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Sample records for foot deformities

  1. Frequency of foot deformity in preschool girls

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    Mihajlović Ilona

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In order to determine the moment of creation of postural disorders, regardless of the causes of this problem, it is necessary to examine the moment of entry of children into a new environment, ie. in kindergarten or school. There is a weak evidence about the age period when foot deformity occurs, and the type of these deformities. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between the occurrence of foot deformities and age characteristics of girls. Methods. The research was conducted in preschools 'Radosno detinjstvo' in the region of Novi Sad, using the method of random selection, on the sample of 272 girls, 4-7 years of age, classified into four strata according to the year of birth. To determine the foot deformities measurement technique using computerized digitized pedografy (CDP was applied. Results. In preschool population girls pes transversoplanus and calcanei valga deformities occurred in a very high percentage (over 90%. Disturbed longitudinal instep ie flat feet also appeared in a high percentage, but we noted the improvement of this deformity according to increasing age. Namely, there was a statistically significant correlation between the age and this deformity. As a child grows older, the deformity is lower. Conclusion. This study confirmed that the formation of foot arches probably does not end at the age of 3-4 years but lasts until school age.

  2. Habitual Physical Activity, Peripheral Neuropathy, Foot Deformities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Habitual physical activity index (3.2 ± 0.83) was highest in work-related activities; 69 (26.1 %) patients presented with peripheral neuropathy and 52 (19. 7%) had the lowest limb function. Pes planus was the most prevalent foot deformity (20.1%). Significant differences existed in physical activity indices across ...

  3. Repeatability of the Oxford Foot Model in children with foot deformity

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    McCahill, Jennifer; Stebbins, Julie; Koning, Bart; Harlaar, Jaap; Theologis, Tim

    Introduction The Oxford Foot Model (OFM) is a multi-segment, kinematic model developed to assess foot motion. It has previously been assessed for repeatability in healthy populations. To determine the OFM's reliability for detecting foot deformity, it is important to know repeatability in

  4. [Which foot deformities should be radiologist be familiar with?

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    von Stillfried, E

    2018-05-01

    Most deformities of the foot are visible at birth and can be diagnosed without imaging. They can be divided into congenital flexible, congenital structural and acquired foot deformities. The most common congenital flexible foot deformity in children is the metatarsus adductus, which usually requires no long-term therapy. Regarding congenital structural deformities, such as the clubfoot and talus verticalis, plaster therapy should be started during the first week of life, so that by the end of the first year of life and the beginning of the verticalization, a pain-free resilient foot with normal function is present. Imaging is usually only necessary if a relapse arises. Coalitio of the tarsal bones is often visible only in the course of growth through the development of a rigid flatfoot and always requires imaging to confirm the diagnosis. This article is intended to give the radiologist an overview of the most important deformities and to inform about their course and therapy.

  5. Repeatability of the Oxford Foot Model in children with foot deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCahill, Jennifer; Stebbins, Julie; Koning, Bart; Harlaar, Jaap; Theologis, Tim

    2018-03-01

    The Oxford Foot Model (OFM) is a multi-segment, kinematic model developed to assess foot motion. It has previously been assessed for repeatability in healthy populations. To determine the OFM's reliability for detecting foot deformity, it is important to know repeatability in pathological conditions. The aim of the study was to assess the repeatability of the OFM in children with foot deformity. Intra-tester repeatability was assessed for 45 children (15 typically developing, 15 hemiplegic, 15 clubfoot). Inter-tester repeatability was assessed in the clubfoot population. The mean absolute differences between testers (clubfoot) and sessions (clubfoot and hemiplegic) were calculated for each of 15 clinically relevant, kinematic variables and compared to typically developing children. Children with clubfoot showed a mean difference between visits of 2.9° and a mean difference between raters of 3.6° Mean absolute differences were within one degree for the intra and inter-rater reliability in 12/15 variables. Hindfoot rotation, forefoot/tibia abduction and forefoot supination were the most variable between testers. Overall the clubfoot data were less variable than the typically developing population. Children with hemiplegia demonstrated slightly higher differences between sessions (mean 4.1°), with the most reliable data in the sagittal plane, and largest differences in the transverse plane. The OFM was designed to measure different types of foot deformity. The results of this study show that it provides repeatable results in children with foot deformity. To be distinguished from measurement artifact, changes in foot kinematics as a result of intervention or natural progression over time must be greater than the repeatability reported here. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Foot and Ankle Deformity in Young Acrobatic and Artistic Gymnasts

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    Sobera Anna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the paper was to determine the occurrence of feet and ankle deformities in trampoline and artistic gymnasts. Methods. Ten acrobatic gymnasts (trampolinists and 10 artistic gymnasts aged 6-14 years were recruited. The calcaneal-tibial (rearfoot angle was determined as the angle of the upper calcaneal tendon and the longitudinal heel axis while Clarke angles were determined by podoscopy. Results. The trampolinists showed significantly greater medial angulation (calcaneal valgus than the group of gymnasts. Right and left foot Clark’s angles in both the trampoline and artistic gymnasts were above 55°. Conclusions. Trampolinists exhibit significantly more pronounced calcaneal valgus than artistic gymnasts. The prevalence of foot and ankle deformities in both populations should be addressed by coaches in the gymnastics training of young children.

  7. Repeatability of a 3D multi-segment foot model protocol in presence of foot deformities.

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    Deschamps, Kevin; Staes, Filip; Bruyninckx, Herman; Busschots, Ellen; Matricali, Giovanni A; Spaepen, Pieter; Meyer, Christophe; Desloovere, Kaat

    2012-07-01

    Repeatability studies on 3D multi-segment foot models (3DMFMs) have mainly considered healthy participants which contrasts with the widespread application of these models to evaluate foot pathologies. The current study aimed at establishing the repeatability of the 3DMFM described by Leardini et al. in presence of foot deformities. Foot kinematics of eight adult participants were analyzed using a repeated-measures design including two therapists with different levels of experience. The inter-trial variability was higher compared to the kinematics of healthy subjects. Consideration of relative angles resulted in the lowest inter-session variability. The absolute 3D rotations between the Sha-Cal and Cal-Met seem to have the lowest variability in both therapists. A general trend towards higher σ(sess)/σ(trial) ratios was observed when the midfoot was involved. The current study indicates that not only relative 3D rotations and planar angles can be measured consistently in patients, also a number of absolute parameters can be consistently measured serving as basis for the decision making process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Frequency of Foot Deformity Among Students of Faculty for Sport and Physical Education

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    Aldijana Muratović

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to determine possible foot deformities students of the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education. Obesity is one of the main causes of flat feet, which is directly associated with reduced physical activity (Khalid, Rai, Mobeen, & Amjad, 2015. The research was conducted at the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education in Niksic, on a sample of 116 respondents. The sample of variables consisted of a total of two foot deformities: flat feet (pes planus and carved feet (pes cavus divided into three levels according to the severity of the deformity, from the lightest to the heaviest, including foot without deformity. For determining the status of the foot, was applied orthopaedy on the basis of which is considered plantar side of the foot. It was used appliance brand PODOSKOPIO LUX 02990. The results are presented in tables in the percentage and numerical representation of the assessment deformities flat and hollowed foot. According to the results it is evident that out of 116 respondents, 53 students (45.7% were without deformities. Numerical and percentage estimates flatfoot deformity is: 16 students (13.8%-level I; 6 students (5.2%-level II; Numerical and percentage estimates hollowed foot deformity is: 28 students (24.1%-level I; 7 students (6%–level II; 6 students (5.2%-level III. The highest percentage shows deformity "hollowed foot" of the first degree (24.1%, which is often the case with people athletic type. Some studies have shown that people with recessed feet in some sports disciplines, achieve the same results as people with normal feet (Jovovic, 2008. Accordingly, foot deformity may occur not only in the period of growth and development, but also in later years (Zivkovic, 2009.

  9. 38 CFR 4.57 - Static foot deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Achilles tendon, peroneal spasm due to adhesion about the peroneal sheaths, and other evidence of pain and... gaping of bones on the inner border of the foot, and rigid valgus position with loss of the power of...

  10. Serial casting for reconstruction of a deformed Charcot foot: a case report.

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    Rosenblum, Jonathan I; Weiss, Shmuel; Gazes, Michael; Amit-Kohn, Michal

    2015-05-01

    Charcot neuroarthropathy may occur in patients with peripheral neuropathy who do not notice pain while their bones and joints collapse or breakdown under the constant pressure of body weight. This can lead to ulcerations from severe deformity and potentially limb-threatening and life-threatening infections. Current treatments vary from immobilization to extensive reconstructive surgical interventions. Serial casting, used to correct many pediatric deformities while bones are often more pliable, was used with a 63-year-old male patient who presented with an active phase of Charcot foot with ulceration. The patient previously underwent foot reconstruction and had all hardware removed prior to serial casting. Due to the potential pliability of the bones, serial casting was attempted to reform the shape and position of the foot in a reverse Ponseti-type serial casting to create a more stable structure with less deformity that could lead to epithelial breakdown. The patient regained full ambulation with a plantargrade foot and no wounds, and was followed without complications for 36 months. Serial weekly casting was an effective modality for treatment of this patient's Charcot foot deformity.

  11. Foot deformation during walking: differences between static and dynamic 3D foot morphology in developing feet.

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    Barisch-Fritz, Bettina; Schmeltzpfenning, Timo; Plank, Clemens; Grau, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The complex functions of feet require a specific composition, which is progressively achieved by developmental processes. This development should take place without being affected by footwear. The aim of this study is to evaluate differences between static and dynamic foot morphology in developing feet. Feet of 2554 participants (6-16 years) were recorded using a new scanner system (DynaScan4D). Each foot was recorded in static half and full weight-bearing and during walking. Several foot measures corresponding to those used in last construction were calculated. The differences were identified by one-way ANOVA and paired Student's t-test. Static and dynamic values of each foot measure must be considered to improve the fit of footwear. In particular, footwear must account for the increase of forefoot width and the decrease of midfoot girth. Furthermore, the toe box should have a more rounded shape. The findings are important for the construction of footwear for developing feet.

  12. Foot deformities, function in the lower extremities, and plantar pressure in patients with diabetes at high risk to develop foot ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Ulla Hellstrand; Z?gner, Roland; Lisovskaja, Vera; Karlsson, Jon; Hagberg, Kerstin; Tranberg, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Foot deformities, neuropathy, and dysfunction in the lower extremities are known risk factors that increase plantar peak pressure (PP) and, as a result, the risk of developing foot ulcers in patients with diabetes. However, knowledge about the prevalence of these factors is still limited. The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence of risk factors observed in patients with diabetes without foot ulcers and to explore possible connections between the risk factors and ...

  13. Evaluation of the Pain and Foot Functions in Women with Hallux valgus deformities

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    Burcu Talu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether deformity affects pain and associated functional status in women with hallux valgus (HV. Methods: The study included 27 women (mean age: 40.5±10.3 years diagnosed with HV and with a deformity level of two or more as determined using the Manchester scale. Demographic data of the participants were recorded. In addi­tion, Visual Analog Scale (VAS was used to determine the intensity of pain during walking. To determine the function affected by pain and deformity, Foot Function Index (FFI, and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society MTP-IP (AOFAS MTP-IP Scale along with AOFAS Midfoot (MF Scale were used. Results: Based on the study results, we determined a statistically significant relationship between foot function and pain among our patients (p<0.05. These significant relationships were observed between the pain and total scores of the Foot Function Index (p<0.05, the pain parameter of AOFAS MTP-IP and the pain and total scores of AOFAS midfoot-pain scale (p<0.05. Conclusion: It was concluded that when assessing and planning treatment for hallux valgus, all health profession­als dealing with foot health, pathologies, deformities and treatment should consider the patient as a whole, bearing in mind that pathologies can affect not only the perceived symptoms of individuals, but also their normal functions through various physical and social limitations. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7 (2: 144-149

  14. Prevalence of flat foot and hallux valgus deformity among primary school female students in Kiar city of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari

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    Reza Vahab Kashani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Foot deformities are common among complaints of patients referred to the orthopedic centers. Most of naturally occurring lower limb deformities in children, which are rather common, would be corrected with further normal growth. However, a small percentage of these problems remain unresolved and may cause complications in the future. The main aim of this study is determination of prevalence of flat foot and hallux valgus deformity among primary school female students in Kiar city of Chaharmahal and BakhtiariMaterial and Methods: This is a cross sectional study. Foot posture index (FPI 6 test evaluate for 345 students in age range 7- 11 years and two groups of 7 to 9 years and 11 to 10 years. Also prevalence of hallux valgus among 345 students evaluated.Results: 7.8 % of studied subjects had flat foot deformity. Among 345 students, 12 (6.6% students in range of age 7 -9 years and 15 (9.3 % students in range of 10-11 had flat foot deformity. Also prevalence of hallux valgus was 16.5%.Conclusion: These findings point to the importance of proper physical examination, early diagnosis and on-time treatment of foot deformities such as flat foot and hallux valgus deformity in children.

  15. Fluid-structure interaction analysis of deformation of sail of 30-foot yacht

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    Bak, Sera; Yoo, Jaehoon; Song, Chang Yong

    2013-06-01

    Most yacht sails are made of thin fabric, and they have a cambered shape to generate lift force; however, their shape can be easily deformed by wind pressure. Deformation of the sail shape changes the flow characteristics over the sail, which in turn further deforms the sail shape. Therefore, fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis is applied for the precise evaluation or optimization of the sail design. In this study, fluid flow analyses are performed for the main sail of a 30-foot yacht, and the results are applied to loading conditions for structural analyses. By applying the supporting forces from the rig, such as the mast and boom-end outhaul, as boundary conditions for structural analysis, the deformed sail shape is identified. Both the flow analyses and the structural analyses are iteratively carried out for the deformed sail shape. A comparison of the flow characteristics and surface pressures over the deformed sail shape with those over the initial shape shows that a considerable difference exists between the two and that FSI analysis is suitable for application to sail design.

  16. Fluid-structure interaction analysis of deformation of sail of 30-foot yacht

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    Sera Bak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most yacht sails are made of thin fabric, and they have a cambered shape to generate lift force; however, their shape can be easily deformed by wind pressure. Deformation of the sail shape changes the flow characteristics over the sail, which in turn further deforms the sail shape. Therefore, fluid-structure interaction (FSI analysis is applied for the precise evaluation or optimization of the sail design. In this study, fluid flow analyses are performed for the main sail of a 30-foot yacht, and the results are applied to loading conditions for structural analyses. By applying the supporting forces from the rig, such as the mast and boom-end outhaul, as boundary conditions for structural analysis, the deformed sail shape is identified. Both the flow analyses and the structural analyses are iteratively carried out for the deformed sail shape. A comparison of the flow characteristics and surface pressures over the deformed sail shape with those over the initial shape shows that a considerable difference exists between the two and that FSI analysis is suitable for application to sail design.

  17. Feasibility of foot deformations corrective operations performing in patients with diabetes

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    S. D. Shapoval

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To improve methods of early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy and suggest options for surgical prophylaxis possible purulent and necrotic complications in patients with diabetic foot syndrome. Materials and Methods. The study involved 64 patients with complicated diabetic foot syndrome (DFS. The average age of patients - 61,9 ± 3,8 years, duration of diabetes - 11,47 ± 3,2 years. The patients had neuropathic and mixed forms of DFS, fingers or arched foot deformations with the presence of pressor venous trophic ulcers in the forefoot. Patients were randomized into two groups: the main group - 34 and comparison group - 30 patients. There were representative characteristics for all groups: age, sex, comorbidity and did not differ significantly (P> 0,05. There were no statistically significant difference between the groups of these data (χ2 = 0,05; P = 0,8195. Results. After 6 months of complex treatment the ulcers were healed in more than half of patients in both groups - 19 (63,3% of patients in the comparison group and 25 (73,5% of the main group. In 8 (26,7% patients in the comparison and 7 (20,6% of the main group positive dynamics was observed, but over a longer period of treatment . After 12 months, the number of patients whose ulcers were completely healed differed significantly by the main group (P = 0,0007; χ2 = 11,41. Also in the main group was only 1 (3,0% patient with ulcer that was not healed, in contrast to the comparison group - 7 (23,3% patients (P = 0,0373; χ2 = 4,34. Conclusions. Operations aimed at correction of fingers and feet deformations in combination with standard therapy and unloading of the lower limb, allow improving the results of patients with complicated DFS treatment by reducing the number of relapses.

  18. Pressure relief and load redistribution by custom-made insoles in diabetic patients with neuropathy and foot deformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, Sicco A.; Ulbrecht, Jan S.; Cavanagh, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To study the effects of custom-made insoles on plantar pressures and load redistribution in neuropathic diabetic patients with foot deformity. Design. Cross-sectional. Background. Although custom-made insoles are commonly prescribed to diabetic patients, little quantitative data on their

  19. Foot deformities in Renaissance paintings. A mystery of symbolism, artistic licence, illusion and true representation in five renowned Renaissance painters.

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    Lazzeri, D; Castello, M F; Grassetti, L; Dashti, T; Zhang, Y X; Persichetti, P

    2015-01-01

    Although Renaissance artists were skilled in representing normal anatomy, a close look at some paintings reveals anatomical variations in the depiction of the feet of human figures. A systematic review has identified 25 paintings by five artists in which the presumptive medico-artistic diagnosis of congenital or acquired foot deformity seems to be varyingly present. The connection between these five painters and what factors have influenced artists' style in the depiction of such deformities is discussed. The possible iconography and medical-historical meaning of such variations, as well as the possibility of artistic licence and real representation that drove the painters to depict these deformities, is explored and debated.

  20. Prenatal diagnosis of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (4p- in association with congenital hypospadias and foot deformity

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    Ermis Hayri

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome is caused by distal deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4 (4p-. We report a case in which intrauterine growth restriction, hypospadias and foot deformity were detected by prenatal ultrasound examination at 29 weeks of gestation. Case Presentation A 31-year-old gravida 2 partus 1 woman was referred at 29 weeks' gestation with suspicion of intrauterine growth restriction. Sonographic examination revealed deformity of the right lower limb and undescended testes with an irregular distal penis. A cordocentesis was performed and chromosome analysis revealed a 46,XY,del(4(p14 karyotype. Conclusion The prenatal detection of intrauterine growth restriction, hypospadias and foot deformity should lead doctors to suspect the presence of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (4p-) in association with congenital hypospadias and foot deformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Halil; Karaca, Nilay; Basaran, Seher; Ermis, Hayri; Ceylan, Yavuz

    2003-01-01

    Background Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome is caused by distal deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4 (4p-). We report a case in which intrauterine growth restriction, hypospadias and foot deformity were detected by prenatal ultrasound examination at 29 weeks of gestation. Case Presentation A 31-year-old gravida 2 partus 1 woman was referred at 29 weeks' gestation with suspicion of intrauterine growth restriction. Sonographic examination revealed deformity of the right lower limb and undescended testes with an irregular distal penis. A cordocentesis was performed and chromosome analysis revealed a 46,XY,del(4)(p14) karyotype. Conclusion The prenatal detection of intrauterine growth restriction, hypospadias and foot deformity should lead doctors to suspect the presence of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. PMID:12546710

  2. Hallux Valgus and Lesser Toe Deformities are Highly Heritable in Adult Men and Women: the Framingham Foot Study

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    Hannan, Marian T.; Menz, Hylton B.; Jordan, Joanne M.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Cheng, Chia-Ho; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate heritability of three common disorders affecting the forefoot: hallux valgus, lesser toe deformities and plantar forefoot soft tissue atrophy in adult Caucasian men and women. Methods Between 2002-2008, a trained examiner used a validated foot exam to document presence of hallux valgus, lesser toe deformities and plantar soft tissue atrophy in 2,446 adults from the Framingham Foot Study. Among these, 1,370 participants with available pedigree structure were included. Heritability (h2) was estimated using pedigree structures by Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR) package. Results were adjusted for age, sex and BMI. Results Mean age of participants was 66 years (range 39 to 99 years) and 57% were female. Prevalence of hallux valgus, lesser toe deformities and plantar soft tissue atrophy was 31%, 29.6% and 28.4%, respectively. Significant h2 was found for hallux valgus (0.29 ~ 0.89, depending on age and sex) and lesser toe deformity (0.49 ~ 0.90 depending on age and sex). The h2 for lesser toe deformity in men and women aged 70+ years was 0.65 (p= 9×10−7). Significant h2 was found for plantar soft tissue atrophy in men and women aged 70+ years (h2 = 0.37; p=3.8×10−3). Conclusion To our knowledge, these are the first findings of heritability of foot disorders in humans, and they confirm the widely-held view that hallux valgus and lesser toe deformities are highly heritable in European-descent Caucasian men and women, underscoring the importance of future work to identify genetic determinants of the underlying genetic susceptibility to these common foot disorders. PMID:23696165

  3. Foot deformities, function in the lower extremities, and plantar pressure in patients with diabetes at high risk to develop foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ulla Hellstrand; Zügner, Roland; Lisovskaja, Vera; Karlsson, Jon; Hagberg, Kerstin; Tranberg, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Foot deformities, neuropathy, and dysfunction in the lower extremities are known risk factors that increase plantar peak pressure (PP) and, as a result, the risk of developing foot ulcers in patients with diabetes. However, knowledge about the prevalence of these factors is still limited. The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence of risk factors observed in patients with diabetes without foot ulcers and to explore possible connections between the risk factors and high plantar pressure. Patients diagnosed with type 1 (n=27) or type 2 (n=47) diabetes (mean age 60.0±15.0 years) were included in this cross-sectional study. Assessments included the registration of foot deformities; test of gross function at the hip, knee, and ankle joints; a stratification of the risk of developing foot ulcers according to the Swedish National Diabetes Register; a walking test; and self-reported questionnaires including the SF-36 health survey. In-shoe PP was measured in seven regions of interests on the sole of the foot using F-Scan(®). An exploratory analysis of the association of risk factors with PP was performed. Neuropathy was present in 28 (38%), and 39 (53%) had callosities in the heel region. Low forefoot arch was present in 57 (77%). Gait-related parameters, such as the ability to walk on the forefoot or heel, were normal in all patients. Eighty percent had normal function at the hip and ankle joints. Gait velocity was 1.2±0.2 m/s. All patients were stratified to risk group 3. Hallux valgus and hallux rigidus were associated with an increase in the PP in the medial forefoot. A higher body mass index (BMI) was found to increase the PP at metatarsal heads 4 and 5. Pes planus was associated with a decrease in PP at metatarsal head 1. Neuropathy did not have a high association with PP. This study identified several potential risk factors for the onset of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). Hallux valgus and hallux rigidus appeared to increase the PP under the medial

  4. Foot deformities, function in the lower extremities, and plantar pressure in patients with diabetes at high risk to develop foot ulcers

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    Ulla Hellstrand Tang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Foot deformities, neuropathy, and dysfunction in the lower extremities are known risk factors that increase plantar peak pressure (PP and, as a result, the risk of developing foot ulcers in patients with diabetes. However, knowledge about the prevalence of these factors is still limited. The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence of risk factors observed in patients with diabetes without foot ulcers and to explore possible connections between the risk factors and high plantar pressure. Patients and methods: Patients diagnosed with type 1 (n=27 or type 2 (n=47 diabetes (mean age 60.0±15.0 years were included in this cross-sectional study. Assessments included the registration of foot deformities; test of gross function at the hip, knee, and ankle joints; a stratification of the risk of developing foot ulcers according to the Swedish National Diabetes Register; a walking test; and self-reported questionnaires including the SF-36 health survey. In-shoe PP was measured in seven regions of interests on the sole of the foot using F-Scan®. An exploratory analysis of the association of risk factors with PP was performed. Results: Neuropathy was present in 28 (38%, and 39 (53% had callosities in the heel region. Low forefoot arch was present in 57 (77%. Gait-related parameters, such as the ability to walk on the forefoot or heel, were normal in all patients. Eighty percent had normal function at the hip and ankle joints. Gait velocity was 1.2±0.2 m/s. All patients were stratified to risk group 3. Hallux valgus and hallux rigidus were associated with an increase in the PP in the medial forefoot. A higher body mass index (BMI was found to increase the PP at metatarsal heads 4 and 5. Pes planus was associated with a decrease in PP at metatarsal head 1. Neuropathy did not have a high association with PP. Conclusions: This study identified several potential risk factors for the onset of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU. Hallux valgus

  5. Validation of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score in adult acquired flatfoot deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Sriniwasan B; Brown, Haydée C; Nair, Pallavi; Chen, Lan; Do, Huong T; Lyman, Stephen; Deland, Jonathan T; Ellis, Scott J

    2013-08-01

    The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Score has been under recent scrutiny. The Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) is an alternative subjective survey, assessing outcomes in 5 subscales. It is validated for lateral ankle instability and hallux valgus patients. The aim of our study was to validate the FAOS for assessing outcomes in flexible adult acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD). Patients from the authors' institution diagnosed with flexible AAFD from 2006 to 2011 were eligible for the study. In all, 126 patients who completed the FAOS and the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) on the same visit were included in the construct validity component. Correlation was deemed moderate if the Spearman's correlation coefficient was .4 to .7. Content validity was assessed in 63 patients by a questionnaire that asked patients to rate the relevance of each FAOS question, with a score of 2 or greater considered acceptable. Reliability was measured using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) in 41 patients who completed a second FAOS survey. In 49 patients, preoperative and postoperative FAOS scores were compared to determine responsiveness. All of the FAOS subscales demonstrated moderate correlation with 2 physical health related SF-12 domains. Mental health related domains showed poor correlation. Content validity was high for the Quality of Life (QoL; mean 2.26) and Sports/Recreation subscales (mean 2.12). All subscales exhibited very good test-retest reliability, with ICCs of .7 and above. Symptoms, QoL, pain, and daily activities (ADLs) were responsive to change in postoperative patients (P validated the FAOS for AAFD with acceptable construct and content validity, reliability, and responsiveness. Given its previous validation for patients with ankle instability and hallux valgus, the additional findings in this study support its use as an alternative to less reliable outcome surveys. Level II, prospective comparative study.

  6. COMBINATION TREATMENT FOR ANTERIOR FOOT DEFORMITIES VIA RECONSTRUCTIVE AND JOINT-SPARING SURGERY IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

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    Ya B Khrennikov

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion. The Weil-osteotomy group showed the preservation and partial salvage of osteotomized heads, which promoted the recovery of swinging function of the foot. The new procedures made it possible to prevent recurrent valgus and hammer toe deformities and callus formation in the late postoperative period, to improve quality of life, and to reduce the time of rehabilitation and the length of hospital stay.

  7. Effects of individual and group exercise programs on pain, balance, mobility and perceived benefits in rheumatoid arthritis with pain and foot deformities

    OpenAIRE

    do Carmo, Carolina Mendes; Almeida da Rocha, Bruna; Tanaka, Clarice

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] To verify the effects of individual and group exercise programs on pain, balance, mobility and perceived benefits of rheumatoid arthritis patients (RA) with pain and foot deformities. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty patients with RA pain and foot deformity were allocated into two groups: G1: individual exercise program and G2: group exercise program. The variables analyzed were Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) for pain, Berg Balance Scale (BBS) for balance, Timed Up & Go Test (TUG) and Fu...

  8. Foot health-related quality of life among elderly with and without lesser toe deformities: a case–control study

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    López-López D

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Daniel López-López,1 María Martínez-Vázquez,1 Marta Elena Losa-Iglesias,2 César Calvo-Lobo,3 David Rodríguez-Sanz,4 Patricia Palomo-López,5 Ricardo Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo6 1Research, Health and Podiatry Unit, Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Nursing and Podiatry, Universidade da Coruña, Ferrol, Spain; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain; 3Nursing and Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Biomedicine (IBIOMED, Universidad de León, Ponferrada, León, Spain; 4School of Sports Science, European University, Villaviciosa de Odón, Madrid, Spain; 5University Center of Plasencia, Universidad de Extremadura, Extremadura, Spain; 6School of Nursing, Physiotherapy and Podiatry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the health-related quality of life impact related to foot health and health in general in older adults with lesser toe deformities (LTD and without any foot conditions. Methods: A case–control observational study was carried out following the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology criteria. A total of 100 older adults with a mean age of 74.39±6.02 years were recruited at an outpatient clinic; 50 of these subjects had LTD (case group and 50 subjects were without any foot conditions (control group. Presence of LTD was determined in both feet using the Kelikian push-up test, and the Foot Health Status Questionnaire scores were self-reported.Results: The case group showed lower scores in quality of life in relation to health in general and to foot health specifically. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05 between case and control groups were shown by means of the Wicoxon test.Conclusion: A negative impact in quality of life in relation to foot health should be considered in older adults with LTD, regardless of gender. Keywords: aged, foot deformities, foot disease, quality of life, toes

  9. The deformity correction and fixator-assisted treatment using Ilizarov versus Taylor spatial frame in the foot and ankle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudha Manggala

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was to report the comparison of outcomes between Ilizarov ring fixator (IRF and Taylor Spatial Frame® (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, Tenn.; TSF in terms of the effectiveness of ankle-foot deformities correction, follow-up results, and complications. Fourteen patients with ankle-foot deformities were corrected using circular external fixation (IRF group = 7 patients; TSF group = 7 patients and related procedures. Baseline data and treatment variables were recorded. The patients’ mean age was 42.9 years. Mean follow-up time was 6.5 months. Most common cause of deformity/traumatic condition was posttraumatic equinus. There were successful results in 8 patients (57.1%, partial successful results in 5 patients (35.7%, and revision-needed in 1 patient (7.1%. TSF group demonstrated significantly higher rate of successful results than IRF group (P=0.033. A trend of lower complication rate was found in TSF group (P=0.286. Deformity corrections using TSF provided significantly better clinical scores and higher rate of successful outcome than conventional IRF.

  10. Does excessive flatfoot deformity affect function? A comparison between symptomatic and asymptomatic flatfeet using the Oxford Foot Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hösl, Matthias; Böhm, Harald; Multerer, Christel; Döderlein, Leonhard

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of asymptomatic flexible flatfeet is a subject of great controversy. The purpose of this study was to examine foot function during walking in symptomatic (SFF) and asymptomatic (ASFF) flexible flatfeet. Thirty-five paediatric and juvenile patients with idiopathic flexible flatfeet were recruited from an orthopaedic outpatient department (14 SFF and 21 ASFF). Eleven age-matched participants with typically developing feet served as controls (TDF). To study foot function, 3D multi-segment foot kinematics and ankle joint kinetics were captured during barefoot gait analysis. Overall, alterations in foot kinematics in flatfeet were pronounced but differences between SFF and ASFF were not observed. Largest discriminatory effects between flatfeet and TDF were noticed in reduced hindfoot dorsiflexion as well as in increased forefoot supination and abduction. Upon clinical examination, restrictions in passive dorsiflexion in ASFF and SFF were significant. During gait, the hindfoot in flatfeet (both ASFF and SFF) was more everted, but less flexible. In sagittal plane, limited hindfoot dorsiflexion of ASFF and SFF was compensated for by increased forefoot mobility and a hypermobile hallux. Concerning ankle kinetics, SFF lacked positive joint energy for propulsion while ASFF needed to absorb more negative ankle joint energy during loading response. This may risk fatigue and overuse syndrome of anterior shank muscles in ASFF. Hence, despite a lack of symptoms flatfoot deformity in ASFF affected function. Yet, contrary to what was expected, SFF did not show greater deviations in 3D foot kinematics than ASFF. Symptoms may rather depend on tissue wear and subjective pain thresholds. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Real-time subject-specific monitoring of internal deformations and stresses in the soft tissues of the foot: a new approach in gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnitzky, G; Yizhar, Z; Gefen, A

    2006-01-01

    No technology is presently available to provide real-time information on internal deformations and stresses in plantar soft tissues of individuals during evaluation of the gait pattern. Because internal deformations and stresses in the plantar pad are critical factors in foot injuries such as diabetic foot ulceration, this severely limits evaluation of patients. To allow such real-time subject-specific analysis, we developed a hierarchal modeling system which integrates a two-dimensional gross structural model of the foot (high-order model) with local finite element (FE) models of the plantar tissue padding the calcaneus and medial metatarsal heads (low-order models). The high-order whole-foot model provides real-time analytical evaluations of the time-dependent plantar fascia tensile forces during the stance phase. These force evaluations are transferred, together with foot-shoe local reaction forces, also measured in real time (under the calcaneus, medial metatarsals and hallux), to the low-order FE models of the plantar pad, where they serve as boundary conditions for analyses of local deformations and stresses in the plantar pad. After careful verification of our custom-made FE solver and of our foot model system with respect to previous literature and against experimental results from a synthetic foot phantom, we conducted human studies in which plantar tissue loading was evaluated in real time during treadmill gait in healthy individuals (N = 4). We concluded that internal deformations and stresses in the plantar pad during gait cannot be predicted from merely measuring the foot-shoe force reactions. Internal loading of the plantar pad is constituted by a complex interaction between the anatomical structure and mechanical behavior of the foot skeleton and soft tissues, the body characteristics, the gait pattern and footwear. Real-time FE monitoring of internal deformations and stresses in the plantar pad is therefore required to identify elevated deformation

  12. Early rehabilitation treatment combined with equinovarus foot deformity surgical correction in stroke patients: safety and changes in gait parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, Erika; Merlo, Andrea; Zerbinati, Paolo; Longhi, Maria; Prati, Paolo; Masiero, Stefano; Mazzoli, Davide

    2016-06-01

    Equinovarus foot deformity (EVFD) compromises several prerequisites of walking and increases the risk of falling. Guidelines on rehabilitation following EVFD surgery are missing in current literature. The aim of this study was to analyze safety and adherence to an early rehabilitation treatment characterized by immediate weight bearing with an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) in hemiplegic patients after EVFD surgery and to describe gait changes after EVFD surgical correction combined with early rehabilitation treatment. Retrospective observational cohort study. Inpatient rehabilitation clinic. Forty-seven adult patients with hemiplegia consequent to ischemic or haemorrhagic stroke (L/R 20/27, age 56±15 years, time from lesion 6±5 years). A specific rehabilitation protocol with a non-articulated AFO, used to allow for immediate gait training, started one day after EVFD surgery. Gait analysis (GA) data before and one month after surgery were analyzed. The presence of differences in GA space-time parameters, in ankle dorsiflexion (DF) values and peaks at initial contact (DF at IC), during stance (DF at St) and swing (DF at Sw) were assessed by the Wilcoxon Test while the presence of correlations between pre- and post-operative values by Spearman's correlation coefficient. All patients completed the rehabilitation protocol and no clinical complications occurred in the sample. Ankle DF increased one month after surgery at all investigated gait phases (Wilcoxon Test, Prehabilitation associated with surgical procedure is safe and may be suitable to correct EVFD by restoring both the neutral heel foot-ground contact and the ankle DF peaks during stance and swing at one month from surgery. The proposed protocol is a safe and potentially useful rehabilitative approach after EVFD surgical correction in stroke patients.

  13. Effects of individual and group exercise programs on pain, balance, mobility and perceived benefits in rheumatoid arthritis with pain and foot deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Carolina Mendes; Almeida da Rocha, Bruna; Tanaka, Clarice

    2017-11-01

    [Purpose] To verify the effects of individual and group exercise programs on pain, balance, mobility and perceived benefits of rheumatoid arthritis patients (RA) with pain and foot deformities. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty patients with RA pain and foot deformity were allocated into two groups: G1: individual exercise program and G2: group exercise program. The variables analyzed were Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) for pain, Berg Balance Scale (BBS) for balance, Timed Up & Go Test (TUG) and Functional Reach (FR) for mobility, and Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ-Br) for perceived benefits. Both exercise programs consisted of functional rehabilitation exercises and self-care guidance aimed at reducing pain and improving balance and mobility. Intragroup comparisons of variables between A1 (pre-intervention) and A2 (post-intervention) were performed. [Results] Patients in both groups were similar in A1 (pre-intervention) in all the variables analyzed. Comparison between A1 and A2 for each variable showed improvement for G1 in the NRS, BBS, FR, TUG and in four out of ten domains of FHSQ-Br. G2 showed improvement in the NRS, BBS and eight out of ten domains of FHSQ-Br. [Conclusion] Both individual and group programs revealed benefits for patients with RA, however, group exercise programs showed better perception of benefits.

  14. Use of the modified Stainsby procedure in correcting severe claw toe deformity in the rheumatoid foot: a retrospective review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Queally, Joseph M

    2009-06-01

    In claw toe deformity, the plantar plate of the metarsophalangeal joint becomes displaced onto the dorsal aspect of the metatarsal head. The Stainsby procedure replaces the displaced plantar plate to its correct position beneath the metatarsal head.

  15. Foot medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait in subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas Quaade; Boysen, Lisbeth; Haugaard, Stine

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate (1) if subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome demonstrate increased navicular drop and medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait compared with healthy subjects, and (2) the relationship between medial longitudinal-arch ...

  16. Validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire for hallux valgus deformity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talu, Burcu; Bayramlar, Kezban; Bek, Nilgün; Yakut, Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ) in patients affected by hallux valgus in order to assess the accuracy of this cross-cultural adaption. Thirty female volunteers aged between 18 and 55 years were included in the study. Subjects with hallux valgus were asked to complete the MOXFQ and the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). After receiving permission from the author, the MOXFQ was translated into Turkish twice and then back translated to English, after which its compatibility was evaluated. The Turkish version of the MOXFO was applied twice, 1-3 days apart, to the study subjects. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed using Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), respectively. Construct validity was assessed with the use of Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, using a priori hypothesized correlations with SF-36 domains. Subjects achieved similar scores at the first and second administration of the questionnaire (validity was supported by the presence of all the hypothesized correlations, with SF-36 within its physical parameters. The Turkish version of the MOXFQ is a valid and reliable tool for evaluating foot pain and functional status in patients affected by hallux valgus.

  17. Mistakes and complications in the surgical treatment of ambulatory equino planovalgus foot deformities in patients with cerebral palsy using extra-articular subtalar arthrodesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V Umnov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the results of a modified technique for extra-articular arthrodesis of the subtalar joint for patients with cerebral palsy with an ambulatory form of equine-planovalgus deformity of the foot. The mistakes and complications that occurred during treatment with this technique are discussed. Materials and methods. Between 2005 and 2015, this surgical method for performing arthrodesis of the subtalar joint, was performed on 544 patients (989 feet between 4 and 15 years old. Correction of equinus contracture was performed using Achilles tendon plasty or dissection of the tendon of the gastrocnemius muscle. Abnormal muscle tone was reduced either by administering Dysport® in the calf muscle or by selective neurotomy of the tibial nerve. Results. Good results were achieved for 72% of cases, satisfactory for 23% of cases, and unsatisfactory for 5% of cases. Unsatisfactory results of treatment were associated with overvaluation of the degree of mobility of the deformity and with a number of technical and tactical mistakes. Conclusion. This analysis of mistakes and complications of extra-articular arthrodesis of the subtalar joint will allow surgeons to avoid these issues in the future and improve the quality of treatment for similar patients.

  18. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF SEVERE (2-3 DEGREE DEFORMING ARTHROSIS OF FIRST METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT OF FOOT: TASKS, APPROACHES, TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mazalov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the experience of treating 67 patients (98 feet with deforming arthrosis of first metatarsophalangeal joint is shown that the treatment of this disease the distal decompressing osteotomy in combination with maximally radical the separation of the unions and cheilectomy possesses the significant health-improvement potential, which makes it possible to be turned to arthrodesis or arthroplasty only in the limiting cases of that the heavy cases of hallux rigidus. L-osteotomy 1-st metatarsus gives more than possibilities for the correction with the heavy deformations and the degenerate changes, the basic criterion of sufficiency of which is the volume of the intra-operating straightening of 1-st fingers reached. Optimum is reaching the straightening 1-st toes to 65° even above. An indispensable stage of complex operation is maximally radical of cheilectomy. During the formation of arthrodesis 1-st metatarsophalangeal joint in the horizontal plane the axis of 1 finger should be oriented in parallel to axis second metatarsal bones. The sagittal angle of the formation of arthrodesis depends on the manifestation of valgus of rear division. Active postoperative conducting essentially improves the distant results of the surgical treatment of deforming arthrosis of first metatarsophalangeal joint.

  19. Comparison of Efficacy and Side Effects of Oral Baclofen Versus Tizanidine Therapy with Adjuvant Botulinum Toxin Type A in Children With Cerebral Palsy and Spastic Equinus Foot Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Alper I; Aksoy, Sefika N; Demiryürek, Abdullah T

    2016-02-01

    This retrospective study aimed to compare the therapeutic response, including side effects, for oral baclofen versus oral tizanidine therapy with adjuvant botulinum toxin type A in a group of 64 pediatric patients diagnosed with static encephalopathy and spastic equinus foot deformity. Following botulinum toxin A treatment, clinical improvement led to the gradual reduction of baclofen or tizanidine dosing to one-third of the former dose. Gross Motor Functional Measure and Caregiver Health Questionnaire scores were markedly elevated post-botulinum toxin A treatment, with scores for the tizanidine (Gross Motor Functional Measure: 74.45 ± 3.72; Caregiver Health Questionnaire: 72.43 ± 4.29) group significantly higher than for the baclofen group (Gross Motor Functional Measure: 68.23 ± 2.66; Caregiver Health Questionnaire: 67.53 ± 2.67, P botulinum toxin A and a low dose of tizanidine in treating children with cerebral palsy appears to be more effective and has fewer side effects versus baclofen with adjuvant botulinum toxin A. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. What is the diabetic foot?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    increase in the complications related to diabetes as a result of this increasing ... A number of contributory factors work together to cause foot ... neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, foot deformities, external ... it is usually a combination of problems rather than a single risk ... This results in increased oxidative stress.

  1. Avoiding foot complications in diabetes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preceded by a foot ulcer.1,2 Every 30 seconds a lower limb or part of a lower limb is ... of foot ulcers are peripheral neuropathy, deformity, peripheral vascular disease and ... Repetitive stresses cause hyperkeratosis, followed by subcutaneous ...

  2. Education for diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Batista

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to stratify the risk in a consecutive group of diabetic patients presenting, for the first time, in a diabetic foot clinic. Additional aims were to investigate the preventive measures in the local health system and to evaluate the level of patient’s awareness about diabetic foot-associated morbidity. Methods: Fifty consecutive adult diabetic patients referred to a Diabetic Foot Clinic of a Municipal Public Hospital comprised the sample for this observational study. The enrollment visit was considered as the first health-system intervention for potential foot morbidity. The average time elapsed since a diagnosis of diabetes among patients was five years. Rresults: At the time of presentation, 94% of sample was not using appropriate footwear. Pedal pulses (dorsalis pedis and/or posterior tibial arteries were palpable in 76% of patients. Thirty subjects (60% had signs of peripheral neuropathy. Twenty-one subjects (42% had clinical deformity. There was a positive correlation between a history of foot ulcer, the presence of peripheral neuropathy, and the presence of foot deformity (p < 0.004 in each correlation. Cconclusions: Informing and educating the patients and those interested in this subject and these problems is essential for favorable outcomes in this scenario.

  3. Foot Problems in a Group of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Unmet Need for Foot Care

    OpenAIRE

    Borman, Pinar; Ayhan, Figen; Tuncay, Figen; Sahin, Mehtap

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the foot involvement in a group of RA patients in regard to symptoms, type and frequency of deformities, location, radiological changes, and foot care. Patients and Methods: A randomized selected 100 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were recruited to the study. Data about foot symptoms, duration and location of foot pain, pain intensity, access to services related to foot, treatment, orthoses and assistive devices, and usefulness of therapie...

  4. Foot Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... straight across and not too short Your foot health can be a clue to your overall health. For example, joint stiffness could mean arthritis. Tingling ... foot checks are an important part of your health care. If you have foot problems, be sure ...

  5. Foot Complications in a Representative Australian Inpatient Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Lazzarini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prevalence and factors independently associated with foot complications in a representative inpatient population (adults admitted for any reason with and without diabetes. We analysed data from the Foot disease in inpatients study, a sample of 733 representative inpatients. Previous amputation, previous foot ulceration, peripheral arterial disease (PAD, peripheral neuropathy (PN, and foot deformity were the foot complications assessed. Sociodemographic, medical, and foot treatment history were collected. Overall, 46.0% had a foot complication with 23.9% having multiple; those with diabetes had higher prevalence of foot complications than those without diabetes (p<0.01. Previous amputation (4.1% was independently associated with previous foot ulceration, foot deformity, cerebrovascular accident, and past surgeon treatment (p<0.01. Previous foot ulceration (9.8% was associated with PN, PAD, past podiatry, and past nurse treatment (p<0.02. PAD (21.0% was associated with older age, males, indigenous people, cancer, PN, and past surgeon treatment (p<0.02. PN (22.0% was associated with older age, diabetes, mobility impairment, and PAD (p<0.05. Foot deformity (22.4% was associated with older age, mobility impairment, past podiatry treatment, and PN (p<0.01. Nearly half of all inpatients had a foot complication. Those with foot complications were older, male, indigenous, had diabetes, cerebrovascular accident, mobility impairment, and other foot complications or past foot treatment.

  6. Charcot Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... damage (neuropathy). The bones are weakened enough to fracture, and with continued walking, the foot eventually changes ... difference. Advanced therapies for foot wounds are saving limbs, restoring ... in the feet come from the lower back. Pressure or chemical change in the nerve ...

  7. Challenging the foundations of the clinical model of foot function: further evidence that the root model assessments fail to appropriately classify foot function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Hannah L; Nester, Christopher J; Bowden, Peter D; Jones, Richard K

    2017-01-01

    The Root model of normal and abnormal foot function remains the basis for clinical foot orthotic practice globally. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between foot deformities and kinematic compensations that are the foundations of the model. A convenience sample of 140 were screened and 100 symptom free participants aged 18-45 years were invited to participate. The static biomechanical assessment described by the Root model was used to identify five foot deformities. A 6 segment foot model was used to measure foot kinematics during gait. Statistical tests compared foot kinematics between feet with and without foot deformities and correlated the degree of deformity with any compensatory motions. None of the deformities proposed by the Root model were associated with distinct differences in foot kinematics during gait when compared to those without deformities or each other. Static and dynamic parameters were not correlated. Taken as part of a wider body of evidence, the results of this study have profound implications for clinical foot health practice. We believe that the assessment protocol advocated by the Root model is no longer a suitable basis for professional practice. We recommend that clinicians stop using sub-talar neutral position during clinical assessments and stop assessing the non-weight bearing range of ankle dorsiflexion, first ray position and forefoot alignments and movement as a means of defining the associated foot deformities. The results question the relevance of the Root assessments in the prescription of foot orthoses.

  8. Errors and complications in surgical treatment of non-stable equino-plano-valgus foot deformity in patients with cerebral palsy, with use of the calcaneus correcting osteotomy technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. Umnov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To examine the results of treatment for patients with a non-stable form of equino-plano-valgus foot deformity in cerebral palsy with the use of corrective osteotomy of the calcaneus. To further analyze the errors and complications that occurred in patients treated with this technique. Materials and methods. From 2006 to 2014, 64 patients (103 feet aged 3 to 17 years were operated using the described method of calcaneus correcting osteotomy. The equinus contracture was eliminated by transection of the gastrocnemius muscle tendon and extending achilloplastic surgery. The abnormal muscle tone was reduced either by administering the drug Dysport into the gastrocnemius muscle or by selective neurotomy of the tibial nerve. Results. The analysis revealed that there were good results for 75%, satisfactory results for 18%, and unacceptable results for 7% of patients. The unacceptable results of treatment were due to several technical and tactical errors, which were grouped and analyzed. Conclusion. The analysis of errors and complications of calcaneus corrective osteotomy for patients with cerebral palsy with a mobile form of talipes equinoplanovalgus will enable their future avoidance and improvement of the treatment quality.

  9. ERRORS AND COMPLICATIONS IN SURGICAL TREATMENT OF NON-STABLE EQUINO-PLANO-VALGUS FOOT DEFORMITY IN PATIENTS WITH CEREBRAL PALSY, WITH USE OF THE CALCANEUS CORRECTING OSTEOTOMY TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. Umnov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To examine the results of treatment for patients with a non-stable form of equino-plano-valgus foot deformity in cerebral palsy with the use of corrective osteotomy of the calcaneus. To further analyze the errors and complications that occurred in patients treated with this technique. Materials and methods. From 2006 to 2014, 64 patients (103 feet aged 3 to 17 years were operated using the described method of calcaneus correcting osteotomy. The equinus contracture was eliminated by transection of the gastrocnemius muscle tendon and extending achilloplastic surgery. The abnormal muscle tone was reduced either by administering the drug Dysport into the gastrocnemius muscle or by selective neurotomy of the tibial nerve. Results. The analysis revealed that there were good results for 75%, satisfactory results for 18%, and unacceptable results for 7% of patients. The unacceptable results of treatment were due to several technical and tactical errors, which were grouped and analyzed. Conclusion. The analysis of errors and complications of calcaneus corrective osteotomy for patients with cerebral palsy with a mobile form of talipes equinoplanovalgus will enable their future avoidance and improvement of the treatment quality.

  10. Foot Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... early. Start OverDiagnosisThe cause may be FEMORAL ANTEVERSION, TIBIAL TORSION or METATARSUS ADDUCTUS, commonly called intoeing. Self CareSee your doctor. Start OverDiagnosisYou may have a STRESS FRACTURE of the bones in your foot. The pain ...

  11. Foot pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that you were born with or develops later Injury Shoes that fit poorly or do not have much cushioning Too much walking or other sports activity Trauma The following can cause foot pain: Arthritis and gout . Common in the big toe, which becomes red, swollen, ...

  12. Bunion foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hallux valgus deformity is a complex chronic progressive disease primarily characterized by a lateral great toe deviation and deformity of the first metatarsophalageal joint. Numerous etiological factors are related with the expression of this disease, and they are divided into two categories: endogenous and exogenous. Complexity of the hallux valgus deformity is reflected with the progression of the disease that gives rise to numerous forefoot deformities. The diagnosis is first of all affirmed by clinical examination and x-ray of the feet in a standing position. Treatment could be either operative or conservative. Conservative treatment has shown to be totally unsuccessful. Before decision making on the type of operative treatment, the patient’s complaints, age, profession, clinical and x-ray findings must be taken into consideration. Until now, over two hundred different operative procedures have been described, which clearly supports the observation that there is no single method which could resolve all clinical varieties of this deformity. Therefore, today, when making a choice on the surgical procedure of hallux valgus deformity, the utilization of surgical algorithm is recommended. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 41004

  13. Mycetoma foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Gooptu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is an uncommon chronic granulomatous infective disease of the skin, dermis and subcutaneous tissues predominantly seen in tropical countries. A patient presented to our hospital with the swelling of the left foot with a healed sinus and a painful nodule. He gave a history of sinuses in the left foot from which there was discharge of yellow granules. Culture of the ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology of the nodule revealed growths of Nocardia species. The patient was treated with a multi-drug therapy along with debridement of the painful nodule. He experienced symptomatic relief and a regression of the swelling within the three months of follow-up so far. Due to the relatively slow progression of the disease, patients are diagnosed at a late stage. Hence, emphasis should be placed on health education and the importance of wearing footwear.

  14. Foot problems in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: an unmet need for foot care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Pinar; Ayhan, Figen; Tuncay, Figen; Sahin, Mehtap

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the foot involvement in a group of RA patients in regard to symptoms, type and frequency of deformities, location, radiological changes, and foot care. A randomized selected 100 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were recruited to the study. Data about foot symptoms, duration and location of foot pain, pain intensity, access to services related to foot, treatment, orthoses and assistive devices, and usefulness of therapies were determined by the questionnaire. Radiological changes were assessed according to modified Larsen scoring system. The scores of disease activity scale of 28 joints and Health Assessment Questionnaire indicating the functional status of RA patients were collected from patient files. A total of 100 RA patients (90 female, 10 male) with a mean age of 52.5 ±10.9 years were enrolled to the study. Eighty-nine of the 100 patients had experienced foot complaints/symptoms in the past or currently. Foot pain and foot symptoms were reported as the first site of involvement in 14 patients. Thirty-six patients had ankle pain and the most common sites of the foot symptoms were ankle (36%) and forefoot (30%) followed by hindfoot (17%) and midfoot (7%) currently. Forty-nine of the patients described that they had difficulty in performing their foot care. Insoles and orthopedic shoes were prescribed in 39 patients, but only 14 of them continued to use them. The main reasons for not wearing them were; 17 not helpful (43%), 5 made foot pain worse (12.8%), and 3 did not fit (7.6%). Foot symptoms were reported to be decreased in 24 % of the subjects after the medical treatment and 6 patients indicated that they had underwent foot surgery. Current foot pain was significantly associated with higher body mass index and longer disease duration, and duration of morning stiffness. The radiological scores did not correlate with duration of foot symptoms and current foot pain (p>0.05) but the total number of foot deformities was

  15. Foot and ankle problems in Thai monks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaseenon, Tanawat; Wattanarojanaporn, Thongaek; Intharasompan, Piyapong; Theeraamphon, Nipon; Auephanviriyakul, Sansanee; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2015-01-01

    Foot and ankle problems in Thai monks have not been explored. This is an unshod population, and its members have a unique lifestyle living among others in our modern era. Beginning at their ordainment, they follow strict rules about barefoot walking, the amount of daily walking, and their sitting position, practices that theoretically can increase their risk of developing foot and ankle problems. To evaluate the prevalence ofcommon foot and ankle problems in Thai monks. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in combination with foot and ankle examinations of monks living in northern Thailand Foot morphology was examined using a Harris mat footprint. Results of the interviews and the foot and ankle examinations were evaluated. Two hundred and nine monks from 28 temples were included in this study. Common foot and ankle problems found included callosity (70.8%), toe deformities (18.2%), plantar fasciitis (13.4%), metatarsalgia (3.8%), and numbness (2.9%). Callosity and toe deformities were associated with prolonged barefoot walking over extended periods since ordainment (p < 0.05). The callosity was found on the forefoot (47.3%), lateral malleolus (40.7%), and heel (12%). Arch types were considered normal in 66.4% of cases, high in 21.6%, and low in 12%. No association was found between arch type and foot and ankle problems. Callosity and toe deformity were the most common foot and ankle problems found in Thai monks, especially those with prolonged period of barefoot walking and long-term duration ofordainment. The unique pattern of walking and sitting of Thai monks may have contributed to the development of those feet and ankle problems.

