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Sample records for food supplement enhancing

  1. 78 FR 51136 - Request for Information: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... SNAP authorized stores help to ensure that these stores offer more healthy food choices? If so, what... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Request for Information: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food Store Eligibility AGENCY: Food and Nutrition...

  2. 78 FR 64468 - Request for Information: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... SNAP authorized stores help to ensure that these stores offer more healthy food choices? If so, what... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service [FNS-2013-0033] Request for Information: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food Store Eligibility; Extension of Comment...

  3. Resveratrol food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Consumers increasingly choose food supplements in addition to their diet. Research on supplement users finds they are likely to be female, older and well-educated; Furthermore, supplement users are often characterised as being especially health-oriented, an observation which is termed...... the ‘inverse supplement hypothesis’. However, results are dependent on the substance in question. Little is known so far about botanicals in general, and more specifically, little is known about resveratrol. The psychographic variables of food supplement users are yet relatively underexplored. By comparing US...... and Danish respondents, we aimed to identify whether sociodemographic variables, health status, health beliefs and behaviour and interest in food aspects specifically relevant to resveratrol (e.g., naturalness, indulgence, and Mediterranean food) explain favourable attitudes and adoption intentions toward...

  4. Active components in food supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemelink M; Jansen EHJM; Piersma AH; Opperhuizen A; LEO

    2000-01-01

    The growing food supplement market, where supplements are both more diverse and more easily available (e.g. through Internet) formed the backdrop to the inventory of the active components in food supplements. The safety of an increased intake of food components via supplements was also at issue

  5. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    The major part of food consists of chemical compounds that can be used for energy production, biological synthesis, or maintenance of metabolic processes by the host. These components are defined as nutrients, and can be categorized into macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, triglycerides......, and alcohol), minerals, and micronutrients. The latter category comprises 13 vitamins and a hand full of trace elements. Many micronutrients are used as food supplements and are ingested at doses exceeding the amounts that can be consumed along with food by a factor of 10–100. Both macro- and micronutrients...... can interact with enzyme systems related to xenobiotic metabolism either by regulation of their expression or direct interference with their enzymatic activity. During food consumption, we consume a wide range of xenobiotics along with the consumable food, either as an original part of the food (e...

  6. ENHANCED ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF FOOD WASTE BY SUPPLEMENTING TRACE ELEMENTS: ROLE OF SELENIUM (VI AND IRON (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javkhlan eAriunbaatar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the potential to enhance the anaerobic digestion of food waste FW by supplementing trace elements (Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Mn, Cu, Se, and Mo individually as well as in cocktails. A series of batch experiments on the biomethane potential of synthetic food waste were performed with low (FW-A and high (FW-B trace element background concentrations prepared in, respectively, Delft (The Netherlands and Tampa (Florida, USA. The most effective trace elements for FW-A were Fe with an increase of 39.2 (± 0.6 % of biomethane production, followed by Se (34.1 ± 5.6 % increase, Ni (26.4 ± 0.2 % increase and Co (23.8 ± 0.2 % increase. For FW-B supplementing these trace elements did not result in enhancement of the biomethane production, except for Se. FW-B had a Se concentration of 1.3 (± 0. 5 µg/gTS, while it was below the detection limit for FW-A. Regardless of the FW source, Se resulted in 30 – 35% increase of biomethane production at a concentration range of 25-50 µg/L (0.32 – 0.63 µM. Volatile fatty acids analysis revealed that TE supplementation enhances their consumption, thus yielding a higher biomethane production. Moreover, additional experiments on sulfide inhibition showed the enhancing effects of trace elements on the anaerobic digestion of food waste were not related with sulfide toxicity, but with the enzymatic reactions and/or microbial biomass aggregation.

  7. 78 FR 52899 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food Store Eligibility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... distilled liquor, tobacco and/or lottery tickets sold) and, therefore, should always be ineligible for SNAP... perishable items be required in more than two categories? 8. Are 50 percent of sales in staple foods, as.... Should stores whose primary business (as evidenced by marketing, inventory or sales) is not the sale of...

  8. Transgenic zebrafish eggs containing bactericidal peptide is a novel food supplement enhancing resistance to pathogenic infection of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yung; Yang, Ping-Hsi; Kao, Chia-Ling; Huang, Han-I; Tsai, Huai-Jen

    2010-03-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) was used as a bioreactor to produce bovine lactoferricin (LFB), which has wide-ranging antimicrobial activity. We constructed an expression plasmid in which LFB was fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and driven by zebrafish beta-actin promoter. After microinjection, six transgenic founders were screened on the basis of GFP appearance. Among them, a stable ZBL-5 line was selected by the ubiquitous and strong expression of GFP. Using PCR and Western blot analysis, we confirmed that the recombinant LFB-GFP protein was produced by the F2 progeny derived from the ZBL-5 line. The bactericidal agar plate assay proved that the functional domain of LFB was released from the LFB-GFP fusion protein, resulting in strong bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli, Edwardsiella tarda and Aeromonas hydrophila. Furthermore, adult zebrafish were given one feeding of fifty 72-hpf transgenic embryos. The treated fish were then immersed in freshwater containing 1 x 10(5) CFU ml(-1)E. tarda for 7 days. The survival rate of the treated zebrafish was significantly higher than that of fish fed with fifty wild-type embryos (75 +/- 12.5% versus 4 +/- 7.2%). This line of evidence suggested that pathogen resistance can be enhanced by using transgenic embryos containing LFB-GFP as a food supplement for fish, while, at the same time, reducing the demand of chemical antibiotics. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    .g., secondary plant metabolites such as flavonoids), or as contaminants that enter the food chain at different stages or during the food production process. For these components, a wide spectrum of biological effects was observed that ranges from health-threatening impacts (e.g., polycyclic aromatic amines...... acting as carcinogens) to health-protective effects (e.g., flavonoids ameliorating detrimental effects of mitochondrial oxidative stress). In particular, secondary plant metabolites along with vitamins, specific types of macronutrients and live bacteria (probiotics) as well as substances promoting...

  10. Novel Food Supplements Formulated With Spirulina To Meet Athletes’ Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Fernandes de Carvalho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The food, training, and health are crucial for a good performance in sports. Intense physical activity takes the athlete to maintain a very unstable balance between energy demand and consumption of nutrients. Spirulina microalga has a nutritional profile that renders it an ideal food supplement, because has high protein content, also contains vitamins, minerals, and pigments. In this context, the study aimed to develop, characterize and evaluate the stability of foods enhanced with Spirulina, which are intended for athletes. In this study, six different supplements were developed (electrolyte replenisher, muscle enhancer, and recovery supplement, without and with Spirulina. The electrolyte replenisher with Spirulina compared to the product without the microalga, showed an increase of 0.35% (w/w in mineral content. The carbohydrates content of the developed recovery supplement with Spirulina was 2% (w/w higher than the muscle enhancer without Spirulina. It was not observed increased in the nutritional content of muscle recovery when added Spirulina. However, it is known that Spirulina presents active compounds with important functions for the body. Thus, the composition of the foods satisfied the nutritional needs of athletes. Regarding the stability of developed foods, the shelf life was estimated between 9 and 11 months.

  11. Pulmonary Embolism Secondary to Testosterone-Enhancing Herbal Supplement Use

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Steven M; Ko Ko, Nway; Sattar, Asad S; Gucuk Ipek, Esra; Ali, Sayed

    2017-01-01

    Decreased testosterone levels in men are often a normal sign of aging. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is a well-established option for those with symptomatic hypogonadism related to low testosterone levels. Conversely, designer herbal supplements in the context of testosterone supplementation are poorly studied, yet remain popular among aging men who seek the well-known, often enhancing, effects of testosterone that involve muscle mass and sexual function/drive. In 2014, the Food and ...

  12. Law regulations concerning food supplements, dietetic food and novel food containing herbal substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraniak Justyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food supplements are concentrated sources of nutrients and/or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect. However, they often contain herbal substances or their preparations. Food supplements belong to category of food and for that reason are regulated by food legislation. European Union regulations and directives established general directions for dietary supplements, dietetic food, which due to their special composition or manufacturing process are prepared for specific groups of people with special nutritional needs, and novel food/novel food ingredients to ensure product safety, suitability and appropriate consumer information.

  13. Getting More Than You Paid For: Unauthorized "Natural" Substances in Herbal Food Supplements on EU Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zovko Končić, Marijana

    2018-01-16

    As the population in the industrialized world develops preference for what is perceived as a natural and holistic way of disease treatment, the popularity and the number of food supplements on the market, including herbal ones, is experiencing an unprecedented rise. However, unlike herbal medicinal products, intended for treating or preventing disease, current legislation classifies food supplements as products intended for achieving nutritional or physiological effect and to supplement the normal diet. Accordingly, most food supplements are not to be associated with specific health claims. However, either due to the subtle suggestions by the producers or the wishful thinking of the consumers, certain pharmacological effects from food supplements are often expected. Medicinal plants included in food supplements usually do not produce dramatic and instant pharmacological effects. Therefore, in order to meet the expectation of their customers, some producers have turned to the illicit and dangerous practice of adulterating their products with synthetic adulterants, including naturally occurring molecules, having the desired activity. Such practice is prevalent in, although not limited to, food supplements intended for use as weight-loss aids, as well as for sport performance and libido enhancement. The review is focusing on naturally occurring alkaloids, phenylethanolamines, and their semi-synthetic derivatives in food supplements in the European Union as reported by the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed. Their desired and undesired pharmacological effects, as well as the methods for their detection and quantification in food supplements, will be reviewed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Opinion paper food supplements: the European regulation and its application in France. Thoughts on safety of food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maixent, J M

    2012-06-30

    The first definition of food supplements in France was established by decree 96-307 of April 10th 1996. In 2002, the European Community adopted a regulation for food supplements (European Directive 2002/46/CE June 10th). This was an important event in the regulation of food supplements. The European regulation was adopted in France, with some modifications, by decree 2006-352 of March 20th 2006. The European Regulation on food supplements is more defined than those for any other food types and is exemplary. The Regulation on addition of vitamins and minerals to food differs from the regulation on the addition of other substances such as amino acids, essential fatty acids, fibers, carbohydrates, various plant, and herbal extracts. While the Regulation includes vitamins and minerals to the positive list of supplements, other substances are included in the negative list of supplements. According to the Regulation, substances added to food supplements must have a nutritional or physiological effect. The increased use of food supplements led to the creation of a department specialized in the safety of food supplement. The safety of food supplements is a permanent concern for sanitary authorities. These authorities have recently combined scientific methodological approaches and a collective expertise to implement and monitor simple and useful rules that insure consumer's safety. Safety laws aim to protect the consumers of food supplements.

  15. Quality control of plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzini, Elisabetta; Badea, Mihaela; Santos, Ariana Dos; Restani, Patrizia; Sievers, Hartwig

    2011-12-01

    It is essential to guarantee the safety of unprocessed plants and food supplements if consumers' health is to be protected. Although botanicals and their preparations are regulated at EU level, at least in part, there is still considerable discretion at national level, and Member States may choose to classify a product either as a food supplement or as a drug. Accurate data concerning the finished products and the plant used as the starting point are of major importance if risks and safety are to be properly assessed, but in addition standardized criteria for herbal preparation must be laid down and respected by researchers and manufacturers. Physiologically active as well as potentially toxic constituents need to be identified, and suitable analytical methods for their measurement specified, particularly in view of the increasing incidence of economically motivated adulteration of herbal raw materials and extracts. It remains the duty of food operators to keep up with the scientific literature and to provide sufficient information to enable the adaptation of specifications, sampling schemes and analytical methods to a fast-changing environment.

  16. Preparation of food supplements from oilseed cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, L; Appaiah, Prakruthi; Prasanth Kumar, P K; Gopala Krishna, A G

    2015-05-01

    Oilseed cakes have been in use for feed preparation. Being rich in proteins, antioxidants, fibers, vitamins and minerals, oilseed cakes have been considered ideal for food supplementation. These oilseed cakes can be processed and made more palatable and edible by suitable treatments and then incorporated as food supplements for human consumption. Rice bran pellets (RBP), stabilized rice bran (SRB), coconut cake (CC) and sesame cake (SC) were taken up for the study. These were mixed with distilled water and cooked in such a way to separate the cooked solid residue and liquid extract followed by freeze drying to get two products from each. The raw, cooked dried residue and extract were analyzed for various parameters such as moisture (0.9-27.4 %), fat (2.1-16.1 %), ash (3.3-9.0 %), minerals (2.6-633.2 mg/100 g), total dietary fiber (23.2-58.2 %), crude fiber (2.7-10.5 %), protein (3.2-34.0 %), and the fat further analyzed for fatty acid composition, oryzanol (138-258 mg/100 g) and lignan (99-113 mg/100 g) contents and also evaluated sensory evaluation. Nutritional composition of products as affected by cooking was studied. The cooked products (residue and extract) showed changes in nutrients content and composition from that of the starting cakes and raw materials, but retained more nutrients in cooked residue than in the extract. The sensory evaluation of cooked residue and extract showed overall higher acceptability by the panelists than the starting cakes and raw materials. On the basis of these findings it can be concluded that these cooked residue and extract products are highly valuable for food supplementation than the raw ones.

  17. 7 CFR 250.63 - Commodity Supplemental Food Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commodity Supplemental Food Program. 250.63 Section....63 Commodity Supplemental Food Program. (a) Distribution. The distributing agency shall distribute donated foods to the State agency which is designated by the State to administer the Commodity...

  18. Food Supplement Reduces Fat, Improves Flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Diversified Services Corporation, seeking to develop a new nutritional fat replacement and flavor enhancement product, took advantage of the NASA Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) for technology acquisition and development and introductions to potential customers and strategic partners. Having developed and commercialized the product, named Nurtigras, the company is now marketing it through its subsidiary, H.F. Food Technologies Inc. The Nutrigras fat substitute is available in liquid, gel, or dry form and can be easily customized to the specific needs of the food manufacturer. It is primarily intended for use as a partial replacement for animal fat in beef patties and other normally high-fat meat products, and can also be used in soups, sauces, bakery items, and desserts. In addition to the nutritional benefits, the fat replacement costs less than the food it replaces, and as such can help manufacturers reduce material costs. In precooked products, Nutrigras can increase moisture content and thereby increase product yield. The company has been able to repay the help provided by NASA by contributing to the Space Agency's astronaut diet-the Nutrigras fat substitute can be used as a flavor enhancer and shelf-life extender for food on the ISS.

  19. [Marketability of food supplements - criteria for the legal assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitweg-Lehmann, Evelyn

    2017-03-01

    To be placed on the market legally, food supplements have to meet national and European food law regulations. This is true for all substances used as well as for the labeling on the packaging of and the advertising for food supplements. The food business operator is responsible for its compliance with all regulations. Therefore, in this article, a concise step-by-step assessment is presented, covering all necessary legal requirements to market food supplements. Additionally, all steps are visualized in a flow chart. All vitamins, minerals and other substances used have to meet the legal conditions. Food business operators have to make sure that their products do not contain medicinal ingredients based on their pharmacologic effect. It is prohibited to place medicinal products as food supplements on the market. Furthermore, food business operators have to make sure that their products are not non-authorized novel foods according to the novel food regulation (EC) no. 258/97. Also, food supplements have to meet the requirements of article 14 of Regulation (EC) No. 178/2002 concerning the safety of foodstuff. Food shall not be placed on the market if it is unsafe. For food supplements that fail the German food-related legal standards but are legally manufactured in another EU member state or are legally put into circulation, the importer requires the so-called general disposition, which must be applied for at the BVL according to § 54 of the German Food and Feed Act. Another possibility for food which fails to meet German food law is to apply for a certificate of exemption according to § 68 of the Food and Feed Act. The food business operator has to meet the harmonized regulations concerning maximum and minimum levels of additives, flavors and enzymes. The packaging has to meet the compulsory labeling as well the voluntary labeling, like health claims. The BVL is also the relevant authority for other tasks concerning food supplements. A figure shows all

  20. Contaminants in food supplements and associated health risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeuwijk, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary

    Through the increasing use and availability of food supplements on the market, safety Aconcerns relating to the safety of these food supplements are growing as well. The aim of the present PhD thesis was to investigate the presence and actual levels of contaminants of

  1. Contaminants in food supplements and associated health risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeuwijk, N.M.

    2014-01-01

      Summary Through the increasing use and availability of food supplements on the market, safety Aconcerns relating to the safety of these food supplements are growing as well. The aim of the present PhD thesis was to investigate the presence and actual levels of contaminants of concern in

  2. Consumption of plant food supplements in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, Suzanne M F; Buurma-Rethans, Elly J M; Beukers, Marja H; Jansen-van der Vliet, Martine; van Rossum, Caroline T M; Sprong, R Corinne

    2018-01-01

    The use of food supplements containing herbs or other botanical ingredients (plant food supplements, PFS) is on the rise. In some cases, PFS can contain compounds that are toxic and may pose a health risk. To assess the potential health risks, information on the consumption of PFS is required,

  3. Sildenafil and analogous phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors in herbal food supplements sampled on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeuwijk, N.M.; Venhuis, B.J.; Kaste, de D.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Rietjens, I.; Martena, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Herbal food supplements, claiming to enhance sexual potency, may contain deliberately added active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements on the Dutch market indeed

  4. Recalls of Food and Dietary Supplements

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Food producers recall their products from the marketplace when the products are mislabeled or when the food may present a health hazard to consumers because the food...

  5. Spectroscopic and Spectrometric Methods Used for the Screening of Certain Herbal Food Supplements Suspected of Adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateescu, Cristina; Popescu, Anca Mihaela; Radu, Gabriel Lucian; Onisei, Tatiana; Raducanu, Adina Elena

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: This study was carried out in order to find a reliable method for the fast detection of adulterated herbal food supplements with sexual enhancement claims. As some herbal products are advertised as "all natural", their "efficiency" is often increased by addition of active pharmaceutical ingredients such as PDE-5 inhibitors, which can be a real health threat for the consumer. Methodes: Adulterants, potentially present in 50 herbal food supplements with sexual improvement claims, were detected using 2 spectroscopic methods - Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared - known for reliability, reproductibility, and an easy sample preparation. GC-MS technique was used to confirm the potential adulterants spectra. Results: About 22% (11 out of 50 samples) of herbal food supplements with sexual enhancement claims analyzed by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods proved to be "enriched" with active pharmaceutical compounds such as: sildenafil and two of its analogues, tadalafil and phenolphthalein. The occurence of phenolphthalein could be the reason for the non-relevant results obtained by FTIR method in some samples. 91% of the adulterated herbal food supplements were originating from China. Conclusion: The results of this screening highlighted the necessity for an accurate analysis of all alleged herbal aphrodisiacs on the Romanian market. This is a first such a screening analysis carried out on herbal food supplements with sexual enhancement claims.

  6. Effects of food supplementation on a tropical bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Alexandra M; Moore, Ignacio T

    2013-10-01

    Tropical birds typically exhibit a 'slow pace of life' relative to higher latitude species. This is often manifested as slow development, low fecundity, and high survival. Following from this, it is predicted that tropical birds may be more likely to trade current reproductive effort to favor self-maintenance, thus supporting survival and future reproduction. To test this idea, we conducted two food supplementation experiments on tropical rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) in the eastern Andes of Ecuador. In the first experiment, we food-supplemented pairs during the non-breeding life-history stage, and in the second experiment, we food-supplemented pairs that were provisioning fledglings. In both experiments, a larger proportion of food-supplemented birds exhibited pre-basic molt (replacement of feathers) than in a control group. To our knowledge, this is the first study to experimentally demonstrate that a food-supplemented bird invests extra resources into molt, a form of self-maintenance, and contrasts with the majority of food supplementation studies in high latitude birds that show they typically advance the initiation of, or extend the period of, reproduction. Our results are consistent with the syndrome of the slow pace of life in the tropics and support the concept of fundamental differences between temperate-zone and tropical birds.

  7. 7 CFR 246.10 - Supplemental foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... order to meet religious eating patterns; and (ii) The State agency has the discretion to require medical... for: (A) Infants whose only condition is: (1) A diagnosed formula intolerance or food allergy to...; or (2) A non-specific formula or food intolerance. (B) Women and children who have a food intolerance...

  8. Habits and beliefs related to food supplements: Results of a survey among Italian students of different education fields and levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miressi, Salvatore; Castaldo, Clotilde; Spera, Rocco; Montagnani, Stefania; Di Meglio, Franca; Nurzynska, Daria

    2018-01-01

    The increasing availability of food supplements, aggressive media advertising, and common beliefs that these substances have only positive effects on health and sport performance indicate a need for continuous monitoring of this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to investigate the habits and beliefs related to diet supplementation among medical, health professional, and other university/high school students by means of a cross-sectional anonymous survey online. Among the respondents aware of supplements, 37.4% were taking or had taken them in the past. Food supplement use was more common among university students (in particular, those in health professional graduate courses) than high school students. Individual sport practice, rather than team sport, was associated with higher likelihood of food supplement use. Multivitamins were most commonly used, while weight-loss formulations were the least popular. Strikingly, filling nutrient gaps was statistically not considered the main reason for taking food supplements. Instead, they were used to enhance mental performance or enhance well-being. There was statistical evidence that students not enrolled in health or medical professional studies strongly agreed more often than medical students that taking food supplements prevents illness. These results indicate a striking difference between the evidence-based and personal reasons for food supplement use. Arguably, it calls for an improvement in education about diet supplementation and a change in attitude of health care providers to its implementation. PMID:29351568

  9. Habits and beliefs related to food supplements: Results of a survey among Italian students of different education fields and levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirico, Felice; Miressi, Salvatore; Castaldo, Clotilde; Spera, Rocco; Montagnani, Stefania; Di Meglio, Franca; Nurzynska, Daria

    2018-01-01

    The increasing availability of food supplements, aggressive media advertising, and common beliefs that these substances have only positive effects on health and sport performance indicate a need for continuous monitoring of this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to investigate the habits and beliefs related to diet supplementation among medical, health professional, and other university/high school students by means of a cross-sectional anonymous survey online. Among the respondents aware of supplements, 37.4% were taking or had taken them in the past. Food supplement use was more common among university students (in particular, those in health professional graduate courses) than high school students. Individual sport practice, rather than team sport, was associated with higher likelihood of food supplement use. Multivitamins were most commonly used, while weight-loss formulations were the least popular. Strikingly, filling nutrient gaps was statistically not considered the main reason for taking food supplements. Instead, they were used to enhance mental performance or enhance well-being. There was statistical evidence that students not enrolled in health or medical professional studies strongly agreed more often than medical students that taking food supplements prevents illness. These results indicate a striking difference between the evidence-based and personal reasons for food supplement use. Arguably, it calls for an improvement in education about diet supplementation and a change in attitude of health care providers to its implementation.

  10. Habits and beliefs related to food supplements: Results of a survey among Italian students of different education fields and levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Sirico

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of food supplements, aggressive media advertising, and common beliefs that these substances have only positive effects on health and sport performance indicate a need for continuous monitoring of this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to investigate the habits and beliefs related to diet supplementation among medical, health professional, and other university/high school students by means of a cross-sectional anonymous survey online. Among the respondents aware of supplements, 37.4% were taking or had taken them in the past. Food supplement use was more common among university students (in particular, those in health professional graduate courses than high school students. Individual sport practice, rather than team sport, was associated with higher likelihood of food supplement use. Multivitamins were most commonly used, while weight-loss formulations were the least popular. Strikingly, filling nutrient gaps was statistically not considered the main reason for taking food supplements. Instead, they were used to enhance mental performance or enhance well-being. There was statistical evidence that students not enrolled in health or medical professional studies strongly agreed more often than medical students that taking food supplements prevents illness. These results indicate a striking difference between the evidence-based and personal reasons for food supplement use. Arguably, it calls for an improvement in education about diet supplementation and a change in attitude of health care providers to its implementation.

  11. Low-calorie sweeteners in food and food supplements on the Italian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, Steven; Goscinny, Séverine; Le Donne, Cinzia; Van Loco, Joris

    2015-01-01

    This study determines the occurrence and concentration levels of artificial low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) in food and food supplements on the Italian market. The analysed sample set (290 samples) was representative of the Italian market and comprised of beverages, jams, ketchups, confectionery, dairy products, table-top sweeteners and food supplements. All samples were analysed via UPLC-MS/MS. The method was in-house validated for the analysis of seven LCSs (aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, neotame and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone) in food and for five LCSs (aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate and sucralose) in food supplements. Except for cyclamate in one beverage which exceeded the maximum level (ML) with 13%, all concentrations measured in food were around or below the ML. In food supplements, 40 of the 52 samples (77%) were found to be above the ML, with exceedances of up to 200% of the ML.

  12. Iodine in food and dietary supplement composition databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a number of years, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service have worked independently on determining the iodine content of foods and dietary supplements and are now harmonizing their e...

  13. The Comparison of Food and Supplement as Probiotic Delivery Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayoni Rad, Aziz; Vaghef Mehrabany, Elnaz; Alipoor, Beitullah; Vaghef Mehrabany, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are live bacteria which have frequently been reported to be beneficial in preventing a wide range of diseases as well as playing a major role in treating the existing ailments. Thus far, a variety of probiotic products have been developed which can be categorized into two groups: probiotic foods and supplements. Both foods and supplements have been able to confer the health benefits claimed for them. However, it is not known which one can be clinically more efficient, and to the best of our knowledge, until now no research has been conducted to investigate this issue. The present review aims to discuss this matter, based on the evidence available in the literature. To do so, articles indexed in PubMed and ScienceDirect between 2000 and 2011 were reviewed. The articles included the clinical trials in which either foods or supplements were used to administer the probiotics to either patients suffering from different diseases or healthy subjects. Although both foods and supplements seem to have been efficient carriers for the beneficial bacteria, to generally promote public health in communities, probiotic foods appear to be preferred to probiotic supplements.

  14. Preliminary study: voluntary food intake in dogs during tryptophan supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragua, Víctor; González-Ortiz, Gemma; Villaverde, Cecilia; Hervera, Marta; Mariotti, Valentina Maria; Manteca, Xavier; Baucells, María Dolores

    2011-10-01

    Tryptophan, a precursor of important molecules such as serotonin, melatonin and niacin, is an essential amino acid for dogs. In pigs, tryptophan supplementation has been shown to induce a significant increase in food intake. The aim of the present study was to assess whether long-term tryptophan supplementation increases voluntary food intake in dogs and to observe whether this was accompanied by a change in serum ghrelin. In the present study, sixteen adult Beagle dogs were used, with four male and four female dogs fed diets supplemented with tryptophan (1 g/dog per d) during 81 d (Trp) and four male and four female dogs that were not supplemented (control). A voluntary food intake test was performed during 5 d following the supplementation period. The Trp group tended to show a higher food intake during the voluntary food intake test (58.0 (SE 5.37) v. 77.5 (SE 3.65) g/kg metabolic weight per d; P = 0.074). No significant differences were found for serum ghrelin concentrations.

  15. Iron and calcium bioavailability of fortified foods and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Teucher, Birgit

    2002-11-01

    Bioavailability is a key consideration when developing strategies for preventing mineral deficiencies through improved dietary supply. Factors that affect the bioavailability of iron and calcium, forms used for fortification and supplementation, and methods used to assess bioavailability are described. Illustrations of the impact of introducing iron-fortified foods in developing and industrialized countries are given, and the alternative approach of supplementation with iron and calcium is discussed.

  16. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review was to collect available data on the following: (i) adverse effects observed in humans from the intake of plant food supplements or botanical preparations; (ii) the misidentification of poisonous plants; and (iii) interactions between plant food supplements/botanicals...... evaluated according to the World Health Organization Guidelines for causality assessment. Data were obtained for 66 plants that are common ingredients of plant food supplements; of the 492 papers selected, 402 (81.7%) dealt with adverse effects directly associated with the botanical and 89 (18.1%) concerned...... interactions with conventional drugs. Only one case was associated with misidentification. Adverse effects were reported for 39 of the 66 botanical substances searched. Of the total references, 86.6% were associated with 14 plants, including Glycine max/soybean (19.3%), Glycyrrhiza glabra/liquorice (12...

  17. Medication Interactions: Food, Supplements and Other Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nervousness and hyperactivity. Drugs with Other Drugs Drug-drug interactions occur when two or more drugs react with ... foods, beverages or other products? What are possible drug interaction signs I should know about? How will the ...

  18. Estimating safe maximum levels of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Albert; Kehoe, Laura; Hennessy, Áine; Walton, Janette

    2017-12-01

    To show how safe maximum levels (SML) of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and supplements may be estimated in population subgroups. SML were estimated for adults and 7- to 10-year-old children for six nutrients (retinol, vitamins B6, D and E, folic acid, iron and calcium) using data on usual daily nutrient intakes from Irish national nutrition surveys. SML of nutrients in supplements were lower for children than for adults, except for calcium and iron. Daily energy intake from fortified foods in high consumers (95th percentile) varied by nutrient from 138 to 342 kcal in adults and 40-309 kcal in children. SML (/100 kcal) of nutrients in fortified food were lower for children than adults for vitamins B6 and D, higher for vitamin E, with little difference for other nutrients. Including 25 % 'overage' for nutrients in fortified foods and supplements had little effect on SML. Nutritionally significant amounts of these nutrients can be added safely to supplements and fortified foods for these population subgroups. The estimated SML of nutrients in fortified foods and supplements may be considered safe for these population subgroups over the long term given the food composition and dietary patterns prevailing in the respective dietary surveys. This risk assessment approach shows how nutrient intake data may be used to estimate, for population subgroups, the SML for vitamins and minerals in both fortified foods and supplements, separately, each taking into account the intake from other dietary sources.

  19. Developing food supplements for moderately malnourished children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briend, André; Akomo, Peter; Bahwere, Paluku

    2015-01-01

    Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) are solid foods that were developed by changing the formulation of the existing liquid diet, F-100, recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the rapid catch-up phase of the treatment of children suffering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM......). The resulting products proved highly effective in promoting weight gain in both severely and moderately wasted children and adults, including those infected with HIV. The formulation of the existing RUTFs, however, has never been optimized to maximize linear growth, vitamin and mineral status, and functional...

  20. Supplement: Why Colour Foods? Colouring Food Products with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today, the food industry is the kitchen of the world. It has revolutionised nutrition. Never before have standards of purity, stability, and physiological harmlessness been as high as they are today. New raw materials and new methods of refining and preserving, however, often alter the natural appearance of fresh foods.

  1. Effect Of Food Supplementation On The White Blood Cells Count ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvement on host\\'s nutrition is mportant in moderating the severity of pathophysiological efect of trypanosomiasis and it also influences the rate of recovery. Earlier researchers demonstrated that dietary supplement of selenium and vitamin E enhanced immune response in white rats. It has also been reported that during ...

  2. Anthranoid-containing medicines and food supplements on the Belgian market: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, C; Corthout, J

    2014-06-01

    Medicines and food supplements containing anthranoid herbal drug preparations were verified on identity of the herbal substance, content of total hydroxyanthracene glycosides and microbiological quality. All examined medicines complied with the fixed requirements whereas all food supplements deviated from 1 or more of the criteria. The food supplements showed a large variability in quality and content.

  3. A review of methods for the simultaneous detection of illegal ingredients in food supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Michael J; Naughton, Declan P; Deshmukh, Nawed; Burns, D Thorburn

    2016-01-01

    Food supplements are at risk from contamination with illegal ingredients on a global scale. To date, the official food control laboratory system in the UK does not appear to have been particularly active in the analytical control of illegal ingredients in food supplements. From a survey of notifications (2009 to 2016) to the European Union rapid alert system for food and feed (RASFF) food supplements are shown to be adulterated with a complex range of compounds and substances. These include p...

  4. The role of functional foods, nutraceuticals, and food supplements in intestinal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cencic, Avrelija; Chingwaru, Walter

    2010-06-01

    New eating habits, actual trends in production and consumption have a health, environmental and social impact. The European Union is fighting diseases characteristic of a modern age, such as obesity, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, allergies and dental problems. Developed countries are also faced with problems relating to aging populations, high energy foods, and unbalanced diets. The potential of nutraceuticals/functional foods/food supplements in mitigating health problems, especially in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, is discussed. Certain members of gut microflora (e.g., probiotic/protective strains) play a role in the host health due to its involvement in nutritional, immunologic and physiological functions. The potential mechanisms by which nutraceuticals/functional foods/food supplements may alter a host's health are also highlighted in this paper. The establishment of novel functional cell models of the GI and analytical tools that allow tests in controlled experiments are highly desired for gut research.

  5. Immune function and hematology of male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in response to food supplementation and methionine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, R.E.; Leslie, David M.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    We examined effects of supplementation of food quantity and quality (=enhanced methionine) on hematologic and immunologic parameters of wild, but enclosed, adult male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in north-central Oklahoma. Sheet metal enclosures were stocked with a high density of wild-caught cotton rats (160 animals/ha) and randomly assigned a treatment of no supplementation, mixed-ration supplementation or methionine-enhanced supplementation. Aside from small increases in counts of red blood cells and hematocrit levels, most indices of erythrocytic characteristics were not affected by supplementation with the mixed-ration or enhanced methionine. In contrast, platelet counts were highest in mixed-ration and methionine treatments and counts of total white blood cells were highest with methionine supplementation, albeit relative proportions of different leukocytes did not differ among treatments. Immunologically, neither delayed-type hypersensitivity response nor hemolytic-complement activity differed among treatments. Supplementation of food quantity and quality did not broadly affect hematologic parameters and immune function of male cotton rats, but enhanced platelet and leukocyte counts may confer advantages to overall health. Clarification of the role of such effects on population limitation or regulation requires additional research.

  6. Performance enhancement with supplements: incongruence between rationale and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazanov Jason

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Athletes are expected to consider multiple factors when making informed decision about nutritional supplement use. Besides rules, regulations and potential health hazards, the efficacy of different nutritional supplements in performance enhancement is a key issue. The aim of this paper was to find evidence for informed decision making by investigating the relationship between specific performance-related reasons for supplement use and the reported use of nutritional supplements. Methods The 'UK Sport 2005 Drug Free Survey' data (n = 874 were re-analysed using association [χ2] and 'strength of association' tests [ϕ] to show the proportion of informed choices and to unveil incongruencies between self-reported supplement use and the underlying motives. Results Participants (n = 520 reported supplement use in the pattern of: vitamin C (70.4%, creatine (36.1%, whey protein (30.6%, iron (29.8%, caffeine (23.8%, and ginseng (8.3% for the following reasons: strength maintenance (38.1%, doctors' advice (24.2%, enhancing endurance (20.0%, ability to train longer (13.3%, and provided by the governing body (3.8%. Of thirty possible associations between the above supplements and reasons, 11 were predictable from literature precedents and only 8 were evidenced and these were not strong (ϕ 2 = 49.14, p 2 = 97.08, p 2 = 97.82, p Conclusion This study provided a platform for assessing congruence between athletes' reasons for supplement use and their actual use. These results suggest that a lack of understanding exists in supplement use. There is an urgent need to provide accurate information which will help athletes make informed choices about the use of supplements.

  7. Enhancing Fatty Acid Production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an Animal Feed Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Seung Kyou; Joo, Young-Chul; Kang, Dae Hee; Shin, Sang Kyu; Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Woo, Han Min; Um, Youngsoon; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2017-12-20

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used for edible purposes, such as human food or as an animal feed supplement. Fatty acids are also beneficial as feed supplements, but S. cerevisiae produces small amounts of fatty acids. In this study, we enhanced fatty acid production of S. cerevisiae by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase, thioesterase, and malic enzyme associated with fatty acid metabolism. The enhanced strain pAMT showed 2.4-fold higher fatty acids than the wild-type strain. To further increase the fatty acids, various nitrogen sources were analyzed and calcium nitrate was selected as an optimal nitrogen source for fatty acid production. By concentration optimization, 672 mg/L of fatty acids was produced, which was 4.7-fold higher than wild-type strain. These results complement the low level fatty acid production and make it possible to obtain the benefits of fatty acids as an animal feed supplement while, simultaneously, maintaining the advantages of S. cerevisiae.

  8. Development of Databases on Iodine in Foods and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershow, Abby G.; Skeaff, Sheila A.; Merkel, Joyce M.; Pehrsson, Pamela R.

