations should provide more flexible arrangements for women who want to combine career and family. (JOW)

  14. Image analysis of moving seeds in an indented cylinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Ole; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn

    2010-01-01

    inspection in seed cleaning equipment. A prototype of an indented cylinder will be constructed. To make it more dynamic, the cylinder itself will be manufactured using 3D printing technology. The input will come either from 3D scans of existing cylinders or by defining their topology using parametric B...

  15. Convectively driven flow past an infinite moving vertical cylinder with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-10-01

    Oct 1, 2013 ... also been observed from figures 2, 4 and 6 that by applying thermal and mass stratifica- tions, the velocity, temperature and concentrations are appreciably reduced compared to the classical ones (S = 0, F = 0), which is an added realism of the present study over the previous studies without stratifications. 0.

  16. South Sudan: Solutions for Moving beyond an "Ethnic Conflict"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzelman, Christa Charbonneau

    2013-01-01

    Although ethnicity is a contributing factor to the ongoing crisis in South Sudan, particularly after the re-escalation of violence in December of 2013, the characterization of the conflict as an ethnic crisis is insufficient. This analysis will reframe the violence in terms of both its proximate and root causes, including a comprehensive…

  17. Indian IT Industry Firms: Moving towards an Active Innovation Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Mukundan, Rajeev; Thomas, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Part 7: Shorter Papers; International audience; This paper aims to describe the changing innovation strategies of Indian IT industry firms. Indian firms are responding to global technological discontinuities proactively and faster, compared to the past. Innovations continue to be process driven, however, there is significant focus on non-linear, products & platforms-led growth strategies. There has been an upward shift in R&D/IP emphasis, as empirical data suggests, and emphasis on collaborat...

  18. The emotion potential of words and passages in reading Harry Potter--an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chun-Ting; Jacobs, Arthur M; Citron, Francesca M M; Conrad, Markus

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies suggested that the emotional connotation of single words automatically recruits attention. We investigated the potential of words to induce emotional engagement when reading texts. In an fMRI experiment, we presented 120 text passages from the Harry Potter book series. Results showed significant correlations between affective word (lexical) ratings and passage ratings. Furthermore, affective lexical ratings correlated with activity in regions associated with emotion, situation model building, multi-modal semantic integration, and Theory of Mind. We distinguished differential influences of affective lexical, inter-lexical, and supra-lexical variables: differential effects of lexical valence were significant in the left amygdala, while effects of arousal-span (the dynamic range of arousal across a passage) were significant in the left amygdala and insula. However, we found no differential effect of passage ratings in emotion-associated regions. Our results support the hypothesis that the emotion potential of short texts can be predicted by lexical and inter-lexical affective variables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. How specialized are writing-specific brain regions? An fMRI study of writing, drawing and oral spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planton, Samuel; Longcamp, Marieke; Péran, Patrice; Démonet, Jean-François; Jucla, Mélanie

    2017-03-01

    Several brain imaging studies identified brain regions that are consistently involved in writing tasks; the left premotor and superior parietal cortices have been associated with the peripheral components of writing performance as opposed to other regions that support the central, orthographic components. Based on a meta-analysis by Planton, Jucla, Roux, and Demonet (2013), we focused on five such writing areas and questioned the task-specificity and hemispheric lateralization profile of the brain response in an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment where 16 right-handed participants wrote down, spelled out orally object names, and drew shapes from object pictures. All writing-related areas were activated by drawing, and some of them by oral spelling, thus questioning their specialization for written production. The graphemic/motor frontal area (GMFA), a subpart of the superior premotor cortex close to Exner's area (Roux et al., 2009), was the only area with a writing-specific lateralization profile, that is, clear left lateralization during handwriting, and bilateral activity during drawing. Furthermore, the relative lateralization and levels of activation in the superior parietal cortex, ventral premotor cortex, ventral occipitotemporal cortex and right cerebellum across the three tasks brought out new evidence regarding their respective contributions to the writing processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Beauty and ugliness in the bodies and faces of others: an fMRI study of person esthetic judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Loeches, M; Hernández-Tamames, J A; Martín, A; Urrutia, M

    2014-09-26

    Whether beauty and ugliness represent two independent judgement categories or, instead, opposite extremes of a single dimension is a matter of debate. In the present 3T-functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study, 20 participants were scanned while judging faces and nude bodies of people classified as extremely ugly, extremely beautiful, or indifferent. Certain areas, such as the caudate/nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), exhibited a linear relationship across esthetic judgments supporting ugliness as the lowest extreme of a beauty continuum. Other regions, such as basal occipital areas, displayed an inverse pattern, with the highest activations for ugly and the lowest for beautiful ones. Further, several areas were involved alike by both the very beautiful and the very ugly stimuli. Among these, the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), as well as the posterior and medial portions of the cingulate gyrus. This is interpreted as the activation of neural circuits related to self- vs. other-assessment. Beauty and ugliness in the brain, at least in relation to natural and biologically and socially relevant stimuli (faces and bodies), appear tightly related and non-independent. Finally, neutral stimuli elicited strong and wide activations of the somatosensory and somatomotor systems together with longer reaction times and higher error rates, probably reflecting the difficulty of the human brain to classify someone as indifferent. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased engagement of the cognitive control network associated with music training in children during an fMRI Stroop task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Playing a musical instrument engages various sensorimotor processes and draws on cognitive capacities collectively termed executive functions. However, while music training is believed to associated with enhancements in certain cognitive and language abilities, studies that have explored the specific relationship between music and executive function have yielded conflicting results. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of music training on executive function using fMRI and several behavioral tasks, including the Color-Word Stroop task. Children involved in ongoing music training (N = 14, mean age = 8.67) were compared with two groups of comparable general cognitive abilities and socioeconomic status, one involved in sports (“sports” group, N = 13, mean age = 8.85) and another not involved in music or sports (“control” group, N = 17, mean age = 9.05). During the Color-Word Stroop task, children with music training showed significantly greater bilateral activation in the pre-SMA/SMA, ACC, IFG, and insula in trials that required cognitive control compared to the control group, despite no differences in performance on behavioral measures of executive function. No significant differences in brain activation or in task performance were found between the music and sports groups. The results suggest that systematic extracurricular training, particularly music-based training, is associated with changes in the cognitive control network in the brain even in the absence of changes in behavioral performance. PMID:29084283

  2. Attentional bias to food images associated with elevated weight and future weight gain: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokum, Sonja; Ng, Janet; Stice, Eric

    2011-09-01

    Behavioral studies reveal that obese vs. lean individuals show attentional bias to food stimuli. Yet research has not investigated this relation using objective brain imaging or tested whether attentional bias to food stimuli predicts future weight gain, which are important aims given the prominence of food cues in the environment. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine attentional bias in 35 adolescent girls ranging from lean to obese using an attention network task involving food and neutral stimuli. BMI correlated positively with speed of behavioral response to both appetizing food stimuli and unappetizing food stimuli, but not to neutral stimuli. BMI correlated positively with activation in brain regions related to attention and food reward, including the anterior insula/frontal operculum, lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), and superior parietal lobe, during initial orientation to food cues. BMI also correlated with greater activation in the anterior insula/frontal operculum during reallocation of attention to appetizing food images and with weaker activation in the medial OFC and ventral pallidum during reallocation of attention to unappetizing food images. Greater lateral OFC activation during initial orientation to appetizing food cues predicted future increases in BMI. Results indicate that overweight is related to greater attentional bias to food cues and that youth who show elevated reward circuitry responsivity during food cue exposure are at increased risk for weight gain.

  3. An fMRI comparison of neural activity associated with recognition of familiar melodies in younger and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu eSikka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies of semantic memory in non-musical domains involving recognition of items from long-term memory have shown an age-related shift from the medial temporal lobe structures to the frontal lobe. However, the effects of aging on musical semantic memory remain unexamined. We compared activation associated with recognition of familiar melodies in younger and older adults. Recognition follows successful retrieval from the musical lexicon that comprises a lifetime of learned musical phrases. We used the sparse-sampling technique in fMRI to determine the neural correlates of melody recognition by comparing activation when listening to familiar versus unfamiliar melodies, and to identify age differences. Recognition-related cortical activation was detected in the right superior temporal, bilateral inferior and superior frontal, left middle orbitofrontal, bilateral precentral, and left supramarginal gyri. Region-of-interest analysis showed greater activation for younger adults in the left superior temporal gyrus and for older adults in the left superior frontal, left angular, and bilateral superior parietal regions. Our study provides powerful evidence for these musical memory networks due to a large sample (N = 40 that includes older adults. This study is the first to investigate the neural basis of melody recognition in older adults and to compare the findings to younger adults.

  4. Increased engagement of the cognitive control network associated with music training in children during an fMRI Stroop task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Sachs

    Full Text Available Playing a musical instrument engages various sensorimotor processes and draws on cognitive capacities collectively termed executive functions. However, while music training is believed to associated with enhancements in certain cognitive and language abilities, studies that have explored the specific relationship between music and executive function have yielded conflicting results. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of music training on executive function using fMRI and several behavioral tasks, including the Color-Word Stroop task. Children involved in ongoing music training (N = 14, mean age = 8.67 were compared with two groups of comparable general cognitive abilities and socioeconomic status, one involved in sports ("sports" group, N = 13, mean age = 8.85 and another not involved in music or sports ("control" group, N = 17, mean age = 9.05. During the Color-Word Stroop task, children with music training showed significantly greater bilateral activation in the pre-SMA/SMA, ACC, IFG, and insula in trials that required cognitive control compared to the control group, despite no differences in performance on behavioral measures of executive function. No significant differences in brain activation or in task performance were found between the music and sports groups. The results suggest that systematic extracurricular training, particularly music-based training, is associated with changes in the cognitive control network in the brain even in the absence of changes in behavioral performance.

  5. Brain networks involved in haptic and visual identification of facial expressions of emotion: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Ryo; Johnsrude, Ingrid S; Kochiyama, Takanori; Lederman, Susan J

    2010-01-15

    Previous neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies have shown that a cortical network involving the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), inferior parietal lobe (IPL) and cortical areas in and around the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) region is employed in action understanding by vision and audition. However, the brain regions that are involved in action understanding by touch are unknown. Lederman et al. (2007) recently demonstrated that humans can haptically recognize facial expressions of emotion (FEE) surprisingly well. Here, we report a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which we test the hypothesis that the IFG, IPL and pSTS regions are involved in haptic, as well as visual, FEE identification. Twenty subjects haptically or visually identified facemasks with three different FEEs (disgust, neutral and happiness) and casts of shoes (shoes) of three different types. The left posterior middle temporal gyrus, IPL, IFG and bilateral precentral gyrus were activated by FEE identification relative to that of shoes, regardless of sensory modality. By contrast, an inferomedial part of the left superior parietal lobule was activated by haptic, but not visual, FEE identification. Other brain regions, including the lingual gyrus and superior frontal gyrus, were activated by visual identification of FEEs, relative to haptic identification of FEEs. These results suggest that haptic and visual FEE identification rely on distinct but overlapping neural substrates including the IFG, IPL and pSTS region.

  6. Patterns of brain activation when mothers view their own child and dog: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, Luke E; Palley, Lori S; Gollub, Randy L; Niemi, Steven M; Evins, Anne Eden

    2014-01-01

    Neural substrates underlying the human-pet relationship are largely unknown. We examined fMRI brain activation patterns as mothers viewed images of their own child and dog and an unfamiliar child and dog. There was a common network of brain regions involved in emotion, reward, affiliation, visual processing and social cognition when mothers viewed images of both their child and dog. Viewing images of their child resulted in brain activity in the midbrain (ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra involved in reward/affiliation), while a more posterior cortical brain activation pattern involving fusiform gyrus (visual processing of faces and social cognition) characterized a mother's response to her dog. Mothers also rated images of their child and dog as eliciting similar levels of excitement (arousal) and pleasantness (valence), although the difference in the own vs. unfamiliar child comparison was larger than the own vs. unfamiliar dog comparison for arousal. Valence ratings of their dog were also positively correlated with ratings of the attachment to their dog. Although there are similarities in the perceived emotional experience and brain function associated with the mother-child and mother-dog bond, there are also key differences that may reflect variance in the evolutionary course and function of these relationships.

  7. Patterns of brain activation when mothers view their own child and dog: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke E Stoeckel

    Full Text Available Neural substrates underlying the human-pet relationship are largely unknown. We examined fMRI brain activation patterns as mothers viewed images of their own child and dog and an unfamiliar child and dog. There was a common network of brain regions involved in emotion, reward, affiliation, visual processing and social cognition when mothers viewed images of both their child and dog. Viewing images of their child resulted in brain activity in the midbrain (ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra involved in reward/affiliation, while a more posterior cortical brain activation pattern involving fusiform gyrus (visual processing of faces and social cognition characterized a mother's response to her dog. Mothers also rated images of their child and dog as eliciting similar levels of excitement (arousal and pleasantness (valence, although the difference in the own vs. unfamiliar child comparison was larger than the own vs. unfamiliar dog comparison for arousal. Valence ratings of their dog were also positively correlated with ratings of the attachment to their dog. Although there are similarities in the perceived emotional experience and brain function associated with the mother-child and mother-dog bond, there are also key differences that may reflect variance in the evolutionary course and function of these relationships.

  8. Increased engagement of the cognitive control network associated with music training in children during an fMRI Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Matthew; Kaplan, Jonas; Der Sarkissian, Alissa; Habibi, Assal

    2017-01-01

    Playing a musical instrument engages various sensorimotor processes and draws on cognitive capacities collectively termed executive functions. However, while music training is believed to associated with enhancements in certain cognitive and language abilities, studies that have explored the specific relationship between music and executive function have yielded conflicting results. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of music training on executive function using fMRI and several behavioral tasks, including the Color-Word Stroop task. Children involved in ongoing music training (N = 14, mean age = 8.67) were compared with two groups of comparable general cognitive abilities and socioeconomic status, one involved in sports ("sports" group, N = 13, mean age = 8.85) and another not involved in music or sports ("control" group, N = 17, mean age = 9.05). During the Color-Word Stroop task, children with music training showed significantly greater bilateral activation in the pre-SMA/SMA, ACC, IFG, and insula in trials that required cognitive control compared to the control group, despite no differences in performance on behavioral measures of executive function. No significant differences in brain activation or in task performance were found between the music and sports groups. The results suggest that systematic extracurricular training, particularly music-based training, is associated with changes in the cognitive control network in the brain even in the absence of changes in behavioral performance.

  9. An empirical comparison of information-theoretic criteria in estimating the number of independent components of fMRI data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqi Hui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Independent Component Analysis (ICA has been widely applied to the analysis of fMRI data. Accurate estimation of the number of independent components of fMRI data is critical to reduce over/under fitting. Although various methods based on Information Theoretic Criteria (ITC have been used to estimate the intrinsic dimension of fMRI data, the relative performance of different ITC in the context of the ICA model hasn't been fully investigated, especially considering the properties of fMRI data. The present study explores and evaluates the performance of various ITC for the fMRI data with varied white noise levels, colored noise levels, temporal data sizes and spatial smoothness degrees. METHODOLOGY: Both simulated data and real fMRI data with varied Gaussian white noise levels, first-order auto-regressive (AR(1 noise levels, temporal data sizes and spatial smoothness degrees were carried out to deeply explore and evaluate the performance of different traditional ITC. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Results indicate that the performance of ITCs depends on the noise level, temporal data size and spatial smoothness of fMRI data. 1 High white noise levels may lead to underestimation of all criteria and MDL/BIC has the severest underestimation at the higher Gaussian white noise level. 2 Colored noise may result in overestimation that can be intensified by the increase of AR(1 coefficient rather than the SD of AR(1 noise and MDL/BIC shows the least overestimation. 3 Larger temporal data size will be better for estimation for the model of white noise but tends to cause severer overestimation for the model of AR(1 noise. 4 Spatial smoothing will result in overestimation in both noise models. CONCLUSIONS: 1 None of ITC is perfect for all fMRI data due to its complicated noise structure. 2 If there is only white noise in data, AIC is preferred when the noise level is high and otherwise, Laplace approximation is a better choice. 3 When colored noise exists

  10. Ambulatory assessment of foot dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H. Martin; Veltink, Petrus H.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of foot dynamics is important, especially for patients with foot impairments. However, this analysis is difficult with commonly used systems. This study presents an ambulatory system for the estimation of ankle and foot power using an instrumented shoe equipped with six degrees-of-freedom

  11. The Hand-Foot Skin Reaction and Quality of Life Questionnaire: An Assessment Tool for Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Roger T.; Keating, Karen N.; Doll, Helen A.; Camacho, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of a brief, patient self-reported questionnaire (the hand-foot skin reaction and quality of life questionnaire) supporting its suitability for use in clinical research to aid in early recognition of symptoms, to evaluate the effectiveness of agents for hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR) or hand-foot syndrome (HFS) treatment within clinical trials, and to evaluate the impact of these treatments on HFS/R-associated patients’ health-related quality...