  16. Sex-related differences in foot shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, I; Grau, S; Mauch, M; Maiwald, C; Horstmann, T

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate sex-related differences in foot morphology. In total, 847 subjects were scanned using a 3-D-footscanner. Three different analysis methods were used: (1) comparisons were made for absolute foot measures within 250-270 mm foot length (FL); (2) and for averaged measures (% FL) across all sizes; (3) the feet were then classified using a cluster analysis. Within 250-270 mm FL, male feet were wider and higher (mean differences (MD) 1.3-5.9 mm). No relevant sex-related differences could be found in the comparison of averaged measures (MD 0.3-0.6% FL). Foot types were categorised into voluminous, flat-pointed and slender. Shorter feet were more often voluminous, longer feet were more likely to be narrow and flat. However, the definition of 'short' and 'long' was sex-related; thus, allometry of foot measures was different. For shoe design, measures should be derived for each size and sex separately. Different foot types should be considered to account for the variety in foot shape. Improper footwear can cause foot pain and deformity. Therefore, knowledge of sex-related differences in foot measures is important to assist proper shoe fit in both men and women. The present study supplements the field of knowledge within this context with recommendations for the manufacturing of shoes.

  17. Introduction of hind foot coronal alignment view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Il Bong; Jeon, Ju Seob; Yoon, Kang Cheol; Choi, Nam Kil; Kim, Seung Kook

    2006-01-01

    Accurate clinical evaluation of the alignment of the calcaneus relative to the tibia in the coronal plane is essential in the evaluation and treatment of hind foot pathologic condition. Previously described standard anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique radiographic methods of the foot or ankle do not demonstrate alignment of the tibia relation to the calcaneus in the coronal plane. The purpose of this study was to introduce hind foot coronal alignment view. Both feet were imaged simultaneously on an elevated, radiolucent foot stand equipment. Both feet stood on a radiolucent platform with equal weight on both feet. Both feet are located foot axis longitudinal perpendicular to the platform. Silhouette tracing around both feet are made, and line is then drawn to bisect the silhouette of the second toe and the outline of the heel. The x-ray beam is angled down approximately 15 .deg. to 20 .deg. This image described tibial axis and medial, lateral tuberosity of calcaneus. Calcaneus do not rotated. The view is showed by talotibial joint space. Although computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging techniques are capable of demonstrating coronal hind foot alignment, they lack usefulness in most clinical situations because the foot is imaged in a non-weight bearing position. But hind foot coronal alignment view is obtained for evaluating position changing of inversion, eversion of the hind foot and varus, valgus deformity of calcaneus

  18. Habitual physical activity, peripheral neuropathy, foot deformities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    joint or leg pain), lack of equipment, and exercise partner(s).20. Yet, many of these ... peripheral neuropathy and lower limb functions among a group of Nigerian .... scale for inpatients of an orthopaedic rehabilitation ward found that interclass ...

  19. Foot ulcer risk and location in relation to prospective clinical assessment of foot shape and mobility among persons with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Matthew S; Boyko, Edward J; Shofer, Jane B; Ahroni, Jessie H; Ledoux, William R

    2008-11-01

    We assessed baseline clinical foot shape for 2939 feet of diabetic subjects who were monitored prospectively for foot ulceration. Assessments included hammer/claw toes, hallux valgus, hallux limitus, prominent metatarsal heads, bony prominences, Charcot deformity, plantar callus, foot type, muscle atrophy, ankle and hallux mobility, and neuropathy. Risk factors were linked to ulcer occurrence and location via a Cox proportional hazards model. Hammer/claw toes (hazard ratio [HR] (95% confidence interval [CI])=1.43 (1.06, 1.94) p=0.02), marked hammer/claw toes (HR=1.77 (1.18, 2.66) p=0.006), bony prominences (HR=1.38 (1.02, 1.88), p=0.04), and foot type (Charcot or drop foot vs. neutrally aligned) (HR=2.34 (1.33, 4.10), p=0.003) were significant risk factors for ulceration adjusting for age, body mass index, insulin medication, ulcer history and amputation history. With adjustment for neuropathy only hammer/claw toes (HR=1.40 (1.03, 1.90), p=0.03) and foot type (HR=1.76 (1.04, 3.04), p=0.05) were significantly related to ulceration. However, there was no relationship between ulcer location and foot deformity. Certain foot deformities were predictive of ulceration, although there was no relationship between clinical foot deformity and ulcer location.

  20. Selective dorsal rhizotomy opportunities with foot deformitiesin children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Markovich Kenis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Foot deformities are the most common orthopedic condition in children with cerebral palsy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR on foot deformities in children with cerebral palsy. The results were assessed clinically by measurement of changes in muscle spaticity and foot posture. Percentage of resection of dorsal rootlets was from 40 to 90 % of total thickness. The degree of tone reduction had a tendency to be more pronounced in the more proximal muscles and was minimal in calf muscles. Nevertheless, foot posture improved more significantly. That can be explained by generalimprovement of pathological posture at the level of more proximal joints. Thus, SDR has insignificant direct effect on spastic foot deformity and can not be recommended as a basic method of treatment even in pure spasticity. However, SDR should be considered as a part of multidisciplinary management protocol if foot deformity reflects more complex postural disturbance due to generalized spasticity.

  1. Foot morphometric phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agić, Ante

    2007-06-01

    Knowledge of the foot morphometry is important for proper foot structure and function. Foot structure as a vital part of human body is important for many reasons. The foot anthropometric and morphology phenomena are analyzed together with hidden biomechanical descriptors in order to fully characterize foot functionality. For Croatian student population the scatter data of the individual foot variables were interpolated by multivariate statistics. Foot morphometric descriptors are influenced by many factors, such as life style, climate, and things of great importance in human society. Dominant descriptors related to fit and comfort are determined by the use 3D foot shape and advanced foot biomechanics. Some practical recommendations and conclusions for medical, sportswear and footwear practice are highlighted.

  2. Foot and ankle problems in Muay Thai kickboxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaseenon, Tanawat; Intharasompan, Piyapong; Wattanarojanapom, Thongaek; Theeraamphon, Nipon; Auephanviriyakul, Sansanee; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2015-01-01

    Muay Thai kickboxing is a common sport that uses the foot and ankle in fighting. Muay Thai kickboxing trainees usually receive training in Thailand Foot and ankle problems in this group ofpeople who usually train barefoot remain unexplored To evaluate the prevalence of common foot and ankle problems in Muay Thai kick boxers. The present study is a cross-sectional survey of Muay Thai kick boxers practicing in northern Thailand. Interviews were conducted and foot and ankle examinations were evaluated Foot morphology was examined using a Harris mat footprint. One hundred and twenty-three Muay Thai kickbox ersinnine training gyms were included in this study. Common foot and ankle problems found in the Muay Thai kick boxers were callosity (59%), gastrocnemius contracture (57%), toe deformities (49.3%), wounds (10%) and heel pain (9%). Callosity was most commonly found on the forefoot (77.5%), on the plantar first metatarsal (55.3%) and on the big toe (33.3%). An association was found between a tight heel cord and a history of foot injury with prolonged periods of weekly training. Toe deformities such as hallux rigidus (37.6%) were also associated with prolonged periods of training (p = 0.001). No correlation was found between type of foot arch and foot and ankle problems. Plantar forefoot callosities and wounds as well as toe deformities including tight heel cords are some of the foot and ankle problems commonly found in Muay Thai kick boxers. They are associated with prolonged periods of barefoot training. The unique pattern of training and of the kicks in Muay Thai might be a path mechanism, leading to the development of foot and ankle problems.

  3. Etiology, pathophysiology and classifications of the diabetic Charcot foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanas, Nikolaos; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2013-01-01

    In people with diabetes mellitus, the Charcot foot is a specific manifestation of peripheral neuropathy that may involve autonomic neuropathy with high blood flow to the foot, leading to increased bone resorption. It may also involve peripheral somatic polyneuropathy with loss of protective sensation and high risk of unrecognized acute or chronic minor trauma. In both cases, there is excess local inflammatory response to foot injury, resulting in local osteoporosis. In the Charcot foot, the acute and chronic phases have been described. The former is characterized by local erythema, edema, and marked temperature elevation, while pain is not a prominent symptom. In the latter, signs of inflammation gradually recede and deformities may develop, increasing the risk of foot ulceration. The most common anatomical classification describes five patterns, according to the localization of bone and joint pathology. This review article aims to provide a brief overview of the diabetic Charcot foot in terms of etiology, pathophysiology, and classification. PMID:23705058

  4. Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Diabetic Foot URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  5. Unilateral Cleft Hand with Cleft Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Asif Nazir; Bhat, Yasmeen J.; Ahmed, Sheikh Mushtaq; Nazir, Abid

    2009-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the hand form an important class of congenital malformations. They have a huge functional importance because of the part played by the hand in the daily activities of a person. The deformities also have significant cosmetic significance and may also be associated with other anomalies. Amongst the congenital anomalies, central deficiency or cleft hand is relatively rare. The association of cleft foot with cleft hand is an even more rare occurance. We present a case report of a 6 year old child, born of a non-consanginous marriage, having congenital central deficiency of ipsilateral hand and foot. PMID:21475543

  6. Congenital and acquired foot disorders and their roentgenographic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.

    1986-01-01

    In addition to general radiologic aspects there are special orthopedic considerations have in interpretation of X-rays of the foot. This is especially important for the diagnosis of orthopedic foot diseases. In clubfoot X-rays are useful for therapeutic planning and control. Even in the first months of life radiographs can show important disturbances of growth of the foot and displacement of the bones of the tarsus. In other congenital foot deformities X-rays are important for diagnostic reasons: they prove luxations or skeletal deformities. The most important acquired foot disease is the pronating foot. X-rays do not only show the amount of joint damage and structural changes of bones but also allow to draw conclusions to be drawn about the causes of static and dynamic changes of the foot skeleton. Functional diagnostic radiological investigation is of decisive importance for evaluation of infantile pronating foot. X-rays allow the differentiation to be made between physiological and pathologic changes. Subtle radiographic investigation is essential while planning operative treatment in childhood, as in adults. (orig.) [de

  7. Hallux valgus and plantar pressure loading: the Framingham foot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Hallux valgus (HV), a common structural foot deformity, can cause foot pain and lead to limited mobility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in plantar pressure and force during gait by HV status in a large population-based cohort of men and women. Methods A trained examiner performed a validated physical examination on participants’ feet and recorded the presence of hallux valgus and other specific foot disorders. Each foot was classified into one of four mutually exclusive groups based on the foot examination. Foot groups were: (i) HV only, (ii) HV and at least one additional foot disorder (FD), (iii) no HV but at least one other FD, and (iv) neither HV nor FD (referent). Biomechanical data for both feet were collected using Tekscan Matscan. Foot posture during quiet standing, using modified arch index (MAI), and foot function during gait, using center of pressure excursion index (CPEI), were calculated per foot. Further, walking scans were masked into eight sub-regions using Novel Automask, and peak pressure and maximum force exerted in each region were calculated. Results There were 3205 participants, contributing 6393 feet with complete foot exam data and valid biomechanical measurements. Participants with HV had lower hallucal loading and higher forces at lesser toes as well as higher MAI and lower CPEI values compared to the referent. Participants with HV and other FDs were also noted to have aberrant rearfoot forces and pressures. Conclusions These results suggest that HV alters foot loading patterns and pressure profiles. Future work should investigate how these changes affect the risk of other foot and lower extremity ailments. PMID:24138804

  8. Clinical workflow for personalized foot pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucki, M; Luboz, V; Perrier, A; Champion, E; Diot, B; Vuillerme, N; Payan, Y

    2016-09-01

    Foot pressure ulcers are a common complication of diabetes because of patient's lack of sensitivity due to neuropathy. Deep pressure ulcers appear internally when pressures applied on the foot create high internal strains nearby bony structures. Monitoring tissue strains in persons with diabetes is therefore important for an efficient prevention. We propose to use personalized biomechanical foot models to assess strains within the foot and to determine the risk of ulcer formation. Our workflow generates a foot model adapted to a patient's morphology by deforming an atlas model to conform it to the contours of segmented medical images of the patient's foot. Our biomechanical model is composed of rigid bodies for the bones, joined by ligaments and muscles, and a finite element mesh representing the soft tissues. Using our registration algorithm to conform three datasets, three new patient models were created. After applying a pressure load below these foot models, the Von Mises equivalent strains and "cluster volumes" (i.e. volumes of contiguous elements with strains above a given threshold) were measured within eight functionally meaningful foot regions. The results show the variability of both location and strain values among the three considered patients. This study also confirms that the anatomy of the foot has an influence on the risk of pressure ulcer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Analysis of foot kinematics wearing high heels using the Oxford foot model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meizi; Gu, Yaodong; Baker, Julien Steven

    2018-04-29

    Wearing high heels is thought to lead to various foot disorders and injuries such as metatarsal pain, Achilles tendon tension, plantar fasciitis and Haglund malformation. However, there is little available information explaining the specific mechanisms and reasons why wearing high heels causes foot deformity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the foot kinematics of high heel wearers and compare any differences with barefoot individuals using the Oxford Foot Model (OFM). Fifteen healthy women aged 20-25 years were measured while walking barefoot and when wearing high heels. The peak value of angular motion for the hallux with respect to the forefoot, the forefoot with respect to the hind foot, and the hind foot with respect to the tibia were all analyzed. Compared to the barefoot, participants wearing high heels demonstrated larger hallux dorsiflexion (22.55∘± 1.62∘ VS 26.6∘± 2.33∘ for the barefoot; P= 0.001), and less hallux plantarflexion during the initial stance phase (-4.86∘± 2.32∘ VS -8.68∘± 1.13∘; Pfoot demonstrated a larger dorsiflexion in the horizontal plane (16.59∘± 1.69∘ VS 12.08∘± 0.9∘; Pfoot extension rotation (-5.49∘± 0.69∘ VS -10.73∘± 0.42∘; P= 0.001). These findings complement existing kinematic evidence that wearing high heels can lead to foot deformities and injuries.

  10. Gigantism of the foot: our experience in seven cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turra, S; Santini, S; Cagnoni, G; Jacopetti, T

    1998-01-01

    We report our experience in seven patients with congenital gigantism of the foot with the following diagnoses: neurofibromatosis (two), fibrolipomatosis (two), Proteus syndrome (two), and idiopathic localized gigantism (one). Our purpose is to introduce a new classification of foot gigantism, based on the concept of "neuroinduction." In our experience, intraoperative examination and subsequent histologic examination show consistently pathologic findings in the plantar nerve and its terminal branches in the foot affected by gigantism. Limited surgical treatment was used in five patients. To prevent forefoot enlargement and recurrence of deformity, we suggest complete ray resection. We evaluated our results using radiographs, functional status, and cosmetic considerations.

  11. Hindfoot Arthrodesis for Neuropathic Deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Ju Huang

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Acquired neurologic disorders of the foot lead to arthrosis, deformities, instabilities, and functional disabilities. Hindfoot arthrodesis is the current option available for irreducible or nonbraceable deformities of neuropathic feet. However, the role of ankle arthrodesis in these patients has been questioned because of high nonunion and complication rates. From 1990 to 2001, 17 cases of acquired neuropathic foot deformities were treated by four tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC arthrodeses and 13 ankle arthrodeses. TTC arthrodesis was performed on cases with combined ankle and subtalar arthritis or cases whose deformities or instabilities could not be corrected by ankle fusion alone. There was no nonunion of TTC arthrodesis and seven ununited ankle arthrodeses were salvaged by two TTC-attempted arthrodeses and five revision ankle-attempted arthrodeses. Eventually in these cases, there was one nonunion in TTC arthrodesis and one nonunion in revision ankle arthrodesis. The final fusion rate was 88% (15 of 17 cases with average union time of 6.9 months (range, 2.5–18 months. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle hind-foot functional scores were evaluated: one was excellent (5.8%, seven were good (41%, eight were fair (53.3%, and one was poor (5.8% in terms of total functional outcome. We conclude that TTC arthrodesis is indicated for cases with ankle and subtalar involvement and ankle arthrodesis is an alternative for cases with intact subtalar joint. We recommend revision ankle arthrodesis if the ankle fails to fuse and the bone stock of the talus is adequate. TTC arthrodesis is reserved for ankles with poor bone stock of the talus with fragmentation.

  12. The foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    Imaging of the foot and ankle can be difficult because of the complex anatomy. Familiarity with the bony and ligamentous anatomy is essential for proper evaluation of radiographic findings. Therefore, pertinent anatomy is discussed as it applies to specific injuries. Special views, tomography, arthrography, and other techniques may be indicated for complete evaluation of foot and ankle trauma

  13. Foot Function, Foot Pain, and Falls in Older Adults: The Framingham Foot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awale, Arunima; Hagedorn, Thomas J; Dufour, Alyssa B; Menz, Hylton B; Casey, Virginia A; Hannan, Marian T

    2017-01-01

    Although foot pain has been linked to fall risk, contributions of pain severity, foot posture, or foot function are unclear. These factors were examined in a cohort of older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of foot pain, severity of foot pain, and measures of foot posture and dynamic foot function with reported falls in a large, well-described cohort of older adults from the Framingham Foot Study. Foot pain, posture, and function were collected from Framingham Foot Study participants who were queried about falls over the past year (0, 1, and ≥2 falls). Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the relation of falls with foot pain, pain severity, foot posture, and foot function adjusting for covariates. The mean age of the 1,375 participants was 69 years; 57% were female, and 21% reported foot pain (40% mild pain, 47% moderate pain, and 13% severe pain). One-third reported falls in the past year (1 fall: n = 263, ≥2 falls: n = 152). Foot pain was associated with a 62% increased odds of recurrent falls. Those with moderate and severe foot pain showed increased odds of ≥2 falls (OR 1.78, CI 1.06-2.99, and OR 3.25, CI 1.65-7.48, respectively) compared to those with no foot pain. Foot function was not associated with falls. Compared to normal foot posture, those with planus foot posture had 78% higher odds of ≥2 falls. Higher odds of recurrent falls were observed in individuals with foot pain, especially severe foot pain, as well as in individuals with planus foot posture, indicating that both foot pain and foot posture may play a role in increasing the risk of falls among older adults. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Foot related impairments and disability in juvenile idiopathic arthritis persist despite modern day treatment paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Hendry, Gordon J; Gardner-Medwin, Janet; Watt, Gordon F; Woodburn, Jim; McColl, John H; Sturrock, Roger D

    2011-01-01

    Background: Foot problems such as synovitis, growth disturbance and deformity are considered common in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and have been previously reported in over 90% of cases. The medical management of JIA appears to have improved recently however little is known about the impact of new regimes on localised joints such as in the foot. This pilot study aimed to investigate the prevalence of foot related impairments and disability, and survey the medical and podiatric managem...

  15. Use and tolerability of a side pole static ankle foot orthosis in children with neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvert, Céline; Rippert, Pascal; Margirier, Françoise; Vadot, Jean-Pierre; Bérard, Carole; Poirot, Isabelle; Vuillerot, Carole

    2017-04-01

    Transverse-plane foot deformities are a frequently encountered issue in children with neurological disorders. They are the source of many symptoms, such as pain and walking difficulties, making their prevention very important. We aim to describe the use and tolerability of a side pole static ankle foot orthosis used to prevent transverse-plane foot deformities in children with neurologic disorders. Monocentric, retrospective, observational study. Medical data were collected from 103 children with transverse-plane foot deformities in one or both feet caused by a neurological impairment. All children were braced between 2001 and 2010. Unilateral orthosis was prescribed for 32 children and bilateral orthosis for 71. Transverse-plane foot deformities were varus in 66% of the cases and an equinus was associated in 59.2% of the cases. Mean age for the first prescription was 8.6 years. For the 23 patients present at the 4-year visit, 84.8% still wore the orthosis daily, and 64.7% wore the orthosis more than 6 h per day. The rate of permanent discontinuation of wearing the orthosis was 14.7%. The side pole static ankle foot orthosis is well tolerated with very few side effects, which promotes regular wearing and observance. Clinical relevance Side pole static ankle foot orthoses are well tolerated and can be safely used for children with foot abnormalities in the frontal plane that have a neurological pathology origin.

  16. Healing ulcers and preventing their recurrences in the diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Raja Sabapathy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen percent of people with diabetes develop an ulcer in the course of their lifetime. Eighty-five percent of the major amputations in diabetes mellitus are preceded by an ulcer. Management of ulcers and preventing their recurrence is important for the quality of life of the individual and reducing the cost of care of treatment. The main causative factors of ulceration are neuropathy, vasculopathy and limited joint mobility. Altered bio-mechanics due to the deformities secondary to neuropathy and limited joint mobility leads to focal points of increased pressure, which compromises circulation leading to ulcers. Ulcer management must not only address the healing of ulcers but also should correct the altered bio-mechanics to reduce the focal pressure points and prevent recurrence. An analysis of 700 patients presenting with foot problems to the Diabetic Clinic of Ganga Hospital led to the stratification of these patients into four classes of incremental severity. Class 1 – the foot at risk, Class 2 – superficial ulcers without infection, Class 3 – the crippled foot and Class 4 – the critical foot. Almost 77.5% presented in either Class 3 or 4 with complicated foot ulcers requiring major reconstruction or amputation. Class 1 foot can be managed conservatively with foot care and appropriate foot wear. Class 2 in addition to measures for ulcer healing would need surgery to correct the altered bio-mechanics to prevent the recurrence. The procedures called surgical offloading would depend on the site of the ulcer and would need an in-depth clinical study of the foot. Class 3 would need major reconstructive procedures and Class 4 would need amputation since it may be life-threatening. As clinicians, our main efforts must be focused towards identifying patients in Class 1 and offer advice on foot care and Class 2 where appropriate surgical offloading procedure would help preserve the foot.

  17. Plastic deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitter, de L.U.

    1937-01-01

    § 1. Plastic deformation of solid matter under high confining pressures has been insufficiently studied. Jeffreys 1) devotes a few paragraphs to deformation of solid matter as a preface to his chapter on the isostasy problem. He distinguishes two properties of solid matter with regard to its

  18. Effectiveness of custom-made orthopaedic shoes in the reduction of foot pain and pressure in patients with degenerative disorders of the foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jannink, Michiel; van Dijk, Henk; IJzerman, Maarten; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Karen; Groothoff, Johan; Lankhorst, Gustaaf

    2006-01-01

    Background: Degenerative disorders of the foot often are painful during standing and walking. It is assumed that, because of bone deformity, callus, and deformity of the plantar pads, the plantar pressure distribution changes. Prescription of orthopaedic shoes for patients with degenerative

  19. Foot morphology of Turkish football players according to foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Football is the most popular sport in the world. Foot morphology and foot preference are important factors in football player's performance. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the foot morphology of elite football players with different foot preferences. 407 male football players participated in this study. 328 of ...

  20. Settlement Prediction of Footings Using VS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Ik CHO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The shear wave velocity (VS is a key parameter for estimating the deformation characteristics of soil. In order to predict the settlement of shallow footings in granular soil, the VS and the concept of Schmertmann’s framework were adopted. The VS was utilized to represent soil stiffness instead of cone tip resistance (qc because the VS can be directly related to the small-strain shear modulus. By combining the VS measured in the field and the modulus reduction curve measured in the laboratory, the deformation characteristics of soil can be reliably estimated. Vertical stress increments were determined using two different profiles of the strain influence factor (Iz proposed in Schmertmann’s method and that calculated from the theory of elasticity. The corresponding modulus variation was determined by considering the stress level and strain at each depth. This state-dependent stress-strain relationship was utilized to calculate the settlement of footings based on the theory of elasticity. To verify the developed method, geotechnical centrifuge tests were carried out. The VS profiles were measured before each loading test, and the load-settlement curves were obtained during the tests. Comparisons between the measured and estimated load-settlement curves showed that the developed method adequately predicts the settlement of footings, especially for over-consolidated ground conditions.

  1. Haglund's Deformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... years before seeking treatment.What Is a... Baseball Injuries to the Foot and Ankle Your feet and ankles take a beating when you’re playing baseball. Baseball players should be aware of the following risks. Ankle sprains may occur while running, fielding balls... In Women's Shoes, Pain Does Not ...

  2. Analysis of foot structural damage in rheumatoid arthritis: clinical evaluation by validated measures and serological correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bartoloni Bocci

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine foot involvement in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and to characterize structural alterations in patients with anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP antibody-positive and -negative disease. Methods: Seventy-eight patients with RA with foot pain were consecutively enrolled. The Manchester Hallux Valgus (MHV rating scale was used to evaluate the hallux valgus deformity degree. The Foot Posture Index (FPI6, a novel, foot-specific outcome measure, was adopted in order to quantify variation in the position of the foot. The findings were correlated with disease duration and presence or absence of anti-CCP antibodies. Results: About 84.6% patients had different degrees of hallux valgus and 65.4% subjects had a pronated foot. These two foot alterations were prevalently found in patients with long-standing disease and circulating anti-CCP antibodies. On the contrary, RA patients without anti-CCP and early disease essentially displayed a supinated foot without relevant hallux valgus deformity. Conclusion: Our findings allowed to identify different anatomic foot alterations in RA patients according to disease duration and negative prognostic factors such as anti-CCP antibodies. Our findings support the role of an accurate analysis of foot structural damage and may suggest the usefulness of a correct plantar orthosis prescription also in early phases of the disease.

  3. The diabetic foot

    OpenAIRE

    Nabuurs-Franssen, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    The diabetic foot presents a complex interplay of neuropathic, macrovascular, and microvascular disease on an abnormal metabolic background, complicated by an increased susceptibility to mechanical, thermal, and chemical injury and decreased healing ability. The abnormalities of diabetes, once present, are not curable. But most severe foot abnormalities in the diabetic are due to neglect of injury and are mostly preventable. The physician must ensure that the diabetic patient learns the princ...

  4. Athlete's Foot: Clinical Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, M L

    1989-10-01

    In brief: Athletes are particularly prone to athlete's foot because they are generally more exposed than others to conditions that encourage fungal growth, eg, communal showers and locker rooms. Diagnosis of athlete's foot rests on clinical suspicion and laboratory testing. Treatment may consist of topical antifungal agents and, for more resistant cases, oral griseofulvin. Preventive measures include keeping the feet dry, wearing nonocclusive leather shoes or sandals and absorbent cotton socks, and applying talcum or antifungal powder at least twice daily.

  5. A prospective study of risk factors for foot ulceration: The West of Ireland Diabetes Foot Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hurley, L

    2013-09-25

    BackgroundThis is the first study to examine risk factors for diabetic foot ulceration in Irish general practice.AimTo determine the prevalence of established risk factors for foot ulceration in a community-based cohort, and to explore the potential for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to act as a novel risk factor.DesignA prospective observational study.MethodsPatients with diabetes attending 12 (of 17) invited general practices were invited for foot screening. Validated clinical tests were carried out at baseline to assess for vascular and sensory impairment and foot deformity. Ulcer incidence was ascertained by patient self-report and medical record. Patients were re-assessed 18 months later. ResultsOf 828 invitees, 563 (68%) attended screening. On examination 23-25% had sensory dysfunction and 18-39% had evidence of vascular impairment. Using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network risk stratification system we found the proportion at moderate and high risk of future ulceration to be 25% and 11% respectively. At follow-up 16\\/383 patients (4.2%) developed a new foot ulcer (annual incidence rate of 2.6%). We observed an increasing probability of abnormal vascular and sensory test results (pedal pulse palpation, doppler waveform assessment, 10g monofilament, vibration perception and neuropathy disability score) with declining eGFR levels. We were unable to show an independent association between new ulceration and reduced eGFR [Odds ratio 1.01; p=0.64].ConclusionsOur data show the extent of foot complications in a representative sample of diabetes patients in Ireland. Use of eGFR did not improve identification of patients at risk of foot ulceration.

  6. [Minor foot amputations in diabetic foot syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, C; Eckhard, M; Szalay, G; Heiss, C

    2016-10-01

    The treatment strategy for diabetic foot syndrome must take into account protective sensibility of the foot, open wounds, infection status, and the rules of septic bone surgery. Interventions are classified as elective, prophylactic, curative, or emergency. Amputations in the forefoot and midfoot region are performed as ray amputations (including metatarsal), which can often be carried out as "inner" amputations. Gentle tissue treatment mandatory because of greater risk of revision with re-amputation compared to classical amputation. Good demarcation of infection, acute osteomyelitis, osteolytic lesions, neurotropic ulcer, arterial and venous blood flow to the other toes, gangrene of other toes with metatarsal affection. Arterial occlusive disease, infection of neighboring areas, avoidable amputations, poorly healing ulcers on the lower leg. Primary dorsal approach; minimal incisional distance (5 cm) to minimize skin necrosis risk. Atraumatic preparation, minimize hemostasis to not compromise the borderline perfusion situation. In amputations, plantar skin preparation and longer seams placed as dorsal as possible, either disarticulated and maintain cartilage, or round the cortical metatarsal bone after resection. Diabetes control. Braun splint, mobilization in a shoe with forefoot decompression and hindfoot support, physiotherapy. Antibiotics based on resistance testing. If no complications, dressing change on postoperative day 1. Optimal wound drainage by lowering foot several times a day; drainage removal after 12-24 h. Insoles and footwear optimization. Amputations require continued attention and if necessary treatment to avoid sequelae. Insufficient treatment associated with recurrent ulceration and altered anatomy.

  7. Modelling foot height and foot shape-related dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shuping; Goonetilleke, Ravindra S; Witana, Channa P; Lee Au, Emily Yim

    2008-08-01

    The application of foot anthropometry to design good-fitting footwear has been difficult due to the lack of generalised models. This study seeks to model foot dimensions so that the characteristic shapes of feet, especially in the midfoot region, can be understood. Fifty Hong Kong Chinese adults (26 males and 24 females) participated in this study. Their foot lengths, foot widths, ball girths and foot heights were measured and then evaluated using mathematical models. The results showed that there were no significant allometry (p > 0.05) effects of foot length on ball girth and foot width. Foot height showed no direct relationship with foot length. However, a normalisation with respect to foot length and foot height resulted in a significant relationship for both males and females with R(2) greater than 0.97. Due to the lack of a direct relationship between foot height and foot length, the current practice of grading shoes with a constant increase in height or proportionate scaling in response to foot length is less than ideal. The results when validated with other populations can be a significant way forward in the design of footwear that has an improved fit in the height dimension.

  8. Minimally invasive soft tissue release of foot and ankle contracture secondary to stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffeli, Troy J; Collier, Rachel C

    2014-01-01

    Lower extremity contracture associated with stroke commonly results in a nonreducible, spastic equinovarus deformity of the foot and ankle. Rigid contracture deformity leads to gait instability, pain, bracing difficulties, and ulcerations. The classic surgical approach for stroke-related contracture of the foot and ankle has been combinations of tendon lengthening, tendon transfer, osteotomy, and joint fusion procedures. Recovery after traditional foot and ankle reconstructive surgery requires a period of non-weightbearing that is not typically practical for these patients. Little focus has been given in published studies on minimally invasive soft tissue release of contracture. We present the case of a 61-year-old female with an equinovarus foot contracture deformity secondary to stroke. The patient underwent Achilles tendon lengthening, posterior tibial tendon Z lengthening, and digital flexor tenotomy of each toe with immediate weightbearing in a walking boot, followed by transition to an ankle-foot orthosis. The surgical principles and technique tips are presented to demonstrate our minimally invasive approach to release of foot and ankle contracture secondary to stroke. The main goal of this approach is to improve foot and ankle alignment for ease of bracing, which, in turn, will improve gait, reduce the risk of falls, decrease pain, and avoid the development of pressure sores. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Imaging of Charcot foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlemann, Rainer; Schmitz, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The onset of a Charcot foot ist a feared complication of a long lasting diabetes mellitus. A peripheral neuropathy and continuous weight bearing of the foot subsequent to repeated traumas depict the conditions. There exist three types of a Charcot foot, an atrophic, a hypertophic and a mixed type. In early stages a differentiation from osteoarthritis is difficult. Subluxation or luxation within the Lisfranc's joint is typical. The joints of the foot could rapidly and extensively be destroyed or may present the morphology of a 'superosteoarthritis'. Often, soft tissue infections or osteomyelitis evolve from ulcers of the skin as entry points. Diagnosis of osteomyelitis necessitate MR imaging as plain radiography offers only low sensitivity for detection of an osteomyelitis. The existence of periosteal reactions is not a proof for osteomyelitis. Bone marrow edema and soft tissue edema also appear in a non infected Charcot foot. The range of soft tissue infections goes from cellulitis over phlegmon to abscesses. The ghost sign is the most suitable diagnostic criterion for osteomyelitis. In addition, the penumbra sign or the existence of a sinus tract between a skin ulcer and the affected bone may be helpful. (orig.)

  10. Pathophysiology diabetic foot ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafril, S.

    2018-03-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is known to have many complications. Diabetes and its complications are rapidly becoming the world’s most significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and one of the most distressing is Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU). Chronic wound complications are a growing concern worldwide, and the effect is a warning to public health and the economy. The etiology of a DFU is multifaceted, and several components cause added together create a sufficient impact on ulceration: neuropathy, vasculopathy, immunopathy, mechanical stress, and neuroarthropathy. There are many classifications of the diabetic foot. About 50% of patients with foot ulcers due to DM present clinical signs of infection. It is essential to manage multifactorial etiology of DFU to get a good outcome.

  11. Foot muscles strengthener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris T. Glavač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous experience in the correction of flat feet consisted of the use of insoles for shoes and exercises with toys, balls, rollers, inclined planes, etc. A device for strengthening foot muscles is designed for the correction of flat feet in children and, as its name suggests, for strengthening foot muscles in adults. The device is made of wood and metal, with a mechanism and technical solutions, enabling the implementation of specific exercises to activate muscles responsible for the formation of the foot arch. It is suitable for home use with controlled load quantities since it has calibrated springs. The device is patented with the Intellectual Property Office, Republic of Serbia, as a petty patent.

  12. Dermatological and musculoskeletal assessment of diabetic foot: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsanjani Shirazi, Azam; Nasiri, Morteza; Yazdanpanah, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic Foot Syndrome (DFS) is the most costly and devastating complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), which early effective assessment can reduce the severity of complications including ulceration and amputations. This study aimed to review dermatological and musculoskeletal assessment of diabetic foot. In this review article, we searched for articles published between March 1, 1980 and July 28, 2015 in PubMed, Science Direct, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus, for both English and non-English language articles with the following keywords: "Diabetic foot syndrome", "Ulceration", "Amputation", "Foot assessment", "Skin disorders" and "Musculoskeletal deformities". In dermatological dimension, most studies focused on elucidated changes in skin temperature, color, hardiness and turgor as well as common skin disorders such as Diabetic Dermopathy (DD), Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum (NLD) and Diabetic Bullae (DB), which are common in diabetic patients and have high potential for leading to limb-threatening problems such as ulceration and infection. In musculoskeletal dimension, most studies focused on range of motion and muscle strength, gait patterns and as well as foot deformities especially Charcot osteoarthropathy (COA), which is the most destructive musculoskeletal complication of diabetes. DFS as a common condition in DM patients lead to ulceration and lower limb amputation frequently unless a prompt and comprehensive assessment was taken. So that dermatological and musculoskeletal assessments are usually neglected in primary health care, these assessments should be done frequently to reduce the high risk of serious complications. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Deformation microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Hughes, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Microstructural characterization and modeling has shown that a variety of metals deformed by different thermomechanical processes follows a general path of grain subdivision, by dislocation boundaries and high angle boundaries. This subdivision has been observed to very small structural scales...... of the order of 10 nm, produced by deformation under large sliding loads. Limits to the evolution of microstructural parameters during monotonic loading have been investigated based on a characterization by transmission electron microscopy. Such limits have been observed at an equivalent strain of about 10...

  14. A survey of foot problems in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, G; Gardner-Medwin, J; Watt, G F; Woodburn, J

    2008-12-01

    Evidence suggests that foot problems are common in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), with prevalence estimates over 90%. The aim of this survey was to describe foot-related impairment and disability associated with JIA and foot-care provision in patients managed under modern treatment paradigms, including disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biologic therapies. The Juvenile Arthritis Foot Disability Index (JAFI), Child Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ), and pain visual analogue scale (VAS) were recorded in 30 consecutive established JIA patients attending routine outpatient clinics. Foot deformity score, active/limited joint counts, walking speed, double-support time (s) (DS) and step length symmetry index % (SI) were also measured. Foot-care provision in the preceding 12 months was determined from medical records. Sixty-three per cent of children reported some foot impairment, with a median (range) JAFI subscale score of 1 (0-3); 53% reported foot-related activity limitation, with a JAFI subscale score of 1 (0-4); and 60% reported participation restriction, with a JAFI subscale score of 1 (0-3). Other reported variables were CHAQ 0.38 (0-2), VAS pain 22 (0-79), foot deformity 6 (0-20), active joints 0 (0-7), limited joints 0 (0-31), walking speed 1.09 m/s (0.84-1.38 m/s), DS 0.22 s (0.08-0.26 s) and SI +/-4.0% (+/-0.2-+/-31.0%). A total of 23/30 medical records were reviewed and 15/23 children had received DMARDS, 8/23 biologic agents and 20/23 multiple intra-articular corticosteroid injections. Ten children received specialist podiatry care comprising footwear advice, orthotic therapy and silicone digital splints together with intrinsic muscle strengthening exercises. Despite frequent use of DMARD/biologic therapy and specialist podiatry-led foot care, foot-related impairment and disability persists in some children with JIA.

  15. Evaluation of foot static disturbances in patients with rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kuryliszyn-Moskal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Rheumatic diseases such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis constitute the most frequent pathological states leading to the development of foot deformities, which reduce quality of life and cause disability. The aim of the present study was to compare the results of plantoconturographic examinations, obtained by means of a computer podoscope, in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis patients. Special attention was paid to the differences in the values of each parameter determining the level of foot function. Material and methods : The study was performed in 94 female patients divided into two groups according to the type of disease. There were 54 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 40 with osteoarthritis. The control group consisted of 34 healthy women. The plantographic assessment of static foot structure was carried out by means of a device for computer-aided foot examination. Results : A fallen transverse arch of the right foot was statistically much more frequent in the rheumatoid arthritis patients than in osteoarthritis patients or the control group (p < 0.005 and p < 0.05, respectively. Significant differences in the values of the Wejsflog index were observed in the case of left foot between rheumatoid arthritis patients and the control group (p < 0.05. Similarly, there were statistically significant differences in the values of the hallux valgus angle ( for the right foot between rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis patients or control group (in both cases p < 0.05. Conclusions : Rheumatic diseases predispose patients to disturbances of static foot function. The obtained results highlight the importance of diagnosing foot static disturbances in the prevention of destructive changes affecting the functioning of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis patients.

  16. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Foot, leg, and ankle swelling is common when the person also: Is overweight Has a blood clot in the leg Is older Has ...

  17. What Is a Foot and Ankle Surgeon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A | Print | Share What is a Foot & Ankle Surgeon? Foot and ankle surgeons are the surgical ... every age. What education has a foot and ankle surgeon received? After completing undergraduate education, the foot ...

  18. Diabetes and Foot Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too much pressure on your toes. If your feet have changed shape, such as from Charcot’s foot, you may need ... care visit if you have changes in the shape of your feet loss of feeling in your feet peripheral artery ...

  19. Treatment of congenital club foot with Ponseti method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal R

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Idiopathic congenital talipes equinovarus (Club Foot is a complex deformity that is difficult to correct. The goal of treatment is to reduce or eliminate its four components so that the patient has a functional, pain free, plantigrade foot, with good mobility and without calluses, and does not need to wear modified shoes. Material and Methods: We have treated 41 patients with 60 idiopathic clubfoot deformity using Ponseti method of management. The severity of foot deformity was assessed according to the grading system of Dimeglio et al. Results: The mean number of casts that were applied to obtain correction was six (range four to nine casts. Tenotomy was done in 58 feet. Fifty eight feet had good results.Two patients developed recurrence of the deformity due to non-compliance of the use of orthrotics. Conclusion: The Ponseti method is a safe and effective treatment for congenital idiopathic clubfoot and radically decreases the need for extensive corrective surgery. Non compliance with orthotics has been widely reported to be the main factor causing failure of the technique.

  20. Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the ball of the foot when walking, running and jumping. Sesamoid injuries can involve the bones, tendons and/or surrounding ... on the ball of the foot, such as running, basketball, football, golf, tennis and ballet. ... of Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot There are three types of ...

  1. Foot Health Facts for Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common foot problems affecting athletes: Prevent Foot & Ankle Running Injuries (downloadable PDF) Back-to-School Soccer Season Surgeons ... and Ankle Soccer is hard on the feet! Injuries to the foot and ankle can occur from running and side-to-side cutting, sliding or tackling ...

  2. A clinically applicable six-segmented foot model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mits, Sophie; Segers, Veerle; Woodburn, Jim; Elewaut, Dirk; De Clercq, Dirk; Roosen, Philip

    2012-04-01

    We describe a multi-segmented foot model comprising lower leg, rearfoot, midfoot, lateral forefoot, medial forefoot, and hallux for routine use in a clinical setting. The Ghent Foot Model describes the kinematic patterns of functional units of the foot, especially the midfoot, to investigate patient populations where midfoot deformation or dysfunction is an important feature, for example, rheumatoid arthritis patients. Data were obtained from surface markers by a 6 camera motion capture system at 500 Hz. Ten healthy subjects walked barefoot along a 12 m walkway at self-selected speed. Joint angles (rearfoot to shank, midfoot to rearfoot, lateral and medial forefoot to midfoot, and hallux to medial forefoot) in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse plane are reported according to anatomically based reference frames. These angles were calculated and reported during the foot rollover phases in stance, detected by synchronized plantar pressure measurements. Repeated measurements of each subject revealed low intra-subject variability, varying between 0.7° and 2.3° for the minimum values, between 0.5° and 2.1° for the maximum values, and between 0.8° and 5.8° for the ROM. The described movement patterns were repeatable and consistent with biomechanical and clinical knowledge. As such, the Ghent Foot model permits intersegment, in vivo motion measurement of the foot, which is crucial for both clinical and research applications. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  3. "They just scraped off the calluses": a mixed methods exploration of foot care access and provision for people with rheumatoid arthritis in south-western Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Gordon J; Gibson, Kathryn A; Pile, Kevin; Taylor, Luke; Du Toit, Verona; Burns, Joshua; Rome, Keith

    2013-08-13

    There is little indication that foot health services in Australia are meeting modern day recommendations for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients. The overall objective of this study was to explore the current state of foot health services for patients with RA with an emphasis on identifying barriers to the receipt of appropriate foot care in South-West Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. A mixed (quantitative and qualitative) approach was adopted. Indications for appropriate access to foot care were determined by comparing the foot health, disease and socio-demographic characteristics of patients with unmet foot care demands, foot care users and patients with no demands for foot care. Perceptions of provision of, and access to, foot care were explored by conducting telephone-based interviews using an interpretative phenomenology approach with thematic analysis. Twenty-nine participants took part in the cross-sectional quantitative research study design, and 12 participants took part in the interpretative phenomenological approach (qualitative study). Foot care access appeared to be driven predominantly by the presence of rearfoot deformity, which was significantly worse amongst participants in the foot care user group (p = 0.02). Five main themes emerged from the qualitative data: 1) impact of disease-related foot symptoms, 2) footwear difficulties, 3) medical/rheumatology encounters, 4) foot and podiatry care access and experiences, and 5) financial hardship. Foot care provision does not appear to be driven by appropriate foot health characteristics such as foot pain or foot-related disability. There may be significant shortfalls in footwear and foot care access and provision in Greater Western Sydney. Several barriers to adequate foot care access and provision were identified and further efforts are required to improve access to and the quality of foot care for people who have RA. Integration of podiatry services within rheumatology centres could resolve unmet

  4. Foot anthropometry and morphology phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agić, Ante; Nikolić, Vasilije; Mijović, Budimir

    2006-12-01

    Foot structure description is important for many reasons. The foot anthropometric morphology phenomena are analyzed together with hidden biomechanical functionality in order to fully characterize foot structure and function. For younger Croatian population the scatter data of the individual foot variables were interpolated by multivariate statistics. Foot structure descriptors are influenced by many factors, as a style of life, race, climate, and things of the great importance in human society. Dominant descriptors are determined by principal component analysis. Some practical recommendation and conclusion for medical, sportswear and footwear practice are highlighted.

  5. Diabetic Foot Risk Factors in Patients with Diabetes at the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hosseini

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives Diabetic foot problems are one of the major causes of mortality and disability in diabetic patients. It is considered one of the costliest conditions for health care systems. This study is designed to identify diabetic foot risk factors in patients with diabetes mellitus at Kamkar Hospital diabetes clinic in Qom, Iran during 2006.MethodsThis study was performed on 140 diabetes mellitus patients at the Kamkar Hospital diabetic clinic. International working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF guidelines were used for physical exam of diabetic foot in these patients. The physical exam consisted of inspection of foot appearance for deformity, skin keratosis and ulcer, and neurological and arterial pulse exam of the lower extremities of these patients. Patients in this study were divided into four risk groups based on the IWGDF guidelines. ANOVA method was used for analysis and comparison of the results with P<0.05 considered as significant. ResultsMean age of the participants in this study was 52.4±11.2 years old from which 67.1% were female, 37.1% of patients were illiterate, and 10% were active smokers. Mean duration of diabetes in these patients was 8.9 years. Mean body mass index (BMI was 29.4± 4.4 and HbA1C was 9.3 ± 1.9. Percentages of the patients with retinopathy and nephropathy were 33.6% and 17.7% respectively. 95% of the patients did not know the correct way of nail clipping, 95.5% were wearing uncomfortable shoes, and 14.3% of patients had history of foot ulcer. None of the them had any education about foot care. Physical examination with monofilament, ankle reflex and vibration perception were defected in 28.6%, 52.5%, and 32.1% of patients respectively. 37.7% of patients had a decreased lower extremity pulse that was not felt by touch. Based on the IWGDF classifications, 70% of the patients were in the higher-risk group for diabetic foot ulcer. In the high risk group, age, duration of diabetes, illiteracy was

  6. The influence of valgus heel position on foot loading in a child's gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliška Martinásková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Flat foot is a typical clinical sign in childhood, expressed as valgus positioning of the heel during vertical foot loading. This may lead to medial deviation of the foot axis and cause overloading of some foot areas. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of valgus position of the heel (both bilateral and unilateral on foot loading during gait. METHODS: An experimental group consisting of children with bilateral heel valgus deformity (16 children, age 5.3 ± 1.3 years and children with unilateral heel valgus deformity (14 children, age 5.6 ± 1.6 years. The control group comprised of 14 children (age 4.5 ± 1.2 years. For measuring foot loading during gait, the Footscan (RSScan International, Olen, Belgium pressure plate was used. Each subject went through 8 trials of gait measurement. From each trial, 8 foot areas were evaluated. Data processing with mean values for each subject was performed by non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests, Spearman correlation in the STATISTICA programme (StatSoft, Inc., Tulsa, USA. RESULTS: Pressure peak and pressure impulse in the first metatarsal was greater for the bilateral valgus group (p CONCLUSION: The results show that valgus positioning of the heel influences foot loading in children during gait. The findings of this study suggest the necessity of a complex solution to the problem of preventing further progression of pathological changes.

  7. Biomechanically acquired foot types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    Over the years, orthopedics of the foot has gone through many stages and phases, each of which has spawned a whole vocabulary of its own. According the author, today we are in the biomechanical age, which represents a step forward in understanding the mechanisms governing the functions of the lower extremity. A great deal of scientific research on the various foot types and pathological entities is now being performed. This paper discusses how, from a radiographic point of view, a knowledge of certain angular relationships must be achieved before one can perform a biomechanical evaluation. In order to validate the gross clinical findings, following an examination of a patient, a biomechanical evaluation can be performed on the radiographs taken. It must be remembered, however, that x-rays are never the sole means of making a diagnosis. They are just one of many findings that must be put together to arrive at a pertinent clinical assessment or diagnosis

  8. The diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestring, T.; Fiedler, R.; Greitemann, B.; Sciuk, J.; Peters, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    Familiarity with the spectrum of findings in the different imaging modalities appears essential. Radiographically, significant changes include Charcot joints of the tarsus (destructive type) and bone absorption of the forefoot (mutilating type). In diabetic foot problems, magnetic resonance imaging and leukocyte scintigraphy appear to be the most effective tools for detection of osteomyelitis, and a negative study makes osteomyelitis unlikely. However, the findings of both techniques in active, noninfected neuropathic osteoarthropathy may be indistinguishable from those of osteomyelitis. (orig.) [de

  9. Normal foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The foot may be thought of as a bag of bones tied tightly together and functioning as a unit. The bones re expected to maintain their alignment without causing symptomatology to the patient. The author discusses a normal radiograph. The bones must have normal shape and normal alignment. The density of the soft tissues should be normal and there should be no fractures, tumors, or foreign bodies

  10. Surgical Reconstruction of Charcot Foot Neuroarthropathy, a Case Based Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Kučera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our case-based review focuses on limb salvage through operative management of Charcot neuroarthropathy of the diabetic foot. We describe a case, when a below-knee amputation was considered in a patient with chronic Charcot foot with a rocker-bottom deformity and chronic plantar ulceration. Conservative treatment failed. Targeted antibiotic therapy and operative management (Tendo-Achilles lengthening, resectional arthrodesis of Lisfranc and midtarsal joints, fixation with large-diameter axial screws, and plaster cast were performed. On the basis of this case, we discuss options and drawbacks of surgical management. Our approach led to healing of the ulcer and correction of the deformity. Two years after surgery, we observed a significant improvement in patient’s quality of life. Advanced diagnostic and imaging techniques, a better understanding of the biomechanics and biology of Charcot neuroarthropathy, and suitable osteosynthetic material enables diabetic limb salvage.

  11. Reconstruction of bilateral tibial aplasia and split hand-foot syndrome in a father and daughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Ganger, Rudolf; Klaushofer, Klaus; Grill, Franz

    2014-01-01

    Tibial aplasia is of heterogeneous aetiology, the majority of reports are sporadic. We describe the reconstruction procedures in two subjects - a daughter and father manifested autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance of the bilateral tibial aplasia and split hand-foot syndrome. Reconstruction of these patients required multiple surgical procedures and orthoprosthesis was mandatory. The main goal of treatment was to achieve walking. Stabilization of the ankle joint by fibular-talar-chondrodesis on both sides, followed by bilateral Brown-procedure at the knee joint level has been applied accordingly. The outcome was with improved function of the deformed limbs and walking was achieved with simultaneous designation of orthotic fitting. This is the first study encompassing the diagnosis and management of a father and daughter with bilateral tibial aplasia associated with variable split hand/foot deformity without foot ablation. Our patients showed the typical AD pattern of inheritance of split-hand/foot and tibial aplasia.

  12. Relationship between static foot posture and foot mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPoil Thomas G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not uncommon for a person's foot posture and/or mobility to be assessed during a clinical examination. The exact relationship, however, between static posture and mobility is not known. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of association between static foot posture and mobility. Method The static foot posture and foot mobility of 203 healthy individuals was assessed and then analyzed to determine if low arched or "pronated" feet are more mobile than high arched or "supinated" feet. Results The study demonstrated that those individuals with a lower standing dorsal arch height and/or a wider standing midfoot width had greater mobility in their foot. In addition, those individuals with higher Foot Posture Index (FPI values demonstrated greater mobility and those with lower FPI values demonstrated less mobility. Finally, the amount of foot mobility that an individual has can be predicted reasonably well using either a 3 or 4 variable linear regression model. Conclusions Because of the relationship between static foot posture and mobility, it is recommended that both be assessed as part of a comprehensive evaluation of a individual with foot problems.

  13. Gait COP trajectory of left side hip-dislocation and scoliotic patient using ankle-foot orthoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Albert K.; Alrikabi, Redha; Milburn, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Plantar pressure-sensing mats and insole plantar sensor pads are ideal low-cost alternatives to force plates for capturing plantar COP excursion during gait. The acquired COP traces, in the form of pedobarographic images are favored by many clinicians and allied health professionals for evaluation of foot loading and balance in relation to foot biomechanics, foot injury, foot deformation, and foot ulceration. Researchers have recommended the use of COP trace for the biomechanical study of the deformed foot and lower-limb to improve orthosis design and testing. A correctly designed orthoses improves mobility and reduces pain in the foot, lower limb and lower spine region during gait. The research was carried out to evaluate the performance of two types of orthosis, namely: a custom-molded orthosis and an over-the-counter molded orthosis to determine the quality of gait of an adult scoliotic patient. COP trace patterns were compared with those of a healthy adult and showed the design of the custom-molded orthosis resulted in an improved quality of movements and provided enhanced stability for the deformed left foot during gait.

  14. Adding Stiffness to the Foot Modulates Soleus Force-Velocity Behaviour during Human Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kota Z.; Gross, Michael T.; van Werkhoven, Herman; Piazza, Stephen J.; Sawicki, Gregory S.

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies of human locomotion indicate that foot and ankle structures can interact in complex ways. The structure of the foot defines the input and output lever arms that influences the force-generating capacity of the ankle plantar flexors during push-off. At the same time, deformation of the foot may dissipate some of the mechanical energy generated by the plantar flexors during push-off. We investigated this foot-ankle interplay during walking by adding stiffness to the foot through shoes and insoles, and characterized the resulting changes in in vivo soleus muscle-tendon mechanics using ultrasonography. Added stiffness decreased energy dissipation at the foot (p < 0.001) and increased the gear ratio (i.e., ratio of ground reaction force and plantar flexor muscle lever arms) (p < 0.001). Added foot stiffness also altered soleus muscle behaviour, leading to greater peak force (p < 0.001) and reduced fascicle shortening speed (p < 0.001). Despite this shift in force-velocity behaviour, the whole-body metabolic cost during walking increased with added foot stiffness (p < 0.001). This increased metabolic cost is likely due to the added force demand on the plantar flexors, as walking on a more rigid foot/shoe surface compromises the plantar flexors’ mechanical advantage.