    2018-01-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth and neurodevelopment; thus, an adequate intake of iodine is particularly important for pregnant and lactating women, and throughout childhood. Low levels of iodine in the soil and groundwater are common in many parts of the world, often leading to diets that are low in iodine. Widespread salt iodization has eradicated severe iodine deficiency, but mild-to-moderate deficiency is still prevalent even in many developed countries. To understand patterns of iodine intake and to develop strategies for improving intake, it is important to characterize all sources of dietary iodine, and national databases on the iodine content of major dietary contributors (including foods, beverages, water, salts, and supplements) provide a key information resource. This paper discusses the importance of well-constructed databases on the iodine content of foods, beverages, and dietary supplements; the availability of iodine databases worldwide; and factors related to variability in iodine content that should be considered when developing such databases. We also describe current efforts in iodine database development in the United States, the use of iodine composition data to develop food fortification policies in New Zealand, and how iodine content databases might be used when considering the iodine intake and status of individuals and populations. PMID:29342090

  9. Enhanced neural activation with blueberry supplementation in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boespflug, Erin L; Eliassen, James C; Dudley, Jonathan A; Shidler, Marcelle D; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Summer, Suzanne S; Stein, Amanda L; Stover, Amanda N; Krikorian, Robert

    2018-05-01

    Preclinical studies have shown that blueberry supplementation can improve cognitive performance and neural function in aged animals and have identified associations between anthocyanins and such benefits. Preliminary human trials also suggest cognitive improvement in older adults, although direct evidence of enhancement of brain function has not been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated the effect of blueberry supplementation on regional brain activation in older adults at risk for dementia. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial we performed pre- and post-intervention functional magnetic resonance imaging during a working memory (WM) task to assess the effect of blueberry supplementation on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in older adults with mild cognitive impairment, a risk condition for dementia. Following daily supplementation for 16 weeks, blueberry-treated participants exhibited increased BOLD activation in the left pre-central gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and left inferior parietal lobe during WM load conditions (corrected P blueberry supplementation. Diet records indicated no between-group difference in anthocyanin consumption external to the intervention. These data demonstrate, for the first time, enhanced neural response during WM challenge in blueberry-treated older adults with cognitive decline and are consistent with prior trials showing neurocognitive benefit with blueberry supplementation in this at-risk population.

  10. Recent applications of grape polyphenols in foods, beverages and supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollücke, Andréa P B

    2010-06-01

    Grape polyphenols are associated with the prevention of diseases caused by oxidative stress. The present review discusses the most abundant polyphenols in red grapes as well as the recent food and beverage products developed with these natural antioxidant substances. Grape phenolic concentration and composition depend on agro-geographic factors and processing conditions. In humans, grape polyphenols demonstrated effects such as maintenance of endothelial function, increase in antioxidant capacity and protection against LDL oxidation. Recent patents regarding grape polyphenols show a tendency to return to natural products with a minimum use of severe extraction processes and organic solvents. The new products tend to use grape juice and wine as raw materials and maximize their polyphenolic contents. Grape derived polyphenolic foods, beverages and supplements suit effectively the current demand for antioxidant substances of nutritional interest.

  11. Analysis of isoflavones in foods and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmonte, Pierluigi; Rader, Jeanne I

    2006-01-01

    Isoflavones are phytochemicals found in many plants. Because of their structural similarity to beta-estradiol, health benefits of isoflavones have been evaluated in age-related and hormone-dependent diseases. Daidzein, genistein, and glycitein are present as free forms or derivatives in foods containing soy or soy protein extracts. The analysis of isoflavones has become more complex, because preparations contain isoflavones from multiple sources (e.g., red clover, kudzu). Red clover contains primarily formononetin and biochanin A, while kudzu extracts, which are becoming increasingly common in dietary supplements, contain puerarin and daidzein, among other components. Isoflavones are present in foods and dietary supplements as free compounds, glucoside derivatives, 6"-O-malonyl-7-O-beta-D-glucoside derivatives, and 6"-O-acetyl-7-O-beta-D-glucoside derivatives. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/tandem mass spectrometry has been applied to the identification of isoflavone derivatives based on the fragmentation pattern of the parent ion, providing high selectivity and sensitivity in the quantitation of isoflavones in complex mixtures. HPLC with ultraviolet detection is often chosen for routine analysis, but a preliminary acid or basic hydrolysis of isoflavone derivatives is often required for the investigation of samples containing extracts from multiple sources. Several internal standards have been used in the analysis of isoflavones from a single botanical source (e.g., soy, red clover), but the identification of a general internal standard remains a challenging process.

  12. Health aspects of Spirulina (Arthrospira microalga food supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiroudis Theodore G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina, now named Arthrospira, is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that has a long history of use as a safe food lacking toxicity. It is commercially produced in large outdoor ponds under controlled conditions. The aim of this review article is to summarize available recent information concerning human clinical potential and applications of Spirulina, as well as clinical data related to the safety and side effects of Spirulina. Potential health benefits of Spirulina are mainly due to its chemical composition, which includes proteins (the highest protein content of any natural food, 55%-70%, carbohydrates, essential amino acids, minerals (especially iron, essential fatty acids, vitamins, and pigments. In this respect, three major bioactive components of Spirulina, the protein phycocyanin (a biliprotein pigment, sulfated polysaccharides and gamma linolenic acid seem to play significant role in imparting improved human body functions. Furthermore, new experimental evidence supports the immunomodulation and antiviral effects of Spirulina supplementation. According to the Dietary Supplements Information Expert Committee of United States Pharmacopeial Convention the available clinical evidence does not indicate a serious risk to health or other public health concerns for Spirulina. However, a few cases of severe side-effects have been reported.

  13. Consumption of plant food supplements in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeurissen, Suzanne M F; Buurma-Rethans, Elly J M; Beukers, Marja H; Jansen-van der Vliet, Martine; van Rossum, Caroline T M; Sprong, R Corinne

    2018-01-24

    The use of food supplements containing herbs or other botanical ingredients (plant food supplements, PFS) is on the rise. In some cases, PFS can contain compounds that are toxic and may pose a health risk. To assess the potential health risks, information on the consumption of PFS is required, however, this was lacking for the Netherlands. In the current study, the consumption of PFS was investigated for several subgroups in the Dutch population, including children. Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Surveys were used to get a first impression on the consumption of PFS. To obtain more detailed information, a specific PFS consumption survey was performed using online questionnaires. First, a screening survey was performed among a representative sample of 75 100 adults and children of the Dutch population, followed by a main survey among 739 selected PFS users in eight different age and gender subgroups. The prevalence of PFS users in the Dutch population was approximately 10% for men, 17% for women and 13% for children. A wide variety of PFS was used, with around 600 different PFS reported, containing 345 different botanicals. The most frequently used botanicals were echinacea (Echinacea purpurea), ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), ginseng (Panax ginseng) and algae (such as species belonging to the genus Spirulina or Chlorella). Because PFS are widely used in the Dutch population, it is important to evaluate the potential risks associated with PFS consumption in the Netherlands, including potential herb-drug interactions. The data collected in this study are of great value to assess these risks.

  14. Predicting intentions to consume functional foods and supplements to offset memory loss using an adaptation of protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, D N; Koster, A; Russell, C G

    2004-08-01

    The widespread use of dietary supplements and so-called 'functional foods' is thought to be partially motivated by self-control of health. However, whilst consumers want foods associated with well-being or disease prevention, they are unlikely to be willing to compromise on taste or technology. This presents a dilemma for promoters of functional foods. Middle-aged consumers' intentions to consume functional foods or supplements that may improve memory were tested within an adaptation of Protection Motivation theory (PMT). Participants evaluated text descriptions of four products described as: having an unpleasant bitter taste (Natural-FF); having 'additives' to reduce bitterness (Sweetened-FF); being genetically modified to enhance function (GM-FF) and Supplements. Participants were recruited as being of high and low perceived vulnerability to memory failure. In total, 290 middle-aged consumers (aged 40-60 years) participated in the study. Motivations to consume the GM-FF were the lowest. There were gender differences between intention to consume the supplements, Natural-FF and Sweetened-FF and product differences within genders. Women were less favourable than men in their attitudes towards genetic modification in general. Regression analyses indicated that PM predictors of intention to consume functional foods or supplements explained 59-63% of the variance (R2). Overall, perceived 'efficacy' (of the behaviour) and self-efficacy were the most important predictors of intentions to consume.

  15. A pilot study of food supplementation to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy among food-insecure adults in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Ronald A; Sinkala, Moses; Megazinni, Karen; Lawson-Marriott, Sibi; Washington, Sierra; Chi, Benjamin H; Tambatamba-Chapula, Bushimbwa; Levy, Jens; Stringer, Elizabeth M; Mulenga, Lloyd; Stringer, Jeffrey S A

    2008-10-01

    The provision of food supplementation to food-insecure patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) may improve adherence to medications. A home-based adherence support program at 8 government clinics assessed patients for food insecurity. Four clinics provided food supplementation, and 4 acted as controls. The analysis compared adherence (assessed by medication possession ratio), CD4, and weight gain outcomes among food-insecure patients enrolled at the food clinics with those enrolled at the control clinics. Between May 1, 2004, and March 31, 2005, 636 food- insecure adults were enrolled. Food supplementation was associated with better adherence to therapy. Two hundred fifty-eight of 366 (70%) patients in the food group achieved a medication possession ratio of 95% or greater versus 79 of 166 (48%) among controls (relative risk = 1.5; 95% confidence interval: 1.2 to 1.8). This finding was unchanged after adjustment for sex, age, baseline CD4 count, baseline World Health Organization stage, and baseline hemoglobin. We did not observe a significant effect of food supplementation on weight gain or CD4 cell response. This analysis suggests that providing food to food-insecure patients initiating ART is feasible and may improve adherence to medication. A large randomized study of the clinical benefits of food supplementation to ART patients is urgently needed to inform international policy.

  16. Nitrate supplementation enhances the contractile properties of human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Georg; Folland, Jonathan P

    2014-12-01

    Dietary nitrate supplementation positively affects cardiovascular function at rest and energy metabolism during exercise in humans and has recently also been reported to markedly enhance the in vitro contractile properties of mouse fast-twitch muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term nitrate supplementation on the in vivo contractile properties of the skeletal muscle and voluntary muscle function of humans. In a double-blind, randomized, crossover design, 19 healthy untrained men (21 ± 3 yr) ingested a nitrate-rich concentrated beetroot juice (NIT; nitrate dosage, approximately 9.7 mmol·d) and a placebo (PLA) for seven consecutive days. After the last supplementation dose, force was recorded while participants completed a series of voluntary and involuntary (electrically evoked) unilateral isometric contractions of the knee extensors. NIT enhanced the peak force response to low-frequency electrical stimulation, as follows: maximal twitch (NIT, 149 ± 41 N, vs PLA, 138 ± 37 N; P = 0.008; effect size, r (ES) = 0.56) and submaximal 1- to 20-Hz contractions (5%-10%, ES = 0.53-0.63). Whereas explosive (rising phase) force production during the first 50 ms of evoked maximal twitch and octet contractions (eight electrical impulses at 300 Hz) was also 3%-15% greater after NIT compared with that after PLA (P = 0.023-0.048, ES = 0.52-0.59), explosive voluntary force remained similar (P = 0.510, ES = 0.16). Maximum voluntary force was also unchanged after NIT (P = 0.539, ES = 0.15). These results indicate that 7 d of dietary nitrate supplementation enhanced the in vivo contractile properties of the human skeletal muscle. Specifically, nitrate supplementation improved excitation-contraction coupling at low frequencies of stimulation and enhanced evoked explosive force production but did not affect maximum or explosive voluntary force production in untrained individuals.

  17. Evidence-Based Supplements for the Enhancement of Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Peter; Binnie, Martyn J; Goods, Paul S R; Sim, Marc; Burke, Louise M

    2018-02-21

    A strong foundation in physical conditioning and sport-specific experience, in addition to a bespoke and periodized training and nutrition program, are essential for athlete development. Once these underpinning factors are accounted for, and the athlete reaches a training maturity and competition level where marginal gains determine success, a role may exist for the use of evidence-based performance supplements. However, it is important that any decisions surrounding performance supplements are made in consideration of robust information that suggests the use of a product is safe, legal, and effective. The following review focuses on the current evidence-base for a number of common (and emerging) performance supplements used in sport. The supplements discussed here are separated into three categories based on the level of evidence supporting their use for enhancing sports performance: (1) established (caffeine, creatine, nitrate, beta-alanine, bicarbonate); (2) equivocal (citrate, phosphate, carnitine); and (3) developing. Within each section, the relevant performance type, the potential mechanisms of action, and the most common protocols used in the supplement dosing schedule are summarized.

  18. Impact of targeted food supplementation on pregnancy weight gain and birth weight in rural Bangladesh: an assessment of the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Program (BINP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Shamsun; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas; Begum, Housne Ara

    2009-08-01

    To assess whether the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Programme (BINP) correctly identified which pregnant women should be enrolled in the food supplementation programme, whether supplementation commenced on time and was taken on a regular basis. A second objective was to determine whether food supplementation led to enhanced pregnancy weight gain and reduction in the prevalence of low birth weight. A one-year community-based longitudinal study. A rural union of Bhaluka Upazila, Mymensingh, located 110 km north-west of Dhaka City, the capital of Bangladesh.ParticipantsA total of 1104 normotensive, non-smoking pregnant women who attended Community Nutrition Centres were studied from first presentation at the centre until child delivery. Pregnant women who had a BMI of supplementation; so the failure rate was 36.3 %. In addition, of those receiving supplementation, only 193 women (36.7 % of 526 women) commenced supplementation at the correct time, of whom thirty-two (9.6 % of 335 women) received supplementation for the correct number of days (100 % days). There were no significant differences in mean weight gain between BMI supplemented or non-supplemented groups or between the equivalent groups with BMI > or = 18.5 kg/m(2). Weight gain was inversely related to initial weight, so lighter women gained relatively more weight during their pregnancy than heavier women. The mean birth weight in the supplemented and non-supplemented groups was 2.63 kg and 2.72 kg, respectively. Mothers with BMI supplemented had almost equal percentages of low-birth-weight babies (21 % and 22 %, respectively). The study raises doubt about the efficiency of the BINP to correctly target food supplementation to pregnant women. It also shows that food supplementation does not lead to enhanced pregnancy weight gain nor does it provide any evidence of a reduction in prevalence of low birth weight.

  19. Plants and parts of plants used in food supplements: an approach to their safety assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunella Carratù

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Italy most herbal products are sold as food supplements and are subject only to food law. A list of about 1200 plants authorised for use in food supplements has been compiled by the Italian ministry of Health. In order to review and possibly improve the ministry's list an ad hoc working group of Istituto Superiore di Sanità was requested to provide a technical and scientific opinion on plant safety. The listed plants were evaluated on the basis of their use in food, therapeutic activity, human toxicity and in no-alimentary fields. Toxicity was also assessed and plant limitations to use in food supplements were defined.

  20. Biodiverse food solutions to enhance complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen; Parlesak, Alexandr; Greiner, Ted

    2016-01-01

    that lipidbased nutrient supplements (LNS) and ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) may thus be ineffective, de Pee advocates research to improve compliance, assuming effectiveness has been demonstrated. We highlight four additional problems: inappropriateness, cost, lack of sustainability and potential adverse...... effects. In conclusion, all UN agencies have joint responsibility to help Member States achieve their Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which create the opportunity to link sustainability and dietary diversity. The Convention on Biological Diversity (WHO 2015) illustrates how dietary diversity can...... help combat global malnutrition by using practical solutions that can be rolled out as public health strategies. Culturally-sensitive, cost-effective, sustainable complementary foods have the potential to increase nutrition security and sovereignty, reduce poverty, hunger and levels of chronic...

  1. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics of functional food consumers and dietary supplement users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, N. de; Ocké, M.C.; Branderhorst, H.A.C.; Friele, R.

    2003-01-01

    Functional foods and/or supplements may be used in the context of a healthy lifestyle or as a means to compensate for an unhealthy lifestyle. Adverse long-term and/or cumulative effects of functional food or supplement intake are of public health concern; it is therefore important to identify

  2. Active pharmaceutical ingredients detected in herbal food supplements for weight loss samples on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeuwijk, N.M.; Venhuis, B.J.; Kaste, de D.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Rietjens, I.; Martena, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Herbal food supplements claiming to reduce weight may contain active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements for weight loss on the Dutch market contain APIs with weight

  3. [Food supplements on the domestic market in Hungary: nutritional assessment of the ingredients, risks and benefits, the role of food supplements in human nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugasi, Andrea; Horacsek, Márta; Martos, Éva

    2010-11-28

    Food supplements are foods that are concentrated sources of nutrients such as vitamins and minerals and other substances with a physiological or nutritional effect. Since joining to the European Union, the distribution of food supplements in Hungary has not been bound to pre-market authorisation; products can be placed to the market after a formal notification at the National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science. Distribution, ingredients, and all information on the label are determined by numerous regulations but at the same time, the lack of harmonized legislation at Community level may cause a lot of problems. In the second part of the review authors introduce the evaluation process of components from the point of view of nutritional and physiological effects and the possible role of food supplements in human nutrition.

  4. The comparative absorption of silicon from different foods and food supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripanyakorn, Supannee; Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Dissayabutr, Wacharee; Anderson, Simon H. C.; Thompson, Richard P. H.; Powell, Jonathan J.

    2009-01-01

    Dietary Si (orthosilicic acid; OSA) appears important in connective tissue health, and although the sources and intakes of Si are well established, its absorption is not. Si absorption was measured from eight high-Si-containing sources: alcohol-free beer; OSA solution (positive control); bananas; green beans; supplemental choline-stabilised OSA (ChOSA); supplemental monomethyl silanetriol (MMST); supplemental colloidal silica (CS); magnesium trisilicate British Pharmacopoeia antacid (MTBP). Two of the supplements and the antacid were pre-selected following an in vitro dissolution assay. Fasting, healthy subjects (CS, n 3; others, n ≥ 5) each ingested two of the sources separated by a 1-week wash-out period. Blood and urine were collected and measured for total Si concentrations by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Absorption, based on urinary Si excretion, was highest for MMST and alcohol-free beer (64 % of dose), followed by green beans (44 %), OSA (43 %), ChOSA (17 %), bananas and MTBP (4 %) and CS (1 %). Peak serum concentrations occurred by 0.5 h for MMST and green beans, 1.5 h for OSA and alcohol-free beer, 2 h for ChOSA and CS, and 4 h for MTBP. Area under the serum curves correlated positively with urinary Si output (r 0·82; P<0·0001). Absorption of Si from supplements and antacids was consistent with their known chemical speciation and kinetics of dissolution under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Monomeric silicates were readily absorbed, while particulate silicates were decreasingly well absorbed with increasing polymerisation. The present results highlight the need to allow for relative absorption of Si from different foods or supplements in subsequent epidemiological and intervention studies. PMID:19356271

  5. Rosaceae products: Anthocyanin quality and comparisons between dietary supplements and foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungmin Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rosaceae (strawberry, cherry, blackberry, red raspberry, and black raspberry dietary supplements and food products (total n = 74 were purchased and analyzed to determine their anthocyanin concentrations and profiles. Eight of the 33 dietary supplements had no detectable anthocyanins (five samples or were adulterated with anthocyanins from unlabeled sources (three samples. Five of 41 food products contained no detectable anthocyanins. In mg per serving, the dietary supplements tested contained 0.02–86.27 (average 10.00, and food products contained 0.48–39.66 (average 7.76. Anthocyanin levels between the dietary supplements and food products were not significantly different in mg per serving. Individual anthocyanin profiles can be used to evaluate quality of Rosaceae food products and dietary supplements. These findings show that increasing anthocyanin content and reducing adulteration could improve the quality of Rosaceae products available in the marketplace.

  6. DNA-based techniques for authentication of processed food and food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yat-Tung; Shaw, Pang-Chui

    2018-02-01

    Authentication of food or food supplements with medicinal values is important to avoid adverse toxic effects, provide consumer rights, as well as for certification purpose. Compared to morphological and spectrometric techniques, molecular authentication is found to be accurate, sensitive and reliable. However, DNA degradation and inclusion of inhibitors may lead to failure in PCR amplification. This paper reviews on the existing DNA extraction and PCR protocols, and the use of small size DNA markers with sufficient discriminative power for molecular authentication. Various emerging new molecular techniques such as isothermal amplification for on-site diagnosis, next-generation sequencing for high-throughput species identification, high resolution melting analysis for quick species differentiation, DNA array techniques for rapid detection and quantitative determination in food products are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Study of antioxidant activity of natural food supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Lozova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 96 Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE This article describes the results of a study of antioxidant activity of natural food supplements suggested for use in flour confectionery production. Oxidation rate of the model substance - cumene - was measured using a volumetric unit. Diagram of absorbed oxygen amount as a function of time (∆HO2 over t was built by measuring time in minutes and absorbed oxygen volume in cm3. This diagram was subsequently used to graphically determine the oxidation rate as the slope ratio of the line in specified coordinates. Afterwards, the oxidation rate was measured at a different initiation rate (different azobisisobutyronitrile solution volume, while all other parameters of the experiment remained unaltered. On the basis of the resulting data, diagrams of oxidation rate as a function of initiation rate were built for all investigated substances (both extracts and powders. The study revealed that apian products, including pollen and propolis, as well as kidney bean powder and phytosupplements (leaves of leather bergenia, lime blossom, heartsease, wild chamomile, pepper mint, bog rosemary, and elderflowers, possessed high antioxidant activity. According to the research data, the highest activity was detected in propolis  0.482·20 pollen 0.802 and powdered forms of pepper mint 1.066 leather bergenia leaves 0.937 heartsease 0.385 lime blossom 0.331 and kidney beans 0.323. Relatively lower antioxidant activity was found in powdered bog rosemary 0.242 elderflowers 0.238 and wild chamomile 0.212. (Introduction of the investigated supplements will allow inhibiting oxidation processes in the lipide fraction of foodstuffs, including flour confectionery, to ensure stability of their qualitative characteristics over a longer period.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF THE ACCEPTANCE OF MICROALGAE AS SUPPLEMENT OF FOOD IN THE BOP SECTOR OF PUNE

    OpenAIRE

    Sruti Mitra; Professor Tarun Kumar Singhal

    2017-01-01

    Bottom of the wealth pyramid is about 80 percent of India’s population who suffer from extreme poverty and malnutrition . Spirulina and Chlorella are the most widely noted microalgae full of nutrition that can be consumed separately or in combination with food as a cheap food supplement to eradicate poverty and malnutrition among the BOP sector. An assessment to find the acceptability of this microalgae as food supplement is being focused in this research paper . The research study cou...

  9. Nutritionally enhanced food crops; progress and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferon, Kathleen L

    2015-02-11

    Great progress has been made over the past decade with respect to the application of biotechnology to generate nutritionally improved food crops. Biofortified staple crops such as rice, maize and wheat harboring essential micronutrients to benefit the world's poor are under development as well as new varieties of crops which have the ability to combat chronic disease. This review discusses the improvement of the nutritional status of crops to make a positive impact on global human health. Several examples of nutritionally enhanced crops which have been developed using biotechnological approaches will be discussed. These range from biofortified crops to crops with novel abilities to fight disease. The review concludes with a discussion of hurdles faced with respect to public perception, as well as directions of future research and development for nutritionally enhanced food crops.

  10. DEMAND FOR ENHANCED FOODS AND THE VALUE OF NUTRITIONAL ENHANCEMENTS OF FOOD: THE CASE OF MARGARINES

    OpenAIRE

    Huffman, Sonya Kostova; Jensen, Helen H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates consumer preferences and choice of nutritionally enhanced food products based on economic, geographic, ethnic and other socioeconomic characteristics. Household scanner data allow estimation of hedonic price function and a probit model on the choice of margarine that promotes good health. The empirical estimation established a positive value for nutritional enhancement.

  11. Biotin determination in food supplements by an electrochemical magneto biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergaravat, Silvina V; Gómez, Gabriel A; Fabiano, Silvia N; Laube Chávez, Tamara I; Pividori, María I; Hernández, Silvia R

    2012-08-15

    An electrochemical magneto biosensor for the rapid determination of biotin in food samples is reported. The affinity reaction was performed on streptavidin-modified magnetic microbeads as a solid support in a direct competitive format. The biotinylated horseradish peroxidase enzyme (biotin-HRP) competes with free biotin in the sample for the binding sites of streptavidin on the magnetic microbeads. The modified magnetic beads were then easily captured by a magneto graphite-epoxy composite electrode and the electrochemical signal was based on the enzymatic activity of the HRP enzyme under the addition of H(2)O(2) as the substrate and o-phenilendiamine as cosubstrate. The response was electrochemically detected by square wave voltammetry. The limit of detection was 8.4×10(-8) mol L(--1) of biotin (20 μg L(--1)) with a dynamic range from 0.94 to 2.4×10(-7) mol L(--1). Biotin-fortified commercial dietary supplement and infant formula samples were evaluated obtaining good performances in the results. Total time of analysis was 40 min per 20 assays. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antioxidant and Cytotoxicological Effects of Aloe vera Food Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, food industries use supplements from Aloe vera as highly concentrated powders (starting products, which are added to the final product at a concentration of 1x, meaning 10 g/L for decolourized and spray-dried whole leaf powder (WLP or 5 g/L for decolourized and spray-dried inner leaf powder (ILG and also for nondecolourized and belt-dried inner leaf powder (ILF. Flavonoids, tannins, or saponins could not be detected for any starting product at this concentration and their total phenol concentration of 68–112 μM gallate-eq. was much lower than in fresh extract; however, their antioxidant capacity of 90–123 μM ascorbate-eq. for DPPH was similar to the fresh extract. Starting products, dissolved at 1x, had an aloin concentration of 0.04 to 0.07 ppm, a concentration much lower than the industry standard of 10 ppm for foodstuff. While decolourized starting products (i.e., treated with activated carbon exhibited low cytotoxicity on HeLa cells (CC50 = 15 g/L ILG or 50 g/L WLP, ILF at CC50 = 1–5 g/L exhibited cytotoxic effects, that is, at concentrations even below the recommended for human consumption. Probable causes for the cytotoxicity of ILF are the exposure to high temperatures (70–85°C combined with a high fibre content.

  13. Food supplementation for workers: flour enriched with omega -3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Nery de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was preparing a product (omega-3 flour to increase the nutritional value of the food for workers concerning the content of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA. The omega-3 flour was prepared using waste (head sardines and leaves of carrot, flaxseed flour, manioc flour and spices. The fatty acids (FA concentration was analyzed by gas chromatography. A total of 28 FA were identified in the omega-3 flour. The concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were 329.23mg EPA 100 g-1 omega-3 flour and 545.35 mg DHA 100 g-1 omega-3 flour. To meet the minimum requirements of omega -3, it is necessary the intake 2.5 to 3 tablespoons (soup of omega-3 flour day-1.There were analyzed two meals (A and B generally consumed by workers without and with the addition of the omega-3 flour (1 and 2 tablespoons to verify if there was an increase of n-3 FA. It was concluded that there was a significant increase of these FA in both meals. It was found that the omega-3 flour is constituted of a good nutritional value, especially the n-3 FA, so the product can be used as a supplement in the feeding of the workers as well as in other segments.

  14. Adequacy of energy and macronutrient intake of food supplements for athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Behrends RODRIGUES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess how much food supplements contribute to the nutritional adequacy of energy and macronutrients in relation those recommended for athletes. Methods This was a cross sectional study was composed of 182 athletes from 19 sports (150 men and 32 women with a mean age, weight, height and body mass index of 23.8±7.5 years, 73.7±15.6kg, 1.7±0.1m, 24.2±4.0kg/m², respectively. The 24 hours dietary recall was applied to assess intake and the Multiple Source Method to evaluate usual intake. We used the t-test, Mann-Whitney test, Analysis of Variance and Kruskal-Wallis for comparative analysis among the diets, gender and types of groups, and the comparison of two-proportion test to assess the diets Food and Food and Supplementation. Results Of the athletes studied, less than half used dietary supplements (39.0%. Energy intake was below the recommended (52.7% in Food diet, and 45.6% in Food and Supplementation diet. The mean total of carbohydrate inadequacy (g.kg-1.day-1 was high for athletes of both genders and between Food and Food and Supplementation diets. The protein intake was above the recommended levels in Food diet (23.1% and in Food and Supplementation diet (33.5%. The lipid intake was also above the recommended dietary levels in Food (47.3% and in Food and Supplementation diets (50.0%. Conclusion The use of supplements did not significantly reduce inadequacies of diet and the athletes’ intake of calories and carbohydrates was below the recommended for these groups. However, the protein intake was above the recommended levels for athletes.

  15. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D P Lippelt

    Full Text Available Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declarative picture memorization task. In experiment 3, 40 participants performed a verbal working memory task in addition to the visuospatial working memory and declarative picture task. All tasks were conducted approximately 60 minutes after the ingestion of 2.0-2.5g of either choline bitartrate or placebo. We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks. The null hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics. These results are in contrast with animal studies suggesting that choline supplementation boosts memory performance and learning. We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants.

  16. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippelt, D P; van der Kint, S; van Herk, K; Naber, M

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declarative picture memorization task. In experiment 3, 40 participants performed a verbal working memory task in addition to the visuospatial working memory and declarative picture task. All tasks were conducted approximately 60 minutes after the ingestion of 2.0-2.5g of either choline bitartrate or placebo. We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks. The null hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics. These results are in contrast with animal studies suggesting that choline supplementation boosts memory performance and learning. We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants.

  17. 76 FR 19998 - Supplemental Funding Under the Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Device Consortia Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ..., as part of the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 (FDAAA) legislation, Congress... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0012] Supplemental Funding Under the Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Device Consortia Grant Program AGENCY...

  18. Radioactivity survey of 'health foods' (supplements) marketed in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Yoshida, Terumitsu; Takahashi, Kunihiko; Iijima, Masao; Urabe, Ken-ichi

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 40 K in 73 supplements marked in Japan were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. In all supplements, 134 Cs was not detected. On the other hand, 134 Cs was detected in 9 supplements, and the concentrations of 137 Cs in them were in the range of 2.3-190 Bq/kg. There was a tendency that concentrations of 137 Cs in supplements made from materials accumulating 137 Cs, such as mushrooms and blueberries, were high. Furthermore, 40 K was detected in 56 supplements at levels of 17.6-11600 Bq/kg. The committed effective dose of 137 Cs in adults by annually taking supplements was estimated to be about 2.9 μSv. (author)

  19. Ensuring Food Security Through Enhancing Microbiological Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Kumar, Amit; Yang, Yishan; Zheng, Qianwang; Kim, Min-Jeong; Ghate, Vinayak; Yuan, Wenqian; Pang, Xinyi

    2015-10-01

    Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts with a profound impact on the quality of human life. Food security describes the overall availability of food at different levels from global to individual household. While, food safety focuses on handling, preparation and storage of foods in order to prevent foodborne illnesses. This review focuses on innovative thermal and non-thermal technologies in the area of food processing as the means to ensure food security through improving food safety with emphasis on the reduction and control of microbiological risks. The antimicrobial efficiency and mechanism of new technologies to extend the shelf life of food product were also discussed.

  20. Rosaceae products: Anthocyanin quality and comparisons between dietary supplements and foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosaceae (strawberry, cherry, blackberry, red raspberry, and black raspberry) dietary supplements and food products (total n=74) were purchased and analyzed to determine their anthocyanin concentrations and profiles. Eight of the 33 dietary supplements had no detectable anthocyanins (five samples) o...

  1. Functional foods and dietary supplements: products at the interface between pharma and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eussen, Simone R B M; Verhagen, Hans; Klungel, Olaf H; Garssen, Johan; van Loveren, Henk; van Kranen, Henk J; Rompelberg, Cathy J M

    2011-09-01

    It is increasingly recognized that most chronic diseases of concern today are multifactorial in origin. To combat such diseases and adverse health conditions, a treatment approach where medicines and nutrition complement each other may prove to be the most successful. Within nutrition, apart from (disease-related) dietetic regimes, an increasing number of functional foods and dietary supplements, each with their own health claim, are marketed. These food items are considered to be positioned between traditional foods and medicines at the so-called 'Pharma-Nutrition Interface'. This paper encompasses aspects related to the regulatory framework and health claims of functional foods and dietary supplements. The use of functional foods or dietary supplements may offer opportunities to reduce health risk factors and risk of diseases, both as monotherapy and in combination with prescription drugs. Nevertheless, the potential caveats of these products should not be overlooked. These caveats include the increased risk for food-drug interactions due to the elevated amounts of specific functional ingredients in the diet, and the stimulation of self-medication potentially resulting in lower adherence to drug therapy. Health technology assessments should be used more to compare the cost-effectiveness and benefit-risk ratios of drugs, functional foods and dietary supplements, and to evaluate the added value of functional foods or dietary supplements to drug therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Intervention Study of Women Wrestler on the Energy Consumption and Food Supplement in Weight Reduction Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Li

    2015-01-01

    The research aimed to explore the influence of energy consumption on wrestler in weight reduction phase and the intervention of food supplement on athletes. Twenty wrestlers were divided into intervention group and control group and went through weight reduction phase and food supplement by using the methods of slow weight training and weighing method to meet the entry requirements of the athlete’s weight and improve exercise capacity at the same time.

  3. Cassia cinnamon as a source of coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food and food supplements in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Avula, Bharathi; Nanayakkara, N P Dhammika; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2013-05-08

    Coumarin as an additive or as a constituent of tonka beans or tonka extracts is banned from food in the United States due to its potentially adverse side effects. However, coumarin in food from other natural ingredients is not regulated. "True Cinnamon" refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum. Other cinnamon species, C. cassia, C. loureiroi, and C. burmannii, commonly known as cassia, are also sold in the U.S. as cinnamon. In the present study, coumarin and other marker compounds were analyzed in authenticated cinnamon bark samples as well as locally bought cinnamon samples, cinnamon-flavored foods, and cinnamon-based food supplements using a validated UPLC-UV/MS method. The experimental results indicated that C. verum bark contained only traces of coumarin, whereas barks from all three cassia species, especially C. loureiroi and C. burmannii, contained substantial amounts of coumarin. These species could be potential sources of coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food in the U.S. Coumarin was detected in all locally bought cinnamon, cinnamon-flavored foods, and cinnamon food supplements. Their chemical profiles indicated that the cinnamon samples and the cinnamon in food supplements and flavored foods were probably Indonesian cassia, C. burmannii.

  4. Dietary supplement use is associated with higher intakes of minerals from food sources1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplement use is extensive in US adults. Some reports suggested that supplement users had higher nutrient intakes from the diet than did nonusers, but to our knowledge this finding has not been examined in nationally representative survey data. Objective: In this analysis, we examined mineral intakes from the diet by supplement-use categories and how these supplements contributed to meeting or exceeding Dietary Reference Intakes for selected minerals. Design: Data from adults (≥19 y of age; n = 8860) who participated in NHANES 2003–2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey, were examined. Supplement use was defined as the participant's self-reported use of a supplement that contained one or more selected minerals. Results: Dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for magnesium, copper, potassium, and selenium in male supplement users than in nonusers. For women, dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for users than for nonusers for each mineral examined except for selenium. In women, users of calcium-containing dietary supplements were much more likely to meet the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) than were nonusers. Even after consideration of supplement use, >14% of adults had inadequate intakes for calcium and magnesium on the basis of the percentage of adults with usual intakes less than the EAR. The prevalence of adults who exceeded the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for calcium, zinc, iron, and magnesium was higher in users than in nonusers. Conclusions: Individuals who used mineral-containing dietary supplements had higher mineral intakes from food sources in the diet than did nonusers. For all minerals examined, and particularly for calcium and magnesium in men and women and iron in women, supplement use decreased the prevalence of intake inadequacy for each respective mineral; however, supplements contributed to risk of potentially excessive intakes for calcium, iron, zinc

  5. Performance-enhancing sports supplements: role in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzel, Lindsay-Rae B; Sandoval, Paul A; Mayles, W Jonathan; Wischmeyer, Paul E

    2009-10-01

    Many performance-enhancing supplements and/or drugs are increasing in popularity among professional and amateur athletes alike. Although the uncontrolled use of these agents can pose health risks in the general population, their clearly demonstrated benefits could prove helpful to the critically ill population in whom preservation and restoration of lean body mass and neuromuscular function are crucial. Post-intensive care unit weakness not only impairs post-intensive care unit quality of life but also correlates with intensive care unit mortality. This review covers a number of the agents known to enhance athletic performance, and their possible role in preservation of muscle function and prevention/treatment of post-intensive care unit weakness in critically ill patients. These agents include testosterone analogues, growth hormone, branched chain amino acid, glutamine, arginine, creatine, and beta-hydryoxy-beta-methylbutyrate. Three of the safest and most effective agents in enhancing athletic performance in this group are creatine, branched-chain amino acid, and beta-hydryoxy-beta-methylbutyrate. However, these agents have received very little study in the recovering critically ill patient suffering from post-intensive care unit weakness. More placebo-controlled studies are needed in this area to determine efficacy and optimal dosing. It is very possible that, under the supervision of a physician, many of these agents may prove beneficial in the prevention and treatment of post-intensive care unit weakness.