  12. An extensive primary nodular melanoma of the foot with associated distant metastases: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, M; Gannass, Al; Binahmed, A; Bowling, F L; Boulton, A J

    2012-09-01

    A Nodular Melanoma of the foot is a relatively uncommon disease, which accounts for the dearth of literature. The anatomical location of a primary malignant melanoma is of prognostic importance as primary lesions of the foot and ankle have poorer prognostic outcomes. This single case reports a life-threatening presentation, of a primary nodular melanoma of the foot with associated distant metastases of the skeletal system, organs and lymph nodes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Drug Target Identification and Prioritization for Treatment of Ovine Foot Rot: An In Silico Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Acharya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovine foot rot is an infection of the feet of sheep, mainly caused by Dichelobacter nodosus. In its virulent form, it is highly contagious and debilitating, causing significant losses in the form of decline in wool growth and quality and poor fertility. Current methods of treatment are ineffective in complete eradication. Effective antibiotic treatment of foot rot is hence necessary to ensure better outcomes during control phases by reduction in culling count and the possibility of carriers of the infection. Using computational approaches, we have identified a set of 297 proteins that are essential to the D. nodosus and nonhomologous with sheep proteins. These proteins may be considered as potential vaccine candidates or drug targets for designing antibiotics against the bacterium. This core set of drug targets have been analyzed for pathway annotation to identify 67 proteins involved in unique bacterial pathways. Choke-point analysis on the drug targets identified 138 choke-point proteins, 29 involved in unique bacterial pathways. Subcellular localization was also predicted for each target to identify the ones that are membrane associated or secreted extracellularly. In addition, a total of 13 targets were identified that are common in at least 10 pathogenic bacterial species.

  14. Moving a randomized clinical trial into an observational cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Phyllis J; Hartline, Jo Ann; Tangen, Catherine M; Crowley, John J; Minasian, Lori M; Klein, Eric A; Cook, Elise D; Darke, Amy K; Arnold, Kathryn B; Anderson, Karen; Yee, Monica; Meyskens, Frank L; Baker, Laurence H

    2013-02-01

    to close Study Sites, and revision of data collection procedures and the process by which to contact participants. At the time of the publication of the primary SELECT results in December 2008, there were 32,569 men alive and currently active in the trial. As of 31 December 2011, 17,761 participants had been registered to the CFU study. This number is less than had been anticipated due to unforeseen difficulties with local Study Site institutional review boards (IRBs). However, from this cohort, we estimate that an additional 580 prostate cancer cases and 215 Gleason 7 or higher grade cancers will be identified. Over 109,000 individual items have been mailed to participants. Active SELECT ancillary studies have continued. The substantial SELECT biorepository is available to researchers; requests to use the specimens are reviewed for feasibility and scientific merit. As of April 2012, 12 proposals had been approved. The accrual goal of the follow-up study was not met, limiting our power to address the study objectives satisfactorily. The CFU study is also dependent on a number of factors including continued funding, continued interest of investigators in the biorepository, and the continued contribution of the participants. Our experience may be less pertinent to investigators who wish to follow participants in a treatment trial or participants in prevention trials in other medical areas. Extended follow-up of participants in prevention research is important to study the long-term effects of the interventions, such as those used in SELECT. The approach taken by SELECT investigators was to continue to follow participants centrally via an annual questionnaire and with a web-based option. The participants enrolled in the CFU study represent a large, well-characterized, generally healthy cohort. The CFU has enabled us to collect additional prostate and other cancer endpoints and longer follow-up on the almost 18,000 participants enrolled. The utility of the extensive

  15. The ICCAM platform study: An experimental medicine platform for evaluating new drugs for relapse prevention in addiction. Part B: fMRI description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle, John; Murphy, Anna; Paterson, Louise M; Reed, Laurence J; Nestor, Liam; Nash, Jonathan; Elliott, Rebecca; Ersche, Karen D; Flechais, Remy Sa; Newbould, Rexford; Orban, Csaba; Smith, Dana G; Taylor, Eleanor M; Waldman, Adam D; Robbins, Trevor W; Deakin, Jf William; Nutt, David J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R; Suckling, John

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to set up a robust multi-centre clinical fMRI and neuropsychological platform to investigate the neuropharmacology of brain processes relevant to addiction - reward, impulsivity and emotional reactivity. Here we provide an overview of the fMRI battery, carried out across three centres, characterizing neuronal response to the tasks, along with exploring inter-centre differences in healthy participants. Three fMRI tasks were used: monetary incentive delay to probe reward sensitivity, go/no-go to probe impulsivity and an evocative images task to probe emotional reactivity. A coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis was carried out for the reward and impulsivity tasks to help establish region of interest (ROI) placement. A group of healthy participants was recruited from across three centres (total n=43) to investigate inter-centre differences. Principle observations: The pattern of response observed for each of the three tasks was consistent with previous studies using similar paradigms. At the whole brain level, significant differences were not observed between centres for any task. In developing this platform we successfully integrated neuroimaging data from three centres, adapted validated tasks and applied whole brain and ROI approaches to explore and demonstrate their consistency across centres.

  16. Syntactic Priming and the Lexical Boost Effect during Sentence Production and Sentence Comprehension: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segaert, Katrien; Kempen, Gerard; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral syntactic priming effects during sentence comprehension are typically observed only if both the syntactic structure and lexical head are repeated. In contrast, during production syntactic priming occurs with structure repetition alone, but the effect is boosted by repetition of the lexical head. We used fMRI to investigate the neuronal…

  17. Synaesthetic perception of colour and visual space in a blind subject: An fMRI case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niccolai, V.; Leeuwen, T.M. van; Blakemore, C.; Störig, P.

    2012-01-01

    In spatial sequence synaesthesia (SSS) ordinal stimuli are perceived as arranged in peripersonal space. Using fMRI, we examined the neural bases of SSS and colour synaesthesia for spoken words in a late-blind synaesthete, JF. He reported days of the week and months of the year as both coloured and

  18. Differential parietal and temporal contributions to music perception in improvising and score-dependent musicians, an fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Robert; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2015-01-01

    Using fMRI, cerebral activations were studied in 24 classically-trained keyboard performers and 12 musically unskilled control subjects. Two groups of musicians were recruited: improvising (n=12) and score-dependent (non-improvising) musicians (n=12). While listening to both familiar and unfamiliar

  19. Pre-chemotherapy differences in visuospatial working memory in breast cancer patients compared to controls: An fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Susan Scherling

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionCognitive deficits are a side-effect of chemotherapy, however pre-treatment research is limited. This study examines neurofunctional differences during working memory between breast cancer (BC patients and controls, prior to chemotherapy. MethodsEarly stage BC females (23, scanned after surgery but before chemotherapy, were individually matched to non-cancer controls. Participants underwent fMRI while performing a Visuospatial N-back task and data was analyzed by multiple group comparisons. fMRI task performance, neuropsychological tests, hospital records and salivary biomarkers were also collected.ResultsThere were no significant group differences on neuropsychological tests, estrogen or cortisol. Patients made significantly fewer commission errors but had less overall correct responses and were slower than controls during the task. Significant group differences were observed for the fMRI data, yet results depended on the type of analysis. BC patients presented with increased activations during working memory compared to controls in areas such as the inferior frontal gyrus, insula, thalamus, and midbrain. Individual group regressions revealed a reverse relationship between brain activity and commission errors. ConclusionsThis is the first fMRI investigation to reveal neurophysiological differences during visuospatial working memory between BC patients pre-chemotherapy and controls.SignificanceThis highlights the need to better understand the pre-chemotherapy BC patient and the effects of associated confounding variables.

  20. Mental Time Travel into the Past and the Future in Healthy Aged Adults: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viard, Armelle; Chetelat, Gael; Lebreton, Karine; Desgranges, Beatrice; Landeau, Brigitte; de La Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Piolino, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Remembering the past and envisioning the future rely on episodic memory which enables mental time travel. Studies in young adults indicate that past and future thinking share common cognitive and neural underpinnings. No imaging data is yet available in healthy aged subjects. Using fMRI, we scanned older subjects while they remembered personal…

  1. Sentence Syntax and Content in the Human Temporal Lobe: An fMRI Adaptation Study in Auditory and Visual Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devauchelle, Anne-Dominique; Oppenheim, Catherine; Rizzi, Luigi; Dehaene, Stanislas; Pallier, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Priming effects have been well documented in behavioral psycholinguistics experiments: The processing of a word or a sentence is typically facilitated when it shares lexico-semantic or syntactic features with a previously encountered stimulus. Here, we used fMRI priming to investigate which brain areas show adaptation to the repetition of a…

  2. An fMRI study of neuronal activation in schizophrenia patients with and without previous cannabis use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-Marie eLøberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have mostly shown positive effects of cannabis use on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which could reflect lower neurocognitive vulnerability. There are however no studies comparing whether such cognitive differences have neuronal correlates. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare whether patients with previous cannabis use differ in brain activation from patients who has never used cannabis. The patients groups were compared on the ability to up-regulate an effort mode network during a cognitive task and down-regulate activation in the same network during a task-absent condition. Task-present and task-absent brain activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI. Twenty-six patients with a DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were grouped into a previous cannabis user group and a no-cannabis group. An auditory dichotic listening task with instructions of attention focus on either the right or left ear stimulus was used to tap verbal processing, attention and cognitive control, calculated as an aggregate score. When comparing the two groups, there were remaining activations in the task-present condition for the cannabis group, not seen in the no-cannabis group, while there was remaining activation in the task-absent condition for the no-cannabis group, not seen in the cannabis group. Thus, the patients with previous cannabis use showed increased activation in an effort mode network and decreased activation in the default mode network as compared to the no-cannabis group. It is concluded that the present study show some differences in brain activation to a cognitively challenging task between previous cannabis and no-cannabis schizophrenia patients.

  3. Functional Laterality of Task-Evoked Activation in Sensorimotor Cortex of Preterm Infants: An Optimized 3 T fMRI Study Employing a Customized Neonatal Head Coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheef, Lukas; Nordmeyer-Massner, Jurek A; Smith-Collins, Adam Pr; Müller, Nicole; Stegmann-Woessner, Gaby; Jankowski, Jacob; Gieseke, Jürgen; Born, Mark; Seitz, Hermann; Bartmann, Peter; Schild, Hans H; Pruessmann, Klaas P; Heep, Axel; Boecker, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in neonates has been introduced as a non-invasive method for studying sensorimotor processing in the developing brain. However, previous neonatal studies have delivered conflicting results regarding localization, lateralization, and directionality of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses in sensorimotor cortex (SMC). Amongst the confounding factors in interpreting neonatal fMRI studies include the use of standard adult MR-coils providing insufficient signal to noise, and liberal statistical thresholds, compromising clinical interpretation at the single subject level. Here, we employed a custom-designed neonatal MR-coil adapted and optimized to the head size of a newborn in order to improve robustness, reliability and validity of neonatal sensorimotor fMRI. Thirteen preterm infants with a median gestational age of 26 weeks were scanned at term-corrected age using a prototype 8-channel neonatal head coil at 3T (Achieva, Philips, Best, NL). Sensorimotor stimulation was elicited by passive extension/flexion of the elbow at 1 Hz in a block design. Analysis of temporal signal to noise ratio (tSNR) was performed on the whole brain and the SMC, and was compared to data acquired with an 'adult' 8 channel head coil published previously. Task-evoked activation was determined by single-subject SPM8 analyses, thresholded at p lateralization of SMC activation, as found in children and adults, is already present in the newborn period.

  4. Athlete's foot

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Fay

    2009-01-01

    Fungal infection of the feet can cause white and soggy skin between the toes, dry and flaky soles, or reddening and blistering of the skin all over the foot. Around 15% to 25% of people are likely to have athlete's foot at any one time.The infection can spread to other parts of the body and to other people.

  5. Athlete's Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Athlete's Foot? Athlete's foot is a type of fungal skin infection. Fungi (the plural of fungus) are microscopic plant-like organisms that thrive in damp, warm environments. They're usually not dangerous, but sometimes can cause disease. When they infect the skin, they cause mild ...

  6. An anterior ankle-foot orthosis improves walking economy in Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menotti, Federica; Laudani, Luca; Damiani, Antonello; Mignogna, Teresa; Macaluso, Andrea

    2014-10-01

    Ankle-foot orthoses are commonly prescribed in Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A disease to improve quality of walking and reduce the risk of falling due to the foot drop. This study aimed at assessing the effect of an anterior ankle-foot orthosis on walking economy in a group of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A patients. Within-group comparisons. 7 Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A patients (four women and three men; 37 ± 11 years; age range = 22-53 years) were asked to walk on a circuit at their self-selected speeds ('slow', 'comfortable' and 'fast') in two walking conditions: (1) with shoes only and (2) with Taloelast(®) anterior elastic ankle-foot orthoses. Speed of walking and metabolic cost of walking energy cost per unit of distance were assessed at the three self-selected speeds of walking for both walking conditions. Speed of walking at the three self-selected speeds did not differ between shoes only and anterior elastic ankle-foot orthoses, whereas walking energy cost per unit of distance at comfortable speed was lower in patients using anterior elastic ankle-foot orthoses with respect to shoes only (2.39 ± 0.22 vs 2.70 ± 0.19 J kg(-1) m(-1); P Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A patients, the use of anterior elastic ankle-foot orthoses improved walking economy by reducing the energy cost of walking per unit of distance, thus reflecting a lower level of metabolic effort and improved mechanical efficiency in comparison with shoes only. From a practical perspective, Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A patients with anterior elastic ankle-foot orthoses can walk for a longer duration with a lower level of physical effort. Improvements in walking economy due to ankle-foot orthoses are likely a consequence of the reduction in steppage gait. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2013.

  7. The interaction of lexical semantics and cohort competition in spoken word recognition: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jie; Randall, Billi; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Tyler, Lorraine K

    2011-12-01

    Spoken word recognition involves the activation of multiple word candidates on the basis of the initial speech input--the "cohort"--and selection among these competitors. Selection may be driven primarily by bottom-up acoustic-phonetic inputs or it may be modulated by other aspects of lexical representation, such as a word's meaning [Marslen-Wilson, W. D. Functional parallelism in spoken word-recognition. Cognition, 25, 71-102, 1987]. We examined these potential interactions in an fMRI study by presenting participants with words and pseudowords for lexical decision. In a factorial design, we manipulated (a) cohort competition (high/low competitive cohorts which vary the number of competing word candidates) and (b) the word's semantic properties (high/low imageability). A previous behavioral study [Tyler, L. K., Voice, J. K., & Moss, H. E. The interaction of meaning and sound in spoken word recognition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 7, 320-326, 2000] showed that imageability facilitated word recognition but only for words in high competition cohorts. Here we found greater activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 45, 47) and the right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47) with increased cohort competition, an imageability effect in the left posterior middle temporal gyrus/angular gyrus (BA 39), and a significant interaction between imageability and cohort competition in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus/middle temporal gyrus (BA 21, 22). In words with high competition cohorts, high imageability words generated stronger activity than low imageability words, indicating a facilitatory role of imageability in a highly competitive cohort context. For words in low competition cohorts, there was no effect of imageability. These results support the behavioral data in showing that selection processes do not rely solely on bottom-up acoustic-phonetic cues but rather that the semantic properties of candidate words facilitate discrimination between competitors.

  8. Neural correlates of cue-unique outcome expectations under differential outcomes training: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Leh Woon; Thomas, Kathleen M; Lungu, Ovidiu V; Overmier, J Bruce

    2009-04-10

    In conditional discriminative choice learning, one learns the relations between discriminative/cue stimuli, associated choices, and their outcomes. When each correct cue-choice occurrence is followed by a cue-unique trial outcome (differential outcomes, DO, procedure), learning is faster and more accurate than when all correct cue-choice occurrences are followed by a common outcome (CO procedure)--differential outcomes effect (DOE). Superior DO performance is theorized to be mediated by the additional learning of cue-unique outcome expectations that "enrich" the prospective code available over the delay between cue and choice. We anticipated that such learned expectations comprise representations of expected outcomes. Here, we conducted an event-related functional MR imaging (fMRI) analysis of healthy adults who trained concurrently in two difficult but similar perceptual discrimination tasks under DO and CO procedures, respectively, and displayed the DOE. Control participants performed related tasks that differentially biased them towards delay-period retrospection versus prospection. Indeed, when differential outcomes were sensory-perceptual events (visual vs. auditory), delay-period expectations were experienced as sensory-specific imagery of the respectively expected outcome content, generated by sensory-specific cortices. Visual-specific imagery additionally activated stimulus-specific representations in prefrontal, lateral and medial frontal, fusiform and cerebellar regions, whereas auditory-specific imagery recruited claustrum/insula. Posterior parietal cortex (PPC), BA 39, was non-modality specific in mediating delay-period cue-unique outcome expectations. Greater hippocampal involvement in retrospection than prospection contrasted against the PPC's role in prospection. Time course analyses of hippocampal versus PPC responses suggest the DOE derives from an earlier transition from retrospection to prospection, which taps into long-term associative memory

  9. An fMRI study on cortical responses during active self-touch and passive touch from others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle eAckerley

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Active, self-touch and the passive touch from an external source engage comparable afferent mechanoreceptors on the touched skin site. However, touch directed to glabrous skin compared to hairy skin will activate different types of afferent mechanoreceptors. Despite perceptual similarities between touch to different body sites, it is likely that the touch information is processed differently. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to elucidate the cortical differences in the neural signal of touch representations during active, self-touch and passive touch from another, to both glabrous (palm and hairy (arm skin, where a soft brush was used as the stimulus. There were two active touch conditions, where the participant used the brush in their right hand to stroke either their left palm or arm. There were two similar passive, touch conditions where the experimenter used an identical brush to stroke the same palm and arm areas on the participant. Touch on the left palm elicited a large, significant, positive blood-oxygenation level dependence (BOLD signal in right sensorimotor areas. Less extensive activity was found for touch to the arm. Separate somatotopical palm and arm representations were found in Brodmann area 3 of the right primary somatosensory cortex (SI and in both these areas, active stroking gave significantly higher signals than passive stroking. Active, self-touch elicited a positive BOLD signal in a network of sensorimotor cortical areas in the left hemisphere, compared to the resting baseline. In contrast, during passive touch, a significant negative BOLD signal was found in the left SI. Thus, each of the four conditions had a unique cortical signature despite similarities in afferent signalling or evoked perception. It is hypothesized that attentional mechanisms play a role in the modulation of the touch signal in the right SI, accounting for the differences found between active and passive touch.