  15. Neuropathic Minimally Invasive Surgeries (NEMESIS):: Percutaneous Diabetic Foot Surgery and Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Roslyn J

    2016-09-01

    Patients with peripheral neuropathy associated with ulceration are the nemesis of the orthopedic foot and ankle surgeon. Diabetic foot syndrome is the leading cause of peripheral neuropathy, and its prevalence continues to increase at an alarming rate. Poor wound healing, nonunion, infection, and risk of amputation contribute to the understandable caution toward this patient group. Significant metalwork is required to hold these technically challenging deformities. Neuropathic Minimally Invasive Surgeries is an addition to the toolbox of management of the diabetic foot. It may potentially reduce the risk associated with large wounds and bony correction in this patient group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Research on the Influence of Orthopaedic Inserts on Pressure Distribution in the Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignas Rutulys

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the influence of individual orthopaedic inserts on pressure distribution in the foot. Feet deformations, types of orthopaedic inserts, materials and pressure in the foot testing methods are discussed. Experimental computer measurements of pressure in the foot before and after the use of inserts have been done. During research, the inserts made of different kinds of materials selected according to human weight, pathology, skin sensitivity and many other reasons has been used. It has been determinated that orthopaedic inserts have a more noticeable impact on children whose feet is adjusted easier if compared with those of adults.Article in Lithuanian

  17. Treatment of hallux valgus deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraissler, Lukas; Konrads, Christian; Hoberg, Maik; Rudert, Maximilian; Walcher, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Hallux valgus deformity is a very common pathological condition which commonly produces painful disability. It is characterised as a combined deformity with a malpositioning of the first metatarsophalangeal joint caused by a lateral deviation of the great toe and a medial deviation of the first metatarsal bone.Taking the patient's history and a thorough physical examination are important steps. Anteroposterior and lateral weight-bearing radiographs of the entire foot are crucial for adequate assessment in the treatment of hallux valgus.Non-operative treatment of the hallux valgus cannot correct the deformity. However, insoles and physiotherapy in combination with good footwear can help to control the symptoms.There are many operative techniques for hallux valgus correction. The decision on which surgical technique is used depends on the degree of deformity, the extent of degenerative changes of the first metatarsophalangeal joint and the shape and size of the metatarsal bone and phalangeal deviation. The role of stability of the first tarsometatarsal joint is controversial.Surgical techniques include the modified McBride procedure, distal metatarsal osteotomies, metatarsal shaft osteotomies, the Akin osteotomy, proximal metatarsal osteotomies, the modified Lapidus fusion and the hallux joint fusion. Recently, minimally invasive percutaneous techniques have gained importance and are currently being evaluated more scientifically.Hallux valgus correction is followed by corrective dressings of the great toe post-operatively. Depending on the procedure, partial or full weight-bearing in a post-operative shoe or cast immobilisation is advised. Post-operative radiographs are taken in regular intervals until osseous healing is achieved. Cite this article: Fraissler L, Konrads C, Hoberg M, Rudert M, Walcher M. Treatment of hallux valgus deformity. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:295-302. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000005.

  18. A musculoskeletal foot model for clinical gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswat, Prabhav; Andersen, Michael S; Macwilliams, Bruce A

    2010-06-18

    Several full body musculoskeletal models have been developed for research applications and these models may potentially be developed into useful clinical tools to assess gait pathologies. Existing full-body musculoskeletal models treat the foot as a single segment and ignore the motions of the intrinsic joints of the foot. This assumption limits the use of such models in clinical cases with significant foot deformities. Therefore, a three-segment musculoskeletal model of the foot was developed to match the segmentation of a recently developed multi-segment kinematic foot model. All the muscles and ligaments of the foot spanning the modeled joints were included. Muscle pathways were adjusted with an optimization routine to minimize the difference between the muscle flexion-extension moment arms from the model and moment arms reported in literature. The model was driven by walking data from five normal pediatric subjects (aged 10.6+/-1.57 years) and muscle forces and activation levels required to produce joint motions were calculated using an inverse dynamic analysis approach. Due to the close proximity of markers on the foot, small marker placement error during motion data collection may lead to significant differences in musculoskeletal model outcomes. Therefore, an optimization routine was developed to enforce joint constraints, optimally scale each segment length and adjust marker positions. To evaluate the model outcomes, the muscle activation patterns during walking were compared with electromyography (EMG) activation patterns reported in the literature. Model-generated muscle activation patterns were observed to be similar to the EMG activation patterns. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Bunionette deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bruce E; Nicholson, Christopher W

    2007-05-01

    The bunionette, or tailor's bunion, is a lateral prominence of the fifth metatarsal head. Most commonly, bunionettes are the result of a widened 4-5 intermetatarsal angle with associated varus of the metatarsophalangeal joint. When symptomatic, these deformities often respond to nonsurgical treatment methods, such as wider shoes and padding techniques. When these methods are unsuccessful, surgical treatment is based on preoperative radiographs and associated lesions, such as hyperkeratoses. In rare situations, a simple lateral eminence resection is appropriate; however, the risk of recurrence or overresection is high with this technique. Patients with a lateral bow to the fifth metatarsal are treated with a distal chevron-type osteotomy. A widened 4-5 intermetatarsal angle often requires a diaphyseal osteotomy for correction.

  20. Protocol for the Foot in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis trial (FiJIA: a randomised controlled trial of an integrated foot care programme for foot problems in JIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendry Gordon J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot and ankle problems are a common but relatively neglected manifestation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Studies of medical and non-medical interventions have shown that clinical outcome measures can be improved. However existing data has been drawn from small non-randomised clinical studies of single interventions that appear to under-represent the adult population suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis. To date, no evidence of combined therapies or integrated care for juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients with foot and ankle problems exists. Methods/design An exploratory phase II non-pharmacological randomised controlled trial where patients including young children, adolescents and adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and associated foot/ankle problems will be randomised to receive integrated podiatric care via a new foot care programme, or to receive standard podiatry care. Sixty patients (30 in each arm including children, adolescents and adults diagnosed with juvenile idiopathic arthritis who satisfy the inclusion and exclusion criteria will be recruited from 2 outpatient centres of paediatric and adult rheumatology respectively. Participants will be randomised by process of minimisation using the Minim software package. The primary outcome measure is the foot related impairment measured by the Juvenile Arthritis Disability Index questionnaire's impairment domain at 6 and 12 months, with secondary outcomes including disease activity score, foot deformity score, active/limited foot joint counts, spatio-temporal and plantar-pressure gait parameters, health related quality of life and semi-quantitative ultrasonography score for inflammatory foot lesions. The new foot care programme will comprise rapid assessment and investigation, targeted treatment, with detailed outcome assessment and follow-up at minimum intervals of 3 months. Data will be collected at baseline, 6 months and 12 months from baseline

  1. The predictors of foot ulceration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Jill; Waxman, Robin; Law, Graham; Nelson, E Andrea; Helliwell, Philip; Siddle, Heidi; Otter, Simon; Butters, Violet; Baker, Lesley; Hryniw, Rosemary; Bradley, Sarah; Loughrey, Lorraine; Alcacer-Pitarch, Begonya; Davies, Samantha; Tranter, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the predictors of foot ulceration occurring in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) without diabetes. A multi-centre case control study was undertaken; participants were recruited from eight sites (UK). Cases were adults diagnosed with RA (without diabetes) and the presence of a validated foot ulcer, defined as a full thickness skin defect occurring in isolation on / below the midline of the malleoli and requiring > 14 days to heal. Controls met the same criteria but were ulcer naive. Clinical examination included loss of sensation (10g monofilament); ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI); forefoot deformity (Platto); plantar pressures (PressureStat); RA disease activity (36 swollen/tender joint counts) and the presence of vasculitis. History taking included past ulceration/foot surgery; current medication and smoking status. Participants completed the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and Foot Impact Scale. A total of 83 cases with 112 current ulcers and 190 ulcer naïve controls participated. Cases were significantly older (mean age 71 years; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 69-73 vs. 62 years, 60-64) and had longer RA disease duration (mean 22 years; 19-25 vs. 15, 13-17). Univariate analysis showed that risk of ulceration increases with loss of sensation; abnormality of ABPI and foot deformity. Plantar pressures and joint counts were not significant predictors. HAQ score and history of foot surgery were strongly associated with ulceration (odds ratio [OR] = 1.704, 95 % CI 1.274-2.280 and OR = 2.256, 95 % CI 1.294-3.932). Three cases and two controls presented with suspected cutaneous vasculitis. In logistic regression modelling, ABPI (OR = 0.04; 95 % CI, 0.01-0.28) forefoot deformity (OR = 1.14; 95 % CI, 1.08-1.21) and loss of sensation (OR = 1.22; 95 % CI, 1.10-1.36) predicted risk of ulceration. In patients with RA, ABPI, forefoot deformity and loss of sensation predict risk of ulceration

  2. Foot placement modulation diminishes for perturbations near foot contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlutters, Mark; Van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2018-01-01

    Whenever a perturbation occurs during walking we have to maintain our balance using the recovery strategies that are available to us. Foot placement adjustment is often considered an important recovery strategy. However, because this strategy takes time it is likely a poor option if the foot is

  3. Mortality associated with acute Charcot foot and neuropathic foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baal, Juliette; Hubbard, Richard; Game, Fran; Jeffcoate, William

    2010-01-01

    To compare the mortality of patients with an acute Charcot foot with a matched population with uninfected neuropathic foot ulcers (NFUs). Data were extracted from a specialist departmental database, supplemented by hospital records. The findings were compared with the results of earlier populations

  4. Effects of Ankle Arthrodesis on Biomechanical Performance of the Entire Foot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Ankle arthrodesis is one popular surgical treatment for ankle arthritis, chronic instability, and degenerative deformity. However, complications such as foot pain, joint arthritis, and bone fracture may cause patients to suffer other problems. Understanding the internal biomechanics of the foot is critical for assessing the effectiveness of ankle arthrodesis and provides a baseline for the surgical plan. This study aimed to understand the biomechanical effects of ankle arthrodesis on the entire foot and ankle using finite element analyses. A three-dimensional finite element model of the foot and ankle, involving 28 bones, 103 ligaments, the plantar fascia, major muscle groups, and encapsulated soft tissue, was developed and validated. The biomechanical performances of a normal foot and a foot with ankle arthrodesis were compared at three gait instants, first-peak, mid-stance, and second-peak.Changes in plantar pressure distribution, joint contact pressure and forces, von Mises stress on bone and foot deformation were predicted. Compared with those in the normal foot, the peak plantar pressure was increased and the center of pressure moved anteriorly in the foot with ankle arthrodesis. The talonavicular joint and joints of the first to third rays in the hind- and mid-foot bore the majority of the loading and sustained substantially increased loading after ankle arthrodesis. An average contact pressure of 2.14 MPa was predicted at the talonavicular joint after surgery and the maximum variation was shown to be 80% in joints of the first ray. The contact force and pressure of the subtalar joint decreased after surgery, indicating that arthritis at this joint was not necessarily a consequence of ankle arthrodesis but rather a progression of pre-existing degenerative changes. Von Mises stress in the second and third metatarsal bones at the second-peak instant increased to 52 MPa and 34 MPa, respectively, after surgery. These variations can provide

  5. The results of Grice Green subtalar arthrodesis of valgus foot in spina bifida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Küçükdurmaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Valgus foot is a common foot deformity in spina bifida. The most popular operation for the valgus deformity has been the Grice talocalcaneal blocking. It has not been studied primarily in children with spina bifida. We report a prospective series, we present the results of hind foot valgus deformity of children with spina bifida, using Grice talocalcaneal arthrodesis with a tricortical iliac bone graft. Materials and Methods: Between May 2000 and December 2003, 21 patients with bilateral (42 feet valgus deformity of feet underwent surgery. There were 7 males and 14 females. The mean age of patients was 67.7 months (range 50-108 months. Results: The total number of feet that had nonunion was 11, in 7 of them the grafts were completely reabsorbed and the outcome of all these feet was unsatisfactory. Four feet had partial union of which three had unsatisfactory and one had satisfactory outcome. Sixteen feet had residual valgus deformity at the last followup visit, 10 patients had nonunion, and 6 had inadequate correction. Mean preoperative talocalcaneal and calcaneal pitch angles were 48.5΀ and 31.9΀, respectively, which decreased to 38.5΀ and 29.1΀, respectively, postoperatively. The decrease in talocalcaneal angle and calcaneal pitch was significant between preoperative and postoperative measurements (P<0.05. Conclusion: Grice subtalar arthrodesis technique is still a valuable option for valgus foot in patients with spina bifida. In this study, we found more encouraging results in older patients.

  6. Radiology of the foot in alcoholism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scutellari, P.N.; Orzincolo, C.; Lombardo, F.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have reviewed the radiographic patterns of the foot in 28 patients affected by neuropathic joint disease complicating alcoholism, out of a series of 82 chronic ethylic patients. Sixteen of them were also affected by diabetes mellitus. On the basis of X-ray findings, lesion were divided into tree groups, reflecting the evolution of the disease: 1) early changes, especially affecting the soft tissue and joints;2) definite lesions, consisting of fractures, osteolysis, bone destruction and amputation, periarticulardebris; 3)''healing'' signs, simulating degenerative joint disease, which cause severe and weakening deformities. Tabe dorsalis and diabetic osteoarthropathy must be differentiated from alcohol-induced syndrome. Even though a correct differential diagnosis is often difficult to reach, it must be kept in mind that focal/diffuse osteopenia is the most characteristic manifestation of alcoholic osteopathy, whereas different radiographic findings simulate chronic degenerative arthropathies

  7. Flat Foot in a Random Population and its Impact on Quality of Life and Functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita-Fernandez, Salvador; Gonzalez-Martin, Cristina; Alonso-Tajes, Francisco; Seoane-Pillado, Teresa; Pertega-Diaz, Sonia; Perez-Garcia, Sergio; Seijo-Bestilleiro, Rocio; Balboa-Barreiro, Vanesa

    2017-04-01

    Flat foot is a common deformity in adults. It is characterized by medial rotation and plantar flexion of the talus, eversion of the calcaneus, collapsed medial arch and abduction of the forefoot. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of flat foot and its impact on quality of life, dependence, foot pain, disability and functional limitation among random population of 40-year-old and above. A cross-sectional study in a random population sample from Cambre (A Coruña-Spain) (n=835) was performed (α =0.05; Precision=±3.4%). The diagnosis of flat foot was stablished by the study of the footprint obtained with a pedograph. Anthropometric variables were studied, Charlson's Comorbidity Index, function and state of foot (Foot Function Index (FFI), Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ)), quality of life (SF-36), and dependence for activities of daily living (Barthel and Lawton index). A logistic and linear multiple regression analysis was performed. The prevalence of flat foot was 26.62%. Patients with flat foot were significantly older (65.73±11.04 vs 61.03±11.45-year-old), showed a higher comorbidity index (0.92±1.49 vs 0.50±0.98), had a greater BMI (31.45±5.55 vs 28.40±4.17) and greater foot size (25.16±1.66 vs 24.82±1.65). The presence of flat foot diminishes the quality of life, as measured by the FHSQ, and foot function, measured by the FFI. The presence of flat foot does not alter the physical and mental dimension of the SF-36 or the degree of dependence. Flat foot was associated with age, Charlson's Comorbidity Index, BMI and foot size. The SF-36, Barthel and Lawton questionnaires remained unaltered by the presence of flat foot. The FHSQ and FFI questionnaires did prove to be sensitive to the presence of flat foot in a significant manner.

  8. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.

  9. Foot-and-mouth disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Charleston, Bryan; Jackson, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is an economically important, highly contagious, disease of cloven-hoofed animals characterized by the appearance of vesicles (blisters) on the feet and in and around the mouth. The causative agent, foot-and-mouth disease virus, was the first mammalian virus to be discovered...

  10. Unilateral hallux valgus: is it true unilaterality, or does it progress to bilateral deformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ki Won; Park, Young Uk; Kim, Jin Su; Jegal, Hyuk; Lee, Kyung Tai

    2013-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether unilateral hallux valgus progresses unilaterally and to evaluate the demographics, etiologies, and radiographic findings associated with symptomatic unilateral hallux valgus deformities. Patients treated for hallux valgus between January 2004 and December 2008 were identified, and of these, 33 patients with unilateral deformities were enrolled. Progression of deformities in normal feet were evaluated at last follow-up visit, and the clinical information and radiographic measurements of those with a deformed normal foot or an unchanged normal foot were compared. Thirty-three patients (3.4%) had a unilateral hallux valgus deformity on preoperative radiographs. The mean length of follow up was 4.7 years (range, 2.4-11). Twenty-four cases had no deformity of the normal foot at last follow-up (the unchanged group), but 15 cases had developed hallux valgus deformity (the deformed group). No significant intergroup differences were found in terms of metatarsus adductus angle (P = .412), Meary angle (P = .771), talocalcaneal angle (P = 1.000), or calcaneal pitch angle (P = .267). However, members of the deformed group were significantly younger at disease onset (P = .045), exhibited a curved first metatarsal head (P = .046), and had a larger initial hallux valgus angle (P hallux valgus was found to be over 97.3%, and significant differences were found between the deformed and unchanged groups in terms of age of onset, metatarsal head shape, and hallux valgus angle.

  11. Modified Chevron osteotomy for hallux valgus deformity in female athletes. A 2-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotis, Dimitrios; Paschos, Nikolaos K; Zampeli, Franceska; Giannoulis, Dionisios; Gantsos, Apostolos; Mantellos, George

    2016-09-01

    Hallux valgus is an increasingly common deformity in young female athletes that constricts their daily athletic activities and influences foot cosmesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of modified Chevron osteotomy for hallux valgus deformity in this specific population. Forty-two cases of modified Chevron osteotomies were carried out in 33 patients with mild to moderate hallux valgus deformity. Each participant was evaluated for AOFAS score, pain, range of motion, cosmetic and radiological outcome. Mean AOFAS score improved to 96.3 (phallux valgus deformity in young female athletes, with excellent clinical outcome. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The association of foot structure and footwear fit with disability in children and adolescents with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Polly Qx; Shields, Nora; Nikolopoulos, Nikolaos; Barrett, Joanna T; Evans, Angela M; Taylor, Nicholas F; Munteanu, Shannon E

    2015-01-01

    Foot deformity, flat feet, and the use of ill-fitting footwear are common in children and adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). The aim of this study was to determine whether these observations are associated with foot-specific disability in this group. A cross-sectional study design. Foot structure (foot posture determined using the Arch Index, presence of hallux valgus and lesser toe deformities) and footwear fit (determined by length and width percentage differences between the participant's foot and footwear) were assessed in 50 participants with DS (22 females, 28 males) aged five to 18 with a mean (SD) age of 10.6 (3.9) years. Foot-specific disability was determined using the parent-reported Oxford Ankle Foot Questionnaire for Children (OxAFQ-C). Associations between foot structure and footwear fit with the four domains (Physical, School and play, Emotional and Footwear) of the OxAFQ-C were determined using multivariate regression modelling. The mean (SD) Arch Index was 0.29 (0.08), and the prevalence of flat feet, hallux valgus and lesser toe deformities was 76%, 10% and 12% respectively. Few participants wore footwear that was too short (10%), but the use of footwear that was too narrow was common (58%). The presence of hallux valgus was significantly associated with increased disability for the OxAFQ-C School and play domain scores. The use of narrow-fitting footwear was significantly associated with increased levels of disability for the OxAFQ-C Physical, School and play, and Emotional domains. However, these variables only explained between 10% to 14% of the variance in the OxAFQ-C domain scores. There were no significant associations between foot structure and footwear fit with the OxAFQ-C Footwear domain scores. Flatter feet and lesser toe deformities are not associated with foot-specific disability in children and adolescents with DS. Hallux valgus is associated with foot-specific disability during school and play activities. Ill-fitting footwear (too

  13. Diabetic Foot Australia guideline on footwear for people with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Netten, Jaap J; Lazzarini, Peter A; Armstrong, David G; Bus, Sicco A; Fitridge, Robert; Harding, Keith; Kinnear, Ewan; Malone, Matthew; Menz, Hylton B; Perrin, Byron M; Postema, Klaas; Prentice, Jenny; Schott, Karl-Heinz; Wraight, Paul R

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to create an updated Australian guideline on footwear for people with diabetes. We reviewed new footwear publications, (inter)national guidelines, and consensus expert opinion alongside the 2013 Australian footwear guideline to formulate updated recommendations. We recommend health professionals managing people with diabetes should: (1) Advise people with diabetes to wear footwear that fits, protects and accommodates the shape of their feet. (2) Advise people with diabetes to always wear socks within their footwear, in order to reduce shear and friction. (3) Educate people with diabetes, their relatives and caregivers on the importance of wearing appropriate footwear to prevent foot ulceration. (4) Instruct people with diabetes at intermediate- or high-risk of foot ulceration to obtain footwear from an appropriately trained professional to ensure it fits, protects and accommodates the shape of their feet. (5) Motivate people with diabetes at intermediate- or high-risk of foot ulceration to wear their footwear at all times, both indoors and outdoors. (6) Motivate people with diabetes at intermediate- or high-risk of foot ulceration (or their relatives and caregivers) to check their footwear, each time before wearing, to ensure that there are no foreign objects in, or penetrating, the footwear; and check their feet, each time their footwear is removed, to ensure there are no signs of abnormal pressure, trauma or ulceration. (7) For people with a foot deformity or pre-ulcerative lesion, consider prescribing medical grade footwear, which may include custom-made in-shoe orthoses or insoles. (8) For people with a healed plantar foot ulcer, prescribe medical grade footwear with custom-made in-shoe orthoses or insoles with a demonstrated plantar pressure relieving effect at high-risk areas. (9) Review prescribed footwear every three months to ensure it still fits adequately, protects, and supports the foot. (10) For people with a plantar diabetic

  14. A novel deformation mechanism for superplastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, H.; Sakai, M. (Toyohashi Univ. of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science)

    1999-01-01

    Uniaxial compressive creep tests with strain value up to -0.1 for a [beta]-spodumene glass ceramic are conducted at 1060 C. From the observation of microstructural changes between before and after the creep deformations, it is shown that the grain-boundary sliding takes place via cooperative movement of groups of grains rather than individual grains under the large-scale-deformation. The deformation process and the surface technique used in this work are not only applicable to explain the deformation and flow of two-phase ceramics but also the superplastic deformation. (orig.) 12 refs.

  15. Study on the foot shape characteristics of the elderly in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiang Dong; Xue, Chao-Hua; Li, Yan

    2017-12-01

    With aging, the feet of the elderly above 60 years old in China present degenerative changes, deformities, and diseases, which significantly affect their daily activities. The authors aimed to study the morphological characteristics of the feet and identify the foot type according to size (length and width) and defect characteristics of elderly feet in China. A convenient sample of 1000 subjects above 60 years old was recruited mainly in the regions of Shanghai, Shaanxi, Henan, Hebei, and Sichuan in China. Foot images were collected, and 800 (male 398, female 402) valid questionnaires were recovered. A total of 800 elderly subjects as the test group were invited to measure their foot sizes by means of a Footprint Collector (Tong Yuan Tang Health Management Limited, Qingdao in Shandong province). The foot type of the elderly was compared with that of the general adult Chinese population as the control group using the t-test for independent samples. Hallux valgus (46.9%) and flat foot (50.0%) were the most common foot shape deformities. The most frequent foot diseases were foot scaling (91.2%) and calluses (96.3%). The medial width of the first metatarsal-toe joint of the elderly was significantly higher (elderly female, 44.95±4.86mm; elderly male, 48.55±4.94mm) than that of the general adult population (adult female, 40.18±3.43mm; adult male, 43.22±3.20mm) (p<0.01). The foot length of the elderly was not significantly different from that of the general adult Chinese population. The width of the first metatarsal-toe joint in the forefoot of the elderly was significantly higher than that of the general adult Chinese population, which was consistent with the result that a high proportion of elderly subjects presented hallux valgus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Foot shape and its relationship with somatic characteristics in pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Puszczałowska-Lizis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The preschool period, characterised by high intensity of ontogenetic developmental changes, is considered to be the most important regarding formation of the foot. Getting to know the issue of the foot anatomy in children in this period is the main problem, which is the starting point towards proper prevention, examination, or correction of its deformities. Aim of the research: To analyse the shape of children’s feet and its relationship with chosen somatic characteristics in pre-school children. Material and methods : The study group comprised 80 five-year-old children recruited from randomly selected pre-schools in the Podkarpackie region. A CQ-ST podoscope was used as the research tool. In order to evaluate intersex differences at the average level of the tested variables, we used the Student’s t test or alternatively the Mann-Whitney U test. The relations between tested variables was assessed using Pearson’s linear correlation or Spearman’s rank correlation. Results : A low percentage of foot deformities in the children was found. In girls, statistically significant relationships were seen between Clarke’s angle in the right foot and body mass index as well as between Wejsflog index in the right foot and body weight and height. In the case of boys, Clarke’s angle and Wejsflog index in the left foot correlated with body mass index. Conclusions: We can therefore assume that most of the surveyed girls and boys had correctly longitudinally and transversely arched feet and toes positioned correctly. Excessive weight was a factor distorting the foot shape in children; it caused a deterioration of longitudinal and transverse arch of the right foot in girls, and left foot flattening occurred in boys.

  17. Characterizing multisegment foot kinematics during gait in diabetic foot patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denti Paolo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions, this condition may result in multiple and chronic invalidating long term complications. Among these, the diabetic foot, is determined by the simultaneous presence of both peripheral neuropathy and vasculopathy that alter the biomechanics of the foot with the formation of callosity and ulcerations. To diagnose and treat the diabetic foot is crucial to understand the foot complex kinematics. Most of gait analysis protocols represent the entire foot as a rigid body connected to the shank. Nevertheless the existing multisegment models cannot completely decipher the impairments associated with the diabetic foot. Methods A four segment foot and ankle model for assessing the kinematics of the diabetic foot was developed. Ten normal subjects and 10 diabetics gait patterns were collected and major sources of variability were tested. Repeatability analysis was performed both on a normal and on a diabetic subject. Direct skin marker placement was chosen in correspondence of 13 anatomical landmarks and an optoelectronic system was used to collect the data. Results Joint rotation normative bands (mean plus/minus one standard deviation were generated using the data of the control group. Three representative strides per subject were selected. The repeatability analysis on normal and pathological subjects results have been compared with literature and found comparable. Normal and pathological gait have been compared and showed major statistically significant differences in the forefoot and midfoot dorsi-plantarflexion. Conclusion Even though various biomechanical models have been developed so far to study the properties and behaviour of the foot, the present study focuses on developing a methodology for the functional assessment of the foot-ankle complex and for the definition of a functional model of the diabetic neuropathic foot. It is, of course, important to evaluate

  18. Combined diabetic foot infections treatment, complicated by foot phlegmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavruyan O.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available the article shows the analysis of treatment results of 163 patients with diabetic foot infections, complicated by foot phlegmon. Patients were divided into 2 groups. The control group received traditional treatment and had an autopsy deep plantar space done and then, during the second phase, cytokine-rich autoplatelet concentrate had been applied. The research results confirmed a significant decrease in the duration of treatment and hospitalization of patients in the hospital.

  19. [Digital gigantism of the foot: a clinical study of 12 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-hua; Tian, Guang-lei; Zhu, Yin; Zhang, You-le; Zhao, Jun-hui; Tian, Wen

    2008-03-15

    To summarize the clinical characteristic and outcome of digital gigantism of the foot. Retrospectively analyze the clinical documents of cases of digital gigantism of the foot. Twelve 12 cases with 13 feet in this study included 8 male and 4 female with an average 4.6-years-old. All the deformities were found at birth. Multiple toes involved were more than single toe, and tibial toe involved more than fibular. Forefoot was enlarged. All the phalanges involved and partial metatarsal bones were enlarged. Marked increase in subcutaneous fat was found in all cases in the operation which infiltrated interossei and articular capsules. The appearance of the nerves and its branches in the foot were normal and fat infiltrating was not discovered. The operation types included debulking, epiphyseal arrest, amputation, nerve stripping and anastomosis. Seven cases were followed up with mean periods 25.6 months. Functional evaluation according to a criterion formulated by author revealed a result of 2 excellent, 2 good and 3 fair. Digital gigantism of the foot is an uncommon congenital deformity of the foot characterized by overgrowth of both the soft-tissue and the osseous elements of the enlarged toe and forefoot. Surgical treatment is the unique method, and the goal is to reduce the size of the foot to allow fitting regular shoes and walking readily. There are several types of operations which to be chosen. The indication, the timing of operative intervention and the selection of operation type should be paid more attention.

  20. Neuro-osteoarthropathy of the Foot-Radiologist: Friend or Foe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoots, Ivo G.; Slim, Frederik J.; Busch-Westbroek, Tessa E.; Maas, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Charcot neuro-osteoarthropathy is a significant problem with a rapid devastating nature. If not recognized it may lead to progressive foot deformity, ulceration or osteomyelitis, or eventually to amputation. The diagnosis is challenging, and imaging plays a pivotal role. Rapid and accurate diagnosis

  1. Congenital club foot in a teaching hospital in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewole, O A; Giwa, S O; Kayode, M O; Shoga, M O; Balogun, R A

    2009-06-01

    Congenital club foot has been sparsely reported in literature in Nigeria, although it has been reported as the commonest congenital musculoskeletal abnormality. This study enumerates the point prevalence of this disease in a university teaching hospital in Lagos. Better understanding of the epidemiology in our community should improve awareness, and influence management. Between June 2005 and July 2006, 72 consecutive patients with congenital club feet were seen in the orthopaedic clinic of our Hospital. Demographic data, birth weight, family history, birth facility, maternal age and associated congenital anomalies were recorded and analysed using Statistical Programme for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15. A total of 72 patients were seen, 28 of whom had bilateral club feet resulting in a total of 100 feet. There were 38 males and 34 females. Only 29% presented in the first month of life and 28% in the second month. Maternal ages ranged between 19 and 38 years and no family history of congenital club foot was given,. Babies delivered outside the orthodox medical system (churches, traditional healers, home etc) constituted 28%. The commonest associated congenital anomalies were tibia hemimelia, hydrocephalus, inguinal hernia and umbilical hernia. A default rate of 28% was observed during treatment. Congenital club foot may not be uncommon in Nigeria. Late presentation and high default rate before correction of the deformity were observed. Establishment of special club foot clinics should reduce the default rate. Training of healthcare workers in maternity units as well as Public awareness should encourage early referral to specialists.

  2. Priorities in offloading the diabetic foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, Sicco A.

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanical factors play an important role in diabetic foot disease. Reducing high foot pressures (i.e. offloading) is one of the main goals in healing and preventing foot ulceration. Evidence-based guidelines show the strong association between the efficacy to offload the foot and clinical

  3. Imaging the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.H.; Tong, D.T.F.; Crim, J.R.; Seeger, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of infection or neuropathy of the diabetic foot is the key to successful management. Angiopathy leads to ischemia which, in combination with peripheral neuropathy, predisposes to pedal skin ulceration, the precursor of osteomyelitis. Chronic hyperglycemia promotes production of glycosylated end products which accumulate on endothelial proteins, causing ischemia of the vasa nervorum. When combined with axonal degeneration of the sensory nerves, the result is hypertrophic neuroarthropathy. Should the sympathetic nerve fibers also be damaged, the resultant loss of vasoconstrictive impulses leads to hyperemia and atrophic neuroarthropathy. Plain radiography, although less sensitive than radionuclide, magnetic resonance (MR), and computed tomographic examinations, should be the initial procedure for imaging suspected osteomyelitis in the diabetic patient. If the radiographs are normal but the clinical suspicion of osteomyelitis is strong, a three-phase 99m Tc-MDP scan or MR imaging is recommended. An equivocal 99m Tc-MDP scan should be followed by MR imaging. To exclude osteomyelitis at a site of neuroarthropathy, a 111 In white blood cell scan is preferable. To obtain a specimen of bone for bacteriological studies, percutaneous core biopsy is the procedure of choice, with the entrance of the needle well beyond the edge of the subjacent ulcer. (orig.)

  4. Imaging the diabetic foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, R.H. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Tong, D.T.F. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Crim, J.R. [Durham Radiology Associates, Durham, NC (United States); Seeger, L.L. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of infection or neuropathy of the diabetic foot is the key to successful management. Angiopathy leads to ischemia which, in combination with peripheral neuropathy, predisposes to pedal skin ulceration, the precursor of osteomyelitis. Chronic hyperglycemia promotes production of glycosylated end products which accumulate on endothelial proteins, causing ischemia of the vasa nervorum. When combined with axonal degeneration of the sensory nerves, the result is hypertrophic neuroarthropathy. Should the sympathetic nerve fibers also be damaged, the resultant loss of vasoconstrictive impulses leads to hyperemia and atrophic neuroarthropathy. Plain radiography, although less sensitive than radionuclide, magnetic resonance (MR), and computed tomographic examinations, should be the initial procedure for imaging suspected osteomyelitis in the diabetic patient. If the radiographs are normal but the clinical suspicion of osteomyelitis is strong, a three-phase {sup 99m}Tc-MDP scan or MR imaging is recommended. An equivocal {sup 99m}Tc-MDP scan should be followed by MR imaging. To exclude osteomyelitis at a site of neuroarthropathy, a {sup 111}In white blood cell scan is preferable. To obtain a specimen of bone for bacteriological studies, percutaneous core biopsy is the procedure of choice, with the entrance of the needle well beyond the edge of the subjacent ulcer. (orig.)

  5. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-08

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.  Created: 8/8/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 8/8/2013.

  6. Quality of Life Impact Related to Foot Health in a Sample of Older People with Hallux Valgus

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Daniel López; Callejo González, Lucía; Iglesias, Marta Elena Losa; Canosa, Jesús Luis Saleta; Sanz, David Rodríguez; Lobo, Cesar Calvo; de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo Becerro

    2016-01-01

    Hallux Valgus (HV) is a highly prevalent forefoot deformity in older people associated with progressive subluxation and osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint and it is believed to be associated with varying degrees of HV effect on the quality of life related to foot health. The aim of this study is to compare the impact of varying degrees of HV on foot health in a sample of older people. The sample consisted of 115 participants, mean age 76.7 ± 9.1, who attended an outpatient center where self-report data were recorded. The degree of HV deformity was determined in both feet using the Manchester Scale (MS) from stage 1 (mild) to 4 (very severe). Scores obtained on the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ) were compared. This has 13 questions that assess 4 health domains of the feet, namely pain, function, general health and footwear. The stage 4 of HV shown lower scores for the footwear domain (11.23 ± 15.6); general foot health (27.62 ± 19.1); foot pain (44.65 ± 24.5); foot function (53.04 ± 27.2); vigour (42.19 ± 16.8); social capacity (44.46 ± 28.1); and general health (41.15 ± 25.5) compared with stage 1 of HV (Phallux valgus deformity which appears to be associated with the presence of greater degree of HV, regardless of gender. PMID:26816663

  7. Radiologic evaluation of structural abnormalities of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, Y.T.; Tolliver, R.A.; Stern, D.S.; Fruin, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    This exhibit concentrates on often overlooked, unfamiliar biomechanical or structural abnormalities of the foot. Pericalcaneal pathology and its correlation with the presence of heel spurs is illustrated. In the tarsal area, coalitions, prehallux, and their relationships to abnormalities of the longitudinal arch are discussed. Distally, medial, dorsal and tailor's bunions are demonstrated. Pain and disability often precede obvious deformity, and a radiologist familiar with the early findings on x-ray studies may be the first member of the medical team to identify structural abnormalities. Diagnosis allows prompt institution of appropriate therapy, reducing the period of patient discomfort and disability

  8. The best way to reduce reulcerations: if you understand biomechanics of the diabetic foot, you can do it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro-Martínez, José Luis; Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; Alvaro-Afonso, Francisco Javier; García-Morales, Esther; García-Álvarez, Yolanda; Molines-Barroso, Raúl Juan

    2014-12-01

    Foot ulcer recurrence is still an unresolved issue. Although several therapies have been described for preventing foot ulcers, the rates of reulcerations are very high. Footwear and insoles have been recommended as effective therapies that prevent the development of new ulcers; however, the majority of studies have analyzed their effects in terms of reducing peak plantar pressure rather than ulcer relapse. Knowledge of biomechanical considerations is low, in general, in the team approach to diabetic foot because heterogeneous professionals having competence in recurrence prevention are involved. Assessment of biomechanical alterations define a foot type position; examining foot structure and recording plantar pressure could help in appropriate insole and footwear prescription and design. Patient education and compliance should be taken into consideration for better therapy success. When patients suffer from rigid deformities or have undergone an amputation, surgical offloading should be considered as an alternative. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Foot burns: epidemiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemington-Gorse, S; Pellard, S; Wilson-Jones, N; Potokar, T

    2007-12-01

    This is a retrospective study of the epidemiology and management of isolated foot burns presenting to the Welsh Centre for Burns from January 1998 to December 2002. A total of 289 were treated of which 233 were included in this study. Approximately 40% were in the paediatric age group and the gender distribution varied dramatically for adults and children. In the adult group the male:female ratio was 3.5:1, however in the paediatric group the male:female ratio was more equal (1.6:1). Scald burns (65%) formed the largest group in children and scald (35%) and chemical burns (32%) in adults. Foot burns have a complication rate of 18% and prolonged hospital stay. Complications include hypertrophic scarring, graft loss/delayed healing and wound infection. Although isolated foot burns represent a small body surface area, over half require treatment as in patients to allow for initial aggressive conservative management of elevation and regular wound cleansing to avoid complications. This study suggests a protocol for the initial acute management of foot burns. This protocol states immediate referral of all foot burns to a burn centre, admission of these burns for 24-48 h for elevation, regular wound cleansing with change of dressings and prophylactic antibiotics.

  10. A 640 foot per second impact test of a two foot diameter model nuclear reactor containment system without fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthoff, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    An impact test was conducted on an 1142 pound 2 foot diameter sphere model. The purpose of this test was to determine the feasibility of containing the fission products of a mobile reactor in an impact. The model simulated the reactor core, energy absorbing gamma shielding, neutron shielding and the containment vessel. It was impacted against an 18,000 pound reinforced concrete block. The model was significantly deformed and the concrete block demolished. No leaks were detected nor cracks observed in the model after impact.

  11. CT guided diagnostic foot injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saifuddin, A.; Abdus-Samee, M.; Mann, C.; Singh, D.; Angel, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To describe a CT technique for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic injections in the hind- and mid-foot. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a period of 50 months, 28 individuals were referred for diagnostic and therapeutic hind- and mid-foot injections before possible arthrodesis. A CT technique was developed that allowed entry into the various joints using a vertical approach. Numbers of joints injected were as follows: posterior subtalar, 21; talonavicular, 4; calcaneonavicular, calcaneocuboid, navicular-cuneiform and 5th metatarsocuboid joints, 1 each. RESULTS: All injections but one were technically successful. Significant relief of symptoms was noted by 16 participants, whereas for 9 there was no improvement and for 3 a partial response was achieved. CONCLUSION: CT is a simple and safe alternative to fluoroscopy for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic foot injections, and may be the technique of choice in cases of disordered anatomy

  12. The Charcot Foot in Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frykberg, Robert G.; Armstrong, David G.; Boulton, Andrew J.M.; Edmonds, Michael; Van, Georges Ha; Hartemann, Agnes; Game, Frances; Jeffcoate, William; Jirkovska, Alexandra; Jude, Edward; Morbach, Stephan; Morrison, William B.; Pinzur, Michael; Pitocco, Dario; Sanders, Lee; Wukich, Dane K.; Uccioli, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    The diabetic Charcot foot syndrome is a serious and potentially limb-threatening lower-extremity complication of diabetes. First described in 1883, this enigmatic condition continues to challenge even the most experienced practitioners. Now considered an inflammatory syndrome, the diabetic Charcot foot is characterized by varying degrees of bone and joint disorganization secondary to underlying neuropathy, trauma, and perturbations of bone metabolism. An international task force of experts was convened by the American Diabetes Association and the American Podiatric Medical Association in January 2011 to summarize available evidence on the pathophysiology, natural history, presentations, and treatment recommendations for this entity. PMID:21868781

  13. Diabetic gangrene of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Junji; Hoshi, Makoto; Shinozaki, Tatsuyo; Kimura, Masakata; Ichinohe, Hitomoto.

    1983-01-01

    A case of severe diabetic gangrene was reported. Angiography showed no evidence of ischemic changes in the foot, except for mild atherosclerosis in the femoral and popliteal arteries. Tc-99m labelled macroagglugated albumine (MAA) was injected transcatheterally into the abdominal aorta to see the blood perfusion of the lower extremities, which showed increased blood flow of the foot as well as the presence of micro arteriovenous shuntings shown by the appearance of both lungs. Damages of the microcirculation are thought to have much influences on the formation of diabetic gangrene. Histopathological findings supported above. (author)

  14. A generic analytical foot rollover model for predicting translational ankle kinematics in gait simulation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lei; Howard, David; Ren, Luquan; Nester, Chris; Tian, Limei

    2010-01-19

    The objective of this paper is to develop an analytical framework to representing the ankle-foot kinematics by modelling the foot as a rollover rocker, which cannot only be used as a generic tool for general gait simulation but also allows for case-specific modelling if required. Previously, the rollover models used in gait simulation have often been based on specific functions that have usually been of a simple form. In contrast, the analytical model described here is in a general form that the effective foot rollover shape can be represented by any polar function rho=rho(phi). Furthermore, a normalized generic foot rollover model has been established based on a normative foot rollover shape dataset of 12 normal healthy subjects. To evaluate model accuracy, the predicted ankle motions and the centre of pressure (CoP) were compared with measurement data for both subject-specific and general cases. The results demonstrated that the ankle joint motions in both vertical and horizontal directions (relative RMSE approximately 10%) and CoP (relative RMSE approximately 15% for most of the subjects) are accurately predicted over most of the stance phase (from 10% to 90% of stance). However, we found that the foot cannot be very accurately represented by a rollover model just after heel strike (HS) and just before toe off (TO), probably due to shear deformation of foot plantar tissues (ankle motion can occur without any foot rotation). The proposed foot rollover model can be used in both inverse and forward dynamics gait simulation studies and may also find applications in rehabilitation engineering. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fleet of Foot: Adolescent Foot and Ankle Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legacy, Kelly Bromley

    2018-01-01

    In today's world of advanced technologies, accessible transportation, and fingertip talking, adolescents are spending too many hours each day sedentary. The purpose of this article is to underscore the importance of foot and ankle mobility in an adolescent population that spends very little time on their feet. Physical educators and athletic…

  16. Mechanics of the foot Part 2: A coupled solid-fluid model to investigate blood transport in the pathologic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithraratne, K; Ho, H; Hunter, P J; Fernandez, J W

    2012-10-01

    A coupled computational model of the foot consisting of a three-dimensional soft tissue continuum and a one-dimensional (1D) transient blood flow network is presented in this article. The primary aim of the model is to investigate the blood flow in major arteries of the pathologic foot where the soft tissue stiffening occurs. It has been reported in the literature that there could be up to about five-fold increase in the mechanical stiffness of the plantar soft tissues in pathologic (e.g. diabetic) feet compared with healthy ones. The increased stiffness results in higher tissue hydrostatic pressure within the plantar area of the foot when loaded. The hydrostatic pressure acts on the external surface of blood vessels and tend to reduce the flow cross-section area and hence the blood supply. The soft tissue continuum model of the foot was modelled as a tricubic Hermite finite element mesh representing all the muscles, skin and fat of the foot and treated as incompressible with transversely isotropic properties. The details of the mechanical model of soft tissue are presented in the companion paper, Part 1. The deformed state of the soft tissue continuum because of the applied ground reaction force at three foot positions (heel-strike, midstance and toe-off) was obtained by solving the Cauchy equations based on the theory of finite elasticity using the Galerkin finite element method. The geometry of the main arterial network in the foot was represented using a 1D Hermite cubic finite element mesh. The flow model consists of 1D Navier-Stokes equations and a nonlinear constitutive equation to describe vessel radius-transmural pressure relation. The latter was defined as the difference between the fluid and soft tissue hydrostatic pressure. Transient flow governing equations were numerically solved using the two-step Lax-Wendroff finite difference method. The geometry of both the soft tissue continuum and arterial network is anatomically-based and was developed using

  17. [Treatment of Hallux Valgus: Current Diagnostic Testing and Surgical Treatment Performed by German Foot and Ankle Surgeons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, Dariusch; Schneider, Lisa-Maria; Schnurr, Christoph; Bouillon, Bertil; Eysel, Peer; König, Dietmar Pierre

    2018-04-01

    Hallux valgus is one of the most prevalent foot deformities, and surgical treatment of Hallux valgus is one of the most common procedures in foot and ankle surgery. Diagnostic and treatment standards show large variation despite medical guidelines and national foot and ankle societies. The aim of this nationwide survey is a description of the current status of diagnostics and therapy of Hallux valgus in Germany. A nationwide online questionnaire survey was sent to two German foot and ankle societies. The participants were asked to answer a questionnaire of 53 questions with four subgroups (general, diagnostics, operation, preoperative management). Surgical treatment for three clinical cases demonstrating a mild, moderate and severe Hallux valgus deformity was inquired. 427 foot and ankle surgeons answered the questionnaire. 388 participants were certified foot and ankle surgeons from one or both foot and ankle societies. Medical history (78%), preoperative radiographs (100%) and preoperative radiographic management (78%) are of high or very high importance for surgical decision pathway. Outcome scores are used by less than 20% regularly. Open surgery is still the gold standard, whereas minimally invasive surgery is performed by only 7%. Our survey showed that diagnostic standards are met regularly. There is a wide variation in the type of procedures used to treat Hallux valgus deformity. TMT I arthrodesis is preferred in severe Hallux valgus, but also used to treat moderate and mild deformities. Minimally invasive surgery is still used by a minority of surgeons. It remains to be seen, to what extent minimally invasive surgery will be performed in the future. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Diabetic foot ulcers. Pathophysiology, assessment, and therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowering, C. K.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review underlying causes of diabetic foot ulceration, provide a practical assessment of patients at risk, and outline an evidence-based approach to therapy for diabetic patients with foot ulcers. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search was conducted for the period from 1979 to 1999 for articles relating to diabetic foot ulcers. Most studies found were case series or small controlled trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Foot ulcers in diabetic patients are common and frequently lead to lower limb...

  19. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  20. Malformations of the first ray of the foot in children: diagnosis, clinical picture, treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Pavlovich Konyukhov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Malformations of the first ray of the foot vary widely and are divided into simple and complex. Complex malformations include abnormality of development of the first metatarsal or the main phalanx and refer to atypical adducted foot deformity. They are also characterized by varus location of the first ray of varying severity. The cause of deformation is a damage of longitudinal epiphyseal growth plate area of the first metatarsal - “longitudinal epiphyseal bracket” or the so-called delta phalanx. Over the past five years, we treated 37 patients (53 feet aged from 6 months to 17 years old with developmental disabilities of the first ray of the foot. The spectrum of pathology is very diverse. In the majority of cases surgical treatment was multi-staged. It was revealed that the removal of deformity at the first stage of treatment should be complete, with maximum use of the bone to restore the length and shape of the affected bone. In treating combined deformities the good effect is guaranteed only with the removal of all the elements, including excision of the fibrous bridle along the inner surface of the first ray.

  1. Management of diabetic foot infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, M.; Amin, Z.; Chaudhary, T. H.; Shaheen, J.; Alvi, Z. R.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the infecting agent in diabetic food infection with the susceptibility pattern, and to evaluate the effect of wound infection, was culopathy, neuropathy and control of diabetes mellitus on the outcome of the patients. Design: A descriptive and observational study. Place and duration of study: Patients with diabetic foot, admitted in surgical unit 1, B.V. Hospital Bahawalpur, from April 1999 to April 2000, were included in this study. Subject and methods: A total of 60 known diabetic patients were studied, out of these 47 were males and 13 females. They were assessed for angiopathy, neuropathy and extend of foot involvement. Necessary investigations, including x-ray foot, ECG, serum urea and creatinine, pus culture and sensitivity were carried out. Diabetes was controlled on insulin of the basis of serum sugar and urine sugar chart and treated accordingly. Results: The most common age of foot involvement was between 40-70 years. Right side was involved more often than the left (67%: 37%). Most of the infections were due to staphylococcus (50%), pseudomonas (25%) and streptococci (8%). Antibiotic was started based on sensitivity report. Fluoro quinolone plus clindamycin was used in 50%, fluoro quinolone plus metronidazole in 20% and amoxicillin/clavulanate in 23%. Most of the patients (61.7%) were in grade iii or iv of Meggit wagner classification of diabetic foot. Three patients (5%) were treated by below knee amputations while 1.7% patient by above knee amputation. In twenty-four (40%) patients some form of to amputation/ray amputation had to be done,while 32(53.3%) patients had complete healing of would without any amputation. Mortality was 3.33% all the 4 patients (6.7%) who presented late, having uncontrolled diabetes, with angiopathy (absent foot pulses), neuropathy, infection of the foot (grade iii or above) resulted in major amputation sooner or latter. The 32 patients (53.3%) having controlled diabetes mellitus with no angiopathy or

  2. 49 CFR 214.115 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foot protection. 214.115 Section 214.115... protection. (a) The railroad or railroad contractor shall require railroad bridge workers to wear foot protection equipment when potential foot injury may result from impact, falling or flying objects, electrical...

  3. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reinforcing steel in cast-in-place concrete footings. (2) Pressure-treated wood. (i) Pressure-treated wood footings must consist of a minimum of two layers of nominal 2-inch thick pressure-treated wood, a single... values listed have been reduced by the dead load of the concrete footing. 4. Concrete block piers must...

  4. Acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot: Plain radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Dae Young; Kang, Heung Sik; Sim, Jung Suk; Yoon, Yong Kyu; Kim, Chu Wan

    1994-01-01

    To determine the plain film findings of acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot. Acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot was considered when fragmentation of the articular ends of bone and subluxation of the affected joint developed within eight weeks after clinical onset of diabetic gangrene. Eight toes of six diabetics were satisfactory to our criteria. We analyzed plain radiographic findings of the affected joint and soft tissue, interval changes in followed-up radiographs, and deformities after healing. The time interval between clinical onset of gangrene and bone destruction ranges from 2 weeks to 4 weeks(mean 2.6 weeks). Plane radiographs showed fragmentation of the articular ends, subluxation, and soft tissue swelling of the metatarsophalangeal joint or interphalangeal joint. The significant feature of these patients was rapid progression of the lesions. Clinically, all patients had diabetic gangrene in affected toes, however, there was no evidence of osteomyelitis in our series. Amputation was done in 2 cases, and lesions in 3 of the remaining 4 cases were repaired spontaneously with regression of gangrene, leaving radiological residua such as pointed-end, tapered-end, and ball and socket deformity. Rapid disorganisation of the joint with associated evidence of soft tissue gangrene in plain radiograph is believed to be valuable for the diagnosis of diabetic osteoarthropathy

  5. Acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot: Plain radiographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Dae Young; Kang, Heung Sik; Sim, Jung Suk; Yoon, Yong Kyu; Kim, Chu Wan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-05-15

    To determine the plain film findings of acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot. Acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot was considered when fragmentation of the articular ends of bone and subluxation of the affected joint developed within eight weeks after clinical onset of diabetic gangrene. Eight toes of six diabetics were satisfactory to our criteria. We analyzed plain radiographic findings of the affected joint and soft tissue, interval changes in followed-up radiographs, and deformities after healing. The time interval between clinical onset of gangrene and bone destruction ranges from 2 weeks to 4 weeks(mean 2.6 weeks). Plane radiographs showed fragmentation of the articular ends, subluxation, and soft tissue swelling of the metatarsophalangeal joint or interphalangeal joint. The significant feature of these patients was rapid progression of the lesions. Clinically, all patients had diabetic gangrene in affected toes, however, there was no evidence of osteomyelitis in our series. Amputation was done in 2 cases, and lesions in 3 of the remaining 4 cases were repaired spontaneously with regression of gangrene, leaving radiological residua such as pointed-end, tapered-end, and ball and socket deformity. Rapid disorganisation of the joint with associated evidence of soft tissue gangrene in plain radiograph is believed to be valuable for the diagnosis of diabetic osteoarthropathy.

  6. Diabetes: foot ulcers and amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Dereck L

    2011-08-26

    Diabetic foot ulceration is full-thickness penetration of the dermis of the foot in a person with diabetes. Severity is classified using the Wagner system, which grades it from 1 to 5. The annual incidence of ulcers among people with diabetes is 2.5% to 10.7% in resource-rich countries, and the annual incidence of amputation for any reason is 0.25% to 1.8%. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent foot ulcers and amputations in people with diabetes? What are the effects of treatments in people with diabetes with foot ulceration? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 50 systematic reviews and RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: debridement, human cultured dermis, human skin equivalent, patient education, pressure off-loading with felted foam or pressure-relief half-shoe, pressure off-loading with total-contact or non-removable casts, screening and referral to foot-care clinics, systemic hyperbaric oxygen for non-infected ulcers, systemic hyperbaric oxygen in infected ulcers, therapeutic footwear, topical growth factors, and wound dressings.

  7. The effectiveness of non-surgical interventions in the treatment of Charcot foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline; Kumar, Saravana; Causby, Ryan

    2007-12-01

    trials evaluating bisphosphonates reported greater reduction in foot temperature and disease activity for intervention subjects compared with controls. Another outcome of this review indicated additional beneficial effects of bisphosphonates in reducing pain and discomfort. The trial evaluating palliative radiotherapy found no difference between groups on any outcome. A significant reduction in the amount of deformity and reduced healing time to consolidation was found after treatment in the group receiving magnetic therapy treatment. Discussion  There is a lack of clinical trials evaluating the effectiveness of non-operative interventions for the management of Charcot foot (immobilisation, removable cast walkers, advice/dispensing of footwear and prescribing of orthotics). Bisphosphonates may be useful adjuncts to standard management of Charcot foot by improved healing demonstrated by a reduction in disease activity indicated by skin temperature and bone destruction. Magnetic therapy may reduce deformity, joint destruction and improve mobility. Conclusion  There is a lack of evidence supporting the use of pharmacological or non-surgical interventions with reducing lesions, ulceration, rate of surgical intervention, hospital admissions and improving the quality of life of subjects with Charcot foot. Bisphosphonates may improve the healing of Charcot foot by reducing skin temperature and disease activity of Charcot foot, when applied in addition to standard interventions to control the position and shape of the foot.