  6. Adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittler, M H; Schmidt, K; Ernst, E

    2005-05-01

    Herbal weight-loss supplements are marketed with claims of effectiveness. Our earlier systematic review identified data from double-blind, randomized controlled trials for a number of herbal supplements. The aim of this systematic review was to assess all clinical evidence of adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction for which effectiveness data from rigorous clinical trials exist. We assessed Ephedra sinica, Garcinia cambogia, Paullinia cupana, guar gum, Plantago psyllium, Ilex paraguariensis and Pausinystalia yohimbe. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed and The Cochrane Library. Data were also requested from the spontaneous reporting scheme of the World Health Organization. We hand-searched relevant medical journals and our own files. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. The results show that adverse events including hepatic injury and death have been reported with the use of some herbal food supplements. For herbal ephedra and ephedrine-containing food supplements an increased risk of psychiatric, autonomic or gastrointestinal adverse events and heart palpitations has been reported. In conclusion, adverse events are reported for a number of herbal food supplements, which are used for reducing body weight. Although the quality of the data does not justify definitive attribution of causality in most cases, the reported risks are sufficient to shift the risk-benefit balance against the use of most of the reviewed herbal weight-loss supplements. Exceptions are Garcinia cambogia and yerba mate, which merit further investigation.

  7. Beyond the use of food supplements: An empirical analysis in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. LOMBARDI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to profile Italian food supplements used by consumers based upon their psychometric patterns and demographic characteristics. The FTNS scale is used to assess empirically and evaluate the role of technophobic/technophilic consumer traits in determining the decision whether or not to consume supplements and vitamins and the frequency of their consumption.An ad-hoc survey was carried out in 2012 involving 400 residents of a metropolitan area in southern Italy. Our results show that women have a higher consumption frequency of dietary supplements, while age, BMI and education influence the propensity to consume. As regards food habits, the propensity to use dietary supplements is positively associated to the consumption of bread and pasta, red meat and pulses, and negatively with the consumption of fruit and cheese.Finally, the research supports the role of technophobic traits as consistent and significant determinants of the consumption frequency of dietary supplements.

  8. Dietary Lactobacillus plantarum supplementation enhances growth performance and alleviates aluminum toxicity in tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Leilei; Zhai, Qixiao; Zhu, Jiamin; Zhang, Chengcheng; Li, Tianqi; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Fengwei; Chen, Wei

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the protection offered by the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 against waterborne Al exposure in tilapia. Fish were allocated to control, CCFM639-only, Al-only or Al plus CCFM639 groups. The fish were exposed to 2.73mg/L Al ions for 4 weeks. The probiotic was incorporated into the fish diet at 10 8 CFU/g and provided twice daily. Our results showed that L. plantarum CCFM639 significantly enhanced feed utilization, growth performance and antioxidant ability in the absence of waterborne Al exposure. When fish were exposed to Al, dietary supplementation with the strain effectively decreased the death rate and accumulation of Al in tissues, and enhanced growth performance. Moreover, Al-induced changes in hematobiochemical parameters and hepatic oxidative stress and histopathology were also alleviated. Therefore, L. plantarum CCFM639 may be a novel dietary supplement for fish to enhance growth performance and prevent aquaculture and food safety problems induced by Al pollution. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Emergence Of A Quality Assurance Program For Probiotic Supplemented Foods

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    In recent year consumer’s inclination towards natural and health-promoting foods have led to projection of probiotics as a new ingredient in functional food market. In absence of any worldwide regulation, probiotic containing foods available in the market are often of poor quality and did not meet the desired level of viable microorganisms, required for exhibiting health benefits. Presently, no globally accepted regulations for probiotic containing foods have been established, resulting in di...

  10. Safety aspects and implications of regulation of probiotic bacteria in food and food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenaar, Trudy M; Klein, Günter

    2008-08-01

    The application of living bacteria as probiotics in food or food supplements requires a careful safety assessment. This review summarizes key issues concerning the safety aspects of bacteria added to particular products marketed for improvement of general health or treatment of (post)infectious symptoms. The bacteria used in such products should be completely safe; however, it can be challenging to provide evidence for absence of all virulence properties. In some cases, virulence factors have been detected in probiotic bacterial strains, and the implications of these traits for safety assessments are discussed. Horizontal gene transfer can result in acquisition of virulence genes or antimicrobial resistance in probiotic bacteria. Antimicrobial resistance in these bacteria can possibly aid the spread of undesired resistance in intestinal bacterial populations. The relative risk of such gene transfers is considered. The generation of complete bacterial genome sequences can both resolve and create safety issues. Current practices of safety assessment procedures in the United States and the European Union are briefly reviewed and a future outlook is provided.

  11. Intake of selected nutrients from foods, from fortification and from supplements in various European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Albert; Hirvonen, Tero; Mensink, Gert B M; Ocké, Marga C; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Stos, Katarzyna; Szponar, Lucjan; Tetens, Inge; Turrini, Aida; Fletcher, Reg; Wildemann, Tanja

    2009-11-12

    Recent European Union regulation requires setting of maximum amount of micronutrients in dietary supplements or foods taking into account the tolerable upper intake level (ULs) established by scientific risk assessment and population reference intakes. To collect and evaluate recently available data on intakes of selected vitamins and minerals from conventional foods, food supplements and fortified foods in adults and children. Intake of calcium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, zinc, folic acid, niacin and total vitamin A/retinol, B(6), D and E was derived from nationally representative surveys in Denmark, Germany, Finland, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom. Intake of high consumers, defined as the 95th percentile of each nutrient, was compared to the UL. For most nutrients, adults and children generally consume considerably less than the UL with exceptions being retinol, zinc, iodine, copper and magnesium. The major contributor to intakes for all nutrients and in all countries is from foods in the base diet. The patterns of food supplements and voluntary fortification vary widely among countries with food supplements being responsible for the largest differences in total intakes. In the present study, for those countries with data on fortified foods, fortified foods do not significantly contribute to higher intakes for any nutrient. Total nutrient intake expressed as percentage of the UL is generally higher in children than in adults. The risk of excessive intakes is relatively low for the majority of nutrients with a few exceptions. Children are the most vulnerable group as they are more likely to exhibit high intakes relative to the UL. There is a need to develop improved methods for estimating intakes of micronutrients from fortified foods and food supplements in future dietary surveys.

  12. Supplemental food that supports both predator and pest: A risk for biological control?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leman, A.; Messelink, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Supplemental food sources to support natural enemies in crops are increasingly being tested and used. This is particularly interesting for generalist predators that can reproduce on these food sources. However, a potential risk for pest control could occur when herbivores also benefit from

  13. Estrogenic Activities of Food Supplements and Beers as Assessed by a Yeast Bioreporter Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoruyi, Iyekhoetin Matthew; Pohjanvirta, Raimo

    2017-10-31

    Mounting evidence of the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in humans has led to assaying a vast array of food items (processed or packaged) as possible sources of human exposure to estrogens. In this study, we investigated the current situation in this respect of different food supplements and beer brands. Eleven food supplements and 24 beer brands were obtained from Helsinki, Finland. Sample preparation was carried out by established methods while estrogenic activities were assessed by a yeast bioluminescent assay, using two recombinant yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMAEREluc/ERα and S. cerevisiae BMA64/luc). All the food supplements as well as 81% of the beer samples tested were found to be estrogenic, with estradiol equivalent concentrations of food supplements and beer brands ranging from 7.5 to 11.5 µg/ml and from below detection limits to 43.6 ng/ml, respectively. The estrogenic activities detected in beer samples were not dependent on the beer's alcoholic content, the country of production, or the size of the production brewery. The results of our study imply that both food supplements and beers can be a significant source of human exposure to estrogens. Therefore, further studies and regular surveillance are warranted.

  14. Invasive Fungal Infections Acquired from Contaminated Food or Nutritional Supplements: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Chiller, Tom M; Mody, Rajal K

    2016-07-01

    Fungi are an integral part of the natural environment and, therefore, play many roles in relation to food: some fungi are used in food production, some are food sources themselves, and some are agents of food spoilage. Some fungi that contaminate food can also be harmful to human health. The harmful but noninfectious health consequences of mycotoxins have been well-characterized, but the extent to which fungi in food pose a risk for invasive infections is unknown. We conducted a literature review to identify cases of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) believed to have resulted from ingestion or inhalation of food, beverages, or dietary supplements (excluding Saccharomyces infections). We identified 11 publications describing cases or small outbreaks of IFIs related to foods or beverages and three describing IFIs related to dietary supplements. These food-associated IFIs were predominantly mold infections, and the few yeast infections were associated with dairy products. Suspected foodborne IFIs appear to be rare, but are increasingly described in the electronically searchable literature. They are associated with a variety of foods, are due to a variety of fungal pathogens, and primarily occur in persons with immunosuppressive conditions or other predisposing factors. Various guidelines for high-risk patients recommend avoidance of certain food products that may contain high levels of fungi, but further work is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of these restrictive diets in preventing fungal infections. The relationships between food spoilage, food insecurity, and IFI risk are another area that may warrant further exploration.

  15. Active pharmaceutical ingredients detected in herbal food supplements for weight loss sampled on the Dutch market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeuwijk, Noortje M; Venhuis, Bastiaan J; de Kaste, Dries; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Martena, Martijn J

    2014-01-01

    Herbal food supplements claiming to reduce weight may contain active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements for weight loss on the Dutch market contain APIs with weight loss properties. Herbal food supplements intended for weight loss (n = 50) were sampled from August 2004 to May 2013. An HPLC-DAD-MS/MS method was used to screen for the presence of the APIs in herbal supplements. In 24 samples the APIs sibutramine, desmethylsibutramine (DMS), didesmethylsibutramine (DDMS), rimonabant, sildenafil and/or the laxative phenolphthalein were identified 41 times. The presence of these APIs was, however, not stated on the label. The potential pharmacological effects of the detected APIs were estimated using data from reported effective doses of approved drugs. Use of 20 of the 24 herbal food supplements may result in potential pharmacological effects. Furthermore, risk assessment of phenolphthalein, a suspected carcinogen and found to be present in 10 supplements, based on the margin of exposure (MOE) approach, resulted in MOE values of 96-30,000. MOE values lower than 10,000 (96-220) were calculated for the daily intake levels of four out of these 10 supplements in which phenolphthalein was found. However, taking into account that weight loss preparations may be used for only a few weeks or months rather than during a lifetime, MOE values may be two to three orders of magnitude higher. The current study shows that the use of food supplements with sibutramine, DMS, DDMS and/or phenolphthalein could result in pharmacological effects.

  16. Intake of selected nutrients from foods, from fortification and from supplements in various European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, A; Hirvonen, T; Mensik, GBM

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent European Union regulation requires setting of maximum amount of micronutrients in dietary supplements or foods taking into account the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) established by scientific risk assessment and population reference intakes. Objective: To collect and evalu......Background: Recent European Union regulation requires setting of maximum amount of micronutrients in dietary supplements or foods taking into account the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) established by scientific risk assessment and population reference intakes. Objective: To collect...... and evaluate recently available data on intakes of selected vitamins and minerals from conventional foods, food supplements and fortified foods in adults and children. Intake of calcium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, zinc, folic acid, niacin and total vitamin A/retinol, B6, D and E...... consume considerably less than the UL with exceptions being retinol, zinc, iodine, copper and magnesium. The major contributor to intakes for all nutrients and in all countries is from foods in the base diet. The patterns of food supplements and voluntary fortification vary widely among countries...

  17. Foods, fortificants, and supplements: Where do Americans get their nutrients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Bailey, Regan L; Dwyer, Johanna

    2011-10-01

    Limited data are available on the source of usual nutrient intakes in the United States. This analysis aimed to assess contributions of micronutrients to usual intakes derived from all sources (naturally occurring, fortified and enriched, and dietary supplements) and to compare usual intakes to the Dietary Reference Intake for U.S. residents aged ≥2 y according to NHANES 2003-2006 (n = 16,110). We used the National Cancer Institute method to assess usual intakes of 19 micronutrients by source. Only a small percentage of the population had total usual intakes (from dietary intakes and supplements) below the estimated average requirement (EAR) for the following: vitamin B-6 (8%), folate (8%), zinc (8%), thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-12, phosphorus, iron, copper, and selenium (Enrichment and/or fortification largely contributed to intakes of vitamins A, C, and D, thiamin, iron, and folate. Dietary supplements further reduced the percentage of the population consuming less than the EAR for all nutrients. The percentage of the population with total intakes greater than the tolerable upper intake level (UL) was very low for most nutrients, whereas 10.3 and 8.4% of the population had intakes greater than the UL for niacin and zinc, respectively. Without enrichment and/or fortification and supplementation, many Americans did not achieve the recommended micronutrient intake levels set forth in the Dietary Reference Intake.

  18. Influence of Moderate High-Pressure Homogenization on Quality of Bioactive Compounds of Functional Food Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarna Aguayo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current interest in health has led to an increase in demand for functional food supplements as well as in industry concern for maintaining the bioactive compounds of such foods via the application of new technologies. In this study, we evaluated the effect of moderate high-pressure homogenization (HPH treatments (80 and 120 MPa versus thermal treatment (80°C, atmospheric pressure on the functional bioactive compounds from four different functional supplements stored under accelerated conditions (40°C  ±  2°C and 75%  ±  5% relative humidity for 6 months. HPH proved to be a better alternative than thermal treatment for functional supplements containing heat-sensitive compounds such as vitamin C, vitamin A, and unsaturated fatty acids (10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid. The proanthocyanidin, cynarin, chlorogenic, and iron contents, however, were not initially affected by HPH treatments. The storage time caused important reductions in the majority of the compounds studied (mainly in vitamins C, B12, and A, although the lowest decrease was found in the HPH samples. The food matrix had an important effect on the final functional composition and required the optimization of HPH treatments for each functional food supplement. HPH is a recommended alternative to thermal treatment for functional food supplements, in particular when they are rich in thermolabile bioactive compounds.

  19. 32 CFR 199.23 - Special Supplemental Food Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Contract brand. The brand of a particular food item that has been competitively selected by the DoD to be... Program income eligibility determinations, income guidelines shall mean the income guidelines published by... brand food item. (25) Regional Lead Agent. The designated major military medical center that acts as the...

  20. HIV/AIDS, food supplementation and livelihood programs in Uganda: a way forward?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Yager

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, health, nutrition and policy experts have become increasingly aware of the many ways in which food insecurity and HIV infection negatively impact and reinforce one another. In response, many organizations providing HIV care began supplying food aid to clients in need. Food supplementation, however, was quickly recognized as an unsustainable and incomplete intervention. Many HIV care organizations therefore developed integrated HIV and livelihood programs (IHLPs to target the root causes of food insecurity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 21 key informants who worked at seven organizations providing HIV care, food aid, or IHLPs in Kampala, Uganda in 2007-2008 to better understand the impact of IHLPs on the well-being of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHAs and the challenges in transitioning clients from food aid to IHLPs. There was strong consensus among those interviewed that IHLPs are an important intervention in addressing food insecurity and its adverse health consequences among PLWHAs. Key informants identified three main challenges in transitioning PLWHAs from food supplementation programs to IHLPs: (1 lack of resources (2 timing of the transition and (3 logistical considerations including geography and weather. Factors seen as contributing to the success of programs included: (1 close involvement of community leaders (2 close ties with local and national government (3 diversification of IHLP activities and (4 close integration with food supplementation programs, all linked through a central program of HIV care. CONCLUSION: Health, policy and development experts should continue to strengthen IHLPs for participants in need. Further research is needed to determine when and how participants should be transitioned from food supplementation to IHLPs, and to determine how to better correlate measures of food insecurity with objective clinical outcomes so

  1. HIV/AIDS, food supplementation and livelihood programs in Uganda: a way forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Jessica E; Kadiyala, Suneetha; Weiser, Sheri D

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, health, nutrition and policy experts have become increasingly aware of the many ways in which food insecurity and HIV infection negatively impact and reinforce one another. In response, many organizations providing HIV care began supplying food aid to clients in need. Food supplementation, however, was quickly recognized as an unsustainable and incomplete intervention. Many HIV care organizations therefore developed integrated HIV and livelihood programs (IHLPs) to target the root causes of food insecurity. We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 21 key informants who worked at seven organizations providing HIV care, food aid, or IHLPs in Kampala, Uganda in 2007-2008 to better understand the impact of IHLPs on the well-being of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHAs) and the challenges in transitioning clients from food aid to IHLPs. There was strong consensus among those interviewed that IHLPs are an important intervention in addressing food insecurity and its adverse health consequences among PLWHAs. Key informants identified three main challenges in transitioning PLWHAs from food supplementation programs to IHLPs: (1) lack of resources (2) timing of the transition and (3) logistical considerations including geography and weather. Factors seen as contributing to the success of programs included: (1) close involvement of community leaders (2) close ties with local and national government (3) diversification of IHLP activities and (4) close integration with food supplementation programs, all linked through a central program of HIV care. Health, policy and development experts should continue to strengthen IHLPs for participants in need. Further research is needed to determine when and how participants should be transitioned from food supplementation to IHLPs, and to determine how to better correlate measures of food insecurity with objective clinical outcomes so as to better evaluate program results.

  2. No acute effects of choline bitartrate food supplements on memory in healthy, young, human adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lippelt, D.P.; Van, der Kint S.; Van, Herk K.; Naber, M.

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declar...

  3. Functional food supplements to ameliorate the secondary complications in high fructose fed diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gite, S S; Yadav, S A; Nilegaonkar, S S; Agte, V V

    2017-05-24

    Functional foods are the most natural and safest source of health ingredients, providing health benefits beyond basic nutrition, and hence can be used as supplements for the prevention of secondary complications in diabetes. Persistent diabetes may cause glycation of various tissue proteins such as of those in lens, kidney, blood, and brain, which may further lead to the development of pathological conditions such as cataract and cardiovascular diseases. This study on adult rats was designed to assess if the functional food supplements A and B (proprietary blends of antioxidant rich plant materials) can reduce secondary complications such as cataract, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress under severe diabetic conditions. After nine weeks of intervention of the supplements, it was found that the % HbA1c levels in the formulation group B significantly (p functional foods in the effective management of secondary complications associated with severe diabetic conditions.

  4. Dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ron J; King, Doug S; Lea, Trevor

    2004-01-01

    For the athlete training hard, nutritional supplements are often seen as promoting adaptations to training, allowing more consistent and intensive training by promoting recovery between training sessions, reducing interruptions to training because of illness or injury, and enhancing competitive performance. Surveys show that the prevalence of supplement use is widespread among sportsmen and women, but the use of few of these products is supported by a sound research base and some may even be harmful to the athlete. Special sports foods, including energy bars and sports drinks, have a real role to play, and some protein supplements and meal replacements may also be useful in some circumstances. Where there is a demonstrated deficiency of an essential nutrient, an increased intake from food or from supplementation may help, but many athletes ignore the need for caution in supplement use and take supplements in doses that are not necessary or may even be harmful. Some supplements do offer the prospect of improved performance; these include creatine, caffeine, bicarbonate and, perhaps, a very few others. There is no evidence that prohormones such as androstenedione are effective in enhancing muscle mass or strength, and these prohormones may result in negative health consequences, as well as positive drug tests. Contamination of supplements that may cause an athlete to fail a doping test is widespread.

  5. Neurotransmitters as food supplements: the effects of GABA on brain and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert eBoonstra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The food supplement version of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is widely available online. Although many consumers claim that they experience benefits from the use of these products, it is unclear whether these supplements confer benefits beyond a placebo effect. Currently, the mechanism of action behind these products is unknown. It has long been thought that GABA is unable to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB, but the studies that have assessed this issue are often contradictory and range widely in their employed methods. Accordingly, future research needs to establish the effects of oral GABA administration on GABA levels in the human brain, for example using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. There is some evidence in favor of a calming effect of GABA food supplements, but most of this evidence was reported by researchers with a potential conflict of interest. We suggest that any veridical effects of GABA food supplements on brain and cognition might be exerted through BBB passage or, more indirectly, via an effect on the enteric nervous system. We conclude that the mechanism of action of GABA food supplements is far from clear, and that further work is needed to establish the behavioral effects of GABA.

  6. Comparison of three methods for detection of herbal food supplement irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Hansen, Hanne; Boisen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    A survey for irradiation of 106 herbal food supplements was carried out in Denmark in 2003. The results from three methods, two screening methods and a specific method, were compared: Direct epifluorescent filter technique/aerobic plate count (DEFT/APC), photostimulated luminescence (PSL...... was lacking in sensitivity, as not enough minerals could be isolated to get a signal over the minimum detection level. For such clean herbal food supplements no suitable method exists at all among the CEN standardised methods for irradiation detection....

  7. Contribution of microfinance in enhancing food access and coping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution of microfinance in enhancing food access and coping strategy in AIDS-affected households in Kakamega county, Kenya. ... In response, households develop various coping strategies, especially in the context of food shortages. ... Key words: AIDS, Microfinance, Food, Security, Access, Affected, Non–affected,

  8. Experimental food supplementation reveals habitat-dependent male reproductive investment in a migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Sara A; Sillett, T Scott; Risk, Benjamin B; Webster, Michael S

    2015-03-22

    Environmental factors can shape reproductive investment strategies and influence the variance in male mating success. Environmental effects on extrapair paternity have traditionally been ascribed to aspects of the social environment, such as breeding density and synchrony. However, social factors are often confounded with habitat quality and are challenging to disentangle. We used both natural variation in habitat quality and a food supplementation experiment to separate the effects of food availability-one key aspect of habitat quality-on extrapair paternity (EPP) and reproductive success in the black-throated blue warbler, Setophaga caerulescens. High natural food availability was associated with higher within-pair paternity (WPP) and fledging two broods late in the breeding season, but lower EPP. Food-supplemented males had higher WPP leading to higher reproductive success relative to controls, and when in low-quality habitat, food-supplemented males were more likely to fledge two broods but less likely to gain EPP. Our results demonstrate that food availability affects trade-offs in reproductive activities. When food constraints are reduced, males invest in WPP at the expense of EPP. These findings imply that environmental change could alter how individuals allocate their resources and affect the selective environment that drives variation in male mating success. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk assessment of plant food supplements and other herbal products containing aristolochic acids using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdullah, Rozaini; Diaz, Leolean Nyle; Wesseling, Sebas; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    After the incidences of induction of aristolochic acid nephropathy after consumption of herbal weight loss preparations that accidentally contained aristolochic acids (AAs), several countries defined national restrictions on the presence of AAs in food, including plant food supplements (PFS) and

  10. Oxidative stress and food supplementation with antioxidants in therapy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechi, Sara; Fiore, Filippo; Chiavolelli, Francesca; Dimauro, Corrado; Nudda, Anna; Cocco, Raffaella

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a long-term antioxidant-supplemented diet to regulate the oxidative stress and general health status of dogs involved in animal-assisted intervention (AAI) programs. Oxidative stress is a consequence of the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exercise-induced oxidative stress can increase muscle fatigue and fiber damage and eventually leads to impairment of the immune system. A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical evaluation was conducted with 11 healthy therapy dogs: 6 females and 5 males of different breeds and with a mean age of 2.7 ± 0.8 y (mean ± SEM). The dogs were divided into 2 groups, 1 fed a high quality commercial diet without antioxidants (CD) and the other a high quality commercial diet supplemented with antioxidants (SD) for 18 wk. After the first 18 wk, metabolic parameters, reactive oxygen metabolite-derivatives (d-ROMs), and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) levels were monitored and showed a significant reduction of d-ROMs, triglycerides, and creatinine values in the SD group ( P dogs.

  11. Food Supplements Have a Positive Impact on Weight Gain and the Addition of Animal Source Foods Increases Lean Body Mass of Kenyan Schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grillenberger, M.; Neumann, C.G.; Murphy, S.P.; Bwibo, N.O.; Veer, van 't P.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; West, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    Observational studies of dietary patterns and growth and studies with milk supplementation have shown that children consuming diets containing animal source foods grow better. This study evaluates the growth of 544 Kenyan schoolchildren (median age 7.1 y) after 23 mo of food supplementation with a

  12. Cordyceps sinensis Health Supplement Enhances Recovery from Taxol-Induced Leukopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Chung; Chuang, Wei-Ling; Tsai, Min-Lung; Hong, Ji-Hong; McBride, William H.; Chiang, Chi-Shiun

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the health food supplement Cordyceps sinensis (CS) to ameliorate suppressive effects of chemotherapy on bone marrow function as a model for cancer treatment Mice were treated with Taxol (17 mg/kg body wt) one day before oral administration of a hot-water extract of CS (50 mg/kg daily) that was given daily for 3 weeks. White blood cell counts in peripheral blood of mice receiving Taxol were at 50% of normal levels on day 28 but had recovered completely in mice treated with CS. In vitro assays showed that CS enhanced the colony-forming ability of both granulocyte macrophage colony forming unit (GM-CFU) and osteogenic cells from bone marrow preparations and promoted the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells into adipocytes, alkaline phosphatase–positive osteoblasts, and bone tissue. This result could be attributed to enhanced expression of Cbfa1 (core binding factor a) and BMP-2 (bone morphogenetic protein) with concurrent suppression of ODF (osteoclast differentiation factor/RANK [receptor activator of NF-κB]) ligand. In summary, CS enhances recovery of mice from leukopenia caused by Taxol treatment. It appears to do so by protecting both hematopoietic progenitor cells directly and the bone marrow stem cell niche through its effects on osteoblast differentiation. PMID:18367634

  13. Cordyceps sinensis health supplement enhances recovery from taxol-induced leukopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Chung; Chuang, Wei-Ling; Tsai, Min-Lung; Hong, Ji-Hong; McBride, William H; Chiang, Chi-Shiun

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the health food supplement Cordyceps sinensis (CS) to ameliorate suppressive effects of chemotherapy on bone marrow function as a model for cancer treatment. Mice were treated with Taxol (17 mg/kg body wt) one day before oral administration of a hot-water extract of CS (50 mg/kg daily) that was given daily for 3 weeks. White blood cell counts in peripheral blood of mice receiving Taxol were at 50% of normal levels on day 28 but had recovered completely in mice treated with CS. In vitro assays showed that CS enhanced the colony-forming ability of both granulocyte macrophage colony forming unit (GM-CFU) and osteogenic cells from bone marrow preparations and promoted the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells into adipocytes, alkaline phosphatase-positive osteoblasts, and bone tissue. This result could be attributed to enhanced expression of Cbfa1 (core binding factor a) and BMP-2 (bone morphogenetic protein) with concurrent suppression of ODF (osteoclast differentiation factor/RANK [receptor activator of NF-kappaB]) ligand. In summary, CS enhances recovery of mice from leukopenia caused by Taxol treatment. It appears to do so by protecting both hematopoietic progenitor cells directly and the bone marrow stem cell niche through its effects on osteoblast differentiation.

  14. Serum lithium as a compliance marker for food and supplement intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de N.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Analyzing 24-h urine for lithium after consumption of lithium-tagged foods or supplements provides a validated compliance marker but is laborious. Objective: Most studies involve blood sampling; therefore, we tested whether serum lithium concentration could be used as a compliance marker. Design: We

  15. Preferences for food and nutritional supplements among adult people living with HIV in Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodas Moya, Carlos; Kodish, Stephen; Manary, Mark; Grede, Nils; Pee, de Saskia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the factors influencing food intake and preferences for potential nutritional supplements to treat mild and moderate malnutrition among adult people living with HIV (PLHIV). Design: Qualitative research using in-depth interviews with a triangulation of participants and an

  16. A critical appraisal of probiotics (as drugs or food supplements) in gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passariello, Annalisa; Agricole, Pascal; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Probiotics may be registered as food supplements or drugs. This article summarizes differences in European regulations of probiotics registered as food supplements and drugs, as well as issues related to the quality of probiotic products. For registration as a drug, the European Medicines Agency demands extensive and detailed quality, efficacy and safety evidence; whereas compulsory analyses requested for food supplements consist only in a nutritional analysis. As a result, the quality of those probiotics registered as drugs, compared to food supplements, is in general controlled with higher standards. Despite these differences and whatever the status of the probiotic product, its efficacy and safety has to be documented in well conducted randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Furthermore, this paper reviews recent evidence on the use of probiotics for gastrointestinal diseases, evaluating all the existing information up to January 2014. In all eligible published studies in which use of probiotics for gastrointestinal diseases were investigated and reported, no language limitations were applied. Special focus is placed on RCTs (or their meta-analyses) showing positive results, so that the findings may be applicable to everyday clinical practice. Currently, the best documented clinical areas appear to be probiotics efficacy for the treatment of acute gastroenteritis in children and for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea both in children and in adults. In other gastrointestinal conditions, some promising observations are emerging, but no definitive conclusions can be reached at present.

  17. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippelt, Dominique; van der Kint, Sander; van Herk, Kevin; Naber, M.

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory

  18. Enhancing Food Security through Information and Communication ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Honduras has one of the highest rates of food insecurity in Latin America and the Caribbean (just behind Haiti and Nicaragua). Although small-scale subsistence farming accounts for more than 60% of national food production, small-scale producers have the country's highest rates of poverty and malnutrition. Some of the ...

  19. Prevalence of Food Supplements used in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Referred to Government Hospitals in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Noshi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA is an autoimmune disease where immune system mistakenly assumes different elements of joints as exogenous and attacks it. Based on scientific findings, a wide range of complementary and alternative therapies (including herbal and food supplements are useful for RA. Methods: This Cross-sectional study was carried out on 120 patients suffered from RA whom were referred to public health centers of Yazd in 2014. Using a questionnaire, demographic characteristics and the type and rate of supplementation were evaluated in these patients. Results: out of 120 patients, 118 individuals used at least one of the questioned supplements. Patients ranged from 19 to 76 years that 71.6 percent ≥ 40 years, 85% female, 92% married, 55% earned between 1 and 2 million Tomans per month and 51.7% had high school diploma or higher education. The most prevalent consumed supplement was calcium-Vitamin D (90.7% and Folic acid (%80.5, vitamin D (%73.7, and omega-3 (%55.9 came afterward. Interestingly, majority of patients (96.5% were taking supplements under the supervision of rheumatologist. Conclusion: Based on present data obtained in patients suffering from RA, most frequently used supplement was calcium-vitamin D. Most patients were satisfied of positive effects of these supplements.

  20. Functional foods and food supplements for athletes: from myths to benefit claims substantiation through the study of selected biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouns, Fred; Nieuwenhoven, Michiel van; Jeukendrup, Asker; Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter van

    2002-11-01

    The development of the sports food market and industrial involvement have led to numerous nutritional studies to define the type of nutrients that are most suited to support energy metabolism, fluid balance and muscle function. The key question in many of these studies was: 'Does the product lead to a significant product/consumer benefit that can be used as a claim on the package?' New methods and techniques have been developed, partly with sponsorship of the food industry, with the goal of measuring the effects of specific nutrients and supplements on athletic performance and metabolism. In line with this development, a wide variety of supplements and sports foods/drinks labelled with various performance or health benefit statements have been launched on the sports nutrition market. Although a variety of products have been tested clinically, there are also many products on the market with benefit claims that cannot be supported by sound nutritional and sports physiological science. The current short review highlights some of the methods and biomarkers that are used to substantiate product/consumer benefit claims for foods and drinks that are marketed as functional foods for athletes.

  1. Stable isotope aided evaluation of community nutrition program: effect of food supplementation schemes on maternal and infant nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cissé, Aïta Sarr; Dossou, Nicole; Ndiaye, Mamadou; Guèye, Amadou Lamine; Diop, El Hadji Issakha; Diaham, Babou; Guiro, Amadou Tidiane; Cissé, Djibril; Sarr, Cheikh Saad Bouh; Wade, Salimata

    2002-09-01

    The supplementation program of the community nutrition project (PNC) launched by the Senegalese Government in order to protect the most vulnerable groups (children and women) was evaluated. Using a stable isotope (deuterium), we assessed the effect of the PNC on breastmilk output, mother's body composition, and baby's growth at three months of lactation. Breastmilk triglycerides, lactose, protein, and zinc were also determined. Mothers who were supplemented more than 60 days during pregnancy showed a significant increase in fat-free mass as compared to those who were supplemented for less than 30 days (p = .03). Breastmilk output was not influenced by the supplementation, but breastmilk lactose, total protein, and zinc contents increased significantly (p supplemented mothers. Growth of the babies of the supplemented mothers was better than that of those whose mothers were not supplemented. It was concluded that the food supplementation had beneficial effects on both mothers' and babies' nutritional status depending on the onset of the supplementation.

  2. Food supplementation does not increase demographic rates in a passerine species of conservation concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innes M.W. Sim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have examined the effects of the provision of supplementary food on aspects of avian reproductive success, but far fewer have gone on to examine the potential positive effects of food supplementation on the demographic rates which are key for population growth rate. Testing for potential effects of food shortage on vital rates is likely to be particularly important in species of high conservation concern, where populations are particularly small, isolated or decreasing rapidly. Here we test the effects of the provision of supplementary food on reproductive success, body condition at fledging and post-fledging survival of ring ouzels (Turdus torquatus, a species of high conservation concern in the UK. However, food supplementation had no detectable effect on any of these parameters. There was no significant difference in return rates of fed and unfed fledglings in the year following hatching, and most post-fledging mortality was apparently caused by predation by raptors and mustelids. We conclude that the supply of invertebrate food sources for nestlings was not a major limiting factor in our study area, at least during this two-year study. Further studies are required to quantify the precise mix of habitats used by ring ouzels, at the appropriate scale, which provide concealment from predators and access to food supplies throughout the spring and summer months.

  3. The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barikmo Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies. Methods We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin, product and/or brand name were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food Table. Results The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods. Spices, herbs and supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high. Berries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high antioxidant values. Conclusions This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential research tool to further elucidate the potential

  4. The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Monica H; Halvorsen, Bente L; Holte, Kari; Bøhn, Siv K; Dragland, Steinar; Sampson, Laura; Willey, Carol; Senoo, Haruki; Umezono, Yuko; Sanada, Chiho; Barikmo, Ingrid; Berhe, Nega; Willett, Walter C; Phillips, Katherine M; Jacobs, David R; Blomhoff, Rune

    2010-01-22

    A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies. We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin, product and/or brand name) were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food Table. The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods. Spices, herbs and supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high. Berries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high antioxidant values. This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential research tool to further elucidate the potential health effects of phytochemical antioxidants in diet.

  5. Food supplementation and testosterone interact to influence reproductive behavior and immune function in Sceloporus graciosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Mayté; French, Susannah S; Demas, Gregory E; Martins, Emília P

    2010-02-01

    The energetic resources in an organism's environment are essential for executing a wide range of life-history functions, including immunity and reproduction. Most energetic budgets, however, are limited, which can lead to trade-offs among competing functions. Increasing reproductive effort tends to decrease immunity in many cases, and increasing total energy via supplemental feedings can eliminate this effect. Testosterone (T), an important regulator of reproduction, and food availability are thus both potential factors regulating life-history processes, yet they are often tested in isolation of each other. In this study, we considered the effect of both food availability and elevated T on immune function and reproductive behavior in sagebrush lizards, Sceloporus graciosus, to assess how T and energy availability affect these trade-offs. We experimentally manipulated diet (via supplemental feedings) and T (via dermal patches) in males from a natural population. We determined innate immune response by calculating the bacterial killing capability of collected plasma exposed to Escherichia coli ex vivo. We measured reproductive behavior by counting the number of courtship displays produced in a 20-min sampling period. We observed an interactive effect of food availability and T-patch on immune function, with food supplementation increasing immunity in T-patch lizards. Additionally, T increased courtship displays in control food lizards. Lizards with supplemental food had higher circulating T than controls. Collectively, this study shows that the energetic state of the animal plays a critical role in modulating the interactions among T, behavior and immunity in sagebrush lizards and likely other species. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sodium nitrate supplementation does not enhance performance of endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bescós, Raúl; Ferrer-Roca, Ventura; Galilea, Pedro A; Roig, Andreu; Drobnic, Franchek; Sureda, Antoni; Martorell, Miquel; Cordova, Alfredo; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

    2012-12-01

    Supplementation with inorganic nitrate has been suggested to be an ergogenic aid for athletes as nitric oxide donor. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ingestion of inorganic sodium nitrate benefits well-trained athletes performing a 40-min exercise test in laboratory conditions. In addition, we investigated the effect of this supplement on plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and in nitrated proteins. Thirteen trained athletes participated in this randomized, double-blind, crossover study. They performed a 40-min cycle ergometer distance-trial test after two 3-d periods of dietary supplementation with sodium nitrate (10 mg·kg of body mass) or placebo. Concentration of plasma nitrate (256 ± 35 μM) and nitrite (334 ± 86 nM) increased significantly (P nitrate supplementation compared with placebo (nitrate: 44 ± 11 μM; nitrite: 187 ± 43 nM). In terms of exercise performance, there were no differences in either the mean distance (nitrate: 26.4 ± 1.1 km; placebo: 26.3 ± 1.2 km; P = 0.61) or mean power output (nitrate: 258 ± 28 W; placebo: 257 ± 28 W; P = 0.89) between treatments. Plasma ET-1 increased significantly (P nitrate (4.0 ± 0.8 pg·mL) and placebo (2.4 ± 0.4 pg·mL) conditions. This increase was significantly greater (P nitrate group. Levels of nitrated proteins did not differ between treatments (nitrate: preexercise, 91% ± 23%; postexercise, 81% ± 23%; placebo: preexercise, 95% ± 20%; postexercise, 99% ± 19%). Sodium nitrate supplementation did not improve a 40-min distance-trial performance in endurance athletes. In addition, concentration of plasma ET-1 increased significantly after exercise after supplementation with sodium nitrate.