  10. Development of a Wearable Sensor System for Dynamically Mapping the Behavior of an Energy Storing and Returning Prosthetic Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkins James

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been recognized that that the design and prescription of Energy Storing and Returning prosthetic running feet are not well understood and that further information on their performance would be beneficial to increase this understanding. Dynamic analysis of an amputee wearing a prosthetic foot is typically performed using reflective markers and motion-capture systems. High-speed cameras and force plates are used to collect data of a few strides. This requires specialized and expensive equipment in an unrepresentative environment within a large area. Inertial Measurement Units are also capable of being used as wearable sensors but suffer from drift issues. This paper presents the development of a wearable sensing system that records the action of an Energy Storing and Returning prosthetic running foot (sagittal plane displacement and ground contact position which could have research and/or clinical applications. This is achieved using five standalone pieces of apparatus including foot-mounted pressure sensors and a rotary vario-resistive displacement transducer. It is demonstrated, through the collection of profiles for both foot deflection and ground contact point over the duration of a stride, that the system can be attached to an amputee’s prosthesis and used in a non-laboratory environment. It was found from the system that the prosthetic ground contact point, for the amputee tested, progresses along the effective metatarsal portion of the prosthetic foot towards the distal end of the prosthesis over the duration of the stride. Further investigation of the effective stiffness changes of the foot due to the progression of the contact point is warranted.

  11. Development of a Wearable Sensor System for Dynamically Mapping the Behavior of an Energy Storing and Returning Prosthetic Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, James; Noroozi, Siamak; Dupac, Mihai; Sewell, Philip

    2016-06-01

    It has been recognized that that the design and prescription of Energy Storing and Returning prosthetic running feet are not well understood and that further information on their performance would be beneficial to increase this understanding. Dynamic analysis of an amputee wearing a prosthetic foot is typically performed using reflective markers and motion-capture systems. High-speed cameras and force plates are used to collect data of a few strides. This requires specialized and expensive equipment in an unrepresentative environment within a large area. Inertial Measurement Units are also capable of being used as wearable sensors but suffer from drift issues. This paper presents the development of a wearable sensing system that records the action of an Energy Storing and Returning prosthetic running foot (sagittal plane displacement and ground contact position) which could have research and/or clinical applications. This is achieved using five standalone pieces of apparatus including foot-mounted pressure sensors and a rotary vario-resistive displacement transducer. It is demonstrated, through the collection of profiles for both foot deflection and ground contact point over the duration of a stride, that the system can be attached to an amputee's prosthesis and used in a non-laboratory environment. It was found from the system that the prosthetic ground contact point, for the amputee tested, progresses along the effective metatarsal portion of the prosthetic foot towards the distal end of the prosthesis over the duration of the stride. Further investigation of the effective stiffness changes of the foot due to the progression of the contact point is warranted.

  12. Cortical Activation during Landmark-Centered vs. Gaze-Centered Memory of Saccade Targets in the Human: An FMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Crawford, J D

    2017-01-01

    A remembered saccade target could be encoded in egocentric coordinates such as gaze-centered, or relative to some external allocentric landmark that is independent of the target or gaze (landmark-centered). In comparison to egocentric mechanisms, very little is known about such a landmark-centered representation. Here, we used an event-related fMRI design to identify brain areas supporting these two types of spatial coding (i.e., landmark-centered vs. gaze-centered) for target memory during the Delay phase where only target location, not saccade direction, was specified. The paradigm included three tasks with identical display of visual stimuli but different auditory instructions: Landmark Saccade (remember target location relative to a visual landmark, independent of gaze), Control Saccade (remember original target location relative to gaze fixation, independent of the landmark), and a non-spatial control, Color Report (report target color). During the Delay phase , the Control and Landmark Saccade tasks activated overlapping areas in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and frontal cortex as compared to the color control, but with higher activation in PPC for target coding in the Control Saccade task and higher activation in temporal and occipital cortex for target coding in Landmark Saccade task. Gaze-centered directional selectivity was observed in superior occipital gyrus and inferior occipital gyrus, whereas landmark-centered directional selectivity was observed in precuneus and midposterior intraparietal sulcus. During the Response phase after saccade direction was specified, the parietofrontal network in the left hemisphere showed higher activation for rightward than leftward saccades. Our results suggest that cortical activation for coding saccade target direction relative to a visual landmark differs from gaze-centered directional selectivity for target memory, from the mechanisms for other types of allocentric tasks, and from the directionally selective

  13. Cortical Activation during Landmark-Centered vs. Gaze-Centered Memory of Saccade Targets in the Human: An FMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A remembered saccade target could be encoded in egocentric coordinates such as gaze-centered, or relative to some external allocentric landmark that is independent of the target or gaze (landmark-centered. In comparison to egocentric mechanisms, very little is known about such a landmark-centered representation. Here, we used an event-related fMRI design to identify brain areas supporting these two types of spatial coding (i.e., landmark-centered vs. gaze-centered for target memory during the Delay phase where only target location, not saccade direction, was specified. The paradigm included three tasks with identical display of visual stimuli but different auditory instructions: Landmark Saccade (remember target location relative to a visual landmark, independent of gaze, Control Saccade (remember original target location relative to gaze fixation, independent of the landmark, and a non-spatial control, Color Report (report target color. During the Delay phase, the Control and Landmark Saccade tasks activated overlapping areas in posterior parietal cortex (PPC and frontal cortex as compared to the color control, but with higher activation in PPC for target coding in the Control Saccade task and higher activation in temporal and occipital cortex for target coding in Landmark Saccade task. Gaze-centered directional selectivity was observed in superior occipital gyrus and inferior occipital gyrus, whereas landmark-centered directional selectivity was observed in precuneus and midposterior intraparietal sulcus. During the Response phase after saccade direction was specified, the parietofrontal network in the left hemisphere showed higher activation for rightward than leftward saccades. Our results suggest that cortical activation for coding saccade target direction relative to a visual landmark differs from gaze-centered directional selectivity for target memory, from the mechanisms for other types of allocentric tasks, and from the directionally

  14. Perceptual learning of motion direction discrimination with suppressed and unsuppressed MT in humans: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Thompson

    Full Text Available The middle temporal area of the extrastriate visual cortex (area MT is integral to motion perception and is thought to play a key role in the perceptual learning of motion tasks. We have previously found, however, that perceptual learning of a motion discrimination task is possible even when the training stimulus contains locally balanced, motion opponent signals that putatively suppress the response of MT. Assuming at least partial suppression of MT, possible explanations for this learning are that 1 training made MT more responsive by reducing motion opponency, 2 MT remained suppressed and alternative visual areas such as V1 enabled learning and/or 3 suppression of MT increased with training, possibly to reduce noise. Here we used fMRI to test these possibilities. We first confirmed that the motion opponent stimulus did indeed suppress the BOLD response within hMT+ compared to an almost identical stimulus without locally balanced motion signals. We then trained participants on motion opponent or non-opponent stimuli. Training with the motion opponent stimulus reduced the BOLD response within hMT+ and greater reductions in BOLD response were correlated with greater amounts of learning. The opposite relationship between BOLD and behaviour was found at V1 for the group trained on the motion-opponent stimulus and at both V1 and hMT+ for the group trained on the non-opponent motion stimulus. As the average response of many cells within MT to motion opponent stimuli is the same as their response to non-directional flickering noise, the reduced activation of hMT+ after training may reflect noise reduction.

  15. The effect of leisure activity golf practice on motor imagery: an fMRI study in middle adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladina eBezzola

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Much is known about practice-induced plasticity of the motor system. But it is not clear whether the activity in the motor network induced by mental motor imagery is influenced by actually practicing the imagined motor tasks.In a longitudinal study design with two measurement time-points, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used to explore dynamic changes in the brain in response to training of highly complex movements by participants of 40 to 60 years of age. The investigated motor learning task entailed golf training practiced by novices as leisure activity. Additionally, data from an age and sex-matched control group without golf training was collected.Results show increased hemodynamic responses during mental rehearsal of a golf swing in non-primary cortical motor areas, sub-cortical motor areas, and parietal regions of the novice golfers and the control subjects. This result complements previous mental imagery research that shows involvement of motor areas during mental rehearsal of a complex movement, especially in subjects with low skill level. More importantly, changes were only found between the two measurement time-points in the golf novice group with a decrease in hemodynamic responses in non-primary motor areas after the 40 hours of golf practice. Thus, the results indicate that a complex physical leisure activity induces functional neuroplasticity in the seldom studied population of middle-aged adults, and that this effect is evident during mental rehearsal of the practiced task. This finding supports the idea that (a a skill improvement is associated with a modified activation pattern in the associated neuronal network that can be identified during mental rehearsal of the practiced task, and that (b a strict training protocol is not necessary to induce functional neuroplasticity.

  16. Differential parietal and temporal contributions to music perception in improvising and score-dependent musicians, an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert; de Jong, Bauke M

    2015-10-22

    Using fMRI, cerebral activations were studied in 24 classically-trained keyboard performers and 12 musically unskilled control subjects. Two groups of musicians were recruited: improvising (n=12) and score-dependent (non-improvising) musicians (n=12). While listening to both familiar and unfamiliar music, subjects either (covertly) appraised the presented music performance or imagined they were playing the music themselves. We hypothesized that improvising musicians would exhibit enhanced efficiency of audiomotor transformation reflected by stronger ventral premotor activation. Statistical Parametric Mapping revealed that, while virtually 'playing along׳ with the music, improvising musicians exhibited activation of a right-hemisphere distribution of cerebral areas including posterior-superior parietal and dorsal premotor cortex. Involvement of these right-hemisphere dorsal stream areas suggests that improvising musicians recruited an amodal spatial processing system subserving pitch-to-space transformations to facilitate their virtual motor performance. Score-dependent musicians recruited a primarily left-hemisphere pattern of motor areas together with the posterior part of the right superior temporal sulcus, suggesting a relationship between aural discrimination and symbolic representation. Activations in bilateral auditory cortex were significantly larger for improvising musicians than for score-dependent musicians, suggesting enhanced top-down effects on aural perception. Our results suggest that learning to play a music instrument primarily from notation predisposes musicians toward aural identification and discrimination, while learning by improvisation involves audio-spatial-motor transformations, not only during performance, but also perception. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Can Pornography be Addictive? An fMRI Study of Men Seeking Treatment for Problematic Pornography Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Mateusz; Wordecha, Małgorzata; Sescousse, Guillaume; Lew-Starowicz, Michał; Kossowski, Bartosz; Wypych, Marek; Makeig, Scott; Potenza, Marc N; Marchewka, Artur

    2017-09-01

    Pornography consumption is highly prevalent, particularly among young adult males. For some individuals, problematic pornography use (PPU) is a reason for seeking treatment. Despite the pervasiveness of pornography, PPU appears under-investigated, including with respect to the underlying neural mechanisms. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined ventral striatal responses to erotic and monetary stimuli, disentangling cue-related 'wanting' from reward-related 'liking' among 28 heterosexual males seeking treatment for PPU and 24 heterosexual males without PPU. Subjects engaged in an incentive delay task in the scanner, in which they received erotic or monetary rewards preceded by predictive cues. Blood-oxygen-level-dependent responses to erotic and monetary cues were analyzed and examined with respect to self-reported data on sexual activity collected over the 2 preceding months. Men with and without PPU differed in their striatal responses to cues predicting erotic pictures but not in their responses to erotic pictures. PPU subjects when compared with control subjects showed increased activation of ventral striatum specifically for cues predicting erotic pictures but not for cues predicting monetary gains. Relative sensitivity to cues predicting erotic pictures vs monetary gains was significantly related to the increased behavioral motivation to view erotic images (suggestive of higher 'wanting'), severity of PPU, amount of pornography use per week, and number of weekly masturbations. Our findings suggest that, similar to what is observed in substance and gambling addictions, the neural and behavioral mechanisms associated with the anticipatory processing of cues specifically predicting erotic rewards relate importantly to clinically relevant features of PPU. These findings suggest that PPU may represent a behavioral addiction and that interventions helpful in targeting behavioral and substance addictions warrant consideration for adaptation

  18. Hand-Foot and Mouth Dısease and Reactıve Arthritis: An Unusual Paediatric Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugba, Tas; Neslihan, Baltaci; A Esra, Yilmaz; C Nuket, Yuksel; Sancar, Eminoglu

    2016-09-01

    Reactive arthritis is defined as arthritis that occurs during or after an extraarticular infection. It is mostly difficult to determine the causative agent that causes inflammation in the joints. Initially, salmonella, shigella, chlamydiaand yersinia were considered to be pathogenic agents. But recently, in addition to demonstrated viral and bacterial agents, there are also other cases of reactive arthritis after vaccinations with Rubella and Influenza. Herein a 3-year old boy is reported with reactive arthritis of left knee that developed shortly after hand-foot and mouth disease. This report represents the first detailed description of a paediatric case in literature with reactive arthritis following hand-foot and mouth disease.

  19. Lower-limb amputee ankle and hip kinetic response to an imposed error in mediolateral foot placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Ava D; Shofer, Jane B; Klute, Glenn K

    2015-11-26

    Maintaining balance while walking is challenging for lower limb amputees. The effect of prosthetic foot stiffness on recovery kinetics from an error in foot placement may inform prescription practice and lead to new interventions designed to improve balance. Ten unilateral transtibial amputees were fit with two prosthetic feet with different stiffness properties in random order. After a 3-week acclimation period, they returned to the lab for testing before switching feet. Twelve non-amputees also participated in a single data collection. While walking on an instrumented treadmill, we imposed a repeatable, unexpected medial or lateral disturbance in foot placement by releasing a burst of air at the ankle just before heel strike. Three-dimensional motion capture, ground reaction force and center of pressure (COP) data were collected for two steps prior, the disturbed step and three steps after the disturbance. During undisturbed walking, coronal ankle impulse was lower by 42% for amputees wearing a stiff compared to a compliant foot (p=0.017); however, across steps, both prosthetic recovery patterns were similar compared to the sound limb and non-amputees. Peak coronal hip moment was 15-20% lower for both foot types during undisturbed walking (p<0.001), with less change in response to the medial disturbance (p<0.001) compared to the sound limb and non-amputees. Amputee prosthetic COP excursion was unaffected by the disturbance (2.4% change) compared to the sound limb (59% change; p<0.001) and non-amputees (55% change; p<0.001). These findings imply that a prosthetic foot-ankle system able to contribute to ankle kinetics may improve walking balance among amputees. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. An Adaptive Clutter Suppression Technique for Moving Target Detector in Pulse Doppler Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mandal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive system performs the processing by using an architecture having time-varying parameters on the received signals which accompanies with clutters. In this paper, an adaptive moving target detector has been designed to meet the challenges of target detection amidst various levels of clutter environments. The approach has been used that is able to overcome the inherent limitations of conventional systems (e.g. Moving Target Indicator, Fast Fourier Transform etc. having predefined coefficients. In this purpose an optimal design of transversal filter is being proposed along with various weight selection Maps to improve probability of detection in ground based surveillance radar. A modified LMS algorithm based adaptive FIR filter has been implemented utilizing modular CORDIC unit as a main processing element for filtering as well as weight updatation to suppress clutter of various intensity. Extensive MATLAB simulations have been done using various levels of clutter input to show the effectiveness of adaptive moving target detector (AMTD.

  1. Adult Foot Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview of Foot & Ankle / Adult Foot Health Adult Foot Health Page Content The Normal Foot There are 26 bones and 33 joints in ... Pay attention to cuts and bruises of the foot. Like any other injury they should be cleansed ...

  2. Training in the adolescent brain : An fMRI training study on divergent thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibeuker, S.W.; Stevenson, C.E.; van der Aar, L.; Overgaauw, S.; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C.; Crone, E.A.