  8. Forefoot deformity, pain, and mobility in rheumatoid and nonarthritic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, P G; Lohmann Siegel, K; Kepple, T M; Stanhope, S J; Gerber, L H

    1998-09-01

    To evaluate how painful metatarsal arthritis affects foot and ankle mechanics and mobility. We studied 16 symptomatic forefeet in 10 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and compared them with 14 asymptomatic forefeet in 7 nonarthritic subjects. RA limbs with significant disease at other locations were excluded. We measured pain and deformity of the foot using a visual analog scale and a modified articular index. A video based 3 dimensional gait analysis system and force platform were used to collect data on subjects walking barefoot at a self-selected pace according to an established protocol. Mobility level was quantified using the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) ambulation subscale. We observed considerable pain and deformity of the forefeet of RA subjects. During gait, motion and force measures revealed that RA subjects significantly (p SIP scores revealed that these changes in gait resulted in moderate disability in RA subjects (p=0.05). Impairments of the forefoot due to RA include pain and deformity, which produce characteristic stance phase abnormalities in foot function, a slow walking speed, and moderate disability.

  9. Morfologie dětské nohy Child's foot morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Riegerová

    2005-02-01

    . Longitudinal foot vault was evaluated by Plantographic method by index method and processed by "Foot" software; the big toe and little toe axis in the sense of valgozity and varozity, the size of foot angle. Statistically significant differences were evaluated by means of Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney tests, Scheffe test and chí-quadrate test (Statistica, vers. 6. The state of longitudinal foot vault appeared as relatively satisfactory. The normal foot of I. and II. degree was determined with highest frequency. The occurrence of flat foot and high foot did not signify any principal problem in these age categories. The deformation of big toe and little toe occurred in high frequency in both genders and in all age categories. In boys the valgoze angle reached the range 2.6–7.9°, in girls 4.3–8.1°. The average values of big toe varozity were higher. Little toe angle (valgozity in the group of boys reached the range of values 15.4° to 20.4°, in girls 14.4° to 18.6°. At the end we can evaluate the longitudinal foot vault in child's age categories as corresponding with the ontogenesis phase. The analysis of morphological parameters in the area of anterior part of foot proved the deformations in medial and lateral foot rays in high frequency. The foot angle in posterior part of the foot responds the reference values of established age categories.

  10. Deformations of superconformal theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Córdova, Clay [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Dumitrescu, Thomas T. [Department of Physics, Harvard University,17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Intriligator, Kenneth [Department of Physics, University of California,9500 Gilman Drive, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2016-11-22

    We classify possible supersymmetry-preserving relevant, marginal, and irrelevant deformations of unitary superconformal theories in d≥3 dimensions. Our method only relies on symmetries and unitarity. Hence, the results are model independent and do not require a Lagrangian description. Two unifying themes emerge: first, many theories admit deformations that reside in multiplets together with conserved currents. Such deformations can lead to modifications of the supersymmetry algebra by central and non-central charges. Second, many theories with a sufficient amount of supersymmetry do not admit relevant or marginal deformations, and some admit neither. The classification is complicated by the fact that short superconformal multiplets display a rich variety of sporadic phenomena, including supersymmetric deformations that reside in the middle of a multiplet. We illustrate our results with examples in diverse dimensions. In particular, we explain how the classification of irrelevant supersymmetric deformations can be used to derive known and new constraints on moduli-space effective actions.

  11. Incidence of hallux valgus deformity among Iranian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Rahimi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The dramatically increased incidence of hallux valgus (HV deformity is more related to the cultural rather than genetic parameters. Due to the lack of reliable information about the rate of this disorder in Iraninan societies, the researchers of the current study aimed to find out the incidence of this disorder in Iranian university students as a sample of Iranian youngsters. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was carried out using a self-constructed and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS questionnaires among 290 university students with the mean age of 21±2 years old. The HV angles (HVA was described as normal for up to 20º, mild for angles between 21º and 25º, moderate for angles between 26º and 40º, and severe for angles higher than 40 º. Then, the HVA of the subjects of this study was compared with the data from other societies.Results: The results of this study showed a 34.1% involvement of the participants (30% females and 41% males. 58% of the subjects showed a bilateral hallux valgus involvement. No significant differences were found between the males and females in terms of the severity of the deformity and the right or left side involvement (P>0.05. 71% of the involved subjects showed a mild degree and 29% showed a moderate degree of deformity. No severe deformity (above 40º was found in this study. In terms of the associated deformities, in subjects with mild deformity, 25% showed flat foot and 69% showed bunion disorder; While these were 21% and 82% in subjects with moderate deformity, respectively. In terms of inheritance correlation, while this deformity was shown in only 7% of normal subjects’ first degree relatives (father, mother, brothers or sisters, it increased to 21.1% in mild degree and 46.4% in moderate degree groups. Conclusion: This study revealed a very high incidence of HV deformity in Iranian university students as a sample of Iranian youngsters, which is

  12. Quantum deformed magnon kinematics

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, César; Hernández Redondo, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The dispersion relation for planar N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills is identified with the Casimir of a quantum deformed two-dimensional kinematical symmetry, E_q(1,1). The quantum deformed symmetry algebra is generated by the momentum, energy and boost, with deformation parameter q=e^{2\\pi i/\\lambda}. Representing the boost as the infinitesimal generator for translations on the rapidity space leads to an elliptic uniformization with crossing transformations implemented through translations by t...

  13. Mechanics of deformable bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerfeld, Arnold Johannes Wilhelm

    1950-01-01

    Mechanics of Deformable Bodies: Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Volume II covers topics on the mechanics of deformable bodies. The book discusses the kinematics, statics, and dynamics of deformable bodies; the vortex theory; as well as the theory of waves. The text also describes the flow with given boundaries. Supplementary notes on selected hydrodynamic problems and supplements to the theory of elasticity are provided. Physicists, mathematicians, and students taking related courses will find the book useful.

  14. Obese older adults suffer foot pain and foot-related functional limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickle, Karen J; Steele, Julie R

    2015-10-01

    There is evidence to suggest being overweight or obese places adults at greater risk of developing foot complications such as osteoarthritis, tendonitis and plantar fasciitis. However, no research has comprehensively examined the effects of overweight or obesity on the feet of individuals older than 60 years of age. Therefore we investigated whether foot pain, foot structure, and/or foot function is affected by obesity in older adults. Three hundred and twelve Australian men and women, aged over 60 years, completed validated questionnaires to establish the presence of foot pain and health related quality of life. Foot structure (anthropometrics and soft tissue thickness) and foot function (ankle dorsiflexion strength and flexibility, toe flexor strength, plantar pressures and spatiotemporal gait parameters) were also measured. Obese participants (BMI >30) were compared to those who were overweight (BMI=25-30) and not overweight (BMI foot pain and scored significantly lower on the SF-36. Obesity was also associated with foot-related functional limitation whereby ankle dorsiflexion strength, hallux and lesser toe strength, stride/step length and walking speed were significantly reduced in obese participants compared to their leaner counterparts. Therefore, disabling foot pain and altered foot structure and foot function are consequences of obesity for older adults, and impact upon their quality of life. Interventions designed to reduce excess fat mass may relieve loading of the foot structures and, in turn, improve foot pain and quality of life for older obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Grubman, Marvin J.; Baxt, Barry

    2004-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. The disease was initially described in the 16th century and was the first animal pathogen identified as a virus. Recent FMD outbreaks in developed countries and their significant economic impact have increased the concern of governments worldwide. This review describes the reemergence of FMD in developed countries that had been disease free for many years and the effect that this has had on disease control s...

  16. Foot pain and functional limitation in healthy adults with hallux valgus: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nix Sheree E

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hallux valgus (HV is a very common deformity of the first metatarsophalangeal joint that often requires surgical correction. However, the association between structural HV deformity and related foot pain and disability is unclear. Furthermore, no previous studies have investigated concerns about appearance and difficulty with footwear in a population with HV not seeking surgical correction. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate foot pain, functional limitation, concern about appearance and difficulty with footwear in otherwise healthy adults with HV compared to controls. Methods Thirty volunteers with HV (radiographic HV angle >15 degrees and 30 matched controls were recruited for this study (50 women, 10 men; mean age 44.4 years, range 20 to 76 years. Differences between groups were examined for self-reported foot pain and disability, satisfaction with appearance, footwear difficulty, and pressure-pain threshold at the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Functional measures included balance tests, walking performance, and hallux muscle strength (abduction and plantarflexion. Mean differences (MD and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. Results All self-report measures showed that HV was associated with higher levels of foot pain and disability and significant concerns about appearance and footwear (p Conclusions These findings show that HV negatively impacts on self-reported foot pain and function, and concerns about foot appearance and footwear in otherwise healthy adults. There was also evidence of impaired hallux muscle strength and increased postural sway in HV subjects compared to controls, although general physical functioning and participation in physical activity were not adversely affected.

  17. The role of the Pirani scoring system in the management of club foot by the Ponseti method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, P J; Davis, N

    2006-08-01

    The Pirani scoring system, together with the Ponseti method of club foot management, was assessed for its predictive value. The data on 70 idiopathic club feet successfully treated by the Ponseti method and scored by Pirani's system between February 2002 and May 2004 were analysed. There was a significant positive correlation between the initial Pirani score and number of casts required to correct the deformity. A foot scoring 4 or more is likely to require at least four casts, and one scoring less than 4 will require three or fewer. A foot with a hindfoot score of 2.5 or 3 has a 72% chance of requiring a tenotomy. The Pirani scoring system is reliable, quick, and easy to use, and provides a good forecast about the likely treatment for an individual foot but a low score does not exclude the possibility that a tenotomy may be required.

  18. Reconstruction of bilateral tibial aplasia and split hand-foot syndrome in a father and daughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Kaissi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tibial aplasia is of heterogeneous aetiology, the majority of reports are sporadic. We describe the reconstruction procedures in two subjects - a daughter and father manifested autosomal dominant (AD inheritance of the bilateral tibial aplasia and split hand-foot syndrome. Materials and Methods: Reconstruction of these patients required multiple surgical procedures and orthoprosthesis was mandatory. The main goal of treatment was to achieve walking. Stabilization of the ankle joint by fibular-talar-chondrodesis on both sides, followed by bilateral Brown-procedure at the knee joint level has been applied accordingly. Results: The outcome was with improved function of the deformed limbs and walking was achieved with simultaneous designation of orthotic fitting. Conclusion: This is the first study encompassing the diagnosis and management of a father and daughter with bilateral tibial aplasia associated with variable split hand/foot deformity without foot ablation. Our patients showed the typical AD pattern of inheritance of split-hand/foot and tibial aplasia.

  19. Intracrystalline deformation of calcite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bresser, J.H.P. de

    1991-01-01

    It is well established from observations on natural calcite tectonites that intracrystalline plastic mechanisms are important during the deformation of calcite rocks in nature. In this thesis, new data are presented on fundamental aspects of deformation behaviour of calcite under conditions where

  20. The Spherical Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asgar

    2003-01-01

    Miller et al. (1994) describe a model for representing spatial objects with no obvious landmarks. Each object is represented by a global translation and a normal deformation of a sphere. The normal deformation is defined via the orthonormal spherical-harmonic basis. In this paper we analyse the s...

  1. Effect of excessive body weight on foot arch changes in preschoolers a 2-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowicz-Szymanska, Agnieszka; Mikolajczyk, Edyta

    2015-07-01

    A stable standing posture, and effective and aesthetic gait, depend heavily on correct anatomical construction of the feet, thanks to which they can play their important role. The shape and height of the foot arches are already formed in the preschool and early school years; therefore, abnormalities and disorders in children's feet, and correlations between foot formation and somatic build, are still crucial and interesting issues for orthopedists, pediatricians, physiotherapists, and podiatrists. This study deals with changes in the height of the longitudinal and transverse arches of the foot in 4- to 6-year-old children. A total of 102 boys and 105 girls took part in a 24-month study in which their body weight, height, body mass index, and Clarke's and gamma angles were measured. The analysis also focused on correlations among sex, nutritional status, and changes in foot arch height. It was discovered that sex did not considerably affect Clarke's and gamma angle values. However, it was found that between ages 4 and 6 years, the proportion of overweight and obese boys and girls increased, and the medial longitudinal arch of the foot had a tendency to collapse in those with excessive body weight. The effect of nutritional status on the transverse arch of the foot is rather dubious. In light of these findings, therapeutic programs for preventing foot deformities in children should also focus on body weight control.

  2. Narrative review: Diabetic foot and infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Contreras, D.; Peregrina-Barreto, H.; Rangel-Magdaleno, J.; Gonzalez-Bernal, J.

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic foot is one of the major complications experienced by diabetic patients. An early identification and appropriate treatment of diabetic foot problems can prevent devastating consequences such as limb amputation. Several studies have demonstrated that temperature variations in the plantar region can be related to diabetic foot problems. Infrared thermography has been successfully used to detect complication related to diabetic foot, mainly because it is presented as a rapid, non-contact and non-invasive technique to visualize the temperature distribution of the feet. In this review, an overview of studies that relate foot temperature with diabetic foot problems through infrared thermography is presented. Through this research, it can be appreciated the potential of infrared thermography and the benefits that this technique present in this application. This paper also presents the different methods for thermogram analysis and the advantages and disadvantages of each one, being the asymmetric analysis the method most used so far.

  3. Diabetes: Good Diabetes Management and Regular Foot Care Help Prevent Severe Foot Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amputation and diabetes: How to protect your feet Good diabetes management and regular foot care help prevent severe foot sores that ... and may require amputation. By Mayo Clinic Staff Diabetes complications can include nerve damage and poor blood ...

  4. A preliminary study of the effect of restricted gastrocnemius length on foot kinematics and plantar pressure patterns during gait in children with Cerebral Palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek

    2008-01-01

      Summary/conclusion Kinematic foot modelling and pedobarography are complementary measurement methods for measuring foot biomechanics in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Pedobarography appears to be the most sensitive instrument measuring significantly decreased hindfoot and increased lateral......, range, 9-18 yrs) was tested twice using an EMED pedobarograph and a Vicon motion analysis system using the Oxford kinematic foot model to test the repeatability of the measurement methods and generate normal data. 8 children (4 girls, 4 boys, mean ± SD, 12 ± 2 yrs, range 8-15yr) with spastic CP...... forefoot mean plantar pressure and force in the children with gastrocnemius contracture, whilst the corresponding changes in foot kinematics were non-significant.   Introduction Foot deformity is common in CP and is often due to hypertonia and contracture in spastic muscles. The aim of this study...

  5. Is nucleon deformed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Afsar

    1992-01-01

    The surprising answer to this question Is nucleon deformed? is : Yes. The evidence comes from a study of the quark model of the single nucleon and when it is found in a nucleus. It turns out that many of the long standing problems of the Naive Quark Model are taken care of if the nucleon is assumed to be deformed. Only one value of the parameter P D ∼1/4 (which specifies deformation) fits g A (the axial vector coupling constant) for all the semileptonic decay of baryons, the F/D ratio, the pion-nucleon-delta coupling constant fsub(πNΔ), the double delta coupling constant 1 fsub(πΔΔ), the Ml transition moment μΔN and g 1 p the spin structure function of proton 2 . All this gives strong hint that both neutron and proton are deformed. It is important to look for further signatures of this deformation. When this deformed nucleon finds itself in a nuclear medium its deformation decreases. So much that in a heavy nucleus the nucleons are actually spherical. We look into the Gamow-Teller strengths, magnetic moments and magnetic transition strengths in nuclei to study this property. (author). 15 refs

  6. Measurement of first ray of foot with reference to hallux valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howale, Deepak S; Iyer, Kanaklata V; Shah, Jigesh V

    2012-06-01

    A study was carried out on 58 healthy volunteers. None of the volunteeres had any foot complaints. This was done to study Indian feet, as foot is an important part of human anatomy and its certain deformities eg, hallux valgus, can be very disabling. We have studied anatomical angles between 1st and 2nd rays of foot eg, angle of hallux valgus and angle of slant of distal facet of medial cuneiform and have shown significant correlation between them and development of hallux valgus. The coefficient of correlation (r) calculated between these two angles is significant, showing that this angle influences the angle of hallux valgus and hence development of hallux valgus. These are anatomical angles and indicate shapes of medial cuneiform and 1st metatarsal. Hence these seem to be inherited, making the feet anatomically predisposed to develop hallux valgus. This view is supported by Gray's Anatomy. The extrinsic factors such as narrow toes, closed, footwear worn for an extended period do increase the angle of hallux valgus. So, in predisposed feet, this is one of the extrinsic factor which can lead to development of hallux valgus. On studying these two angles, orthopaedicians should be on alert and should advise such individuals on wearing foot- friendly foot-wear.

  7. Diabetic Foot and Exercise Therapy: Step by Step The Role of Rigid Posture and Biomechanics Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Piergiorgio; Gulisano, Massimo; Anichini, Roberto; Seghieri, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Lower extremity ulcers represent a serious and costly complication of diabetes mellitus. Many factors contribute to the development of diabetic foot. Peripheral neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease are the main causes of foot ulceration and contribute in turn to the growth of additional risk factors such as limited joint mobility, muscular alterations and foot deformities. Moreover, a deficit of balance, posture and biomechanics can be present, in particular in patients at high risk for ulceration. The result of this process may be the development of a vicious cycle which leads to abnormal distribution of the foot's plantar pressures in static and dynamic postural conditions. This review shows that some of these risk factors significantly improve after a few weeks of exercise therapy (ET) intervention. Accordingly it has been suggested that ET can be an important weapon in the prevention of foot ulcer. The aim of ET can relate to one or more alterations typically found in diabetic patients, although greater attention should be paid to the evaluation and possible correction of body balance, rigid posture and biomechanics. Some of the most important limitations of ET are difficult access to therapy, patient compliance and the transitoriness of the results if the training stops. Many proposals have been made to overcome such limitations. In particular, it is important that specialized centers offer the opportunity to participate in ET and during the treatment the team should work to change the patient’s lifestyle by improving the execution of appropriate daily physical activity. PMID:24807636

  8. Automatic detection of diabetic foot complications with infrared thermography by asymmetric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chanjuan; van Netten, Jaap J.; van Baal, Jeff G.; Bus, Sicco A.; van der Heijden, Ferdi

    2015-02-01

    Early identification of diabetic foot complications and their precursors is essential in preventing their devastating consequences, such as foot infection and amputation. Frequent, automatic risk assessment by an intelligent telemedicine system might be feasible and cost effective. Infrared thermography is a promising modality for such a system. The temperature differences between corresponding areas on contralateral feet are the clinically significant parameters. This asymmetric analysis is hindered by (1) foot segmentation errors, especially when the foot temperature and the ambient temperature are comparable, and by (2) different shapes and sizes between contralateral feet due to deformities or minor amputations. To circumvent the first problem, we used a color image and a thermal image acquired synchronously. Foot regions, detected in the color image, were rigidly registered to the thermal image. This resulted in 97.8%±1.1% sensitivity and 98.4%±0.5% specificity over 76 high-risk diabetic patients with manual annotation as a reference. Nonrigid landmark-based registration with B-splines solved the second problem. Corresponding points in the two feet could be found regardless of the shapes and sizes of the feet. With that, the temperature difference of the left and right feet could be obtained.

  9. [Diabetic foot risk in patients with type II diabetes mellitus in a family medicine unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Godínez, S A; Zonana-Nacach, A; Anzaldo-Campos, M C; Muñoz-Martínez, J A

    2014-01-01

    To determine the risk of diabetic foot in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM) seen in a Family Medicine Unit. The study included type II DM patients with a disease duration ≥ 5 years seen in a Family Medicine Unit, Tijuana, Mexico, during September-December 2011. Neuropathy was assessed with the Diabetic Neuropathy Symptom questionnaire, and pressure sensation using a 10-g Semmes-Weinstein monofilament. A patient had a high risk of diabetic foot if there was sensitivity loss, foot deformities, and non-palpable pedal pulses. We studied 205 patients with an average (± SD) age and DM duration of 59 ± 10 years and 10.7 ± 6.7 years, respectively. Ninety one patients (44%) had a high risk of developing diabetic foot, and it was associated with; an education of less than 6 years (OR 2.3; 95%CI: 1-1-4.1), DM disease duration ≥ 10 years (OR 5.1; 95%CI: 2.8-9.4), female gender (OR 2.0; 95%CI: 1.1-3.6), monthly familiar income diabetic neuropathy, since they have a high risk of diabetic foot. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. The Glasgow-Maastricht foot model, evaluation of a 26 segment kinematic model of the foot

    OpenAIRE

    Oosterwaal, Michiel; Carbes, Sylvain; Telfer, Scott; Woodburn, James; T?rholm, S?ren; Al-Munajjed, Amir A.; van Rhijn, Lodewijk; Meijer, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurately measuring of intrinsic foot kinematics using skin mounted markers is difficult, limited in part by the physical dimensions of the foot. Existing kinematic foot models solve this problem by combining multiple bones into idealized rigid segments. This study presents a novel foot model that allows the motion of the 26 bones to be individually estimated via a combination of partial joint constraints and coupling the motion of separate joints using kinematic rhythms. Methods ...

  11. A review of the biomechanics of the diabetic foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, C. H. M.

    2005-01-01

    In general, diabetic foot ulcers result from abnormal mechanical loading of the foot, such as repetitive moderate pressure applied to the plantar aspect of the foot while walking. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy causes changes in foot structure, affecting foot function and subsequently leading to

  12. Stress Fractures of the Foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Munier; Clutton, Juliet; Ridgewell, Mark; Lyons, Kathleen; Perera, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    Stress fractures of the foot and ankle may be more common among athletes than previously reported. A low threshold for investigation is warranted and further imaging may be appropriate if initial radiographs remain inconclusive. Most of these fractures can be treated conservatively with a period of non-weight-bearing mobilization followed by gradual return to activity. Early surgery augmented by bone graft may allow athletes to return to sports earlier. Risk of delayed union, nonunion, and recurrent fracture is high. Many of the patients may also have risk factors for injury that should be modified for a successful outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Overuse syndromes of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainberger, F.; Peloschek, P.; Weidekamm, C.; Uffmann, M.

    2007-01-01

    Overuse syndromes due to lifestyle problems or sporting activities commonly lead to foot abnormalities. The tendons of the long flexor and extensor muscles are specifically prone to degeneration. The various disorders may be classified by a grading system that includes peritendinous inflammation, degenerative tendon disease, and ruptures. Bone marrow edema is another typical manifestation of overuse. It may be differentiated from inflammatory or traumatic forms of edema by its anatomic distribution. Systematic pattern recognition is based on the concept of musculotendinous and osseous kinetic chains. (orig.) [de

  14. The impact of obesity on foot morphology in women aged 48 years or older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Tománková

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is major risk factor for many diseases within society and represents extensive loads for the feet which lead to various foot disorders and deformities. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of obesity as represented by percent body fat (PBF on foot morphology. Methods: The study sample included 139 Czech women aged 48-69 years. The women were divided into two groups by PBF: non-obese women (NOW (n = 66; PBF < 35% and obese women (OW (n = 73; PBF > 35%. Measurements included % PBF and width, length and angle dimensions of foot. The Chippaux-Smirak index (CSI was calculated for each foot. Results: We found significant differences between OW and NOW in these parameters: direct forefoot width (sin. p = .02, rpb = .20, direct heel width (sin. p = .01, rpb = .22; dex. p < .01, rpb = .22, hallux angle (sin. p = .01, rpb = .25 and CSI (sin. p < .01, rpb = .26; dex. p < .01, rpb = .27. The results showed that the mean values of the heel width and CSI were significantly higher in OW on both feet, the mean values of forefoot width only on the left foot. Conclusions: Results proved that obesity impacts all parts of the foot (heel, longitudinal foot arch, forefoot. Despite significant differences of the CSI between NOW and OW, the number of subjects with flat feet was in both groups negligible.

  15. ANALYSIS OF ANKLE ALIGNMENT ABNORMALITIES AS A RISK FACTOR FOR PEDIATRIC FLEXIBLE FLAT FOOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ajai Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Majority of paediatric flat feet are flexible and asymptomatic; less than 0.1% of all flat feet are rigid. If these can be diagnosed and managed early, then various complications can be prevented and they will remain asymptomatic. This study was conducted to analyse the ankle rotational mal-alignments in the natural course of flexible flat foot in children. Seventy-six patients of flexible flat foot and one hundred controls were included in this study. The height of foot arches was judged clinically by inspecting the height of the medial arch and by measuring the arch index on weight-bearing podograms. Tibial torsion and bimalleolar angle were assessed in all subjects. Tibial torsion was assessed in the first twenty subjects (ten cases and ten controls both by clinical methods (foot-thigh angle and CT. As no statistical difference in the two methods was observed, tibial torsion was measured by clinical methods only in the remaining subjects. Bimalleolar angle was measured on weight-bearing podograms in all subjects. For a minimum of two years, cases were followed up regularly with a standard conservative protocol and the height of the arches observed. Majority of cases of flexible flat foot were found to have increased tibial torsion and increased foot-bimalleolar angle (high talar spin. The severity of collapse of the medial arch and the response to conservative treatment was found to correlate with these rotational mal-alignments of the ankle. Ankle rotational mal-alignments were seen to make these flexible flat foot deformities more complex and less responsive to conservative treatment.

  16. Assessment of signs of foot infection in diabetes patients using photographic foot imaging and infrared thermography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Constantijn E. V. B.; van Netten, Jaap J.; van Baal, Sjef G.; Bus, Sicco A.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with diabetic foot disease require frequent screening to prevent complications and may be helped through telemedical home monitoring. Within this context, the goal was to determine the validity and reliability of assessing diabetic foot infection using photographic foot imaging and infrared

  17. A new method to normalize plantar pressure measurements for foot size and foot progression angle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, N.L.; Stolwijk, N.M.; Nienhuis, B.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Plantar pressure measurement provides important information about the structure and function of the foot and is a helpful tool to evaluate patients with foot complaints. In general, average and maximum plantar pressure of 6-11 areas under the foot are used to compare groups of subjects. However,

  18. Talectomy for Equinovarus Deformity in Family Members with Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy Type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo Georgiev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of severe rigid neurogenic clubfoot deformities still remains a challenging problem in modern paediatric orthopaedics. In those cases, in spite of being a palliative procedure, talectomy has been advocated for the correction of the deformity thus providing a stable plantigrade foot which allows pain-free walking with standard footwear. Herein, we present the results after talectomy in two patients (brother and sister affected by a hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type I, with rigid severe pes equinovarus deformities.

  19. Classification of diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Game, Frances

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the relative importance of factors involved in the development of diabetic foot problems can vary in both their presence and severity between patients and lesions. This may be one of the reasons why outcomes seem to vary centre to centre and why some treatments may seem more effective in some people than others. There is a need therefore to classify and describe lesions of the foot in patients with diabetes in a manner that is agreed across all communities but is simple to use in clinical practice. No single system is currently in widespread use, although a number have been published. Not all are well validated outside the system from which they were derived, and it has not always been made clear the clinical purposes to which such classifications should be put to use, whether that be for research, clinical description in routine clinical care or audit. Here the currently published classification systems, their validation in clinical practice, whether they were designed for research, audit or clinical care, and the strengths and weaknesses of each are explored. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Extremely deformable structures

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of ‘extreme mechanics’, to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on ...

  1. Diffeomorphic Statistical Deformation Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Sass; Hansen, Mads/Fogtman; Larsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method for constructing diffeomorphic statistical deformation models in arbitrary dimensional images with a nonlinear generative model and a linear parameter space. Our deformation model is a modified version of the diffeomorphic model introduced by Cootes et al....... The modifications ensure that no boundary restriction has to be enforced on the parameter space to prevent folds or tears in the deformation field. For straightforward statistical analysis, principal component analysis and sparse methods, we assume that the parameters for a class of deformations lie on a linear...... with ground truth in form of manual expert annotations, and compared to Cootes's model. We anticipate applications in unconstrained diffeomorphic synthesis of images, e.g. for tracking, segmentation, registration or classification purposes....

  2. Management of diabetic neuropathic foot and ankle malunions and nonunions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Stapleton

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The management of diabetic neuropathic foot and ankle malunions and/or nonunions is often complicated by the presence of broken or loosened hardware, Charcot joints, infection, osteomyelitis, avascular bone necrosis, unstable deformities, bone loss, disuse and pathologic osteopenia, and ulcerations. The author discusses a rational approach to functional limb salvage with various surgical techniques that are aimed at achieving anatomic alignment, long-term osseous stability, and adequate soft tissue coverage. Emphasis is placed on techniques to overcome the inherent challenges that are encountered when surgically managing a diabetic nonunion and/or malunion. Particular attention is directed to the management of deep infection and Charcot neuroarthropathy in the majority of the cases presented.

  3. The Spherical Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asgar

    2003-01-01

    Miller et al. (1994) describe a model for representing spatial objects with no obvious landmarks. Each object is represented by a global translation and a normal deformation of a sphere. The normal deformation is defined via the orthonormal spherical-harmonic basis. In this paper we analyse the s...... a single central section of the object. We use maximum-likelihood-based inference for this purpose and demonstrate the suggested methods on real data....

  4. Can We Measure the Heel Bump? Radiographic Evaluation of Haglund's Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulstra, Gythe H; van Rheenen, Thijs A; Scholtes, Vanessa A B

    2015-01-01

    Haglund's deformity is a symptomatic posterosuperior deformity of the heel. The lateral radiograph of the ankle will show a prominent, large, posterosuperior part of the calcaneus, which can be measured using the Fowler and Philips angle (FPA, the angle between the posterior and plantar surface of the calcaneus) and the calcaneal pitch angle (CPA, the angle between the sole of the foot and the plantar part of the calcaneus). Although these angles are commonly used, these radiographic angle measurements have never shown a relationship with Haglund's deformity. In 78 patients (51% male) with symptomatic Haglund's deformity and a control group of 100 patients (41% male) with no heel complaints, we measured the FPA and CPA on weightbearing lateral radiographs of the foot. Using an unpaired t tests, no significant difference was found between the 2 groups in the FPA (p = .40). We measured a significant difference in the CPA between the Haglund group and the control group (p = .014). Subgroup analysis showed that this difference was mainly found in females (p verticalization of the calcaneus. This change in position results in extra traction on the Achilles tendon and can eventually cause tendinitis and bursitis. Radiographic measurement should be used as an auxiliary tool. If the calcaneus tends to change position, it would be interesting to understand this process, which could eventually lead to improvement in the treatment of Haglund's deformity. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Preventative foot care in people with diabetes: Quality patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: preventative foot care; diabetes; risk stratification: self care. Introduction ... diabetes is considered to be a key indicator of the quality of foot ... loss of protective sensation, the importance of foot monitoring on a daily basis, the proper ...

  6. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... following consensus standards: (i) ASTM F-2412-2005, “Standard Test Methods for Foot Protection,” and ASTM F... footwear that is constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus standards will be deemed to be...

  7. VACUUM ASSISTED CLOSURE IN DIABETIC FOOT MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Moganakannan; `Prema; Arun Sundara Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Comparision of vacuum assisted closure vs conventional dressing in management of diabetic foot patients. 30 patients were taken in that 15 underwent vacuum therapy and remaining 15 underwent conventional dressing.They were analysed by the development of granulation tissue and wound healing.The study showed Vac therapy is the best modality for management of diabetic foot patients.

  8. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze is not just for faces anymore— ...

  9. Preventing Diabetic Foot Complications : Strategic Recommendations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diabetic foot is the commonest cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputation in the developed and developing nations. Several risk factors predispose the diabetic patient to foot ulceration and peripheral neuropathy, with peripheral vascular disease are the commonest risk factors. Clinical examination for these risk ...

  10. The role of foot morphology on foot function in diabetic subjects with or without neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiotto, Annamaria; Sawacha, Zimi; Guarneri, Gabriella; Cristoferi, Giuseppe; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of foot morphology, related with respect to diabetes and peripheral neuropathy in altering foot kinematics and plantar pressure during gait. Healthy and diabetic subjects with or without neuropathy with different foot types were analyzed. Three dimensional multisegment foot kinematics and plantar pressures were assessed on 120 feet: 40 feet (24 cavus, 20 with valgus heel and 11 with hallux valgus) in the control group, 80 feet in the diabetic (25 cavus 13 with valgus heel and 13 with hallux valgus) and the neuropathic groups (28 cavus, 24 with valgus heel and 18 with hallux valgus). Subjects were classified according to their foot morphology allowing further comparisons among the subgroups with the same foot morphology. When comparing neuropathic subjects with cavus foot, valgus heel with controls with the same foot morphology, important differences were noticed: increased dorsiflexion and peak plantar pressure on the forefoot (Pfoot morphology in altering both kinematics and plantar pressure in diabetic subjects, diabetes appeared to further contribute in altering foot biomechanics. Surprisingly, all the diabetic subjects with normal foot arch or with valgus hallux were no more likely to display significant differences in biomechanics parameters than controls. This data could be considered a valuable support for future research on diabetic foot function, and in planning preventive interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. “They just scraped off the calluses”: a mixed methods exploration of foot care access and provision for people with rheumatoid arthritis in south-western Sydney, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is little indication that foot health services in Australia are meeting modern day recommendations for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients. The overall objective of this study was to explore the current state of foot health services for patients with RA with an emphasis on identifying barriers to the receipt of appropriate foot care in South-West Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Methods A mixed (quantitative and qualitative) approach was adopted. Indications for appropriate access to foot care were determined by comparing the foot health, disease and socio-demographic characteristics of patients with unmet foot care demands, foot care users and patients with no demands for foot care. Perceptions of provision of, and access to, foot care were explored by conducting telephone-based interviews using an interpretative phenomenology approach with thematic analysis. Results Twenty-nine participants took part in the cross-sectional quantitative research study design, and 12 participants took part in the interpretative phenomenological approach (qualitative study). Foot care access appeared to be driven predominantly by the presence of rearfoot deformity, which was significantly worse amongst participants in the foot care user group (p = 0.02). Five main themes emerged from the qualitative data: 1) impact of disease-related foot symptoms, 2) footwear difficulties, 3) medical/rheumatology encounters, 4) foot and podiatry care access and experiences, and 5) financial hardship. Conclusions Foot care provision does not appear to be driven by appropriate foot health characteristics such as foot pain or foot-related disability. There may be significant shortfalls in footwear and foot care access and provision in Greater Western Sydney. Several barriers to adequate foot care access and provision were identified and further efforts are required to improve access to and the quality of foot care for people who have RA. Integration of podiatry services within

  12. Reliability and normative values of the foot line test: a technique to assess foot posture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brushøj, C; Larsen, Klaus; Nielsen, MB

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Test-retest reliability. OBJECTIVE: To examine the reliability and report normative values of a novel test, the foot line test (FLT), to describe foot morphology. BACKGROUND: Numerous foot examinations are performed each day, but most existing examination techniques have considerable...... limitations regarding reliability and validity. METHODS: One hundred thirty subjects with mean foot size 44 (41-50 European size) participated. Two examiners, blinded to each other's measurements, measured the right foot of the subjects twice and the left foot once. The position of the most medial aspect...... of the navicular in the mediolateral direction was projected vertically onto a piece of paper placed under the subject's foot, and compared to the position of the forefoot and hindfoot to obtain the FLT value. RESULTS: FLT values ranged from -8 to 14 mm, with a mean (+/-SD) of 3.7 +/- 3.4 mm. The intratester...

  13. Growth factors for treating diabetic foot ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Gluud, Christian; Nicola, Susana

    2015-01-01

    following treatment for diabetic foot ulcers (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.14 to 2.94; P value 0.56, low quality of evidence)Although 11 trials reported time to complete healing of the foot ulcers in people with diabetes , meta-analysis was not possible for this outcome due to the unique comparisons within each trial...... (minimum of one toe), complete healing of the foot ulcer, and time to complete healing of the diabetic foot ulcer as the primary outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Independently, we selected randomised clinical trials, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data in duplicate. We estimated risk ratios......BACKGROUND: Foot ulcers are a major complication of diabetes mellitus, often leading to amputation. Growth factors derived from blood platelets, endothelium, or macrophages could potentially be an important treatment for these wounds but they may also confer risks. OBJECTIVES: To assess...

  14. Changes in multi-segment foot biomechanics with a heat-mouldable semi-custom foot orthotic device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferber Reed

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Semi-custom foot orthoses (SCO are thought to be a cost-effective alternative to custom-made devices. However, previous biomechanical research involving either custom or SCO has only focused on rearfoot biomechanics. The purpose of this study was therefore to determine changes in multi-segment foot biomechanics during shod walking with and without an SCO. We chose to investigate an SCO device that incorporates a heat-moulding process, to further understand if the moulding process would significantly alter rearfoot, midfoot, or shank kinematics as compared to a no-orthotic condition. We hypothesized the SCO, whether moulded or non-moulded, would reduce peak rearfoot eversion, tibial internal rotation, arch deformation, and plantar fascia strain as compared to the no-orthoses condition. Methods Twenty participants had retroreflective markers placed on the right limb to represent forefoot, midfoot, rearfoot and shank segments. 3D kinematics were recorded using an 8-camera motion capture system while participants walked on a treadmill. Results Plantar fascia strain was reduced by 34% when participants walked in either the moulded or non-moulded SCO condition compared to no-orthoses. However, there were no significant differences in peak rearfoot eversion, tibial internal rotation, or medial longitudinal arch angles between any conditions. Conclusions A semi-custom moulded orthotic does not control rearfoot, shank, or arch deformation but does, however, reduce plantar fascia strain compared to walking without an orthoses. Heat-moulding the orthotic device does not have a measurable effect on any biomechanical variables compared to the non-moulded condition. These data may, in part, help explain the clinical efficacy of orthotic devices.

  15. Holistic management of diabetic foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindarto, D.

    2018-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is the most costly and devastating complication of diabetes mellitus, which affect 15% of diabetic patients during their lifetime. DFUs are complex, chronic wounds, which have a major long-term impact on the morbidity, mortality and quality of patients’ lives. Individuals who develop a DFU are at greater risk of premature death, myocardial infarction and fatal stroke than those without a history of DFU. Unlike other chronic wounds, the development and progression of DFU is often complicated by wideranging diabetic changes, such as neuropathy and vascular disease. The management of DFU should be optimized by using a multidisciplinary team, due to a holistic approach to wound management is required. Based on studies, blood sugar control, wound debridement, advanced dressings and offloading modalities should always be a part of DFU management. Furthermore, surgery to heal chronic ulcer and prevent recurrence should be considered as an essential component of management in some cases.

  16. Hand and foot contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakati, R.K.; Kaptral, R.S.; Ananthkrishnan, T.S.; Pansare, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    In order to make quick measurements of beta and gamma contaminations on hands and feet of personnel working in radioactive environments, hand and foot contamination monitors are widely used. This paper describes such a monitor system designed with Intel 8085 based microcomputer. The monitoring and warning system is designed to perform measurement of activity spread over surface of hands and soles of shoes or feet. Even though the system has many features to aid testing and maintainance operation, it is easy to use for unskilled persons. In order to check the contamination, the person stands on platform and inserts both his hands into detector assemblies thereby actuating the sensing switches. After a preset interval, annunciation of clean or contaminated status is declared by the system. (author)

  17. Relationship between sagittal plane kinematics, foot morphology and vertical forces applied to three regions of the foot

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah, I.; Sawacha, Z.; Guiotto, A.; Mazza, C.

    2016-01-01

    Kinetic analysis of human motion with a multi-segment musculoskeletal foot model requires the distribution of loading applied to the modeled foot segments to be determined. This work thus examines the existence of any correlation between intersegmental foot kinematics, foot morphology, and the distribution of vertical loading in a multi-segment foot model. Gait analysis trials were performed by 20 healthy subjects at a self-selected speed with intersegmental foot joint angles and the distribu...

  18. Diagnosis of fetal congenital limb deformities by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Suzhen; Zhu Ming; Zhong Yumin; Zhang Hong; Mao Jianping

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of MRI on fetal congenital limb deformities. Methods: Sixteen pregnant women, aged from 22 to 40 years (average 29 years) and with gestation from 22 to 39 weeks (average 29 weeks) were studied with a 1.5 T superconductive MR unit within 24 to 48 hours after ultrasound studies. Acquisitions consisted of coronal, sagittal, and axial slices relative to the fetal brain, spine, thorax, abdomen, especially limbs using 2D FIESTA sequences. Prenatal US and MR imaging findings were compared with postnatal diagnoses (4 fetuses) or autopsy (12 pregnant women, 13 fetuses). Postnatal evaluation included US, MR imaging, computed tomography, and physical examination. Results: Of the sixteen pregnant women (15 with a single fetus and 1 with twin fetuses), 17 fetuses were found. Those limb deformities of sixteen pregnant women included congenital both upper extremities amelia (1 case), sirenomelia sequence (1 case), micromelia (5 cases, 1 of which were twins), bilateral clenched hands (2 cases), right polydactyly (1 case), simple right ectrodactyly (1 case), right dactylolysis(1 case), simple club foot (2 cases), hydrocele spinalis with club foot (2 cases), 1 of the 2 cases with bilateral clinodactyly. In 14 of 16 cases, the diagnoses established by MR imaging were correct when compared with postnatal diagnosis, and prenatal MR diagnosis was inaccurate in 2 cases. Conclusion: Prenatal MRI is effective in the assessment of congenital limb deformities of fetuses, it can yield information additional to that obtained with US, and further correct US diagnosis. (authors)

  19. Stress distribution of the foot during mid-stance to push-off in barefoot gait: a 3-D finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W P; Tang, F T; Ju, C W

    2001-08-01

    To quantify stress distribution of the foot during mid-stance to push-off in barefoot gait using 3-D finite element analysis. To simulate the foot structure and facilitate later consideration of footwear. Finite element model was generated and loading condition simulating barefoot gait during mid-stance to push-off was used to quantify the stress distributions. A computational model can provide overall stress distributions of the foot subject to various loading conditions. A preliminary 3-D finite element foot model was generated based on the computed tomography data of a male subject and the bone and soft tissue structures were modeled. Analysis was performed for loading condition simulating barefoot gait during mid-stance to push-off. The peak plantar pressure ranged from 374 to 1003 kPa and the peak von Mises stress in the bone ranged from 2.12 to 6.91 MPa at different instants. The plantar pressure patterns were similar to measurement result from previous literature. The present study provides a preliminary computational model that is capable of estimating the overall plantar pressure and bone stress distributions. It can also provide quantitative analysis for normal and pathological foot motion. This model can identify areas of increased pressure and correlate the pressure with foot pathology. Potential applications can be found in the study of foot deformities, footwear, surgical interventions. It may assist pre-treatment planning, design of pedorthotic appliances, and predict the treatment effect of foot orthosis.

  20. Diabetic Foot Complications Despite Successful Pancreas Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Kyo; Lee, Ho Seong; Park, Jungu; Ryu, Chang Hyun; Han, Duck Jong; Seo, Sang Gyo

    2017-06-01

    It is known that successful pancreas transplantation enables patients with diabetes to maintain a normal glucose level without insulin and reduces diabetes-related complications. However, we have little information about the foot-specific morbidity in patients who have undergone successful pancreas transplantation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and predisposing factors for foot complications after successful pancreas transplantation. This retrospective study included 218 patients (91 males, 127 females) who had undergone pancreas transplantation for diabetes. The mean age was 40.7 (range, 15-76) years. Diabetes type, transplantation type, body mass index, and diabetes duration before transplantation were confirmed. After pancreas transplantation, the occurrence and duration of foot and ankle complications were assessed. Twenty-two patients (10.1%) had diabetic foot complications. Fifteen patients (6.9%) had diabetic foot ulcer and 7 patients (3.2%) had Charcot arthropathy. Three patients had both diabetic foot ulcer and Charcot arthropathy. Three insufficiency fractures (1.4%) were included. Mean time of complications after transplantation was 18.5 (range, 2-77) months. Creatinine level 1 year after surgery was higher in the complication group rather than the noncomplication group ( P = .02). Complications of the foot and ankle still occurred following pancreas transplantation in patients with diabetes. Level III, comparative study.

  1. Autogenous Deformation of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autogenous deformation of concrete can be defined as the free deformation of sealed concrete at a constant temperature. A number of observed problems with early age cracking of high-performance concretes can be attributed to this phenomenon. During the last 10 years , this has led to an increased...... focus on autogenous deformation both within concrete practice and concrete research. Since 1996 the interest has been significant enough to hold international, yearly conferences entirely devoted to this subject. The papers in this publication were presented at two consecutive half-day sessions...... at the American Concrete Institute’s Fall Convention in Phoenix, Arizona, October 29, 2002. All papers have been reviewed according to ACI rules. This publication, as well as the sessions, was sponsored by ACI committee 236, Material Science of Concrete. The 12 presentations from 8 different countries indicate...

  2. Interfacial Bubble Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Brian; Shabane, Parvis; Cypull, Olivia; Cheng, Shengfeng; Feitosa, Klebert

    Soap bubbles floating at an air-water experience deformations as a result of surface tension and hydrostatic forces. In this experiment, we investigate the nature of such deformations by taking cross-sectional images of bubbles of different volumes. The results show that as their volume increases, bubbles transition from spherical to hemispherical shape. The deformation of the interface also changes with bubble volume with the capillary rise converging to the capillary length as volume increases. The profile of the top and bottom of the bubble and the capillary rise are completely determined by the volume and pressure differences. James Madison University Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4VA Consortium, Research Corporation for Advancement of Science.

  3. Development of a Subject-Specific Foot-Ground Contact Model for Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jennifer N; Hass, Chris J; Fregly, Benjamin J

    2016-09-01

    Computational walking simulations could facilitate the development of improved treatments for clinical conditions affecting walking ability. Since an effective treatment is likely to change a patient's foot-ground contact pattern and timing, such simulations should ideally utilize deformable foot-ground contact models tailored to the patient's foot anatomy and footwear. However, no study has reported a deformable modeling approach that can reproduce all six ground reaction quantities (expressed as three reaction force components, two center of pressure (CoP) coordinates, and a free reaction moment) for an individual subject during walking. This study proposes such an approach for use in predictive optimizations of walking. To minimize complexity, we modeled each foot as two rigid segments-a hindfoot (HF) segment and a forefoot (FF) segment-connected by a pin joint representing the toes flexion-extension axis. Ground reaction forces (GRFs) and moments acting on each segment were generated by a grid of linear springs with nonlinear damping and Coulomb friction spread across the bottom of each segment. The stiffness and damping of each spring and common friction parameter values for all springs were calibrated for both feet simultaneously via a novel three-stage optimization process that used motion capture and ground reaction data collected from a single walking trial. The sequential three-stage process involved matching (1) the vertical force component, (2) all three force components, and finally (3) all six ground reaction quantities. The calibrated model was tested using four additional walking trials excluded from calibration. With only small changes in input kinematics, the calibrated model reproduced all six ground reaction quantities closely (root mean square (RMS) errors less than 13 N for all three forces, 25 mm for anterior-posterior (AP) CoP, 8 mm for medial-lateral (ML) CoP, and 2 N·m for the free moment) for both feet in all walking trials. The

  4. Risk factors of foot ulceration in patients with Diabetes Mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Bañuelos-Barrera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Identify the risk factors for foot ulceration in patients with diabetes type 2 (DM2 who attended a primary care center in the city of Colima (Mexico. Methodology. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted during 2012 with the participation of 87 patients with DM2 from both sexes and older than 30 years of age. Socio-demographic, anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical variables were measured. The study inquired about prior evaluation of the feet and prior education on diabetes by the healthcare team. Results. The mean age was 59 years and 70% were women. The average number of years since diagnosis was nine years; only 35% had good glycemia control; 66% engage in exercise; 51% wear open shoes; none had temperature differences in the feet; 82% had some type of dermatological abnormality; 50% had deformities in their feet. A total of 24% had been diagnosed with peripheral neuropathy and another 11% had peripheral vascular disease. Sixty percent of all the patients had risk of foot ulceration. Only 23% of the participants had had previous foot exams. One of every three diabetic patients had received education about the disease. Conclusion. An important proportion of the patients had risk of foot ulceration, contrary to the insufficient percentage of individuals with previous inspection and education about foot care. For nursing, it is an area of opportunity in this level of care to improve the inspection and education on diabetes, specifically on foot care, mainly in those patients with a prolonged evolution of the disease, deficient glycemia control, and risk of ulceration.

  5. Joining by plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Ken-ichiro; Bay, Niels; Fratini, Livan

    2013-01-01

    As the scale and complexity of products such as aircraft and cars increase, demand for new functional processes to join mechanical parts grows. The use of plastic deformation for joining parts potentially offers improved accuracy, reliability and environmental safety as well as creating opportuni......As the scale and complexity of products such as aircraft and cars increase, demand for new functional processes to join mechanical parts grows. The use of plastic deformation for joining parts potentially offers improved accuracy, reliability and environmental safety as well as creating...

  6. Thyrotoxicosis Presenting as Unilateral Drop Foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kenju; Miyata, Hajime; Motegi, Takahide; Shibano, Ken; Ishiguro, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders associated with hyperthyroidism have several variations in their clinical phenotype, such as ophthalmopathy, periodic paralysis, and thyrotoxic myopathy. We herein report an unusual case of thyrotoxic myopathy presenting as unilateral drop foot. Histopathological examinations of the left tibialis anterior muscle showed marked variation in the fiber size, mild inflammatory cell infiltration, and necrotic and regenerated muscle fibers with predominantly type 1 fiber atrophy. Medical treatment with propylthiouracil resulted in complete improvement of the left drop foot. This case expands the phenotype of thyrotoxicosis and suggests that thyrotoxicosis be considered as a possible cause of unilateral drop foot.

  7. Diabetic foot syndrome as an interdisciplinary problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Rymkiewicz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a metabolic disease of the growing maturity. Diabetic foot syndrome is a chronic complications of diabetes. In neuropathic sensory disorders, ischemia of the lower limbs, and improper alignment metabolic control may occur in minor injuries around the foot, giving rise to a difficult healing ulcers. Even minor wounds rapidly infection by pathogenic bacteria, which significantly hinders their treatment. Health and life-saving solution in situations of persistent symptoms of infection is amputation of the lower limb. Doing so, however, does not solve the problem of diabetic and should be the final proceedings after having exhausted all possible treatments for diabetic foot syndrome.

  8. Is the foot elevation the optimal position for wound healing of a diabetic foot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D J; Han, S K; Kim, W K

    2010-03-01

    In managing diabetic foot ulcers, foot elevation has generally been recommended to reduce oedema and prevent other sequential problems. However, foot elevation may decrease tissue oxygenation of the foot more than the dependent position since the dependent position is known to increase blood flow within the arterial system. In addition, diabetic foot ulcers, which have peripheral vascular insufficiency, generally have less oedema than other wounds. Therefore, we argue that foot elevation may not be helpful for healing of vascularly compromised diabetic foot ulcers since adequate tissue oxygenation is an essential factor in diabetic wound healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of foot height on tissue oxygenation and to determine the optimal foot position to accelerate wound healing of diabetic foot ulcers. This study included 122 cases (73 males and 47 females; two males had bilateral disease) of diabetic foot ulcer patients aged 40-93 years. Trans-cutaneous partial oxygen tension (TcpO(2)) values of diabetic feet were measured before and after foot elevation (n=21). Elevation was achieved by placing a foot over four cushions. We also measured foot TcpO(2) values before and after lowering the feet (n=122). Feet were lowered to the patient's tibial height, approximately 30-35 cm, beside a bed handrail. Due to the large number of lowering measurements, we divided them into five sub-groups according to initial TcpO(2.) Tissue oxygenation values were compared. Foot-elevation-lowered TcpO(2) values before and after elevation were 32.5+/-22.2 and 23.8+/-23.1 mmHg (pFoot-lowering-augmented TcpO(2) values before and after lowering were 44.6+/-23.8 and 58.0+/-25.9 mmHg (pfoot lowering, rather than elevation, significantly augments TcpO(2) and may stimulate healing of diabetic foot ulcers. (c) 2008 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gender differences of foot characteristics in older Japanese adults using a 3D foot scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghazadeh, Mahshid; Kitano, Naruki; Okura, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of gender differences in foot shape assists shoe manufactures with designing appropriate shoes for men and women. Although gender differences in foot shapes are relatively known among young men and women, less is known about how the older men and women's feet differ in shape. A recent development in foot shape assessment is the use of 3D foot scanners. To our knowledge this technology has yet to be used to examine gender differences in foot shape of Japanese older adults. This cross-sectional study included 151 older men (74.5 ± 5.6 years) and 140 older women (73.9 ± 5.1 years) recruited in Kasama City, Japan. Foot variables were measured in sitting and standing positions using Dream GP Incorporated's 3D foot scanner, Footstep PRO (Osaka, Japan). Scores were analyzed as both raw and normalized to truncated foot length using independent samples t-test and analysis of covariance, respectively. In men, the measurement values for navicular height, first and fifth toe and instep heights, ball and heel width, ball girth, arch height index (just standing), arch rigidity index and instep girth were significantly greater than the women's, whereas the first toe angle, in both sitting and standing positions was significantly smaller. However, after normalizing, the differences in ball width, heel width, height of first and fifth toes in both sitting and standing and ball girth in sitting position were nonsignificant. According to Cohen's d, among all the foot variables, the following had large effect sizes in both sitting and standing positions: truncated foot length, instep, navicular height, foot length, ball girth, ball width, heel width and instep girth. This study provides evidence of anthropometric foot variations between older men and women. These differences need to be considered when manufacturing shoes for older adults.