  7. Could We Really Use Aloe vera Food Supplements to Treat Diabetes? Quality Control Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Habtemariam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes UK has recently listed a number of herbs and spices that have been clinically shown to improve blood glucose control in type-2 diabetes patients and the diabetes high-risk group. With Aloe vera being top in this list, its health benefit along with health and beauty/food retailers supplying it was illustrated in detail. Previous article from this laboratory scrutinised the merit of using A. vera as an alternative therapy to prescription antidiabetic drugs and the risk of using food supplements in the market which do not qualify as drug preparations. In continuation of this discussion, the present study assesses three Aloe Pura brands and one Holland and Barret brand of A. vera juice supplements in the UK market through chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. While the polysaccharide active ingredient, acemannan, appears to be within the recommended limit, it was found that Aloe Pura (one of the best-selling brands for A. vera supplement products have benzoate additive that does not appear in the supplement levels. Moreover, two of the Aloe Pura brand juices contain methanol, suggesting that the International Aloe Science Council (IASC certification does not guarantee the medicinal quality of these products. The therapeutic fitness of such supplements is discussed.

  8. Could We Really Use Aloe vera Food Supplements to Treat Diabetes? Quality Control Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes UK has recently listed a number of herbs and spices that have been clinically shown to improve blood glucose control in type-2 diabetes patients and the diabetes high-risk group. With Aloe vera being top in this list, its health benefit along with health and beauty/food retailers supplying it was illustrated in detail. Previous article from this laboratory scrutinised the merit of using A. vera as an alternative therapy to prescription antidiabetic drugs and the risk of using food supplements in the market which do not qualify as drug preparations. In continuation of this discussion, the present study assesses three Aloe Pura brands and one Holland and Barret brand of A. vera juice supplements in the UK market through chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. While the polysaccharide active ingredient, acemannan, appears to be within the recommended limit, it was found that Aloe Pura (one of the best-selling brands for A. vera supplement) products have benzoate additive that does not appear in the supplement levels. Moreover, two of the Aloe Pura brand juices contain methanol, suggesting that the International Aloe Science Council (IASC) certification does not guarantee the medicinal quality of these products. The therapeutic fitness of such supplements is discussed. PMID:29511381

  9. Cognitive aging, childhood intelligence, and the use of food supplements: possible involvement of n-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Lawrence J; Fox, Helen C; Wahle, Klaus W; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2004-12-01

    Food supplement use is widely promoted, but little is known about the cognitive effects of food supplements. We examined the effects of food supplement use on cognitive aging. This was an observational study of subjects born in 1936 whose mental ability was tested in 1947 and who were followed up in 2000-2001, at which time cognition, diet, food supplement use, and risk factors for vascular disease were assessed. In a nested case-control study, fish-oil users were matched with nonusers, and cognitive function was related to erythrocyte n-3 fatty acid composition. Childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) did not differ significantly by category of food supplement use (ie, none, fish oil, vitamins, and other). At the age of 64 y, cognitive function was higher in food supplement users than in nonusers before adjustment for childhood IQ. After adjustment for childhood IQ, digit symbol (mental speed) test scores were higher in food supplement users. Fish-oil supplement users consumed more vitamin C and vegetable and cereal fiber than did non-supplement-users. In a nested case-control study, erythrocyte membrane n-3 content was higher in fish-oil supplement users than in nonusers, but cognitive function did not differ significantly between groups. Total erythrocyte n-3 fatty acids and the ratio of docosahexaenoic acid to arachidonic acid was associated with better cognitive function in late life before and after adjustment for childhood IQ. Food supplement use and erythrocyte n-3 content are associated with better cognitive aging. If associations with n-3 content are causal, optimization of n-3 and n-6 fatty acid intakes could improve retention of cognitive function in old age.

  10. IMPACT OF FOOD AND FOLATE SUPPLEMENTATION DURING Salmonella TYPHI INFECTION IN Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans is an instructive and suitable model for studying pathogenesis of almost all human pathogens. Salmonella Typhi is gram-negative facultative intracellular anaerobe that causes several pathetic infections. Necessary enriched nutrient ingestion during pathological conditions may reduce the harshness of the infection. We investigated the impact of folate and food supplementation during S. Typhi infection on the model system, C. elegans. Our data indicated that folate supplementation (10 µg increases the lifespan of S. Typhi infected C. elegans up to 20%. In combination with laboratory food source E. coli OP50, folate increases the infected the worm’s lifespan to 40%. The wild type C. elegans infected by S. Typhi died with the LT50 of 60 ± 12 h. The LT50 of S. Typhi infected folt-1 mutant strain VC959 was 96 ± 6 h. However, the folate supplemented mutant worms exhibited an extended life with LT50 of 120 ± 6 h. The short time exposure and pharyngeal pumping studies confirmed that folt-1 mutant worm exhibited increased survival rate during pathogenic course at significant level when compared to wild-type. Our data revealed that folt-1 plays a significant role in host defense system against S. Typhi infection and the folate supplementation in combination with food increases the host survival during S. Typhi infection.

  11. MODERN APPROACHES TO ORGANIZATION OF SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDING FOR THE CHILDREN, SUFFERING FROM FOOD INTOLERANCE AND ALIMENTARY DEPENDENT DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.E. Borovik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the issues related to the prescription of supplemental feeding to the children with various pathology: food intolerance (food allergy, lactase deficiency, gluten sensitive enteropathy and alimentary dependent diseases (iron deficiency anemia, oligotrophy. The authors substantiated the necessity and expediency of supplemental feeding introduction. They also examined the basic principles of its purpose. The authors described the peculiarities of each of the supplemental feeding groups and noted the expediency of manufactured product use. Along with that, they pointed out to the dependence of terms and order, in which different products and dishes of supplemental feeding are introduced, upon the character of the disease and the nutritive status of a child.Key words: children, supplemental feeding, manufactured Supplemental feeding products, food intolerance, alimentary dependent diseases.

  12. Natural radioactive traces in food supplements (ergogenic) consumed by the public of the academies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheibel, Viviane; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2009-01-01

    The radioactive traces in food supplements (ergogenic) consumed mainly by the public of the academies were analyzed from the high-resolution gamma spectrometry. After researching in academies of Londrina-PR and Sao Paulo-SP about the main supplements used to increase the performance and muscle hypertrophy, it was decided to examine the three higher consumption of supplements, which were: whey protein, albumin and BCAA (Branched-Chain Amino Acids), the last for branched-chain amino acids for athletes. For each of these supplements have been tested three brands that have the largest sales. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Environmental Radiometry, of the Radiation Metrology Center located on the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN-SP). The samples were measured by HPGe detector with beryllium window, model GX2520 Xtra, 25% relative efficiency and effective resolution of 1.85 keV for the energy of 1.33 MeV of 60 Co. The 40 K showed the highest levels of activity for all samples, ranging between 125 ± 5 and 270.1 ± 9.5 Bq/kg, with the exception of BCAA supplementation, which showed no such radionuclide. The radioactivity present in all analyzed supplement was within the international limits, allowing concluding that consumption of such goods pose no health risk derived from radiation. (author)

  13. Natural radioactive traces in food supplements (ergogenic) consumed by the public of the academies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibel, Viviane; Appoloni, Carlos R. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica], e-mail: scheibel@uel.br, e-mail: appoloni@uel.br; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: brigitte@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    The radioactive traces in food supplements (ergogenic) consumed mainly by the public of the academies were analyzed from the high-resolution gamma spectrometry. After researching in academies of Londrina-PR and Sao Paulo-SP about the main supplements used to increase the performance and muscle hypertrophy, it was decided to examine the three higher consumption of supplements, which were: whey protein, albumin and BCAA (Branched-Chain Amino Acids), the last for branched-chain amino acids for athletes. For each of these supplements have been tested three brands that have the largest sales. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Environmental Radiometry, of the Radiation Metrology Center located on the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN-SP). The samples were measured by HPGe detector with beryllium window, model GX2520 Xtra, 25% relative efficiency and effective resolution of 1.85 keV for the energy of 1.33 MeV of {sup 60}Co. The {sup 40}K showed the highest levels of activity for all samples, ranging between 125 {+-} 5 and 270.1 {+-} 9.5 Bq/kg, with the exception of BCAA supplementation, which showed no such radionuclide. The radioactivity present in all analyzed supplement was within the international limits, allowing concluding that consumption of such goods pose no health risk derived from radiation. (author)

  14. Dietary L-arginine supplementation enhances placental growth and reproductive performance in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kaiguo; Jiang, Zongyong; Lin, Yingcai; Zheng, Chuntian; Zhou, Guilian; Chen, Fang; Yang, Lin; Wu, Guoyao

    2012-06-01

    Suboptimal embryonic/fetal survival and growth remains a significant problem in mammals. Using a swine model, we tested the hypothesis that dietary L-arginine supplementation during gestation may improve pregnancy outcomes through enhancing placental growth and modulating hormonal secretions. Gestating pigs (Yorkshire×Landrace, n=108) were assigned randomly into two groups based on parity and body weight, representing dietary supplementation with 1.0% L-arginine-HCl or 1.7% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control) between days 22 and 114 of gestation. Blood samples were obtained from the ear vein on days 22, 40, 70 and 90 of gestation. On days 40, 70 and 90 of gestation, concentrations of estradiol in plasma were higher (Psupplemented than in control sows. Moreover, arginine supplementation increased (Psupplementation increased (Psupplementation enhanced (Psupplementation during gestation. These results indicate that dietary arginine supplementation beneficially enhances placental growth and the reproductive performance of sows.

  15. The quality of commercially available nutraceutical supplements and food sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, G Brian

    2011-01-01

    Nutraceuticals are components of dietary origin, with claimed beneficial therapeutic activities. The quality of nutraceuticals is paramount for efficacy and safety, and it includes quality of raw materials, different available chemical forms, complex products, lack of substitution of inappropriate materials, and the absence of contaminants. The aim of this review is to investigate the extent of substandard formulated and raw material nutraceuticals, and to highlight any consequent health concern. Reports of the quality of raw materials have revealed wide variations, often as a result of lack of clear regulatory definitions with respect to size of polymeric entities and also presence of glycosidic and salt forms. Published evaluations of over 70 formulations of 25 different nutraceuticals revealed variable quality; no nutraceutical showed consistent high quality, but a number revealed consistent low quality, thereby making the case for closer regulation of manufacturers. Whole food sources have also been shown to be widely variable in constituent levels. The effect of different formulations requires consideration, as the different types have been shown to have marked effects on bioavailability. The poor quality of commercially available nutraceuticals has been highlighted. In addition, incidences of side effects and drug interactions are increasing, as consumption of nutraceuticals rises. Pharmacists and health practitioners need to be aware of the scientific literature to advise accordingly. © 2010 The Author. JPP © 2010 Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.

  16. Health Food Supplements (“Health Food” Highly Nutritious From Chlorella And Oil Catfish (Pangasius hypopthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrul Syahrul

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of microalgae as a food ingredient considered effective, because in addition to alternativefood sources also contains nutrients chlorella microalgae in particular is very good for health. This microalgaerich in protein (60.5%, fat (11%, carbohydrates (20.1%, water, dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals Besidesthese microalgae contain pigments (chlorophyll, tocopherol and the active component (antimicrobial andantioxidants. This is what underlies microalgae is very useful to be used as a source of raw materials ofhealth food supplements. Currently the health food supplements have become a necessity for people tomaintain their health in order to remain vibrant. This study aims to produce high nutritious health foodsupplements from raw material chlorella enriched with fish protein concentrate and oil catfish. The methodused in the manufacture of high nutritious health food supplement is a method of microencapsulation withdifferent formulations. The results showed that the best formulations based on the profile of amino acids,fatty acids and standards AAE per day especially essential fatty acids oleic and linoleic is formulation B(chlorella 2%, 1% fish oil and fish protein concentrate 1%.

  17. Designing food structures to enhance sensory responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosca, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim

    The current overconsumption of sugar, salt and fat has been linked to the incidence of health problems. For this reason, it is necessary to decrease the intake of these food components. In the context of reducing the contents of sugar, salt and fat in

  18. The role of Bahi swamp wetlands in enhancing household food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the role of Bahi swamp resources in enhancing household food security and income of adjacent communities. Specifically, the study assessed the socioeconomic activities in the swamp with a potential contribution to local livelihoods, the contribution of the swamp in enhancing ...

  19. Managing the soil for enhanced food production in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper reviews soil management practices for enhanced food production in Nigeria. The different types of soil in Nigeria were discussed. The paper further gave details of the management practices that farmers could benefit from to enhance their productivity. These included alley cropping, agro-forestry, minimum ...

  20. European regulations on nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and functional foods: a framework based on safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Patrick; da Silva, Miguel Fernandes; Pettman, Simon

    2006-04-03

    This article describes the legislation that is relevant in the marketing of functional foods in the European Union (EU), how this legislation was developed as well as some practical consequences for manufacturers, marketers and consumers. It also addresses some concrete examples of how the EU's safety requirements for food products have impacted a range of product categories. In the late nineties, research into functional ingredients was showing promising prospects for the use of such ingredients in foodstuffs. Due mainly to safety concerns, these new scientific developments were accompanied by an urgent call for legislation. The European Commission 2000 White Paper on Food Safety announced some 80 proposals for new and improved legislation in this field. Among others, it foresaw the establishment of a General Food Law Regulation, laying down the principles of food law and the creation of an independent Food Authority endowed with the task of giving scientific advice on issues based upon scientific risk assessment with clearly separated responsibilities for risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. Since then, more than 90% of the White Paper proposals have been implemented. However, there is not, as such, a regulatory framework for 'functional foods' or 'nutraceuticals' in EU Food Law. The rules to be applied are numerous and depend on the nature of the foodstuff. The rules of the general food law Regulation are applicable to all foods. In addition, legislation on dietetic foods, on food supplements or on novel foods may also be applicable to functional foods depending on the nature of the product and on their use. Finally, the two proposals on nutrition and health claims and on the addition of vitamins and minerals and other substances to foods, which are currently in the legislative process, will also be an important factor in the future marketing of 'nutraceuticals' in Europe. The cornerstone of EU legislation on food products, including

  1. European regulations on nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and functional foods: A framework based on safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppens, Patrick; Fernandes da Silva, Miguel; Pettman, Simon

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the legislation that is relevant in the marketing of functional foods in the European Union (EU), how this legislation was developed as well as some practical consequences for manufacturers, marketers and consumers. It also addresses some concrete examples of how the EU's safety requirements for food products have impacted a range of product categories. In the late nineties, research into functional ingredients was showing promising prospects for the use of such ingredients in foodstuffs. Due mainly to safety concerns, these new scientific developments were accompanied by an urgent call for legislation. The European Commission 2000 White Paper on Food Safety announced some 80 proposals for new and improved legislation in this field. Among others, it foresaw the establishment of a General Food Law Regulation, laying down the principles of food law and the creation of an independent Food Authority endowed with the task of giving scientific advice on issues based upon scientific risk assessment with clearly separated responsibilities for risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. Since then, more than 90% of the White Paper proposals have been implemented. However, there is not, as such, a regulatory framework for 'functional foods' or 'nutraceuticals' in EU Food Law. The rules to be applied are numerous and depend on the nature of the foodstuff. The rules of the general food law Regulation are applicable to all foods. In addition, legislation on dietetic foods, on food supplements or on novel foods may also be applicable to functional foods depending on the nature of the product and on their use. Finally, the two proposals on nutrition and health claims and on the addition of vitamins and minerals and other substances to foods, which are currently in the legislative process, will also be an important factor in the future marketing of 'nutraceuticals' in Europe. The cornerstone of EU legislation on food products, including

  2. EPlantLIBRA: A composition and biological activity database for bioactive compounds in plant food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plumb, J.; Lyons, J.; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    2015-01-01

    The newly developed ePlantLIBRA database is a comprehensive and searchable database, with up-to-date coherent and validated scientific information on plant food supplement (PFS) bioactive compounds, with putative health benefits as well as adverse effects, and contaminants and residues. It is the......The newly developed ePlantLIBRA database is a comprehensive and searchable database, with up-to-date coherent and validated scientific information on plant food supplement (PFS) bioactive compounds, with putative health benefits as well as adverse effects, and contaminants and residues....... It is the only web-based database available compiling peer reviewed publications and case studies on PFS. A user-friendly, efficient and flexible interface has been developed for searching, extracting, and exporting the data, including links to the original references. Data from over 570 publications have been...... quality evaluated and entered covering 70 PFS or their botanical ingredients....

  3. A Review of the Hypoglycemic Effects of Five Commonly Used Herbal Food Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ruitang

    2013-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is a pathological condition associated with prediabetes and diabetes. The incidence of prediabetes and diabetes is increasing and imposes great burden on healthcare worldwide. Patients with prediabetes and diabetes have significantly increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and other complications. Currently, management of hyperglycemia includes pharmacological interventions, physical exercise, and change of life style and diet. Food supplements have increasingly become attractive alternatives to prevent or treat hyperglycemia, especially for subjects with mild hyperglycemia. This review summarized current patents and patent applications with relevant literature on five commonly used food supplements with claims of hypoglycemic effects, including emblica officinalis (gooseberry), fenugreek, green tea, momordica charantia (bitter melon) and cinnamon. The data from human clinical studies did not support a recommendation for all five supplements to manage hyperglycemia. Fenugreek and composite supplements containing emblica officinalis showed the most consistency in lowering fasting blood sugar (FBS) or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in diabetic patients. The hypoglycemic effects of cinnamon and momordica charantia were demonstrated in most of the trials with some exceptions. However, green tea exhibited limited benefits in reducing FBS or HbA1c levels and should not be recommended for managing hyperglycemia. Certain limitations are noticed in a considerable number of clinical studies including small sample size, poor experimental design and considerable variations in participant population, preparation format, daily dose, and treatment duration. Future studies with more defined participants, standardized preparation and dose, and improved trial design and size are warranted. PMID:22329631

  4. Effects of a food supplementation program on the nutritional status of pregnant women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Mahmud; Ahmed, Shakil; Protik, Ali Ehsan; Dhar, Badal Chandra; Roy, S K

    2005-12-01

    The Government of Bangladesh implemented a comprehensive nutrition intervention in 1997 to reduce the rates of malnutrition among women and children. The pilot program, the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Program (BINP), adopted a multisectoral approach targeting women and children through food supplementation, home gardening, and health and nutrition education. This paper estimates the effectiveness of BINP's food supplementation and nutrition education on the nutritional status of pregnant women. Methods. Three effectiveness measures were considered: target efficiency, improvements in the nutritional status of beneficiaries, and the persistence of nutritional effects. To isolate the effects of the intervention, the nutritional status of participants and nonparticipants was compared after controlling for various demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Data were collected in 2000 from a random sample of 3262 households in a BINP intervention area. Thirty-nine percent of pregnant women were correctly targeted by the program's food supplementation activities. The nutrition program reduced the prevalence of thinness among participant pregnant women by about 3 percentage points per month of enrollment. The prevalence of thinness among program graduates was 62%, which was much higher than that of the matched (nonparticipant) group (35%). This finding is perplexing but it may simply imply that those who enrolled at the initial phase of the project were severely underweight and they fell back to their original status within a short period of time. The nutrition program was intended to improve the nutritional status of women in the longer run through the provision of nutrition education during the food supplementation phase. The prevalence of thinness or severe underweight in women who exited the program after completion of the enrollment period was found to be much higher than in women of similar age and socioeconomic status in the community. This apparent lack of

  5. Adequate Vitamin D3 Supplementation During Pregnancy: Decreasing the Prevalence of Asthma and Food Allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Finkel, Jonathan; Cira, Courtney; Mazzella, Leanne; Bartyzel, Jim; Ramanna, Annisce; Strimel, Kayla; Waturuocha, Amara; Musser, Nathan; Burress, James; Brammer, Sarah; Wetzel, Robert; Horzempa, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is a secosterol that is naturally synthesized in the skin upon contact with ultraviolet rays. This vitamin can also be acquired from dietary and nutritional supplements. The active form, vitamin D3, is primarily responsible for calcium homeostasis and bone health. However, many recent studies have associated low levels of vitamin D3 with asthma and food allergies. In this review, we discuss literature to explore the potential that vitamin D3 deficiency may be contributing toward the...

  6. Report on the risk of using Tribulus terrestris in food supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Spanish Agency for Consumer Affairs, Food Safety and Nutrition

    2015-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris L. is a plant from the Zygophyllaceae family whose use in food supplements is authorised in various countries of the European Union. In its natural form, it contains various active substances, the most notable of which are steroidal saponins, b-carboline alkaloids, flavonoids and lignanamides. Tribulus terrestris’ toxicity to animals has been widely documented throughout its history as a medicinal plant and it has been reported to have negative neuronal...

  7. 75 FR 52957 - Supplemental Funding Under the Food and Drug Administration's Food Emergency Response Laboratory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    .../PAR-09-215.html . The program is further described in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance under... agreements are to enable the analyses of foods and food products in the event that laboratory surge capacity... training and proficiency testing for each method/platform. Minimal quality management systems will be...

  8. Chemometrics and chromatographic fingerprints to classify plant food supplements according to the content of regulated plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Sokeng Djiogo, C A; Courselle, P

    2017-09-05

    Plant food supplements are gaining popularity, resulting in a broader spectrum of available products and an increased consumption. Next to the problem of adulteration of these products with synthetic drugs the presence of regulated or toxic plants is an important issue, especially when the products are purchased from irregular sources. This paper focusses on this problem by using specific chromatographic fingerprints for five targeted plants and chemometric classification techniques in order to extract the important information from the fingerprints and determine the presence of the targeted plants in plant food supplements in an objective way. Two approaches were followed: (1) a multiclass model, (2) 2-class model for each of the targeted plants separately. For both approaches good classification models were obtained, especially when using SIMCA and PLS-DA. For each model, misclassification rates for the external test set of maximum one sample could be obtained. The models were applied to five real samples resulting in the identification of the correct plants, confirmed by mass spectrometry. Therefore chromatographic fingerprinting combined with chemometric modelling can be considered interesting to make a more objective decision on whether a regulated plant is present in a plant food supplement or not, especially when no mass spectrometry equipment is available. The results suggest also that the use of a battery of 2-class models to screen for several plants is the approach to be preferred. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Research and Development for Botanical Products in Medicinals and Food Supplements Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Miroddi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanical products sold in the health area are generally intended as drugs, medicinal products, food supplements or substances for therapeutic use. Use of botanicals for improving or to care human health has evolved independently in different countries worldwide. Regulatory issues regarding botanical products designed for the food supplements or medicinal market and their influence on research and development are discussed. European Union (EU and United States (US policies regulating these products are focused with comments on the legislations delivered during the last ten years and differences existing in rules between these countries are emphasized. Research and development on botanical products nowdays strongly influenced by the product destination in the market. Addressed and differentiated research for either food supplements or medicinal markets is necessary to purchase data really useful for assessment of safe and effective use for both the categories. The main objective is to catalyze interest of academic and companies' researchers on crucial aspects to be taken into account in the research for the development of botanical products.

  10. Research and development for botanical products in medicinals and food supplements market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroddi, Marco; Mannucci, Carmen; Mancari, Ferdinando; Navarra, Michele; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2013-01-01

    Botanical products sold in the health area are generally intended as drugs, medicinal products, food supplements or substances for therapeutic use. Use of botanicals for improving or to care human health has evolved independently in different countries worldwide. Regulatory issues regarding botanical products designed for the food supplements or medicinal market and their influence on research and development are discussed. European Union (EU) and United States (US) policies regulating these products are focused with comments on the legislations delivered during the last ten years and differences existing in rules between these countries are emphasized. Research and development on botanical products nowdays strongly influenced by the product destination in the market. Addressed and differentiated research for either food supplements or medicinal markets is necessary to purchase data really useful for assessment of safe and effective use for both the categories. The main objective is to catalyze interest of academic and companies' researchers on crucial aspects to be taken into account in the research for the development of botanical products.

  11. Food availability is expressed through physiological stress indicators in nestling white ibis: A food supplementation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, G.; Cook, Mark I.; Gawlik, D.E.; Call, Erynn M.

    2011-01-01

    Physiological responses to environmental stress such as adrenocortical hormones and cellular stress proteins have recently emerged as potentially powerful tools for investigating physiological effects of avian food limitation. However, little is known about the physiological stress responses of free-living nestling birds to environmental variation in food availability. We experimentally tested how hydrologically mediated changes in food availability affect the physiological stress responses of juvenile white ibises Eudocimus albus in a fluctuating wetland. We provided supplementary food to free-living nestlings during 2years with contrasting hydrologic and food availability conditions, and used plasma (PCORT) and faecal (FCORT) corticosterone and heat shock proteins (HSP60 and HSP70) from first-hatched (A-nestlings) and second-hatched (B-nestlings) to detect relatively short- to long-term responses to food limitation. Nestling physiological stress responses were relatively low in all treatments during the year with optimal food availability, but PCORT, FCORT and HSP60 levels increased during the poor food year. FCORT and HSP60 responses were clearly due to nutritional condition as elevated concentrations were evident primarily in control nestlings. Significant year by hatch order interactions for both FCORT and HSP60 revealed that these increases were largely incurred by B-nestlings. FCORT and HSP60 responses were also well developed early in neonatal development and remained elevated for the duration of the experiment suggesting a chronic stress response. PCORT and HSP70 were less informative stress responses. The nutritionally mediated increases in FCORT and HSP60 provide compelling evidence that white ibis nestlings can be physiologically affected by environmental food levels. FCORT and HSP60 are effective indicators of nutritional mediated stress for nestling white ibises and potentially for other species prone to capture or handling stress. ?? 2010 The Authors

  12. A household-level sweet potato-based infant food to complement vitamin A supplementation initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagloh, Francis K; Hardacre, Allan; Mutukumira, Anthony N; Weber, Janet L; Brough, Louise; Coad, Jane

    2012-10-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa is high in spite of vitamin A supplementation programmes among children in most countries. Plant-based complementary foods remain the key source of nutrients in addition to breast milk for infants in lower income countries. Cereal-legume blends are superior in protein and energy densities compared with maize, millet or sorghum-only porridge. However, unfortified cereal-legume and cereal-only porridges are low in vitamin A. A household-level sweet potato-based infant food, rich in vitamin A, has been developed to complement vitamin A supplementation initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa. A composite flour containing sweet potato, soybean, soybean oil and fishmeal was processed as complementary food by oven toasting (denoted oven-toasted ComFa). The oven-toasted ComFa and enriched Weanimix (processed from dehulled maize, dehulled soybean, groundnut and fishmeal) were assessed for suitability as complementary food based on the nutrient composition using specifications in the Codex Standard (CS) as a reference. The sweet potato-based formulation and enriched Weanimix met the energy, protein, fructose and fat specifications but barely met the amino acid score as indicated in the CS. However, only the oven-toasted ComFa met the calcium and almost half the vitamin A levels as specified in the CS. Oven-toasted ComFa was slightly lower in energy, protein and fat by a difference not greater than 4.0% but was higher by more than 100% in fructose and vitamin A levels. Therefore, the sweet potato-based complementary food is likely to support vitamin A supplementation initiatives in low-income countries better than the cereal-based formulation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Pick-and-Eat Salad-Crop Productivity, Nutritional Value, and Acceptability to Supplement the ISS Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, G. D.; Wheeler, R. M.; Hummerick, M. E.; Morrow, R. C.; Mitchell, C. A.; Whitmire, A. M.; Ploutz-Snyder, R. J.; Douglas, G. L.

    2016-01-01

    The capability to grow nutritious, palatable food for crew consumption during spaceflight has the potential to provide health-promoting, bioavailable nutrients, enhance the dietary experience, and reduce launch mass as we move toward longer-duration missions. However, studies of edible produce during spaceflight have been limited, leaving a significant knowledge gap in the methods required to grow safe, acceptable, nutritious crops for consumption in space. Researchers from Kennedy Space Center, Johnson Space Center, Purdue University and ORBITEC have teamed up to explore the potential for plant growth and food production on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration missions. KSC, Purdue, and ORBITEC bring a history of plant and plant-microbial interaction research for ISS and for future bioregenerative life support systems. JSC brings expertise in Advanced Food Technology (AFT), Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP), and statistics. The Veggie vegetable-production system on the ISS offers an opportunity to develop a pick-and-eat fresh vegetable component to the ISS food system as a first step to bioregenerative supplemental food production. We propose growing salad plants in the Veggie unit during spaceflight, focusing on the impact of light quality and fertilizer formulation on crop morphology, edible biomass yield, microbial food safety, organoleptic acceptability, nutritional value, and behavioral health benefits of the fresh produce. The first phase of the project will involve flight tests using leafy greens, with a small Chinese cabbage variety, Tokyo bekana, previously down selected through a series of research tests as a suitable candidate. The second phase will focus on dwarf tomato. Down selection of candidate varieties have been performed, and the dwarf cultivar Red Robin has been selected as the test crop. Four light treatments and three fertilizer treatments will be tested for each crop on the ground, to down select to two light

  14. Estimated folate intakes: data updated to reflect food fortification, increased bioavailability, and dietary supplement use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, C J; Crane, N T; Wilson, D B; Yetley, E A

    1999-08-01

    There is a critical need to estimate dietary folate intakes for nutrition monitoring and food safety evaluations, but available intake data are seriously limited by several factors. Our objective was to update 2 national food consumption surveys to reflect folate intakes as a result of the recently initiated food fortification program and to correct folate intakes for the apparently higher bioavailability of synthetic folic acid (SFA; ie, folate added to foods or from dietary supplements) than of naturally occurring folate so as to express intakes as dietary folate equivalents. It was not possible to chemically analyze foods, so adjustments were made to food-composition data by using information about food ingredients and characteristics. Total folate intakes were estimated for several sex and age groups by using the modified data coupled with dietary supplement use. Within the limitations of the data, our findings suggested that 67-95% of the population met or surpassed the new estimated average requirement, depending on the sex and age group and survey. Nonetheless, some subgroups had estimated intakes below these standards. Estimated SFA intakes suggested that approximately 15-25% of children aged 1-8 y, depending on the survey, had intakes above the newly established tolerable upper intake level. We estimated that 68-87% of females of childbearing age had SFA intakes below the recommended intake of 400 microgram/d, depending on the age group and survey. There is a need to explore ways to improve folate intakes in targeted subgroups, including females of childbearing age, while not putting other population groups at risk of excessive intakes.

  15. Enhancing climate adaptation capacity for drinking water treatment facilities (supplement)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Historical water quality data of the Ohio River. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Levine, A., J. Yang , and J. Goodrich. Enhancing climate...

  16. Measurement of toxic elements in infant food supplements marketed in Iran (short comunication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Mehrnia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to similarities with breast-feeding, baby food is used as a partial replacement for babies between 6 to 12 months of age. In this study, five samples of famous infant food supplement consisting of three types from Ghoncheh company (rice with milk, wheat with milk, almond porridge and two types from Nestle company (wheat and milk, and banana and wheat with milk were prepared. Samples were digested with nitric acid and the concentrations of cadmium, lead, manganese, molybdenum and nickel were analyzed. In addition, the estimated daily intake (EDI index for all samples was calculated and compared with tolerable daily intake (TDI index. The minimum and maximum concentration of cadmium was found in the sample with rice + milk formula (40.3 µg/kg and infant food supplements containing wheat + milk (58.0 µgr/kg, respectively. The amount of cadmium, lead, manganese, molybdenum and nickel were estimated in the range of 40.3-58.0 ppb, 31.85 ppb, 2.3-4.9 ppm, 417.9-518.8 ppb and 4479.1-6415.0 ppb, respectively. In was concluded that the amount of toxic elements in infant foods marketed in Iran were found below the maximum limit.

  17. Citrulline Supplementation Improves Organ Perfusion and Arginine Availability under Conditions with Enhanced Arginase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnands, Karolina A P; Meesters, Dennis M; van Barneveld, Kevin W Y; Visschers, Ruben G J; Briedé, Jacob J; Vandendriessche, Benjamin; van Eijk, Hans M H; Bessems, Babs A F M; van den Hoven, Nadine; von Wintersdorff, Christian J H; Brouckaert, Peter; Bouvy, Nicole D; Lamers, Wouter H; Cauwels, Anje; Poeze, Martijn

    2015-06-29

    Enhanced arginase-induced arginine consumption is believed to play a key role in the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease-induced end organ failure. Enhancement of arginine availability with L-arginine supplementation exhibited less consistent results; however, L-citrulline, the precursor of L-arginine, may be a promising alternative. In this study, we determined the effects of L-citrulline compared to L-arginine supplementation on arginine-nitric oxide (NO) metabolism, arginine availability and microcirculation in a murine model with acutely-enhanced arginase activity. The effects were measured in six groups of mice (n = 8 each) injected intraperitoneally with sterile saline or arginase (1000 IE/mouse) with or without being separately injected with L-citrulline or L-arginine 1 h prior to assessment of the microcirculation with side stream dark-field (SDF)-imaging or in vivo NO-production with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Arginase injection caused a decrease in plasma and tissue arginine concentrations. L-arginine and L-citrulline supplementation both enhanced plasma and tissue arginine concentrations in arginase-injected mice. However, only the citrulline supplementation increased NO production and improved microcirculatory flow in arginase-injected mice. In conclusion, the present study provides for the first time in vivo experimental evidence that L-citrulline, and not L-arginine supplementation, improves the end organ microcirculation during conditions with acute arginase-induced arginine deficiency by increasing the NO concentration in tissues.

  18. Oral intake of added titanium dioxide and its nanofraction from food products, food supplements and toothpaste by the Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompelberg, Cathy; Heringa, Minne B.; Donkersgoed, van Gerda; Drijvers, José; Roos, Agnes; Westenbrink, Susanne; Peters, R.J.B.; Bemmel, van M.E.M.; Brand, Walter; Oomen, Agnes G.

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is commonly applied to enhance the white colour and brightness of food products. TiO2 is also used as white pigment in other products such as toothpaste. A small fraction of the pigment is known to be present as nanoparticles (NPs). Recent studies with TiO2 NPs indicate that

  19. When conservation management becomes contraindicated: impact of food supplementation on health of endangered wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Guillermo; Lemus, Jesús A; García-Montijano, Marino

    2011-10-01

    Understanding the conditions that force the implementation of management actions and their efficiency is crucial for conservation of endangered species. Wildlife managers are widely and increasingly using food supplementation for such species because the potentially immediate benefits may translate into rapid conservation improvements. Supplementary feeding can also pose risks eventually promoting undesired, unexpected, subtle, or indirect, and often unnoticed, effects that are generally poorly understood. For two decades, intensive food supplementation has been used in attempting to improve the breeding productivity of the Spanish Imperial Eagle, Aquila adalberti, one of the most endangered birds of prey in the world. Here, we examined the impact of this intensive management action on nestling health, including contamination, immunodepression, and acquisition of disease agents derived from supplementation techniques and provisioned food. Contrary to management expectations, we found that fed individuals were often inadvertently "medicated" with pharmaceuticals (antibiotics and antiparasitics) contained in supplementary food (domestic rabbits). Individuals fed with medicated rabbits showed a depressed immune system and a high prevalence and richness of pathogens compared with those with no or safe supplementary feeding using non-medicated wild rabbits. A higher presence of antibiotics (fluoroquinolones) was found in sick as opposed to healthy individuals among eaglets with supplementary feeding, which points directly toward a causal effect of these drugs in disease and other health impairments. This study represents a telling example of well-meaning management strategies not based on sound scientific evidence becoming a "contraindicated" action with detrimental repercussions undermining possible beneficial effects by increasing the impact of stochastic factors on extinction risk of endangered wildlife.