    Prior research suggests that adolescence is a time of enhanced sensitivity for practice and learning. In this study we tested the neural correlates of divergent thinking training in 15-to 16-year-old adolescents relative to an age-matched active control group. All participants performed an

  3. Training in the Adolescent Brain: An FMRI Training Study on Divergent Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; Stevenson, Claire E.; van der Aar, Laura; Overgaauw, Sandy; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2017-01-01

    Prior research suggests that adolescence is a time of enhanced sensitivity for practice and learning. In this study we tested the neural correlates of divergent thinking training in 15- to 16-year-old adolescents relative to an age-matched active control group. All participants performed an alternative uses task, a valid measure to test divergent…

  4. Investigating neural efficiency in the visuo-spatial domain: an FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Lipp

    Full Text Available The neural efficiency hypothesis postulates an inverse relationship between intelligence and brain activation. Previous research suggests that gender and task modality represent two important moderators of the neural efficiency phenomenon. Since most of the existing studies on neural efficiency have used ERD in the EEG as a measure of brain activation, the central aim of this study was a more detailed analysis of this phenomenon by means of functional MRI. A sample of 20 males and 20 females, who had been screened for their visuo-spatial intelligence, was confronted with a mental rotation task employing an event-related approach. Results suggest that less intelligent individuals show a stronger deactivation of parts of the default mode network, as compared to more intelligent people. Furthermore, we found evidence of an interaction between task difficulty, intelligence and gender, indicating that more intelligent females show an increase in brain activation with an increase in task difficulty. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the neural efficiency hypothesis, and possibly also of gender differences in the visuo-spatial domain.

  5. Modulation of aesthetic value by semantic context: An fMRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Ulrich; Skov, Martin; Hulme, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Aesthetic judgments, like most judgments, depend on context. Whether an object or image is seen in daily life or in an art gallery can significantly modulate the aesthetic value humans attach to it. We investigated the neural system supporting this modulation by presenting human subjects....... This contextual modulation correlated with activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and prefrontal cortex, whereas the context, independent of aesthetic value, correlated with bilateral activations of temporal pole and bilateral entorhinal cortex. This shows that prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices recruited...... by aesthetic judgments are significantly biased by subjects' prior expectations about the likely hedonic value of stimuli according to their source....

  6. Music and language syntax interact in Broca's area: An fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunert, R.; Willems, R.M.; Casasanto, D.; Patel, A.D.; Hagoort, P.

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental music and language are both syntactic systems, employing complex, hierarchically-structured sequences built using implicit structural norms. This organization allows listeners to understand the role of individual words or tones in the context of an unfolding sentence or melody. Previous

  7. Music and language syntax interact in Broca's area: An fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunert, R.; Willems, R.M.; Casasanto, D.; Patel, A.D.; Hagoort, P.

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental music and language are both syntactic systems, employing complex, hierar-chically-structured sequences built using implicit structural norms. This organization allows listeners to understand the role of individual words or tones in the context of an unfolding sentence or melody.

  8. Action observation and acquired motor skills: an FMRI study with expert dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Merino, B; Glaser, D E; Grèzes, J; Passingham, R E; Haggard, P

    2005-08-01

    When we observe someone performing an action, do our brains simulate making that action? Acquired motor skills offer a unique way to test this question, since people differ widely in the actions they have learned to perform. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study differences in brain activity between watching an action that one has learned to do and an action that one has not, in order to assess whether the brain processes of action observation are modulated by the expertise and motor repertoire of the observer. Experts in classical ballet, experts in capoeira and inexpert control subjects viewed videos of ballet or capoeira actions. Comparing the brain activity when dancers watched their own dance style versus the other style therefore reveals the influence of motor expertise on action observation. We found greater bilateral activations in premotor cortex and intraparietal sulcus, right superior parietal lobe and left posterior superior temporal sulcus when expert dancers viewed movements that they had been trained to perform compared to movements they had not. Our results show that this 'mirror system' integrates observed actions of others with an individual's personal motor repertoire, and suggest that the human brain understands actions by motor simulation.

  9. Cortical Reorganization in Patients Recovered from Bell's Palsy: An Orofacial and Finger Movements Task-State fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaeyoun; Yuan, Aihong; Wu, Hongli; Wang, Anqin; Xue, Qiuju; Wang, Tao; Wang, Linying; Gao, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore cortical reorganization of patients recovered from Bell's palsy (BP) by task-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during finger and orofacial movements and provide more evidence for acupuncture clinical treatment of BP. Methods. We collected 17 BP patients with complete clinical recovery (BP group) and 20 healthy volunteers (control group) accepted the task-state fMRI scans with lip pursing movements and finger movements, respectively. Results. It was found that there were significant differences of brain functional status between the two groups. Conclusions. The results showed that there was cortical reorganization in the brain of patients recovered from BP after acupuncture treatment, which also suggested the relationship between the hand motor areas and facial motor areas of BP patients. PMID:28116170

  10. Brain abnormalities underlying limb apraxia in corticobasal degeneration: an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchet, Olivier; Giraux, Pascal; Schneider, Fabien; Peyron, Roland; Barral, Fabrice; Laurent, Bernard

    2001-01-01

    Corticobasal degeneration is a neurodegenerative disease characterized, by cortical dysfunction and extrapyramidal signs. The most consistent symptom is a unilateral limb apraxia, which consists of an isolated disorder of gestural production involving primarily the upper limb. The objective of this study is to investigate the functional abnormalities that may underlie motor dysfunction, and those which might correlate to the severity of limb apraxia. PMID:22034043

  11. Cognitive control and unusual decisions about beauty: an fMRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Flexas, Albert; Rosselló, Jaume; de Miguel, Pedro; Nadal, Marcos; Munar, Enric

    2014-01-01

    Studies of visual esthetic preference have shown that people without art training generally prefer representational paintings to abstract paintings. This, however, is not always the case: preferences can sometimes go against this usual tendency. We aimed to explore this issue, investigating the relationship between “unusual responses” and reaction time in an esthetic appreciation task. Results of a behavioral experiment confirmed the trend for laypeople to consider as beautiful mostly represe...

  12. Neural Substrates Associated with Weather-Induced Mood Variability: An Exploratory Study Using ASL Perfusion fMRI

    OpenAIRE

    Gillihan, Seth J.; Detre, John A.; Farah, Martha J.; Rao, Hengyi

    2011-01-01

    Daily variations in weather are known to be associated with variations in mood. However, little is known about the specific brain regions that instantiate weather-related mood changes. We used a data-driven approach and ASL perfusion fMRI to assess the neural substrates associated with weather-induced mood variability. The data-driven approach was conducted with mood ratings under various weather conditions (N = 464). Forward stepwise regression was conducted to develop a statistical model of...

  13. Investigating brain responses to section endings in tonal, classical and rhythmic music : an fMRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Brun, Mona

    2010-01-01

    Our overall aim was to examine brain responses to different experiences of time in music with a particular focus on the question of how we experience large-scale music form. The present experiment was aimed at investigating the neural correlates to experiencing section endings in teleological (goal-directed) music as well as in rhythmic (groove-based) music. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on 14 human participants. Comparing transition points to continuous sections of ...

  14. Learning by doing and learning by thinking: an fMRI study of combining motor and mental training

    OpenAIRE

    C-J Olsson; Bert Jonsson; Lars Nyberg; Lars Nyberg; Lars Nyberg

    2008-01-01

    The current study investigated behavioral and neural effects of motor, mental, and combined motor and mental training on a finger tapping task. The motor or mental training groups trained on a finger-sequence for a total of 72 min over six weeks. The motor and mental training group received 72 min motor training and in addition 72 min mental training. Results showed that all groups increased their tapping performance significantly on the trained sequence. After training fMRI data was collecte...

  15. Neural correlates of conceptual object priming in young and older adults: An event-related fMRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Bischof, Gérard N.; Goh, Joshua O.; Park, Denise C.

    2012-01-01

    In this event-related fMRI study, we investigated age-related differences in brain activity associated with conceptual repetition priming in young and older adults. Participants performed a speeded “living/non-living” classification task with three repetitions of familiar objects. Both young and older adults showed a similar magnitude of behavioral priming to repeated objects and evidencing repetition-related activation reductions in fusiform gyrus, superior occipital, middle and inferior tem...

  16. Complex dynamics of an archetypal self-excited SD oscillator driven by moving belt friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhi-Xin; Cao Qing-Jie; Alain, Léger

    2016-01-01

    We propose an archetypal self-excited system driven by moving belt friction, which is constructed with the smooth and discontinuous (SD) oscillator proposed by the Cao et al. and the classical moving belt. The moving belt friction is modeled as the Coulomb friction to formulate the mathematical model of the proposed self-excited SD oscillator. The equilibrium states of the unperturbed system are obtained to show the complex equilibrium bifurcations. Phase portraits are depicted to present the hyperbolic structure transition, the multiple stick regions, and the friction-induced asymmetry phenomena. The numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the friction-induced vibration of multiple stick-slip phenomena and the stick-slip chaos in the perturbed self-excited system. The results presented here provide an opportunity for us to get insight into the mechanism of the complex friction-induced nonlinear dynamics in mechanical engineering and geography. (paper)

  17. Neural Substrates Associated with Weather-Induced Mood Variability: An Exploratory Study Using ASL Perfusion fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillihan, Seth J; Detre, John A; Farah, Martha J; Rao, Hengyi

    2011-04-01

    Daily variations in weather are known to be associated with variations in mood. However, little is known about the specific brain regions that instantiate weather-related mood changes. We used a data-driven approach and ASL perfusion fMRI to assess the neural substrates associated with weather-induced mood variability. The data-driven approach was conducted with mood ratings under various weather conditions (N = 464). Forward stepwise regression was conducted to develop a statistical model of mood as a function of weather conditions. The model results were used to calculate the mood-relevant weather index which served as the covariate in the regression analysis of the resting CBF (N = 42) measured by ASL perfusion fMRI under various weather conditions. The resting CBF activities in the left insula-prefrontal cortex and left superior parietal lobe were negatively correlated (corrected p<0.05) with the weather index, indicating that better mood-relevant weather conditions were associated with lower CBF in these regions within the brain's emotional network. The present study represents a first step toward the investigation of the effect of natural environment on baseline human brain function, and suggests the feasibility of ASL perfusion fMRI for such study.

  18. The effectiveness of the computerized visual perceptual training program on individuals with Down syndrome: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yi-Ting; Chiang, Ching-Sui; Chen, Sharon Chia-Ju; Wuang, Yee-Pay

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of the Computerized Visual Perception Training (CVPT) program on individuals with Down syndrome (DS, mean age=13.17±4.35years, age range: 6.54-20.75 years). All participants have mild intellectual disability classified by the standard IQ measures (mean=61.2, ranges from 55 to 68). Both the Test of Visual Perceptual Skill- Third Edition (TVPS-3) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used to evaluate the training outcomes. Results of TVPS-3 and fMRI showed that DS group had visual perceptual deficits and abnormal neural networks related to visual organization. The results showed that DS intervention group had significant improvements on TVPS-3 after intervention. The fMRI results indicated more activation in superior and inferior parietal lobes (spatial manipulation), as well as precentral gyrus and dorsal premotor cortex (motor imagery) in DS intervention group. The CVPT program was effective in improving visual perceptual functions and enhancing associated cortical activations in DS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Developmental Trajectories of Magnitude Processing and Interference Control: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Guilherme; Ischebeck, Anja; Koppelstaetter, Florian; Gotwald, Thaddaeus; Kaufmann, Liane

    2010-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental changes regarding interference and magnitude processing were assessed in 3 age groups (children, n = 10; young adults, n = 11; elderly participants, n = 9) by using an functional magnetic resonance imaging version of the numerical Stroop task. Behaviorally, comparable distance and size congruity effects were found in all 3 age groups. Distance effects were most pronounced in the more difficult numerical task, whereas size congruity effects were comparable across tasks. In response to interference, an age-linear trend in the pattern of activation in left and right prefrontal and left middle temporal regions of the brain was observed. This implicates that with increasing age interference control requires increasing effort (possible explanations for children’s relatively lower interference effects are provided). In contrast, the distance effect produced a negative linear trend in right prefrontal, supplementary motor area, and intraparietal cortex. This suggests that relative to old adults, children and young adults had to recruit a larger network upon processing magnitude. The latter findings are even more remarkable considering that the behavioral effects were similar across groups. In summary, the developmental trajectories of interference control and magnitude processing differ, although these cognitive functions activate partially overlapping brain regions. PMID:19357393

  20. Altered Structural and Functional Connectivity of Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengqing Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the structural and functional connectivity (FC of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI. High-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and rs-fMRI data were collected in 25 patients with JME and in 24 control subjects. A FC analysis was subsequently performed, with seeding at the regions that demonstrated between-group differences in gray matter volume (GMV. Then, the observed structural and FCs were associated with the clinical manifestations. The decreased GMV regions were found in the bilateral anterior cerebellum, the right orbital superior frontal gyrus, the left middle temporal gyrus, the left putamen, the right hippocampus, the bilateral caudate, and the right thalamus. The changed FCs were mainly observed in the motor-related areas and the cognitive-related areas. The significant findings of this study revealed an important role for the cerebellum in motor control and cognitive regulation in JME patients, which also have an effect on the activity of the occipital lobe. In addition, the changed FCs were related to the clinical features of JME patients. The current observations may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of JME.

  1. An atypical course of coxsackievirus A6 associated hand, foot and mouth disease in extremely low birth weight preterm twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruning, Andrea H. L.; van der Sanden, Sabine M. G.; ten Hoedt, Amber E.; Wolthers, Katja C.; van Kaam, Anton H.; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) associated hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has reportedly increased since 2008 with sometimes severe complications. We here describe an atypical course of CV-A6-associated HFMD in extremely low birth weight twins. The CV-A6-strains are genetically

  2. Instability of an oscillator moving along a thin ring on a viscoelastic foundation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, T.; Metrikine, A.

    2017-01-01

    The stability of an oscillator uniformly moving along a thin ring that is connected to an immovable axis by a distributed viscoelastic foundation has been studied. The dynamic reaction of the ring to the oscillator is represented by a frequency and velocity dependent equivalent stiffness. The

  3. The interactive effect of social pain and executive functioning on aggression: an fMRI experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, David S; Eisenberger, Naomi I; Pond, Richard S; Richman, Stephanie B; Bushman, Brad J; Dewall, C Nathan

    2014-05-01

    Social rejection often increases aggression, but the neural mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. This experiment tested whether neural activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and anterior insula in response to social rejection predicted greater subsequent aggression. Additionally, it tested whether executive functioning moderated this relationship. Participants completed a behavioral measure of executive functioning, experienced social rejection while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging and then completed a task in which they could aggress against a person who rejected them using noise blasts . We found that dACC activation and executive functioning interacted to predict aggression. Specifically, participants with low executive functioning showed a positive association between dACC activation and aggression, whereas individuals with high executive functioning showed a negative association. Similar results were found for the left anterior insula. These findings suggest that social pain can increase or decrease aggression, depending on an individual's regulatory capability.

  4. Neural substrates of interactive musical improvisation: an FMRI study of 'trading fours' in jazz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnay, Gabriel F; Rankin, Summer K; Lopez-Gonzalez, Monica; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Limb, Charles J

    2014-01-01

    Interactive generative musical performance provides a suitable model for communication because, like natural linguistic discourse, it involves an exchange of ideas that is unpredictable, collaborative, and emergent. Here we show that interactive improvisation between two musicians is characterized by activation of perisylvian language areas linked to processing of syntactic elements in music, including inferior frontal gyrus and posterior superior temporal gyrus, and deactivation of angular gyrus and supramarginal gyrus, brain structures directly implicated in semantic processing of language. These findings support the hypothesis that musical discourse engages language areas of the brain specialized for processing of syntax but in a manner that is not contingent upon semantic processing. Therefore, we argue that neural regions for syntactic processing are not domain-specific for language but instead may be domain-general for communication.

  5. Neural substrates of interactive musical improvisation: an FMRI study of 'trading fours' in jazz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel F Donnay

    Full Text Available Interactive generative musical performance provides a suitable model for communication because, like natural linguistic discourse, it involves an exchange of ideas that is unpredictable, collaborative, and emergent. Here we show that interactive improvisation between two musicians is characterized by activation of perisylvian language areas linked to processing of syntactic elements in music, including inferior frontal gyrus and posterior superior temporal gyrus, and deactivation of angular gyrus and supramarginal gyrus, brain structures directly implicated in semantic processing of language. These findings support the hypothesis that musical discourse engages language areas of the brain specialized for processing of syntax but in a manner that is not contingent upon semantic processing. Therefore, we argue that neural regions for syntactic processing are not domain-specific for language but instead may be domain-general for communication.

  6. Integrative processing of touch and affect in social perception: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoerd eEbisch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Social perception commonly employs multiple sources of information. The present study aimed at investigating the integrative processing of affective social signals. Task-related and task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 26 healthy adult participants during a social perception task concerning dynamic visual stimuli simultaneously depicting facial expressions of emotion and tactile sensations that could be either congruent or incongruent. Confounding effects due to affective valence, inhibitory top-down influences, cross-modal integration, and conflict processing were minimized. The results showed that the perception of congruent, compared to incongruent stimuli, elicited enhanced neural activity in a set of brain regions including left amygdala, bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, and left superior parietal cortex. These congruency effects did not differ as a function of emotion or sensation. A complementary task-related functional interaction analysis preliminarily suggested that amygdala activity depended on previous processing stages in fusiform gyrus and PCC. The findings provide support for the integrative processing of social information about others' feelings from manifold bodily sources (sensory-affective information in amygdala and PCC. Given that the congruent stimuli were also judged as being more self-related and more familiar in terms of personal experience in an independent sample of participants, we speculate that such integrative processing might be mediated by the linking of external stimuli with self-experience. Finally, the prediction of task-related responses in amygdala by intrinsic functional connectivity between amygdala and PCC during a task-free state implies a neuro-functional basis for an individual predisposition for the integrative processing of social stimulus content.