  10. A questionnaire for determining prevalence of diabetes related foot disease (Q-DFD: construction and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brand Caroline A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community based prevalence for diabetes related foot disease (DRFD has been poorly quantified in Australian populations. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a survey tool to facilitate collection of community based prevalence data for individuals with DRFD via telephone interview. Methods Agreed components of DRFD were identified through an electronic literature search. Expert feedback and feedback from a population based construction sample were sought on the initial draft. Survey reliability was tested using a cohort recruited through a general practice, a hospital outpatient clinic and an outpatient podiatry clinic. Level of agreement between survey findings and either medical record or clinical assessment was evaluated. Results The Questionnaire for Diabetes Related Foot Disease (Q-DFD comprised 12 questions aimed at determining presence of peripheral sensory neuropathy (PN and peripheral vascular disease (PVD, based on self report of symptoms and/or clinical history, and self report of foot ulceration, amputation and foot deformity. Survey results for 38 from 46 participants demonstrated agreement with either clinical assessment or medical record (kappa 0.65, sensitivity 89.0%, and specificity 77.8%. Correlation for individual survey components was moderate to excellent. Inter and intrarater reliability and test re-test reliability was moderate to high for all survey domains. Conclusion The development of the Q-DFD provides an opportunity for ongoing collection of prevalence estimates for DRFD across Australia.

  11. Marginally Deformed Starobinsky Gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, A.; Joergensen, J.; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We show that quantum-induced marginal deformations of the Starobinsky gravitational action of the form $R^{2(1 -\\alpha)}$, with $R$ the Ricci scalar and $\\alpha$ a positive parameter, smaller than one half, can account for the recent experimental observations by BICEP2 of primordial tensor modes....

  12. Transfer involving deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.O.; Guidry, M.W.; Canto, L.F.

    1985-03-01

    Results are reviewed of 1- and 2-neutron transfer reactions at near-barrier energies for deformed nuclei. Rotational angular momentum and excitation patterns are examined. A strong tendency to populating high spin states within a few MeV of the yrast line is noted, and it is interpreted as preferential transfer to rotation-aligned states. 16 refs., 12 figs

  13. Advanced Curvature Deformable Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Hawaii ,Institute for Astronomy,640 North A‘ohoku Place, #209 , Hilo ,HI,96720-2700 8. PERFORMING...Advanced Curvature Deformable Mirrors Christ Ftaclas1,2, Aglae Kellerer2 and Mark Chun2 Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii

  14. Effect of forward/backward standing posture on foot shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Tan, T.K.; Punte, P.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Foot length and breadth are generally used to determine the correct shoe size. An important question is whether foot length and foot breadth are dependent upon body posture. Therefore, the effect of leaning forward/backward on foot length and breadth is investigated in this study. Seven subjects

  15. Isolation of a substance activating foot formation in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Schaller, H C

    1977-01-01

    -forming potential of the tissue (2) It does not accelerate head regeneration, nor do the head factors of hydra discovered by Schaller (1973) and Berking (1977) accelerate foot regeneration. We propose that the foot-activating substance is a morphogen responsible for foot formation in hydra. The foot activator can...

  16. Clinical and functional correlates of foot pain in diabetic patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, P.M.; Dekker, J.; Rauwerda, J.A.; Dekker, E.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Bakker, K.; Dooren, J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: patients with diabetes mellitus frequently suffer from foot pain. This pain seems to be a neglected area in studies on the diabetic foot. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical variables associated with foot pain in diabetic patients. In addition, the relationships between foot

  17. Increased plantar foot pressure in persons affected by leprosy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slim, Frederik J.; van Schie, Carine H.; Keukenkamp, Renske; Faber, William R.; Nollet, Frans

    2012-01-01

    Although foot pressure has been reported to be increased in people affected by leprosy, studies on foot pressure and its determinants are limited. Therefore, the aim was to assess barefoot plantar foot pressure and to identify clinical determinants of increased plantar foot pressure in leprosy

  18. Design and development of a device to measure the deformities of clubfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khas, Kanwaljit S; Pandey, Pulak M; Ray, Alok R

    2015-03-01

    Clubfoot describes a range of foot abnormalities usually present at birth, in which the foot of a baby is twisted out of shape or position. In order to develop an effective treatment plan for clubfoot and/or assess the extent to which existing interventions are successful, medical practitioners need to be able to accurately measure the nature and extent of the deformity. This is typically performed using a goniometer. However, this device is only able to measure one dimension at a time. As such, a complete assessment of the condition of a foot can be extremely burdensome and time-consuming. This article describes a new device that can quickly and efficiently take several measurements on feet of various sizes and shapes. The use of this device was verified by measuring the deformities of real clubfeet. A silicone rubber clubfoot model was also used in this study to clearly illustrate the effectiveness with which the proposed device can measure the various deformities of clubfoot. It is envisaged that the use of this device will significantly reduce the time and effort orthopedists require to measure clubfoot deformities and develop and assess treatment plans. © IMechE 2015.

  19. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feature story, podcast, and other CDC resources about personal hygiene... Prevention People infected with hand, foot, and mouth ... these countries can protect themselves by practicing good personal hygiene. Learn more . To learn more about outbreaks occurring ...

  20. Radiographic examination of the equine foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    A complete radiographic examination of the equine foot consists of properly exposed, processed, and positioned radiographs. For radiographic interpretation, in addition to knowing radiographic signs of disease, a knowledge of normal radiographic anatomy and possible insignificant anatomic variations is necessary

  1. Formal Design Review Foot Clamp Modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OTEN, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Design Review performed for the foot clamp modification. The report documents the acceptability of the design, identifies the documents that were reviewed, the scope of the review and the members of the review team

  2. Glossary of Foot and Ankle Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... long bones of the fingers or toes. Plantar fascia - Plantar fascia is a thin layer of tough tissue supporting ... the foot. Plantar fasciitis - An inflammation of the plantar fascia. Symptoms are usually pain at the bottom of ...

  3. The chicken foot digital replant training model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassopoulos, Thanassi; Loh, Charles Yuen Yung

    2015-01-01

    A simple, readily available digital replantation model in the chicken foot is described. This high fidelity model will hopefully allow trainees in hand surgery to gain further experience in replant surgery prior to clinical application.

  4. On-the-Job Foot Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves your efficiency and keeps you on the job. Your podiatric physician and surgeon is a specialist ... 20814 FP-65M-4/96 2014 ON-THE-JOB FOOT HEALTH YOUR PODIATRIC PHYSICIAN TALKS ABOUT ON- ...

  5. 130 DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS: CURRENT TRENDS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    *Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, ... well as patient education will markedly .... broad spectrum antibiotic therapy only .... Discuss any foot powders with a healthcare professional prior to use. 2.

  6. Angiography in the region of the foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitler, E.

    1984-06-01

    It is reported on technique, incidence and findings of angiography of the foot which provided magnifying angiography and non-ionic contrast media are used, is especially qualified for the differentiation of diabetic and non-diabetic angiopathies as well as for the identification of peripherical embolizations and digital arterial occlusions at thrombocytosis or polycythemia. The arteries of the foot represent the peripherical outflow at peripherical reconstructive performances at the lower leg and have to be studied prior to such reconstructive surgical interventions. The different localization of arterial obliterations and changes of the walls in diabetics of stage I-IV according to Fontaine shows the particularly large number of vascular-pathological findings in arteries of the lower leg and foot in diabetics with arterial occlusive diseases of stage III and IV. Therefore, the unfavourable prognoses of arterial occlusive diseases in diabetics have also to be made for peripherical arterial obliterations of the foot and lower leg.

  7. Angiography in the region of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitler, E.

    1984-01-01

    It is reported on technique, incidence and findings of angiography of the foot which provided magnifying angiography and non-ionic contrast media are used, is especially qualified for the differentiation of diabetic and non-diabetic angiopathies as well as for the identification of peripherical embolizations and digital arterial occlusions at thrombocytosis or polycythemia. The arteries of the foot represent the peripherical outflow at peripherical reconstructive performances at the lower leg and have to be studied prior to such reconstructive surgical interventions. The different localization of arterial obliterations and changes of the walls in diabetics of stage I-IV according to Fontaine shows the particularly large number of vascular-pathological findings in arteries of the lower leg and foot in diabetics with arterial occlusive diseases of stage III and IV. Therefore, the unfavourable prognoses of arterial occlusive diseases in diabetics have also to be made for peripherical arterial obliterations of the foot and lower leg. (orig.) [de

  8. Natural gaits of the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Li, Zhiyu; Lv, Changsheng; Luo, Donglin

    2010-01-01

    There has been a controversy as to whether or not the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot have an effect on human walking activities. The 3D foot scanning system was employed to obtain static footprints from subjects adopting a half-weight-bearing stance. Based upon their footprints, the subjects were divided into two groups: the flat-footed and the high-arched. The plantar pressure measurement system was used to measure and record the subjects' successive natural gaits. Two indic...

  9. The Glasgow-Maastricht foot model, evaluation of a 26 segment kinematic model of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwaal, Michiel; Carbes, Sylvain; Telfer, Scott; Woodburn, James; Tørholm, Søren; Al-Munajjed, Amir A; van Rhijn, Lodewijk; Meijer, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Accurately measuring of intrinsic foot kinematics using skin mounted markers is difficult, limited in part by the physical dimensions of the foot. Existing kinematic foot models solve this problem by combining multiple bones into idealized rigid segments. This study presents a novel foot model that allows the motion of the 26 bones to be individually estimated via a combination of partial joint constraints and coupling the motion of separate joints using kinematic rhythms. Segmented CT data from one healthy subject was used to create a template Glasgow-Maastricht foot model (GM-model). Following this, the template was scaled to produce subject-specific models for five additional healthy participants using a surface scan of the foot and ankle. Forty-three skin mounted markers, mainly positioned around the foot and ankle, were used to capture the stance phase of the right foot of the six healthy participants during walking. The GM-model was then applied to calculate the intrinsic foot kinematics. Distinct motion patterns where found for all joints. The variability in outcome depended on the location of the joint, with reasonable results for sagittal plane motions and poor results for transverse plane motions. The results of the GM-model were comparable with existing literature, including bone pin studies, with respect to the range of motion, motion pattern and timing of the motion in the studied joints. This novel model is the most complete kinematic model to date. Further evaluation of the model is warranted.

  10. [Foot growth and foot types in children and adolescents: a narrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Miaomiao; Wang, Lin

    2017-08-01

    Foot shape and size are important for footwear design and production. Information about important foot characteristics helps not only to improve shoe comfort but to maintain the proper physiological development of the feet. What's more, plenty of studies have suggested that the shape of the shoe must closely resemble the shape of the foot to create a properly fitted shoe. This means that the differences between various populations should be considered and that footwear should be designed according to the measurements of users. Childhood and adolescent are important periods of human growth. During these periods, foot shape changes with human growth and can be influenced by extrinsic factors. Therefore, the foot shape characteristics of children and adolescents should be investigated. The results from these investigations can contribute to developing appropriate shoe for children and adolescents, improving perceived comfort of children shoes and preventing pedopathy among children and adolescents. This review aims to discuss measuring methods of foot shape, types of foot shape, and factors influencing foot shape. The results of the review can provide recommendations for investigating growth development of foot shape and useful information for consumers and shoe manufacturers.

  11. Foot Marching, Load Carriage, and Injury Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Foot blisters: Though not a musculoskeletal injury , past studies and reviews have described foot blisters as one of the most common marching... injuries were the highest among all activities in these studies, ranging from 36 to 69 limited duty days per injury .23, 24 The top three most common ...Knapik, and J.J. 1994. Exercise, training and injuries . Sports Med 18(3): 202-1. 35. APHC (Prov) Blister Prevention Factsheet. 2015. Available at

  12. Postoperative infection in the foot and ankle.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Victoria O

    2012-07-01

    Our discussion highlights the commonly performed surgical procedures in the foot and ankle and reviews the various imaging modalities available for the detection of infection with graphic examples to better enable radiologists to approach the radiological evaluation of postoperative infection in the foot and ankle. Discrimination between infectious and noninfectious inflammation remains a diagnostic challenge usually needing a combination of clinical assessment, laboratory investigations, and imaging studies to increase diagnostic accuracy.

  13. CLINICOMICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Kumar Palaniappan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease caused by a combination of lifestyle and genetic factors affecting all organs in the body. Foot ulcers are one of the common and serious long-term complications of diabetes leads to recurrent and chronic infections, which results in limb loss when treatment is delayed. The aim of this study is to find out the clinical outcome and microbiological profile in patients admitted with diabetic foot ulcers. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study conducted between November 2008 to November 2009 over 50 patients with history of foot ulceration and diabetes. 50 patients were admitted with diabetic foot ulcer over a period of one year between November 2008-2009. They were studied after getting written consent. A predesigned pro forma was used to get the parameters comprising age, gender, duration, type of diabetes mellitus, presence of neuropathy, nephropathy (serum creatinine, urine albumin, retinopathy (screening funduscopy by ophthalmologist. RESULTS Among 50 patients admitted and treated for diabetic foot ulcers with mean stay of 18 days, 29 (58% had complete healing on conservative management, 18 (36% underwent minor amputation (toes, 3 (6% had major amputation (below knee/above knee. No mortality among the study groups encountered. Gram-negative aerobes E. coli (36%, Pseudomonas (52%, Klebsiella (28%, Proteus vulgaris (20% and Acinetobacter (16% were most frequently isolated followed by gram-positive aerobes MRSA (14%, Enterococcus (6%, Strep pyogenes (4% and no anaerobic growth. CONCLUSION Diabetic foot infections are frequently polymicrobial and predominantly gram-negative aerobic bacteria at presentation. Multidrug resistance pseudomonas aeruginosa and MRSA in diabetic foot ulcer is at its emergence and life threatening. Initial aggressive multimodal approach with surgical intervention, culture specific and sensitive targeted combined broad-spectrum antibiotics decreases the morbidity and mortality

  14. [Ischemic origin of diabetic foot disease. Epidemiology, difficulties of diagnosis, options for prevention and revascularization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolossváry, Endre; Bánsághi, Zoltán; Szabó, Gábor Viktor; Járai, Zoltán; Farkas, Katalin

    2017-02-01

    "Diabetic foot" as definition covers a multifactorial clinical condition. According to the recent epidemiological data, the role of lower limb ischemia is getting more influential over other pathological causes, like neuropathy, infections and bone or soft tissue deformity. In diabetes, vascular disease leads to increased risk for leg ulcers and minor or major amputations. The traditional diagnostic tools for recognition of peripheral arterial disease have limited value because of diabetes specific clinical manifestations. Available vascular centers with special expertise and diagnostic tools are the prerequisite for efficient diagnosis supporting timely recognition of peripheral arterial disease. In course of treatment of diabetic foot with ischemic origin, beyond effective medical treatment revascularization (open vascular surgery or endovascular procedures) has paramount importance for prevention of limb loss. Vascular teams of vascular specialists, vascular surgeons and interventional radiologist in dedicated centers in multidisciplinary cooperation with other professions represent public health issue in effective prevention. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(6), 203-211.

  15. Effects of wearing different personal equipment on force distribution at the plantar surface of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Christoph; Lindner, Tobias; Woitge, Sandra; Finze, Susanne; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    The wearing of personal equipment can cause specific changes in muscle activity and posture. In the present study, we investigated the influence of differences in equipment related weight loading and load distribution on plantar pressure. In addition, we studied functional effects of wearing different equipment with a particular focus on relevant changes in foot shape. Static and dynamic pedobarography were performed on 31 male soldiers carrying increasing weights consisting of different items of equipment. The pressure acting on the plantar surface of the foot increased with higher loading, both under static and dynamic conditions (p feet deformities which seem to flatten at an earlier load condition with a greater amount compared to subjects with normal arches. Improving load distribution should be a main goal in the development of military equipment in order to prevent injuries or functional disorders of the lower extremity.

  16. A Two-Stage Foot Repair in a 55-Year-Old Man with Poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    A 55-year-old man with poliomyelitis presented with a plantarflexed foot and painful ulceration of the sub-first metatarsophalangeal joint present for many years. A two-stage procedure was performed to bring the foot to 90°, perpendicular to the leg, and resolve the ulceration. The first stage corrected only soft-tissue components. It involved using a hydrosurgery system to debride and prepare the ulcer, a unilobed rotational skin plasty to close the ulcer, and a tendo Achillis lengthening to decrease forefoot pressure. The second stage corrected the osseous deformity with a dorsiflexory wedge osteotomy of the first metatarsal. The ulceration has remained closed since the procedures, with complete resolution of pain.

  17. Ways to Correct Modified Risk Factors in the Management of Diabetic Foot Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.V. Marchenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents modified risk factors that influence the development and clinical course of ulcers of the feet in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM and diabetic foot syndrome (DFS. Most DM patients on admission to hospital for DFS have: prolonged decompensation of DM, lipid metabolism disorders, concomitant cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease, hypertension. It was found that the formation of sensorimotor neuropathy in patients with DM is a major risk factor for ulcers of the feet. At the time of ulcer detection, most patients have combination of sensorimotor neuropathy with other risk factors — foot deformity, presence of ulcers and/or amputations in past medical history, macroangiopathy. The presence of infection in the ulcerous defect is a significant risk factor for unfavorable course of DFS. Stable compensation of DM, the target values of blood lipids and blood pressure made it possible to achieve the healing of the ulcer in a shorter period.

  18. q-Deformed nonlinear maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 64; Issue 3 ... Keywords. Nonlinear dynamics; logistic map; -deformation; Tsallis statistics. ... As a specific example, a -deformation procedure is applied to the logistic map. Compared ...

  19. Diabetic foot syndrome: Immune-inflammatory features as possible cardiovascular markers in diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Maida, Carlo; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcerations have been extensively reported as vascular complications of diabetes mellitus associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Diabetic foot syndrome (DFS), as defined by the World Health Organization, is an “ulceration of the foot (distally from the ankle and including the ankle) associated with neuropathy and different grades of ischemia and infection”. Pathogenic events able to cause diabetic foot ulcers are multifactorial. Among the commonest causes of this pathogenic pathway it’s possible to consider peripheral neuropathy, foot deformity, abnormal foot pressures, abnormal joint mobility, trauma, peripheral artery disease. Several studies reported how diabetic patients show a higher mortality rate compared to patients without diabetes and in particular these studies under filled how cardiovascular mortality and morbidity is 2-4 times higher among patients affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus. This higher degree of cardiovascular morbidity has been explained as due to the observed higher prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factor, of asymptomatic findings of cardiovascular diseases, and of prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in diabetic patients with foot complications. In diabetes a fundamental pathogenic pathway of most of vascular complications has been reported as linked to a complex interplay of inflammatory, metabolic and procoagulant variables. These pathogenetic aspects have a direct interplay with an insulin resistance, subsequent obesity, diabetes, hypertension, prothrombotic state and blood lipid disorder. Involvement of inflammatory markers such as IL-6 plasma levels and resistin in diabetic subjects as reported by Tuttolomondo et al confirmed the pathogenetic issue of the a “adipo-vascular” axis that may contribute to cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. This “adipo-vascular axis” in patients with type 2 diabetes has been reported as characterized

  20. Contributions of foot muscles and plantar fascia morphology to foot posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angin, Salih; Mickle, Karen J; Nester, Christopher J

    2018-03-01

    The plantar foot muscles and plantar fascia differ between different foot postures. However, how each individual plantar structure contribute to foot posture has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between static foot posture and morphology of plantar foot muscles and plantar fascia and thus the contributions of these structures to static foot posture. A total of 111 participants were recruited, 43 were classified as having pes planus and 68 as having normal foot posture using Foot Posture Index assessment tool. Images from the flexor digitorum longus (FDL), flexor hallucis longus (FHL), peroneus longus and brevis (PER), flexor hallucis brevis (FHB), flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) and abductor hallucis (AbH) muscles, and the calcaneal (PF1), middle (PF2) and metatarsal (PF3) regions of the plantar fascia were obtained using a Venue 40 ultrasound system with a 5-13 MHz transducer. In order of decreasing contribution, PF3 > FHB > FHL > PER > FDB were all associated with FPI and able to explain 69% of the change in FPI scores. PF3 was the highest contributor explaining 52% of increases in FPI score. Decreased thickness was associated with increased FPI score. Smaller cross sectional area (CSA) in FHB and PER muscles explained 20% and 8% of increase in FPI score. Larger CSA of FDB and FHL muscles explained 4% and 14% increase in FPI score respectively. The medial plantar structures and the plantar fascia appear to be the major contributors to static foot posture. Elucidating the individual contribution of multiple muscles of the foot could provide insight about their role in the foot posture. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Taiwanese adult foot shape classification using 3D scanning data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Chi; Wang, Mao-Jiun

    2015-01-01

    This study classifies the foot shapes of Taiwanese using 3D foot scanning data from 2000 males and 1000 females. Nine foot dimensions relative to foot length and absolute measures in the common foot length categories were applied to compare the gender differences. Using foot breadth in % foot length (% FL), ball of foot length in % FL and arch height in % FL as feature parameters, three foot shape types for males and females can be classified. Significant gender differences were found in seven of the nine foot dimensions. Females had greater ball of foot length than males (0.2% FL). When comparing feet of the same foot length, males had greater breadth, girth and height dimensions than females, except for toe height. In addition, ethnic differences in foot shape were also observed. The findings can provide very useful information for building gender-specific shoe lasts and designing footwear insoles. 3D foot scanning data of 2000 males and 1000 females were classified into three different footshapes for males and females, respectively. Gender and ethnic differences on foot shape were also compared. The finding scan provide very useful information for gender-specific shoe last design and footwear production.

  2. Foot Problems in Older Adults Associations with Incident Falls, Frailty Syndrome, and Sensor-Derived Gait, Balance, and Physical Activity Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchna, Amy; Najafi, Bijan; Wendel, Christopher S; Schwenk, Michael; Armstrong, David G; Mohler, Jane

    2018-03-01

    Research on foot problems and frailty is sparse and could advance using wearable sensor-based measures of gait, balance, and physical activity (PA). This study examined the effect of foot problems on the likelihood of falls, frailty syndrome, motor performance, and PA in community-dwelling older adults. Arizona Frailty Cohort Study participants (community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years without baseline cognitive deficit, severe movement disorders, or recent stroke) underwent Fried frailty and foot assessment. Gait, balance (bipedal eyes open and eyes closed), and spontaneous PA over 48 hours were measured using validated wearable sensor technologies. Of 117 participants, 41 (35%) were nonfrail, 56 (48%) prefrail, and 20 (17%) frail. Prevalence of foot problems (pain, peripheral neuropathy, or deformity) increased significantly as frailty category worsened (any problem: 63% in nonfrail, 80% in prefrail [odds ratio (OR) = 2.0], and 95% in frail [OR = 8.3]; P = .03 for trend) due to associations between foot problems and both weakness and exhaustion. Foot problems were associated with fear of falling but not with fall history or incident falls over 6 months. Foot pain and peripheral neuropathy were associated with lower gait speed and stride length; increased double support time; increased mediolateral sway of center of mass during walking, age adjusted; decreased eyes open sway of center of mass and ankle during quiet standing, age adjusted; and lower percentage walking, percentage standing, and total steps per day. Foot problems were associated with frailty level and decreased motor performance and PA. Wearable technology is a practical way to screen for deterioration in gait, balance, and PA that may be associated with foot problems. Routine assessment and management of foot problems could promote earlier intervention to retain motor performance and manage fear of falling in older adults, which may ultimately improve healthy aging and reduce risk of frailty.

  3. A foot risk classification system to predict diabetic amputation in Pima Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, J A; Reiber, G E; Nelson, R G; Greene, T

    1996-07-01

    To quantify the contribution of various risk factors to the risk of amputation in diabetic patients and to develop a foot risk scoring system based on clinical data. A population case-control study was undertaken. Eligible subjects were 1) 25-85 years of age, 2) diabetic, 3) 50% or more Pima or Tohono O'odham Indian, 4) lived in the Gila River Indian Community, and 5) had had at least one National Institutes of Health research examination. Case patients had had an incident lower extremity amputation between 1983 and 1992; control subjects had no amputation by 1992. Medical records were reviewed to determine risk conditions and health status before the pivotal event that led to the amputation. Sixty-one people with amputations were identified and compared with 183 control subjects. Men were more likely to suffer amputation than women (odds ratio [OR] 6.5, 95% CI 2.6-15), and people with diabetic eye, renal, or cardiovascular disease were more likely to undergo amputation than those without (OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.7-12). The risk of amputation was almost equally associated with these foot risk factors: peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, bony deformities, and a history of foot ulcers. After controlling for demographic differences and diabetes severity, the ORs for amputation with one foot risk factor was 2.1 (95% CI 1.4-3.3), with two risk factors, 4.5 (95% CI 2.9-6.9), and with three or four risk factors, 9.7 (95% CI 6.3-14.8). Male Sex, end-organ complications of eye, heart, and kidney, and poor glucose control were associated with a higher amputation rate. Peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, deformity, and a prior ulcer were similarly equally associated with an increased risk of lower extremity amputation.

  4. Clinical outcomes and static and dynamic assessment of foot posture after lateral column lengthening procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barske, Heather; Chimenti, Ruth; Tome, Josh; Martin, Elizabeth; Flemister, Adolph S; Houck, Jeff

    2013-05-01

    Lateral column lengthening (LCL) has been shown to radiographically restore the medial longitudinal arch. However, the impact of LCL on foot function during gait has not been reported using validated clinical outcomes and gait analysis. Thirteen patients with a stage II flatfoot who had undergone unilateral LCL surgery and 13 matched control subjects completed self-reported pain and functional scales as well as a clinical examination. A custom force transducer was used to establish the maximum passive range of motion of first metatarsal dorsiflexion at 40 N of force. Foot kinematic data were collected during gait using 3-dimensional motion analysis techniques. Radiographic correction of the flatfoot was achieved in all cases. Despite this, most patients continued to report pain and dysfunction postoperatively. Participants post LCL demonstrated similar passive and active movement of the medial column when we compared the operated and the nonoperated sides. However, participants post LCL demonstrated significantly greater first metatarsal passive range of motion and first metatarsal dorsiflexion during gait than did controls (P stage II adult-acquired flatfoot deformity experience mixed outcomes and similar foot kinematics as the uninvolved limb despite radiographic correction of deformity. These patients maintain a low arch posture similar to their uninvolved limb. The consequence is that first metatarsal movement operates at the end range of dorsiflexion and patients do not obtain full hindfoot inversion at push-off. Longitudinal data are necessary to make a more valid comparison of the effects of surgical correction measured using radiographs and dynamic foot posture during gait. Level III, comparative series.

  5. q-Deformed Kink solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, A.F. de

    2003-01-01

    The q-deformed kink of the λφ 4 -model is obtained via the normalisable ground state eigenfunction of a fluctuation operator associated with the q-deformed hyperbolic functions. The kink mass, the bosonic zero-mode and the q-deformed potential in 1+1 dimensions are found. (author)

  6. Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nasal complaints. Nasal deformity can be categorized as “cosmetic” or “functional.” Cosmetic deformity of the nose results in a less ... taste , nose bleeds and/or recurrent sinusitis . A cosmetic or functional nasal deformity may occur secondary to ...

  7. [Babies with cranial deformity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option.

  8. Deformed supersymmetric mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.; Sidorov, S.

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by a recent interest in curved rigid supersymmetries, we construct a new type of N = 4, d = 1 supersymmetric systems by employing superfields defined on the cosets of the supergroup SU(2|1). The relevant worldline supersymmetry is a deformation of the standard N = 4, d = 1 supersymmetry by a mass parameter m. As instructive examples we consider at the classical and quantum levels the models associated with the supermultiplets (1,4,3) and (2,4,2) and find out interesting interrelations with some previous works on nonstandard d = 1 supersymmetry. In particular, the d = 1 systems with 'weak supersymmetry' are naturally reproduced within our SU(2|1) superfield approach as a subclass of the (1,4,3) models. A generalization to the N = 8, d = 1 case implies the supergroup SU(2|2) as a candidate deformed worldline supersymmetry

  9. Deformation Theory ( Lecture Notes )

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doubek, M.; Markl, Martin; Zima, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2007), s. 333-371 ISSN 0044-8753. [Winter School Geometry and Physics/27./. Srní, 13.01.2007-20.01.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/2117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : deformation * Mauerer-Cartan equation * strongly homotopy Lie algebra Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  10. Deformations of fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.

    1977-09-01

    Results of the DBM and FEM analysis in this study indicate that a suitable rock mass for repository of radioactive waste should be moderately jointed (about 1 joint/m 2 ) and surrounded by shear zones of the first order. This allowes for a gentle and flexible deformation under tectonic stresses and prevent the development of large cross-cutting failures in the repository area. (author)

  11. Hallux valgus and hallux rigidus: a comparison of impact on health-related quality of life in patients presenting to foot surgeons in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landorf Karl B

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hallux valgus and hallux rigidus are common foot conditions that lead to a deterioration in health status. Patients with significant pain or deformity from these conditions frequently resort to surgery. In this project, the foot health status of patients with hallux valgus and hallux rigidus presenting to foot surgeons in Australia was compared. Methods Foot health status was measured in 120 participants using the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ, a validated 0 – 100 point health status instrument. All participants had presented for surgical advice regarding hallux valgus/rigidus. The mean age of participants was 48.0 years (SD ± 14.3, range 19 – 79. Results In the sample, 68% of participants were diagnosed with hallux valgus and 32% with hallux rigidus. Participants with hallux rigidus had greater levels of pain and functional limitation compared with hallux valgus. The mean difference for pain was 13.8 points (95% CI 4.6 to 22.9 and the mean difference for function was 15.0 points (95% CI 5.3 to 24.7. Both conditions result in similarly negative levels of impact on shoe fit and overall foot health. Conclusion This study found measurable differences in foot health status between hallux valgus and hallux rigidus in participants presenting for surgical consultation. While both appear to have a negative impact on health status, hallux rigidus has a more significant impact.

  12. Hallux valgus and hallux rigidus: a comparison of impact on health-related quality of life in patients presenting to foot surgeons in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilheany, Mark F; Landorf, Karl B; Robinson, Priscilla

    2008-01-01

    Background Hallux valgus and hallux rigidus are common foot conditions that lead to a deterioration in health status. Patients with significant pain or deformity from these conditions frequently resort to surgery. In this project, the foot health status of patients with hallux valgus and hallux rigidus presenting to foot surgeons in Australia was compared. Methods Foot health status was measured in 120 participants using the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ), a validated 0 – 100 point health status instrument. All participants had presented for surgical advice regarding hallux valgus/rigidus. The mean age of participants was 48.0 years (SD ± 14.3, range 19 – 79). Results In the sample, 68% of participants were diagnosed with hallux valgus and 32% with hallux rigidus. Participants with hallux rigidus had greater levels of pain and functional limitation compared with hallux valgus. The mean difference for pain was 13.8 points (95% CI 4.6 to 22.9) and the mean difference for function was 15.0 points (95% CI 5.3 to 24.7). Both conditions result in similarly negative levels of impact on shoe fit and overall foot health. Conclusion This study found measurable differences in foot health status between hallux valgus and hallux rigidus in participants presenting for surgical consultation. While both appear to have a negative impact on health status, hallux rigidus has a more significant impact. PMID:19077213

  13. The forgotten foot - an assessment of foot and ankle radiograph pathology in final year medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, P J

    2014-04-27

    It has been shown that doctors in Emergency Departments (EDs) have inconsistent knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy. This is most likely due to a deficiency in focused musculoskeletal modules at undergraduate level in medical school. The aims of this study were to evaluate the knowledge of final year medical students on foot anatomy and common foot and ankle pathology as seen on radiographs.

  14. In-hospital costs of diabetic foot disease treated by a multidisciplinary foot team

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinkel, Willem D.; Luiten, Jacky; van Dongen, Jelle; Kuppens, Bram; Van Neck, Johan W.; Polinder, Suzanne; Castro Cabezas, Manuel; Coert, J. Henk

    2017-01-01

    Background The diabetic foot imposes significant burden on healthcare systems. Obtaining knowledge on the extent of the costs of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) is of value to health care researchers investigating cost-effectiveness of interventions that prevent these costly complications. Objectives To

  15. Repeatability of the Oxford Foot Model for Kinematic Gait Analysis of the Foot and Ankle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeve, S.; Vos, J.; Weijers, P.; Verbruggen, J.; Willems, P.; Poeze, M.; Meijer, K.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Kinematic gait analysis via the multi-segmental Oxford foot model (OFM) may be a valuable addition to the biomechanical examination of the foot and ankle. The aim of this study is to assess the repeatability of the OFM in healthy subjects. METHODS: Nine healthy subjects, without a

  16. Magnitude and Spatial Distribution of Impact Intensity Under the Foot Relates to Initial Foot Contact Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breine, Bastiaan; Malcolm, Philippe; Segers, Veerle; Gerlo, Joeri; Derie, Rud; Pataky, Todd; Frederick, Edward C; De Clercq, Dirk

    2017-12-01

    In running, foot contact patterns (rear-, mid-, or forefoot contact) influence impact intensity and initial ankle and foot kinematics. The aim of the study was to compare impact intensity and its spatial distribution under the foot between different foot contact patterns. Forty-nine subjects ran at 3.2 m·s -1 over a level runway while ground reaction forces (GRF) and shoe-surface pressures were recorded and foot contact pattern was determined. A 4-zone footmask (forefoot, midfoot, medial and lateral rearfoot) assessed the spatial distribution of the vertical GRF under the foot. We calculated peak vertical instantaneous loading rate of the GRF (VILR) per foot zone as the impact intensity measure. Midfoot contact patterns were shown to have the lowest, and atypical rearfoot contact patterns the highest impact intensities, respectively. The greatest local impact intensity was mainly situated under the rear- and midfoot for the typical rearfoot contact patterns, under the midfoot for the atypical rearfoot contact patterns, and under the mid- and forefoot for the midfoot contact patterns. These findings indicate that different foot contact patterns could benefit from cushioning in different shoe zones.

  17. COMPARISON OF GAIT USING A MULTIFLEX FOOT VERSUS A QUANTUM FOOT IN KNEE DISARTICULATION AMPUTEES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOONSTRA, AM; FIDLER, [No Value; SPITS, GMA; HOF, AL; Tuil, P.

    The subjective responses and gait patterns of unilateral knee disarticulation amputees wearing prostheses fitted first with the Multiflex foot and then with the Quantum foot were studied. Nine amputees were included in the trial. A questionnaire asked the amputees about their preference for one of

  18. From the diabetic foot ulcer and beyond: how do foot infections spread in patients with diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; Lázaro-Martínez, Jose Luis; Pulido-Duque, Juan; Maynar, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    A diabetic foot infection is usually the result of a pre-existing foot ulceration and is the leading cause of lower extremity amputation in patients with diabetes. It is widely accepted that diabetic foot infections may be challenging to treat for several reasons. The devastating effects of hyperglycemia on host defense, ischemia, multi-drug resistant bacteria and spreading of infection through the foot may complicate the course of diabetic foot infections. Understanding the ways in which infections spread through the diabetic foot is a pivotal factor in order to decide the best approach for the patient's treatment. The ways in which infections spread can be explained by the anatomical division of the foot into compartments, the tendons included in the compartments, the initial location of the point of entry of the infection and the type of infection that the patient has. The aim of this paper is to further comment on the existed and proposed anatomical principles of the spread of infection through the foot in patients with diabetes. PMID:23050067

  19. The validity and accuracy in foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The validity and accuracy in foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis measuring models referenced by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in body composition in standing position. KC Hsieh, HK Lu, CH Chen, TR Jang, YY Chen, MF Kao ...

  20. On Born's deformed reciprocal complex gravitational theory and noncommutative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Born's reciprocal relativity in flat spacetimes is based on the principle of a maximal speed limit (speed of light) and a maximal proper force (which is also compatible with a maximal and minimal length duality) and where coordinates and momenta are unified on a single footing. We extend Born's theory to the case of curved spacetimes and construct a deformed Born reciprocal general relativity theory in curved spacetimes (without the need to introduce star products) as a local gauge theory of the deformed Quaplectic group that is given by the semi-direct product of U(1,3) with the deformed (noncommutative) Weyl-Heisenberg group corresponding to noncommutative generators [Z a ,Z b ]≠0. The Hermitian metric is complex-valued with symmetric and nonsymmetric components and there are two different complex-valued Hermitian Ricci tensors R μν ,S μν . The deformed Born's reciprocal gravitational action linear in the Ricci scalars R,S with Torsion-squared terms and BF terms is presented. The plausible interpretation of Z μ =E μ a Z a as noncommuting p-brane background complex spacetime coordinates is discussed in the conclusion, where E μ a is the complex vielbein associated with the Hermitian metric G μν =g (μν) +ig [μν] =E μ a E-bar ν b η ab . This could be one of the underlying reasons why string-theory involves gravity

  1. Nineteen-Foot Diameter Explosively Driven Blast Simulator; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VIGIL, MANUEL G.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the 19-foot diameter blast tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The blast tunnel configuration consists of a 6 foot diameter by 200 foot long shock tube, a 6 foot diameter to 19 foot diameter conical expansion section that is 40 feet long, and a 19 foot diameter test section that is 65 feet long. Therefore, the total blast tunnel length is 305 feet. The development of this 19-foot diameter blast tunnel is presented. The small scale research test results using 4 inch by 8 inch diameter and 2 foot by 6 foot diameter shock tube facilities are included. Analytically predicted parameters are compared to experimentally measured blast tunnel parameters in this report. The blast tunnel parameters include distance, time, static, overpressure, stagnation pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, shock Mach number, flow Mach number, shock velocity, flow velocity, impulse, flow duration, etc. Shadowgraphs of the shock wave are included for the three different size blast tunnels

  2. Variance of foot biomechanical parameters across age groups for the elderly people in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deselnicu, D. C.; Vasilescu, A. M.; Militaru, G.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of a fieldwork study conducted in order to analyze major causal factors that influence the foot deformities and pathologies of elderly women in Romania. The study has an exploratory and descriptive nature and uses quantitative methodology. The sample consisted of 100 elderly women from Romania, ranging from 55 to over 75 years of age. The collected data was analyzed on multiple dimensions using a statistic analysis software program. The analysis of variance demonstrated significant differences across age groups in terms of several biomechanical parameters such as travel speed, toe off phase and support phase in the case of elderly women.

  3. Corrections of lower limb deformities in patients with diastrophic dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Kenis, Vladimir; Melchenko, Eugeniy; Chehida, Farid Ben; Ganger, Rudolf; Klaushofer, Klaus; Grill, Franz

    2014-11-01

    Accurate understanding of the cause of the underlying pathology in children with diastrophic dysplasia would help in designing targeted management of their locomotion. Diastrophic dysplasia was diagnosed in twelve patients (nine girls and three boys; age range 1-14 years), all of whom presented with small stature and apparent short extremities. Club foot (mostly talipes equinovarus) was the most frequent and consistent abnormality. Concomitant abnormalities such as hip flexion contracture, flexion contractures of the knees with excessive valgus deformity and lateral patellar subluxation, were also encountered. Muscle ultrasound and muscle magnetic resonance imaging imaging showed no myopathic changes and muscle biopsies and the respiratory chain were normal. Serum choline kinase and plasma lactate concentrations were normal. Surgical correction of the foot and ankle in patients with diastrophic dysplasia is extremely difficult because of the markedly distorted anatomy. In all of these children, plantigrade foot was achieved along with the improved function of the locomotor system. Mutations of the diastrophic dysplasia sulfate transporter (also known as solute carrier family 26 member 2) were encountered. Arthrogryposis multiplex is the usual terminology used to describe the abnormality in infants with multiple contractures. Diligent orthopaedic care should be provided based on an accurate understanding of the associated syndromes in such children. © 2014 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Acquired cavo-varus deformity caused by an accessory calcaneus: a case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh Baghla, Davinder Paul; Shariff, Sajid; Bashir, Waseem A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe an unusual cause of an acquired cavo-varus foot deformity produced by progressive enlargement of an accessory calcaneal ossicle. A 13-year-old boy with constitutional plano-valgus flat feet noted a gradual change in foot shape associated with lateral ankle pain on ambulation following an inversion injury 2 years earlier. CT and MRI scans confirmed a large accessory calcaneal ossicle lying within the sinus tarsi, with associated marrow oedema. Following surgical excision of the ossicle, the foot returned to its original shape and the symptoms were alleviated. This is the fifth reported case of an accessory calcaneal ossicle, but the only case that has occurred in a flatfooted individual. We also present the first reported MRI images of the lesion confirming pathological marrow oedema as a response to mechanical stress. (orig.)

  5. Foot roll-over evaluation based on 3D dynamic foot scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, William; Van Hamme, Angèle; Sanchez, Stéphane; Chèze, Laurence; Van Sint Jan, Serge; Feipel, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Foot roll-over is commonly analyzed to evaluate gait pathologies. The current study utilized a dynamic foot scanner (DFS) to analyze foot roll-over. The right feet of ten healthy subjects were assessed during gait trials with a DFS system integrated into a walkway. A foot sole picture was computed by vertically projecting points from the 3D foot shape which were lower than a threshold height of 15 mm. A 'height' value of these projected points was determined; corresponding to the initial vertical coordinates prior to projection. Similar to pedobarographic analysis, the foot sole picture was segmented into anatomical regions of interest (ROIs) to process mean height (average of height data by ROI) and projected surface (area of the projected foot sole by ROI). Results showed that these variables evolved differently to plantar pressure data previously reported in the literature, mainly due to the specificity of each physical quantity (millimeters vs Pascals). Compared to plantar pressure data arising from surface contact by the foot, the current method takes into account the whole plantar aspect of the foot, including the parts that do not make contact with the support surface. The current approach using height data could contribute to a better understanding of specific aspects of foot motion during walking, such as plantar arch height and the windlass mechanism. Results of this study show the underlying method is reliable. Further investigation is required to validate the DFS measurements within a clinical context, prior to implementation into clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Beyond the Bottom of the Foot: Topographic Organization of the Foot Dorsum in Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarner, Taryn; Pearcey, Gregory E P; Sun, Yao; Barss, Trevor S; Kaupp, Chelsea; Munro, Bridget; Frank, Nick; Zehr, E Paul

    2017-12-01

    Sensory feedback from the foot dorsum during walking has only been studied globally by whole nerve stimulation. Stimulating the main nerve innervating the dorsal surface produces a functional stumble corrective response that is phase-dependently modulated. We speculated that effects evoked by activation of discrete skin regions on the foot dorsum would be topographically organized, as with the foot sole. Nonnoxious electrical stimulation was delivered to five discrete locations on the dorsal surface of the foot during treadmill walking. Muscle activity from muscles acting at the ankle, knee, hip, and shoulder were recorded along with ankle, knee, and hip kinematics and kinetic information from forces under the foot. All data were sorted on the basis of stimulus occurrence in 12 step cycle phases, before being averaged together within a phase for subsequent analysis. Results reveal dynamic changes in reflex amplitudes and kinematics that are site specific and phase dependent. Most responses from discrete sites on the foot dorsum were seen in the swing phase suggesting function to conform foot trajectory to maintain stability of the moving limb. In general, responses from lateral stimulation differed from medial stimulation, and effects were largest from stimulation at the distal end of the foot at the metatarsals; that is, in anatomical locations where actual impact with an object in the environment is most likely during swing. Responses to stimulation extend to include muscles at the hip and shoulder. We reveal that afferent feedback from specific cutaneous locations on the foot dorsum influences stance and swing phase corrective responses. This emphasizes the critical importance of feedback from the entire foot surface in locomotor control and has application for rehabilitation after neurological injury and in footwear development.

  7. [Relationships between foot problems, fall experience and fear of falling among Japanese community-dwelling elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Oka, Koichiro; Shibata, Ai; Kaburagi, Hironobu; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2010-08-01

    Although a foot care program for long-term care prevention has been launched in Japan, few studies have examined its effectiveness. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the association of foot problems with fall experience and fear of falling among Japanese community-dwelling elderly people. The participants were 10,581 community-dwelling elderly people (75.2 +/- 5.6 years) and the study design was cross-sectional using a questionnaire. Self-reported tinea pedis, skin problems (inflammation, swelling, or discoloration), nail problems (thickening or deformities), impairment (in function or blood flow), regular foot care, and wearing of appropriate shoes were selected as parameters of foot problems and their care. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine whether these were related to fall experience (in the past 1 year) and fear of falling adjusted for age, the Tokyo Metropolitan institute of gerontology index of competence, medical conditions, and lower limb functions. Forty-six percents of males and 39.0% of females reported at least one foot problem. After adjusting for covariates, tinea pedis (male: adjusted odds ratio = 1.37[95% confidence interval= 1.15-1.63], female: 1.29[1.08-1.53]), skin problems (male: 1.66[1.32-2.101, female: 1.37[1.13-1.66]), nail problems (male: 1.72[1.45-2.051, female: 1.48[1.26-1.74]), and functional impairment (male: 2.42[1.91-3.05], female: 1.66[1.36-2.04]) were significantly associated with fall experience. Also, each problem was negatively associated with fear of falling (tinea pedis[male: 1.37 [1.15-1.62], female: 1.25[1.07-1.47

  8. A finite element model of the foot and ankle for automotive impact applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaeho; Yue, Neng; Untaroiu, Costin D

    2012-12-01

    A finite element (FE) model of the foot and leg was developed to improve understanding of injury mechanisms of the ankle and subtalar joints during vehicle collisions and to aid in the design of injury countermeasures. The FE model was developed based on the reconstructed geometry of a male volunteer close to the anthropometry of a 50th percentile male and a commercial anatomical database. While the forefoot bones were defined as rigid bodies connected by ligament models, the surrounding bones of the ankle and subtalar joints and the leg bones were modeled as deformable structures. The material and structural properties were selected based on a synthesis of current knowledge of the constitutive models for each tissue. The whole foot and leg model was validated in different loading conditions including forefoot impact, axial rotation, dorsiflexion, and combined loadings. Overall results obtained in the model validation indicated improved biofidelity relative to previous FE models. The developed model was used to investigate the injury tolerance of the ankle joint under brake pedal loading for internally and externally rotated feet. Ligament failures were predicted as the main source of injury in this loading condition. A 12% variation of failure moment was observed in the range of axial foot rotations (±15°). The most vulnerable position was the internally rotated (15°) posture among three different foot positions. Furthermore, the present foot and ankle model will be coupled together with other body region FE models into the state-of-art human FE model to be used in the field of automotive safety.

  9. The impact of rheumatoid foot on disability in Colombian patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Bayona, Javier; Zuluaga, Natalia; Mejia, Santiago; Hincapie, Maria-Eugenia; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Background Alterations in the feet of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are a cause of disability in this population. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impact that foot impairment has on the patients' global quality of life (QOL) based on validated scales and its relationship to disease activity. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which 95 patients with RA were enrolled. A complete physical examination, including a full foot assessment, was done. The Spanish versions of the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) Disability Index and of the Disease Activity Score (DAS 28) were administered. A logistic regression model was used to analyze data and obtain adjusted odds ratios (AORs). Results Foot deformities were observed in 78 (82%) of the patients; hallux valgus (65%), medial longitudinal arch flattening (42%), claw toe (lesser toes) (39%), dorsiflexion restriction (tibiotalar) (34%), cock-up toe (lesser toes) (25%), and transverse arch flattening (25%) were the most frequent. In the logistic regression analysis (adjusted for age, gender and duration of disease), forefoot movement pain, subtalar movement pain, tibiotalar movement pain and plantarflexion restriction (tibiotalar) were strongly associated with disease activity and disability. The positive squeeze test was significantly associated with disability risk (AOR = 6,3; 95% CI, 1.28–30.96; P = 0,02); hallux valgus, and dorsiflexion restriction (tibiotalar) were associated with disease activity. Conclusion Foot abnormalities are associated with active joint disease and disability in RA. Foot examinations provide complementary information related to the disability as an indirect measurement of quality of life and activity of disease in daily practice. PMID:19527518

  10. The impact of rheumatoid foot on disability in Colombian patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas-Villarraga Adriana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations in the feet of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA are a cause of disability in this population. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impact that foot impairment has on the patients' global quality of life (QOL based on validated scales and its relationship to disease activity. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which 95 patients with RA were enrolled. A complete physical examination, including a full foot assessment, was done. The Spanish versions of the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ Disability Index and of the Disease Activity Score (DAS 28 were administered. A logistic regression model was used to analyze data and obtain adjusted odds ratios (AORs. Results Foot deformities were observed in 78 (82% of the patients; hallux valgus (65%, medial longitudinal arch flattening (42%, claw toe (lesser toes (39%, dorsiflexion restriction (tibiotalar (34%, cock-up toe (lesser toes (25%, and transverse arch flattening (25% were the most frequent. In the logistic regression analysis (adjusted for age, gender and duration of disease, forefoot movement pain, subtalar movement pain, tibiotalar movement pain and plantarflexion restriction (tibiotalar were strongly associated with disease activity and disability. The positive squeeze test was significantly associated with disability risk (AOR = 6,3; 95% CI, 1.28–30.96; P = 0,02; hallux valgus, and dorsiflexion restriction (tibiotalar were associated with disease activity. Conclusion Foot abnormalities are associated with active joint disease and disability in RA. Foot examinations provide complementary information related to the disability as an indirect measurement of quality of life and activity of disease in daily practice.

  11. Treatment options for diabetic foot osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senneville, Eric; Robineau, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    Diabetic foot osteomyelitis therapeutical options are based on antibiotic therapy and surgical resection of the infected bone(s). Surgical and medical approaches of patients suffering from a diabetic foot osteomyelitis do not oppose but are complementary and need to be discussed as a tailored manner. Areas covered: The aim of the present article is to discuss data issued from the most recent guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot on the management of the diabetic foot infection and from a search in the current literature using the terms diabetic foot osteomyelitis and treatment/therapy/therapeutical in both PubMed and Medline, restricted to the last five years. Expert opinion: Surgical removal of the entire infected bone(s) has been considered in the past as the standard treatment but medical approach of these patients has now proven efficacy in selected situations. The current emergence of bacteria, especially among Gram negative rods, resistant to almost all the available antibiotics gradually augments the complexity of the management of these patients and is likely to decrease the place of the medical approach and to worsen the outcome of these infections in the next future.

  12. [Foot reflexology massage: a clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselring, A

    1999-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possible usefulness of foot reflexology on the recovery after a surgical intervention. 130 patients participated in the study. They underwent abdominal surgery under full anesthesia for different, but exclusively gynecological reasons. Foot reflexology investigated in this study was applied only for a few days for each patient. The following parameters were recorded: the subjective, self-assessed, general condition, pain intensity, movement of the bowels, micturition and sleep, beginning on the day before operation until day 10. Two other treatments served as controls, a simple massage of the foot or a personal conversation. The simple massage turned out to be a relaxing, positive experience, whereas foot reflexology had various effects, some of them were even negative. The conclusion was that foot reflexology is not recommended for acute, abdominal postsurgical situations in gynecology because it can occasionally trigger abdominal pain. This project is one of the few studies planned, conducted and performed by the nursing staff.

  13. Study of sandy soil grain-size distribution on its deformation properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antropova, L. B.; Gruzin, A. V.; Gildebrandt, M. I.; Malaya, L. D.; Nikulina, V. B.

    2018-04-01

    As a rule, new oil and gas fields' development faces the challenges of providing construction objects with material and mineral resources, for example, medium sand soil for buildings and facilities footings of the technological infrastructure under construction. This problem solution seems to lie in a rational usage of the existing environmental resources, soils included. The study was made of a medium sand soil grain-size distribution impact on its deformation properties. Based on the performed investigations, a technique for controlling sandy soil deformation properties was developed.

  14. Iambic Feet in Paumari and the Theory of Foot Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Everett

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes stress and moraic constituencies in Paumari, an endangered language of the Arawan family of the Brazilian Amazon. It argues that Paumari feet are quantity-insensitive iambs, built from right-to-left within the prosodic word. Both of these latter claims are theoretically important because they violate some proposed universals of foot structure. The paper also discusses more general implications of the Paumari data for theories of foot size and shape, proposing two constraints on foot size, Foot Maximality and Foot Minimality, to replace the less fine-tuned constraint Foot Binarity.

  15. FREQUENCY DEFORMITY SCOLIOSIS AND FLAT FEET IN PUPILS III, V.VII GRADE SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejаn Gojković

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Scoliosis is a lateral deviation of the spine or the angular deviation of the normal position of one or more segmenata.Funkcional curve can be fully corrected until the internal structural scoliosis are bone disorders, muscle nerve elements that support the spine, and complete correction is impossible. Static role is reflected in the foot taking kisses body weight through the bones pop and transmission and distribution of weight on the main point of support of the foot and therefore subject to various changes in the normal foot status.Dinamic role is reflected in walking, running and jumping in different forms. Because of this, the percentage of foot disorders is particularly large in the form of lowering the testing we arche.Perform o.š.Pale Pale deformities in scoliosis and flat feet in students III, V, VII grade. Our aim was to verify the extent to which physical education classes take appropriate measures in the detection and removal of poor posture and physical deformities. For testing we used: clinical method for scoliosis, a method for flat feet -Thomson method.

  16. NUMERICAL MODELLING OF CHICKEN-FOOT FOUNDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipman Tandjiria

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the chicken-foot foundation using the finite element method. The foundation is considered as a reinforced concrete slab resting on a number of reinforced concrete pipes filled with and surrounded by in-situ soil. The soil and the pipes were modelled by isoparametric solid elements while the slab was modelled by isoparametric thick-plate elements. The study was intended to illustrate the basic mechanism of the chicken-foot foundation. Three cases have been considered for the parametric studies. The parameters investigated are thickness of slab, length of pipes and spacing between pipes. It is shown that such a foundation improves the behaviour of the raft foundation. It is also found that all the parameters used in the parametric studies influence the behaviour of the chicken-foot foundation.

  17. Foot placement strategy in pushing and pulling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2018-01-01

    Pushing and pulling tasks are very common in daily and industrial workplaces. They are one major source of musculoskeletal complaints. This study aimed to examine the foot placement strategy while pushing and pulling. Thirteen young males and ten young females were recruited as participants. A two (pushing and pulling) by four (48 cm, 84 cm, 120 cm, and 156 cm) factorial design was used. Exertion direction and exertion height significantly affected foot placement strategy. Pushing task needed more anteroposterior space than pulling task. The percentages of female/male for trailing foot position ranged from 77% to 90% (pushing) and from 80% to 93% (pulling) across the exertion heights. Practitioners should provide an anteroposterior space approximately to 70% body stature for workers to exert their maximum pulling and pushing strengths.