  20. Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) revisited: Suggestions for the development of an enhanced general food motivation typology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotopoulos, Christos; Krystallis, Athanasios; Vassallo, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Recognising the need for a more statistically robust instrument to investigate general food selection determinants, the research validates and confirms Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ's) factorial design, develops ad hoc a more robust FCQ version and tests its ability to discriminate between...... at the subpopulation level based on the enhanced FCQ version bring about an optimistic message for the FCQ's ability to predict food selection behaviour. The paper concludes that some of the basic components of the original FCQ can be used as a basis for a new general food motivation typology. The development...

  1. Impact of food supplements on hemoglobin, iron status, and inflammation in children with moderate acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cichon, Bernardette; Fabiansen, Christian; Iuel-Brockdorf, Ann-Sophie Julie D

    2018-01-01

    Background: Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) are treated with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) or corn-soy blends (CSBs) but little is known about the impact of these supplements on hemoglobin, iron status, and inflammation. Objective: The objective of this study was to inve......Background: Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) are treated with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) or corn-soy blends (CSBs) but little is known about the impact of these supplements on hemoglobin, iron status, and inflammation. Objective: The objective of this study...... was to investigate the impact of supplementary foods for treatment of MAM on hemoglobin, iron status, inflammation, and malaria. Design: A randomized 2 × 2 × 3 factorial trial was conducted in Burkina Faso. Children aged 6-23 mo with MAM received 500 kcal/d as LNS or CSB, containing either dehulled soy (DS) or soy...... isolate (SI) and different quantities of dry skimmed milk (0%, 20% or 50% of total protein) for 12 wk. The trial was double-blind with regard to quality of soy and quantity of milk, but not matrix (CSB compared to LNS). Hemoglobin, serum ferritin (SF), serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), serum C...

  2. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flôres, Danilo E F L; Bettilyon, Crystal N; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling.

  3. Study on the effect of supplementation of ironfortified food to chinese juvenile athletes by nuclear analysis techniques and blood analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Q.F.; Feng, W.Y.; Zhang, P.Q.; Chai, C.F.; Pan, J.X.; Wu, Y.Y.; Chao, Z.Y.

    1996-01-01

    The iron contents in the hair and blood samples of 37 juvenile athletes who were supplemented with 0, 8 and 16 mg Fe/day, respectively, in the food of ferrous gluconatecontaining chocolate for 3 months were determined before and after the supplementation by INAA, SRXRF and blood analysis. The experimental results showed that after supplementation of the iron-fortified food, the normal ferritin level in the blood of the male athletes was attained and the iron content in the hair was increased with supplementation, but both are not in the positive proportion. Most of the female athletes had similar results. It is suggested that supplementation of 8 mg iron/day to juvenile athletes may be desirable. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. Considerations for Nanosciences in Food Science and Nutrition: "Enhanced Food Properties".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekiner, Ismail H; Mutlu, Hayrettin; Algıngil, Selcuk; Dincerler, Elif

    2015-01-01

    The agro-food industries are one of the biggest manufacturing sectors worldwide with a turnover of US$4 trillion per year. Within the last decades, nanoscience has opened-up fantastic ways to challenge new sub-universes for exploring the interactions between physical, chemical and biological systems as well as agro-food and nutrition sectors. Among these potentials, there is the enhancement of food properties and constituents such as nanoparticulate delivery systems, food safety and food biosecurity. In the recent years, many patents were launched for edible coating agents, essential oils and emulsifiers, including agrochemical active ingredients, nanomaterials for agriculture, horticulture, aquaculture, and smart packaging materials. The aim of this review was to search for the recent applications of nanoscience in the agro-food science and nutrition area, including the launched patents in this field.

  5. Children with Special Health Care Needs, Supplemental Security Income, and Food Insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Fiore, Jennifer Goodhart; de Cuba, Stephanie Ettinger; Black, Maureen; Cutts, Diana B; Coleman, Sharon M; Heeren, Timothy; Chilton, Mariana; Casey, Patrick; Cook, John; Frank, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    To assess food insecurity in low-income households with young children with/without special health care needs (SHCN) and evaluate relationships between child Supplemental Security Income (SSI) receipt and food insecurity. A cross-sectional survey (2013-2015) of caregivers was conducted at 5 medical centers. Eligibility included index child age Special Health Care Needs Screener, 18-item US Food Security Survey Module, household public assistance program participation, and child SSI receipt. Household and child food insecurity, each, were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression models. Of 6724 index children, 81.5% screened negative for SHCN, 14.8% positive for SHCN (no SSI), and 3.7% had SHCN and received SSI. After covariate control, households, with versus without a child with SHCN, were more likely to experience household (Adjusted odds ratios [AOR] 1.24, 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.03-1.48) and child (AOR 1.35, 95% CI, 1.11-1.63) food insecurity. Among households with children with SHCN, those with children receiving, versus not receiving SSI, were more likely to report household (AOR 1.42, 95% CI, 0.97-2.09) but not child food insecurity. Low-income households with young children having SHCN are at risk for food insecurity, regardless of child SSI receipt and household participation in other public assistance programs. Policy recommendations include reevaluation of assistance programs' income and medical deduction criteria for households with children with SHCN to decrease the food insecurity risk faced by these children and their families.

  6. Utilising agricultural waste to enhance food security and conserve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    these wastes for agricultural production by farmers has also reduced the rate of accumulation with subsequent reduction on environmental pollution thus improving on environmental health. This paper briefly reviews how agricultural wastes can be used to enhance food security and conserve the environment.

  7. Role Of Indigenous Knowledge In Enhancing Household Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The finding showed that many people depend on the use of indigenous knowledge practices in sustaining subsistence farming and enhancing household food security. Majority of farmers mulch their crops using local materials like coffee husks while others use locally concocted pesticides to control pests such as maize ...

  8. Consumption estimation of non alcoholic beverages, sodium, food supplements and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Díaz-Ufano, María Luisa

    2015-02-26

    The interest in the type and quantity of non alcoholic beverage, sodium, food supplements and oil consumption is not new, and numerous approaches have been used to assess beverage intake, but the validity of these approaches has not been well established. The need to intake liquids varies depending on the diet, the physical activity carried out, the environmental temperature, the humidity, etc. The variety of beverages in the diet can contribute to increasing the micro nutrient intake: vitamins, antioxidants, minerals. Risks associated to high sodium consumption are: an increase in high blood pressure, vascular endothelial deterioration, bone demineralisation, kidney disease, stomach cancer. Progress in health, investigation, education, etc. are leading to an increase in food supplement consumption. Olive oil represents one of the basic pillars of the Mediterranean diet and its normal presence in nutrition guarantees an adequate content of some important nutrients; not only oleic acid and linoleic acid but also tocopherols, phytoesterols and phenolic compounds. Biomarkers of intake are able to objectively assess dietary intake/status without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors and also overcome the problem of intra-individual diet variability. Furthermore, some methods of of measuring dietary intake used biomarkers to validate the data it collects. Biological markers may offer advantages and be able to improve the estimates of dietary intake assessment, which impact into the statistical power of the study. There is a surprising paucity of studies that systematically examine the correlation of beverages intake and hydration biomarker in different populations. There is no standardized questionnaire developed as a research tool for the evaluation of non alcoholic beverages, sodium, food supplements and oil intake in the general population. Sometimes, the information comes from different sources or from different methodological characteristics which raises

  9. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martena, M.J.; Grutters, M.; Groot, de H.N.; Konings, E.J.M.; Rietjens, I.

    2011-01-01

    Food supplements can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has defined 16 priority PAH that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic and identified eight priority PAH (PAH8) or four of these (PAH4) as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence of

  10. Safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations used as ingredients in food supplements: Testing an EFS tired approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speijers, G.; Bottex, B.; Dusemund, B.; Lugasi, A.; Toth, J.; Amberg-Muller, J.; Galli, C.; Silano, V.; Rietjens, I.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes results obtained by testing the European Food Safety Authority-tiered guidance approach for safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food supplements. Main conclusions emerging are as follows. (i) Botanical ingredients must be identified

  11. Predicting intentions to consume functional foods and supplements to offset memory loss using an adaptation of protection motivation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, D.N.; Koster, A.; Russell, C.G.

    2004-01-01

    The widespread use of dietary supplements and so-called `functional foods¿ is thought to be partially motivated by self-control of health. However, whilst consumers want foods associated with well-being or disease prevention, they are unlikely to be willing to compromise on taste or technology. This

  12. Statement: Risks for human health related to the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey, tea, herbal infusions and food supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Alexander, Jan; Barregård, Lars; Bignami, Margherita; Brüschweiler, Beat; Ceccatelli, Sandra; Cottrill, Bruce; Dinovi, Michael; Edler, Lutz; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina; Hogstrand, Christer; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano; Oswald, Isabelle P.; Petersen, Annette; Rose, Martin; Roudot, Alain-Claude; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Vleminckx, Christiane; Vollmer, Günter; Wallace, Heather; Ruiz Gomes, José Angel; Binaglia, Marco

    2017-01-01

    EFSA was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on the risks for human health related to the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey, tea, herbal infusions and food supplements and to identify the PAs of relevance in the aforementioned food commodities and in

  13. A Performance Enhanced Interactive Learning Workshop Model as a Supplement for Organic Chemistry Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Karen E. S.; Grose-Fifer, Jilliam

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors describe a Performance Enhanced Interactive Learning (PEIL) workshop model as a supplement for organic chemistry instruction. This workshop model differs from many others in that it includes public presentations by students and other whole-class-discussion components that have not been thoroughly investigated in the…

  14. Analysis of Marketing Strategy for Food Supplements and Over-The-Counter Medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzeparoski, Marjan; Trajkovic-Jolevska, Suzana

    2016-09-15

    Marketing strategy is correlated with the regulations for the corresponding product category. Accordingly, there is a big difference in the marketing strategy of food supplements and over-the-counter medicines. In this paper are presented 2 different marketing strategies of a new small pharmaceutical company in two studies. The findings of studies analysis can be used for developing marketing strategies in the wider sense and other products, for other small to medium sized companies in other countries of interest with similar regulations and help them understand how to position and promote themselves and their products.

  15. Analysis of Marketing Strategy for Food Supplements and Over-The-Counter Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Dzeparoski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Marketing strategy is correlated with the regulations for the corresponding product category. Accordingly, there is a big difference in the marketing strategy of food supplements and over-the-counter medicines. In this paper are presented 2 different marketing strategies of a new small pharmaceutical company in two studies. The findings of studies analysis can be used for developing marketing strategies in the wider sense and other products, for other small to medium sized companies in other countries of interest with similar regulations and help them understand how to position and promote themselves and their products.

  16. Does the use of dietary supplements enhance athletes’ sport performances? A systematic review and a meta-analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    De Meo, Concetta; Laurenti, Patrizia; de Waure, Chiara; Terracciano, Elisa; Di Nardo, Francesco; Ricciardi, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Background: The consumption of dietary supplements has increased in recent years.Despite their widespread use, there is confusion about effects on sport performances.The aim of this study was to investigate association between use of supplements and enhance of athletes’ sports performance.Methods: A review and a meta-analysis of studies conducted on Dietary Supplements and Sports between 2003 and 2013 were performed. Enhancement on sport performances was considered as outcome. The following a...

  17. Protein supplementation may enhance the spontaneous recovery of neurological alterations in patients with ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilani, Roberto; Scocchi, Marco; Iadarola, Paolo; Franciscone, Piero; Verri, Manuela; Boschi, Federica; Pasini, Evasio; Viglio, Simona

    2008-12-01

    To determine whether protein supplementation could enhance neurological recovery in subacute patients with ischaemic stroke. Alimentation-independent patients with ischaemic stroke were randomly allocated to either 21 days of protein supplementation (protein-supplemented group; n=20) or to a spontaneous diet only (control group; n=21) in order to investigate the recovery of neurological changes (measured using the National Institute of Health (NIH) Stroke Scale). Tertiary care rehabilitation in Italy. Forty-two patients (27 male and 15 female; 66.4 +/- 11 years) 16 +/-2 days after the acute event. Supplementation with a hyperproteic nutritional formula (10% protein). NIH Stroke Scale and protein intake. At admission to rehabilitation, both groups of patients were homogeneous for demographic, clinical and functional characteristics. After 21 days from the start of the protocol, the NIH Stroke Scale was found to be enhanced in the group with supplemental proteins (-4.4 +/- 1.5 score versus -3 +/- 1.4 of control group; Pneurological recovery in subacute patients with ischaemic stroke.

  18. Positive effect of protein-supplemented hospital food on protein intake in patients at nutritional risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, T; Beck, A M; Holst, M

    2014-01-01

    the protein-supplemented food service concept. The control group (CG) received the standard hospital menu. Primary outcome comprised the number of patients achieving ≥75% of energy and protein requirements. Secondary outcomes comprised mean energy and protein intake, body weight, handgrip strength and length...... of hospital stay. RESULTS: In IG, 76% versus 70% CG patients reached ≥75% of their energy requirements (P = 0.57); 66% IG versus 30% CG patients reached ≥75% of their protein requirements (P = 0.001). The risk ratio for achieving ≥75% of protein requirements: 2.2 (95% confidence interval = 1.3-3.7); number...... of hospital stay did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The novel food service concept had a significant positive impact on overall protein intake and on weight-adjusted energy intake in hospitalised patients at nutritional risk....

  19. Fat-soluble vitamin intake from the consumption of food, fortified food and supplements: design and methods of the Belgian VITADEK study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyersoen, Isabelle; Demarest, Stefaan; De Ridder, Karin; Tafforeau, Jean; Lachat, Carl; Van Camp, John

    2017-01-01

    The adequacy of micronutrient intake is a public health concern, as both insufficient and excessive intake levels may result in adverse health effects. Data on dietary intake are needed to evaluate potential problems regarding inadequate intake at population level and to formulate effective public health and food safety recommendations. Assessing the intake of micronutrients in population subgroups such as infants, toddlers, pregnant and lactating women is challenging and requires specific approaches. This paper describes the Belgian VITADEK study, developed to assess fat-soluble vitamin intake from the consumption of food, fortified foods and supplements in four vulnerable groups namely infants, toddlers, pregnant and lactating women. Subjects were selected according to a multi-stage stratified sampling design with a selection of clusters proportionate to the population size. Recruitment occurred in collaboration with Belgian child health consultation centres and obstetric clinics. Participants were asked to complete a self-administered online food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) or to answer the questionnaire by phone if online participation was not possible. The questionnaire was tailored to the specific diet of the different target populations. In order to capture vitamin intake from the consumption of foods, fortified foods and supplements, a market study was conducted to take an inventory of the fortified foods and supplements available on the Belgian market. The food list of the FFQ was based on both this inventory and the top 90% food groups that contribute to fat-soluble vitamin intake. Since fortification differs at brand level, food groups and subgroups were split up to the level of the brand of foods. Brand pictures were used as mnemonics to facilitate the recall of the consumed food items and portion pictures were used to facilitate the reproduction of the consumed portion sizes. Finally a composition table was compiled allowing for the computation of

  20. Need for accurate and standardized determination of amino acids and bioactive peptides for evaluating protein quality and potential health effects of foods and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, G Sarwar; Xiao, Chaowu; Lee, Nora

    2008-01-01

    Accurate standardized methods for the determination of amino acid in foods are required to assess the nutritional safety and compositional adequacy of sole source foods such as infant formulas and enteral nutritionals, and protein and amino acid supplements and their hydrolysates, and to assess protein claims of foods. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), which requires information on amino acid composition, is the official method for assessing protein claims of foods and supplements sold in the United States. PDCAAS has also been adopted internationally as the most suitable method for routine evaluation of protein quality of foods by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. Standardized methods for analysis of amino acids by ion-exchange chromatography have been developed. However, there is a need to develop validated methods of amino acid analysis in foods using liquid chromatographic techniques, which have replaced ion-exchange methods for quantifying amino acids in most laboratories. Bioactive peptides from animal and plant proteins have been found to potentially impact human health. A wide range of physiological effects, including blood pressure-lowering effects, cholesterol-lowering ability, antithrombotic effects, enhancement of mineral absorption, and immunomodulatory effects have been described for bioactive peptides. There is considerable commercial interest in developing functional foods containing bioactive peptides. There is also a need to develop accurate standardized methods for the characterization (amino acid sequencing) and quantification of bioactive peptides and to carry out dose-response studies in animal models and clinical trials to assess safety, potential allergenicity, potential intolerance, and efficacy of bioactive peptides. Information from these studies is needed for determining the upper safe levels of bioactive peptides and as the basis for developing potential health claims for bioactive

  1. Reviewing the Effects of l-Leucine Supplementation in the Regulation of Food Intake, Energy Balance, and Glucose Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A.B. Pedroso

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Leucine is a well-known activator of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. Because mTOR signaling regulates several aspects of metabolism, the potential of leucine as a dietary supplement for treating obesity and diabetes mellitus has been investigated. The objective of the present review was to summarize and discuss the available evidence regarding the mechanisms and the effects of leucine supplementation on the regulation of food intake, energy balance, and glucose homeostasis. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that although central leucine injection decreases food intake, this effect is not well reproduced when leucine is provided as a dietary supplement. Consequently, no robust evidence indicates that oral leucine supplementation significantly affects food intake, although several studies have shown that leucine supplementation may help to decrease body adiposity in specific conditions. However, more studies are necessary to assess the effects of leucine supplementation in already-obese subjects. Finally, although several studies have found that leucine supplementation improves glucose homeostasis, the underlying mechanisms involved in these potential beneficial effects remain unknown and may be partially dependent on weight loss.

  2. Leucine-protein supplemented recovery feeding enhances subsequent cycling performance in well-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Jasmine S; Ali, Ajmol; Rowlands, David S

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a practical leucine-protein, high-carbohydrate postexercise feeding regimen could improve recovery, as measured by subsequent cycling performance and mechanistic markers, relative to control feeding. In a crossover, 10 male cyclists performed 2- to 2.5-h interval training bouts on 3 consecutive evenings, ingesting either leucine-protein, high-carbohydrate nutrition (0.1/0.4/1.2/0.2 g·kg(-1)·h(-1); leucine, protein, carbohydrate, fat, respectively) or isocaloric control (0.06/1.6/0.2 g·kg(-1)·h(-1); protein, carbohydrate, fat, respectively) nutrition for 1.5 h postexercise. Throughout the experimental period diet was controlled, energy and macronutrient intake balanced, and protein intake clamped at 1.6 g·kg(-1)·day(-1). The alternate supplement was provided the next morning, thereby isolating the postexercise nutrition effect. Following 39 h of recovery, cyclists performed a repeat-sprint performance test. Postexercise leucine-protein ingestion improved mean sprint power by 2.5% (99% confidence limit, ±2.6%; p = 0.013) and reduced perceived overall tiredness during the sprints by 13% (90% confidence limit, ±9.2%), but perceptions of leg tiredness and soreness were unaffected. Before exercise, creatine-kinase concentration was lowered by 19% (90% confidence limits, ±18%), but lactate dehydrogenase and pressure-pain threshold were unaltered. There was a small reduction in anger (25% ± 18%), but other moods were unchanged. Plasma leucine (3-fold) and essential amino acid (47%) concentrations were elevated postexercise. Net nitrogen balance trended mildly negative in both conditions (mean ± SD: leucine-protein, -20 ± 46 mg·kg(-1) per 24 h; control, -25 ± 36 mg·kg(-1) per 24 h). The ingestion of a leucine-protein supplement along with other high-carbohydrate food following intense training on consecutive days enhances subsequent high-intensity endurance performance and may attenuate

  3. Molecular diversity of bacteria in commercially available “Spirulina” food supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Vardaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cyanobacterium Arthrospira is among the most well-known food supplements worldwide known as “Spirulina.” While it is a widely recognized health-promoting natural product, there are no reports on the molecular diversity of commercially available brands of “Spirulina” supplements and the occurrence of other cyanobacterial and heterotrophic bacterial microorganisms in these products. In this study, 454-pyrosequencing analysis of the total bacterial occurrence in 31 brands of “Spirulina” dietary supplements from the Greek market was applied for the first time. In all samples, operational taxonomic units (OTUs of Arthrospira platensis were the predominant cyanobacteria. Some products contained additional cyanobacterial OTUs including a few known potentially toxic taxa. Moreover, 469 OTUs were detected in all 31 products collectively, with most of them being related to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. All samples included heterotrophic bacterial OTUs, ranging from 9–157 per product. Among the most common OTUs were ones closely related to taxa known for causing health issues (i.e., Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Clostridium, Bacillus, Fusobacterium, Enterococcus. The observed high cyanobacterial and heterotrophic bacterial OTUs richness in the final product is a point for further research on the growth and processing of Arthrospira biomass for commercial purposes.

  4. Nutritional and bioactive compounds of commercialized algae powders used as food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hernández, Ginés B; Castillejo, Noelia; Carrión-Monteagudo, María Del M; Artés, Francisco; Artés-Hernández, Francisco

    2018-03-01

    The main nutritional/bioactive compounds (protein; aminoacids, AA; fucose; minerals; vitamins B12 and C; and total phenolic content, TPC) of nine commercial algae powders, used as food supplements, were studied. Undaria pinnatifida showed the highest protein/aminoacid contents (51.6/54.4 g 100 g -1 ). Among brown macroalgae, Himanthalia elongata showed the highest fucose content (26.3 g kg -1 ) followed by Laminaria ochroleuca (22.5 g kg -1 ). Mineral contents of 15-24% were observed in the algae, being particularly excellent sources of iodine (69.0-472.0 mg kg -1 ). Porphyra spp. and Palmaria palmata showed the highest vitamin B12 contents (667-674 µg kg -1 ). Vitamin C ranged among 490.4-711.8 mg kg -1 . H. elongata showed the highest total phenolic content (14.0 g kg -1 ). In conclusion, the studied algae are excellent sources of protein, AA, minerals, vitamin C and some of them presented particularly high vitamin B12 and fucose contents, which may have a potential use as food supplements.

  5. Potential role of antioxidant food supplements, preservatives and colorants in the pathogenesis of allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaknun, Daniela; Schroecksnadel, Sebastian; Kurz, Katharina; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    A significant increase in the incidence of allergy and asthma has been observed during the past decades. The background of this phenomenon has not been well explained, but changes in lifestyle and habits are heavily discussed as contributing factors. Among these is a too clean environment, which may predispose individuals to increased sensitivity to allergic responses. Also the increase in dietary supplements including preservatives and colorants may contribute to this. In vitro, we and others have shown in freshly isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells that antioxidant compounds like vitamins C and E as well as food preservatives and colorants exert significant suppressive effects on the Th1 immune activation cascade. The effects observed may be based on the interaction of antioxidant compounds with proinflammatory cascades involving important signal transduction elements such as nuclear factor-κB. Although only obtained in vitro, these results show an anti-inflammatory property of compounds which could shift the Th1-Th2-type immune balance towards Th2-type immunity. This review article discusses the potential role of increased use of antioxidant food supplements as well as preservatives and colorants in the increase in allergy and asthma in the Western world. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Exploring a natural MDR reversal agent: potential of medicinal food supplement Nerium oleander leaf distillate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kars, Meltem Demirel; Gündüz, Ufuk; Üney, Kamil; Baş, Ahmet Levent

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the molecular effects of Nerium oleander leaf distillate on paclitaxel and vincristine resistant (MCF-7/Pac and MCF-7/Vinc) cells and sensitive (MCF-7/S) cell lines. Methods Nerium oleander (N. oleander) leaf extract was obtained by hydrodistillation method. The toxicological effects of N. oleander distillate, previously suggested as medicinal food supplement, on drug resistant cells were evaluated by XTT tests. MDR modulation potential of the plant material was evaluated by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Paclitaxel and vincristine were applied to the sublines in combination with N. oleander distillate. Results Fractional inhibitory indices show that N. oleander distillate did not increase the antiproliferative effects of anticancer drugs. N. oleander treatment in to MCF-7/Pac and MCF-7/Vinc did not inhibit P-gp activity and MDR1 gene expression level. Conclusions As a result it may be suggested that although N. oleander distillate has some medicinal effects as food supplement it may not be suitable as an MDR modulator for drug resistant breast cancer cells. PMID:23905023

  7. Plant food supplements with anti-inflammatory properties: a systematic review (II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Dell'Agli, Mario; Badea, Mihaela; Dima, Lorena; Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Restani, Patrizia; Bosisio, Enrica

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence for or against the efficacy of plant food supplements (PFS) for coping inflammatory conditions by considering epidemiological and human intervention studies. The review considers six botanical species commonly used as food supplements/medicinals: Urtica dioica L., Symphytum officinalis L., Calendula officinalis L., Curcuma longa L., Boswellia serrata Roxb., and Harpagophytum procumbens L. The search retrieved 579 publications. By removing the duplicates and applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the final number of papers was 47. No epidemiological data were found. The bibliographic search found no paper regarding the anti-inflammatory effects of Calendula officinalis L. and Symphytum officinalis L. by oral use. In spite of the long-term traditional use for inflammatory disorders, Curcuma longa L. and Harpagophytum procumbens L. warrant further investigation, whereas the efficacy of Urtica dioica L, even if the available data on hard endpoints are promising, requires other trials. Boswellia serrata Roxb. was found to be the most promising, since it shows the best efficacy for the treatment of pain/inflammatory conditions. In conclusion, it is advisable to conduct further studies with more homogeneous population and larger number of subjects by avoiding the heterogeneity of the herbal preparations considered.

  8. Glycaemic responses to liquid food supplements among three Asian ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Siew Ling; Van Helvoort, Ardy; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-12-01

    A limited number of studies have compared the glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic responses (GR) to solid foods between Caucasians and Asians. These studies have demonstrated that Asians have greater GI and GR values for solid foods than Caucasians. However, no study has compared the GI and GR to liquids among various Asian ethnic groups. A total of forty-eight males and females (16 Chinese, 16 Indians, and 16 Malay) took part in this randomised, crossover study. Glycaemic response to the reference food (glucose beverage) was measured on three occasions, and GR to three liquids were measured on one occasion each. Liquids with different macronutrient ratio's and carbohydrate types were chosen to be able to evaluate the response to products with different GIs. Blood glucose concentrations were measured in duplicate at baseline (-5 and 0 min) and once at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the commencement of beverage consumption. There were statistically significant differences in GI and GR between the three liquids (P Chinese vs. Indian vs. Malay). The GR for three different types of liquid nutritional supplements did not differ between the three main ethnic groups in Asia. It appears that the GI of liquid food derived from one Asian ethnicity can be applicable to other Asian populations.

  9. Reduction of arsenite-enhanced ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage by supplemental zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Karen L.; King, Brenee S.; Sandoval, Monica M.; Liu, Ke Jian; Hudson, Laurie G., E-mail: lhudson@salud.unm.edu

    2013-06-01

    Arsenic is a recognized human carcinogen and there is evidence that arsenic augments the carcinogenicity of DNA damaging agents such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR) thereby acting as a co-carcinogen. Inhibition of DNA repair is one proposed mechanism to account for the co-carcinogenic actions of arsenic. We and others find that arsenite interferes with the function of certain zinc finger DNA repair proteins. Furthermore, we reported that zinc reverses the effects of arsenite in cultured cells and a DNA repair target protein, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. In order to determine whether zinc ameliorates the effects of arsenite on UVR-induced DNA damage in human keratinocytes and in an in vivo model, normal human epidermal keratinocytes and SKH-1 hairless mice were exposed to arsenite, zinc or both before solar-simulated (ss) UVR exposure. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activity, DNA damage and mutation frequencies at the Hprt locus were measured in each treatment group in normal human keratinocytes. DNA damage was assessed in vivo by immunohistochemical staining of skin sections isolated from SKH-1 hairless mice. Cell-based findings demonstrate that ssUVR-induced DNA damage and mutagenesis are enhanced by arsenite, and supplemental zinc partially reverses the arsenite effect. In vivo studies confirm that zinc supplementation decreases arsenite-enhanced DNA damage in response to ssUVR exposure. From these data we can conclude that zinc offsets the impact of arsenic on ssUVR-stimulated DNA damage in cells and in vivo suggesting that zinc supplementation may provide a strategy to improve DNA repair capacity in arsenic exposed human populations. - Highlights: • Low levels of arsenite enhance UV-induced DNA damage in human keratinocytes. • UV-initiated HPRT mutation frequency is enhanced by arsenite. • Zinc supplementation offsets DNA damage and mutation frequency enhanced by arsenite. • Zinc-dependent reduction of arsenite enhanced DNA damage is confirmed in vivo.

  10. Marine microalgae used as food supplements and their implication in preventing cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimouni Virginie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms producing numerous bioactive molecules of interest for health and disease care such as lipids rich in omega-3 fatty acids -as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3- and carotenoids (e.g., β-carotene, fucoxanthin, astaxanthin. It has already been shown that these molecules, individually used, are benefic in the prevention of diseases such as those associated with the cardiovascular risks, but also in some carcinomas. When these molecules are combined, synergistic effects may be observed. Microalgae, as a dietary supplement, can be used to study these synergistic effects in animal models in which dyslipidemia can be induced by a nutrition treatment. Different marine microalgae of interest are studied in this context to determine their potential effect as an alternative source to marine omega-3 rich fish oils, actually widely used for human health. Actually, the pharmaceutical and nutrition industries are developing health research programs involving microalgae, trying to limit the dramatic reduction of fish stocks and the associated pollution in the marine environment. The aim of this review is threefold: (1 to present research on lipids, particularly long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, as components of marine microalgae used as food supplements; (2 to present the health benefits of some microalgae or their extracts, in particular in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and (3 to highlight the role of Odontella aurita, a marine microalga rich in EPA used as food supplement with the aim of preventing cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Detection of regulated herbs and plants in plant food supplements and traditional medicines using infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Djiogo, C A Sokeng; Bothy, J L; Courselle, P

    2017-08-05

    The identification of a specific toxic or regulated plant in herbal preparations or plant food supplements is a real challenge, since they are often powdered, mixed with other herbal or synthetic powders and compressed into tablets or capsules. The classical identification approaches based on micro- and macroscopy are therefore not possible anymore. In this paper infrared spectroscopy, combined with attenuated total reflectance was evaluated for the screening of plant based preparations for nine specific plants (five regulated and four common plants for herbal supplements). IR and NIR spectra were recorded for a series of self-made triturations of the targeted plants. After pretreatment of the spectral data chemometric classification techniques were applied to both data sets (IR and NIR) separately and the combination of both. The results show that the screening of herbal preparations or plant food supplements for specific plants, using infrared spectroscopy, is feasible. The best model was obtained with the Mid-IR data, using SIMCA as modelling technique. During validation of the model, using an external test set, 21 of 25 were correctly classified and six of the nine targeted plants showed no misclassifications for the selected test set. For the other three a success rate of 50% was obtained. Mid-IR combined with SIMCA can therefore be applied as a first step in the screening of unknown samples, before applying more sophisticated fingerprint approaches or identification tests described in several national and international pharmacopoeia. As a proof of concept five real suspicious samples were successfully screened for the targeted regulated plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fingerprinting Food Supplements and Their Botanical Ingredients by Coupled UV/Vis/FTIR Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Baciu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are used as ingredients for a large variety of herbal supplements. Their quality and safety versus efficacy, according to present legal requirements, need to meet the minimum quality criteria to support their use. Specific biomarkers to evaluate and screen their authenticity are phenolic derivatives, phtosterols, lipids or alkaloids. We report here the data obtained  for  two herbal food supplements (A and B obtained from  different mixtures of plants: Taraxacum officinalis, Cynara scolimus Silybum marianum as ingredients for product A  and Hypericum perforatum, Chelidonium majus and Lycopodium clavatum as ingredients for product B. The combination of UV-Vis and FTIR spectrometry allowed a specific fingerprint of biomarkers in individual plants and derived supplements ( A and B, by discriminating the specific areas and peaks of individual plants and  mixtures, the significant differences between the methanolic and water extracts. The data were compared using chemometry ( PCA and Cluster analysis. Using Vis spectrometry combined with FTIR  peak intensities at 1732 cm-1 and calibration with gallic acid,  the total phenolics concentrations ranged from 5.31 to 9.58 mg gallic acid eq/ml methanol, with a positive and significant correlation between the two methods (R2= 0.979. The phenolics’ concentration were 2.5 to 4 times lower in water extracts comparing with methanol extracts of  products A and B.  Finally, we assume that herbal supplements can be adequately characterized for their quality and safety by combined UV-Vis spectrometry/FTIR spectrometry, with good, fast and cheap informations about the main biomarkers of authenticity.

  13. First joint SPE/DOE symposium on enhanced oil recovery, proceedings supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The First Joint Symposium on Enhanced Oil Recovery sponsored by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and the US Department of Energy was held in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Besides the thirty-three technical papers which covered all phases of enhanced oil recovery and were published in the Proceedings, the Symposium included a session on Enhanced Oil Recovery Incentives where ten papers were presented which discussed the status of enhanced oil recovery technology, and included papers on incentive programs of the United States, Canada and Venezuela. These papers are published in this Proceedings Supplement under the following titles: Federal Government Role in enhanced Oil Recovery; Financial Realities of an Adequate Petroleum Supply; Major Technology Constraints in Enhanced Oil Recovery; Decontrol-Opportunities and Dangers; Status of EOR Technology; Impact of Federal Incentives on US Production; Canadian Incentives Program; and Heavy Oil Incentives in Venezuela.

  14. The biomechanic origin of sprint performance enhancement after one-week creatine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedel, J M; Terrier, P; Schutz, Y

    2000-04-01

    In order to test whether an improvement of maximal sprinting speed after creatine (Cr) supplementation was due to the increase of stride frequency (SF), stride length (SL) or both, 7 subjects ran 4 consecutive sprints after 1 week of placebo or Cr supplementation. SF and SL were assessed by a triaxial accelerometer. Compared to the placebo, Cr induced an increase of running speed (+1.4% p < 0.05) and SF (+1.5%, p < 0.01), but not of SL. The drop in performance following repeated sprints was partially prevented by Cr. In conclusion, exogenous Cr enhanced sprinting performance by increasing SF. This result may be related to the recent findings of shortening in muscular relaxation time after Cr supplementation.

  15. Stable isotope aided evaluation of Community Nutrition Program: effect of food supplementation schemes on maternal and infant nutritional status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarr Cisse, Aita; Dossou, Nicole; Ndiaye, Mamadou

    2002-01-01

    The supplementation program of the community nutrition project (PNC) launched by the Senegalese Government in order to protect the most vulnerable groups (children and women) was evaluated. Using a stable isotope (deuterium), we assessed the effect of the PNC on breastmilk output, mother's body composition, and baby's growth at three months of lactation. Breastmilk triglycerides, lactose, protein, and zinc were also determined. Mothers who were supplemented more than 60 days during pregnancy showed a significant increase in fot- free mass as compared to those who were supplemented for less than 30 days (p= .03). Breastmilk output was not influenced by the supplementation, but breastmilk lactose, total protein, and zinc contents increased significantly (p < .01) in the supplemented mothers. Growth of the babies of the supplemented mothers was better than that of those whose mothers were not supplemented. It was concluded that the food supplementation had beneficial effects on both mothers' and babies' nutritional status depending on the onset of the supplementation.

  16. Prenatal food supplementation fortified with multiple micronutrients increases birth length: a randomized controlled trial in rural Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybregts, Lieven; Roberfroid, Dominique; Lanou, Hermann; Menten, Joris; Meda, Nicolas; Van Camp, John; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2009-12-01

    Prenatal multiple micronutrient (MMN) or balanced energy and protein supplementation has a limited effect on birth size of the offspring. The objective was to determine whether a prenatal MMN-fortified food supplement (FFS) improves anthropometric measures at birth compared with supplementation with an MMN pill alone. We conducted a nonblinded, individually randomized controlled trial in 1296 pregnant women in 2 villages in rural Burkina Faso. Supplements were provided on a daily basis, and compliance was closely verified by using a community-based network of home visitors. Anthropometric measures at birth were available for analysis for 87% of the 1175 live singleton deliveries enrolled. After adjustment for gestational age at birth, the FFS group had a significantly higher birth length (+4.6 mm; P = 0.001). FFS supplementation resulted in a modestly higher birth weight (+31 g; P = 0.197). Subgroup analyses showed clinically important treatment effects on birth length (+12.0 mm; P = 0.005) and on birth weight (+111 g; P = 0.133) for underweight [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) birth to longer newborns (+7.3 mm; P = 0.002) than did those who received MMN supplementation. The provision of FFS to pregnant women resulted in higher birth length than did MMN supplementation. For women with a suboptimal prepregnancy nutritional status, MMN supplementation should be complemented with a balanced energy and protein supplement to produce a clinical effect on birth size. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00909974.