  7. Expectation requires treatment to boost pain relief: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Lieven A; Sprenger, Christian; Geuter, Stephan; Büchel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of a possible interaction between topical analgesic treatment and treatment expectation on pain at the behavioral and neuronal level by combining topical lidocaine/prilocaine treatment with an expectancy manipulation in a 2 by 2 within-subject design (open treatment, hidden treatment, placebo, control). Thirty-two healthy subjects received heat pain stimuli on capsaicin-pretreated skin and rated their experienced pain during functional magnetic resonance imaging. This allowed us to separate drug- and expectancy-related effects at the behavioral and neuronal levels and to test whether they interact during the processing of painful stimuli. Pain ratings were reduced during active treatment and were associated with reduced activity in the anterior insular cortex. Pain ratings were lower in open treatment compared with hidden treatment and were related to reduced activity in the anterior insular cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, the secondary somatosensory cortex, and the thalamus. Testing for an interaction revealed that the expectation effect was significantly larger in the active treatment conditions compared with the no-treatment conditions and was associated with signal changes in the anterior insular cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the ventral striatum. In conclusion, this study shows that even in the case of a topical analgesic, expectation interacts with treatment at the level of pain ratings and neuronal responses in placebo-related brain regions. Our results are highly relevant in the clinical context as they show (i) that expectation can boost treatment and (ii) that expectation and treatment are not necessarily additive as assumed in placebo-controlled clinical trials. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Recognition memory for Braille or spoken words: an fMRI study in early blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Harold; Sinclair, Robert J; Agato, Alvin

    2012-02-15

    We examined cortical activity in early blind during word recognition memory. Nine participants were blind at birth and one by 1.5years. In an event-related design, we studied blood oxygen level-dependent responses to studied ("old") compared to novel ("new") words. Presentation mode was in Braille or spoken. Responses were larger for identified "new" words read with Braille in bilateral lower and higher tier visual areas and primary somatosensory cortex. Responses to spoken "new" words were larger in bilateral primary and accessory auditory cortex. Auditory cortex was unresponsive to Braille words and occipital cortex responded to spoken words but not differentially with "old"/"new" recognition. Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex had larger responses to "old" words only with Braille. Larger occipital cortex responses to "new" Braille words suggested verbal memory based on the mechanism of recollection. A previous report in sighted noted larger responses for "new" words studied in association with pictures that created a distinctiveness heuristic source factor which enhanced recollection during remembering. Prior behavioral studies in early blind noted an exceptional ability to recall words. Utilization of this skill by participants in the current study possibly engendered recollection that augmented remembering "old" words. A larger response when identifying "new" words possibly resulted from exhaustive recollecting the sensory properties of "old" words in modality appropriate sensory cortices. The uniqueness of a memory role for occipital cortex is in its cross-modal responses to coding tactile properties of Braille. The latter possibly reflects a "sensory echo" that aids recollection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An Ambulatory Electroencephalography System for Freely Moving Horses: An Innovating Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Cousillas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG that has been extensively studied in humans presents also a large interest for studies on animal brain processes. However, since the quality of the recordings is altered by muscular activity, most EEG recordings on animals are obtained using invasive methods with deeply implanted electrodes. This requires anesthesia and can thus only be used in laboratory or clinical settings. As EEG is a very useful tool both for detecting brain alterations due to diseases or accidents and to evaluate the arousal and attentional state of the animal, it seemed crucial to develop a tool that would make such recordings possible in the horse’s home environment, with a freely moving horse. Such a tool should neither be invasive nor cause discomforts to the horse as the usual other practice which consists, after shaving the zone, in gluing the electrodes to the skin. To fulfill these requirements, we developed a novel EEG headset adapted to the horse’s head that allows an easy and fast positioning of the electrodes and that can be used in the home environment on a freely moving horse. In this study, we show that this EEG headset allows to obtain reliable recordings, and we propose an original evaluation of an animal’s “EEG profile” that allows comparisons between individuals and situations. This EEG headset opens new possibilities of investigation on horse cognition, and it can also become a useful tool for veterinarians to evaluate cerebral disorders or check the anesthesia level during a surgery.

  10. Foot Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is being done? The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) conducts research related to the neurological conditions that cause foot drop in its laboratories at the National ...

  11. Priorities in offloading the diabetic foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, Sicco A.

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanical factors play an important role in diabetic foot disease. Reducing high foot pressures (i.e. offloading) is one of the main goals in healing and preventing foot ulceration. Evidence-based guidelines show the strong association between the efficacy to offload the foot and clinical

  12. Advice taking from humans and machines: an fMRI and effective connectivity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Goodyear

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With new technological advances, advice can come from different sources such as machines or humans, but how individuals respond to such advice and the neural correlates involved need to be better understood. We combined functional MRI and multivariate Granger causality analysis with an X-ray luggage-screening task to investigate the neural basis and corresponding effective connectivity involved with advice utilization from agents framed as experts. Participants were asked to accept or reject good or bad advice from a human or machine agent with low reliability (high false alarm rate. We showed that unreliable advice decreased performance overall and participants interacting with the human agent had a greater depreciation of advice utilization during bad advice compared to the machine agent. These differences in advice utilization can be perceivably due to reevaluation of expectations arising from association of dispositional credibility for each agent. We demonstrated that differences in advice utilization engaged brain regions that may be associated with evaluation of personal characteristics and traits (precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, temporoparietal junction and interoception (posterior insula. We found that the right posterior insula and left precuneus were the drivers of the advice utilization network that were reciprocally connected to each other and also projected to all other regions. Our behavioral and neuroimaging results have significant implications for society because of progressions in technology and increased interactions with machines.

  13. The neural correlates of justified and unjustified killing: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenberghs, Pascal; Ogilvie, Claudette; Louis, Winnifred R; Decety, Jean; Bagnall, Jessica; Bain, Paul G

    2015-10-01

    Despite moral prohibitions on hurting other humans, some social contexts allow for harmful actions such as killing of others. One example is warfare, where killing enemy soldiers is seen as morally justified. Yet, the neural underpinnings distinguishing between justified and unjustified killing are largely unknown. To improve understanding of the neural processes involved in justified and unjustified killing, participants had to imagine being the perpetrator whilst watching 'first-person perspective' animated videos where they shot enemy soldiers ('justified violence') and innocent civilians ('unjustified violence'). When participants imagined themselves shooting civilians compared with soldiers, greater activation was found in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Regression analysis revealed that the more guilt participants felt about shooting civilians, the greater the response in the lateral OFC. Effective connectivity analyses further revealed an increased coupling between lateral OFC and the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) when shooting civilians. The results show that the neural mechanisms typically implicated with harming others, such as the OFC, become less active when the violence against a particular group is seen as justified. This study therefore provides unique insight into how normal individuals can become aggressors in specific situations. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Imaging the impossible: an fMRI study of impossible causal relationships in magic tricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, Ben A; Kuhn, Gustav; Mizon, Guy A; Benattayallah, Abdelmalek; Hodgson, Tim L

    2009-04-15

    Understanding causal relationships and violations of those relationships is fundamental to learning about the world around us. Over time some of these relationships become so firmly established that they form part of an implicit belief system about what is possible and impossible in the world. Previous studies investigating the neural correlates of violations of learned relationships have focused on relationships that were task-specific and probabilistic. In contrast, the present study uses magic-trick perception as a means of investigating violations of relationships that are long-established, deterministic, and that form part of the aforementioned belief system. Compared to situations in which expected causal relationships are observed, magic trick perception recruited dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), brain regions associated with the detection of conflict and the implementation of cognitive control. These activations were greater in the left hemisphere, supporting a role for this hemisphere in the interpretation of complex events. DLPFC is more greatly activated by magic tricks than by surprising events, but not more greatly activated by surprising than non surprising events, suggesting that this region plays a special role in causality processing. The results suggest a role for cognitive control regions in the left hemisphere in a neurobiology of disbelief.

  15. Imaging the impossible: An fMRI study of impossible causal relationships in magic tricks☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, Ben A.; Kuhn, Gustav; Mizon, Guy A.; Benattayallah, Abdelmalek; Hodgson, Tim L.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding causal relationships and violations of those relationships is fundamental to learning about the world around us. Over time some of these relationships become so firmly established that they form part of an implicit belief system about what is possible and impossible in the world. Previous studies investigating the neural correlates of violations of learned relationships have focused on relationships that were task-specific and probabilistic. In contrast, the present study uses magic-trick perception as a means of investigating violations of relationships that are long-established, deterministic, and that form part of the aforementioned belief system. Compared to situations in which expected causal relationships are observed, magic trick perception recruited dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), brain regions associated with the detection of conflict and the implementation of cognitive control. These activations were greater in the left hemisphere, supporting a role for this hemisphere in the interpretation of complex events. DLPFC is more greatly activated by magic tricks than by surprising events, but not more greatly activated by surprising than non surprising events, suggesting that this region plays a special role in causality processing. The results suggest a role for cognitive control regions in the left hemisphere in a neurobiology of disbelief. PMID:19166943

  16. Classical conditioning in borderline personality disorder: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Utz, Annegret; Keibel-Mauchnik, Jana; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Previous research suggests disturbed emotional learning and memory in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Studies investigating the neural correlates of aversive differential delay conditioning in BPD are currently lacking. We aimed to investigate acquisition, within-session extinction, between-session extinction recall, and reacquisition. We expected increased activation in the insula, amygdala, and anterior cingulate, and decreased prefrontal activation in BPD patients. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, 27 medication-free female BPD patients and 26 female healthy controls (HC) performed a differential delay aversive conditioning paradigm. An electric shock served as unconditioned stimulus, two neutral pictures as conditioned stimuli (CS+/CS-). Dependent variables were blood-oxygen-level-dependent response, skin conductance response (SCR), and subjective ratings (valence, arousal). No significant between-group differences in brain activation were found [all p(FDR) > 0.05]. Within-group comparisons for CS+unpaired > CS- revealed increased insula activity in BPD patients but not in HC during early acquisition; during late acquisition, both groups recruited fronto-parietal areas [p(FDR)  CS during extinction. During extinction recall, there was a trend for stronger SCR to CS+ > CS in BPD patients. Amygdala habituation to CS+paired (CS+ in temporal contingency with the aversive event) during acquisition was found in HC but not in patients. Our findings suggest altered temporal response patterns in terms of increased vigilance already during early acquisition and delayed extinction processes in individuals with BPD.

  17. Dysfunctional whole brain networks in mild cognitive impairment patients: an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenyu; Bai, Lijun; Dai, Ruwei; Zhong, Chongguang; Xue, Ting; You, Youbo; Tian, Jie

    2012-03-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was recognized as the prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent researches have shown that cognitive and memory decline in AD patients is coupled with losses of small-world attributes. However, few studies pay attention to the characteristics of the whole brain networks in MCI patients. In the present study, we investigated the topological properties of the whole brain networks utilizing graph theoretical approaches in 16 MCI patients, compared with 18 age-matched healthy subjects as a control. Both MCI patients and normal controls showed small-world architectures, with large clustering coefficients and short characteristic path lengths. We detected significantly longer characteristic path length in MCI patients compared with normal controls at the low sparsity. The longer characteristic path lengths in MCI indicated disrupted information processing among distant brain regions. Compared with normal controls, MCI patients showed decreased nodal centrality in the brain areas of the angular gyrus, heschl gyrus, hippocampus and superior parietal gyrus, while increased nodal centrality in the calcarine, inferior occipital gyrus and superior frontal gyrus. These changes in nodal centrality suggested a widespread rewiring in MCI patients, which may be an integrated reflection of reorganization of the brain networks accompanied with the cognitive decline. Our findings may be helpful for further understanding the pathological mechanisms of MCI.

  18. Secure attachment partners attenuate neural responses to social exclusion: an fMRI investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karremans, Johan C; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; van Dillen, Lotte F; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2011-07-01

    Research has shown that social exclusion has devastating psychological, physiological, and behavioral consequences. However, little is known about possible ways to shield individuals from the detrimental effects of social exclusion. The present study, in which participants were excluded during a ball-tossing game, examined whether (reminders of) secure attachment relationships could attenuate neurophysiological pain- and stress-related responses to social exclusion. Social exclusion was associated with activation in brain areas implicated in the regulation and experience of social distress, including areas in the lateral and medial prefrontal cortex, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, and hypothalamus. However, less activation in these areas was found to the extent that participants felt more securely attached to their attachment figure. Moreover, the psychological presence (i.e., salience) of an attachment figure attenuated hypothalamus activation during episodes of social exclusion, thereby providing insight into the neural mechanisms by which attachment relationships may help in coping with social stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Getting the Joke: Insight during Humor Comprehension - Evidence from an fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fang; Hou, Yuling; Zhu, Wenfeng; Dietrich, Arne; Zhang, Qinglin; Yang, Wenjing; Chen, Qunlin; Sun, Jiangzhou; Jiang, Qiu; Cao, Guikang

    2017-01-01

    As a high-level cognitive activity, humor comprehension requires incongruity detection and incongruity resolution, which then elicits an insight moment. The purpose of the study was to explore the neural basis of humor comprehension, particularly the moment of insight, by using both characters and language-free cartoons in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. The results showed that insight involving jokes elicited greater activation in language and semantic-related brain regions as well as a variety of additional regions, such as the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the middle temporal gyrus (MTG), the superior temporal gyrus (STG), the temporoparietal junctions (TPJ), the hippocampus and visual areas. These findings indicate that the MTG might play a role in incongruity detection, while the SFG, IFG and the TPJ might be involved in incongruity detection. The passive insight event elicited by jokes appears to be mediated by a limited number of brain areas. Our study showed that the brain regions associated with humor comprehension were not affected by the type of stimuli and that humor and insight shared common brain areas. These results indicate that one experiences a feeling of insight during humor comprehension, which contributes to the understanding of humor comprehension.

  20. Regional Brain Activation During Meditation Shows Time and Practice Effects: An Exploratory FMRI Study†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron Short, E.; Kose, Samet; Mu, Qiwen; Borckardt, Jeffery; Newberg, Andrew; George, Mark S.; Kozel, F. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Meditation involves attentional regulation and may lead to increased activity in brain regions associated with attention such as dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined whether DLPFC and ACC were activated during meditation. Subjects who meditate were recruited and scanned on a 3.0 Tesla scanner. Subjects meditated for four sessions of 12 min and performed four sessions of a 6 min control task. Individual and group t-maps were generated of overall meditation response versus control response and late meditation response versus early meditation response for each subject and time courses were plotted. For the overall group (n = 13), and using an overall brain analysis, there were no statistically significant regional activations of interest using conservative thresholds. A region of interest analysis of the entire group time courses of DLPFC and ACC were statistically more active throughout meditation in comparison to the control task. Moreover, dividing the cohort into short (n = 8) and long-term (n = 5) practitioners (>10 years) revealed that the time courses of long-term practitioners had significantly more consistent and sustained activation in the DLPFC and the ACC during meditation versus control in comparison to short-term practitioners. The regional brain activations in the more practised subjects may correlate with better sustained attention and attentional error monitoring. In summary, brain regions associated with attention vary over the time of a meditation session and may differ between long- and short-term meditation practitioners. PMID:18955268

  1. Regional Brain Activation during Meditation Shows Time and Practice Effects: An Exploratory FMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baron Short

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Meditation involves attentional regulation and may lead to increased activity in brain regions associated with attention such as dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined whether DLPFC and ACC were activated during meditation. Subjects who meditate were recruited and scanned on a 3.0 Tesla scanner. Subjects meditated for four sessions of 12 min and performed four sessions of a 6 min control task. Individual and group t-maps were generated of overall meditation response versus control response and late meditation response versus early meditation response for each subject and time courses were plotted. For the overall group (n = 13, and using an overall brain analysis, there were no statistically significant regional activations of interest using conservative thresholds. A region of interest analysis of the entire group time courses of DLPFC and ACC were statistically more active throughout meditation in comparison to the control task. Moreover, dividing the cohort into short (n = 8 and long-term (n = 5 practitioners (>10 years revealed that the time courses of long-term practitioners had significantly more consistent and sustained activation in the DLPFC and the ACC during meditation versus control in comparison to short-term practitioners. The regional brain activations in the more practised subjects may correlate with better sustained attention and attentional error monitoring. In summary, brain regions associated with attention vary over the time of a meditation session and may differ between long- and short-term meditation practitioners.