  18. Effects of ankle-foot orthoses on mediolateral foot-placement ability during post-stroke gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zissimopoulos, Angelika; Fatone, Stefania; Gard, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Accurate and precise mediolateral foot placement is important for balance during gait, but is impaired post stroke. Mediolateral foot placement may be improved with ankle-foot orthosis use. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an ankle-foot orthosis improves mediolateral foot-placement ability during post-stroke ambulation. Crossover trial with randomized order of conditions tested. The accuracy and precision of mediolateral foot placement was quantified while subjects targeted four different randomized step widths. Subjects were tested with and without their regular non-rigid ankle-foot orthosis in two separate visits (order randomized). While ankle-foot orthosis use corrected foot and ankle alignment (i.e. significantly decreased mid-swing plantar flexion, p = 0.000), effects of ankle-foot orthosis use on hip hiking (p = 0.545), circumduction (p = 0.179), coronal plane hip range of motion (p = 0.06), and mediolateral foot-placement ability (p = 0.537) were not significant. While ankle-foot orthosis-mediated equinovarus correction of the affected foot and ankle was not associated with improved biomechanics of walking (i.e. proximal ipsilateral hip kinematics or mediolateral foot-placement ability), it may affect other aspects of balance that were not tested in this study (e.g. proprioception, cerebellar, vestibular, and cognitive mechanisms). Studies that investigate the effect of ankle-foot orthosis on gait can help advance stroke rehabilitation by documenting the specific gait benefits of ankle-foot orthosis use. In this study, we investigated the effect of ankle-foot orthosis use on mediolateral foot-placement ability, an aspect of gait important for maintaining balance. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  19. Study beryllium microplastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papirov, I.I.; Ivantsov, V.I.; Nikolaenko, A.A.; Shokurov, V.S.; Tuzov, Yu.V.

    2015-01-01

    Microplastic flow characteristics systematically studied for different varieties beryllium. In isostatically pressed beryllium it decreased with increasing particle size of the powder, increasing temperature and increasing the pressing metal purity. High initial values of the limit microelasticity and microflow in some cases are due a high level of internal stresses of thermal origin and over time it can relax slowly. During long-term storage of beryllium materials with high initial resistance values microplastic deformation microflow limit and microflow stress markedly reduced, due mainly to the relaxation of thermal microstrain

  20. Metallic Foreign Body in the Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firat Ozan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A foreign body injury of the foot is a frequently encountered problem. These foreign bodies can lead to various complications in the affected tissues, and their removal can be difficult and time consuming. Therefore, the removal of a foreign body requires good preoperative preparations. The surgical treatment results of patients with a foreign body, identified as a sewing needle, that had penetrated their foot were evaluated. Material and Method: Thirty-four patients (11 males, 23 females; mean age, 30.2 ± 18.6 years who were surgically treated between 2011 and 2013 were included. Data concerning the affected limb, placement of the needle, imaging techniques, season when the injury occurred, time between medical intervention and injury, anaesthesia type, fluoroscopy of use during surgery and surgical complications were analyzed. Results: A sewing needle had penetrated the right foot of 20 (58.8% patients and the left foot of 14 (41.1% patients. Broken needles were found in the toes of 14 (41.1% patients, in the middle of the foot of 12 (35.2% patients and in the heel area of 8 (23.5% patients. The injuries occurred in summer in 13 (38.2% patients, in winter in seven (20.6% patients, in spring in one (2.9% patient and in autumn in 13 (38.2% patients. Needle penetration had occurred in 28 (82.3% patients at home and 6 (17.6% patients outside of the home environment. The average follow-up time was 8.9 ± 2.8 months. Discussion: Removal of foreign bodies from the foot requires good preoperative preparations. Foreign bodies can lead to various complications in the affected tissues. It is important to perform detailed physical and radiological examinations to obtain good treatment results in these patients.

  1. Foot Conditions among Homeless Persons: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Matthew J.; Brothers, Thomas D.; Van Zoost, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Foot problems are common among homeless persons, but are often overlooked. The objectives of this systematic review are to summarize what is known about foot conditions and associated interventions among homeless persons. Methods A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE (1966–2016), EMBASE (1947–2016), and CINAHL (1982–2016) and complemented by manual searches of reference lists. Articles that described foot conditions in homeless persons or associated interventions were included. Data were independently extracted on: general study characteristics; participants; foot assessment methods; foot conditions and associated interventions; study findings; quality score assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Results Of 333 articles screened, 17 articles met criteria and were included in the study. Prevalence of any foot problem ranged from 9% to 65% across study populations. Common foot-related concerns were corns and calluses, nail pathologies, and infections. Foot pathologies related to chronic diseases such as diabetes were identified. Compared to housed individuals across studies, homeless individuals were more likely to have foot problems including tinea pedis, foot pain, functional limitations with walking, and improperly-fitting shoes. Discussion Foot conditions were highly prevalent among homeless individuals with up to two thirds reporting a foot health concern, approximately one quarter of individuals visiting a health professional, and one fifth of individuals requiring further follow-up due to the severity of their condition. Homeless individuals often had inadequate foot hygiene practices and improperly-fitting shoes. These findings have service provision and public health implications, highlighting the need for evidence-based interventions to improve foot health in this population. An effective interventional approach could include optimization of foot hygiene and footwear, provision of comprehensive medical treatment, and

  2. Foot Conditions among Homeless Persons: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Matthew J; Brothers, Thomas D; Van Zoost, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Foot problems are common among homeless persons, but are often overlooked. The objectives of this systematic review are to summarize what is known about foot conditions and associated interventions among homeless persons. A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE (1966-2016), EMBASE (1947-2016), and CINAHL (1982-2016) and complemented by manual searches of reference lists. Articles that described foot conditions in homeless persons or associated interventions were included. Data were independently extracted on: general study characteristics; participants; foot assessment methods; foot conditions and associated interventions; study findings; quality score assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Of 333 articles screened, 17 articles met criteria and were included in the study. Prevalence of any foot problem ranged from 9% to 65% across study populations. Common foot-related concerns were corns and calluses, nail pathologies, and infections. Foot pathologies related to chronic diseases such as diabetes were identified. Compared to housed individuals across studies, homeless individuals were more likely to have foot problems including tinea pedis, foot pain, functional limitations with walking, and improperly-fitting shoes. Foot conditions were highly prevalent among homeless individuals with up to two thirds reporting a foot health concern, approximately one quarter of individuals visiting a health professional, and one fifth of individuals requiring further follow-up due to the severity of their condition. Homeless individuals often had inadequate foot hygiene practices and improperly-fitting shoes. These findings have service provision and public health implications, highlighting the need for evidence-based interventions to improve foot health in this population. An effective interventional approach could include optimization of foot hygiene and footwear, provision of comprehensive medical treatment, and addressing social factors that lead to increased risk

  3. MR Imaging of the Diabetic Foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Eoghan; Morrison, William B; Zoga, Adam C

    2017-02-01

    Abnormalities of the peripheral nervous, vascular, and immune systems contribute to the development of numerous foot and ankle pathologies in the diabetic population. Although radiographs remain the most practical first-line imaging tool, magnetic resonance (MR) is the tertiary imaging modality of choice, allowing for optimal assessment of bone and soft tissue abnormalities. MR allows for the accurate distinction between osteomyelitis/septic arthritis and neuropathic osteoarthropathy. Furthermore, it provides an excellent presurgical anatomic road map of involved tissues and devitalized skin to ensure successful limited amputations when required. Signal abnormality in the postoperative foot aids in the diagnosis of recurrent infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diabetic foot ulcers: Part II. Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Mayer, Dieter; Goodman, Laurie; Botros, Mariam; Armstrong, David G; Woo, Kevin; Boeni, Thomas; Ayello, Elizabeth A; Kirsner, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    The management of diabetic foot ulcers can be optimized by using an interdisciplinary team approach addressing the correctable risk factors (ie, poor vascular supply, infection control and treatment, and plantar pressure redistribution) along with optimizing local wound care. Dermatologists can initiate diabetic foot care. The first step is recognizing that a loss of skin integrity (ie, a callus, blister, or ulcer) considerably increases the risk of preventable amputations. A holistic approach to wound assessment is required. Early detection and effective management of these ulcers can reduce complications, including preventable amputations and possible mortality. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Foot Pedals for Spacecraft Manual Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Stanley G.; Morin, Lee M.; McCabe, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Fifty years ago, NASA decided that the cockpit controls in spacecraft should be like the ones in airplanes. But controls based on the stick and rudder may not be best way to manually control a vehicle in space. A different method is based on submersible vehicles controlled with foot pedals. A new pilot can learn the sub's control scheme in minutes and drive it hands-free. We are building a pair of foot pedals for spacecraft control, and will test them in a spacecraft flight simulator.

  6. Bioinspired legged-robot based on large deformation of flexible skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayyas, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present STARbot, a bioinspired legged robot capable of multiple locomotion modalities by using large deformation of its skeleton. We construct STARbot by using origami-style folding of flexible laminates. The long-term goal is to provide a robotic platform with maximum mobility on multiple surfaces. This paper particularly studies the quasistatic model of STARbot’s leg under different conditions. We describe the large elastic deformation of a leg under external force, payload, and friction by using a set of non-dimensional, nonlinear approximate equations. We developed a test mechanism that models the motion of a leg in STARbot. We augmented several foot shapes and then tested them on soft to rough grounds. Both simulation and experimental findings were in good agreement. We utilized the model to develop several scales of tri and quad STARbot. We demonstrated the capability of these robots to locomote by combining their leg deformations with their foot motions. The combination provided a design platform for an active suspension STARbot with controlled foot locomotion. This included the ability of STARbot to change size, run over obstacles, walk and slide. Furthermore, in this paper we discuss a cost effective manufacturing and production method for manufacturing STARbot. (paper)

  7. Bioinspired legged-robot based on large deformation of flexible skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayyas, Mohammad

    2014-11-11

    In this article we present STARbot, a bioinspired legged robot capable of multiple locomotion modalities by using large deformation of its skeleton. We construct STARbot by using origami-style folding of flexible laminates. The long-term goal is to provide a robotic platform with maximum mobility on multiple surfaces. This paper particularly studies the quasistatic model of STARbot's leg under different conditions. We describe the large elastic deformation of a leg under external force, payload, and friction by using a set of non-dimensional, nonlinear approximate equations. We developed a test mechanism that models the motion of a leg in STARbot. We augmented several foot shapes and then tested them on soft to rough grounds. Both simulation and experimental findings were in good agreement. We utilized the model to develop several scales of tri and quad STARbot. We demonstrated the capability of these robots to locomote by combining their leg deformations with their foot motions. The combination provided a design platform for an active suspension STARbot with controlled foot locomotion. This included the ability of STARbot to change size, run over obstacles, walk and slide. Furthermore, in this paper we discuss a cost effective manufacturing and production method for manufacturing STARbot.

  8. Nuclear fuel deformation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Brutzel, L.; Dingreville, R.; Bartel, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear fuel encounters severe thermomechanical environments. Its mechanical response is profoundly influenced by an underlying heterogeneous microstructure but also inherently dependent on the temperature and stress level histories. The ability to adequately simulate the response of such microstructures, to elucidate the associated macroscopic response in such extreme environments is crucial for predicting both performance and transient fuel mechanical responses. This chapter discusses key physical phenomena and the status of current modelling techniques to evaluate and predict fuel deformations: creep, swelling, cracking and pellet-clad interaction. This chapter only deals with nuclear fuel; deformations of cladding materials are discussed elsewhere. An obvious need for a multi-physics and multi-scale approach to develop a fundamental understanding of properties of complex nuclear fuel materials is presented. The development of such advanced multi-scale mechanistic frameworks should include either an explicit (domain decomposition, homogenisation, etc.) or implicit (scaling laws, hand-shaking,...) linkage between the different time and length scales involved, in order to accurately predict the fuel thermomechanical response for a wide range of operating conditions and fuel types (including Gen-IV and TRU). (authors)

  9. Prevalence, impact and care of foot problems in people with rheumatoid arthritis: results from a United Kingdom based cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oonagh Wilson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis (RA derive from a combination of inflammation, altered foot mechanics, deformity and secondary skin lesions. Guidelines recommend regular review of patients’ feet, but the extent to which the general population of RA patients report foot symptoms and access foot care has not been established. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence, impact and care of foot problems in all patients with RA in one geographical area and identify factors associated with accessing foot care. Methods Cross-sectional survey of a random sample of patients with RA, who resided within a single community-based National Health Service (NHS podiatry service. The questionnaire collected demographic data (age, gender, local deprivation score, clinical data (disease duration, arthritis medications, disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ, current foot problems, foot care accessed (podiatry, orthotics and/or orthopaedics and care received, measures of impact (Foot Impact Scale and ability to work. Results Of 1003 total eligible patients in the target population, 739 were posted survey packs. Of these 413 (56% replied. Responders and non-responders had similar age (63.5 yr. vs.61.5 yr, gender (74.1%F vs. 75.2%F, and highest deprivation category (13.3% vs.15.9%. Of the responders 92.1% reported current foot problems: articular 73.8%, cutaneous lesions 65.4%, structural 57.6%, extra-articular 42.6%. Responders’ median (IQR disease duration 10 (5–20 years, HAQ 1.5 (0.75–2.0, FISIF 10 (6–14 and FISAP 16 (7–23 and 37.8% reported impacts on work. While 69.5% had accessed foot care there were differences in the route of access (by gender and whether independent or NHS provision and were older (64.9 yr. vs 60.4 yr. p = 0.001, had longer disease duration (12 yr. vs 7 yr. p < 0.001 and had a greater proportion of females (72.2% vs 61.7% p = 0.04 than those who had not accessed

  10. Neutron halo in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shangui; Meng Jie; Ring, P.; Zhao Enguang

    2010-01-01

    Halo phenomena in deformed nuclei are investigated within a deformed relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov (DRHB) theory. These weakly bound quantum systems present interesting examples for the study of the interdependence between the deformation of the core and the particles in the halo. Contributions of the halo, deformation effects, and large spatial extensions of these systems are described in a fully self-consistent way by the DRHB equations in a spherical Woods-Saxon basis with the proper asymptotic behavior at a large distance from the nuclear center. Magnesium and neon isotopes are studied and detailed results are presented for the deformed neutron-rich and weakly bound nucleus 44 Mg. The core of this nucleus is prolate, but the halo has a slightly oblate shape. This indicates a decoupling of the halo orbitals from the deformation of the core. The generic conditions for the occurrence of this decoupling effects are discussed.

  11. Rotary deformity in degenerative spondylolisthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sung Gwon; Kim, Jeong; Kho, Hyen Sim; Yun, Sung Su; Oh, Jae Hee; Byen, Ju Nam; Kim, Young Chul

    1994-01-01

    We studied to determine whether the degenerative spondylolisthesis has rotary deformity in addition to forward displacement. We have made analysis of difference of rotary deformity between the 31 study groups of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis and 31 control groups without any symptom, statistically. We also reviewed CT findings in 15 study groups. The mean rotary deformity in study groups was 6.1 degree(the standard deviation is 5.20), and the mean rotary deformity in control groups was 2.52 degree(the standard deviation is 2.16)(p < 0.01). The rotary deformity can be accompanied with degenerative spondylolisthesis. We may consider the rotary deformity as a cause of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis in case that any other cause is not detected

  12. Radionuclide imaging in diagnosis and therapy of the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Cansheng

    2000-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of angiopathy or infection of the diabetic foot is the key to the successful management. Radionuclide imaging is very useful in detecting diabetic microangiopathy, assessing the prognosis of foot ulcers, and diagnosing the osteomyelitis

  13. Parents: Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print | Share Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes Before you head to the store to ... College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights Reserved. Privacy Statement | Disclaimer | Terms and Conditions | Site ...

  14. Foot length is a functional parameter for assessment of height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2013-03-01

    Stature estimation is considered as an important parameter in the examination of unknown human remains and during the analysis of evidence in crime scene investigations. During mass disasters isolated foot can be found enclosed in the shoes while footprints may be recovered at the crime scenes. Foot length and footprint length can provide valuable estimates of stature. The present communication makes a few pertinent observations on a recently published article in 'The Foot' entitled 'Foot length-a functional parameter for assessment of height, The Foot 2012, 22(1):31-34' and presents an insight into the literature available on the subject which is likely to be of value to future researchers in the field of Forensic Podiatry. The foot length and the footprint length of individuals differ from each other and hence, the research observations made in a study on foot prints cannot be applied to foot dimensions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comorbidities associated with Egyptian diabetic foot disease subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary N. Rizk

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion Special attention should be paid toward the identification of patients who are at risk of foot ulceration to help prevent foot problems. Comorbid conditions must also be identified early and managed aggressively.

  16. Recognizing the radiographic features of some common bovine foot problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebeid, M.; Steiner, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radiographs of an injured or infected bovine foot can be tricky to interpret - the anatomy is complex, and the signs may be subtle. This guide leads you through the classic radiographic features of several common foot conditions

  17. Foot preferences during resting in wildfowl and waders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph

    2007-03-01

    Footedness in birds has been reported, e.g., in parrots and chickens, but the direction of footedness remained unclear. Is a bird left-footed because it uses its left foot for holding and handling food, or is it right-footed because it uses the right foot for stabilisation and balancing while perching? In 2004 and 2006 I examined footedness in wildfowl and waders while the birds were performing a single task: roosting on the ground on one foot. Avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta), northern shoveller (Anas clypeata), oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus), and Eurasian curlew (Numenius arquata) were right-footed. Another 21 species did not show any significant foot preferences. This study provides some evidence that asymmetries in preferential foot use in birds may be triggered by a preference during postural control.

  18. Principles of management of vascular problems in the diabetic foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principles of management of vascular problems in the diabetic foot: A multidisciplinary approach accounting for the complex pathobiology and biomechanics of the diabetic foot is crucial to decrease the rate of amputations.

  19. q-deformed Brownian motion

    CERN Document Server

    Man'ko, V I

    1993-01-01

    Brownian motion may be embedded in the Fock space of bosonic free field in one dimension.Extending this correspondence to a family of creation and annihilation operators satisfying a q-deformed algebra, the notion of q-deformation is carried from the algebra to the domain of stochastic processes.The properties of q-deformed Brownian motion, in particular its non-Gaussian nature and cumulant structure,are established.

  20. q-deformed Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogievetsky, O.; Pillin, M.; Schmidke, W.B.; Wess, J.; Zumino, B.

    1993-01-01

    In this lecture I discuss the algebraic structure of a q-deformed four-vector space. It serves as a good example of quantizing Minkowski space. To give a physical interpretation of such a quantized Minkowski space we construct the Hilbert space representation and find that the relevant time and space operators have a discrete spectrum. Thus the q-deformed Minkowski space has a lattice structure. Nevertheless this lattice structure is compatible with the operation of q-deformed Lorentz transformations. The generators of the q-deformed Lorentz group can be represented as linear operators in the same Hilbert space. (orig.)

  1. Deformable paper origami optoelectronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau

    2017-01-19

    Deformable optoelectronic devices are provided, including photodetectors, photodiodes, and photovoltaic cells. The devices can be made on a variety of paper substrates, and can include a plurality of fold segments in the paper substrate creating a deformable pattern. Thin electrode layers and semiconductor nanowire layers can be attached to the substrate, creating the optoelectronic device. The devices can be highly deformable, e.g. capable of undergoing strains of 500% or more, bending angles of 25° or more, and/or twist angles of 270° or more. Methods of making the deformable optoelectronic devices and methods of using, e.g. as a photodetector, are also provided.

  2. Deformation behaviour of turbine foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, W.; Klitzing, R.; Pietzonka, R.; Wehr, J.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of foundation deformation on alignment in turbine generator sets have gained significance with the transition to modern units at the limit of design possibilities. It is therefore necessary to obtain clarification about the remaining operational variations of turbine foundations. Static measurement programmes, which cover both deformation processes as well as individual conditions of deformation are described in the paper. In order to explain the deformations measured structural engineering model calculations are being undertaken which indicate the effect of limiting factors. (orig.) [de

  3. Hallux valgus interphalangeus deformity: A case series in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawe, Brian; Parikh, Shital; Crawford, Alvin; Tamai, Junichi

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this report is to describe three cases (four feet) of hallux valgus interphalangeus deformity in the pediatric population. A retrospective review was completed to identify three patients (four feet) with a deformity consistent with hallux valgus interphalangeus. Patients were followed at regular intervals for a minimum of 6 months. Treatment modalities and clinical results were reviewed for all patients for this relatively rare entity in the skeletally immature population. All patients in this report had a deformity that was not consistent with a traumatic etiology. Case number 1 had a significantly symptomatic deformity that failed conservative treatment, and eventually necessitated full surgical correction of the deformity. Symptom free unrestricted activity was obtained post-operatively, however final follow-up radiographs have demonstrated early changes consistent with arthritis. Case numbers 2 & 3 were relatively asymptomatic throughout their course of treatment, and responded well to non-operative intervention. Based on these findings excision of the exostosis and soft-tissue realignment appears to be a reliable option for symptom relief for patients who present with a painful symptomatic hallux valgus interphalangeus deformity. However, the risk of degenerative changes following spur removal must be entertained prior to the procedure. On the contrary a pain free deformity that does not impact functionality of toe, or impair shoe ware may be treated successfully with conservative measures. Copyright © 2011 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Do foot pad scores measure Turkey welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hocking, P.M.; Harkness, A.; Veldkamp, Teun; Vinco, L.J.

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of the project was to assess the painfulness of different levels of foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in turkeys. Three different analgesics (butorphanol, carprofen and meloxicam) were used to assess their effect on behaviour. Video recordings were taken when the birds were treated with either

  5. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... protective footwear. (1) Protective footwear must comply with any of the following consensus standards: (i... in accordance with one of the above consensus standards will be deemed to be in compliance with the...

  6. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations... protective footwear complies with any of the following consensus standards: (i) ASTM F-2412-2005, “Standard... above consensus standards will be deemed to be in compliance with the requirements of this section. [62...

  7. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... comply with any of the following consensus standards: (i) ASTM F-2412-2005, “Standard Test Methods for... effective as protective footwear that is constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus standards...

  8. Patient education for preventing diabetic foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorresteijn, J.A.; Kriegsman, D.M.; Assendelft, W.J.; Valk, G.D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ulceration of the feet, which can result in loss of limbs and even death, is one of the major health problems for people with diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of patient education on the prevention of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus. SEARCH METHODS: We

  9. Patient education for preventing diabetic foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorresteijn, J.A.; Kriegsman, D.M.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Valk, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ulceration of the feet, which can result in loss of limbs and even death, is one of the major health problems for people with diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of patient education on the prevention of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus. SEARCH METHODS:

  10. Assessment of acute foot and ankle sprains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Louise

    2006-07-01

    Acute ankle and foot trauma is a regular emergency presentation and prompt strategic assessment skills are required to enable nurses to categorise and prioritise these injuries appropriately. This article provides background information on the anatomy and physiology of the lower limb to help nurses to identify various grades of ankle sprain as well as injuries that are limb threatening

  11. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section 142.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER... protection. (a) Personnel working in areas or engaged in activities where there is a reasonable probability...

  12. Ambulatory assessment of ankle and foot dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H. Martin; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    Ground reaction force (GRF) measurement is important in the analysis of human body movements. The main drawback of the existing measurement systems is the restriction to a laboratory environment. This paper proposes an ambulatory system for assessing the dynamics of ankle and foot, which integrates

  13. Ron Rash: One Foot in Eden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of Ron Rash's novel One Foot in Eden, focusing on his attachment to place and his depiction of the internal conflicts between farmers and townspeople in a small Appalachian community. Rash depicts the contemporary Southerner’s struggle to maintain his or her roots in a time of rapid...

  14. ESTIMATION OF STATURE BASED ON FOOT LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyullatha Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Stature is the height of the person in the upright posture. It is an important measure of physical identity. Estimation of body height from its segments or dismember parts has important considerations for identifications of living or dead human body or remains recovered from disasters or other similar conditions. OBJECTIVE : Stature is an important indicator for identification. There are numerous means to establish stature and their significance lies in the simplicity of measurement, applicability and accuracy in prediction. Our aim of the study was to review the relationship between foot length and body height. METHODS : The present study reviews various prospective studies which were done to estimate the stature. All the measurements were taken by using standard measuring devices and standard anthropometric techniques. RESULTS : This review shows there is a correlation between stature and foot dimensions it is found to be positive and statistically highly significant. Prediction of stature was found to be most accurate by multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS : Stature and gender estimation can be done by using foot measurements and stud y will help in medico - legal cases in establishing identity of an individual and this would be useful for Anatomists and Anthropologists to calculate stature based on foot length

  15. Foot Structure in Boys with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Puszczałowska-Lizis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Down syndrome (DS is associated with numerous developmental abnormalities, some of which cause dysfunctions of the posture and the locomotor system. The analysis of selected features of the foot structure in boys with DS versus their peers without developmental disorders is done. Materials and Methods. The podoscopic examination was performed on 30 boys with DS aged 14-15 years. A control group consisted of 30 age- and gender-matched peers without DS. Results. The feet of boys with DS are flatter compared to their healthy peers. The hallux valgus angle is not the most important feature differentiating the shape of the foot in the boys with DS and their healthy peers. In terms of the V toe setting, healthy boys had poorer results. Conclusions. Specialized therapeutic treatment in individuals with DS should involve exercises to increase the muscle strength around the foot joints, enhancing the stabilization in the joints and proprioception. Introducing orthotics and proper footwear is also important. It is also necessary to monitor the state of the foot in order to modify undertaken therapies.

  16. Impedance of Surface Footings on Layered Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Johan Christian

    2005-01-01

    is discussed. Based on the Green's function for a stratified half-space, the impedance of a surface footing with arbitrary shape is computed. A wind turbine foundation is analysed in the frequency range 0 to 3 Hz. Analyses show that soil stratification may lead to a significant changes in the impedance related...

  17. Impedance of Surface Footings on Layered Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Johan

    2008-01-01

    is discussed. Based on the Green's function for a stratified half-space, the impedance of a surface footing with arbitrary shape is computed. A wind turbine foundation is analysed in the frequency range 0-3 Hz. Analyses show that soil stratification may lead to significant changes in the impedance related...

  18. Complex Foot Injury: Early and Definite Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Tim; Rammelt, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Complex foot injuries occur infrequently, but are life-changing events. They often present with other injuries as the result of a high-energy trauma. After initial stabilization, early assessment should be regarding salvagability. All treatment strategies are intensive. The initial treatment

  19. A Foot Operated Timeout Room Door Latch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxx, R. M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the design and implementation of a foot operated timeout room door latch that permits staff members to maintain a misbehaving retarded individual in timeout without locking the door. Use of the latch also frees the staff member involved to record behavioral observations or reinforce appropriate behavior. (Author)

  20. Intraarterial tolazoline in angiography of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, B.

    1978-01-01

    Foot angiography was performed in 32 diabetic patients with and without intraarterial injection of tolazoline (Priscoline). The angiographic quality was improved with tolazoline, manifested as an increased flow rate with acceleration of the arteriovenous transit time, a higher incidence of complete arterial filling with contrast medium in clinically important regions, and considerably longer arterial segments demonstrated within defined regions of measurement. (Auth.)

  1. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and the diabetic foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Common causes for non-healing of diabetic foot ulcers are infection and/or ischaemia. Diabetic patients are compromised hosts as far as wound healing is concerned. Diabetes mellitus is associated with a defective cellular and humoral immunity. In particular, decreased chemotaxis, decreased

  2. Diabetic foot and PAD: the endovascular approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reekers, J. A.; Lammer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) is recognized as one of the most serious complications of diabetes. Active revascularisation plays a crucial role in achieving ulcer healing. Non-surgical, minimally invasive, revascularisation options for DFU have expanded over the last decade and have become a

  3. A case of bilateral trench foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, S L; Leach, I H; Charnley, R M

    1993-12-01

    A case of severe bilateral trench foot is presented in a patient who lived rough for 3 weeks without removing his boots. Non-operative management yielded no clinical improvement and bilateral below-knee amputation was necessary. Histology revealed subcutaneous and muscle necrosis with secondary arterial thrombosis.

  4. Femoral anteversion and tibial torsion only explain 25% of variance in regression analysis of foot progression angle in children with diplegic cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between torsional bony deformities and rotational gait parameters has not been sufficiently investigated. This study was to investigate the degree of contribution of torsional bony deformities to rotational gait parameters in patients with diplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Methods Thirty three legs from 33 consecutive ambulatory patients (average age 9.5 years, SD 6.9 years; 20 males and 13 females) with diplegic CP who underwent preoperative three dimensional gait analysis, foot radiographs, and computed tomography (CT) were included. Adjusted foot progression angle (FPA) was retrieved from gait analysis by correcting pelvic rotation from conventional FPA, which represented the rotational gait deviation of the lower extremity from the tip of the femoral head to the foot. Correlations between rotational gait parameters (FPA, adjusted FPA, average pelvic rotation, average hip rotation, and average knee rotation) and radiologic measurements (acetabular version, femoral anteversion, knee torsion, tibial torsion, and anteroposteriortalo-first metatarsal angle) were analyzed. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify significant contributing radiographic measurements to adjusted FPA. Results Adjusted FPA was significantly correlated with FPA (r=0.837, pregression analysis, femoral anteversion (p=0.026) and tibial torsion (p=0.034) were found to be the significant contributing structural deformities to the adjusted FPA (R2=0.247). Conclusions Femoral anteversion and tibial torsion were found to be the significant structural deformities that could affect adjusted FPA in patients with diplegic CP. Femoral anteversion and tibial torsion could explain only 24.7% of adjusted FPA. PMID:23767833

  5. The epidemiology and clinical manifestations of hamstring muscle and plantar foot flexor shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joźwiak, M; Pietrzak, S; Tobjasz, F

    1997-07-01

    A population of 920 healthy children was studied with the aim of assessing the incidence of hamstring muscle and plantar foot flexor tightness, and to correlate such symptoms with gait, posture, and low back discomfort or pain. Special attention was paid to the popliteal angle and dorsal foot flexion. The borderline values for the popliteal angle in the following age groups were, boys: 3 to 5 years, 40 degrees; 6 to 15 years, 50 degrees; and 16 to 19 years, 40 degrees; girls: 3 to 5 years, 30 degrees; 6 to 14 years, 45 degrees; 15 to 19 years, 30 degrees. The borderline values for dorsal foot flexion in the following age groups were 3 to 4 years, 7 degrees; 5 to 13 years, 10 degrees; and 14 to 19 years, 5 degrees. The results obtained indicate a natural increase in hamstring tightness, particularly shortly before the pubertal growth spurt. This seems to be linked with the natural evolution of lumbar lordosis and pelvic tilt. When hamstring tightness surpassed borderline values, dorsiflexion and lumbar lordosis decreased leading to postural deformities, bending-forward deficit, discomfort when sitting, and a shambling gait.

  6. Biomechanics of the arch of the foot. Pre- and postoperative radiological examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristen, K.H.

    2007-01-01

    The human foot is a complex biomechanical structure. The arch of the foot is formed by the bony and articular structure of the midfoot and supported by strong ligaments and tendons. The normal arch develops in childhood. Tendon and ligament rupture and degeneration often lead to flattening of the arch. Frequent painful conditions include hallux valgus deformity and rupture of the posterior tibial tendon both leading to flat feet. Radiological examination is necessary in a standardized, full weight bearing standing position. The standing dorsoplantar view shows hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal 1/2 angle. The side view shows Lisfranc joint instability and decrease of the talometatarsal angle. Talonavicular instability is a frequent secondary sign of spring ligament and posterior tibial tendon lesion. After failure of conservative therapy, corrective surgery with osteotomy and realignment procedure of the malpositioned bones in combination with tendon and ligament reconstruction is the state of the art procedure. In postoperative follow-up a standing X-ray of the foot is again the standard tool. Additional MRI and CT examinations help to detect bone and cartilage lesions and tendon/ligament ruptures. (orig.) [de

  7. Find an Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle MD/DO

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Find a Surgeon Find a Foot & Ankle Orthopaedic Surgeon Page Content Who ... your prescribed treatment (surgical and/or non-surgical) ​ Find a Surgeon ​ Click here to find a foot ...

  8. Preventative foot care in people with diabetes: Quality patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foot ulceration and amputation cause extensive burden on individuals and health care systems. One of the reasons for the poor outcome of foot complications in developing countries is the lack of patient education. Due to the multi-factorial pathology of diabetic foot ulceration, the person with diabetes should receive health ...

  9. Imaging diagnostics of the foot; Bildgebende Diagnostik des Fusses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeimies, Ulrike; Staebler, Axel [Radiologie in Muenchen-Harlaching, Muenchen (Germany); Walther, Markus (eds.) [Schoen-Klinik Muenchen-Harlaching, Muenchen (Germany). Zentrum fuer Fuss- und Sprunggelenkchirurgie

    2012-11-01

    The book on imaging diagnostics of the foot contains the following chapters: (1) Imaging techniques. (2) Clinical diagnostics. (3) Ankle joint and hind foot. (4) Metatarsus. (5) Forefoot. (6) Pathology of plantar soft tissue. (7) Nervous system diseases. (8) Diseases without specific anatomic localization. (9) System diseases including the foot. (10) Tumor like lesions. (11) Normative variants.

  10. Quality and Toxicity Assessments of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality and toxicity assessment of foot and mouth disease virus vaccine was carried out in inoculated guinea pigs. ... could be used for the control and prevention of foot and mouth disease in Nigerian livestock. Keyword: Foot and Mouth Disease ... 2 blended with Incomplete. Seepic Adjuvant (ISA) montanide 206, which.

  11. The treatment of recurrent arthrogrypotic club foot in children by the Ilizarov method. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, I H; Yang, M S; Chung, C Y; Cho, T J; Sohn, Y J

    2001-07-01

    Between 1994 and 1997 we used the Ilizarov apparatus to treat 12 recurrent arthrogrypotic club feet in nine patients with a mean age of 5.3 years (3.2 to 7). After a mean of three weeks (two to seven) for correction of the deformity and 1.5 weeks (one to four) for stabilisation in the apparatus, immobilisation in a cast was carried out for a mean of 14 weeks (7 to 24). The mean follow-up period was 35 months (27 to 57). Before operation there were one grade-II (moderate), eight grade-III (severe) and three grade-IV (very severe) club feet, according to the rating system of Dimeglio et al. After operation, all the club feet except one were grade I (benign) with a painless, plantigrade platform. Radiological assessment and functional evaluation confirmed significant improvement. Two complications occurred in one patient, namely, epiphysiolysis of the distal tibia and recurrence of the foot deformity. These results suggest that our proposed modification of the Ilizarov technique is effective in the management of recurrent arthrogrypotic club foot in young children.

  12. Deformed chiral nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, C E; Shepard, J R [Colorado Univ., Boulder (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1991-04-18

    We compute properties of the nucleon in a hybrid chiral model based on the linear {sigma}-model with quark degrees of freedom treated explicity. In contrast to previous calculations, we do not use the hedgehog ansatz. Instead we solve self-consistently for a state with well defined spin and isospin projections. We allow this state to be deformed and find that, although d- and g-state admixtures in the predominantly s-state single quark wave functions are not large, they have profound effects on many nucleon properties including magnetic moments and g{sub A}. Our best fit parameters provide excellent agreement with experiment but are much different from those determined in hedgehog calculations. (orig.).

  13. Deformations of surface singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Szilárd, ágnes

    2013-01-01

    The present publication contains a special collection of research and review articles on deformations of surface singularities, that put together serve as an introductory survey of results and methods of the theory, as well as open problems, important examples and connections to other areas of mathematics. The aim is to collect material that will help mathematicians already working or wishing to work in this area to deepen their insight and eliminate the technical barriers in this learning process. This also is supported by review articles providing some global picture and an abundance of examples. Additionally, we introduce some material which emphasizes the newly found relationship with the theory of Stein fillings and symplectic geometry.  This links two main theories of mathematics: low dimensional topology and algebraic geometry. The theory of normal surface singularities is a distinguished part of analytic or algebraic geometry with several important results, its own technical machinery, and several op...

  14. Ankle and foot tuberculosis: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswaranjan Nayak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: To know the biological behavior of ankle and foot tuberculosis (AFTB and to know the reasons for delay in diagnosis and treatment of AFTB in our population. Materials and Methods: Patients with non-healing ulcers/sinuses/swellings in the ankle and foot region are the subjects of present study. Detailed clinical history, physical examination and relevant investigations were done in all cases. Pus/wound discharge for acid fast bacillus (AFB study and biopsy from wound margin/sinus tract was taken in all the cases. Results: During the period from July 2007-June 2012, 20 cases of AFTB were treated. Out of them five cases were difficult to diagnose and a mean period of 6 month to 5year was elapsed before final diagnosis was established. Out of these five cases - three cases were diabetic with ulcers and sinuses in the heel and ankle region. One case was wrongly diagnosed as angiodysplasia with A-V malformation of foot and diagnosis was delayed for 5 year. In one case of rheumatoid arthritis with abscess in ankle joint, the diagnosis was delayed for 1year. Conclusion: AFTB is very rare condition. AFTB is suspected in cases with long standing pain/swelling/discharging sinus in the foot and thorough investigations is must to differentiate from other foot diseases. Diagnosis is delayed due to lack of clinical suspicion and non-confirmatory biopsy reports. Early diagnosis and ATT for 9-18 months is must in all cases of AFTB to prevent joint involvement and other complications.

  15. IBA in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casten, R.F.; Warner, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    The structure and characteristic properties and predictions of the IBA in deformed nuclei are reviewed, and compared with experiment, in particular for 168 Er. Overall, excellent agreement, with a minimum of free parameters (in effect, two, neglecting scale factors on energy differences), was obtained. A particularly surprising, and unavoidable, prediction is that of strong β → γ transitions, a feature characteristically absent in the geometrical model, but manifest empirically. Some discrepancies were also noted, principally for the K=4 excitation, and the detailed magnitudes of some specific B(E2) values. Considerable attention is paid to analyzing the structure of the IBA states and their relation to geometric models. The bandmixing formalism was studied to interpret both the aforementioned discrepancies and the origin of the β → γ transitions. The IBA states, extremely complex in the usual SU(5) basis, are transformed to the SU(3) basis, as is the interaction Hamiltonian. The IBA wave functions appear with much simplified structure in this way as does the structure of the associated B(E2) values. The nature of the symmetry breaking of SU(3) for actual deformed nuclei is seen to be predominantly ΔK=0 mixing. A modified, and more consistent, formalism for the IBA-1 is introduced which is simpler, has fewer free parameters (in effect, one, neglecting scale factors on energy differences), is in at least as good agreement with experiment as the earlier formalism, contains a special case of the 0(6) limit which corresponds to that known empirically, and appears to have a close relationship to the IBA-2. The new formalism facilitates the construction of contour plots of various observables (e.g., energy or B(E2) ratios) as functions of N and chi/sub Q/ which allow the parameter-free discussion of qualitative trajectories or systematics

  16. Trends in lumber processing in the western United States. Part I: board foot Scribner volume per cubic foot of timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Keegan; Todd A. Morgan; Keith A. Blatner; Jean M. Daniels

    2010-01-01

    This article describes trends in board foot Scribner volume per cubic foot of timber for logs processed by sawmills in the western United States. Board foot to cubic foot (BF/CF) ratios for the period from 2000 through 2006 ranged from 3.70 in Montana to 5.71 in the Four Corners Region (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). Sawmills in the Four Corners Region,...

  17. [PERCUTANEOUS CORRECTION OF FOREFOOT DEFORMITIES IN DIABETIC PATIENTS IN ORDER TO PREVENT PRESSURE SORES - TECHNIQUE AND RESULTS IN 20 CONSECUTIVE PATIENTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Mustafa; Garti, Avraham; Heller, Eyal; Weissbrot, Moshe; Robinson, Dror

    2017-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a 21st century pandemic. Due to life-span prolongation combined with the increased rate of diabetes, a growing population of patients is afflicted with neuropathic foot deformities. Traditional operative repair of these deformities is associated with a high complication rate and relatively common infection incidence. In recent years, in order to prevent these complications, percutaneous deformity correction methods were developed. Description of experience accumulated in treating 20 consecutive patients with diabetic neuropathic foot deformities treated in a percutaneous fashion. A consecutive series of patients treated at our institute for neuropathic foot deformity was assessed according to a standard protocol using the AOFAS forefoot score and the LUMT score performed at baseline as well as at 6 months and 12 months. Treatment related complications were monitored. All procedures were performed in an ambulatory setting using local anesthesia. A total of 12 patients had soft tissue corrections, and 8 had a combined soft tissue and bone correction. Baseline AOFAS score was 48±7 and improved to 73±9 at six months and 75±7 at one year. LUMT score in 11 patients with a chronic wound decreased from 22±4 to 2±1 at one year post-op. One patient required hospitalization due to post-op bleeding. Percutaneous techniques allow deformity correction of diabetic feet, including those with open wounds in an ambulatory setting with a low complication rate.

  18. Anterior ankle impingement after tendo-Achilles lengthening for long-standing equinus deformity in residual poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ki Hyuk; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Seung Yeol; Park, Moon Seok

    2013-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate anterior ankle impingement after tendo-Achilles lengthening for long-standing equinus deformity in patients with residual poliomyelitis and to investigate whether the severity of preoperative equinus deformity affected the occurrence of symptomatic anterior impingement. Twenty-seven consecutive patients (mean age, 43.8 ± 9.4 years) with residual poliomyelitis who underwent tendo-Achilles lengthening for equinus foot deformity were included. On lateral foot-ankle weight-bearing radiographs, the tibiocalcaneal angle, plantigrade angle, and McDermott grade were measured and the presence of anterior blocking spur was evaluated. Eleven patients (40.7%) had anterior ankle impingement on radiographic findings preoperatively and 24 patients (88.9%) at latest follow-up. There was a significant difference in McDermott grade between preoperative and latest follow-up (P poliomyelitis had anterior ankle impingement after tendo-Achilles lengthening for long-standing equinus deformity, and the presence of symptomatic anterior ankle impingement was significantly associated with the severity of the equinus deformity. Therefore, for residual poliomyelitis patients with severe long-standing equinus deformity, surgeons should consider the possibility of a subsequent anterior procedure for anterior impingement after tendo-Achilles lengthening. Level IV, retrospective case series.

  19. The Relationship with Balance, Foot Posture, and Foot Size in School of Physical Education and Sports Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irez, Gonul Babayigit

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of foot posture and foot size with balance. A hundred and thirteen healthy volunteers were recruited from undergraduate students (Male = 74, Female = 37, age range 18-22). The Foot Posture Index (FPI-6), anthropometric measurements, dynamic balance and static balance measurements were done…

  20. Infrared thermal imaging for automated detection of diabetic foot complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Netten, Jaap J; van Baal, Jeff G; Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; Bus, Sicco A

    2013-09-01

    Although thermal imaging can be a valuable technology in the prevention and management of diabetic foot disease, it is not yet widely used in clinical practice. Technological advancement in infrared imaging increases its application range. The aim was to explore the first steps in the applicability of high-resolution infrared thermal imaging for noninvasive automated detection of signs of diabetic foot disease. The plantar foot surfaces of 15 diabetes patients were imaged with an infrared camera (resolution, 1.2 mm/pixel): 5 patients had no visible signs of foot complications, 5 patients had local complications (e.g., abundant callus or neuropathic ulcer), and 5 patients had diffuse complications (e.g., Charcot foot, infected ulcer, or critical ischemia). Foot temperature was calculated as mean temperature across pixels for the whole foot and for specified regions of interest (ROIs). No differences in mean temperature >1.5 °C between the ipsilateral and the contralateral foot were found in patients without complications. In patients with local complications, mean temperatures of the ipsilateral and the contralateral foot were similar, but temperature at the ROI was >2 °C higher compared with the corresponding region in the contralateral foot and to the mean of the whole ipsilateral foot. In patients with diffuse complications, mean temperature differences of >3 °C between ipsilateral and contralateral foot were found. With an algorithm based on parameters that can be captured and analyzed with a high-resolution infrared camera and a computer, it is possible to detect signs of diabetic foot disease and to discriminate between no, local, or diffuse diabetic foot complications. As such, an intelligent telemedicine monitoring system for noninvasive automated detection of signs of diabetic foot disease is one step closer. Future studies are essential to confirm and extend these promising early findings. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  1. Fraktalnist deformational relief polycrystalline aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.В. Карускевич

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available  The possibility of the fractal geometry method application for the analisys of surface deformation structures under cyclic loading is presented.It is shown, that deformation relief of the alclad aluminium alloyes meets the criteria of the fractality. For the fractal demention estimation the method of  “box-counting”can be applied.

  2. Holographic interferometry for early diagnosisof children flat foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Petrovich Bolshakov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first experience ofthe use of holographic interferometr y for earlydiagnosis of the flat foot in 4-5 years old children.13 patients were examined. The results of the clinicalexamination, plantography, and of the graphicalreconstruction of the form of the foot arch basedon the interferogramms of the prints on Pedilen areanalyzed. We revealed typical differences betweenthe form of the foot arches in children with flat foot and children with normal status. The use of the proposed method for early detection of congenital pes valgus and of the signs of “flexible flat” foot is being suggested.

  3. Starting off on the right foot: strong right-footers respond faster with the right foot to positive words and with the left foot to negative words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Irmgard; Graebe, Julia; Härtner, Leonie; Dudschig, Carolin; Kaup, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for an association between valence and left/right modulated by handedness, which is predicted by the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009) and also reflected in response times. We investigated whether such a response facilitation can also be observed with foot responses. Right-footed participants classified positive and negative words according to their valence by pressing a key with their left or right foot. A significant interaction between valence and foot only emerged in the by-items analysis. However, when dividing participants into two groups depending on the strength of their footedness, an interaction between valence and left/right was observed for strong right-footers, who responded faster with the right foot to positive words, and with the left foot to negative words. No interaction emerged for weak right-footers. The results strongly support the assumption that fluency lies at the core of the association between valence and left/right.

  4. Deformation of Man Made Objects

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    We introduce a framework for 3D object deformation with primary focus on man-made objects. Our framework enables a user to deform a model while preserving its defining characteristics. Moreover, our framework enables a user to set constraints on a model to keep its most significant features intact after the deformation process. Our framework supports a semi-automatic constraint setting environment, where some constraints could be automatically set by the framework while others are left for the user to specify. Our framework has several advantages over some state of the art deformation techniques in that it enables a user to add new features to the deformed model while keeping its general look similar to the input model. In addition, our framework enables the rotation and extrusion of different parts of a model.

  5. A methodological framework for detecting ulcers' risk in diabetic foot subjects by combining gait analysis, a new musculoskeletal foot model and a foot finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarton, Alessandra; Guiotto, Annamaria; Malaquias, Tiago; Spolaor, Fabiola; Sinigaglia, Giacomo; Cobelli, Claudio; Jonkers, Ilse; Sawacha, Zimi

    2018-02-01

    Diabetic foot is one of the most debilitating complications of diabetes and may lead to plantar ulcers. In the last decade, gait analysis, musculoskeletal modelling (MSM) and finite element modelling (FEM) have shown their ability to contribute to diabetic foot prevention and suggested that the origin of the plantar ulcers is in deeper tissue layers rather than on the plantar surface. Hence the aim of the current work is to develop a methodology that improves FEM-derived foot internal stresses prediction, for diabetic foot prevention applications. A 3D foot FEM was combined with MSM derived force to predict the sites of excessive internal stresses on the foot. In vivo gait analysis data, and an MRI scan of a foot from a healthy subject were acquired and used to develop a six degrees of freedom (6 DOF) foot MSM and a 3D subject-specific foot FEM. Ankle kinematics were applied as boundary conditions to the FEM together with: 1. only Ground Reaction Forces (GRFs); 2. OpenSim derived extrinsic muscles forces estimated with a standard OpenSim MSM; 3. extrinsic muscle forces derived through the (6 DOF) foot MSM; 4. intrinsic and extrinsic muscles forces derived through the 6 DOF foot MSM. For model validation purposes, simulated peak pressures were extracted and compared with those measured experimentally. The importance of foot muscles in controlling plantar pressure distribution and internal stresses is confirmed by the improved accuracy in the estimation of the peak pressures obtained with the inclusion of intrinsic and extrinsic muscle forces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of ski mountaineering track on foot sole loading pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselbacher, Matthias; Mader, Katharina; Werner, Maximiliane; Nogler, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Ski mountaineering is becoming a popular sport. The ascending techniques (tracks) can be divided into 3 different groups: flat field, direct ascent, and traversing. This study examines the relationship between different mechanical loads on the foot and the 4 different mountaineering ascending techniques. All subjects used the same pair of ski boots and the same skis while performing the 4 different ascending techniques. An in-shoe dynamic pressure measuring system was used to measure the mechanical load on the foot soles of each ski mountaineer. The foot sole was divided into 6 anatomic sections to measure the different loads in each section. Thirteen men with an average age of 29 years were enrolled in the study. The results showed small, not significant differences in the mechanical foot load in the flat field or in the direct ascent. The average mechanical foot load was highest on the valley side foot while traversing (179 kPa to 117 kPa). The higher load forces were in the medial ball of the foot and the longitudinal aspect of the foot side closer to the hill. The higher impact placed on the valley side foot and the concentration of force placed on the medial ball of the valley side foot suggested the influence of the track on the load pattern of the foot sole. This higher impact may result in upward forces that affect the force distribution in the ankle and knee joints. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Clinical management of acute diabetic Charcot foot in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Rasmus Bo; Svendsen, Ole Lander; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Charcot foot is a severe complication to diabetes mellitus and treatment involves several different clinical specialities. Our objective was to describe the current awareness, knowledge and treatment practices of Charcot foot among doctors who handle diabetic foot disorders. METHODS......: This study is based on a questionnaire survey sent out to healthcare professionals, primarily doctors, working with diabetic foot ulcers and Charcot feet in the public sector of the Danish healthcare system. RESULTS: The survey obtained a 52% response rate. A temperature difference of > 2 °C between the two...... and treatment practices of acute diabetic Charcot foot at diabetes foot clinics in Denmark. The responders seem to follow the international recommendations and guidelines on management of the acute diabetic Charcot foot, despite a lack of Danish guidelines. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  8. Determining the maximum diameter for holes in the shoe without compromising shoe integrity when using a multi-segment foot model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Rebecca; Jenkyn, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Measuring individual foot joint motions requires a multi-segment foot model, even when the subject is wearing a shoe. Each foot segment must be tracked with at least three skin-mounted markers, but for these markers to be visible to an optical motion capture system holes or 'windows' must be cut into the structure of the shoe. The holes must be sufficiently large avoiding interfering with the markers, but small enough that they do not compromise the shoe's structural integrity. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum size of hole that could be cut into a running shoe upper without significantly compromising its structural integrity or changing the kinematics of the foot within the shoe. Three shoe designs were tested: (1) neutral cushioning, (2) motion control and (3) stability shoes. Holes were cut progressively larger, with four sizes tested in all. Foot joint motions were measured: (1) hindfoot with respect to midfoot in the frontal plane, (2) forefoot twist with respect to midfoot in the frontal plane, (3) the height-to-length ratio of the medial longitudinal arch and (4) the hallux angle with respect to first metatarsal in the sagittal plane. A single subject performed level walking at her preferred pace in each of the three shoes with ten repetitions for each hole size. The largest hole that did not disrupt shoe integrity was an oval of 1.7cm×2.5cm. The smallest shoe deformations were seen with the motion control shoe. The least change in foot joint motion was forefoot twist in both the neutral shoe and stability shoe for any size hole. This study demonstrates that for a hole smaller than this size, optical motion capture with a cluster-based multi-segment foot model is feasible for measure foot in shoe kinematics in vivo. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The role of diagnostic imaging in the evaluation of suspected osteomyelitis in the foot: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, James L; Pickard, James; Stinchcombe, Simon J

    2011-09-01

    The early diagnosis of osteomyelitis in the foot from its clinical presentation alone can be difficult particularly in cases when the early signs are subtle. Early diagnosis and subsequent early intervention are imperative to reduce the risk of chronic infection, associated early lytic changes to bone and potential long term structural complications caused by subsequent deformity and lost anatomy. Diagnostic imaging has a major role to play in the early assessment and diagnosis of bone infection, yet the choice of approach can be controversial. Several imaging modalities have been advocated, imaging of the infected foot is complex and no single test is ideal for every situation. The clinician needs to be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of each imaging modality so that the most appropriate test is selected for the individual case. Factors such as site of infection in the foot, the aggressive nature of the organism, the time since onset, previous associated surgery and co-morbidity may all play apart in the clinician's decision making process to determine the best approach in detecting the sometimes subtle changes which may be seen in some cases of osteomyelitis. This review considers the literature and highlights the advantages and disadvantages of the main imaging techniques used for the evaluation of the foot when osteomyelitis is suspected. An evidence based algorithm for the selection of appropriate imaging techniques is suggested to aid clinicians in there decision making process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Deformation inside and outside the nuclear molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cseh, J.; Algora, A.; Antonenko, N.V.; Jolos, R.V.; Hess, P.O.

    2006-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Clusterization is an important phenomenon both in light and in heavy nuclei. The two basic natural laws governing the clusterization (just like the composition of nuclei from nucleons) are the energy-minimum principle, and the Pauli-exclusion principle. In a fully microscopic description of clusterization both aspects are taken into account. This kind of description, however, is limited to the territory of light nuclei. Many interesting aspects of the clusterization, like e.g. the appearance of exotic cluster configurations, show up only in heavy nuclei. Phenomenologic approaches are applied both to light and to heavy nuclei, on an equal footing, but these models do not really contain the effects of the antisymmetrization, or it is not under control, what aspects of the exclusion principle is incorporated. Recently we have developed an approach, which involves both the energetic preference and the exclusion principle [?]. The antisymmetrization is not carried out explicitly, it is treated in an approximate way, but it is done microscopically in a well-controlled manner, and consistency-check measures, how effective it is. We calculate the energetic preference of different clusterizations both on the basis of simple binding-energy-arguments [?], and from the Dinuclear System Model (DNS) [?], including Coulomb as well as nuclear interactions. The potential energy is calculated both for the usual pole-to-pole configuration, and for those more compact configurations, which turn out to be allowed from the microscopic viewpoint. The exclusion principle is treated by the application of a selection rule, related to the microscopic structure. For light nuclei it is based on the real U(3) symmetry [?], and it is exact to the extent to which the leading term representation is valid. In heavy nuclei it is based on the quasidynamical, or effective U(3) symmetry [?]. Its validity is shown by the consistency of the quadrupole deformation of

  11. On infinitesimal conformai deformations of surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлия Степановна Федченко

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A new form of basic equations for conformai deformations is found. The equations involve tensor fields of displacement vector only. Conditions for trivial deformations as well as infinitesimal conformai deformations are studied.