  17. Rewiring food systems to enhance human health and biosphere stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Line J.; Bignet, Victoria; Crona, Beatrice; Henriksson, Patrik J. G.; Van Holt, Tracy; Jonell, Malin; Lindahl, Therese; Troell, Max; Barthel, Stephan; Deutsch, Lisa; Folke, Carl; Jamila Haider, L.; Rockström, Johan; Queiroz, Cibele

    2017-10-01

    Food lies at the heart of both health and sustainability challenges. We use a social-ecological framework to illustrate how major changes to the volume, nutrition and safety of food systems between 1961 and today impact health and sustainability. These changes have almost halved undernutrition while doubling the proportion who are overweight. They have also resulted in reduced resilience of the biosphere, pushing four out of six analysed planetary boundaries across the safe operating space of the biosphere. Our analysis further illustrates that consumers and producers have become more distant from one another, with substantial power consolidated within a small group of key actors. Solutions include a shift from a volume-focused production system to focus on quality, nutrition, resource use efficiency, and reduced antimicrobial use. To achieve this, we need to rewire food systems in ways that enhance transparency between producers and consumers, mobilize key actors to become biosphere stewards, and re-connect people to the biosphere.

  18. Adult Education as a Means of Enhancing Food Security in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It looks at the concept of food security, importance of food security to the people, causes of food insecurity, consequences of food insecurity and government's efforts in ensuring food security in Nigeria. The role of Adult Education programmes for the enhancement of Food Security such as improving awareness through ...

  19. The PlantLIBRA consumer survey: Findings on the use of plant food supplements in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restani, Patrizia; Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Frigerio, Gianfranco; Colombo, Francesca; Maggi, Franco M; Milà-Villarroel, Raimon; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2018-01-01

    Food supplements, and in particular those containing botanicals (plant food supplements, PFS), have in recent decades been of great interest both to consumers and to food/pharmaceutical industries. The aim of this paper is to examine replies by Italian consumers to the PlantLIBRA consumers' survey in order to: 1) assess the behaviour of an Italian population with respect to the use of PFS, and to compare it with that of other 5 countries involved in the whole survey; 2) identify different habits in the 4 Italian cities selected according to their geographical distribution; 3) collect independent information on the actual intake of PFS and consumers' behaviour. 397 Italian consumers enrolled, 187 males (49.5%) and 191 female (50.5%). The distribution of subjects among the 4 cities included was: Milan 99; Venice 90; Rome 96 and Catania 96. The interest in PFS in Italy is high, the prevalence of "regular" consumers being 22.7%. Some differences were observed between the 4 cities involved: the pattern of use during the year was specific to each city; consumers in Milan reported reasons to use PFS significantly different from those in the whole Italian sample and did not indicate supermarkets as an important place of purchase; respondents from Rome and Catania more frequently used family doctors and pharmacists as a source of recommendation. Some significant difference among cities, sex and age groups were observed when the most frequently used botanicals were ranked. The results provide new insights on the socio-economic characteristics and lifestyle of Italian PFS consumers, on their reasons for and pattern of use, and on their behaviour and expectations. The value of this information is not restricted to the specific country (Italy) but allows for a more general evaluation of the pattern of use, according to habits and geographical area.

  20. Astaxanthin supplementation enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yook, Jang Soo; Okamoto, Masahiro; Rakwal, Randeep; Shibato, Junko; Lee, Min Chul; Matsui, Takashi; Chang, Hyukki; Cho, Joon Yong; Soya, Hideaki

    2016-03-01

    There is a growing necessity for efficacious natural supplements with antioxidant effects on the brain, in particular, hippocampal function. One such compound, which also has a neuroprotective effect, is the carotenoid astaxanthin (ASX). Despite ASX's potential benefit to the brain, very little is known about its effect on hippocampal plasticity and cognition. Thus, we investigated the effect of ASX on adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) and spatial memory using a mouse model. Dose-response was examined in mice fed ASX-supplemented diets (0, 0.02, 0.1, and 0.5%) to define the effect of ASX on AHN. In conjunction with AHN results, hippocampus-dependent cognitive function was assessed. We delineated molecular mechanisms associated with ASX-enhanced AHN using DNA microarray analysis. Results revealed that ASX enhanced cell proliferation and survival at 0.1% and 0.5% doses. Newborn mature neurons were higher only with 0.5% ASX, which also enhanced spatial memory. Transcriptomic profiling revealed potential AHN-associated molecules (Prl, Itga4, and Il4) that were ASX induced. Their downstream factors, identified through Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, were positively correlated with ASX-induced increases in spatial memory. ASX supplementation enhanced AHN and spatial memory, and a DNA microarray approach provided, for the first time, novel molecular insights into ASX action. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Study on effect of supplementing iron-fortified food to children athletes by nuclear analysis and blood analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Qinfang; Sun Jianguo; Feng Weiyue

    1996-01-01

    The iron content in hair and blood for 37 children athletes who were supplemented with 0, 8 and 16 mg Fe/d, respectively, in the form of ferrous gluconate-containing chocolate for 3 months was determined before and after the supplement by INAA, SRXRF and blood analysis. The experimental results indicated that after the supplement of the iron-fortified food, the ferritin level in blood of the male athletes attained to normal and the iron content in hair was increased with the increasing level of supplement, but not in direct proportion. Most of the female athletes had similar results. It is suggested that supplement of 8 mg Fe/d to a child athlete may be adequate

  2. The enhanced reproduction of cow parent brahman cross post partum with feed supplement multinutrient block medicated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nursyam Andi Syarifuddin; Anis Wahdi

    2011-01-01

    One of the problems in breeding Brahman Cross cattle reproduction efficiency is low due to the length of postpartum anestrus and the high number of services per conception is partly due to the low nutrient content of rations. This study aims to improve the performance of reproductive cows parent Brahman Cross post partum through feeding strategy supplement Multi nutrient Block plus Medicated (MBPM) which starts with the correct parent condition score so that it can accelerate the process appear oestrus post partum then increasing conception rate to minimize the number of service per conception as well as to improve the growth calf produced. This research uses 16 cows parent Brahman Cross post partum not exceeding 90 days comprising 9 tails were given feed supplements MBPM compared with 7 tail not given feed supplements MBPM as control. Research results show that feeding supplements MBPM can enhanced reproductive cow parent Brahman Cross post partum i.e. : maintain parent condition score in early post partum until the occurrence of pregnant, accelerating day 24,8 appear oestrus post partum, number service per conception = 1 and conception rate can reach 60%, maintaining the levels of urea plasma of blood and blood glucose levels within normal limits either at the time of post partum and oestrus post partum. Feeding supplements MBPM on cows parent Brahman Cross post partum can give added daily gain 0,51 kg on calf is suckling. (author)

  3. The role of fortified foods and nutritional supplements in increasing vitamin D intake in Irish preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Áine; Browne, Fiona; Kiely, Mairead; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert

    2017-04-01

    There are limited data on the contribution of fortified foods and nutritional supplements to intakes of vitamin D in young children. Our objective was to examine the intake, adequacy, risk of excessive intake and sources of dietary vitamin D. The nationally representative cross-sectional dietary survey of young children (aged 1-4 years) (n 500) was used to evaluate vitamin D intake and quantify the contribution of the base diet, fortified foods and nutritional supplements to total intake. Median (IQR) intakes of vitamin D were generally low in this young population, ranging from 2.0 (1.9) to 2.5 (4.9) µg/day. Ninety-three and 78 % of children had intakes below 10 and 5 µg/day, respectively. While vitamin D supplement users (17 %) had the highest intakes [6.7 (6.4) µg/day] (P Vitamin D-fortified foods, consumed by 77 % of children [2.2 (2.0) µg/day], made nutritionally significant contributions to intake [0.8 (1.6) µg/day], particularly in younger children [1.5 (4.6) µg/day]. Children who did not use nutritional supplements or fortified foods had significantly (P vitamin D than the other groups [1.0 (0.8) µg/day]. Our analyses show the importance of milk and yoghurt, meat and fortified ready-to-eat cereals as sources of vitamin D in this age group. The use of nutritional supplements or fortified foods at current levels does not represent a risk of intakes exceeding the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) tolerable upper intake level (UL) (50 µg/day), as intakes did not exceed or even approach the UL (P95: 22 % of UL). Intakes of vitamin D in preschool children in Ireland are generally low. Nutritional supplements and fortified foods make significant contributions to intakes of vitamin D, without risk of unacceptably high intakes. Though supplements are effective in raising intakes of vitamin D in users, uptake is low (17 %). Food fortification may represent a suitable public health approach to increasing vitamin D intakes. The national food

  4. Ginkgo biloba Food Supplements on the European Market - Adulteration Patterns Revealed by Quality Control of Selected Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czigle, Szilvia; Tóth, Jaroslav; Jedlinszki, Nikoletta; Háznagy-Radnai, Erzsébet; Csupor, Dezső; Tekeľová, Daniela

    2018-03-05

    The aim of this study was to prove whether Ginkgo biloba food supplements on the European market comply with pharmaceutical quality, and whether their composition satisfies the European Pharmacopoeia criteria. Medicinal products containing a standardised Ginkgo leaf extract are used for the improvement of cognitive impairment and quality of life in mild dementia. Further, Ginkgonis folium is used for the treatment of peripheral circulation disorders. Pharmacopoeial Ginkgo dry extract contains 22.0 - 27.0% flavonoids and 5.4 - 6.6% terpene lactones (ginkgolides, bilobalide). In addition to its widespread use as an herbal medicine (herbal medicinal product), the same extract can be an ingredient in food supplements. The content of active secondary metabolites was quantified in a number of European food supplements containing Ginkgo dry extract or Ginkgo leaf. Flavonoids were quantified using a modified pharmacopoeial HPLC-UV method, and terpene lactones (ginkgolides A, B, C, and bilobalide) using LC-MS/MS. Some Ginkgo leaf supplement samples were also analysed by microscopy. The quality of food supplements on the European market is dubious. In this paper, we present selected examples of several methods of adulteration and falsification, including higher/lower doses of Ginkgo dry extract or Ginkgo leaf than declared and the addition of undeclared extraneous materials. These examples reveal several patterns in the manufacturing of adulterated products. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Vitamin D concentrations in fortified foods and dietary supplements intended for infants: Implications for vitamin D intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Seves, S Marije; Ocké, Marga C

    2017-04-15

    Due to potential overages to cover losses during shelf life, the actual vitamin D concentration of fortified foods and dietary supplements may deviate from the label. In this pilot study the vitamin D concentrations of fortified foods (n=29; follow-on formula, baby porridge, curd cheese dessert) and dietary supplements (n=15), both specifically intended for infants, were analytically determined. Compared to the declared values, the vitamin D content ranged from 50% to 153% for fortified foods and from 8% to 177% for supplements. In general, both instant follow-on formula and oil-based supplements had a measured vitamin D content similar to or higher than the labelled value. Ready-to-eat baby porridge was the only category in which all measured vitamin D concentrations were below the declared value (74-81%). The use of label information for fortified foods and dietary supplements may result in invalid estimations of vitamin D intake distributions of infants; both under- and overestimation may occur. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Serotonin enhances the impact of health information on food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaev, Ivo; Crockett, Molly J; Clark, Luke; Müller, Ulrich; Robbins, Trevor W

    2017-06-01

    Serotonin has been implicated in promoting self-control, regulation of hunger and physiological homeostasis, and regulation of caloric intake. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of serotonin on caloric intake reflect purely homeostatic mechanisms, or whether serotonin also modulates cognitive processes involved in dietary decision making. We investigated the effects of an acute dose of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram on choices between food items that differed along taste and health attributes, compared with placebo and the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine. Twenty-seven participants attended three sessions and received single doses of atomoxetine, citalopram, and placebo in a double-blind randomised cross-over design. Relative to placebo, citalopram increased choices of more healthy foods over less healthy foods. Citalopram also increased the emphasis on health considerations in decisions. Atomoxetine did not affect decision making relative to placebo. The results support the hypothesis that serotonin may influence food choice by enhancing a focus on long-term goals. The findings are relevant for understanding decisions about food consumption and also for treating health conditions such as eating disorders and obesity.

  7. Risk assessment for pyrrolizidine alkaloids detected in (herbal) teas and plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Mulder, Patrick P J; Louisse, Jochem; Peijnenburg, Ad; Wesseling, Sebas; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2017-06-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are plant metabolites present in some botanical preparations, with especially 1,2-unsaturated PAs being of concern because they are genotoxic carcinogens. This study presents an overview of tumour data on PAs and points of departure (PODs) derived from them, corroborating that the BMDL 10 for lasiocarpine represents a conservative POD for risk assessment. A risk assessment using this BMDL 10 and mean levels of PAs reported in literature for (herbal) teas, indicates that consumption of one cup of tea a day would result in MOE values lower than 10 000 for several types of (herbal) teas, indicating a priority for risk management for these products A refined risk assessment using interim relative potency (REP) factors showed that based on the mean PA levels, 7(54%) of 13 types of (herbal) teas and 1 (14%) of 7 types of plant food supplements (PFS) resulted in MOE values lower than 10 000, indicating a priority for risk management also for these products in particular. This includes both preparations containing PA-producing and non-PA-producing plants. Our study provides insight in the current state-of-the art and limitations in the risk assessment of PA-containing food products, especially (herbal) teas and PFS, indicating that PAs in food presents a field of interest for current and future risk management. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Recovery from a cycling time trial is enhanced with carbohydrate-protein supplementation vs. isoenergetic carbohydrate supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemon Peter WR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study we assessed whether a liquid carbohydrate-protein (C+P supplement (0.8 g/kg C; 0.4 g/kg P ingested early during recovery from a cycling time trial could enhance a subsequent 60 min effort on the same day vs. an isoenergetic liquid carbohydrate (CHO supplement (1.2 g/kg. Methods Two hours after a standardized breakfast, 15 trained male cyclists completed a time trial in which they cycled as far as they could in 60 min (AMex using a Computrainer indoor trainer. Following AMex, subjects ingested either C+P, or CHO at 10, 60 and 120 min, followed by a standardized meal at 4 h post exercise. At 6 h post AMex subjects repeated the time trial (PMex. Results There was a significant reduction in performance for both groups in PMex versus AMex. However, performance and power decreases between PMex and AMex were significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05 with CHO (-1.05 ± 0.44 km and -16.50 ± 6.74 W vs C+P (-0.30 ± 0.50 km and -3.86 ± 6.47 W. Fat oxidation estimated from RER values was significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05 in the C+P vs CHO during the PMex, despite a higher average workload in the C+P group. Conclusion Under these experimental conditions, liquid C+P ingestion immediately after exercise increases fat oxidation, increases recovery, and improves subsequent same day, 60 min efforts relative to isoenergetic CHO ingestion.

  9. Seeking optimal means to address micronutrient deficiencies in food supplements: A case study from the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Rezaul; Desplats, Gwénola; Schaetzel, Thomas; Herforth, Anna; Ahmed, Faruk; Salamatullah, Quazi; Shahjahan, Mohammad; Akhtaruzzaman, Mohammed; Levinson, James

    2005-12-01

    In seeking to improve the micronutrient contents of a food supplement used in a major community-based nutrition project in Bangladesh, operations research was conducted to compare the provision of needed micronutrients through additional food sources (fresh or dried fruits or vegetables), a micronutrient multi-mix, and a combination of the two. Micronutrient gaps (the difference between micronutrient requirements and actual micronutrient intake) were estimated for four groups of project beneficiaries, with target intakes defined as requirements for iron, calcium, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin C, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin B12 recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. Primary focus was placed on iron and vitamin A. Cost and bulk constraint analyses, based on cost of supplement, feasibility of delivery, and serving volume needed to achieve micronutrient targets, were used for comparing the supplement options. In terms of these analyses, the micronutrient multimix proved, by far, to be the most advantageous. Food options, however, are arguably desirable in that they provide dietary benefits additional to that of known micronutrients and may increase demand to boost production of domestic fruits and vegetables for the population as a whole. The study concludes that it is cost-effective to use powdered micronutrient mixes for such specific purposes as enrichment of supplementary food and food fortification, but encourages production and consumption of micronutrient-rich foods through programme messages and activities.

  10. Lessons learned from the scaling-up of a weekly multimicronutrient supplementation program in the integrated food security program (PISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechtig, Aarón; Gross, Rainer; Vivanco, Oscar Aquino; Gross, Ursula; López de Romaña, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Weekly multimicronutrient supplementation was initiated as an appropriate intervention to protect poor urban populations from anemia. To identify the lessons learned from the Integrated Food Security Program (Programa Integrado de Seguridad Alimentaria [PISA]) weekly multimicronutrient supplementation program implemented in poor urban populations of Chiclayo, Peru. Data were collected from a 12-week program in which multimicronutrient supplements were provided weekly to women and adolescent girls 12 through 44 years of age and children under 5 years of age. A baseline survey was first conducted. Within the weekly multimicronutrient supplementation program, information was collected on supplement distribution, compliance, biological effectiveness, and cost. Supplementation, fortification, and dietary strategies can be integrated synergistically within a micronutrient intervention program. To ensure high cost-effectiveness of a weekly multimicronutrient supplementation program, the following conditions need to be met: the program should be implemented twice a year for 4 months; the program should be simultaneously implemented at the household (micro), community (meso), and national (macro) levels; there should be governmental participation from health and other sectors; and there should be community and private sector participation. Weekly multimicronutrient supplementation programs are cost effective options in urban areas with populations at low risk of energy deficiency and high risk of micronutrient deficiencies.

  11. The Effect of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Gestational Length: Randomized Trial of Supplementation Compared to Nutrition Education for Increasing n-3 Intake from Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A. Harris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. DHA supplementation was compared to nutrition education to increase DHA consumption from fish and DHA fortified foods. Design. This two-part intervention included a randomized double-blind placebo controlled DHA supplementation arm and a nutrition education arm designed to increase intake of DHA from dietary sources by 300 mg per day. Setting. Denver Health Hospitals and Clinics, Denver, Colorado, USA. Population. 871 pregnant women aged 18–40 were recruited between16 and 20 weeks of gestation of whom 564 completed the study and complete delivery data was available in 505 women and infants. Methods. Subjects received either 300 or 600 mg DHA or olive oil placebo or nutrition education. Main Outcome Variable. Gestational length. Results. Gestational length was significantly increased by 4.0–4.5 days in women supplemented with 600 mg DHA per day or provided with nutrition education. Each 1% increase in RBC DHA at delivery was associated with a 1.6-day increase in gestational length. No significant effects on birth weight, birth length, or head circumference were demonstrated. The rate of early preterm birth (1.7% in those supplemented with DHA (combined 300 and 600 mg/day was significantly lower than in controls. Conclusion. Nutrition education or supplementation with DHA can be effective in increasing gestational length.

  12. A Review of Dietary Ziziphus jujuba Fruit (Jujube: Developing Health Food Supplements for Brain Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of Ziziphus jujuba, known as jujube or Chinese date, are being consumed all around the world because of their health benefits, as both food and herbal medicine. Traditionally, one of the main functions of jujube, as described in herbal medicine, is to benefit our brain by calming down the mind and improving quality of sleep. Here, the activities of jujubes on nervous system are summarized and discussed. Jujube possesses neuroprotective activities, including protecting neuronal cells against neurotoxin stress, stimulating neuronal differentiation, increasing expression of neurotrophic factors, and promoting memory and learning. Flavonoid, cAMP, and jujuboside could be the potential bioactive ingredients to account for the aforesaid biological activities. These findings imply that jujube is a potential candidate for development of health supplements for prevention and/or treatment of neurological diseases.

  13. Kappaphycus alvarezii as a Food Supplement Prevents Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wanyonyi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii, was evaluated for its potential to prevent signs of metabolic syndrome through use as a whole food supplement. Major biochemical components of dried Kappaphycus are carrageenan (soluble fiber ~34.6% and salt (predominantly potassium (K 20% with a low overall energy content for whole seaweed. Eight to nine week old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and fed for 8 weeks on a corn starch diet, a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H diet, alone or supplemented with a 5% (w/w dried and milled Kappaphycus blended into the base diet. H-fed rats showed symptoms of metabolic syndrome including increased body weight, total fat mass, systolic blood pressure, left ventricular collagen deposition, plasma triglycerides, and plasma non-esterified fatty acids along with fatty liver. Relative to these obese rats, Kappaphycus-treated rats showed normalized body weight and adiposity, lower systolic blood pressure, improved heart and liver structure, and lower plasma lipids, even in presence of H diet. Kappaphycus modulated the balance between Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the gut, which could serve as the potential mechanism for improved metabolic variables; this was accompanied by no damage to the gut structure. Thus, whole Kappaphycus improved cardiovascular, liver, and metabolic parameters in obese rats.

  14. Determination of arsenic in food and dietary supplement standard reference materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic was measured in food and dietary supplement standard reference materials by neutron activation analysis for the purpose of assigning certified or reference As mass fractions and to assess material homogeneity. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to value assign As in candidate SRM 3532 Calcium Dietary Supplement and candidate SRM 3262 Hypericum perforatum (St. John's Wort) Aerial Parts down to about 100 μg/kg. Values were also determined for two additional candidate St. John's Wort SRMs with As mass fractions 24 Na and 82 Br limited the reproducibility of the method below 100 μg/kg. For measurement of lower As mass fractions, a radiochemical neutron activation analysis method with extraction of As 3+ into diethyl-dithiocarbamate in chloroform and detection limits down to 0.1 μg/kg. As was used to value-assign As mass fractions for SRM 3280 Multivitamin/Multielement Tablets and for candidate SRM 3233 Fortified Breakfast Cereal, and at <10 μg/kg in candidate SRM 1845a Whole Egg Powder. (author)

  15. Outbreak of Salmonella Montevideo associated with a dietary food supplement flagged in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) in Germany, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöcker, P; Rosner, B; Werber, D; Kirchner, M; Reinecke, A; Wichmann-Schauer, H; Prager, R; Rabsch, W; Frank, C

    2011-12-15

    In March 2010 the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) was used to inform about Salmonella Montevideo in a herbal food supplement, formulated in capsules, distributed under a Dutch label in Germany. Simultaneous to the first RASFF notice, in the last two weeks of March 2010 an unusual number of 15 infections with S. Montevideo was notified within the electronic reporting system for infectious diseases at the Robert Koch Institute. Adult women (median age: 43, range: 1-90 years) were mainly affected. An outbreak was suspected and the food supplement hypothesised to be its vehicle. Cases were notified from six federal states throughout Germany, which required efficient coordination of information and activities. A case-control study (n=55) among adult women showed an association between consumption of the specific food supplement and the disease (odds ratio (OR): 27.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.1-infinity, p-value=0.002). Restricting the case-control study to the period when the outbreak peaked (between 29 March and 11 April 2010) resulted in an OR of 43.5 (95% CI: 4.8-infinity, p-value=0.001). Trace-back of the supplement's main ingredient, hemp seed flour, and subsequent microbiological testing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis supported its likely role in transmission. This outbreak investigation illustrates that information from RASFF may aid in hypothesis generation in outbreak investigations, though likely late in the outbreak.

  16. Enhanced acetone-butanol-ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates by using starchy slurry as supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Kuittinen, Suvi; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Zhang, Junhua; Pappinen, Ari

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to improve acetone-butanol-ethanol production from the hydrolysates of lignocellulosic material by supplementing starchy slurry as nutrients. In the fermentations of glucose, xylose and the hydrolysates of Salix schwerinii, the normal supplements such as buffer, minerals, and vitamins solutions were replaced with the barley starchy slurry. The ABE production was increased from 0.86 to 14.7g/L by supplementation of starchy slurry in the fermentation of xylose and the utilization of xylose increased from 29% to 81%. In the fermentations of hemicellulosic and enzymatic hydrolysates from S. schwerinii, the ABE yields were increased from 0 and 0.26 to 0.35 and 0.33g/g sugars, respectively. The results suggested that the starchy slurry supplied the essential nutrients for ABE fermentation. The starchy slurry as supplement could improve the ABE production from both hemicellulosic and cellulosic hydrolysate of lignocelluloses, and it is particularly helpful for enhancing the utilization of xylose from hemicelluloses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Vibration-enhanced posture stabilization achieved by tactile supplementation: may blind individuals get extra benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Fernando Henrique; Kohn, André Fabio

    2011-08-01

    Diminished balance ability poses a serious health risk due to the increased likelihood of falling, and impaired postural stability is significantly associated with blindness and poor vision. Noise stimulation (by improving the detection of sub-threshold somatosensory information) and tactile supplementation (i.e., additional haptic information provided by an external contact surface) have been shown to improve the performance of the postural control system. Moreover, vibratory noise added to the source of tactile supplementation (e.g., applied to a surface that the fingertip touches) has been shown to enhance balance stability more effectively than tactile supplementation alone. In view of the above findings, in addition to the well established consensus that blind subjects show superior abilities in the use of tactile information, we hypothesized that blind subjects may take extra benefits from the vibratory noise added to the tactile supplementation and hence show greater improvements in postural stability than those observed for sighted subjects. If confirmed, this hypothesis may lay the foundation for the development of noise-based assistive devices (e.g., canes, walking sticks) for improving somatosensation and hence prevent falls in blind individuals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cordyceps sinensis Health Supplement Enhances Recovery from Taxol-Induced Leukopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wei-Chung; Chuang, Wei-Ling; Tsai, Min-Lung; Hong, Ji-Hong; McBride, William H.; Chiang, Chi-Shiun

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the health food supplement Cordyceps sinensis (CS) to ameliorate suppressive effects of chemotherapy on bone marrow function as a model for cancer treatment Mice were treated with Taxol (17 mg/kg body wt) one day before oral administration of a hot-water extract of CS (50 mg/kg daily) that was given daily for 3 weeks. White blood cell counts in peripheral blood of mice receiving Taxol were at 50% of normal levels on day 28 but had recovered complete...

  19. Nutritional profile of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program household food and beverage purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grummon, Anna H; Taillie, Lindsey Smith

    2017-06-01

    Background: The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), which is the largest federal nutrition assistance program in the United States, serves nearly 1 of 7 Americans. To date, few studies have examined food and beverage purchase behaviors in SNAP participants with the use of electronic purchase data. Objective: In this cross-sectional study, we examined household store purchases of key food, beverage, and nutrient groups in SNAP participants and nonparticipants. Design: Using a data set of US households' ( n = 98,256 household-by-quarter observations) packaged food and beverage purchases and SNAP status [current participant, income-eligible nonparticipant (income ≤130% of the Federal Poverty Level [FPL]), and higher-income nonparticipants (income >130% of the FPL)] from 3 quarters during 2012-2013, we estimated pooled ordinary least-squares models, clustered at the household level, to examine the association between SNAP status and purchases while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. We examined purchases of health- and policy-relevant food and beverage groups [e.g., fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)] and nutrients (e.g., total calories and sodium). Results: Regardless of SNAP status, households had low mean purchases of fruit, vegetables, and fiber and high mean purchases of junk foods, saturated fat, and sodium. After adjustment for multiple comparisons and demographic characteristics, we found significant differences by SNAP status of purchases of fruit, processed meat, salty snacks, sweeteners and toppings, SSBs, and total calories, fiber, sugar, and sodium. Several of these differences were clinically important. For example, compared with income-eligible and higher-income nonparticipants, SNAP participants purchased an additional ∼15-20 kcal · person -1 · d -1 from SSBs ( P < 0.0001) and ∼174-195 mg total Na · person -1 · d -1 ( P <0.0001). Results were robust to corrections for sample-selection bias and to the

  20. Plant food supplement (PFS) market structure in EC Member States, methods and techniques for the assessment of individual PFS intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas-Murga, L.; Garcia-Alvarez, A.; Roman-Vinas, B.; Ngo, J.; Ribas-Barba, L.; Berg, van den S.J.P.L.; Williamson, G.; Serra-Majem, L.

    2011-01-01

    The popularity of herbal products, especially plant food supplements (PFS) and herbal medicine is on the rise in Europe and other parts of the world, with increased use in the general population as well as among specific subgroups encompassing children, women or those suffering from diseases such as

  1. Association between Travel Times and Food Procurement Practices among Female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participants in Eastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Moore, Justin B.; Wall-Bassett, Elizabeth D.; Liu, Haiyong; Saelens, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between self-reported vehicular travel behaviors, perceived stress, food procurement practices, and body mass index among female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. Analysis: The authors used correlation and regression analyses to examine cross-sectional associations between travel time…

  2. Raspberry ketone in food supplements – High intake, few toxicity data – A cause for safety concern?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev

    2015-01-01

    Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) is marketed on the Internet as a food supplement. The recommended intake is between 100 and 1400 mg per day. The substance is naturally occurring in raspberries (up to 4.3 mg/kg) and is used as a flavouring substance. Toxicological studies...... ketone is not withdrawn from Internet sites from this country....

  3. Food Deserts in Leon County, FL: Disparate Distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Accepting Stores by Neighborhood Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Samantha; Leone, Angela F.; Kim, Hwahwan; Betterley, Connie; Johnson, Mary Ann; Kurtz, Hilda; Lee, Jung Sun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine whether neighborhood characteristics of racial composition, income, and rurality were related to distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-accepting stores in Leon County, Florida. Design: Cross-sectional; neighborhood and food store data collected in 2008. Setting and Participants: Forty-eight census…

  4. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) and yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) in combination with silymarin as food supplements: In vivo safety assessment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valentová, K.; Stejskal, D.; Bartek, J.; Dvořáčková, S.; Křen, Vladimír; Ulrichová, J.; Šimánek, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2008), s. 1003-1013 ISSN 0278-6915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : food supplement * volunteers * blood pressure Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.321, year: 2008

  5. Plant food supplements with anti-inflammatory properties: a systematic review (I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Agli, Mario; Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Badea, Mihaela; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Dima, Lorena; Bosisio, Enrica; Restani, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Plant food supplements (PFS) receive great acceptance by European consumers. However, quality and efficacy of these products remain a question of concern. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize and critically evaluate the evidence for or against the efficacy of PFS for coping inflammatory conditions by considering epidemiological and human intervention studies. The review, which consists of two parts, considers Olea europea L., Camellia sinensis L., Vitis vinifera L., and Matricaria recutita L., which are herbal material frequently used also as food. The search retrieved 1251 publications. By applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the final number of papers was 91. Vitis vinifera L. showed promising results, but other trials should be performed in order to assessing the efficacy. Surprisingly, it was impossible to draw conclusions for the anti-inflammatory effect of Camellia sinensis L. as green tea. No studies were found on the leaves of Olea europea L. whereas more human trials are needed to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of olive oil. Only one study for Matricaria recutita L. was selected. In conclusion, it is advisable to conduct further studies with more homogeneous population and larger number of subjects by avoiding the heterogeneity of the herbal preparations considered.

  6. Cavity-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for Food Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenz Sandfort

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive food chain management requires the monitoring of many parameters including temperature, humidity, and multiple gases. The latter is highly challenging because no low-cost technology for the simultaneous chemical analysis of multiple gaseous components currently exists. This contribution proposes the use of cavity enhanced Raman spectroscopy to enable online monitoring of all relevant components using a single laser source. A laboratory scale setup is presented and characterized in detail. Power enhancement of the pump light is achieved in an optical resonator with a Finesse exceeding 2500. A simulation for the light scattering behavior shows the influence of polarization on the spatial distribution of the Raman scattered light. The setup is also used to measure three relevant showcase gases to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach, including carbon dioxide, oxygen and ethene.

  7. Fish-oil supplementation enhances the effects of strength training in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodacki, Cintia L N; Rodacki, André L F; Pereira, Gleber; Naliwaiko, Katya; Coelho, Isabela; Pequito, Daniele; Fernandes, Luiz Cléudio

    2012-02-01

    Muscle force and functional capacity generally decrease with aging in the older population, although this effect can be reversed, attenuated, or both through strength training. Fish oil (FO), which is rich in n-3 (omega-3) PUFAs, has been shown to play a role in the plasma membrane and cell function of muscles, which may enhance the benefits of training. The effect of strength training and FO supplementation on the neuromuscular system of the elderly has not been investigated. The objective was to investigate the chronic effect of FO supplementation and strength training on the neuromuscular system (muscle strength and functional capacity) of older women. Forty-five women (aged 64 ± 1.4 y) were randomly assigned to 3 groups. One group performed strength training only (ST group) for 90 d, whereas the others performed the same strength-training program and received FO supplementation (2 g/d) for 90 d (ST90 group) or for 150 d (ST150 group; supplemented 60 d before training). Muscle strength and functional capacity were assessed before and after the training period. No differences in the pretraining period were found between groups for any of the variables. The peak torque and rate of torque development for all muscles (knee flexor and extensor, plantar and dorsiflexor) increased from pre- to posttraining in all groups. However, the effect was greater in the ST90 and ST150 groups than in the ST group. The activation level and electromechanical delay of the muscles changed from pre- to posttraining only for the ST90 and ST150 groups. Chair-rising performance in the FO groups was higher than in the ST group. Strength training increased muscle strength in elderly women. The inclusion of FO supplementation caused greater improvements in muscle strength and functional capacity.

  8. Food-associated stimuli enhance barrier properties of gastrointestinal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Hasan M; Speciner, Lauren; Ozdemir, Cafer; Cohen, David E; Carrier, Rebecca L

    2015-06-01

    Orally delivered drugs and nutrients must diffuse through mucus to enter the circulatory system, but the barrier properties of mucus and their modulation by physiological factors are generally poorly characterized. The main objective of this study was to examine the impact of physicochemical changes occurring upon food ingestion on gastrointestinal (GI) mucus barrier properties. Lipids representative of postprandial intestinal contents enhanced mucus barriers, as indicated by a 10-142-fold reduction in the transport rate of 200 nm microspheres through mucus, depending on surface chemistry. Physiologically relevant increases in [Ca(2+)] resulted in a 2-4-fold reduction of transport rates, likely due to enhanced cross-linking of the mucus gel network. Reduction of pH from 6.5 to 3.5 also affected mucus viscoelasticity, reducing particle transport rates approximately 5-10-fold. Macroscopic visual observation and micro-scale lectin staining revealed mucus gel structural changes, including clumping into regions into which particles did not penetrate. Histological examination indicated food ingestion can prevent microsphere contact with and endocytosis by intestinal epithelium. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GI mucus barriers are significantly altered by stimuli associated with eating and potentially dosing of lipid-based delivery systems; these stimuli represent broadly relevant variables to consider upon designing oral therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Effect of the consumption of a food supplement on plasma zinc concentrations of free-living Chilean elderly adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos H, Rosa Isela; Atalah S, Eduardo; Urteaga R, Carmen; Castañeda L, Rutila; Orozco L, Maribel; Avila, Laura; Martínez, Homero

    2007-08-01

    Zinc intake is well below recommendation among Chilean free living elderly adults of low socioeconomic level. To assess the effect of the consumption of a food supplement on plasma zinc concentrations in elderly adults (EA). Ambulatory EA (> or = 70) with controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus or high blood pressure, ascribed to public family health centers were studied. They were separated in a control and intervention group, without blinding techniques. The intervention group consumed daily 50 g of a special nutritional supplement prepared as a soup or porridge, provided by the Government, for 3 months. The control group did not receive the supplement. A good compliance with the supplement was defined as a consumption of 7 portions per week. A fasting venous blood sample was obtained to determine plasma zinc at the beginning and end of the study. Forty three supplemented EA aged 76+/-5 years (21 women) and 31 non supplemented EA aged 78+/-5 years (20 women), completed 3 months of follow up. Mean compliance with the supplement was 40.5% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 40.3-40.6%). General characteristics of the study subjects upon recruitment were similar, except for the literacy that was higher in the intervention group. We fitted a multiple linear regression model which explained 39% of the variance, where the consumption of the nutritional supplement increased the concentration of plasmatic zinc by 4.14 microg/dL (95% CI 0.25-8.02) (pfood supplement significantly increased plasma zinc concentrations in Chilean elderly adults.