  2. Spinal cord stimulation modulates cerebral function: an fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moens, M. [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Department of Neurosurgery and Center for Neuroscience, Brussels (Belgium); Sunaert, S.; Peeters, R. [UZ Leuven, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Marien, P. [ZNA Middelheim General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Antwerp (Belgium); Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Clinical and Experimental Neurolinguistics, Brussels (Belgium); Brouns, R.; Smedt, A. de [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Department of Neurology and Center for Neuroscience, Brussels (Belgium); Droogmans, S. [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Department of Cardiology, Brussels (Belgium); Schuerbeek, P. van [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Poelaert, J. [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Department of Anesthesiology, Brussels (Belgium); Nuttin, B. [UZ Leuven, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Department of Neurosurgery, Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-12-15

    Although spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is widely used for chronic neuropathic pain after failed spinal surgery, little is known about the underlying physiological mechanisms. This study aims to investigate the neural substrate underlying short-term (30 s) SCS by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging in 20 patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Twenty patients with FBSS, treated with externalized SCS, participated in a blocked functional magnetic resonance imaging design with stimulation and rest phases of 30 s each, repeated eight times in a row. During scanning, patients rated pain intensity over time using an 11-point numerical rating scale with verbal anchors (0 = no pain at all to 10 = worst pain imaginable) by pushing buttons (left hand, lesser pain; right hand, more pain). This scale was back projected to the patients on a flat screen allowing them to manually direct the pain indicator. To increase the signal-to-noise ratio, the 8-min block measurements were repeated three times. Marked deactivation of the bilateral medial thalamus and its connections to the rostral and caudal cingulate cortex and the insula was found; the study also showed immediate pain relief obtained by short-term SCS correlated negatively with activity in the inferior olivary nucleus, the cerebellum, and the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Results indicate the key role of the medial thalamus as a mediator and the involvement of a corticocerebellar network implicating the modulation and regulation of averse and negative affect related to pain. The observation of a deactivation of the ipsilateral antero-medial thalamus might be used as a region of interest for further response SCS studies. (orig.)

  3. Spinal cord stimulation modulates cerebral function: an fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moens, M.; Sunaert, S.; Peeters, R.; Marien, P.; Brouns, R.; Smedt, A. de; Droogmans, S.; Schuerbeek, P. van; Poelaert, J.; Nuttin, B.

    2012-01-01

    Although spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is widely used for chronic neuropathic pain after failed spinal surgery, little is known about the underlying physiological mechanisms. This study aims to investigate the neural substrate underlying short-term (30 s) SCS by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging in 20 patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Twenty patients with FBSS, treated with externalized SCS, participated in a blocked functional magnetic resonance imaging design with stimulation and rest phases of 30 s each, repeated eight times in a row. During scanning, patients rated pain intensity over time using an 11-point numerical rating scale with verbal anchors (0 = no pain at all to 10 = worst pain imaginable) by pushing buttons (left hand, lesser pain; right hand, more pain). This scale was back projected to the patients on a flat screen allowing them to manually direct the pain indicator. To increase the signal-to-noise ratio, the 8-min block measurements were repeated three times. Marked deactivation of the bilateral medial thalamus and its connections to the rostral and caudal cingulate cortex and the insula was found; the study also showed immediate pain relief obtained by short-term SCS correlated negatively with activity in the inferior olivary nucleus, the cerebellum, and the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Results indicate the key role of the medial thalamus as a mediator and the involvement of a corticocerebellar network implicating the modulation and regulation of averse and negative affect related to pain. The observation of a deactivation of the ipsilateral antero-medial thalamus might be used as a region of interest for further response SCS studies. (orig.)

  4. Brain activity during observation and motor imagery of different balance tasks: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube, Wolfgang; Mouthon, Michael; Leukel, Christian; Hoogewoud, Henri-Marcel; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Keller, Martin

    2015-03-01

    After immobilization, patients show impaired postural control and increased risk of falling. Therefore, loss of balance control should already be counteracted during immobilization. Previously, studies have demonstrated that both motor imagery (MI) and action observation (AO) can improve motor performance. The current study elaborated how the brain is activated during imagination and observation of different postural tasks to provide recommendations about the conception of non-physical balance training. For this purpose, participants were tested in a within-subject design in an fMRI-scanner in three different conditions: (a) AO + MI, (b) AO, and (c) MI. In (a) participants were instructed to imagine themselves as the person pictured in the video whereas in (b) they were instructed simply to watch the video. In (c) subjects closed their eyes and kinesthetically imagined the task displayed in the video. Two tasks were evaluated in each condition: (i) static standing balance and (ii) dynamic standing balance (medio-lateral perturbation). In all conditions the start of a new trial was indicated every 2 sec by a sound. During AO + MI of the dynamic task, participants activated motor centers including the putamen, cerebellum, supplementary motor area, premotor cortices (PMv/d) and primary motor cortex (M1). MI showed a similar pattern but no activity in M1 and PMv/d. In the SMA and cerebellum, activity was generally higher in the dynamic than in the static condition. AO did not significantly activate any of these brain areas. Our results showed that (I) mainly AO + MI, but also MI, activate brain regions important for balance control; (II) participants display higher levels of brain activation in the more demanding balance task; (III) there is a significant difference between AO + MI and AO. Consequently, best training effects should be expected when participants apply MI during AO (AO + MI) of challenging postural tasks. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by

  5. Functional Asymmetries Revealed in Visually Guided Saccades: An fMRI Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, L.; Zago, L.; Vigneau, M.; Crivello, F.; Mazoyer, B.; Mellet, E.; Tzourio-Mazoyer, N. [Centre for Imaging, Neurosciences and Applications to Pathologies, UMR6232 CNRS CEA (France); Mazoyer, B. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Caen (France); Andersson, F. [Institut Federatif de Recherche 135, Imagerie fonctionnelle, Tours (France); Mazoyer, B. [Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Because eye movements are a fundamental tool for spatial exploration, we hypothesized that the neural bases of these movements in humans should be under right cerebral dominance, as already described for spatial attention. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in 27 right-handed participants who alternated central fixation with either large or small visually guided saccades (VGS), equally performed in both directions. Hemispheric functional asymmetry was analyzed to identify whether brain regions showing VGS activation elicited hemispheric asymmetries. Hemispheric anatomical asymmetry was also estimated to assess its influence on the VGS functional lateralization. Right asymmetrical activations of a saccadic/attentional system were observed in the lateral frontal eye fields (FEF), the anterior part of the intra-parietal sulcus (aIPS), the posterior third of the superior temporal sulcus (STS), the occipito-temporal junction (MT/V5 area), the middle occipital gyrus, and medially along the calcarine fissure (V1). The present rightward functional asymmetries were not related to differences in gray matter (GM) density/sulci positions between right and left hemispheres in the pre-central, intra-parietal, superior temporal, and extrastriate regions. Only V1 asymmetries were explained for almost 20% of the variance by a difference in the position of the right and left calcarine fissures. Left asymmetrical activations of a saccadic motor system were observed in the medial FEF and in the motor strip eye field along the Rolando sulcus. They were not explained by GM asymmetries. We suggest that the leftward saccadic motor asymmetry is part of a general dominance of the left motor cortex in right-handers, which must include an effect of sighting dominance. Our results demonstrate that, although bilateral by nature, the brain network involved in the execution of VGSs, irrespective of their direction, presented specific right and left asymmetries that were not related to

  6. Endogenous-cue prospective memory involving incremental updating of working memory: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halahalli, Harsha N; John, John P; Lukose, Ammu; Jain, Sanjeev; Kutty, Bindu M

    2015-11-01

    Prospective memory paradigms are conventionally classified on the basis of event-, time-, or activity-based intention retrieval. In the vast majority of such paradigms, intention retrieval is provoked by some kind of external event. However, prospective memory retrieval cues that prompt intention retrieval in everyday life are commonly endogenous, i.e., linked to a specific imagined retrieval context. We describe herein a novel prospective memory paradigm wherein the endogenous cue is generated by incremental updating of working memory, and investigated the hemodynamic correlates of this task. Eighteen healthy adult volunteers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while they performed a prospective memory task where the delayed intention was triggered by an endogenous cue generated by incremental updating of working memory. Working memory and ongoing task control conditions were also administered. The 'endogenous-cue prospective memory condition' with incremental working memory updating was associated with maximum activations in the right rostral prefrontal cortex, and additional activations in the brain regions that constitute the bilateral fronto-parietal network, central and dorsal salience networks as well as cerebellum. In the working memory control condition, maximal activations were noted in the left dorsal anterior insula. Activation of the bilateral dorsal anterior insula, a component of the central salience network, was found to be unique to this 'endogenous-cue prospective memory task' in comparison to previously reported exogenous- and endogenous-cue prospective memory tasks without incremental working memory updating. Thus, the findings of the present study highlight the important role played by the dorsal anterior insula in incremental working memory updating that is integral to our endogenous-cue prospective memory task.

  7. Intrinsic brain subsystem associated with dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jizheng; Li, Mintong; Zhang, Yi; Song, Huaibo; von Deneen, Karen M; Shi, Yinggang; Liu, Yijun; He, Dongjian

    2017-02-01

    Eating behaviors are closely related to body weight, and eating traits are depicted in three dimensions: dietary restraint, disinhibition, and hunger. The current study aims to explore whether these aspects of eating behaviors are related to intrinsic brain activation, and to further investigate the relationship between the brain activation relating to these eating traits and body weight, as well as the link between function connectivity (FC) of the correlative brain regions and body weight. Our results demonstrated positive associations between dietary restraint and baseline activation of the frontal and the temporal regions (i.e., food reward encoding) and the limbic regions (i.e., homeostatic control, including the hypothalamus). Disinhibition was positively associated with the activation of the frontal motivational system (i.e., OFC) and the premotor cortex. Hunger was positively related to extensive activations in the prefrontal, temporal, and limbic, as well as in the cerebellum. Within the brain regions relating to dietary restraint, weight status was negatively correlated with FC of the left middle temporal gyrus and left inferior temporal gyrus, and was positively associated with the FC of regions in the anterior temporal gyrus and fusiform visual cortex. Weight status was positively associated with the FC within regions in the prefrontal motor cortex and the right ACC serving inhibition, and was negatively related with the FC of regions in the frontal cortical-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits responding to hunger control. Our data depicted an association between intrinsic brain activation and dietary restraint, disinhibition, and hunger, and presented the links of their activations and FCs with weight status.

  8. How specifically are action verbs represented in the neural motor system: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Wessel O; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-12-01

    Embodied accounts of language processing suggest that sensorimotor areas, generally dedicated to perception and action, are also involved in the processing and representation of word meaning. Support for such accounts comes from studies showing that language about actions selectively modulates the execution of congruent and incongruent motor responses (e.g., Glenberg & Kaschak, 2002), and from functional neuroimaging studies showing that understanding action-related language recruits sensorimotor brain areas (e.g. Hauk, Johnsrude, & Pulvermueller, 2004). In the current experiment we explored the basis of the neural motor system's involvement in representing words denoting actions. Specifically, we investigated whether the motor system's involvement is modulated by the specificity of the kinematics associated with a word. Previous research in the visual domain indicates that words denoting basic level category members lacking a specific form (e.g., bird) are less richly encoded within visual areas than words denoting subordinate level members (e.g., pelican), for which the visual form is better specified (Gauthier, Anderson, Tarr, Skudlarski, & Gore, 1997). In the present study we extend these findings to the motor domain. Modulation of the BOLD response elicited by verbs denoting a general motor program (e.g., to clean) was compared to modulation elicited by verbs denoting a more specific motor program (e.g., to wipe). Conform with our hypothesis, a region within the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, typically serving the representation of action plans and goals, was sensitive to the specificity of motor programs associated with the action verbs. These findings contribute to the growing body of research on embodied language representations by showing that the concreteness of an action-semantic feature is reflected in the neural response to action verbs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Epidemiology of Diabetic Foot Infections in an Eastern Caribbean Population: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Shariful; Harnarayan, Patrick; Cawich, Shamir O; Budhooram, Steve; Bheem, Vinoo; Mahabir, Vijai; Ramsewak, Shiva; Aziz, Imran; Naraynsingh, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    Of all patients with diabetic foot infec-tions who were admitted to tertiary care hospitals (446) from July 2011 to June 2012, most had Type 2 diabetes (93.3%). Despite most patients claiming compliance with treatment, 75% had glycosylated hemoglobin levels above 7.1%, and 49.3% continued unhealthy lifestyles. Only 57.4% of patients reported ever be-ing counseled or taught about foot care by medical personnel.

  10. Diagnosis and management of an intra-articular foreign body in the foot.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulhall, K J

    2002-10-01

    We describe a case of a small intra-articular foreign body in the foot presenting 48 hours following injury, which at operation showed early evidence of septic arthritis. It is essential to accurately localise periarticular foreign bodies in the foot and proceed to arthrotomy and debridement in all cases where there is radiological or clinical evidence to suggest intra-articular retention of a foreign body.

  11. Increased healing in diabetic toe ulcers in a multidisciplinary foot clinic-An observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almdal, T; Nielsen, A Anker; Nielsen, K E; Jørgensen, M E; Rasmussen, A; Hangaard, S; Siersma, V; Holstein, P E

    2015-12-01

    To study toe ulcer healing in patients with diabetic foot ulcers attending a multidisciplinary foot clinic over a 10 years period. The study was retrospective, consecutive and observational during 2001 through 2011. The patients were treated according to the International Consensus on the Diabetic Foot. During the period the chiropodist staffing in the foot clinic was doubled; new offloading material and orthopedic foot corrections for recalcitrant ulcers were introduced. Healing was investigated in toe ulcers in Cox regression models. 2634 patients developed foot ulcers, of which 1461 developed toe ulcers; in 790 patients these were neuropathic, in 551 they were neuro-ischemic and in 120 they were critically ischemic. One-year healing rates increased in the period 2001-2011 from 75% to 91% for neuropathic toe ulcers and from 72% to 80% for neuro-ischemic toe ulcers, while no changes was observed for ischemic toe ulcers. Adjusted for changes in the patient population, the overall rate of healing for neuropathic and neuro-ischemic toe ulcers almost doubled (HR=1.95 [95% CI: 1.36-2.80]). The results show that the healing of toe ulcers improved. This outcome could not be explained by changes in the patient characteristics, but coincided with a number of improvements in organization and therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Foot and Ankle Fellowship Websites: An Assessment of Accessibility and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Richard M; Danna, Natalie R; Capo, John T; Mroczek, Kenneth J

    2017-08-01

    The Internet has been reported to be the first informational resource for many fellowship applicants. The objective of this study was to assess the accessibility of orthopaedic foot and ankle fellowship websites and to evaluate the quality of information provided via program websites. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) and the Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database (FREIDA) fellowship databases were accessed to generate a comprehensive list of orthopaedic foot and ankle fellowship programs. The databases were reviewed for links to fellowship program websites and compared with program websites accessed from a Google search. Accessible fellowship websites were then analyzed for the quality of recruitment and educational content pertinent to fellowship applicants. Forty-seven orthopaedic foot and ankle fellowship programs were identified. The AOFAS database featured direct links to 7 (15%) fellowship websites with the independent Google search yielding direct links to 29 (62%) websites. No direct website links were provided in the FREIDA database. Thirty-six accessible websites were analyzed for content. Program websites featured a mean 44% (range = 5% to 75%) of the total assessed content. The most commonly presented recruitment and educational content was a program description (94%) and description of fellow operative experience (83%), respectively. There is substantial variability in the accessibility and quality of orthopaedic foot and ankle fellowship websites. Recognition of deficits in accessibility and content quality may assist foot and ankle fellowships in improving program information online. Level IV.

  13. Anticipatory Cyber Security Research: An Ultimate Technique for the First-Move Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat S.Rawal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Across all industry segments, 96 percent of systems could be breached on average. In the game of cyber security, every moment a new player (attacker is entering the game with new skill sets. An attacker only needs to be effective once while defenders of cyberspace have to be successful all of the time. There will be a first-mover advantage in such a chasing game, which means that the first move often wins. In this paper, in order to face the security challenges brought in by attacker’s first move advantage, we analyzed the past ten years of cyber-attacks, studied the immediate attack’s pattern and offer the tools to predict the next move of the cyber attacker.

  14. Measurement of single moving particle temperatures with an FT-IR spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Sørensen, L.H.

    1996-01-01

    A conventional scanning FT-IR spectrometer is used to measure the blackbody radiation through a rapidly moving pinhole in an experiment simulating a dying hot particle. The effects and errors from source movements are analyzed and verified through experiments. The importance of the scanning...... by a factor of 2-10 compared with results from a typical two-color pyrometer. A novel method is presented for measuring emission spectra from single moving particles passing the field of view of the spectrometer in a random manner....

  15. Foot posture, leg length discrepancy and low back pain--their relationship and clinical management using foot orthoses--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Julie C; Bird, Adam R; Azari, Michael F

    2014-06-01

    Mechanical low back pain (LBP) is a very common, expensive, and significant health issue in the western world. Functional musculoskeletal conditions are widely thought to cause mechanical low back pain. The role of foot posture and leg length discrepancy in contributing to abnormal biomechanics of the lumbopelvic region and low back pain is not sufficiently investigated. This critical review examines the evidence for the association between foot function, particularly pronation, and mechanical LBP. It also explores the evidence for a role for foot orthoses in the treatment of this condition. There is a body of evidence to support the notion that foot posture, particularly hyperpronation, is associated with mechanical low back pain. Mechanisms that have been put forward to account for this finding are based on either mechanical postural changes or alterations in muscular activity in the lumbar and pelvic muscles. More research is needed to explore and quantify the effects of foot orthoses on chronic low back pain, especially their effects on lumbopelvic muscle function and posture. The clinical implications of this work are significant since foot orthoses represent a simple and potentially effective therapeutic measure for a clinical condition of high personal and social burden. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficient foot motor control by Neymar's brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Eiichi; Hirose, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    How very long-term (over many years) motor skill training shapes internal motor representation remains poorly understood. We provide valuable evidence that the football brain of Neymar da Silva Santos Júnior (the Brasilian footballer) recruits very limited neural resources in the motor-cortical foot regions during foot movements. We scanned his brain activity with a 3-tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while he rotated his right ankle at 1 Hz. We also scanned brain activity when three other age-controlled professional footballers, two top-athlete swimmers and one amateur footballer performed the identical task. A comparison was made between Neymar's brain activity with that obtained from the others. We found activations in the left medial-wall foot motor regions during the foot movements consistently across all participants. However, the size and intensity of medial-wall activity was smaller in the four professional footballers than in the three other participants, despite no difference in amount of foot movement. Surprisingly, the reduced recruitment of medial-wall foot motor regions became apparent in Neymar. His medial-wall activity was smallest among all participants with absolutely no difference in amount of foot movement. Neymar may efficiently control given foot movements probably by largely conserving motor-cortical neural resources. We discuss this possibility in terms of over-years motor skill training effect, use-dependent plasticity, and efficient motor control.