  12. Stress fractures of the foot and ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welck, M J; Hayes, T; Pastides, P; Khan, W; Rudge, B

    2017-08-01

    Stress fractures occur as a result of microscopic injuries sustained when bone is subjected to repeated submaximal stresses. Overtime, with repeated cycles of loading, accumulation of such injuries can lead to macro-structural failure and frank fracture. There are numerous stress fractures about the foot and ankle of which a trauma and orthopaedic surgeon should be aware. These include: metatarsal, tibia, calcaneus, navicular, fibula, talus, medial malleolus, sesamoid, cuneiform and cuboid. Awareness of these fractures is important as the diagnosis is frequently missed and appropriate treatment delayed. Late identification can be associated with protracted pain and disability, and may predispose to non-union and therefore necessitate operative intervention. This article outlines the epidemiology and risk factors, aetiology, presentation and management of the range of stress fractures in the foot and ankle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recurrent Admissions for Diabetic Foot Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang CL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic foot complications are a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Patients who undergo recurrent admissions for the same diabetic foot problems represent a difficult subgroup to treat. From July 2007 to June 2008, there were 38 such patients who were admitted recurrently. Eighteen patients (47% were re-admitted because of previous refusal of surgical treatment. Eighteen patients (47% received treatment as necessary but were still readmitted for recurrent infection at the same wound site. Assessment of patients’ compliance to outpatient treatment was found to be generally lacking. As a significant proportion were re-admitted because of previous refusal of surgery, a trained counselor may be suitable in counselling patients for debridement or amputation surgery.

  14. Innovations in diabetic foot reconstruction using supermicrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hyun Suk; Oh, Tae Suk; Hong, Joon Pio

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of diabetic foot ulceration is complex with multiple factors involved, and it may often lead to limb amputation. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach is warranted to cover the spectrum of treatment for diabetic foot, but in complex wounds, surgical treatment is inevitable. Surgery may involve the decision to preserve the limb by reconstruction or to amputate it. Reconstruction involves preserving the limb with secure coverage. Local flaps usually are able to provide sufficient coverage for small or moderate sized wound, but for larger wounds, soft tissue coverage involves flaps that are distantly located from the wound. Reconstruction of distant flap usually involves microsurgery, and now, further innovative methods such as supermicrosurgery have further given complex wounds a better chance to be reconstructed and limbs salvaged. This article reviews the microsurgery involved in reconstruction and introduces the new method of supermicrosurgery. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Perceptual transparency from image deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Takahiro; Maruya, Kazushi; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-08-18

    Human vision has a remarkable ability to perceive two layers at the same retinal locations, a transparent layer in front of a background surface. Critical image cues to perceptual transparency, studied extensively in the past, are changes in luminance or color that could be caused by light absorptions and reflections by the front layer, but such image changes may not be clearly visible when the front layer consists of a pure transparent material such as water. Our daily experiences with transparent materials of this kind suggest that an alternative potential cue of visual transparency is image deformations of a background pattern caused by light refraction. Although previous studies have indicated that these image deformations, at least static ones, play little role in perceptual transparency, here we show that dynamic image deformations of the background pattern, which could be produced by light refraction on a moving liquid's surface, can produce a vivid impression of a transparent liquid layer without the aid of any other visual cues as to the presence of a transparent layer. Furthermore, a transparent liquid layer perceptually emerges even from a randomly generated dynamic image deformation as long as it is similar to real liquid deformations in its spatiotemporal frequency profile. Our findings indicate that the brain can perceptually infer the presence of "invisible" transparent liquids by analyzing the spatiotemporal structure of dynamic image deformation, for which it uses a relatively simple computation that does not require high-level knowledge about the detailed physics of liquid deformation.

  16. Quantifying the Erlenmeyer flask deformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, A; Rajan, P S; Deegan, P; Cox, T M; Bearcroft, P

    2012-01-01

    Objective Erlenmeyer flask deformity is a common radiological finding in patients with Gaucher′s disease; however, no definition of this deformity exists and the reported prevalence of the deformity varies widely. To devise an easily applied definition of this deformity, we investigated a cohort of knee radiographs in which there was consensus between three experienced radiologists as to the presence or absence of Erlenmeyer flask morphology. Methods Using the presence or absence of Erlenmeyer flask morphology as a benchmark, we measured the diameter of the femur at the level of the physeal scar and serially at defined intervals along the metadiaphysis. Results A measured ratio in excess of 0.57 between the diameter of the femoral shaft 4 cm from the physis to the diameter of the physeal baseline itself on a frontal radiograph of the knee predicted the Erlenmeyer flask deformity with 95.6% sensitivity and 100% specificity in our series of 43 independently diagnosed adults with Gaucher′s disease. Application of this method to the distal femur detected the Erlenmeyer flask deformity reproducibly and was simple to carry out. Conclusion Unlike diagnostic assignments based on subjective review, our simple procedure for identifying the modelling deformity is based on robust quantitative measurement: it should facilitate comparative studies between different groups of patients, and may allow more rigorous exploration of the pathogenesis of the complex osseous manifestations of Gaucher′s disease to be undertaken. PMID:22010032

  17. Nuclear medicine applications for the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartshorne, M.F.; Peters, V.

    1987-01-01

    Although not frequently described in the podiatric literature, nuclear medicine imaging may be of great assistance to the clinical podiatrist. This report reviews in detail the use of modern nuclear medicine approaches to the diagnosis and management of the diabetic foot. Nuclear medicine techniques are helpful in evaluating possible osteomyelitis, in determining appropriate amputation levels, and in predicting response to conservative ulcer management. Specific indications for bone, gallium, and perfusion imaging are described

  18. Nuclear medicine imaging of diabetic foot infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capriotti, Gabriela; D'Alessandria, Calogero; Signore, Alberto; Chianelli, Marco; Prandini, Napoleone

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Osteomyelitis of the foot is the most frequent complication in diabetic patients. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in diagnosis and for therapy follow-up, using different tracers. We reviewed 57 papers on diabetic foot imaging (published from 1982 to 2004, 50 original papers and 7 reviews), for a total of 2889 lesions. Data analysis has been carried out to establish which imaging technique could be used as a 'gold standard' for diagnosis of infection and to evaluate the extent of disease and to monitor the efficacy of therapy. Data analysis revealed that three-phase bone-scan is sensitive but not specific whereas specificity and diagnostic accuracy of 99m Tc-WBC scintigraphy is higher than 111 In- WBC scintigraphy. In the forefoot leukocyte scintigraphy may be useful for diagnosis of osteomyelitis and for monitoring the response to medical treatment. In the mid/hind foot the leukocytes uptake is not related only to the presence of infected region, but it is attributed to inflammation, fractures and reparative processes. Other radiopharmaceuticals such as 99m Tc/ 111 In-HIG, radiolabelled antibody and their fragments, showed high sensibility, but lower specificity than WBC (96.8/66.5, 95.8/70.2, 91.3/62 vs 85.8/84.5). Conclusion: It emerged that in the forefoot when clinical suspicious of osteomyelitis is low and medical treatment is contemplated, three-phase bon scan is the procedure of choice. A positive test is not diagnostic for osteomyelitis, and radiolabelled WBC scintigraphy is necessary. In the mid/hind foot, diagnosis of neuropathic joint with infection is problematic. Radiolabelled WBC imaging is probably the most accurate test for determining the presence of infection. Although a negative study strongly indicate the absence of osteomyelitis, it is important to note that a positive result requires a complementary study with marrow agent. (author)

  19. Nonlinear MHD Waves in a Prominence Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, L.; Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T.; Schmieder, B.

    2015-11-01

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ˜ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5-11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5-14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ˜20 km s-1, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.

  20. Diagnostic dilemmas in foot and ankle injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keene, J.S.; Lange, R.H.

    1986-07-11

    Differential diagnosis of foot and ankle injuries should include (1) stress fractures of the great toe sesamoids, the shaft of the fifth metatarsal, and the tarsal navicular bone; (2) transchondral talar-dome fractures; (3) fractures of the os trigonum; and (4) dislocating peroneal tendons. Diagnosis of these injuries is challenging because the initial roentgenograms often are normal, and special clinical tests and ancillary studies are required.

  1. Conservative management of diabetic foot osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, S; Soliman, M; Egun, A; Rajbhandari, S M

    2013-09-01

    In this retrospective study, 130 patients with diabetic foot osteomyelitis were analysed. 66.9% of these healed with antibiotic treatment alone and 13.9% needed amputation, of which 1.5% were major. Presence of MRSA was associated with adverse outcome (53.3% vs 21.1%, p=0.04) which was defined as death, amputation and failure to heal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. NONLINEAR MHD WAVES IN A PROMINENCE FOOT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofman, L. [Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Schmieder, B. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)

    2015-11-10

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ∼ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5–11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5–14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ∼20 km s{sup −1}, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.

  3. Diagnostic dilemmas in foot and ankle injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keene, J.S.; Lange, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of foot and ankle injuries should include (1) stress fractures of the great toe sesamoids, the shaft of the fifth metatarsal, and the tarsal navicular bone; (2) transchondral talar-dome fractures; (3) fractures of the os trigonum; and (4) dislocating peroneal tendons. Diagnosis of these injuries is challenging because the initial roentgenograms often are normal, and special clinical tests and ancillary studies are required

  4. Deformation twinning in a creep-deformed nanolaminate structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiung, Luke L

    2010-01-01

    The underlying mechanism of deformation twinning occurring in a TiAl-(γ)/Ti 3 Al-(α 2 ) nanolaminate creep deformed at elevated temperatures has been studied. Since the multiplication and propagation of lattice dislocations in both γ and α 2 thin lamellae are very limited, the total flow of lattice dislocations becomes insufficient to accommodate the accumulated creep strains. Consequently, the movement of interfacial dislocations along the laminate interfaces, i.e., interface sliding, becomes an alternative deformation mode of the nanolaminate structure. Pile-ups of interfacial dislocations occur when interfacial ledges and impinged lattice dislocations act as obstacles to impede the movement of interfacial dislocations. Deformation twinning can accordingly take place to relieve a stress concentration resulting from the pile-up of interfacial dislocations. An interface-controlled twinning mechanism driven by the pile-up and dissociation of interfacial dislocations is accordingly proposed.

  5. Deformation twinning in a creep-deformed nanolaminate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Luke L.

    2010-10-01

    The underlying mechanism of deformation twinning occurring in a TiAl-(γ)/Ti3Al-(α2) nanolaminate creep deformed at elevated temperatures has been studied. Since the multiplication and propagation of lattice dislocations in both γ and α2 thin lamellae are very limited, the total flow of lattice dislocations becomes insufficient to accommodate the accumulated creep strains. Consequently, the movement of interfacial dislocations along the laminate interfaces, i.e., interface sliding, becomes an alternative deformation mode of the nanolaminate structure. Pile-ups of interfacial dislocations occur when interfacial ledges and impinged lattice dislocations act as obstacles to impede the movement of interfacial dislocations. Deformation twinning can accordingly take place to relieve a stress concentration resulting from the pile-up of interfacial dislocations. An interface-controlled twinning mechanism driven by the pile-up and dissociation of interfacial dislocations is accordingly proposed.

  6. Deforming tachyon kinks and tachyon potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afonso, Victor I.; Bazeia, Dionisio; Brito, Francisco A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate deformation of tachyon potentials and tachyon kink solutions. We consider the deformation of a DBI type action with gauge and tachyon fields living on D1-brane and D3-brane world-volume. We deform tachyon potentials to get other consistent tachyon potentials by using properly a deformation function depending on the gauge field components. Resolutions of singular tachyon kinks via deformation and applications of deformed tachyon potentials to scalar cosmology scenario are discussed

  7. Risk factors for developing diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Estela Willrich Boell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study is to identify the risk factors for developing diabetic foot. A cross-sectional study, with a convenience sample, developed with 70 individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM, registered in three basic health units in the municipality of Florianópolis/SC, Brazil, in the period from November 2010 to May 2011. Biometric data was collected regarding their sociodemographic, health and illness conditions. An assessment of the feet was also carried out. The average participant age was 66.17 years and time with diagnosed disease was under ten years (61.42%. The following risk factors were identified: advanced age; time of DM diagnosis; few years of schooling; overweight/obesity; inadequate diet; physical inactivity; inadequate metabolic control; lack of proper and specific foot care; and arterial hypertension. We conclude that the majority of the population presented one or more risk factors that favor the appearance of foot-related complications. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i2.20460.

  8. Diabetic foot infection treatment and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigna, Emanuele; Fino, Pasquale; Onesti, Maria G; Amorosi, Vittoria; Scuderi, Nicolò

    2016-04-01

    Foot infections in diabetic patients are a common, complex and costly problem. They are potentially adverse with progression to deeper spaces and tissues and are associated with severe complications. The management of diabetic foot infection (DFI) requires a prompt and systematic approach to achieve more successful outcomes and to ultimately avoid amputations. This study reviews a multi-step treatment for DFIs. Between September 2010 and September 2012, a total of about 37 patients were consulted for DFI. The treatment algorithm included four steps, that is, several types of debridement according to the type of wound, the application of negative pressure therapy (NPT), other advanced dressings, a targeted antibiotic therapy local or systemic as the case may, and, if necessary, reconstructive surgery. This treatment protocol showed excellent outcomes, allowing us to avoid amputation in most difficult cases. Only about 8% of patients require amputation. This treatment protocol and a multidisciplinary approach with a specialised team produced excellent results in the treatment of DFI and in the management of diabetic foot in general, allowing us to improve the quality of life of diabetic patients and also to ensure cost savings. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A large extraskeletal osteochondroma of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estil, Jose Carlos C; Yeo, Eui-Dong; Kim, Hak Jun; Cho, Won Tae; Lee, Jeong-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Osteochondromas are very common benign tumors composed of cartilage and bone. They are usually found at the end of the growth plate of long bones, most often at the area of the joints, and are contiguous with the medullary cavity. Extraskeletal osteochondromas, the same as their namesake, are composed of cartilage and bone. However, unlike typical osteochondromas, extraskeletal osteochondromas are not contiguous with bone, as their name implies. They usually arise from the synovial tissue and tendon sheaths. Although rare, extraskeletal osteochondromas have been reported to occur within the knee and around the hip; however, they are more commonly reported to occur in the hands and feet. When found in the hands or feet, these new growths are often very small and only occasionally symptomatic. We present the case of a 49-year-old female who had a slow-growing mass of 4 years' duration, located on the plantar aspect of her left foot. The mass was slowly becoming more palpable as it increased in size and was progressively causing pain and discomfort during ambulation. Imaging studies revealed an ossified mass bearing no connection to any other structure on the plantar aspect of her foot. An excision biopsy was performed, and the easily dissectible mass, although much larger than its usual presentation, proved to be an extraskeletal osteochondroma. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Off-label prescriptions in diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Jesuíno de Oliveira Andrade

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prescription of a drug outside of the indications for which it was originally approved by regulators is internationally known as "off-label" prescription. We describe off-label treatments for the diabetic foot reported in international scientific literature. This is a qualitative and descriptive bibliographical review based on the results of a search of the Medline international database. The criteria for review were publication between January 1985 and November 2013, and the MeSH (Medical Subject Heading keywords "off-label use" OR "off-label" OR "off-label prescribing" plus "diabetic foot" were input on the search form. Nine studies were selected that contained information about off-label treatments for the diabetic foot. We conclude that the practice of off-label prescribing has potential benefits. In some situations an off-label prescription is the only treatment available for patients, either because a more targeted drug does not exist, or because other methods of treatment are ineffective or unavailable due to patient intolerance.

  11. Natural gaits of the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifang Fan

    Full Text Available There has been a controversy as to whether or not the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot have an effect on human walking activities. The 3D foot scanning system was employed to obtain static footprints from subjects adopting a half-weight-bearing stance. Based upon their footprints, the subjects were divided into two groups: the flat-footed and the high-arched. The plantar pressure measurement system was used to measure and record the subjects' successive natural gaits. Two indices were proposed: distribution of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF of plantar and the rate of change of footprint areas. Using these two indices to compare the natural gaits of the two subject groups, we found that (1 in stance phase, there is a significant difference (p<0.01 in the distributions of VGRF of plantar; (2 in a stride cycle, there is also a significant difference (p<0.01 in the rate of change of footprint area. Our analysis suggests that when walking, the VGRF of the plantar brings greater muscle tension to the flat-footed while a smaller rate of change of footprint area brings greater stability to the high-arched.

  12. Natural gaits of the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Li, Zhiyu; Lv, Changsheng; Luo, Donglin

    2011-03-18

    There has been a controversy as to whether or not the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot have an effect on human walking activities. The 3D foot scanning system was employed to obtain static footprints from subjects adopting a half-weight-bearing stance. Based upon their footprints, the subjects were divided into two groups: the flat-footed and the high-arched. The plantar pressure measurement system was used to measure and record the subjects' successive natural gaits. Two indices were proposed: distribution of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) of plantar and the rate of change of footprint areas. Using these two indices to compare the natural gaits of the two subject groups, we found that (1) in stance phase, there is a significant difference (pplantar; (2) in a stride cycle, there is also a significant difference (pfootprint area. Our analysis suggests that when walking, the VGRF of the plantar brings greater muscle tension to the flat-footed while a smaller rate of change of footprint area brings greater stability to the high-arched.

  13. Flip-flop footwear with a moulded foot-bed for the treatment of foot pain: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuter, Vivienne Helaine; Searle, Angela; Spink, Martin J

    2016-11-11

    Foot pain is a common problem affecting up to 1 in 5 adults and is known to adversely affect activities of daily living and health related quality of life. Orthopaedic footwear interventions are used as a conservative treatment for foot pain, although adherence is known to be low, in part due to the perception of poor comfort and unattractiveness of the footwear. The objective of this trial was to assess the efficacy of flip-flop style footwear (Foot Bio-Tec©) with a moulded foot-bed in reducing foot pain compared to participant's usual footwear. Two-arm parallel randomised controlled trial using computer generated random allocation schedule at an Australian university podiatry clinic. 108 volunteers with disabling foot pain were enrolled after responding to an advertisement and eligibility screening. Participants were randomly allocated to receive footwear education and moulded flip-flop footwear to wear as much as they were comfortable with for the next 12 weeks (n = 54) or footwear education and instructions to wear their normal footwear for the next 12 weeks (n = 54). Primary outcome was the pain domain of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ). Secondary outcomes were the foot function and general foot health domains of the FHSQ, a visual analogue scale (VAS) for foot pain and perceived comfort of the intervention footwear. Compared to the control group, the moulded flip-flop group showed a significant improvement in the primary outcome measure of the FHSQ pain domain (adjusted mean difference 8.36 points, 95 % CI 5.58 to 13.27, p footwear and six (footwear group = 4) were lost to follow up. Our results demonstrate that flip-flop footwear with a moulded foot-bed can have a significant effect on foot pain, function and foot health and might be a valuable adjunct therapy for people with foot pain. ACTRN12614000933651 . Retrospectively registered: 01/09/2014.

  14. The prevalence of diabetic foot disease in the Waikato region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, C; McClintock, J; Lawrenson, R

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of diabetic foot disease by utilising the retinal eye screening register in the Waikato region of New Zealand. Understanding both the prevalence and the degree of foot disease across the general diabetes population will help to determine what podiatry services are required for people with diabetes. 2192 people aged 15years and over, who attended the Waikato Regional Diabetes Service mobile retinal photo screening service for the six-month period between May and November 2014, consented to a foot screen including testing for sensation and pedal pulses. A digital image was taken of the dorsal and plantar aspect of each foot for review by a registered Podiatrist. Thirteen percent of the study sample was identified as having a high-risk foot including active foot complications. 65% were categorised as low risk and a further 22% at moderate risk of diabetic foot disease. Factors identified as significant included age, type of diabetes, duration of diabetes, and smoking. These factors placed people at greater risk of diabetic foot disease. A significant number of people with diabetes are at risk of diabetic foot disease. This study has highlighted the need for targeted podiatry services to address diabetic foot disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A study of dynamic foot pressure measurement in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milka D Madhale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetic foot ulcer is a major source of morbidity and a leading cause of hospitalization. It is estimated that approximately 20% of hospital admissions among patients with diabetes mellitus are due to diabetic foot ulcer. It can lead to infection, gangrene, amputation, and even death if appropriate care is not provided. Overall, the lower limb amputation in diabetic patients is 15 times higher than in non-diabetics. In the majority of cases, the cause for the foot ulcer is the altered architecture of the foot due to neuropathy resulting in abnormal pressure points on the soles. Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop low cost, lightweight foot pressure scanner and check its reliability and validity which can help to prevent foot ulceration. Design/Methodology/Approach: In the present study, a low cost, lightweight foot pressure scanner is developed, and dynamic plantar pressures in a group of 110 Indian patients with diabetes with or without neuropathy and foot ulcers are measured. Practical Implications: If these pressure points can be detected, ulcers can be prevented by providing offloading footwear. Originality/Value: Differences are found in dynamic foot pressures in different study groups, namely, diabetic patients, patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, patients with foot ulcers, and nondiabetics. The differences are significant (P < 0.01, which showed the validity of the tool. Reliability and consistency of the tool was checked by test–retest method. Paper Type: Original Research work. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it is concluded that the scanner is successfully developed and it can measure foot pressures. It is a novel device to proactively monitor foot health in diabetics in an effort to prevent and reduce diabetic foot complications.

  16. Deformation Monitoring of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Tunnels

    CERN Document Server

    Error, J J; Fazekas, J J; Helus, S A; Maines, J R

    2005-01-01

    The SNS Project is a 1.4 MW accelerator-based neutron source located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. For shielding purposes, a 17 foot berm of native soil has been constructed on top of the accelerator tunnel system. This backfill has caused ongoing settlement of the tunnels. The settlement has been monitored by the SNS Survey and Alignment Group at regular intervals, in order to discover the patterns of deformation, and to determine when the tunnels will be stable enough for precise alignment of beam line components. The latest monitoring results indicate that the settlement rate has significantly decreased. This paper discusses the techniques and instrumentation of the monitoring surveys, and provides an analysis of the results.

  17. [Experience with the Hind Foot Relaxation Boot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwipp, Hans; Borrmann, Michael; Walter, Eberhard

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to report our experience with hindfoot fractures using our specially developed boot, with a follow-up of 557 cases. This boot works like the well-known Allgöwer-Röck ortheses (ARO), but is a hybrid between a boot and an orthesis. It allows full weightbearing without using crutches and completely protects an acutely operated hind foot fracture, hind foot arthrodesis or a hind foot fracture which is suitable for conservative treatment. In its first generation, this boot was custom made and used in 408 cases, from March 1999 to February 2011. This study was performed exclusively at the Department of Traumatology and Reconstructive Surgery in the University Centre of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, since 2013 at the Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital of the Technical University of Dresden (since 2013). The new improved second generation of this boot has been used in 149 patients between March 2011 and February 2016. This model is lighter and safer, due to an aluminium U-profile which is produced in one piece and interposed and fixed with 4 screws into the sole of the boot. The ground reaction forces are transported to the tibial head by this U-profile, to which the dorsal acryl shell for the calf of the Röck system is fixed with 2 screws on both sides, including the free ventral patellar shell. This is closed individually by two quick fastener buckles. This modular system of the second generation boot is now available for all patients in Dresden. These new boots have replaced the use of a wheel-chair for 3 months and are especially useful in bilateral calcaneus fractures - which occur in about 18% of all cases. In these new boots, the whole sole of the boot is in contact with the ground, rather than a surface of 9 × 3 cm as in the Allgöwer-Röck ortheses. As a result, these boots are considered to be superior to the ARO because standing and walking without crutches is much more easier - even for elderly patients. In contrast to

  18. M theory on deformed superspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Mir

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we will analyze a noncommutative deformation of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory in N=1 superspace formalism. We will then analyze the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST symmetries for this deformed ABJM theory, and its linear as well as nonlinear gauges. We will show that the sum of the gauge fixing term and the ghost term for this deformed ABJM theory can be expressed as a combination of the total BRST and the total anti-BRST variation, in Landau and nonlinear gauges. We will show that in Landau and Curci-Ferrari gauges deformed ABJM theory is invariant under an additional set of symmetry transformations. We will also discuss the effect that the addition of a bare mass term has on this theory.

  19. Nonlinear Deformable-body Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert C J

    2010-01-01

    "Nonlinear Deformable-body Dynamics" mainly consists in a mathematical treatise of approximate theories for thin deformable bodies, including cables, beams, rods, webs, membranes, plates, and shells. The intent of the book is to stimulate more research in the area of nonlinear deformable-body dynamics not only because of the unsolved theoretical puzzles it presents but also because of its wide spectrum of applications. For instance, the theories for soft webs and rod-reinforced soft structures can be applied to biomechanics for DNA and living tissues, and the nonlinear theory of deformable bodies, based on the Kirchhoff assumptions, is a special case discussed. This book can serve as a reference work for researchers and a textbook for senior and postgraduate students in physics, mathematics, engineering and biophysics. Dr. Albert C.J. Luo is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, USA. Professor Luo is an internationally recognized scientist in the field of non...

  20. Deformable paper origami optoelectronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau; Lin, Chun-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Deformable optoelectronic devices are provided, including photodetectors, photodiodes, and photovoltaic cells. The devices can be made on a variety of paper substrates, and can include a plurality of fold segments in the paper substrate creating a

  1. Capillary Deformations of Bendable Films

    KAUST Repository

    Schroll, R. D.; Adda-Bedia, M.; Cerda, E.; Huang, J.; Menon, N.; Russell, T. P.; Toga, K. B.; Vella, D.; Davidovitch, B.

    2013-01-01

    We address the partial wetting of liquid drops on ultrathin solid sheets resting on a deformable foundation. Considering the membrane limit of sheets that can relax compression through wrinkling at negligible energetic cost, we revisit the classical

  2. Non-linear elastic deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Ogden, R W

    1997-01-01

    Classic in the field covers application of theory of finite elasticity to solution of boundary-value problems, analysis of mechanical properties of solid materials capable of large elastic deformations. Problems. References.

  3. Anisotropic Ripple Deformation in Phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Liangzhi; Ma, Yandong; Smith, Sean C; Chen, Changfeng

    2015-05-07

    Two-dimensional materials tend to become crumpled according to the Mermin-Wagner theorem, and the resulting ripple deformation may significantly influence electronic properties as observed in graphene and MoS2. Here, we unveil by first-principles calculations a new, highly anisotropic ripple pattern in phosphorene, a monolayer black phosphorus, where compression-induced ripple deformation occurs only along the zigzag direction in the strain range up to 10%, but not the armchair direction. This direction-selective ripple deformation mode in phosphorene stems from its puckered structure with coupled hinge-like bonding configurations and the resulting anisotropic Poisson ratio. We also construct an analytical model using classical elasticity theory for ripple deformation in phosphorene under arbitrary strain. The present results offer new insights into the mechanisms governing the structural and electronic properties of phosphorene crucial to its device applications.

  4. CORRECTIVE SURGERY IN CONGENITAL TALIPES EQUINOVARUS DEFORMITY: A CAMP APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was intended to assess the results of soft tissue release and bony corrective surgery in patients of moderate to severe deformed rigid club foot (CTEV and neglected clubfoot (CTEV at free disabled surgical camps at Chhattisgarh state . MATERIAL AND METHODS : In our study 50 patients were included with 70% male and 30% female with 4 - 16 years of age grou p and 70% unilateral and 30% bilateral foot involvement. Patients were admitted and operated in different free disabled surgical camps at Chhattisgarh state over the period of 36 months (1 may 2004 to 30 th April 2007. Improvement in functional ability and locomotion of all operated patients were assessed by physical and clinical examination. RESULTS : All patients who were operated in our study showed significant improvement in functional ability and locomotion after surgery. All patients were maintaining f unctional ability at follow up duration of 12 months (1 year. 75% patients were walking normally, 10% cases were walking with internal rotation of leg and 5% cases were walking with midtarsal varus foot with AFO with medial bar support. CONCLUSION : Our st udy showed and established that excellent results can be obtained in congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV patients by soft tissue release with bony corrective surgery. The team work of devoted surgeons, paramedical and rehabilitation staff in whole durati on of camps to achieve the goal. With an aim to help more number of CTEV cases by surgery, our team has started doing surgeries in small institutions, and organize charity camps to help poor patients and mankind even in small clinics

  5. Minimally Invasive Distal Metatarsal Osteotomy for Mild-to-Moderate Hallux Valgus Deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chuan Lin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive surgery has recently been introduced for foot and ankle surgery, and hallux valgus surgery is no exception. The purpose of our study was to analyze the early results and to present our experience of minimally invasive distal metatarsal osteotomy in correcting mild-to-moderate hallux valgus deformities. Between September 2005 and December 2006, 31 consecutive patients (47 feet with mild-to-moderate hallux valgus deformities underwent minimally invasive distal metatarsal osteotomies. The clinical and radiographic outcomes were assessed. The satisfaction rate was 90.32%. The mean total American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society halluxmetatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal scale was 92.7 points. Complications included two (4.26% episodes of stiffness, six (12.77% episodes of pin tract infection, and one (2.13% deep infection. There were no cases with nonunion, malunion, overcorrection, transfer metatarsalgia or osteonecrosis. On weight-bearing anteroposterior foot radiographs, the mean hallux valgus angle and first intermetatarsal angle corrections were 11.8° and 6.3°, respectively, which is a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001 between the preoperative and postoperative status. Here, minimally invasive distal metatarsal osteotomy was associated with good satisfaction, functional improvement and low complication rates. This technique offers an effective, safe and simple way to treat hallux valgus with a first intermetatarsal angle less than 15°.

  6. The Effect of Incorrect Foot Placement on the Accuracy of Radiographic Measurements of the Hallux Valgus and Inter-Metatarsal Angles for Treating Hallux Valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyucu, E; Ceylan, H H; Surucu, S; Erdil, I; Kara, A; Gulenc, B G; Bulbul, M; Erdil, M

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Accurate radiographic measurements are crucial in treating hallux valgus (HV). This three-dimensional deformity should not be evaluated from one joint on one plane. However, in practice, surgeons measure the deformity only on transverse dorsoplantar radiographs. We determined the amount of error associated with positioning the foot incorrectly on radiographs. MATERIAL AND METHODS To simulate incorrect positions of the foot in radiographic evaluation, we designed an angled device that can move in transverse and frontal plane. In four patients with symptomatic HV, we took weight-bearing radiographs of the involved foot in seven different positions. These 28 radiographs were given identifying but meaningless labels. On each radiograph, six surgeons blinded to the position of the radiograph measured the HV angle (HVA) and the inter-metatarsal angle (IMA) and state the treatment plan according to five treatment options were given to participants. RESULTS Inter-observer agreement was high for measurements of HVA and IMA in all positions (interclass correlation coefficients, 0.96 and 0.88, respectively). However, intra-observer agreement was poor for HVA (intra-observer agreement, 0.17) but good for IMA (intra-observer agreement, 0.64). According to the measurements in different positions, intra-observer treatment choices revealed moderate results (ICC: 0.524). Clinical Relevance Radiographic measurements are very important on the treatment decisions of hallux valgus. The foot position can influence the measurement accuracy and can cause incorrect decisions. In this study, we evaluated the impact of foot positions on measurements of hallux valgus angle and inter-metatarsal angle. Additionally, we evaluated the incorrect foot positioning on treatment decisions. Moreover, we analyzed intra-observer and inter-observer agreements of these angles in various positions. CONCLUSIONS We recommend that measurements of IMA are more reliable than those of HVA for

  7. Diabetic foot disease: From the evaluation of the “foot at risk” to the novel diabetic ulcer treatment modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Noha; Doupis, John

    2016-01-01

    The burden of diabetic foot disease (DFD) is expected to increase in the future. The incidence of DFD is still rising due to the high prevalence of DFD predisposing factors. DFD is multifactorial in nature; however most of the diabetic foot amputations are preceded by foot ulceration. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a major risk factor for foot ulceration. DPN leads to loss of protective sensation resulting in continuous unconscious traumas. Patient education and detection of high risk foot are essential for the prevention of foot ulceration and amputation. Proper assessment of the diabetic foot ulceration and appropriate management ensure better prognosis. Management is based on revascularization procedures, wound debridement, treatment of infection and ulcer offloading. Management and type of dressing applied are tailored according to the type of wound and the foot condition. The scope of this review paper is to describe the diabetic foot syndrome starting from the evaluation of the foot at risk for ulceration, up to the new treatment modalities. PMID:27076876

  8. Stair-shaped Achilles tendon lengthening in continuity - A new method to treat equinus deformity in patients with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengxun; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Yang; Cao, Songhua; Huang, Zheng; Hu, Yong

    2017-10-27

    Equinus of the ankle is a common deformity in spastic cerebral palsy. Achilles tendon lengthening is one of the effective options for the treatment of equinus deformity. In the study, a new stair-shaped Achilles tendon lengthening (ATL) procedure that preserves of the tendon continuity was performed in 28 tendons with equinus deformity (20 patients, mean age=10.5±2.6 years). The results were compared with a group of patients treated with the Z-lengthening procedure. During the latest follow-up visit, the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot scale score was much higher in the stair-shaped ATL group than in the Z-lengthening group (pantigravity stability and quicker recovery in patients. Copyright © 2017 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Metronome rate and walking foot contact time in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickstein, Ruth; Plax, Michael

    2012-02-01

    It is assumed that when people walk guided by an audible constant rate, they match foot contact to the external pace. The purpose of this preliminary study was to test that assumption by examining the temporal relationship between audible signals generated by a metronome and foot contact time during gait. Ten healthy young women were tested in walking repetitions guided by metronome rates of 60, 110, and 150 beats/min. Metronome beats and foot contact times were collected in real time. The findings indicated that foot contact was not fully synchronized with the auditory signals; the shortest time interval between the metronome beat and foot contact time was at the prescribed rate of 60 beats/min., while the longest interval was at the rate of 150 beats/min. The correlation between left and right foot contact times was highest with the slowest rate and lowest with the fastest rate.

  10. Painful Lytic Lesions of the Foot : A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Vaishya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of lytic lesions in the bones of foot raises a number of diagnostic possibilities ranging from infection, inflammatory pathology to neoplastic conditions. Although the radiological picture is not pathognomonic of any pathology, clinical history and histopathological examination can help to clinch the diagnosis. We present a case of multiple lytic lesions of the foot and discuss possible differential diagnoses. The patient was diagnosed as a case of madura foot and the lesions responded to surgical debridement and anti-fungal treatment with a good functional outcome. Madura foot is an uncommon, chronic granulomatous fungal or bacterial infection with a predilection in people who walk barefoot. Although known for a specific geographical distribution, madura foot should be kept as a possible diagnosis in patients presenting with lytic lesions of the foot due to population emigration across the world.

  11. Care of Patients with Diabetic Foot Disease in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Busaidi, Ibrahim S.; Abdulhadi, Nadia N.; Coppell, Kirsten J.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major public health challenge and causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic foot disease is one of the most debilitating and costly complications of diabetes. While simple preventative foot care measures can reduce the risk of lower limb ulcerations and subsequent amputations by up to 85%, they are not always implemented. In Oman, foot care for patients with diabetes is mainly provided in primary and secondary care settings. Among all lower limb amputations performed in public hospitals in Oman between 2002–2013, 47.3% were performed on patients with diabetes. The quality of foot care among patients with diabetes in Oman has not been evaluated and unidentified gaps in care may exist. This article highlights challenges in the provision of adequate foot care to Omani patients with diabetes. It concludes with suggested strategies for an integrated national diabetic foot care programme in Oman. PMID:27606104

  12. Genetics of club foot in Maori and Pacific people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C.; Stott, N; Port, R. V.; Nicol, R.

    2000-01-01

    The role of major gene and multifactorial inheritance in the aetiology of club foot in the New Zealand Polynesian population was studied using 287 New Zealand Maori and Pacific club foot families. The club foot family data were analysed by complex segregation analysis under the mixed model using the computer program POINTER. This analysis shows that the best genetic model for club foot in this population is a single dominant gene with a penetrance of 33% and a predicted gene frequency of 0.9%. These data provide a scientific foundation for molecular studies in the Maori and Polynesian population to identify putative club foot genes.


Keywords: club foot; New Zealand Maori; complex segregation analysis PMID:10978359

  13. Biomechanical Analysis of Cuboid Osteotomy Lateral Column Lengthening for Stage II B Adult-Acquired Flatfoot Deformity: A Cadaveric Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Haichao; Ren, Haoyang; Li, Chunguang; Xia, Jiang; Yu, Guangrong; Yang, Yunfeng

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the effect of cuboid osteotomy lateral column lengthening (LCL) for the correction of stage II B adult-acquired flatfoot deformity in cadaver. Methods. Six cadaver specimens were loaded to 350?N. Flatfoot models were established and each was evaluated radiographically and pedobarographically in the following conditions: (1) intact foot, (2) flatfoot, and (3) cuboid osteotomy LCL (2, 3, 4, and 5?mm). Results. Compared with the flatfoot model, the LCLs showed significant...

  14. Clinical management of acute diabetic Charcot foot in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Rasmus Bo; Svendsen, Ole Lander; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Charcot foot is a severe complication to diabetes mellitus and treatment involves several different clinical specialities. Our objective was to describe the current awareness, knowledge and treatment practices of Charcot foot among doctors who handle diabetic foot disorders. METHODS...... for offloading (83%). All centres use some form of a multidisciplinary team, with the most common permanent members being orthopaedic surgeons (71%), wound specialist nurses (76%), podiatrists (65%), endocrinologists (47%) and diabetes specialist nurses (41%). CONCLUSION: We conducted a survey of the diagnosis...

  15. Are we telling the diabetic patients adequately about foot care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.; Din, M.J.U.; Jadoon, R.J.; Farooq, U.; Alam, M.A.; Qureshi, A.; Shah, S.U.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus affects more than 285 million people worldwide. The prevalence is expected to rise to 439 million by the year 2030. Diabetic foot ulcers precede 84 percentage of non-traumatic amputations in diabetics. One lower limb is lost every 30 seconds around the world because of diabetic foot ulceration. Apart from being lengthy, the treatment of diabetic foot is also very expensive. There is very limited emphasis on foot care in diabetic patients. Even in developed countries patients feel that they do not have adequate knowledge about foot care. This study was conducted to find out how much information is imparted by doctors to diabetic patients about foot care. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in admitted patients of the Department of Medicine, DHQ Hospital, Abbottabad from May 2014 to June 2015. 139 diabetic patients more than 25 years of age were included by non-probability consecutive sampling. Results: The mean age was 57.17 ( percentage 11.1) years. 35.3 percentage of patients were male and 64.7 percentage were female. The mean duration of diabetes in patients was 8.3 (±6) years. Only 36.7 percentage of patients said that their doctor told them about foot care. Less than 40 percentage of patients knew that they should daily inspect their feet, wash them with gentle warm water, and dry them afterwards. Only 25.2 percentage of the participants knew how to manage corns or calluses on feet. 66.5 percentage of patients knew that they should not walk bare foot. Overall, 63 percentage of our patients had less than 50 percentage knowledge of the 11 points regarding foot care that the investigators asked them. Conclusion: Diabetic foot problems are the one of the costliest, most disabling and disheartening complication of diabetes mellitus. Doctors are not properly telling diabetic patients about foot care. There is a deficiency of knowledge among the diabetic patients regarding foot care. (author)

  16. Nonplantigrade Foot Posture: A Constraint on Dinosaur Body Size

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Tai; Kubo, Mugino O.

    2016-01-01

    Dinosaurs had functionally digitigrade or sub-unguligrade foot postures. With their immediate ancestors, dinosaurs were the only terrestrial nonplantigrades during the Mesozoic. Extant terrestrial mammals have different optimal body sizes according to their foot posture (plantigrade, digitigrade, and unguligrade), yet the relationship of nonplantigrade foot posture with dinosaur body size has never been investigated, even though the body size of dinosaurs has been studied intensively. Accordi...

  17. Deformed configurations, band structures and spectroscopic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-20

    Mar 20, 2014 ... The deformed configurations and rotational band structures in =50 Ge and Se nuclei are studied by deformed Hartree–Fock with quadrupole constraint and angular momentum projection. Apart from the `almost' spherical HF solution, a well-deformed configuration occurs at low excitation. A deformed ...

  18. Interactive Character Deformation Using Simplified Elastic Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of our research into realistic skin and model deformation methods aimed at the field of character deformation and animation. The main contributions lie in the properties of our deformation scheme. Our approach preserves the volume of the deformed object while

  19. Associative and Lie deformations of Poisson algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Remm, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Considering a Poisson algebra as a non associative algebra satisfying the Markl-Remm identity, we study deformations of Poisson algebras as deformations of this non associative algebra. This gives a natural interpretation of deformations which preserves the underlying associative structure and we study deformations which preserve the underlying Lie algebra.

  20. Congenital hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Tomohiro; Park, Susam; Niu, Atushi; Hasegawa, Hiromi

    2014-12-01

    Congenital hypertrophy of a single intrinsic muscle of the foot is rare, and as far as we know, only six cases have been reported. We describe a case of congenital anomaly that showed hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot; the affected muscles were all the intrinsic muscles of the foot except the extensor digitorum brevis or extensor hallucis. Other tissues such as adipose tissue, nervous tissue, or osseous tissue showed no abnormalities. To reduce the volume of the foot we removed parts of the enlarged muscles.

  1. Benign and malignant tumors of the foot and ankle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Adam D.; Datir, Abhijit; Langley, Travis [Emory University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Atlanta, GA (United States); Tresley, Jonathan [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Clifford, Paul D.; Jose, Jean; Subhawong, Ty K. [University of Miami, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Pain and focal masses in the foot and ankle are frequently encountered and often initiate a workup including imaging. It is important to differentiate benign lesions from aggressive benign or malignant lesions. In this review, multiple examples of osseous and soft tissue tumors of the foot and ankle will be presented. Additionally, the compartmental anatomy of the foot and ankle will be discussed in terms of its relevance for percutaneous biopsy planning and eventual surgery. Finally, a general overview of the surgical management of benign, benign aggressive and malignant tumors of the foot and ankle will be discussed. (orig.)

  2. DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF A FOOT VALVE BY USING ANSYS®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar KARAOĞLU

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, main components of a foot valve, being produced by casting, were optimized for minimum weight. The study was focused on the minimization of casting costs by reducing the volumes of two main parts of the foot valve. ANSYS® finite elements package was used in the study. In the optimization stage, parametrical dimensions were determined according to manufacturer's design criteria and related standards. Final design of the foot valve was completed by using the calculated values of optimum dimensions of the main components. Design optimization procedure gave about 8.5% of weight reductions in the main foot valve components.

  3. Changes in Foot Shape after Long-Distance Running

    OpenAIRE

    Fukano, Mako; Iso, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Changes in foot shape during long-distance running may lead to alteration in shoe fit. However, little information is available on changes in foot shape following long-distance running. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in foot shape in experienced runners after a single long-distance run. Data from the right feet of 21 subjects were obtained using a foot scanner before and after running 35 km on an asphalt road. After the run, the dorsal height, navicular height, and arch heigh...

  4. Prospective study of ankle and foot fractures in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadagiri Surender Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of ankle fractures in old people is changing as time passes on. The incidence of ankle fractures increases with advancing age. The study conducted was among a rural popula-tion which comprised of 68 women (32 women with ankle fractures & 36 women with foot fractures. Patients studied were in the age group more than 50 years. The study highlights the etiological & risk factors for fractures of ankle & foot. The commonest ankle fracture was the lateral malleolar fracture & the commonest foot fracture was the 5th Metatarsal fracture. Diabetes is a risk factor which increases the occurrence of ankle and foot injuries.

  5. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Arun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it′s management both at the time of cleft lip repair

  6. Deformation of second and third quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Mir

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we will deform the second and third quantized theories by deforming the canonical commutation relations in such a way that they become consistent with the generalized uncertainty principle. Thus, we will first deform the second quantized commutator and obtain a deformed version of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Then we will further deform the third quantized theory by deforming the third quantized canonical commutation relation. This way we will obtain a deformed version of the third quantized theory for the multiverse.

  7. Complex Foot Injury: Early and Definite Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Tim; Rammelt, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Complex foot injuries occur infrequently, but are life-changing events. They often present with other injuries as the result of a high-energy trauma. After initial stabilization, early assessment should be regarding salvagability. All treatment strategies are intensive. The initial treatment includes prevention of progression ischemia/necrosis, prevention of infection, and considering salvage or amputation. Definitive treatment for salvage includes anatomic reconstruction with stable internal fixation and early soft tissue coverage followed by aggressive rehabilitation. Prognosis after complex injuries is hard to predict. The various stages of the treatment are reviewed and recommendations are made. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ewing sarcoma of the foot. Radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albisinni, U.; Capanna, R.; Nigrisoli, M.

    1987-01-01

    Ewing's Sarcoma (ES) is the most frequent malignant bone tumor of the foot. The radiological picture is characterized, in 14 patients, by a pure osteolytic lesion (9 cases) or by a mixed one (5 cases); the interruption of the cortical bone and swelling of the soft tissues were always present; the periostal reaction was occasional. The radiological aspects cannot be considered typical of the ES and it is suggested that biopsies should always be performed in the presence of structural alteration of the bone

  9. A shift in priority in diabetic foot care and research: 75% of foot ulcers are preventable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, Sicco A.; van Netten, Jaap J.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration poses a heavy burden on the patient and the healthcare system, but prevention thereof receives little attention. For every euro spent on ulcer prevention, ten are spent on ulcer healing, and for every randomized controlled trial conducted on prevention, ten are conducted on

  10. The reliability and validity of a three-camera foot image system for obtaining foot anthropometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Damien; Vanwanseele, Benedicte; Hunt, Adrienne; Smith, Richard

    2010-08-01

    The purpose was to develop a foot image capture and measurement system with web cameras (the 3-FIS) to provide reliable and valid foot anthropometric measures with efficiency comparable to that of the conventional method of using a handheld anthropometer. Eleven foot measures were obtained from 10 subjects using both methods. Reliability of each method was determined over 3 consecutive days using the intraclass correlation coefficient and root mean square error (RMSE). Reliability was excellent for both the 3-FIS and the handheld anthropometer for the same 10 variables, and good for the fifth metatarsophalangeal joint height. The RMSE values over 3 days ranged from 0.9 to 2.2 mm for the handheld anthropometer, and from 0.8 to 3.6 mm for the 3-FIS. The RMSE values between the 3-FIS and the handheld anthropometer were between 2.3 and 7.4 mm. The 3-FIS required less time to collect and obtain the final variables than the handheld anthropometer. The 3-FIS provided accurate and reproducible results for each of the foot variables and in less time than the conventional approach of a handheld anthropometer.

  11. THE FEASIBILITY OF HIND FOOT AMPUTATION IN SELECTED SARCOMAS OF THE FOOT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HAM, SJ; HOEKSTRA, HJ; EISMA, WH; OLDHOFF, J; KOOPS, HS

    The treatment of foot sarcomas is generally a below knee amputation. In selected sarcomas of the forefoot, however, a transtarsal amputation according to Chopart, a calcaneotibial arthrodesis according to Pirogoff, or a supramalleolar amputation according to Syme can be considered the treatment of

  12. How common are foot problems among individuals with diabetes? Diabetic foot ulcers in the Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoekenbroek, Robert M.; Lokin, Joost L. C.; Nielen, Mark M.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Koelemay, Mark J. W.

    2017-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Contemporary data on diabetic foot ulcer prevalence are scarce. Most studies were conducted in the 1990s, reporting incidence rates of 1.9-2.6%. Since then the prevalence of diabetes has doubled and the organisation of diabetes care has undergone major changes. Up-to-date data that

  13. A review of the foot function index and the foot function index – revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Foot Function Index (FFI) is a self-report, foot-specific instrument measuring pain and disability and has been widely used to measure foot health for over twenty years. A revised FFI (FFI-R) was developed in response to criticism of the FFI. The purpose of this review was to assess the uses of FFI and FFI-R as were reported in medical and surgical literature and address the suggestions found in the literature to improve the metrics of FFI-R. Methods A systematic literature search of PubMed/Medline and Embase databases from October 1991 through December 2010 comprised the main sources of literature. To enrich the bibliography, the search was extended to BioMedLib and Scopus search engines and manual search methods. Search terms included FFI, FFI scores, FFI-R. Requirements included abstracts/full length articles, English-language publications, and articles containing the term "foot complaints/problems." Articles selected were scrutinized; EBM abstracted data from literature and collected into tables designed for this review. EBM analyzed tables, KJC, JM, RMS reviewed and confirmed table contents. KJC and JM reanalyzed the original database of FFI-R to improve metrics. Results Seventy-eight articles qualified for this review, abstracts were compiled into 12 tables. FFI and FFI-R were used in studies of foot and ankle disorders in 4700 people worldwide. FFI Full scale or the Subscales and FFI-R were used as outcome measures in various studies; new instruments were developed based on FFI subscales. FFI Full scale was adapted/translated into other cultures. FFI and FFI-R psychometric properties are reported in this review. Reanalysis of FFI-R subscales' confirmed unidimensionality, and the FFI-R questionnaires' response categories were edited into four responses for ease of use. Conclusion This review was limited to articles published in English in the past twenty years. FFI is used extensively worldwide; this instrument pioneered a quantifiable measure

  14. Stochastic deformation of a thermodynamic symplectic structure

    OpenAIRE

    Kazinski, P. O.

    2008-01-01

    A stochastic deformation of a thermodynamic symplectic structure is studied. The stochastic deformation procedure is analogous to the deformation of an algebra of observables like deformation quantization, but for an imaginary deformation parameter (the Planck constant). Gauge symmetries of thermodynamics and corresponding stochastic mechanics, which describes fluctuations of a thermodynamic system, are revealed and gauge fields are introduced. A physical interpretation to the gauge transform...

  15. Volcanic deformation in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, S.; Fournier, T.; Pritchard, M.

    2009-05-01

    We present the results from an InSAR survey of volcanic activity in South America. We use data from the Japanese Space Agency's ALOS L-band radar satellite from 2006-2009. The L-band instrument provides better coherence in densely vegetated regions, compared to the shorter wave length C-band data. The survey reveals volcano related deformation in regions, north, central and southern, of the Andes volcanic arc. Since observations are limited to the austral summer, comprehensive coverage of all volcanoes is not possible. Yet, our combined observations reveal volcanic/hydrothermal deformation at Lonquimay, Llaima, Laguna del Maule, and Chaitén volcanoes, extend deformation measurements at Copahue, and illustrate temporal complexity to the previously described deformation at Cerro Hudson and Cordón Caulle. No precursory deformation is apparent before the large Chaitén eruption (VEI_5) of 2 May 2008, (at least before 16 April) suggesting rapid magma movement from depth at this long dormant volcano. Subsidence at Ticsani Volcano occurred coincident with an earthquake swarm in the same region.

  16. Plastic deformation of indium nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyuhyon; Kim, Ju-Young; Burek, Michael J.; Greer, Julia R.; Tsui, Ting Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Indium nanopillars display two different deformation mechanisms. → ∼80% exhibited low flow stresses near that of bulk indium. → Low strength nanopillars have strain rate sensitivity similar to bulk indium. → ∼20% of compressed indium nanopillars deformed at nearly theoretical strengths. → Low-strength samples do not exhibit strength size effects. - Abstract: Mechanical properties and morphology of cylindrical indium nanopillars, fabricated by electron beam lithography and electroplating, are characterized in uniaxial compression. Time-dependent deformation and influence of size on nanoscale indium mechanical properties were investigated. The results show two fundamentally different deformation mechanisms which govern plasticity in these indium nanostructures. We observed that the majority of indium nanopillars deform at engineering stresses near the bulk values (Type I), with a small fraction sustaining flow stresses approaching the theoretical limit for indium (Type II). The results also show the strain rate sensitivity and flow stresses in Type I indium nanopillars are similar to bulk indium with no apparent size effects.

  17. Static response of deformable microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Ivan C.; Sidhore, Tanmay C.

    2017-11-01

    Microfluidic channels manufactured from PDMS are a key component of lab-on-a-chip devices. Experimentally, rectangular microchannels are found to deform into a non-rectangular cross-section due to fluid-structure interactions. Deformation affects the flow profile, which results in a nonlinear relationship between the volumetric flow rate and the pressure drop. We develop a framework, within the lubrication approximation (l >> w >> h), to self-consistently derive flow rate-pressure drop relations. Emphasis is placed on handling different types of elastic response: from pure plate-bending, to half-space deformation, to membrane stretching. The ``simplest'' model (Stokes flow in a 3D rectangular channel capped with a linearly elastic Kirchhoff-Love plate) agrees well with recent experiments. We also simulate the static response of such microfluidic channels under laminar flow conditions using ANSYSWorkbench. Simulations are calibrated using experimental flow rate-pressure drop data from the literature. The simulations provide highly resolved deformation profiles, which are difficult to measure experimentally. By comparing simulations, experiments and our theoretical models, we show good agreement in many flow/deformation regimes, without any fitting parameters.