  10. Randomized clinical trial of laxatives and oral nutritional supplements within an enhanced recovery after surgery protocol following liver resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, P O; van Dam, R M; Bukkems, S F F W; McKeown, D W; Parks, R W; Preston, T; Dejong, C H C; Garden, O J; Fearon, K C H

    2010-08-01

    Routine laxatives may expedite gastrointestinal recovery and early tolerance of food within an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programme. Combined with carbohydrate loading and oral nutritional supplements (ONS), it may further enhance recovery of gastrointestinal function and promote earlier overall recovery. Seventy-four patients undergoing liver resection were randomized in a two-by-two factorial design to receive either postoperative magnesium hydroxide as a laxative, preoperative carbohydrate loading and postoperative ONS, their combination or a control group. Patients were managed within an ERAS programme of care. The primary outcome measure was time to first passage of stool. Secondary outcome measures were gastric emptying, postoperative oral calorie intake, time to functional recovery and length of hospital stay. Sixty-eight patients completed the trial. The laxative group had a significantly reduced time to passage of stool: median (interquartile range) 4 (3-5) versus 5 (4-6) days (P = 0.034). The ONS group showed a trend towards a shorter time to passage of stool (P = 0.076) but there was no evidence of interaction in patients randomized to the combination regimen. Median length of hospital stay was 6 (4-7) days. There were no differences in secondary outcomes between groups. Within an ERAS protocol for patients undergoing liver resection, routine postoperative laxatives result in an earlier first passage of stool but the overall rate of recovery is unaltered. Copyright (c) 2010 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations: a systematic review with critical evaluation of causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Lüde, Saskia; De Souza Nascimento, Elizabeth; Dos Santos, Ariana; Colombo, Francesca; Frigerio, Gianfranco; Nørby, Karin; Plumb, Jenny; Finglas, Paul; Restani, Patrizia

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this review was to collect available data on the following: (i) adverse effects observed in humans from the intake of plant food supplements or botanical preparations; (ii) the misidentification of poisonous plants; and (iii) interactions between plant food supplements/botanicals and conventional drugs or nutrients. PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase were searched from database inception to June 2014, using the terms 'adverse effect/s', 'poisoning/s', 'plant food supplement/s', 'misidentification/s' and 'interaction/s' in combination with the relevant plant name. All papers were critically evaluated according to the World Health Organization Guidelines for causality assessment. Data were obtained for 66 plants that are common ingredients of plant food supplements; of the 492 papers selected, 402 (81.7%) dealt with adverse effects directly associated with the botanical and 89 (18.1%) concerned interactions with conventional drugs. Only one case was associated with misidentification. Adverse effects were reported for 39 of the 66 botanical substances searched. Of the total references, 86.6% were associated with 14 plants, including Glycine max/soybean (19.3%), Glycyrrhiza glabra/liquorice (12.2%), Camellia sinensis/green tea ( 8.7%) and Ginkgo biloba/gingko (8.5%). Considering the length of time examined and the number of plants included in the review, it is remarkable that: (i) the adverse effects due to botanical ingredients were relatively infrequent, if assessed for causality; and (ii) the number of severe clinical reactions was very limited, but some fatal cases have been described. Data presented in this review were assessed for quality in order to make the results maximally useful for clinicians in identifying or excluding deleterious effects of botanicals. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Impact of food supplementation on weight loss in randomised-controlled dietary intervention trials: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibisono, Cinthya; Probst, Yasmine; Neale, Elizabeth; Tapsell, Linda

    2016-04-01

    Dietary trials provide evidence for practice and policy guidelines, but poor adherence may confound results. Food supplementation may improve adherence to dietary interventions, but the impact of supplementation on study outcomes is not known. The aim of this review was to examine the impact of food supplementation on weight loss in dietary intervention trials. The databases Scopus, PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for dietary intervention trials published between January 2004 and March 2015 using the following keyword combinations: 'trial' OR 'intervention', 'food' OR 'diet', 'weight loss' and 'adherence' OR 'adherence'. Studies were included if food was provided to at least one study group and both 'weight change' and 'adherence' were reported. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to assess weighted mean differences (WMD) in body weight (change or final mean values). The included studies formed two groups: trials involving an intervention group supplemented with a food and a control without food supplementation (food v. no food), and trials in which food was provided to all subjects (food v. food) (PROSPERO registration: CRD42015017563). In total, sixteen studies were included. Significant weight reduction was reported in the food v. no food studies (WMD -0·74 kg; 95 % CI -1·40, -0·08; P=0·03, I 2=63 %). A non-significant increase in weight was found among the food v. food studies (WMD 0·84 kg; 95 % CI -0·60, 2·27; P=0·25, I 2=0 %). Food supplementation appeared to result in greater weight loss in dietary trials. Energy restrictions and intensity of interventions were other significant factors influencing weight loss.

  13. Genetic opportunities to enhance sustainability of pork production in developing countries: A model for food animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Golovan, S.P.; Ajakaiye, A.; Fan, M.Z.; Hacker, R.R.; Phillips, J.P.; Meidinger, R.G.; Kelly, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Currently there is a shortage of food and potable water in many developing countries. Superimposed upon this critical situation, because of the increasing urban wealth in these countries, there is a strong trend of increased consumption of meat, and pork in particular. The consequence of this trend will be increased agricultural pollution, resulting not only from greater use of chemical fertilizer, but also from manure spread on land as fertilizer that may enter freshwater and marine ecosystems causing extensive eutrophication and decreased water quality. The application of transgenic technologies to improve the digestive efficiency and survival of food animals, and simultaneously decreasing their environmental impact is seen as an opportunity to enhance sustainability of animal agriculture without continued capital inputs. Transgenes expressed in pigs that have potential include, for example, genes coding for phytase, lactalbumin and lactoferrin. At the University of Guelph, Escherichia coli phytase has been expressed in the salivary glands of the pig. Selected lines of these pigs utilize plant phytate phosphorus efficiently as a source of phosphorus and excrete faecal material with more than a 60 percent reduction in phosphorus content. Because of their capacity to utilize plant phytate phosphorus and to produce less polluting manure they have a valuable trait that will contribute to enhanced sustainability of pork production in developing countries, where there is less access to either high quality phosphate supplement or phytase enzyme to include in the diet. Issues that require continued consideration as a prelude to the introduction of transgenic animals into developing countries include food and environmental safety, and consumer acceptance of meat products from genetically modified animals. (author)

  14. Verification of imported food upon import for radiation processing: Dried herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, and spices by PSL and TL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniglia, C.; Aureli, P.; Bortolin, E.; Onori, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Italian National Institute of Health in 2005-2006 performed an analytical survey of import on dried spices and herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, to investigate the entry in Italy of irradiated, and not correctly labelled, raw materials. In this survey, 52 samples, including nine herbal extracts, were collected. The method of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) was applied to all samples and only samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL were analysed by using the thermo-luminescence (TL) method. Out of the 12 samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL, the TL method confirmed irradiation of five samples (10% of the total assayed samples). One out of these five samples was a herbal supplement whereas three were herbal extracts that are known to be used as ingredients of herbal supplements, and another one was a spice.

  15. Verification of imported food upon import for radiation processing: Dried herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, and spices by PSL and TL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniglia, C.; Aureli, P.; Bortolin, E.; Onori, S.

    2009-07-01

    The Italian National Institute of Health in 2005-2006 performed an analytical survey of import on dried spices and herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, to investigate the entry in Italy of irradiated, and not correctly labelled, raw materials. In this survey, 52 samples, including nine herbal extracts, were collected. The method of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) was applied to all samples and only samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL were analysed by using the thermo-luminescence (TL) method. Out of the 12 samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL, the TL method confirmed irradiation of five samples (10% of the total assayed samples). One out of these five samples was a herbal supplement whereas three were herbal extracts that are known to be used as ingredients of herbal supplements, and another one was a spice.

  16. Verification of imported food upon import for radiation processing: Dried herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, and spices by PSL and TL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boniglia, C. [Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)], E-mail: concetta.boniglia@iss.it; Aureli, P. [Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Bortolin, E.; Onori, S. [Department of Technology and Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    The Italian National Institute of Health in 2005-2006 performed an analytical survey of import on dried spices and herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, to investigate the entry in Italy of irradiated, and not correctly labelled, raw materials. In this survey, 52 samples, including nine herbal extracts, were collected. The method of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) was applied to all samples and only samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL were analysed by using the thermo-luminescence (TL) method. Out of the 12 samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL, the TL method confirmed irradiation of five samples (10% of the total assayed samples). One out of these five samples was a herbal supplement whereas three were herbal extracts that are known to be used as ingredients of herbal supplements, and another one was a spice.

  17. Review of existing experimental approaches for the clinical evaluation of the benefits of plant food supplements on cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meoni, Paolo; Restani, Patrizia; Mancama, Dalu T

    2013-06-01

    We conducted a survey of the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) PubMed database to identify methods most commonly used for the evaluation of the effect of plant food supplements on the cardiovascular system and their relevance to the regulatory status of these products. Particularly, our search strategy was aimed at the selection of studies concerning the clinical evaluation of the beneficial effects of the most commonly studied plant food supplements acting on the cardiovascular system. Following the screening of 3839 papers for inclusion criteria, 48 published reports were retained for this review. Most studies included in this review used a double blind controlled design, and evaluated the effect of plant food supplements on individuals affected by a disease of the cardiovascular system. The majority of the studies were found to be of low methodological quality on the Jadad scale, mainly because of inadequate reporting of adverse events and of patient withdrawals. In comparison, measures used for the evaluation of benefits included mostly cardiovascular risk factors as recommended in international guidelines and in accordance with principles laid down for the evaluation of health claims in food. The risk factors most frequently evaluated belonged to the category of "lipid function and levels", "heart function" and "blood pressure". For the absolute majority of the studies, the study period did not exceed one month. This review highlights critical factors to be considered in the design of studies evaluating the health effects of plant food supplements on the cardiovascular system. Between others, the inclusion of healthy individuals, better reporting and description of the characteristics of the product used could improve the quality and relevance of these studies.

  18. Launching a new food product or dietary supplement in the United States: industrial, regulatory, and nutritional considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, John Weldon; Finley, John Wescott; Ellwood, Kathleen; Hoadley, James

    2014-01-01

    Launching a new food/dietary supplement into the US market can be a confusing process to those unfamiliar with the food industry. Industry capability and product specifications are initial determinants of whether a candidate product can be manufactured in a reproducible manner and whether pilot production can be brought up to the market scale. Regulatory issues determine how a product can be produced and marketed; the primary federal institutions involved in regulations are the US Department of Agriculture, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Federal Trade Commission. A primary distinction is made between food and drugs, and no product may enter the food market if it is in part or whole a drug. Product safety is a major concern, and myriad regulations govern the determination of safety. New foods/dietary supplements are often marketed by health claims or structure/function claims, and there are specific regulations pertaining to claims. Not understanding the regulatory issues involved in developing a new product or failing to comply with associated regulations can have legal and financial repercussions.

  19. Trametes versicolor ethanol extract, a promising candidate for health-promoting food supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjušević, Ljiljana; Pejin, Boris; Kaišarević, Sonja; Gorjanović, Stanislava; Pastor, Ferenc; Tešanović, Kristina; Karaman, Maja

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to estimate antiradical, antioxidant (AO) and cytotoxic activities of the fungus Trametes versicolor ethanol fruiting body extract. The extract was found to effectively scavenge both O 2 •- and NO • (29.62 and 52.48 μg/mL, respectively). It also showed a good AO activity in the polarographic HPMC assay (950%/mL). p-Hydroxybenzoic acid may be one of the responsible compounds for the afore-mentioned activities. The same extract also exhibited a concentration-dependent cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and HepG2 tumour cell lines reaching IC 50 values of 123.51 and 134.29 μg/mL, respectively with no cytotoxic activity against normal MRC-5 cells. Gentisic, syringic and protocatechuic acids may be among the bioactive principles for the observed cytotoxicity. Taken all together, T. versicolor ethanol extract can be considered as a promising candidate for development of health promoting food supplement.

  20. Healthy food availability and participation in WIC (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children) in food stores around lower- and higher-income elementary schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, June M.; Yen, Irene H.; Pallis, Lauren C.; Laraia, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The nutritional intake of schoolchildren is affected not only by what is consumed at school but also by what is available in food outlets near schools. The present study surveys the range of food outlets around schools and examines how the availability of healthy food in the food stores encountered varies by income status of the school and by store participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food assistance programme. Design Network buffer zones were created to reflect a quarter-mile (400m) walk from elementary schools with lower- and higher-income student populations in Oakland, CA, USA. All food outlets within these zones were categorised by type, and audits were conducted within food stores using a checklist to assess for the presence or absence of twenty-eight healthy items (in five domains). Setting Mid-sized city in the USA. Subjects Food outlets near public elementary schools. Results There were considerably more food outlets around lower-income schools. Food stores near higher-income schools had higher scores in two of the five domains (healthy beverages/low-fat dairy and healthy snacks). However, there were more food stores near lower-income schools that accepted WIC vouchers. Stratification showed that WIC stores scored higher than non-WIC stores on four of the five domains. Conclusions Although higher-income students have more access to healthy food in the environment surrounding their school, this disparity appears to be mitigated by stores that accept WIC and offer more healthy snacking options. Federal programmes such as this may be particularly valuable for children in lower-income areas. PMID:21205402

  1. Availability of Foods and Beverages in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Authorized Dollar Stores in a Region of North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Elizabeth F; Batada, Ameena; Solomon, Corliss A; Story, Mary

    2016-10-01

    There are >25,000 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-authorized dollar stores throughout the United States; many are located in lower-income neighborhoods and provide an accessible food and beverage source for area residents. The purpose of this research was to determine the percent of food deserts within 16 counties in North Carolina that include a SNAP dollar store; examine the types of foods and beverages at SNAP dollar stores in these counties; test whether the foods and beverages offered vary by SNAP dollar store chain; and test whether the foods and beverages available differ by rural and urban location. This cross-sectional study used a combination of publicly available data and primary data to investigate the research questions. Secondary data sources were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture's SNAP retailer locator, the US Census, and the US Department of Agriculture's Food Access Research Atlas. Availability of foods and beverages was assessed among a sample of 90 SNAP dollar stores in 16 counties in southern and western sections of North Carolina. Data were collected in June 2014. About half (52%) of the food deserts in the research area included a SNAP dollar store. Most of the sampled stores sold healthier food staples, such as frozen meats, brown rice, 100% whole-wheat bread, and dried beans. None of the stores sold fresh fruits or vegetables. Some of the foods and beverages offered (eg, frozen fruit, frozen unseasoned vegetables, nonfat or low-fat milk, frozen ground beef) varied by SNAP dollar store chain. The foods and beverages offered did not differ by rural or urban county location. SNAP dollar stores offer a number of healthy food staples; however, they do not sell fresh fruits or vegetables. Further food environment research should include dollar stores. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhancing food engineering education with interactive web-based simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Koulouris

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional deductive approach in teaching any engineering topic, teachers would first expose students to the derivation of the equations that govern the behavior of a physical system and then demonstrate the use of equations through a limited number of textbook examples. This methodology, however, is rarely adequate to unmask the cause-effect and quantitative relationships between the system variables that the equations embody. Web-based simulation, which is the integration of simulation and internet technologies, has the potential to enhance the learning experience by offering an interactive and easily accessible platform for quick and effortless experimentation with physical phenomena.This paper presents the design and development of a web-based platform for teaching basic food engineering phenomena to food technology students. The platform contains a variety of modules (“virtual experiments” covering the topics of mass and energy balances, fluid mechanics and heat transfer. In this paper, the design and development of three modules for mass balances and heat transfer is presented. Each webpage representing an educational module has the following features: visualization of the studied phenomenon through graphs, charts or videos, computation through a mathematical model and experimentation.  The student is allowed to edit key parameters of the phenomenon and observe the effect of these changes on the outputs. Experimentation can be done in a free or guided fashion with a set of prefabricated examples that students can run and self-test their knowledge by answering multiple-choice questions.

  3. Production of a high-nutritional-value functional food, the Update1 bread, with the supplementation of the wheat flour with high-protein-content raw food materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csapó J.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During our research, we added extracted soya bean meal, egg-white powder, gluten, wheat sourdough, and bamboo fibre to wheat flour in order to increase the quantity of the essential amino acid and the biological value of the wheat protein, producing such a functional, health-protecting, health-preservative food product which is suitable to satisfy the essential amino acid requirements of humans, assuming normal nutrition. Furthermore, we could produce such a food, which, on the one hand, was suitable to confine or prevent the essential amino acid’s malnutrition symptoms, while, on the other hand, when applied alone, to meet the consumers’ needs. During our work, we determined the protein content and amino acid composition of the wheat flour, of the additives used in bread baking, and in the bread both baked with supplementation (Update1 bread and without supplementation (normal bread, as well as the quantity of the Maillard reaction products (hydroxymethylfurfural. We calculated the biological value of the protein of different breads and evaluated the sensory characteristics of the produced functional food and the fortified bread, supplemented with high essential-amino-acid-containing additives.

  4. Successful Development of Satiety Enhancing Food Products: Towards a Multidisciplinary Agenda of Research Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kleef, E.; Van Trijp, J.C.M.; Van Den Borne, J.J.G.C.; Zondervan, C.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in societies worldwide, enhancing the satiating capacity of foods may help people control their energy intake and weight. This requires an integrated approach between various food-related disciplines. By structuring this approach around the new product development process, this paper aims to present the contours of such an integrative approach by going through the current state of the art around satiety enhancing foods. It portrays actual food choice as the end result of a complex interaction between internal satiety signals, other food benefits, and environmental cues. Three interrelated routes to satiating enhancement are to change the food composition to develop stronger physiological satiation and satiety signals, anticipate and build on smart external stimuli at the moment of purchase and consumption, and improve palatability and acceptance of satiety enhanced foods. Key research challenges in achieving these routes in the field of nutrition, food technology, consumer, marketing, and communication are outlined. PMID:22530713

  5. Effects of food supplementation on the physiological ecology of female Western diamond-backed rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Emily N; Malawy, Michael A; Browning, Dawn M; Lemar, Shea V; DeNardo, Dale F

    2005-06-01

    Food availability is an important factor in the life histories of organisms because it is often limiting and thus can affect growth, mass change, reproduction, and behaviors such as thermoregulation, locomotion, and mating. Experimental studies in natural settings allow researchers to examine the effects of food on these parameters while animals are free to behave naturally. The wide variation among organisms in energy demands and among environmental food resources suggest that responses to changes in food availability may vary among organisms. Since most supplemental feeding field experiments have been conducted on species with high energy demands, we conducted a supplemental feeding study on free-ranging, female Western diamond-backed rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox), a species with low energy demands and infrequent reproductive investment. Snakes were offered thawed rodents 1-4 times per week. Over two active seasons, we collected data on surface activity, home range size, growth, mass change, and reproduction of supplementally fed and control snakes. Fed and control snakes did not differ in surface activity levels (proportion of time encountered above versus below ground) or home range size. Fed snakes grew and gained mass faster, and had a dramatically higher occurrence of reproduction than control snakes. Also, fed snakes were in better body condition following reproduction than snakes that were not fed. However, litter characteristics such as offspring number and size were not increased by feeding, suggesting that these characteristics may be fixed. These data experimentally demonstrate that food availability can directly impact some life history traits (i.e., growth and reproduction for C. atrox), but not others (i.e., surface activity and home range size for C. atrox). The relationship between food availability and life history traits is affected in a complex way by ecological traits and physiological constraints, and thus interspecific variation in this

  6. Enhanced food anticipatory activity associated with enhanced activation of extrahypothalamic neural pathways in serotonin2C receptor null mutant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Hsu

    Full Text Available The ability to entrain circadian rhythms to food availability is important for survival. Food-entrained circadian rhythms are characterized by increased locomotor activity in anticipation of food availability (food anticipatory activity. However, the molecular components and neural circuitry underlying the regulation of food anticipatory activity remain unclear. Here we show that serotonin(2C receptor (5-HT2CR null mutant mice subjected to a daytime restricted feeding schedule exhibit enhanced food anticipatory activity compared to wild-type littermates, without phenotypic differences in the impact of restricted feeding on food consumption, body weight loss, or blood glucose levels. Moreover, we show that the enhanced food anticipatory activity in 5-HT2CR null mutant mice develops independent of external light cues and persists during two days of total food deprivation, indicating that food anticipatory activity in 5-HT2CR null mutant mice reflects the locomotor output of a food-entrainable oscillator. Whereas restricted feeding induces c-fos expression to a similar extent in hypothalamic nuclei of wild-type and null mutant animals, it produces enhanced expression in the nucleus accumbens and other extrahypothalamic regions of null mutant mice relative to wild-type subjects. These data suggest that 5-HT2CRs gate food anticipatory activity through mechanisms involving extrahypothalamic neural pathways.

  7. Fatty acid and metabolomic profiling approaches differentiate heterotrophic and mixotrophic culture conditions in a microalgal food supplement 'Euglena'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Min; Hao, Wenlong; Zou, Yongdong; Shi, Mengliang; Jiang, Yongguang; Xiao, Peng; Lei, Anping; Hu, Zhangli; Zhang, Weiwen; Zhao, Liqing; Wang, Jiangxin

    2016-06-02

    Microalgae have been recognized as a good food source of natural biologically active ingredients. Among them, the green microalga Euglena is a very promising food and nutritional supplements, providing high value-added poly-unsaturated fatty acids, paramylon and proteins. Different culture conditions could affect the chemical composition and food quality of microalgal cells. However, little information is available for distinguishing the different cellular changes especially the active ingredients including poly-saturated fatty acids and other metabolites under different culture conditions, such as light and dark. In this study, together with fatty acid profiling, we applied a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics to differentiate hetrotrophic and mixotrophic culture conditions. This study suggests metabolomics can shed light on understanding metabolomic changes under different culture conditions and provides a theoretical basis for industrial applications of microalgae, as food with better high-quality active ingredients.

  8. Effect of spirulina food supplement on blood morphological parameters, biochemical composition and on the immune function of sportsmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Milasius

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Of highest biological value are natural concentrates of optimally combined substances produced by nature. One of food supplements of this kind is dietary Spirulina produced by the Tianshi firm (China. It is a most rationally balanced food supplement of a high biological value; it satisfies the needs of the whole body, including its immune system. The aim of the current work was to assess the effect of the multicomponent natural food supplement Spirulina on the physical development, blood morphological, biochemical picture and immune function of sportsmen. Materials and Methods: The study cohort comprised 12 high performance sportsmen (age 20-22 years. They were using tablets of Spirulina, a dietary product for 14 days. Physical development was determined with the aid of standard methods. The general blood picture was analyzed with the aid of a Micros-60 hematological analyzer (company ABX DIAGNOSTICS, France. Lymphocytes and their subsets were analysed by flow cytometery (FACSCalibur, Becton Dickinson Immunocytometry Systems (BDIS, USA and the absolute and percentage values were calculated. To evaluate immune function lymphocyte blasttransformation response to mitogens was studied. Results: Investigations carried out on endurance-training sportsmen showed that a 14-d administration of Spirulina exerted a positive effect on blood morphological composition indices and its biochemical changes. The results of our study confirm the positive effect of Spirulina food supplement on the quantitative parameters of immune system. Part of the study cohort after weeks showed a tendency of normalizing CD3 , CD3 CD4 lympocite count: positive changes were still present two weeks following the interruption of Spirulina intake

  9. Early prenatal food supplementation ameliorates the negative association of maternal stress with birth size in a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Amy L; Naved, Ruchira T; Persson, Lars Ake; Frongillo, Edward A

    2015-10-01

    Low birthweight increases the risk of infant mortality, morbidity and poor development. Maternal nutrition and stress influence birth size, but their combined effect is not known. We hypothesised that an early-invitation time to start a prenatal food supplementation programme could reduce the negative influence of prenatal maternal stress on birth size, and that effect would differ by infant sex. A cohort of 1041 pregnant women, who had delivered an infant, June 2003-March 2004, was sampled from among 3267 in the randomised controlled trial, Maternal Infant Nutritional Interventions Matlab, conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh. At 8 weeks gestation, women were randomly assigned an invitation to start food supplements (2.5 MJ d(-1) ; 6 days a week) either early (∼9 weeks gestation; early-invitation group) or at usual start time for the governmental programme (∼20 weeks gestation; usual-invitation group). Morning concentration of cortisol was measured from one saliva sample/woman at 28-32 weeks gestation to assess stress. Birth-size measurements for 90% of infants were collected within 4 days of birth. In a general linear model, there was an interaction between invitation time to start the food supplementation programme and cortisol with birthweight, length and head circumference of male infants, but not female infants. Among the usual-invitation group only, male infants whose mothers had higher prenatal cortisol weighed less than those whose mothers had lower prenatal cortisol. Prenatal food supplementation programmes that begin first trimester may support greater birth size of male infants despite high maternal stress where low birthweight is a public health concern. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Anatoxin-a and its metabolites in blue-green algae food supplements from Canada and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Niedzwiadek, Barbara; Lau, Benjamin P Y; Saker, Martin

    2007-03-01

    Blue-green algae and spirulina are marketed in health food stores and over the Internet as food supplements in Canada, the United States, and Europe. The reported benefits of consuming these products include improved digestion, strengthening of the immune system, and relief from the symptoms of attention deficit disorder. Some of these products have been found to contain elevated concentrations of microcystins, which are known hepatotoxins. In addition to producing microcystins, Anabaena sp. and Aphanizomenon sp. also produce the potent neurotoxin anatoxin-a. Samples of food supplements containing blue-green algae and spirulina were collected in Portugal and from urban centers across Canada in 2005. Extracts of these supplements were analyzed to determine the presence and concentrations of anatoxin-a and its two main metabolites, dihydroanatoxin-a and epoxyanatoxin-a. Initial analyses were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection, and confirmation required the use of LC with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The HPLC with fluorescence detection indicated no anatoxin-a, but four samples were suspected to contain either dihydroanatoxin-a or epoxyanatoxin-a at 0.1 to 0.2 microg/g. LC-MS-MS results, however, indicated no trace of either transformation product in any sample analyzed. The detection limits for anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, and epoxyanatoxin-a were similar for both fluorescence detection (0.2 to 0.3, 0.4 to 1.4, and 0.2 to 1.5 pg on the column, respectively) and mass spectrometry (0.3 to 1.5, 0.3 to 0.8, and 0.5 to 0.8 pg on the column, respectively). Because of the higher specificity of the LC-MS-MS analysis, all tested food supplement samples were considered free of anatoxin-a and its transformation products.

  11. [Factors influencing on the Silesian University students' decisions concerning purchasing of vitamin and mineral food supplements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiołek, Katarzyna; Kościołek, Aneta; Kania, Justyna; Hartman, Magdalena; Pawłowska-Góral, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Correctly composed diet covers the demands of a healthy adult for nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Nowadays constant increase of vitamin and mineral supplements of diet intake is observed. Customers have a great choice of diet supplements on Polish market. They are diversified under the quality and quantitative accounts. The main aim of this study was to evaluate main factors of Silesian University students' choice while they are purchasing particular diet supplements. The questionnaire survey was conducted in a group of 208 students at the age of 19 to 24. 99.5% of them admitted that they have supplemented their diets with vitamin and mineral preparations until the moment of the experiment. The results indicate that main factors that influence the students' decisions on purchasing these preparations are: composition of the supplement, price and convenient dosing regimen. Respondents indicate the internet as a main source of information on the supplements being discussed in the following study.

  12. Protein-Pacing from Food or Supplementation Improves Physical Performance in Overweight Men and Women: The PRISE 2 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan C; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Gentile, Christopher L; Ketcham, Caitlin; Darin, Christopher; Renna, Mariale; Zheng, Qian; Zhang, Jun Zhu; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2016-05-11

    We recently reported that protein-pacing (P; six meals/day @ 1.4 g/kg body weight (BW), three of which included whey protein (WP) supplementation) combined with a multi-mode fitness program consisting of resistance, interval sprint, stretching, and endurance exercise training (RISE) improves body composition in overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings and determine whether protein-pacing with only food protein (FP) is comparable to WP supplementation during RISE training on physical performance outcomes in overweight/obese individuals. Thirty weight-matched volunteers were prescribed RISE training and a P diet derived from either whey protein supplementation (WP, n = 15) or food protein sources (FP, n = 15) for 16 weeks. Twenty-one participants completed the intervention (WP, n = 9; FP, n = 12). Measures of body composition and physical performance were significantly improved in both groups (p protein source. Likewise, markers of cardiometabolic disease risk (e.g., LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, systolic blood pressure) were significantly improved (p protein and food protein sources combined with multimodal RISE training are equally effective at improving physical performance and cardiometabolic health in obese individuals.

  13. Protein-Pacing from Food or Supplementation Improves Physical Performance in Overweight Men and Women: The PRISE 2 Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Arciero

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported that protein-pacing (P; six meals/day @ 1.4 g/kg body weight (BW, three of which included whey protein (WP supplementation combined with a multi-mode fitness program consisting of resistance, interval sprint, stretching, and endurance exercise training (RISE improves body composition in overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings and determine whether protein-pacing with only food protein (FP is comparable to WP supplementation during RISE training on physical performance outcomes in overweight/obese individuals. Thirty weight-matched volunteers were prescribed RISE training and a P diet derived from either whey protein supplementation (WP, n = 15 or food protein sources (FP, n = 15 for 16 weeks. Twenty-one participants completed the intervention (WP, n = 9; FP, n = 12. Measures of body composition and physical performance were significantly improved in both groups (p < 0.05, with no effect of protein source. Likewise, markers of cardiometabolic disease risk (e.g., LDL (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, systolic blood pressure were significantly improved (p < 0.05 to a similar extent in both groups. These results demonstrate that both whey protein and food protein sources combined with multimodal RISE training are equally effective at improving physical performance and cardiometabolic health in obese individuals.

  14. Dissolution of xylitol from a food supplement administered with a novel slow-release pacifier: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, T; Pienihakkinen, K; Alanen, P; Jokela, J; Söderling, E

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the study was to monitor the pattern of release and salivary xylitol concentrations during sucking of a slow-release pacifier used to deliver a novel food supplement. The food supplement tablet contained 300 mg xylitol and 0.5 x 10(10) colony-forming units of Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 (Bb-12). The reference tablet contained 300 mg xylitol and was used by 10 adults (mean age 32 years) in the study. Whole saliva samples were collected with 2.5 min intervals during pacifier sucking. The salivary xylitol concentrations were determined using an enzyme assay kit. All subjects showed salivary xylitol concentrations exceeding 1% at least at one collection point. The xylitol and xylitol-Bb-12 tablets showed similar dissolving with no clear concentration peaks (comparison of saliva collection times; p = 0.139). Xylitol released from the food supplement, delivered with the novel pacifier, may result in salivary xylitol concentrations high enough to inhibit mutans streptococci in vivo.

  15. 'Food for thought': Advertising health food, drinks and supplements - what you can, can't and must say

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzak, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses specifically on investigating whether the draft Food Regulation would bear any relevance for the currently binding rules on the labelling and advertising of three categories of products: infant formula and follow-on formula, low gluten content foods and food intended for use in

  16. ENHANCING FOOD SAFETY AND STABILITY THROUGH IRRADIATION: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor Ahmad Shah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Food irradiation is one of the non thermal food processing methods. It is the process of exposing food materials to the controlled amounts of ionizing radiations such as gamma rays, X-rays and accelerated electrons, to improve microbiological safety and stability. Irradiation disrupts the biological processes that lead to decay of food quality. It is an effective tool to reduce food-borne pathogens, spoilage microorganisms and parasites; to extend shelf-life and for insect disinfection. The safety and consumption of irradiated foods have been extensively studied at national levels and in international cooperations and have concluded that foods irradiated under appropriate technologies are both safe and nutritionally adequate. Specific applications of food irradiation have been approved by national legislations of more than 55 countries worldwide. This review aims to discuss the applications of irradiation in food processing with the emphasis on food safety and stability.

  17. Adverse Effects of Plant Food Supplements and Plants Consumed as Food: Results from the Poisons Centres-Based PlantLIBRA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüde, Saskia; Vecchio, Sarah; Sinno-Tellier, Sandra; Dopter, Aymeric; Mustonen, Harriet; Vucinic, Slavica; Jonsson, Birgitta; Müller, Dieter; Veras Gimenez Fruchtengarten, Ligia; Hruby, Karl; De Souza Nascimento, Elizabeth; Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Restani, Patrizia; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Ceschi, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    Plant food supplements (PFS) are products of increasing popularity and wide-spread distribution. Nevertheless, information about their risks is limited. To fill this gap, a poisons centres-based study was performed as part of the EU project PlantLIBRA. Multicentre retrospective review of data from selected European and Brazilian poisons centres, involving human cases of adverse effects due to plants consumed as food or as ingredients of food supplements recorded between 2006 and 2010. Ten poisons centres provided a total of 75 cases. In 57 cases (76%) a PFS was involved; in 18 (24%) a plant was ingested as food. The 10 most frequently reported plants were Valeriana officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Paullinia cupana, Melissa officinalis, Passiflora incarnata, Mentha piperita, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ilex paraguariensis, Panax ginseng, and Citrus aurantium. The most frequently observed clinical effects were neurotoxicity and gastro-intestinal symptoms. Most cases showed a benign clinical course; however, five cases were severe. PFS-related adverse effects seem to be relatively infrequent issues for poisons centres. Most cases showed mild symptoms. Nevertheless, the occurrence of some severe adverse effects and the increasing popularity of PFS require continuous active surveillance, and further research is warranted. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Analytical approaches to determination of carnitine in biological materials, foods and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, Monika; Starek, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    l-Carnitine is a vitamin-like amino acid derivative, which is an essential factor in fatty acid metabolism as acyltransferase cofactor and in energy production processes, such as interconversion in the mechanisms of regulation of cetogenesis and termogenesis, and it is also used in the therapy of primary and secondary deficiency, and in other diseases. The determination of carnitine and acyl-carnitines can provide important information about inherited or acquired metabolic disorders, and for monitoring the biochemical effect of carnitine therapy. The endogenous carnitine pool in humans is maintained by biosynthesis and absorption of carnitine from the diet. Carnitine has one asymmetric carbon giving two stereoisomers d and l, but only the l form has a biological positive effect, thus chiral recognition of l-carnitine enantiomers is extremely important in biological, chemical and pharmaceutical sciences. In order to get more insight into carnitine metabolism and synthesis, a sensitive analysis for the determination of the concentration of free carnitine, carnitine esters and the carnitine precursors is required. Carnitine has been investigated in many biochemical, pharmacokinetic, metabolic and toxicokinetic studies and thus many analytical methods have been developed and published for the determination of carnitine in foods, dietary supplements, pharmaceutical formulations, biological tissues and body fluid. The analytical procedures presented in this review have been validated in terms of basic parameters (linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision). This article presented the impact of different analytical techniques, and provides an overview of applications that address a diverse array of pharmaceutical and biological questions and samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Self-medication with vitamins, minerals and food supplements in Germany : Results of nationwide health surveys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopf, Hildtraud

    2017-03-01

    Vitamins, minerals and food supplements (FSs) are often used without medical prescription. Valid data on the magnitude of use are rare in Germany. The aim of the present analysis is to describe the prevalence and trends of self-medication and the associations between health-related factors and self-medication with these substances. The data base consisted of the results of nationwide health surveys (GNHIES98: 1997-1999 and DEGS1: 2008-2001) in which adults aged 18-79 years were interviewed on health-related themes and were examined. The use of drugs and FSs was recorded in standardized personal interviews. Data of 7099 (GNHIES98) and 7091 (DEGS1) individuals were available for analysis. The dependent variable was self-medication with vitamins, minerals and FS. Analysis was conducted in SPSS Version 20 with the complex sample method. Statistical significance was tested with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and verified via p-values. Of all DEGS1 participants, 18.1% (95% CI: 17.0-19.2%) consumed vitamins, minerals and FSs in self-medication. Significantly higher prevalence was found among women, older people (60-79 years), those with a higher social status, people living alone, ex- and non-smokers, and those doing more sports. In comparison to the GNHIES98 study the prevalence in DEGS1 has increased by about 6 percentage points (5.8 percentage points, 95% CI 4.1-7.5%, p self-medication with vitamins, minerals or FSs shows a high user prevalence which has increased significantly over time. In light of potential interactions with prescribed medicines the results show the importance of ascertaining self-medication with vitamins, minerals and FSs in medical practice.