  17. Profile Change When Industry Moves Into an Area. Working Paper RID 73.7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John T., Jr.

    The effects of industrialization on the economic and social profile of a rural community are described in this paper. Some of the major changes when industry moves into a community are in the land use and support systems such as an increase in the demand for water, energy, and waste disposal. Other changes are in the labor force, retail sales and…

  18. Performance of neural networks for localizing moving objects with an artificial lateral line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boulogne, Luuk H; Wolf, Ben J; Wiering, Marco A; van Netten, Sietse M

    2017-01-01

    Fish are able to sense water flow velocities relative to their body with their mechanoreceptive lateral line organ. This organ consists of an array of flow detectors distributed along the fish body. Using the excitation of these individual detectors, fish can determine the location of nearby moving

  19. Quantitative representations of an exaggerated anxiety response in the brain of female spider phobics-a parametric fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilverstand, Anna; Sorger, Bettina; Kaemingk, Anita; Goebel, Rainer

    2017-06-01

    We employed a novel parametric spider picture set in the context of a parametric fMRI anxiety provocation study, designed to tease apart brain regions involved in threat monitoring from regions representing an exaggerated anxiety response in spider phobics. For the stimulus set, we systematically manipulated perceived proximity of threat by varying a depicted spider's context, size, and posture. All stimuli were validated in a behavioral rating study (phobics n = 20; controls n = 20; all female). An independent group participated in a subsequent fMRI anxiety provocation study (phobics n = 7; controls n = 7; all female), in which we compared a whole-brain categorical to a whole-brain parametric analysis. Results demonstrated that the parametric analysis provided a richer characterization of the functional role of the involved brain networks. In three brain regions-the mid insula, the dorsal anterior cingulate, and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex-activation was linearly modulated by perceived proximity specifically in the spider phobia group, indicating a quantitative representation of an exaggerated anxiety response. In other regions (e.g., the amygdala), activation was linearly modulated in both groups, suggesting a functional role in threat monitoring. Prefrontal regions, such as dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, were activated during anxiety provocation but did not show a stimulus-dependent linear modulation in either group. The results confirm that brain regions involved in anxiety processing hold a quantitative representation of a pathological anxiety response and more generally suggest that parametric fMRI designs may be a very powerful tool for clinical research in the future, particularly when developing novel brain-based interventions (e.g., neurofeedback training). Hum Brain Mapp 38:3025-3038, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The effects of an ankle foot orthosis on cerebral palsy gait: A multiple regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Ferdous; Begg, Rezaul; Sangeux, Morgan; Halgamuge, Saman; Ackland, David C

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was twofold. Firstly, to develop a multiple regression normalization (MR) strategy to decorrelate physical properties and walking speed from spatiotemporal gait data in healthy children; and secondly, to use this MR approach to identify the effect of a solid ankle foot orthosis (AFO) on gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Spatiotemporal gait data during self-selected walking were obtained from 51 children with diplegic CP and 34 aged-matched healthy controls. Data were normalized using standard dimensionless equations (DS) and a MR approach. Stride length, stance time, swing time, and double support time were significantly different between children with CP and healthy controls using DS (pchildren with CP walked with and without an AFO. Normalizing gait data using DS demonstrated significant differences in cadence and step time in children with CP when wearing an AFO compared to the controls (pchildren with CP with and without an AFO, except double support time. After MR normalization, spatiotemporal parameters in children wearing an AFO became closer to those of the controls, except for double support time. The MR approach presented will assist in evaluating the effectiveness of conservative interventions such as AFOs in children with CP, as well as in surgery, and may be useful in gait classification using machine learning.

  1. Foot pressure analysis of adults with flat and normal feet at different gait speeds on an ascending slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to determine the difference in foot pressures between flat and normal feet at different gait speeds on an ascending slope. [Subjects] This study enrolled 30 adults with normal (n=15) and flat feet (n=15), with ages from 21 to 30 years old, who had no history of neurological disorders or gait problems. A treadmill was used for the analysis of kinematic features during gait, using a slope of 10%, and gait velocities of slow, normal, and fast. [Methods] A foot pressure analyzer was used to measure changes in foot pressure. [Results] Compared to the normal subjects, the foot pressure of the flatfoot subjects showed a significant increase in the 2-3rd metatarsal region with increasing gait speed, whereas there were significant decreases in the 1st toe and 1st metatarsal regions with increasing gait speed. [Conclusion] The body weight of adults with flatfoot was concentrated on the 2-3rd metatarsal region during the stance phase and increased with walking speed on the ascending slope due to weakening of function of the medial longitudinal arch.

  2. Altered processing of rewarding and aversive basic taste stimuli in symptomatic women with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Monteleone, Palmiero; Esposito, Fabrizio; Prinster, Anna; Volpe, Umberto; Cantone, Elena; Pellegrino, Francesca; Canna, Antonietta; Milano, Walter; Aiello, Marco; Di Salle, Francesco; Maj, Mario

    2017-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have displayed a dysregulation in the way in which the brain processes pleasant taste stimuli in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). However, exactly how the brain processes disgusting basic taste stimuli has never been investigated, even though disgust plays a role in food intake modulation and AN and BN patients exhibit high disgust sensitivity. Therefore, we investigated the activation of brain areas following the administration of pleasant and aversive basic taste stimuli in symptomatic AN and BN patients compared to healthy subjects. Twenty underweight AN women, 20 symptomatic BN women and 20 healthy women underwent fMRI while tasting 0.292 M sucrose solution (sweet taste), 0.5 mM quinine hydrochloride solution (bitter taste) and water as a reference taste. In symptomatic AN and BN patients the pleasant sweet stimulus induced a higher activation in several brain areas than that induced by the aversive bitter taste. The opposite occurred in healthy controls. Moreover, compared to healthy controls, AN patients showed a decreased response to the bitter stimulus in the right amygdala and left anterior cingulate cortex, while BN patients showed a decreased response to the bitter stimulus in the right amygdala and left insula. These results show an altered processing of rewarding and aversive taste stimuli in ED patients, which may be relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of AN and BN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of the Sagittal Saw Blade as an Intraoperative Fomite During Diabetic Foot Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Corine L; Malan, Jared R; Meyr, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Surgical site infection is a major potential complication of all operative interventions, and the diabetic foot is particularly at risk for bacterial recontamination and infectious sequelae. The objective of this study was to identify whether the sagittal saw blade used during partial foot amputations and diabetic foot debridements carries the potential to serve as a bacterial fomite. We physically cultured the sagittal saw blade during 20 foot debridements involving the resection of bone in patients diagnosed with a diabetic foot infection. The culture was taken after the initial debridement and during the irrigation phase of the procedure. We observed 16 positive routine intraoperative culture results, with positive saw blade culture results in 15 (93.8%; 15/16) of these cases. In 14 (93.3%; 14/15) of these cases, the saw blade culture grew at least one of the same bacteria as our other routine intraoperative cultures. We observed 4 negative routine intraoperative culture results, with negative saw blade culture results in 3 (75.0%; 3/4) of these cases. This results in agreement between routine intraoperative cultures and saw blade culture of 85.0% (17/20). The results of this investigation demonstrate that the sagittal saw blade used for osseous resection during diabetic foot debridements and partial foot amputations carries the potential for intraoperative bacterial transmission. We recommend changing at least the sagittal saw blade if more bone is resected following irrigation, particularly if it is used to obtain a "clean margin" for microbiological or histological examination. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case series. © 2014 The Author(s).

  4. Challenges and prospects for the control of foot-and-mouth disease: an African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maree FF

    2014-10-01

    single strategy for control of FMD in Africa is applicable. Decision on the most effective regional control strategy should focus on an ecosystem approach, identification of primary endemic areas, animal husbandry practices, climate, and animal movement. Within each ecosystem, human behavior could be integrated in disease control planning. Different regions in sub-Saharan Africa are at different developmental stages and are thus facing unique challenges and priorities in terms of veterinary disease control. Many science-based options targeting improved vaccinology, diagnostics, and other control measures have been described. This review therefore aims to emphasize, on one hand, the progress that has been achieved in the development of new technologies, including research towards improved tailored vaccines, appropriate vaccine strain selection, vaccine potency, and diagnostics, and how it relates to the conditions in Africa. On the other hand, we focus on the unique epidemiological, ecological, livestock farming and marketing, socioeconomic, and governance issues that constrain effective FMD control. Any such new technologies should have the availability of safe livestock products for trade as the ultimate goal.Keywords: vaccine, foot-and-mouth disease virus, vaccine matching, new-generation vaccine, diagnostic tests

  5. Hydrodynamic determination of the moving direction of an artificial fin by a harbour seal (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieskotten, S; Dehnhardt, G; Mauck, B; Miersch, L; Hanke, W

    2010-07-01

    Harbour seals can use their vibrissal system to detect and follow hydrodynamic trails left by moving objects. In this study we determined the maximum time after which a harbour seal could indicate the moving direction of an artificial fish tail and analysed the hydrodynamic parameters allowing the discrimination. Hydrodynamic trails were generated using a fin-like paddle moving from left to right or from right to left in the calm water of an experimental box. The blindfolded seal was able to recognise the direction of the paddle movement when the hydrodynamic trail was up to 35 s old. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) revealed that the seal might have perceived and used two different hydrodynamic parameters to determine the moving direction of the fin-like paddle. The structure and spatial arrangement of the vortices in the hydrodynamic trail and high water velocities between two counter-rotating vortices are characteristic of the movement direction and are within the sensory range of the seal.

  6. A literature review and case report of hand, foot and mouth disease in an immunocompetent adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaña-Cepeda, Carlos; Martínez-Valverde, Andrea; del Mar Sabater-Recolons, María; Jané-Salas, Enric; Marí-Roig, Antonio; López-López, José

    2016-03-15

    To report an uncommon case of hand, foot and mouth disease, (HFMD) in an immunocompetent adult; a highly infectious disease, characterized by the appearance of vesicles on the mouth, hands and feet, associated with coxsackieviruses and enteroviruses; including a literature review. A 23 year Caucasian male with no medical or surgical history, no allergies, was not taking any medication and smoked ten cigarettes a day, suffering from discomfort in the oral cavity; itching, burning and pain when swallowing associated with small erythematous lesions located on the hard palate, and small ulcers in tonsillar pillars and right buccal mucosa. Mild fever of 37.8 °C and general malaise. The patient reported he had had contact with a child diagnosed with HFMD. From his background and symptoms, the patient was diagnosed with HFMD. Following symptomatic treatment, the symptoms remitted in 7 days. A literature review in MEDLINE (PubMed). The inclusion criteria were for studies on humans over the last 5 years, using the keywords HFMD. We found 925 articles, which were subsequently reduced to 52 documents after applying the inclusion criteria. Maculopapular lesions were found on hands and feet. Dentists may have a key role diagnosing the disease. A surveillance system to predict future outbreaks, encourage early diagnosis, put appropriate public health measures in place and research vaccine development is vitally important in order to control the disease.

  7. An integrated care pathway to save the critically ischaemic diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sakka, K; Fassiadis, N; Gambhir, R P S; Halawa, M; Zayed, H; Doxford, M; Greensitt, C; Edmonds, M; Rashid, H

    2006-06-01

    This prospective study describes and evaluates the efficacy of an integrated care pathway for the management of the critically ischaemic diabetic foot patients by a multidisciplinary team. A weekly joint diabetes/vascular/podiatry ward round and outpatient clinic was established where patients were assessed within 7 days of referral by clinical examination, ankle-brachial-index-pressures, duplex angiogram and transcutaneous oxygen pressures. An angiogram +/- angioplasty or alternatively a magnetic resonance angiography prior to surgical revascularisation was performed in patients deemed not suitable for angioplasty based on the above vascular assessment. Between January 2002 and June 2003(18 months), 128 diabetic patients with lower limb ischaemia were seen. Thirty-four (26.6%) patients received medical treatment alone, and 18 (14.1%) were deemed 'palliative' due to their significant co-morbidities. The remaining 76 (59.4%) patients underwent either angioplasty (n = 56), surgical reconstruction (n = 18), primary major amputation (n = 2) or secondary amputation after surgical revascularisation (n = 1). Minor toe amputations were required in 35 patients. The mortality in the intervention group was 14% (11/76). This integrated multidisciplinary approach offers a consistent and equitable service to diabetic patients with critically ischaemic feet and appears to have a beneficial major/minor amputation ratio.

  8. Brain activation in response to visceral stimulation in rats with amygdala implants of corticosterone: an FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although visceral pain of gastrointestinal (GI origin is the major complaint in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS it remains poorly understood. Brain imaging studies suggest a defect in brain-gut communication in IBS with a greater activation of central arousal circuits including the amygdala. Previously, we found that stereotaxic implantation of corticosterone (CORT onto the amygdala in rats induced anxiety and colonic hypersensitivity. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to identify specific brain sites activated in a rat model characterized by anxiety and colonic hypersensitivity.Anesthetized male rats received micropellets (30 microg each of either CORT or cholesterol (CHOL, to serve as a control, implanted stereotaxically on the dorsal margin of each amygdala. Seven days later, rats were anesthetized and placed in the fMRI magnet (7T. A series of isobaric colorectal balloon distensions (CRD - 90s 'off', 30s 'on', 8 replicates at two pressures (40 and 60 mmHg were performed in a standard block-design. Cross correlation statistical analysis was used to determine significant differences between distended and non-distended states in CORT and CHOL-treated animals. Analysis of the imaging data demonstrated greater overall brain activation in response to CRD in rats with CORT implants compared to CHOL controls. Additionally, CORT implants produced significant positive bilateral increases in MRI signal in response to CRD in specific nuclei known as integration sites important in anxiety and pain perception.These data indicate that chronic exposure of the amygdala to elevated levels of CORT enhances overall brain activation in response to CRD, and identified other specific brain regions activated in response to mechanical distension of the colon. These results demonstrate the feasibility of performing fMRI imaging in a rodent model that supports clinical observations in IBS patients with enhanced

  9. Varus thrust visualized during gait was associated with inverted foot in patients with knee osteoarthritis: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, Hiroshi; Iijima, Hirotaka; Fukutani, Naoto; Aoyama, Tomoki; Kaneda, Eishi; Ohi, Kazuko; Ito, Hiromu; Matsuda, Shuichi; Kaoru, Abe

    2018-03-01

    The foot is speculated to play a role in knee joint kinematics. This exploratory cross-sectional study examined the association between static foot posture and the presence of varus thrust visualized during gait in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). Patients (n = 88 patients and 134 knees; age, 61-91 years; 68.2% female) with Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) grade ≥1 in the medial compartment were included in this study and underwent gait observation for varus thrust. These patients' three-dimensional static foot posture while standing was evaluated and their tibiofemoral joint K/L grades and anatomical axis angles were also assessed as covariates. Knees with varus thrust (22 knees, 16.4%) on average had a 4° more inverted calcaneus relative to the floor than those without varus thrust (P varus thrust with adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, K/L grade, and anatomical axis angle. The other predictors, such as navicular height, navicular height/foot length, and rearfoot angle relative to the lower leg, were not significantly associated with varus thrust. These results suggest that patients with varus thrust had a different static rearfoot posture as compared with those without varus thrust, a finding that may indicate an important role of static rearfoot posture in the pathogenesis of varus thrust. Furthermore, investigating the potential influence of foot posture on the efficacy of biomechanical interventions, such as lateral wedge insole use, on varus thrust would be of particular interest in the further studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Diabetic Microangiopathy Is an Independent Predictor of Incident Diabetic Foot Ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeya, Yusuke; Okisugi, Mari; Katsuki, Takeshi; Oikawa, Yoichi; Atsumi, Yoshihito; Matsuoka, Kempei; Shimada, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To determine the diabetic foot ulcer incidence and examine its association with microangiopathy complications, including diabetic retinopathy (DR) and albuminuria (Alb), in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study of 1,305 patients with type 2 diabetes who were assigned to the following groups: Category 1, normoalbuminuria without DR (n = 712); Category 2, Alb without DR (n = 195); Category 3, normoalbuminuria with DR (n = 185); and Category 4, Alb with DR (n = 213). Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare the risks of developing diabetic foot ulcers across the categories. Results. During 14,249 person-years of follow-up, 50 subjects developed diabetic foot ulcers, with incidence rates of 1.6/1,000, 1.5/1,000, 3.4/1,000, and 12.5/1,000 person-years in Categories 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. After adjusting for the presence of diabetic neuropathy and macroangiopathy, the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of diabetic foot ulcer development were 0.66 (95% CI, 0.18–2.36), 1.72 (95% CI, 0.67–4.42), and 3.17 (95% CI, 1.52–6.61) in Categories 2, 3, and 4, respectively, compared with Category 1. Conclusion. The presence of DR and Alb significantly increases the risk of diabetic foot ulcer development. PMID:27034962

  11. An analysis on muscle tone of lower limb muscles on flexible flat foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Gi-Mai; Wang, Joong-San; Park, Si-Eun

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine differences in the muscle tone and stiffness of leg muscles according to types of flexible flat foot. [Subjects and Methods] For 30 subjects 10 in a normal foot group (NFG), 10 in group with both flexible flat feet (BFFG), and 10 in a group with flexible flat feet on one side (OFFG), myotonometry was used to measure the muscle tone and stiffness of the tibialis anterior muscle (TA), the rectus femoris muscle (RF), the medial gastrocnemius (MG), and the long head of the biceps femoris muscle (BF) of both lower extremities. [Results] In the measurement results, only the stiffness of TA and MG of the NFG and the BFFG showed significant differences. The muscle tone and stiffness were highest in the BFFG, followed by the OFFG and NFG, although the difference was insignificant. In the case of the OFFG, there was no significant difference in muscle tone and stiffness compared to that in the NGF and the BFFG. Furthermore, in the NFG, the non-dominant leg showed greater muscle tone and stiffness than the dominant leg, although the difference was insignificant. [Conclusion] During the relax condition, the flexible flat foot generally showed a greater muscle tone and stiffness of both lower extremities compared to the normal foot. The stiffness was particularly higher in the TA and MG muscles. Therefore, the muscle tone and stiffness of the lower extremity muscles must be considered in the treatment of flat foot.