  18. The Influence of Foot-Strike Technique on the Neuromechanical Function of the Foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Luke A; Farris, Dominic J; Lichtwark, Glen A; Cresswell, Andrew G

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of foot-strike technique on longitudinal arch mechanics and intrinsic foot muscle function during running. Thirteen healthy participants ran barefoot on a force-instrumented treadmill at 2.8 ms with a forefoot (FFS) and rearfoot (RFS; habitual) running technique, whereas kinetic, kinematic, and electromyographic data from the intrinsic foot muscles were collected simultaneously. The longitudinal arch was modeled as a single "midfoot" joint representing motion of the rearfoot (calcaneus) relative to the forefoot (metatarsals). An inverse dynamic analysis was performed to estimate joint moments generated about the midfoot, as well as mechanical work and power. The midfoot was more plantar flexed (higher arch) at foot contact when running with a forefoot running technique (RFS 0.2 ± 1.8 vs FFS 6.9 ± 3.0°, effect size (ES) = 2.7); however, there was no difference in peak midfoot dorsiflexion in stance (RFS -11.6 ± 3.0 vs FFS -11.4 ± 3.4°, ES = 0.63). When running with a forefoot technique, participants generated greater moments about the midfoot (27% increase, ES = 1.1) and performed more negative work (240% increase, ES = 2.2) and positive work (42% increase, ES = 1.1) about the midfoot. Average stance-phase muscle activation was greater for flexor digitorum brevis (20% increase, ES = 0.56) and abductor hallucis (17% increase, ES = 0.63) when running with a forefoot technique. Forefoot running increases loading about the longitudinal arch and also increases the mechanical work performed by the intrinsic foot muscles. These findings have substantial implications in terms of injury prevention and management for runners who transition from a rearfoot to a forefoot running technique.

  19. A pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis to prevent foot-drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Robin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A self-contained, self-controlled, pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis (PhAFO to manage foot-drop was developed and tested. Foot-drop is due to a disruption of the motor control pathway and may occur in numerous pathologies such as stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and cerebral palsy. The objectives for the prototype PhAFO are to provide toe clearance during swing, permit free ankle motion during stance, and harvest the needed power with an underfoot bellow pump pressurized during the stance phase of walking. Methods The PhAFO was constructed from a two-part (tibia and foot carbon composite structure with an articulating ankle joint. Ankle motion control was accomplished through a cam-follower locking mechanism actuated via a pneumatic circuit connected to the bellow pump and embedded in the foam sole. Biomechanical performance of the prototype orthosis was assessed during multiple trials of treadmill walking of an able-bodied control subject (n = 1. Motion capture and pressure measurements were used to investigate the effect of the PhAFO on lower limb joint behavior and the capacity of the bellow pump to repeatedly generate the required pneumatic pressure for toe clearance. Results Toe clearance during swing was successfully achieved during all trials; average clearance 44 ± 5 mm. Free ankle motion was observed during stance and plantarflexion was blocked during swing. In addition, the bellow component repeatedly generated an average of 169 kPa per step of pressure during ten minutes of walking. Conclusion This study demonstrated that fluid power could be harvested with a pneumatic circuit built into an AFO, and used to operate an actuated cam-lock mechanism that controls ankle-foot motion at specific periods of the gait cycle.

  20. Diagnostic value of newborn foot length to predict gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutia Farah Fawziah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background  Identification of gestational age, especially within 48 hours of birth, is crucial for newborns, as the earlier preterm status is detected, the earlier the child can receive optimal management. Newborn foot length is an anthropometric measurement which is easy to perform, inexpensive, and potentially efficient for predicting gestational age. Objective  To analyze the diagnostic value of newborn foot length in predicting gestational age. Methods  This diagnostic study was performed between October 2016 and February 2017 in the High Care Unit of Neonates at Dr. Moewardi General Hospital, Surakarta. A total of 152 newborns were consecutively selected and underwent right foot length measurements before 96 hours of age. The correlation between newborn foot length to classify as full term and gestational age was analyzed with Spearman’s correlation test because of non-normal data distribution. The cut-off point of newborn foot length was calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and diagnostic values of newborn foot length were analyzed by 2 x 2 table with SPSS 21.0 software. Results There were no significant differences between male and female newborns in terms of gestational age, birth weight, choronological age, and newborn foot length (P>0.05. Newborn foot length and gestational age had a significant correlation (r=0.53; P=0.000. The optimal cut-off newborn foot length to predict full term status was 7.1 cm. Newborn foot length below 7.1 cm had sensitivity 75%, specificity 98%, positive predictive value 94.3%, negative predictive value 90.6%, positive likelihood ratio 40.5, negative likelihood ratio 0.25, and post-test probability 94.29%, to predict preterm status in newborns. Conclusion  Newborn foot length can be used to predict gestational age, especially for the purpose of differentiating between preterm and full term newborns.

  1. [Effects of foot reflexology on essential hypertension patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyoung-Sook; Cho, Gyoo-Yeong

    2004-08-01

    This study was to evaluate the effects of foot reflexology on blood pressure, serum lipids level and life satisfaction in essential hypertension patients. The research design used was a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. Foot Reflexology was used as the experimental treatment from June 23rd, 2003 until August 31st, 2003. Thirty-four subjects were assigned to an experimental group(18) and control group(16). Foot Reflexology was administered twice a week for 6 weeks and self foot Reflexology was administered twice a week for 4 weeks on the experimental group. There was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure but no significant decrease in diastolic pressure in the experimental group compared to the control group. The total cholesterol level in the experimental group compared to the control group was not significantly decreased after foot reflexology. However, the triglyceride level in the experimental group compared to the control group was significantly decreased after foot reflexology. On the other hand, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein levels in the experimental group compared to the control group was not significantly decreased after foot reflexology. Life satisfaction in the experimental group compared to the control group was significantly improved after foot reflexology. The results proved that foot reflexology was an effective nursing intervention to decrease systolic pressure, and triglyceride but not for the blood cholesterol and to improve life satisfaction. Therefore, blood cholesterol should be further evaluated in a larger group of subjects and for a longer period. Further research is regarded as necessary to evaluate and to compare effects of self-foot reflexology and foot reflexology.

  2. Diagnosis and Management of Common Foot Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bica, David; Sprouse, Ryan A; Armen, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    Foot fractures are among the most common foot injuries evaluated by primary care physicians. They most often involve the metatarsals and toes. Patients typically present with varying signs and symptoms, the most common being pain and trouble with ambulation. Diagnosis requires radiographic evaluation, although emerging evidence demonstrates that ultrasonography may be just as accurate. Management is determined by the location of the fracture and its effect on balance and weight bearing. Metatarsal shaft fractures are initially treated with a posterior splint and avoidance of weight-bearing activities; subsequent treatment consists of a short leg walking cast or boot for four to six weeks. Proximal fifth metatarsal fractures have different treatments depending on the location of the fracture. A fifth metatarsal tuberosity avulsion fracture can be treated acutely with a compressive dressing, then the patient can be transitioned to a short leg walking boot for two weeks, with progressive mobility as tolerated after initial immobilization. A Jones fracture has a higher risk of nonunion and requires at least six to eight weeks in a short leg non-weight-bearing cast; healing time can be as long as 10 to 12 weeks. Great toe fractures are treated with a short leg walking boot or cast with toe plate for two to three weeks, then a rigid-sole shoe for an additional three to four weeks. Lesser toe fractures can be treated with buddy taping and a rigid-sole shoe for four to six weeks.

  3. Traumatic Foot Fractures in Hard Working Donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Semieka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out on 45 hard working donkeys suffering from different types of traumatic foot fractures. These animals were selected from the clinical cases admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Assiut University during the period of 2007-2010. Based on history, clinical signs and radiographic examination, various types of traumatic foot fractures were diagnosed and recorded. These fractures were affect metacarpal bones (N. =16, metatarsal bones (N. =9, proximal phalanx (N. = 13, middle phalanx (N. = 3, distal phalanx (N. = 2 and proximal sesamoid bones (N. = 2. It could be concluded that fractures of the large metacarpal bones are the most common types followed by fractures of the proximal phalanx of the thoracic limb then fractures of the metatarsal bones. Fractures of the middle phalanx, distal phalanx and proximal sesamoid bone are less common in donkeys. Single fractures of the metacarpal and metatarsal bones are more common than comminuted one, in addition diaphyseal fractures of these bones are more common than metaphyseal or epiphyseal fractures. In the proximal phalanx, comminuted fractures are more common than single fractures.

  4. Imaging osteomyelitis and the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.

    1999-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis and the diabetic foot is in most of the patients not possible without imaging the bone. The clinical problem is to diagnose infection as early, as reliable and as cheap as possible to prevent the possible longstanding and life-threatening complications. For imaging a lot of different radiological and nuclear medicine methods are available. This article focuses on the possible results of conventional plain radiography and tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging as radiological and on bone scan, autologous white blood cell scintigraphy with 111 In-oxin or 99m Tc-HMPAO, antigranulocyte antibodies, 99m Tc/ 111 In-human immunoglobulin, 67 Ga-citrate and 99m Tc-nanocelloids. Different methods after different answers. Radiological methods give detailed pathological answers, nuclear medicine methods answer questions of specificity such as leukocyte infiltration. If osteomyelitis is suspected, plain radiography should be the first, three phase bone scintigraphy the second and infection specific radiopharmaceuticals the third step of examination. Only in negative images with high clinical suspicion CT or MRI should be the final imaging procedure. In the diabetic foot imaging cascade should also start with plain radiography, followed by three phase bone scintigraphy or MRI. If clinically neuropathy is present specific nuclear medicine imaging should be performed

  5. The diabetic foot: Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, J.; Campanini, D.S.; Knight, C.; McCalla, M.

    1990-01-01

    Fourteen diabetic patients with suspected foot infection and/or neuropathic joint (Charcot Joint) were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an attempt to assess the extent of the infection and also to distinguish infection from the changes seen with neuroarthropathy. The majority of patients with infection had more than one site of involvement and the following diagnoses were made by MRI evaluation: Osteomyelitis (n=8), abscess (n=7), neuropathic joint (n=5), septic arthritis (n=4), and tenosynovitis (n=4). Clinical or surgical/pathological confirmation of the MRI diagnoses was obtained in all but nine sites of infection or cases of neuropathic joint. If the two diagnostic categories of septic arthritis and tenosynovitis are excluded, all but four of the MRI diagnoses were confirmed. A distinctive pattern for neuroarthropathy was identified in five cases, consisting of low signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images within the bone marrow space adjacent to the involved joint. We conclude that MRI is a valuable adjunct in the evaluation of the diabetic foot, and that it provides accurate information regarding the presence and extent of infection in this subset of patients. MRI has proven particularly helpful in differentiating neuroarthropathy from osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  6. Radiographic evaluation of the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Radiographic evaluation of the foot in the patient with diabetes mellitus is discussed in this paper. According to the author, it can only be of value when the soft tissue and bony and joint pathologic conditions, which occur more frequently in the diabetic patient are also considered and understood. Although not pathognomic for diabetes mellitus, neuroarthopathy, osteomyelitis, soft tissue infection, and some rheumatic disorders are present with greater frequency in diabetic populations than in non-diabetic populations. Frequently, edema, erythema, hyperthermia, and tenderness are present as nonspecific clinical findings, in which case radiographic evaluation is called upon to define the specific etiology of a particular patient's pathology. Unfortunately, many radiographic, computerized tomographic, and radionuclide studies demonstrate less than optimal positive and negative predictive values unless interpreted in view of clinical history and examination and integrated with the results of other laboratory data. Radiographic evaluation of the diabetic foot may be utilized to establish the presence of disease, the extent of pedal involvement, and the response to therapy. The establishment of the nature of disease processes from radiographic findings alone, however, may be problematic. The diagnosis of osteomyelitis, for example, rests on the recovery of the offending microorganisms from bone aspiration or culture

  7. Imaging osteomyelitis and the diabetic foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, W. (Gottingen Univ. (Germany). Dep. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1999-03-01

    The clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis and the diabetic foot is in most of the patients not possible without imaging the bone. The clinical problem is to diagnose infection as early, as reliable and as cheap as possible to prevent the possible longstanding and life-threatening complications. For imaging a lot of different radiological and nuclear medicine methods are available. This article focuses on the possible results of conventional plain radiography and tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging as radiological and on bone scan, autologous white blood cell scintigraphy with [sup 111]In-oxin or [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO, antigranulocyte antibodies, [sup 99m]Tc/[sup 111]In-human immunoglobulin,[sup 67] Ga-citrate and [sup 99m]Tc-nanocelloids. Different methods after different answers. Radiological methods give detailed pathological answers, nuclear medicine methods answer questions of specificity such as leukocyte infiltration. If osteomyelitis is suspected, plain radiography should be the first, three phase bone scintigraphy the second and infection specific radiopharmaceuticals the third step of examination. Only in negative images with high clinical suspicion CT or MRI should be the final imaging procedure. In the diabetic foot imaging cascade should also start with plain radiography, followed by three phase bone scintigraphy or MRI. If clinically neuropathy is present specific nuclear medicine imaging should be performed.

  8. Sweat function in the diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markendeya Nirmala

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autonomic dysfunction, an early manifestation of diabetic neuropathy, presents with altered sweating patterns, leading to dryness and fissuring. We conducted a study to assess the sweat function in the diabetic foot and to determine the interrelation between the duration of diabetes, sensation, fissuring, and sweating. Methods: The sweat function was assessed in 30 diabetic patients, 28 of whom had fissuring of the feet, using Ninhydrin impregnated discs. Results: There was a significant association between fissuring and sensation, but not between the duration of diabetes and fissuring and between loss of sweating and fissuring. In 18 patients (60% there was impairment or absence of sweating in the presence of normal sensation. Conclusion: Although fissuring increases with long-standing diabetes and sweating is reduced in diabetic patients with fissures on the foot, the correlation between these entities was not statistically significant. Since 60% patients had altered sweating in the presence of normal sensations, the sweat test can be used as an early indicator of diabetic neuropathy.

  9. Making Deformable Template Models Operational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Rune

    2000-01-01

    for estimation of the model parameters, which applies a combination of a maximum likelihood and minimum distance criterion. Another contribution is a very fast search based initialization algorithm using a filter interpretation of the likelihood model. These two methods can be applied to most deformable template......Deformable template models are a very popular and powerful tool within the field of image processing and computer vision. This thesis treats this type of models extensively with special focus on handling their common difficulties, i.e. model parameter selection, initialization and optimization....... A proper handling of the common difficulties is essential for making the models operational by a non-expert user, which is a requirement for intensifying and commercializing the use of deformable template models. The thesis is organized as a collection of the most important articles, which has been...

  10. Phonon operators in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    For the description of the excited states in deformed nuclei new phonon operators are introduced, which depend on the sign of the angular momentum projection onto the symmetry axis of a deformed nucleus. In the calculations with new phonons the Pauli principle is correctly taken into account in the two-phonon components of the wave functions. There is a difference in comparison with the calculation with phonons independent of the sign of the angular momentum projection. The new phonons should be used in deformed nuclei if the Pauli principle is consistently taken into account and in the calculations with the excited state wave functions having the components with more than one phonon operator [ru

  11. Phonon operators for deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, V.G.

    1982-01-01

    The mathematical formalism with the phonon operators independent of the signature of the angular momentum projection turns out to be inadequate for describing excited states of deformed nuclei. New phonon operators are introduced which depend on the signature of the angular momentum projection on the symmetry axis of a deformed nucleus. It is shown that the calculations with the new phonons take correctly into account the Pauli principle in two-phonon components of wave functions. The results obtained differ from those given by the phonons independent of the signature of the angular momentum projection. The new phonons must be used in deformed nuclei at taking systematically the Pauli principle into account and in calculations involving wave functions of excited states having components with more than one-phonon operator

  12. Foam rheology at large deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géminard, J.-C.; Pastenes, J. C.; Melo, F.

    2018-04-01

    Large deformations are prone to cause irreversible changes in materials structure, generally leading to either material hardening or softening. Aqueous foam is a metastable disordered structure of densely packed gas bubbles. We report on the mechanical response of a foam layer subjected to quasistatic periodic shear at large amplitude. We observe that, upon increasing shear, the shear stress follows a universal curve that is nearly exponential and tends to an asymptotic stress value interpreted as the critical yield stress at which the foam structure is completely remodeled. Relevant trends of the foam mechanical response to cycling are mathematically reproduced through a simple law accounting for the amount of plastic deformation upon increasing stress. This view provides a natural interpretation to stress hardening in foams, demonstrating that plastic effects are present in this material even for minute deformation.

  13. Computing layouts with deformable templates

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi-Han

    2014-07-22

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of tiling a domain with a set of deformable templates. A valid solution to this problem completely covers the domain with templates such that the templates do not overlap. We generalize existing specialized solutions and formulate a general layout problem by modeling important constraints and admissible template deformations. Our main idea is to break the layout algorithm into two steps: a discrete step to lay out the approximate template positions and a continuous step to refine the template shapes. Our approach is suitable for a large class of applications, including floorplans, urban layouts, and arts and design. Copyright © ACM.

  14. Neutron scattering on deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.F.; Haight, R.C.; Pohl, B.A.; Wong, C.; Lagrange, C.

    1984-09-01

    Measurements of neutron elastic and inelastic differential cross sections around 14 MeV for 9 Be, C, 181 Ta, 232 Th, 238 U and 239 Pu have been analyzed using a coupled channel (CC) formalism for deformed nuclei and phenomenological global optical model potentials (OMP). For the actinide targets these results are compared with the predictions of a semi-microscopic calculation using Jeukenne, Lejeune and Mahaux (JLM) microscopic OMP and a deformed ground state nuclear density. The overall agreement between calculations and the measurements is reasonable good even for the very light nuclei, where the quality of the fits is better than those obtained with spherical OMP

  15. Plastic Deformation of Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2013-01-01

    of metal components. An optimization of processes and material parameters must be based on a quantification of stress and strain gradients at the surface and in near surface layer where the structural scale can reach few tens of nanometers. For such fine structures it is suggested to quantify structural...... parameters by TEM and EBSD and apply strength-structural relationships established for the bulk metal deformed to high strains. This technique has been applied to steel deformed by high energy shot peening and a calculated stress gradient at or near the surface has been successfully validated by hardness...

  16. Nucleon deformation from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapalis, A.

    2008-01-01

    The issue of nucleon and Delta(1232) deformation is discussed through the evaluation of the N to Delta electromagnetic transition and Delta electromagnetic form factors in Lattice QCD. The momentum dependence of the form factors is studied using 2+1 staggered dynamical flavors at pion masses as low as 350 MeV and compared to results obtained in the Wilson quenched and two-flavor dynamical theory at similar pion masses. The measurement of small non-zero quadrupole amplitudes, in agreement to recent experiments, establishes the existence of deformation in the N and Delta states. (author)

  17. Computing layouts with deformable templates

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi-Han; Yang, Yongliang; Wonka, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of tiling a domain with a set of deformable templates. A valid solution to this problem completely covers the domain with templates such that the templates do not overlap. We generalize existing specialized solutions and formulate a general layout problem by modeling important constraints and admissible template deformations. Our main idea is to break the layout algorithm into two steps: a discrete step to lay out the approximate template positions and a continuous step to refine the template shapes. Our approach is suitable for a large class of applications, including floorplans, urban layouts, and arts and design. Copyright © ACM.

  18. Formal connections in deformation quantization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masulli, Paolo

    The field of this thesis is deformation quantization, and we consider mainly symplectic manifolds equipped with a star product. After reviewing basics in complex geometry, we introduce quantization, focusing on geometric quantization and deformation quantization. The latter is defined as a star...... characteristic class, and that formal connections form an affine space over the derivations of the star products. Moreover, if the parameter space for the family of star products is contractible, we obtain that any two flat formal connections are gauge equivalent via a self-equivalence of the family of star...

  19. Nanodisturbances in deformed Gum Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutkin, Mikhail Yu.; Ishizaki, Toshitaka; Kuramoto, Shigeru; Ovid'ko, Ilya A.

    2006-01-01

    Systematic experiments have been performed to characterize defect structures in deformed Gum Metal, a special titanium alloy with high strength, low Young's modulus, excellent cold workability and low resistance to shear in certain crystallographic planes. Results from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy characterization reveal nanodisturbances (planar nanoscopic areas of local shear) as typical elements of defect structures in deformed Gum Metal. A theoretical model is suggested describing nanodisturbances as nanoscale dipoles of non-conventional partial dislocations with arbitrary, non-quantized Burgers vectors. It is shown theoretically that the homogeneous generation of nanodisturbances is energetically favorable in Gum Metal, where they effectively carry plastic flow

  20. Deformation properties of lead isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolokonnikov, S. V.; Borzov, I. N.; Lutostansky, Yu. S.; Saperstein, E. E.

    2016-01-01

    The deformation properties of a long lead isotopic chain up to the neutron drip line are analyzed on the basis of the energy density functional (EDF) in the FaNDF 0 Fayans form. The question of whether the ground state of neutron-deficient lead isotopes can have a stable deformation is studied in detail. The prediction of this deformation is contained in the results obtained on the basis of the HFB-17 and HFB-27 Skyrme EDF versions and reported on Internet. The present analysis reveals that this is at odds with experimental data on charge radii and magnetic moments of odd lead isotopes. The Fayans EDF version predicts a spherical ground state for all light lead isotopes, but some of them (for example, 180 Pb and 184 Pb) prove to be very soft—that is, close to the point of a phase transition to a deformed state. Also, the results obtained in our present study are compared with the predictions of some other Skyrme EDF versions, including SKM*, SLy4, SLy6, and UNE1. By and large, their predictions are closer to the results arising upon the application of the Fayans functional. For example, the SLy4 functional predicts, in just the same way as the FaNDF 0 functional, a spherical shape for all nuclei of this region. The remaining three Skyrme EDF versions lead to a deformation of some light lead isotopes, but their number is substantially smaller than that in the case of the HFB-17 and HFB-27 functionals. Moreover, the respective deformation energy is substantially lower, which gives grounds to hope for the restoration of a spherical shape upon going beyond the mean-field approximation, which we use here. Also, the deformation properties of neutron-rich lead isotopes are studied up to the neutron drip line. Here, the results obtained with the FaNDF 0 functional are compared with the predictions of the HFB-17, HFB-27, SKM*, and SLy4 Skyrme EDF versions. All of the EDF versions considered here predict the existence of a region where neutron-rich lead isotopes undergo

  1. Effects of Wearing Different Personal Equipment on Force Distribution at the Plantar Surface of the Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schulze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The wearing of personal equipment can cause specific changes in muscle activity and posture. In the present study, we investigated the influence of differences in equipment related weight loading and load distribution on plantar pressure. In addition, we studied functional effects of wearing different equipment with a particular focus on relevant changes in foot shape. Methods. Static and dynamic pedobarography were performed on 31 male soldiers carrying increasing weights consisting of different items of equipment. Results. The pressure acting on the plantar surface of the foot increased with higher loading, both under static and dynamic conditions (p < 0.05. We observed an increase in the contact area (p < 0.05 and an influence of load distribution through different ways to carry the rifle. Conclusions. The wearing of heavier weights leads to an increase in plantar pressure and contact area. This may be caused by flattening of the transverse and longitudinal arches. The effects are more evident in subjects with flat feet deformities which seem to flatten at an earlier load condition with a greater amount compared to subjects with normal arches. Improving load distribution should be a main goal in the development of military equipment in order to prevent injuries or functional disorders of the lower extremity.

  2. Validation of the Italian version of the Oxford Ankle Foot Questionnaire for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Nicolò; Romeo, Giovanni; Bonifacini, Carlo; Viganò, Marco; Bianchi, Alberto; Malerba, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate the Oxford Ankle Foot Questionnaire (OAFQ) into Italian, to perform a cross-cultural adaptation and to evaluate its psychometric properties. The Italian OAFQ was developed according to the recommended forward/backward translation protocol and evaluated in pediatric patients treated for symptomatic flatfoot deformity. Feasibility, reliability, internal consistency, construct validity [comparing OAFQ domains with Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) domains] and responsiveness to surgical treatment were assessed. A total of 61 children and their parents were enrolled in the study. Results showed satisfactory levels of internal consistency for both children and parent forms. The test-retest reliability was confirmed by high ICC values for both child and parents subscales. Good construct validity was showed by patterns of relationships consistent with theoretically related domains of the CHQ. After surgery, the mean OAFQ scores improved in all the domains after treatment with the subtalar arthroereisis, for both children and parent scales (p valid instrument in order to evaluate interventions used to treat children's foot or ankle problem, but needs further study on different clinical settings.

  3. Foot Posture and Patellar Tendon Pain Among Adult Volleyball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Reinier; Malliaras, Peter; Munteanu, Shannon; Payne, Craig; Morrissey, Dylan; Maffulli, Nicola

    Objective: We hypothesized that individuals with a normal foot posture would be less likely to experience patellar tendon pain and pathology than those with a pronated or supinated foot. Design: Observational study. Setting: Field-based study among competing athletes. Participants: Volleyball

  4. Innovations in plantar pressure and foot temperature measurements in diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Plantar pressure and temperature measurements in the diabetic foot primarily contribute to identifying abnormal values that increase risk for foot ulceration, and they are becoming increasingly more integrated in clinical practice and daily life of the patient. While plantar pressure measurements

  5. Diabetic foot ulcers – evidence-based wound management: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetic foot ulcers have a significant impact on the individual patient's quality of life, potential morbidity and even mortality. Diabetic foot ulcers also consume a gradually increasing portion of our health care budget. Whenever possible the focus should be on prevention rather than cure. All diabetic patients must have both ...

  6. The Pattern and Surgical Management of Diabetic Foot at Muhimbili ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at determining the pattern and the surgical management of patients with Diabetic Foot at Muhimbili National Hospital, from March to December 2008. Methods: All in-patients with diabetic foot who were admitted in the hospital during the study period were included into the study. Results: A total of 67 ...

  7. Foot posture and patellar tendon pain among adult volleyball players.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, R. de; Malliaras, P.; Munteanu, S.; Payne, C.; Morrissey, D.; Maffulli, N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that individuals with a normal foot posture would be less likely to experience patellar tendon pain and pathology than those with a pronated or supinated foot. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Field-based study among competing athletes. PARTICIPANTS: Volleyball

  8. Diabetic foot workshop: Improving technical and educational skills for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalaa, Maryam; Sanjari, Mahnaz; Shahbazi, Samimeh; Shayeganmehr, Zahra; Abooeirad, Maryam; Amini, Mohammad Reza; Adibi, Hossien; Mehrdad, Neda

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus as one of the most common metabolic disorders has some complications, one of the main ones is diabetic foot (DF). Appropriate care and education prevents 85% of diabetic foot amputations. An ideal management to prevent and treat diabetic foot necessitates a close collaboration between the health team members and the diabetic patient. Therefore, improving nurses' knowledge about DF care and advancement in the quality of care provided by the nurses could significantly improve diabetic foot prevention and management. Therefore, the aim of DF workshop was to improve technical and educational skills of the nurses to prevent and manage diabetic foot. Considering the vital role of the nurses in providing DF care, EMRI decided to conduct Diabetic foot workshop for them. The following five steps were designed for the 14 coordinating sessions in the workshop: Goals definition, deciding about attendees, location selection, creating agenda, and developing a follow-up plan. "Diabetic Foot Workshop for Nurses" provides appropriate training to DF nurses at the national level; and combining theory and practice in this workshop not only increases nurses' knowledge, but also improves their skills in the field of the diabetic foot. Providing education and care to patients by DF nurse specialists instead of general nurses could be an important output of this workshop, which may lead to DF prevention and amputation decrease in the long term.

  9. Bearing capacity of Skirt circular footing on sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Z. EL Wakil

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Skirts are used to improve the bearing capacity of shallow footings on sandy soil by constraining the soil beneath and containing the plastic flow of soil. They are used as an alternative to deep foundations in soils with low strength at the surface. As there has been available little work studying the performance of skirted foundation, we are performing eighteen laboratory experiments on circular steel footings of different diameters and different skirt lengths. The aim of these experiments is to shed some lights on the effects of skirts on the bearing capacity of shallow footings. The effects of skirt length and the relative density of sand on the ultimate load attained were investigated. From the accomplished laboratory tests, it was found that skirts improve appreciably the sustainability of shallow footings to applied load as they increase the ultimate load of shallow footings by some up to 6.25 times for the current study conditions and variables. The performance of skirted footing depends upon the relative density of sand and on the skirt length to footing diameter ratio. Skirts are more beneficial in case of footings on loose sand than in case of medium and dense sand.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus foot syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetic foot problems are common throughout the world, resulting in major economic consequences for the patients, their families, and thesociety. Diabetic foot ulcers are largely preventable by identifying people at risk of ulceration throughexamination of the feet, education and frequent follow-up of these ...

  11. Assessment of Lumped-Parameter Models for Rigid Footings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    and vertical translations as well as torsion and rocking, and the necessity of coupling between horizontal sliding and rocking is discussed. Most of the analyses are carried out for hexagonal footings; but in order to generalise the conclusions to a broader variety of footings, comparisons are made...

  12. Role of footcare education in diabetic foot status and glycaemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prevalence of type 2 diabetes among the adult population is rising globally. As the case detection rates of diabetes increase in adult Nigerians, managing the attendant (foot) complications has become an important health challenge. Poor practice of foot care and poor glycaemic control is potential risk for ...

  13. Diabetic foot care: Self reported knowledge and practice among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) foot complications are a leading cause of mortality in developing countries and the prevalence of diabetes is expected to increase in the next decades in these countries. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and practice of foot care among diabetes patients attending ...

  14. Veterinary realities: what is foot and mouth disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, J.; Mol, A.

    2011-01-01

    Veterinary science draws on different traditions for knowing and acting, and mobilises different kinds of materials and techniques. This article explores these differences and their tensions for the diagnosis of foot and mouth disease in the UK in 2001. It shows that when they talk of foot and mouth

  15. The prevalence of foot ulceration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Jill; Hale, Claire; Helliwell, Philip; Hill, Jackie; Nelson, E Andrea

    2008-02-15

    To establish the prevalence of foot ulceration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in secondary care. A postal survey of all patients with RA (n = 1,130) under the care of rheumatologists in Bradford, West Yorkshire, UK was performed. The prevalence data were validated through clinical examination, case-note review, and contact with health professionals. The false-negative rate was investigated in a subsample of patients (n = 70) who denied any history of ulceration. The postal survey achieved a 78% response rate. Following validation, the point prevalence of foot ulceration was 3.39% and the overall prevalence was 9.73%. The false-positive rate was initially high at 21.21%, but use of diagrammatic questionnaire data to exclude leg ulceration reduced the rate to 10.76%. The false-negative rate was 11.76%. The most common sites for ulceration were the dorsal aspect of hammer toes, the metatarsal heads, and the metatarsophalangeal joint in patients with hallux abducto valgus, with 33% of patients reporting multiple sites of ulceration. Patients with open-foot and healed-foot ulceration had significantly longer RA disease duration, reported significantly greater use of special footwear, and had a higher prevalence of foot surgery than ulcer-free patients. Foot ulceration affects a significant proportion of patients with RA. Further work is needed to establish risk factors for foot ulceration in RA and to target foot health provision more effectively.

  16. Diabetic Foot and Risk: How to Prevent Losing Your Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in blood flow to the foot. Darkening or loss of hair may indicate that the blood or nerve supply has decreased. Less blood to the foot can ... differences between hot/warm and cold water. Shower water can be first tested ... identify any loss of temperature sensation. Testing for any change in ...

  17. Treatment for Common Running/Walking Foot Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Haar, Calin; Ihlers, Matt; Jackson, Allen; Gaudet, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Whether you are a weekend warrior or a serious athlete, most runners fear the possibility of being injured. For those who are physically active or stand on their feet all day, healthy feet are important Highly conditioned runners spend many hours performing foot maintenance to prevent unnecessary injuries. Some of the common foot injuries are:…

  18. Efficient foot motor control by Neymar’s brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi eNaito

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available How very long-term (over many years motor skill training shapes internal motor representation remains poorly understood. We provide valuable evidence that the football brain of Neymar da Silva Santos Júnior (the Brasilian footballer recruits very limited neural resources in the motor-cortical foot regions during foot movements. We scanned his brain activity with a 3-tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI while he rotated his right ankle at 1Hz. We also scanned brain activity when three other age-controlled professional footballers, two top-athlete swimmers and one amateur footballer performed the identical task. A comparison was made between Neymar’s brain activity with that obtained from the others. We found activations in the left medial-wall foot motor regions during the foot movements consistently across all participants. However, the size and intensity of medial-wall activity was smaller in the four professional footballers than in the three other participants, despite no difference in amount of foot movement. Surprisingly, the reduced recruitment of medial-wall foot motor regions became apparent in Neymar. His medial-wall activity was smallest among all participants with absolutely no difference in amount of foot movement. Neymar may efficiently control given foot movements probably by largely conserving motor-cortical neural resources. We discuss this possibility in terms of over-years motor skill training effect, use-dependent plasticity, and efficient motor control.

  19. Deformations of the Almheiri-Polchinski model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyono, Hideki; Okumura, Suguru; Yoshida, Kentaroh [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2017-03-31

    We study deformations of the Almheiri-Polchinski (AP) model by employing the Yang-Baxter deformation technique. The general deformed AdS{sub 2} metric becomes a solution of a deformed AP model. In particular, the dilaton potential is deformed from a simple quadratic form to a hyperbolic function-type potential similarly to integrable deformations. A specific solution is a deformed black hole solution. Because the deformation makes the spacetime structure around the boundary change drastically and a new naked singularity appears, the holographic interpretation is far from trivial. The Hawking temperature is the same as the undeformed case but the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is modified due to the deformation. This entropy can also be reproduced by evaluating the renormalized stress tensor with an appropriate counter-term on the regularized screen close to the singularity.

  20. Assessment of foot perfusion in patients with a diabetic foot ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Rachael O; Hinchliffe, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of foot perfusion is a vital step in the management of patients with diabetic foot ulceration, in order to understand the risk of amputation and likelihood of wound healing. Underlying peripheral artery disease is a common finding in patients with foot ulceration and is associated with poor outcomes. Assessment of foot perfusion should therefore focus on identifying the presence of peripheral artery disease and to subsequently estimate the effect this may have on wound healing. Assessment of perfusion can be difficult because of the often complex, diffuse and distal nature of peripheral artery disease in patients with diabetes, as well as poor collateralisation and heavy vascular calcification. Conventional methods of assessing tissue perfusion in the peripheral circulation may be unreliable in patients with diabetes, and it may therefore be difficult to determine the extent to which poor perfusion contributes to foot ulceration. Anatomical data obtained on cross-sectional imaging is important but must be combined with measurements of tissue perfusion (such as transcutaneous oxygen tension) in order to understand the global and regional perfusion deficit present in a patient with diabetic foot ulceration. Ankle-brachial pressure index is routinely used to screen for peripheral artery disease, but its use in patients with diabetes is limited in the presence of neuropathy and medial arterial calcification. Toe pressure index may be more useful because of the relative sparing of pedal arteries from medial calcification but may not always be possible in patients with ulceration. Fluorescence angiography is a non-invasive technique that can provide rapid quantitative information about regional tissue perfusion; capillaroscopy, iontophoresis and hyperspectral imaging may also be useful in assessing physiological perfusion but are not widely available. There may be a future role for specialized perfusion imaging of these patients, including magnetic resonance

  1. Behaviors Predicting Foot Lesions in Patients with Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Suico, Jeffrey G; Marriott, Deanna J; Vinicor, Frank; Litzelman, Debra K

    1998-01-01

    Associations between specific foot-care behaviors and foot lesions in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were prospectively investigated. Data from a randomized controlled trial for preventing diabetic foot lesions were analyzed as a prospective cohort using logistic regression. Independent variables included foot-care behaviors, patient self-foot examination, going barefoot, availability of foot-care assistance, and visits to health-care providers. The dependent variable w...

  2. A New Mobile Application for Standardizing Diabetic Foot Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Moi Hoon; Chatwin, Katie E; Ng, Choon-Ching; Abbott, Caroline A; Bowling, Frank L; Rajbhandari, Satyan; Boulton, Andrew J M; Reeves, Neil D

    2018-01-01

    We describe the development of a new mobile app called "FootSnap," to standardize photographs of diabetic feet and test its reliability on different occasions and between different operators. FootSnap was developed by a multidisciplinary team for use with the iPad. The plantar surface of 30 diabetic feet and 30 nondiabetic control feet were imaged using FootSnap on two separate occasions by two different operators. Reproducibility of foot images was determined using the Jaccard similarity index (JSI). High intra- and interoperator reliability was demonstrated with JSI values of 0.89-0.91 for diabetic feet and 0.93-0.94 for control feet. Similarly high reliability between groups indicates FootSnap is appropriate for longitudinal follow-ups in diabetic feet, with potential for monitoring pathology.

  3. Factors associated with combined hand and foot eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Aalto-Korte, K; Andersen, K E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As for hand eczema, the aetiology of foot eczema is multifactorial and not very well understood. The aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with foot eczema in a cohort of hand eczema patients being classified into different subgroups. METHODS: Associations between...... foot and hand eczema were studied in a cross-sectional design in a cohort of hand eczema patients. Consecutive patients were recruited from nine different European Centres during the period October 2011-September 2012. Data on demographic factors, presence of foot eczema, hand eczema duration...... and severity, and whether the hand eczema was work-related or not were available, as well as patch-test results. RESULTS: Of a total of 427 hand eczema patients identified, information on foot eczema was available in 419 patients who were included in the present study. A total of 125 patients (29.8%) had...

  4. Movement coordination patterns between the foot joints during walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Arnold

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 3D gait analysis, kinematics of the foot joints are usually reported via isolated time histories of joint rotations and no information is provided on the relationship between rotations at different joints. The aim of this study was to identify movement coordination patterns in the foot during walking by expanding an existing vector coding technique according to an established multi-segment foot and ankle model. A graphical representation is also described to summarise the coordination patterns of joint rotations across multiple patients. Methods Three-dimensional multi-segment foot kinematics were recorded in 13 adults during walking. A modified vector coding technique was used to identify coordination patterns between foot joints involving calcaneus, midfoot, metatarsus and hallux segments. According to the type and direction of joints rotations, these were classified as in-phase (same direction, anti-phase (opposite directions, proximal or distal joint dominant. Results In early stance, 51 to 75% of walking trials showed proximal-phase coordination between foot joints comprising the calcaneus, midfoot and metatarsus. In-phase coordination was more prominent in late stance, reflecting synergy in the simultaneous inversion occurring at multiple foot joints. Conversely, a distal-phase coordination pattern was identified for sagittal plane motion of the ankle relative to the midtarsal joint, highlighting the critical role of arch shortening to locomotor function in push-off. Conclusions This study has identified coordination patterns between movement of the calcaneus, midfoot, metatarsus and hallux by expanding an existing vector cording technique for assessing and classifying coordination patterns of foot joints rotations during walking. This approach provides a different perspective in the analysis of multi-segment foot kinematics, and may be used for the objective quantification of the alterations in foot joint

  5. Deformable Models for Eye Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Leimberg, Denis; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2005-01-01

    A deformable template method for eye tracking on full face images is presented. The strengths of the method are that it is fast and retains accuracy independently of the resolution. We compare the me\\$\\backslash\\$-thod with a state of the art active contour approach, showing that the heuristic...

  6. Orbita - Anatomy, development and deformities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, K.M.; Reith, W.; Golinski, M.; Schroeder, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the structures of the human orbita is very complex, but understanding the development makes it easier to understand normal anatomy and dysplasia. The following article first discusses the embryonic development of the eye structures and then presents the ''normal'' radiological anatomy using different investigation techniques and the most common deformities. (orig.) [de

  7. Deformations of topological open strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, C.; Ma, Whee Ky

    Deformations of topological open string theories are described, with an emphasis on their algebraic structure. They are encoded in the mixed bulk-boundary correlators. They constitute the Hochschild complex of the open string algebra - the complex of multilinear maps on the boundary Hilbert space.

  8. Simulation of rock deformation behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Я. И. Рудаев

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A task of simulating the deformation behavior of geomaterials under compression with account of over-extreme branch has been addressed. The physical nature of rock properties variability as initially inhomogeneous material is explained by superposition of deformation and structural transformations of evolutionary type within open nonequilibrium systems. Due to this the description of deformation and failure of rock is related to hierarchy of instabilities within the system being far from thermodynamic equilibrium. It is generally recognized, that the energy function of the current stress-strain state is a superposition of potential component and disturbance, which includes the imperfection parameter accounting for defects not only existing in the initial state, but also appearing under load. The equation of state has been obtained by minimizing the energy function by the order parameter. The imperfection parameter is expressed through the strength deterioration, which is viewed as the internal parameter of state. The evolution of strength deterioration has been studied with the help of Fokker – Planck equation, which steady form corresponds to rock statical stressing. Here the diffusion coefficient is assumed to be constant, while the function reflecting internal sliding and loosening of the geomaterials is assumed as an antigradient of elementary integration catastrophe. Thus the equation of state is supplemented with a correlation establishing relationship between parameters of imperfection and strength deterioration. While deformation process is identified with the change of dissipative media, coupled with irreversible structural fluctuations. Theoretical studies are proven with experimental data obtained by subjecting certain rock specimens to compression.

  9. Deformation Driven Alloying and Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-03

    process is a repeated deformation and welding or folding of particles or layers that allows for strain levels in excess of 100 as shown in Fig.1. The...complete transformation yielded a duplex product of metastable BCC and FCC solid solutions. Another form of mechanochemical transduction is

  10. Inter-segment foot motion in girls using a three-dimensional multi-segment foot model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Woo Young; Lee, Dong Yeon; Jung, Hae Woon; Lee, Doo Jae; Yoo, Won Joon; Choi, In Ho

    2018-05-06

    Several multi-segment foot models (MFMs) have been introduced for in vivo analyses of dynamic foot kinematics. However, the normal gait patterns of healthy children and adolescents remain uncharacterized. We sought to determine normal foot kinematics according to age in clinically normal female children and adolescents using a Foot 3D model. Fifty-eight girls (age 7-17 years) with normal function and without radiographic abnormalities were tested. Three representative strides from five separate trials were analyzed. Kinematic data of foot segment motion were tracked and evaluated using an MFM with a 15-marker set (Foot 3D model). As controls, 50 symptom-free female adults (20-35 years old) were analyzed. In the hindfoot kinematic analysis, plantar flexion motion in the pre-swing phase was significantly greater in girls aged 11 years or older than in girls aged foot progression angle showed mildly increased internal rotation in the loading response phase and the swing phase in girls aged foot motion in girls aged 11 years or older showed low-arch kinematic characteristics, whereas those in girls aged 11 years or older were more similar to the patterns in young adult women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of antibacterial therapy on bone scan indices at foot inflammation in diabetes mellitus accompanied by diabetic foot syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, V.M.; Bolgars'ka, S.V.; Taran, E.V.; Markov, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of antibacterial therapy on bone scan indices at foot inflammation in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) accompanied by diabetic foot syndrome was studied. Bone scan was performed using scintillation tomographic gamma-camera hours after intravenous injection of 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate

  12. Deformation mechanisms of nanotwinned Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinghang [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-11-10

    The objective of this project is to investigate the role of different types of layer interfaces on the formation of high density stacking fault (SF) in Al in Al/fcc multilayers, and understand the corresponding deformation mechanisms of the films. Stacking faults or twins can be intentionally introduced (via growth) into certain fcc metals with low stacking fault energy (such as Cu, Ag and 330 stainless steels) to achieve high strength, high ductility, superior thermal stability and good electrical conductivity. However it is still a major challenge to synthesize these types of defects into metals with high stacking fault energy, such as Al. Although deformation twins have been observed in some nanocrystalline Al powders by low temperature, high strain rate cryomilling or in Al at the edge of crack tip or indentation (with the assistance of high stress intensity factor), these deformation techniques typically introduce twins sporadically and the control of deformation twin density in Al is still not feasible. This project is designed to test the following hypotheses: (1) Certain type of layer interfaces may assist the formation of SF in Al, (2) Al with high density SF may have deformation mechanisms drastically different from those of coarse-grained Al and nanotwinned Cu. To test these hypotheses, we have performed the following tasks: (i) Investigate the influence of layer interfaces, stresses and deposition parameters on the formation and density of SF in Al. (ii) Understand the role of SF on the deformation behavior of Al. In situ nanoindentation experiments will be performed to probe deformation mechanisms in Al. The major findings related to the formation mechanism of twins and mechanical behavior of nanotwinned metals include the followings: 1) Our studies show that nanotwins can be introduced into metals with high stacking fault energy, in drastic contrast to the general anticipation. 2) We show two strategies that can effectively introduce growth twins in

  13. Deformation mechanisms of nanotwinned Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinghang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the role of different types of layer interfaces on the formation of high density stacking fault (SF) in Al in Al/fcc multilayers, and understand the corresponding deformation mechanisms of the films. Stacking faults or twins can be intentionally introduced (via growth) into certain fcc metals with low stacking fault energy (such as Cu, Ag and 330 stainless steels) to achieve high strength, high ductility, superior thermal stability and good electrical conductivity. However it is still a major challenge to synthesize these types of defects into metals with high stacking fault energy, such as Al. Although deformation twins have been observed in some nanocrystalline Al powders by low temperature, high strain rate cryomilling or in Al at the edge of crack tip or indentation (with the assistance of high stress intensity factor), these deformation techniques typically introduce twins sporadically and the control of deformation twin density in Al is still not feasible. This project is designed to test the following hypotheses: (1) Certain type of layer interfaces may assist the formation of SF in Al, (2) Al with high density SF may have deformation mechanisms drastically different from those of coarse-grained Al and nanotwinned Cu. To test these hypotheses, we have performed the following tasks: (i) Investigate the influence of layer interfaces, stresses and deposition parameters on the formation and density of SF in Al. (ii) Understand the role of SF on the deformation behavior of Al. In situ nanoindentation experiments will be performed to probe deformation mechanisms in Al. The major findings related to the formation mechanism of twins and mechanical behavior of nanotwinned metals include the followings: 1) Our studies show that nanotwins can be introduced into metals with high stacking fault energy, in drastic contrast to the general anticipation. 2) We show two strategies that can effectively introduce growth twins in

  14. Australian Diabetes Foot Network: management of diabetes-related foot ulceration - a clinical update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, Shan M; Gurr, Joel M; Allard, Bernard P; Holland, Emma L; Horsley, Mark W; Kamp, Maarten C; Lazzarini, Peter A; Nube, Vanessa L; Sinha, Ashim K; Warnock, Jason T; Alford, Jan B; Wraight, Paul R

    2012-08-20

    Appropriate assessment and management of diabetes-related foot ulcers (DRFUs) is essential to reduce amputation risk. Management requires debridement, wound dressing, pressure off-loading, good glycaemic control and potentially antibiotic therapy and vascular intervention. As a minimum, all DRFUs should be managed by a doctor and a podiatrist and/or wound care nurse. Health professionals unable to provide appropriate care for people with DRFUs should promptly refer individuals to professionals with the requisite knowledge and skills. Indicators for immediate referral to an emergency department or multidisciplinary foot care team (MFCT) include gangrene, limb-threatening ischaemia, deep ulcers (bone, joint or tendon in the wound base), ascending cellulitis, systemic symptoms of infection and abscesses. Referral to an MFCT should occur if there is lack of wound progress after 4 weeks of appropriate treatment.

  15. Implementation of foot thermometry plus mHealth to prevent diabetic foot ulcers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo-Porras, Maria; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Sacksteder, Katherine A; Gilman, Robert H; Malaga, German; Armstrong, David G; Miranda, J Jaime

    2016-04-19

    Diabetic foot neuropathy (DFN) is one of the most important complications of diabetes mellitus; its early diagnosis and intervention can prevent foot ulcers and the need for amputation. Thermometry, measuring the temperature of the feet, is a promising emerging modality for diabetic foot ulcer prevention. However, patient compliance with at-home monitoring is concerning. Delivering messages to remind patients to perform thermometry and foot care might be helpful to guarantee regular foot monitoring. This trial was designed to compare the incidence of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) between participants who receive thermometry alone and those who receive thermometry as well as mHealth (SMS and voice messaging) over a year-long study period. This is an evaluator-blinded, randomized, 12-month trial. Individuals with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, aged between 18-80 years, having a present dorsalis pedis pulse in both feet, are in risk group 2 or 3 using the diabetic foot risk classification system (as specified by the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot), have an operating cell phone or a caregiver with an operating cell phone, and have the ability to provide informed consent will be eligible to participate in the study. Recruitment will be performed in diabetes outpatient clinics at two Ministry of Health tertiary hospitals in Lima, Peru. participants in both groups will receive education about foot care at the beginning of the study and they will be provided with a thermometry device (TempStat™). TempStat™ is a tool that captures a thermal image of the feet, which, depending on the temperature of the feet, shows different colors. In this study, if a participant notes a single yellow image or variance between one foot and the contralateral foot, they will be prompted to notify a nurse to evaluate their activity within the previous 2 weeks and make appropriate recommendations. In addition to thermometry, participants in the intervention arm

  16. MR imaging evaluation of diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, J.; Campanini, D.S.; McCalla, M.; Knight, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    Fourteen diabetic patients with suspected foot infection and/or neuropathic joint were evaluated with MR imaging to identify the presence and extent of infection and also to exclude coexistent infection in the neuropathic joint. Osteomyelitis (n = 8), abscess (n = 7), septic arthritis (n = 4), tenosynovitis (n = 4), and neuropathic joint (n = 5) were diagnosed with MR imaging. Osteomyelitis and/or abscess were excluded by MR findings in 13 instances. Most patients with infection had one more than one site of involvement. Clinical or surgical confirmation of the MR diagnoses was obtained in all but nine of the infection sites or cases of neuropathic joint. Only one false-negative diagnosis of osteomyelitis was made in this series. It is concluded that MR imaging provided accurate information regarding the presence and extent of infection and that this information was decisive in patient management

  17. Sequential Acral Lentiginous Melanomas of the Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiro Uehara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A 64-year-old Japanese woman had a lightly brown-blackish pigmented macule (1.2 cm in diameter on the left sole of her foot. She received surgical excision following a diagnosis of acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM, which was confirmed histopathologically. One month after the operation, a second melanoma lesion was noticed adjacent to the grafted site. Histopathologically, the two lesions had no continuity, but HMB-45 and cyclin D1 double-positive cells were detected not only on aggregates of atypical melanocytes but also on single cells near the cutting edge of the first lesion. The unique occurrence of a sequential lesion of a primary melanoma might be caused by stimulated subclinical field cells during the wound healing process following the initial operation. This case warrants further investigation to establish the appropriate surgical margin of ALM lesions.

  18. Diagnostic imaging of the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranachowska, C.; Lass, P.; Korzon-Burakowska, A.; Dobosz, M.

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic foot syndrome is a significant complication of diabetes. Diagnostic imaging is a crucial factor determining surgical decision and extent of surgical intervention. At present the gold standard is MRI scanning, whilst the role of bone scanning is decreasing, although in some cases it brings valuable information. In particular, in early stages of osteitis and Charcot neuro-osteoarthropathy, radionuclide imaging may be superior to MRI. Additionally, a significant contribution of inflammation-targeted scintigraphy should be noted. Probably the role of PET scanning will grow, although its high cost and low availability may be a limiting factor. In every case, vascular status should be determined, at least with Doppler ultrasound, with following conventional angiography or MR angiography. (authors)

  19. The diabetic foot; Der diabetische Fuss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestring, T. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Fiedler, R. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Technische Orthopaedie und Rehabilitation, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Greitemann, B. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Technische Orthopaedie und Rehabilitation, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Sciuk, J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Peters, P.E. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Univ. Muenster (Germany)

    1995-07-01

    Familiarity with the spectrum of findings in the different imaging modalities appears essential. Radiographically, significant changes include Charcot joints of the tarsus (destructive type) and bone absorption of the forefoot (mutilating type). In diabetic foot problems, magnetic resonance imaging and leukocyte scintigraphy appear to be the most effective tools for detection of osteomyelitis, and a negative study makes osteomyelitis unlikely. However, the findings of both techniques in active, noninfected neuropathic osteoarthropathy may be indistinguishable from those of osteomyelitis. (orig.) [Deutsch] Da der diabetische Fuss zu einer der haeufigsten Komplikationen der Grunderkrankung zaehlt, muss das Befundspektrum bei den verschiedenen bildgebenden Verfahren bekannt sein. Bei der diabetischen Osteoarthropathie werden uebersichtsradiographisch 2 Formen unterschieden: der destruierende Typ, der die Tarsalknochen bevorzugt, und der mutilierende Typ, welcher sich an den Roehrenknochen des Fusses manifestiert. Die Magnetresonanztomographie und die Leukozytenszintigraphie sind zum Nachweis bzw. Ausschluss einer Osteomyelitis am besten geeignet. Aber auch diese Methoden koennen nicht sicher eine nicht infizierte, aktive Osteoarthropathie von einer Osteomyelitis differenzieren. (orig.)

  20. Thorax deformity, joint hypermobility and anxiety disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulsun, M.; Dumlu, K.; Erbas, M.; Yilmaz, Mehmet B.; Pinar, M.; Tonbul, M.; Celik, C.; Ozdemir, B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to evaluate the association between thorax deformities, panic disorder and joint hypermobility. The study includes 52 males diagnosed with thorax deformity, and 40 healthy male controls without thorax deformity, in Tatvan Bitlis and Isparta, Turkey. The study was carried out from 2004 to 2006. The teleradiographic and thoracic lateral images of the subjects were evaluated to obtain the Beighton scores; subjects psychiatric conditions were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-1), and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) was applied in order to determine the anxiety levels. Both the subjects and controls were compared in sociodemographic, anxiety levels and joint mobility levels. In addition, males with joint hypermobility and thorax deformity were compared to the group with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. A significant difference in HAM-A scores was found between the groups with thorax deformity and without. In addition, 21 subjects with thorax deformity met the joint hypermobility criteria in the group with thorax deformity and 7 subjects without thorax deformity met the joint hypermobility criteria in the group without thorax deformity, according to Beighton scoring. The Beighton score of subjects with thorax deformity were significantly different from those of the group without deformity. Additionally, anxiety scores of the males with thorax deformity and joint hypermobility were found higher than males with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. Anxiety disorders, particularly panic disorder, have a significantly higher distribution in males subjects with thorax deformity compared to the healthy control group. In addition, the anxiety level of males with thorax deformity and joint hypermobility is higher than males with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. (author)