  12. What is the diabetic foot?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-01-03

    Jan 3, 2011 ... 1). These include peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, foot deformities, external trauma and peripheral oedema. With the exception of trauma, it is usually a combination of problems ... commonly find that moving, standing or walking alleviates the pain.7 .... on specific imaging tests. Wound ...

  13. Efficient foot motor control by Neymar’s brain

    OpenAIRE

    Eiichi eNaito; Eiichi eNaito; Satoshi eHirose

    2014-01-01

    How very long-term (over many years) motor skill training shapes internal motor representation remains poorly understood. We provide valuable evidence that the football brain of Neymar da Silva Santos Júnior (the Brasilian footballer) recruits very limited neural resources in the motor-cortical foot regions during foot movements. We scanned his brain activity with a 3-tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while he rotated his right ankle at 1Hz. We also scanned brain activity whe...

  14. Efficient foot motor control by Neymar’s brain

    OpenAIRE

    Naito, Eiichi; Hirose, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    How very long-term (over many years) motor skill training shapes internal motor representation remains poorly understood. We provide valuable evidence that the football brain of Neymar da Silva Santos Júnior (the Brasilian footballer) recruits very limited neural resources in the motor-cortical foot regions during foot movements. We scanned his brain activity with a 3-tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while he rotated his right ankle at 1 Hz. We also scanned brain activity wh...

  15. An Efficient and Robust Moving Shadow Removal Algorithm and Its Applications in ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Teng Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an efficient algorithm for removing shadows of moving vehicles caused by non-uniform distributions of light reflections in the daytime. This paper presents a brand-new and complete structure in feature combination as well as analysis for orientating and labeling moving shadows so as to extract the defined objects in foregrounds more easily in each snapshot of the original files of videos which are acquired in the real traffic situations. Moreover, we make use of Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM for background removal and detection of moving shadows in our tested images, and define two indices for characterizing non-shadowed regions where one indicates the characteristics of lines and the other index can be characterized by the information in gray scales of images which helps us to build a newly defined set of darkening ratios (modified darkening factors based on Gaussian models. To prove the effectiveness of our moving shadow algorithm, we carry it out with a practical application of traffic flow detection in ITS (Intelligent Transportation System—vehicle counting. Our algorithm shows the faster processing speed, 13.84 ms/frame, and can improve the accuracy rate in 4%∼10% for our three tested videos in the experimental results of vehicle counting.

  16. An Efficient and Robust Moving Shadow Removal Algorithm and Its Applications in ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou Yu-Wen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an efficient algorithm for removing shadows of moving vehicles caused by non-uniform distributions of light reflections in the daytime. This paper presents a brand-new and complete structure in feature combination as well as analysis for orientating and labeling moving shadows so as to extract the defined objects in foregrounds more easily in each snapshot of the original files of videos which are acquired in the real traffic situations. Moreover, we make use of Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM for background removal and detection of moving shadows in our tested images, and define two indices for characterizing non-shadowed regions where one indicates the characteristics of lines and the other index can be characterized by the information in gray scales of images which helps us to build a newly defined set of darkening ratios (modified darkening factors based on Gaussian models. To prove the effectiveness of our moving shadow algorithm, we carry it out with a practical application of traffic flow detection in ITS (Intelligent Transportation System—vehicle counting. Our algorithm shows the faster processing speed, 13.84 ms/frame, and can improve the accuracy rate in 4%~10% for our three tested videos in the experimental results of vehicle counting.

  17. Small Moving Vehicle Detection in a Satellite Video of an Urban Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Wang, Xiwen; Yao, Bowei; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yanning; He, Zhannan; Duan, Wencheng

    2016-09-21

    Vehicle surveillance of a wide area allows us to learn much about the daily activities and traffic information. With the rapid development of remote sensing, satellite video has become an important data source for vehicle detection, which provides a broader field of surveillance. The achieved work generally focuses on aerial video with moderately-sized objects based on feature extraction. However, the moving vehicles in satellite video imagery range from just a few pixels to dozens of pixels and exhibit low contrast with respect to the background, which makes it hard to get available appearance or shape information. In this paper, we look into the problem of moving vehicle detection in satellite imagery. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time to deal with moving vehicle detection from satellite videos. Our approach consists of two stages: first, through foreground motion segmentation and trajectory accumulation, the scene motion heat map is dynamically built. Following this, a novel saliency based background model which intensifies moving objects is presented to segment the vehicles in the hot regions. Qualitative and quantitative experiments on sequence from a recent Skybox satellite video dataset demonstrates that our approach achieves a high detection rate and low false alarm simultaneously.

  18. Functional Laterality of Task-Evoked Activation in Sensorimotor Cortex of Preterm Infants: An Optimized 3 T fMRI Study Employing a Customized Neonatal Head Coil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Scheef

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in neonates has been introduced as a non-invasive method for studying sensorimotor processing in the developing brain. However, previous neonatal studies have delivered conflicting results regarding localization, lateralization, and directionality of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD responses in sensorimotor cortex (SMC. Amongst the confounding factors in interpreting neonatal fMRI studies include the use of standard adult MR-coils providing insufficient signal to noise, and liberal statistical thresholds, compromising clinical interpretation at the single subject level.Here, we employed a custom-designed neonatal MR-coil adapted and optimized to the head size of a newborn in order to improve robustness, reliability and validity of neonatal sensorimotor fMRI. Thirteen preterm infants with a median gestational age of 26 weeks were scanned at term-corrected age using a prototype 8-channel neonatal head coil at 3T (Achieva, Philips, Best, NL. Sensorimotor stimulation was elicited by passive extension/flexion of the elbow at 1 Hz in a block design. Analysis of temporal signal to noise ratio (tSNR was performed on the whole brain and the SMC, and was compared to data acquired with an 'adult' 8 channel head coil published previously. Task-evoked activation was determined by single-subject SPM8 analyses, thresholded at p < 0.05, whole-brain FWE-corrected.Using a custom-designed neonatal MR-coil, we found significant positive BOLD responses in contralateral SMC after unilateral passive sensorimotor stimulation in all neonates (analyses restricted to artifact-free data sets = 8/13. Improved imaging characteristics of the neonatal MR-coil were evidenced by additional phantom and in vivo tSNR measurements: phantom studies revealed a 240% global increase in tSNR; in vivo studies revealed a 73% global and a 55% local (SMC increase in tSNR, as compared to the 'adult' MR-coil.Our findings strengthen the

  19. Validity of the timed 25-foot walk as an ambulatory performance outcome measure for multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W; Cohen, Jeffrey A; Benedict, Ralph; Phillips, Glenn; LaRocca, Nicholas; Hudson, Lynn D; Rudick, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The Multiple Sclerosis Outcome Assessments Consortium (MSOAC) includes representatives from advocacy organizations, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), academic institutions, and industry partners along with persons living with multiple sclerosis (MS). One of the MSOAC goals is acceptance and qualification by regulators of performance outcomes that are highly reliable and valid, practical, cost-effective, and meaningful in MS. This article addresses the history, application, and psychometric properties of one such MSOAC metric of ambulation or walking namely, the timed 25-foot walk (T25FW). The T25FW has strong reliability over both brief and long periods of time in MS across a large range of disability levels. The outcome of walking speed from the T25FW has obvious real-world relevance and has correlated strongly with other measures of walking and lower extremity function. The T25FW is responsive for capturing intervention effects in pharmacological and rehabilitation trials and has an established value for capturing clinically meaningful change in ambulation. Directions for future research involve validating clinically meaningful improvements on the T25FW as well as determining whether 20% change is clinically meaningful across the disability spectrum. Researchers might further consider synchronizing accelerometers and motion sensors with the T25FW for capturing walking speed in everyday life and the patient's real environment.

  20. Sound side joint contact forces in below knee amputee gait with an ESAR prosthetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Salami, Firooz; Esrafilian, Amir; Heitzmann, Daniel W W; Alimusaj, Merkur; Putz, Cornelia; Wolf, Sebastian I

    2017-10-01

    The incidence of knee and hip joint osteoarthritis in subjects with below knee amputation (BK) appears significantly higher compared to unimpaired subjects, especially in the intact side. However, it is controversial if constant higher loads on the sound side are one of the major factors for an increased osteoarthritis (OA) incidence in subjects with BK, beside other risk factors, e.g. with respect to metabolism. The aim wasto investigate joint contact forces (JCF) calculated by a musculoskeletal model in the intact side and to compare it with those of unimpaired subjects and to further elucidate in how far increased knee JCF are associated with increased frontal plane knee moments. A group of seven subjects with BK amputation and a group of ten unimpaired subjects were recruited for this study. Gait data were measured by 3D motion capture and force plates. OpenSim software was applied to calculate JCF. Maximum joint angles, ground reaction forces, and moments as well as time distance parameters were determined and compared between groups showing no significant differences, with some JCF components of knee and hip even being slightly smaller in subjects with BK compared to the reference group. This positive finding may be due to the selected ESAR foot. However, other beneficial factors may also have influenced this positive result such as the general good health status of the subjects or the thorough and proper fitting and alignment of the prosthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hand, foot, and mouth disease in adults: An enigma among diagnosticians - A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benila Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD is a highly contagious enterovirus infection mainly affecting children less than 5 years of age. In a majority of cases, it is caused by coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16, although instances have been described in which A5, A6, A7, A9, A10, B2, B5, or human enterovirus 71 (HEV-71 has been isolated. The disease occurs rarely in adults, and has been reported in immunocompromised patients. It usually has a benign and self-limiting course with an incubation period of 3-10 days. The prodromal symptoms include fever, malaise, and sore throat. This initial phase is usually followed by erythematous macules, papules, and vesicles on palm and soles, lateral and dorsal surfaces of hands and feet, and also the oral cavity. The purpose of this article is to highlight to the general practitioner about the atypical presentation in healthy adults as well. In the present paper, we describe three cases of HFMD in otherwise healthy adults, with complete recovery.

  2. An evaluation of Chloroquine as a broad-acting antiviral against Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yong Wah; Yam, Wan Keat; Sun, Jialei; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2018-01-01

    A common childhood affliction of viral origin in young children and immunocompromised adults, the Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) has become a significant public health concern in the Asia-Pacific Region. Characterized by the appearance of vesiculopapular rashes on the hands, feet and mouth, the disease is generally mild and self-limiting. In a minority of cases, patients can develop neurological complications that could result in permanent morbidity or even fatality. In the absence of a specific antiviral for treatment, medical care is limited to supportive and symptomatic relief, presenting a need for more research into an effective antiviral to be used in the management of the disease. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of chloroquine, a FDA-approved lysosomotropic agent, against several serotypes of HFMD-associated enteroviruses, including EV-A71, in reducing infectious virus production. We have also evaluated chloroquine in a murine model of EV-A71 infection to ascertain its antiviral efficacy in vivo. The results suggest that chloroquine could be a broad-acting antiviral effective against HFMD-associated enteroviruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An autonomous robot inspired by insect neurophysiology pursues moving features in natural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Zahra M.; Cazzolato, Benjamin S.; Grainger, Steven; O'Carroll, David C.; Wiederman, Steven D.

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Many computer vision and robotic applications require the implementation of robust and efficient target-tracking algorithms on a moving platform. However, deployment of a real-time system is challenging, even with the computational power of modern hardware. Lightweight and low-powered flying insects, such as dragonflies, track prey or conspecifics within cluttered natural environments, illustrating an efficient biological solution to the target-tracking problem. Approach. We used our recent recordings from ‘small target motion detector’ neurons in the dragonfly brain to inspire the development of a closed-loop target detection and tracking algorithm. This model exploits facilitation, a slow build-up of response to targets which move along long, continuous trajectories, as seen in our electrophysiological data. To test performance in real-world conditions, we implemented this model on a robotic platform that uses active pursuit strategies based on insect behaviour. Main results. Our robot performs robustly in closed-loop pursuit of targets, despite a range of challenging conditions used in our experiments; low contrast targets, heavily cluttered environments and the presence of distracters. We show that the facilitation stage boosts responses to targets moving along continuous trajectories, improving contrast sensitivity and detection of small moving targets against textured backgrounds. Moreover, the temporal properties of facilitation play a useful role in handling vibration of the robotic platform. We also show that the adoption of feed-forward models which predict the sensory consequences of self-movement can significantly improve target detection during saccadic movements. Significance. Our results provide insight into the neuronal mechanisms that underlie biological target detection and selection (from a moving platform), as well as highlight the effectiveness of our bio-inspired algorithm in an artificial visual system.

  4. On the coherent radiation of an electron bunch moving in an arc of a circle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldin, E.L.; Shneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    1997-01-01

    Existing theories of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) are related to the motion of an electron bunch on a circular orbit and do not describe the case of finite magnet length. We present the CSR theory for a bunch of any length moving in an arc of a finite angle. The radiative interaction of the electrons in the bunch is analyzed for a line charge distribution using ultrarelativistic approximation. It is shown in particular that this interaction is important not only inside the magnet but also on the straight part of the trajectory after the magnet. Detailed analytical study of the CSR effects in the electron bunch with a stepped distribution of the charge density has been performed. The simple analytical technique of the radiative force calculation has been developed. The analytical solutions in the form of elementary functions are obtained for the radiative interaction force, for the energy loss distribution along the bunch and for the total energy loss of the bunch. The latter result is confirmed with calculation of the energy of coherent radiation in far zone. The criterion for the applicability region of the preceding theories to the case of a finite magnet length is obtained

  5. Moving in a landscape of an inter-disciplinary improvisation performance : ways of working and facilitating

    OpenAIRE

    Sipilä, Jasmiina

    2015-01-01

    In this research I'm moving and exploring in a landscape of an inter-disciplinary improvisation performance. The research is structured by choosing one performance which functions as a documented snippet of an ongoing interdisciplinary improvisation practice and is a vehicle to analyse what sort of skills and knowledge enable and are developed in that specific ongoing practice. I map out the validity of those skills and knowledge in relationship to a dancer's know-how in a new paradigm of ...

  6. Increased healing in diabetic toe ulcers in a multidisciplinary foot clinic—An observational cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, Thomas Peter; Nielsen, A.A.; Nielsen, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study toe ulcer healing in patients with diabetic foot ulcers attending a multidisciplinary foot clinic over a 10 years period. METHODS: The study was retrospective, consecutive and observational during 2001 through 2011. The patients were treated according to the International Consensus...... no changes was observed for ischemic toe ulcers. Adjusted for changes in the patient population, the overall rate of healing for neuropathic and neuro-ischemic toe ulcers almost doubled (HR=1.95 [95% CI: 1.36-2.80]). CONCLUSION: The results show that the healing of toe ulcers improved. This outcome could...

  7. Altered olfactory processing and increased insula activity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Heather A; Stern, Emily R; Ng, Johnny; Zhang, Sam; Rosenthal, David; Turetzky, Rachel; Tang, Cheuk; Goodman, Wayne

    2017-04-30

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients show increased insula activation to disgust-inducing images compared to healthy controls (HC). We explored whether this disgust reactivity was also present in the olfactory domain by conducting the first fMRI study of olfaction in OCD. Neural activation in response to pleasant and unpleasant odors (vs. unscented air) was investigated in 15 OCD and 15 HC participants using fMRI. OCD participants (vs. HC) had increased left anterior insula activation to unpleasant odors (vs. unscented air), which posit