  20. Purified anthocyanin supplementation reduces dyslipidemia, enhances antioxidant capacity, and prevents insulin resistance in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Zhang, Yuhua; Liu, Yan; Sun, Ruifang; Xia, Min

    2015-04-01

    Oxidative stress plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Anthocyanin, a natural antioxidant, has been reported to reduce oxidative stress and to attenuate insulin resistance and diabetes in animal models; however, the translation of these observations to humans has not been fully tested. This study was designed to investigate the effects of purified anthocyanins on dyslipidemia, oxidative status, and insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 58 diabetic patients were given 160 mg of anthocyanins twice daily or placebo (n = 29/group) for 24 wk in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Participants and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. Anthocyanin supplementation significantly decreased serum LDL cholesterol (by 7.9%; P anthocyanin group showed higher total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power values than did patients in the placebo group (both P anthocyanin group were significantly less than in patients in the placebo group (23.4%, 25.8%; P anthocyanin lowered fasting plasma glucose (by 8.5%; P anthocyanin supplementation exerts beneficial metabolic effects in subjects with type 2 diabetes by improving dyslipidemia, enhancing antioxidant capacity, and preventing insulin resistance. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02317211. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Maternal butyrate supplementation induces insulin resistance associated with enhanced intramuscular fat deposition in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanping; Gao, Shixing; Chen, Jinglong; Albrecht, Elke; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

    2017-02-21

    Maternal nutrition is important for the risk of the offspring to develop insulin resistance and adiposity later in life. The study was undertaken to determine effects of maternal butyrate supplementation on lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in the offspring skeletal muscle. The offspring of rats, fed a control diet or a butyrate diet (1% sodium butyrate) throughout gestation and lactation, was studied at weaning and at 60 days of age. The offspring of dams fed a butyrate diet had higher HOMA-insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. This was associated with elevated mRNA and protein expressions of lipogenic genes and decreased amounts of lipolytic enzyme. Simultaneously, enhanced acetylation of histone H3 lysine 9 and histone H3 lysine 27 modification on the lipogenic genes in skeletal muscle of adult offspring was observed. Higher concentration of serum insulin and intramuscular triglyceride in skeletal muscle of offspring from the butyrate group at weaning were accompanied by increasing levels of lipogenic genes and enrichment of acetylation of histone H3 lysine 27. Maternal butyrate supplementation leads to insulin resistance and ectopic lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle of offspring, indicating the importance of short chain fatty acids in the maternal diet on lipid metabolism.

  2. Dietary Supplementation of Phoenix dactylifera Seeds Enhances Performance, Immune Response, and Antioxidant Status in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H. El-Far

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera seeds were utilized in some traditional medical remedies and have been investigated for their possible health benefits. This proposed study wanted to assess the effect of date palm seeds (DPS dietary supplementation in comparison to mannan-oligosaccharides (Bio-Mos® and β-glucan over antioxidant and immunity events that have effect on growth and carcass performances of broilers. An aggregate of 180, one-day-old, chicks were raised in the wire-floored cages and allotted into control, Bio-Mos (0.1%  Bio-Mos, β-glucan (0.1%  β-glucan, DPS2 (2% date crushed seeds, DPS4 (4% date crushed seeds, and DPS6 (6% date crushed seeds groups. Broilers in DPS2 and DPS4 groups showed significant variations (P<0.05 in relative growth rate (RGR, feed conversion ratio (FCR, and efficiency of energy utilization in comparison to control group. Moreover, all DPS fed groups showed significant increases (P<0.05 in serum reduced glutathione (GSH values. Meanwhile, both serum interferon-gamma (IFN-γ and interleukin-2 (IL-2 levels were significantly increased (P<0.05 in DPS2. Consequently, obtained data revealed a substantial enhancement of performance, immunity, and antioxidant status by DPS supplementation in broiler that might be related to the antioxidant and immune-stimulant constituents of P. dactylifera seeds.

  3. The use of Self-Reported Food Intakes to Formulate Hypotheses for Expected and Unexpected Findings in Copper, Zinc, and Magnesium Supplementation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Determine whether food diary data provide possible explanations for results from supplementation studies that show limited relationships to blood and/or bone indicators of status. Materials and Methods: One two-year study assessed the daily supplementation with 600 mg calcium or 600 mg ca...

  4. Enhanced biohydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse by Clostridium thermocellum supplemented with CaCO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qing-Qing; Liang, Lei; Zhu, Ming-Jun

    2015-12-01

    Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 was used to degrade sugarcane bagasse (SCB) directly for hydrogen production, which was significantly enhanced by supplementing medium with CaCO3. The effect of CaCO3 concentration on the hydrogen production was investigated. The hydrogen production was significantly enhanced with the CaCO3 concentration increased from 10mM to 20mM. However, with the CaCO3 concentration further increased from 20mM to 100mM, the hydrogen production didn't increase further. Under the optimal CaCO3 concentration of 20mM, the hydrogen production reached 97.83±5.19mmol/L from 2% sodium hydroxide-pretreated SCB, a 116.72% increase over the control (45.14±1.03mmol/L), and the yield of hydrogen production reached 4.89mmol H2/g SCBadded. Additionally, CaCO3 promoted the biodegradation of SCB and the growth of C. thermocellum. The stimulatory effects of CaCO3 on biohydrogen production are mainly attributed to the buffering capacity of carbonate. The study provides a novel strategy to enhance biohydrogen production from lignocellulose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Blueberry supplementation enhances signaling and prevents behavioral deficits in an Alzheimer disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, J A; Denisova, N A; Arendash, G; Gordon, M; Diamond, D; Shukitt-Hale, B; Morgan, D

    2003-06-01

    Previously, we showed that blueberry (BB) supplementation reversed the deleterious effects of aging on motor behavior and neuronal signaling in senescent rodents. We now report that BB-fed (from 4 months of age) APP + PS1 transgenic mice showed no deficits in Y-maze performance (at 12 months of age) with no alterations in amyloid beta burden. It appeared that the protective mechanisms are derived from BB-induced enhancement of memory-associated neuronal signaling (e.g. extracellular signal-regulated kinase) and alterations in neutral sphingomyelin-specific phospholipase C activity. Thus, our data indicate for the first time that it may be possible to overcome genetic predispositions to Alzheimer disease through diet.

  6. Characteristics of Clinical Studies Used for US Food and Drug Administration Approval of High-Risk Medical Device Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sarah Y; Dhruva, Sanket S; Redberg, Rita F

    2017-08-15

    High-risk medical devices often undergo modifications, which are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) through various kinds of premarket approval (PMA) supplements. There have been multiple high-profile recalls of devices approved as PMA supplements. To characterize the quality of the clinical studies and data (strength of evidence) used to support FDA approval of panel-track supplements (a type of PMA supplement pathway that is used for significant changes in a device or indication for use and always requires clinical data). Descriptive study of clinical studies supporting panel-track supplements approved by the FDA between April 19, 2006, and October 9, 2015. Panel-track supplement approval. Methodological quality of studies including randomization, blinding, type of controls, clinical vs surrogate primary end points, use of post hoc analyses, and reporting of age and sex. Eighty-three clinical studies supported the approval of 78 panel-track supplements, with 71 panel-track supplements (91%) supported by a single study. Of the 83 studies, 37 (45%) were randomized clinical trials and 25 (30%) were blinded. The median number of patients per study was 185 (interquartile range, 75-305), and the median follow-up duration was 180 days (interquartile range, 84-270 days). There were a total of 150 primary end points (mean [SD], 1.8 [1.2] per study), and 57 primary end points (38%) were compared with controls. Of primary end points with controls, 6 (11%) were retrospective controls and 51 (89%) were active controls. One hundred twenty-one primary end points (81%) were surrogate end points. Thirty-three studies (40%) did not report age and 25 (30%) did not report sex for all enrolled patients. The FDA required postapproval studies for 29 of 78 (37%) panel-track supplements. Among clinical studies used to support FDA approval of high-risk medical device modifications, fewer than half were randomized, blinded, or controlled, and most primary outcomes were

  7. Calcium supplementation commencing before or early in pregnancy, or food fortification with calcium, for preventing hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Manyame, Sarah

    2017-09-26

    Pre-eclampsia is considerably more prevalent in low- than high-income countries. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is dietary differences, particularly calcium deficiency. Calcium supplementation in the second half of pregnancy reduces the serious consequences of pre-eclampsia and is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for women with low dietary calcium intake, but has limited effect on the overall risk of pre-eclampsia. It is important to establish whether calcium supplementation before and in early pregnancy has added benefit. Such evidence would be justification for population-level fortification of staple foods with calcium. To determine the effect of calcium supplementation or food fortification with calcium, commenced before or early in pregnancy and continued at least until mid-pregnancy, on pre-eclampsia and other hypertensive disorders, maternal morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal and neonatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Trials Register (10 August 2017), PubMed (29 June 2017), ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (10 August 2017) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials of calcium supplementation or food fortification which include women of child bearing age not yet pregnant, or in early pregnancy. Cluster-RCTs, quasi-RCTs and trials published in abstract form only would have been eligible for inclusion in this review but none were identified. Cross-over designs are not appropriate for this intervention.The scope of this review is to consider interventions including calcium supplementation with or without additional supplements or treatments, compared with placebo or no intervention. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. This review is based on one RCT (involving 60 women) which looked at calcium plus additional supplements

  8. Enhancing the biotransformation of isoflavones in soymilk supplemented with lactose using probiotic bacteria during extended fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, W K; Shah, N P

    2010-04-01

    Soymilk (SM) lacks lactose; hence supplementation of SM with lactose is likely to enhance the growth of probiotic bacteria and biotransformation of isoflavone glycosides to isoflavone aglycones. In this study, 11 strains of probiotic bacteria including Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. salivarius, L. plantarum, L. acidophilus, L. paracasei, HOWARU L. rhamnosus, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium lactis type Bi-07, B. longum, HOWARU B. bifidum, and B lactis type Bi-04 were inoculated individually or as mixed cultures into SM and soymilk supplemented with lactose (SML). A total of 2% of lactose was added to 1 L of SM with the aim of improving the growth of probiotic organisms and promoting the biotransformation of isoflavone isomers to bioactive isoflavone aglycomes. Samples of SM were incubated at 37 degrees C and 10 mL aliquots of SM were taken at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h to monitor the growth of probiotic bacteria and changes in isoflavone contents using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results indicated that SML fermented with probiotics had higher viable counts by >2.4 log CFU/mL than that in SM at the end of the 72 h fermentation period. Mixed cultures grew at different rates and in general Lactobacilius spp. had >1.02 log CFU/mL more cells than Bifidobacterium spp. at the end of the fermentation period. The total aglycone content in SM at 72 h of fermentation was 0.924 mg/100 mL, whereas that in SML was 1.623 mg/100 mL. Addition of lactose not only improved the growth of probiotic bacteria in SM but also enhanced the biotransformation of isoflavone glucosides to the more bioactive isoflavone aglycones. Mixed cultures did not improve the biotransformation of bioactive isoflavones when compared to single cultures.

  9. Resolution of Allergic Rhinitis and Reactive Bronchospasm With Supplements and Food-specific Immunoglobulin G Elimination: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Laura; Mitchell, Jessica; Langland, Jeffrey

    2016-10-01

    Context • Allergies are a common affliction, whether they are respiratory, food related, or dermatological. People often resort to continuous use of over-the-counter medications, such as antihistamines, to manage their symptoms. Controversy still remains over testing serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G to diagnose food allergies. Objective • This study intended to examine the benefits of treatment of a pediatric patient with natural supplements and an elimination diet for IgG food allergies. Design • The research team reported a case study. Setting • The study was conducted at Southwest Naturopathic Medical Center (Tempe, AZ, USA). Participant • The participant was a 10-y-old Caucasian female who had diagnoses of allergic rhinitis and reactive bronchospasm, the second of which was exacerbated by allergens such as wheat, perfumes, and seasonal flora. Intervention • Following testing for IgE- and IgG-reactive foods, the patient was treated with natural supplements to reduce her allergic responses and was instructed to make dietary changes to eliminate the IgG-reactive foods. Outcome Measures • The patient's symptom severity was tracked starting 1 mo after her initial visit to Southwest Naturopathic Medical Center. The severity was based on the patient's subjective reports about her congestion to her mother and on her mother's observations of the effect of symptoms on her attention and school performance. The bronchospasm severity was based on the frequency of a sensation of wheezing and chest tightness, the frequency of inhaler use, and the occurrence of any exacerbation of symptoms with acute respiratory illness Results • After 1 mo, in which the patient used the natural supplements, she experienced a 90% improvement in coughing; a 70% improvement in nasal congestion; less chest tightness; and no need for use of loratadine, diphenhydramine, or albuterol. At the 8-mo follow-up visit, her nasal congestion was reported to be entirely gone. Conclusions • The

  10. Food safety security: a new concept for enhancing food safety measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Venkatesh; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2012-06-01

    The food safety security (FSS) concept is perceived as an early warning system for minimizing food safety (FS) breaches, and it functions in conjunction with existing FS measures. Essentially, the function of FS and FSS measures can be visualized in two parts: (i) the FS preventive measures as actions taken at the stem level, and (ii) the FSS interventions as actions taken at the root level, to enhance the impact of the implemented safety steps. In practice, along with FS, FSS also draws its support from (i) legislative directives and regulatory measures for enforcing verifiable, timely, and effective compliance; (ii) measurement systems in place for sustained quality assurance; and (iii) shared responsibility to ensure cohesion among all the stakeholders namely, policy makers, regulators, food producers, processors and distributors, and consumers. However, the functional framework of FSS differs from that of FS by way of: (i) retooling the vulnerable segments of the preventive features of existing FS measures; (ii) fine-tuning response systems to efficiently preempt the FS breaches; (iii) building a long-term nutrient and toxicant surveillance network based on validated measurement systems functioning in real time; (iv) focusing on crisp, clear, and correct communication that resonates among all the stakeholders; and (v) developing inter-disciplinary human resources to meet ever-increasing FS challenges. Important determinants of FSS include: (i) strengthening international dialogue for refining regulatory reforms and addressing emerging risks; (ii) developing innovative and strategic action points for intervention {in addition to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) procedures]; and (iii) introducing additional science-based tools such as metrology-based measurement systems.

  11. Lactic acid bacteria: promising supplements for enhancing the biological activities of kombucha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nguyen Khoi; Dong, Ngan Thi Ngoc; Nguyen, Huong Thuy; Le, Phu Hong

    2015-01-01

    Kombucha is sweetened black tea that is fermented by a symbiosis of bacteria and yeast embedded within a cellulose membrane. It is considered a health drink in many countries because it is a rich source of vitamins and may have other health benefits. It has previously been reported that adding lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus) strains to kombucha can enhance its biological functions, but in that study only lactic acid bacteria isolated from kefir grains were tested. There are many other natural sources of lactic acid bacteria. In this study, we examined the effects of lactic acid bacteria from various fermented Vietnamese food sources (pickled cabbage, kefir and kombucha) on kombucha's three main biological functions: glucuronic acid production, antibacterial activity and antioxidant ability. Glucuronic acid production was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, antibacterial activity was assessed by the agar-well diffusion method and antioxidant ability was evaluated by determining the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity. Four strains of food-borne pathogenic bacteria were used in our antibacterial experiments: Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 and Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778. Our findings showed that lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from kefir are superior to those from other sources for improving glucuronic acid production and enhancing the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of kombucha. This study illustrates the potential of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from kefir as biosupplements for enhancing the bioactivities of kombucha.

  12. Restrained eaters show enhanced automatic approach tendencies towards food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Esther M.; de Jong, Peter J.

    Although restrained eaters intend to limit their caloric intake, they nevertheless frequently fail and indulge in exactly the foods they want to avoid. Because automatic food-relevant approach tendencies and affective associations may both (independently) contribute to the dysregulation of food

  13. Increased plasma leptin through l-carnitine supplementation is associated with an enhanced glucose tolerance in healthy ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Weyenberg, S; Buyse, J; Janssens, G P J

    2009-04-01

    In this study 0 or 4 g of l-carnitine was supplemented for 7 days in a cross-over design of six healthy ponies to modulate glucose metabolism and leptin production. At the end of each period, serial blood samples were taken to measure glucose and insulin response, leptin, triglyceride (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and creatine phosphokinase. l-carnitine supplementation was associated with a decrease in postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentration, indicating an enhanced glucose tolerance. In contrast, postprandial plasma leptin concentration was increased when l-carnitine was supplemented. Yet, this increase in leptin concentration was not preceded by an increase in insulin concentration, suggesting that other factors apart from plasma insulin concentration could influence plasma leptin concentration. Although NEFA and TG were not significantly influenced by l-carnitine supplementation under these experimental conditions, further research must clarify whether net TG synthesis might be responsible for this increase in leptin.

  14. SPADE, a new statistical program to estimate habitual dietary intake from multiple food sources and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, Arnold L M; Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; van Rossum, Caroline T M; Ocké, Marga C

    2014-12-01

    For the evaluation of both the adequacy of intakes and the risk of excessive intakes of micronutrients, all potential sources should be included. In addition to micronutrients naturally present in foods, micronutrients can also be derived from fortified foods and dietary supplements. In the estimation of the habitual intake, this may cause specific challenges such as multimodal distributions and heterogeneous variances between the sources. We present the Statistical Program to Assess Dietary Exposure (SPADE) that was developed to cope with these challenges in one single program. Similar to other methods, SPADE can model habitual intake of daily and episodically consumed dietary components. In addition, SPADE has the option to model habitual intake from dietary supplements. Moreover, SPADE offers models to estimate habitual intake distributions from different sources (e.g., foods and dietary supplements) separately and adds these habitual intakes to get the overall habitual intake distribution. The habitual intake distribution is modeled as a function of age, and this distribution can directly be compared with cutoff values to estimate the proportion above or below. Uncertainty in the habitual intake distribution and in the proportion below or above a cutoff value is quantified with ready-for-use bootstrap and provides 95% CIs. SPADE is implemented in R and is freely available as an R package called SPADE.RIVM. The various features of SPADE are illustrated by the estimation of the habitual intake distribution of folate and folic acid for women by using data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010. The results correspond well with the results of existing programs. SPADE offers new features to existing programs to estimate the habitual intake distribution because it can handle many different types of modeling with the first-shrink-then-add approach. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Personal behaviors including food consumption and mineral supplement use among Japanese adults: a secondary analysis from the National Health and Nutrition Survey, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoko; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Takimoto, Hidemi; Nishi, Nobuo; Umegaki, Keizo

    2016-01-01

    A daily mineral supplement is useful for those who are at risk of a deficiency. Some Western reports suggest that mineral supplement users have healthy behaviors and are not mineral-deficient. It is unknown whether the same phenomenon is observed in Japan where there is a different dietary culture. The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of personal behaviors including food consumption nationwide among mineral supplement users from the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan 2003-2010. Data were obtained from 16,275 adults aged 20-59 years who completed sociodemographic, health status, and 1-day household dietary assessments. Supplement users were compared with non-users. Logistic regression models were utilized to identify the characteristics of food consumption and calcium and iron supplement use, using the medium intake group as a reference. Overall, 2.1% and 1.4% of adults reported using calcium supplements and iron supplements, respectively. Calcium supplement users were more likely to be physically active, non-smokers, and eat less fat compared with non-users. Furthermore, they were more likely than non-users to consume a higher intake of calcium from foods such as tea, vegetables, seaweeds, and fruits. Iron supplement users were more likely than non-users to be non-smokers. These individuals tended to have a high intake of seaweeds and fruits. Japanese adults who had healthier behaviors were more likely to use mineral supplements, especially calcium. Mineral supplement users tended to choose healthy foods such as seaweeds and fruits, without considering their overall mineral consumption.

  16. Herbal medicinal products versus botanical-food supplements in the European market: state of art and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilia, Anna Rita

    2015-01-01

    Botanical products marketed in Europe are diverse, classified as herbal medicinal products, dietary supplements, cosmetics, foods and beverages depending on the relevant applicable legislation. Many factors are taken into account in the classification of a botanical product (e.g. intended use, labeling, preparations and dosages) according to how it is placed on the market. Herbal medicinal products (HMPs) can only be sold in pharmacies, under the supervision of a pharmacist, and are marketed after full or simplified registration procedures according to their classification, i.e. as over-the-counter drugs (OTC) available without special restrictions and prescription only medicine (POM), which must be prescribed by a licensed medical practitioner. The dietary supplement segment is also sold in the market in dose form (such as capsules, tablets, ampoules of liquids, drops etc) and represents 15-20% of the botanical market at the European level with high variability among each country (i.e. in Italy it reaches up to 80%). In many cases the distinction between medicinal products and food supplements has generated borderline botanical-sourced products, which generally produce confusion and mislead the consumers. As a consequence, there is an urgent need of consumer education and in addition to collect comprehensive data and make this database systematically available to herbalists, nutritionists and medical specialists for a proper classification and harmonization of the use of botanical ingredients, and, as consequence, a correct use of these products.

  17. [Simultaneous analysis of four diuretic drugs by HPLC and its application to health food supplements advertising weight reduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tomomi; Mikami, Eiichi; Ohno, Tsutomu; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2002-04-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the simultaneous analysis of triamterene, trichlormethiazide, furosemide and spironolactone is presented for application in the examination of health food supplements advertising weight reduction and in the analysis of pharmaceuticals. The HPLC assay was performed under gradient conditions using a Wakosil ODS 5C18 column (5 microns, 150 x 4.6 mm i.d.). The mobile phase consisted of a gradient program with a mixture of water and acetonitrile containing 0.1% triethylamine adjusted with phosphoric acid to pH 3.0: from 0 to 6 min, 15% acetonitrile; from 6 to 20 min, linear gradient from 15 to 50% acetonitrile; and from 20 to 40 min, 50% acetonitrile. The column effluent was monitored from 0 to 20 min at 260 nm and from 20 to 40 min at 235 nm. The calibration curves of the four drugs showed good linearity and the correlation coefficients were better than 0.999 in all cases. The lower limits of detection were approximately 40 ng for each drug. Commercially available health food supplements and pharmaceuticals were analyzed after extraction with a mixture of methanol and acetic acid (99:1). The procedure described here is suitable for the screening of four diuretic drugs in adulterated supplements and for the quality control of pharmaceuticals with minimal sample preparation.

  18. Exploring Possibilities to Enhance Food Sovereignty within the Cowpea Production-Consumption Network in Northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaye, W.; Frempong, G.; Jongerden, J.P.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last years an important focus in the combat of hunger and malnutrition,particularly in Africa has been food security. This article explores possibilities for enhancing food sovereignty, as an alternative concept to food security and an alternative strategy for reversing hunger and

  19. Effects of prenatal micronutrient and early food supplementation on maternal hemoglobin, birth weight, and infant mortality among children in Bangladesh: the MINIMat randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Lars Åke; Arifeen, Shams; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Frongillo, Edward A; Yunus, Md

    2012-05-16

    Nutritional insult in fetal life and small size at birth are common in low-income countries and are associated with serious health consequences. To test the hypothesis that prenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation (MMS) and an early invitation to food supplementation would increase maternal hemoglobin level and birth weight and decrease infant mortality, and to assess whether a combination of these interventions would further enhance these outcomes. A randomized trial with a factorial design in Matlab, Bangladesh, of 4436 pregnant women, recruited between November 11, 2001, and October 30, 2003, with follow-up until June 23, 2009. Participants were randomized into 6 groups; a double-masked supplementation with capsules of 30 mg of iron and 400 μg of folic acid, 60 mg of iron and 400 μg of folic acid, or MMS containing a daily allowance of 15 micronutrients, including 30 mg of iron and 400 μg of folic acid, was combined with food supplementation (608 kcal 6 days per week) randomized to either early invitation (9 weeks' gestation) or usual invitation (20 weeks' gestation). Maternal hemoglobin level at 30 weeks' gestation, birth weight, and infant mortality. Under 5-year mortality was also assessed. Adjusted maternal hemoglobin level at 30 weeks' gestation was 115.0 g/L (95% CI, 114.4-115.5 g/L), with no significant differences among micronutrient groups. Mean maternal hemoglobin level was lower in the early vs usual invitation groups (114.5 vs 115.4 g/L; difference, -0.9 g/L; 95% CI, -1.7 to -0.1; P = .04). There were 3625 live births out of 4436 pregnancies. Mean birth weight among 3267 singletons was 2694 g (95% CI, 2680-2708 g), with no significant differences among groups. The early invitation with MMS group had an infant mortality rate of 16.8 per 1000 live births vs 44.1 per 1000 live births for usual invitation with 60 mg of iron and 400 μg of folic acid (hazard ratio [HR], 0.38; 95% CI, 0.18-0.78). Early invitation with MMS group had an under 5

  20. Applied electric field enhances DRG neurite growth: influence of stimulation media, surface coating and growth supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Matthew D.; Willits, Rebecca Kuntz

    2009-08-01

    Electrical therapies have been found to aid repair of nerve injuries and have been shown to increase and direct neurite outgrowth during stimulation. This enhanced neural growth existed even after the electric field (EF) or stimulation was removed, but the factors that may influence the enhanced growth, such as stimulation media or surface coating, have not been fully investigated. This study characterized neurite outgrowth and branching under various conditions: EF magnitude and application time, ECM surface coating, medium during EF application and growth supplements. A uniform, low-magnitude EF (24 or 44 V m-1) was applied to dissociated chick embryo dorsal root ganglia seeded on collagen or laminin-coated surfaces. During the growth period, cells were either exposed to NGF or N2, and during stimulation cells were exposed to either unsupplemented media (Ca2+) or PBS (no Ca2+). Parallel controls for each experiment included cells exposed to the chamber with no stimulation and cells remaining outside the chamber. After brief electrical stimulation (10 min), neurite length significantly increased 24 h after application for all conditions studied. Of particular interest, increased stimulation time (10-100 min) further enhanced neurite length on laminin but not on collagen surfaces. Neurite branching was not affected by stimulation on any surface, and no preferential growth of neurites was noted after stimulation. Overall, the results of this report suggest that short-duration electric stimulation is sufficient to enhance neurite length under a variety of conditions. While further data are needed to fully elucidate a mechanism for this increased growth, these data suggest that one focus of those investigations should be the interaction between the growth cone and the substrata.

  1. Does the use of dietary supplements enhance athletes’ sport performances? A systematic review and a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta De Meo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The consumption of dietary supplements has increased in recent years.Despite their widespread use, there is confusion about effects on sport performances.The aim of this study was to investigate association between use of supplements and enhance of athletes’ sports performance.Methods: A review and a meta-analysis of studies conducted on Dietary Supplements and Sports between 2003 and 2013 were performed. Enhancement on sport performances was considered as outcome. The following aspects related to enhancement were considered: ergogenic effect (EE, time to exhaustion (TTE, muscular endurance (ME, post-exercise recovery (PER and body mass (BM. With respect to meta-analysis, data on level of post Exercise Glucose (GpE [mg/dL] and level of post exercise Lactate (LpE [mmol/L] were considered as  indicators of TTE, PER and EE. Similarly, Change in Body Mass (CBM [kg] was used as indicator of BM.Results: The most investigated dietary supplements were: Creatine, Carbohydrates, Beta-alanine, Proteins. The qualitative analysis evaluating the effect of supplements on sports listed by the International Olympic Committee has achieved interesting results: supplements didn’t show statistically significant effects when compared to placebo in more than 48% of papers.For the quantitative analysis, 15 studies were considered. The meta-analysis showed that there was no significant effect of Beta-alanine, Creatine and Carbohydrates on LpE and GpE. Furthermore, a non-significant increase in BM was observed in athletes undergoing Creatine compared to placebo.Conclusion: Considering the increasing attention to this topic, it would be interesting to investigate the existing awareness about effectiveness and possible risks of supplements.

  2. The Regulatory Framework Across International Jurisdictions for Risks Associated with Consumption of Botanical Food Supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Low, Teng Yong; Wong, Kwok Onn; Yap, Adelene L.L.; Haan, De Laura H.J.; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary supplements, including those containing botanical ingredients and botanical-derived compounds, have been marketed to consumers globally for many decades. However, the legislative framework for such products remains inconsistent across jurisdictions internationally. This study aims to

  3. Future technology needs for enhancing food availability and nutrition in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahloowalia, B.S.

    2002-01-01

    The increased food production during the past 50 years in Asia has not solved the problem of food availability and its access to large sections of the population. In addition, the nutritional level of the consumed food is highly inadequate to meet the daily requirements of minerals and vitamins. No doubt, the national policies on price support and subsidies for increasing food production and procurement have had a motor influence on access to food. However, the infrastructures for increasing storage capacity, prevent food wastage, and enhance food quality have not kept with the increased food production and its equitable access to the low income groups. The malnutrition of the poor, especially among children and women, remains a challenge to the policy makers and scientists alike. The building of food storage capacity at the village level and adoption of nuclear techniques to store grains under minimal insect and fungal infestation would cut down losses and enhance grain quality. Breeding new varieties of staple food grains (rice, wheat, maize and mallets), vegetables and fruits with enhanced minerals, vitamins and their bio-availability is seen as a complementary approach to food diversification to reduce malnutrition. Conventional breeding assisted by induced mutations, tissue culture, gene insertion and molecular gene modification holds promise to enhance food nutrition. However, the adoption of the appropriate combination of technologies is essential to enhance food availability and nutrition in Asia. Unfortunately, transgenic approach is seen by many as the only option or many times the major solution to enhance food access and its quality. It is often forgotten that a yardstick has many markings, each of which is important to reach the goal. (Author)

  4. Internal validity of a household food security scale is consistent among diverse populations participating in a food supplement program in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Michelle; Melgar-Quinonez, Hugo; Uribe, Martha C Alvarez

    2008-05-23

    We assessed the validity of a locally adapted Colombian Household Food Security Scale (CHFSS) used as a part of the 2006 evaluation of the food supplement component of the Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia, Colombia (MANA - Plan Departamental de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional de Antioquia). Subjects included low-income families with pre-school age children in MANA that responded affirmatively to at least one CHFSS item (n = 1,319). Rasch Modeling was used to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the items through measure and INFIT values. Differences in CHFSS performance were assessed by area of residency, socioeconomic status and number of children enrolled in MANA. Unidimensionality of a scale by group was further assessed using Differential Item Functioning (DIF). Most CHFSS items presented good fitness with most INFIT values within the adequate range of 0.8 to 1.2. Consistency in item measure values between groups was found for all but two items in the comparison by area of residency. Only two adult items exhibited DIF between urban and rural households. The results indicate that the adapted CHFSS is a valid tool to assess the household food security of participants in food assistance programs like MANA.

  5. Internal validity of a household food security scale is consistent among diverse populations participating in a food supplement program in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melgar-Quinonez Hugo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective We assessed the validity of a locally adapted Colombian Household Food Security Scale (CHFSS used as a part of the 2006 evaluation of the food supplement component of the Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia, Colombia (MANA – Plan Departamental de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional de Antioquia. Methods Subjects included low-income families with pre-school age children in MANA that responded affirmatively to at least one CHFSS item (n = 1,319. Rasch Modeling was used to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the items through measure and INFIT values. Differences in CHFSS performance were assessed by area of residency, socioeconomic status and number of children enrolled in MANA. Unidimensionality of a scale by group was further assessed using Differential Item Functioning (DIF. Results Most CHFSS items presented good fitness with most INFIT values within the adequate range of 0.8 to 1.2. Consistency in item measure values between groups was found for all but two items in the comparison by area of residency. Only two adult items exhibited DIF between urban and rural households. Conclusion The results indicate that the adapted CHFSS is a valid tool to assess the household food security of participants in food assistance programs like MANA.

  6. [Whether the advertisement of dietary supplements is objective source of data about their impact on health? Analysis of broadcasting advertisements in the terms of the food law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplements are intensively advertised in the media. Due to their form analogous to drugs many people don't notice differences between them, although it is fundamental. The dietary supplement, as the category of food don't have medicinal properties and suggesting such properties by producers is forbidden. The aim of this study was analysis of advertisements of dietary supplements, transmitted in the media in accordance with the law requirements, especially with the conditions of nutrition and health claims established in 2012. Advertisements of dietary supplements, transmitted in the period of one week (17-23 of September 2014 r.) into 5 radio and television channels. In the analysed period commercials of 27 assortments of the dietary supplement were being transmitted. Advertisements of 23 of them declared improvement the action of organs or concentration of biochemical indicators in the body. The strength of declarations about the benefits of action of dietary supplements was diversified, from expressions such as "support" to "treat" and "prevent". In some advertisements the authority of medical profession was being used. Moreover many advertisements emphasized the unique and comprehensive active ingredients of dietary supplement on the market. Advertisements of dietary supplements promise beneficial effect to the human body. In spite of more and more detailed legal requirements many of them are going beyond conditions established for food. It can cause incorrect opinion about the role of dietary supplements in curing medical disorders.

  7. Enhanced uridine bioavailability following administration of a triacetyluridine-rich nutritional supplement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa E Weinberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uridine is a therapy for hereditary orotic aciduria and is being investigated in other disorders caused by mitochondrial dysfunction, including toxicities resulting from treatment with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in HIV. Historically, the use of uridine as a therapeutic agent has been limited by poor bioavailability. A food supplement containing nucleosides, NucleomaxX®, has been reported to raise plasma uridine to supraphysiologic levels. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Single- and multi-dose PK studies following NucleomaxX® were compared to single-dose PK studies of equimolar doses of pure uridine in healthy human volunteers. Product analysis documented that more than 90% of the nucleoside component of NucleomaxX® is in the form of triacetyluridine (TAU. Single and repeated dosing with NucleomaxX® resulted in peak plasma uridine concentrations 1-2 hours later of 150.9 ± 39.3 µM and 161.4 ± 31.5 µM, respectively, levels known to ameliorate mitochondrial toxicity in vitro. C(max and AUC were four-fold higher after a single dose of NucleomaxX® than after uridine. No adverse effects of either treatment were observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: NucleomaxX®, containing predominantly TAU, has significantly greater bioavailability than pure uridine in human subjects and may be useful in the management of mitochondrial toxicity.

  8. ABSORPTION AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF THE MINERALS IN THE MULTI-MIXTURE FOOD SUPPLEMENT: BIOLOGICAL ASSAY IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. HELBIG

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The absorption and bioavailability of the minerals Ca, Fe and Zn in balanced and mineral restricted diets with the addition of the food supplement multi-mixture (MM, was evaluated. A biological assay was carried out for 28 days with recently weaned Wistar rats, using 3 treatments and 8 animals in each group. The diets offered to each group were distributed as follows: CD – Control Diet (AIN-93G; CcD/MM – Control Diet + Supplement 5% MM; DRMIXc/MM – Control Diet with Mineral Restricted + Supplement 5% MM. The animals were monitored for weight; amount of diet consumed and amount of faeces excreted. They were sacrifi ced at the end of the experimental period and the pair of femurs, pancreas and liver removed for the determination of Ca, Fe and Zn. The CcD/MM diet presented absorption of Ca and Fe and bioavailability of Ca, Fe and Zn equal to that of CD, showing no statistical difference between the treatments. However the DRMIXcD/MM diet presented an increase in Ca absorption, equal absorption of Fe and an increase in the bioavailability of Ca, Fe and Zn when compared to CD. It was concluded that when fed on a balanced diet supplemented with 5% MM, there was no increase in the bioavailability of Ca, Fe or Zn, whereas when fed on a mineral defi cient diet, the group of animals that received supplementation with 5% MM, presented greater absorption and bioavailability of these minerals.

  9. Effect of Early Overfeeding on Palatable Food Preference and Brain Dopaminergic Reward System at Adulthood: Role of Calcium Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, E P S; Carvalho, J C; Manhães, A C; Guarda, D S; Figueiredo, M S; Quitete, F T; Oliveira, E; Moura, E G; Lisboa, P C

    2016-05-01

    Rats raised in small litters (SL) are obese and hyperphagic. In the present study, we evaluated whether obesity is associated with changes in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic reward system in these animals at adulthood. We also assessed the anti-obesity effects of dietary calcium supplementation. To induce early overfeeding, litters were adjusted to three pups on postnatal day (PN)3 (SL group). Control litters were kept with 10 pups each until weaning (NL group). On PN120, SL animals were subdivided into two groups: SL (standard diet) and SL-Ca [SL with calcium supplementation (10 g calcium carbonate/kg rat chow) for 60 days]. On PN175, animals were subjected to a food challenge: animals could choose between a high-fat (HFD) or a high-sugar diet (HSD). Food intake was recorded after 30 min and 12 h. Euthanasia occurred on PN180. SL rats had higher food intake, body mass and central adiposity. Sixty days of dietary calcium supplementation (SL-Ca) prevented these changes. Only SL animals preferred the HFD at 12 h. Both SL groups had lower tyrosine hydroxylase content in the ventral tegmental area, lower dopaminergic transporter content in the nucleus accumbens, and higher type 2 dopamine receptor (D2R) content in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). They also had higher neuropeptide Y (NPY) and lower pro-opiomelanocortin contents in the ARC. Calcium treatment normalised only D2R and NPY contents. Precocious obesity induces long-term effects in the brain dopaminergic system, which can be associated with an increased preference for fat at adulthood. Calcium treatment prevents this last alteration, partially through its actions on ARC D2R and NPY proteins. © 2016 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  10. Evaluating the Influence of the Revised Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Food Allocation Package on Healthy Food Availability, Accessibility, and Affordability in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenhua; McKyer, E Lisako J; Dowdy, Diane; Evans, Alexandra; Ory, Marcia; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Wang, Suojin; Miao, Jingang

    2016-02-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) was implemented to improve the health of pregnant women and children of low socioeconomic status. In 2009, the program was revised to provide a wider variety of healthy food choices (eg, fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain items). The purpose of this study was to evaluate (1) the impact of the revised WIC Nutrition Program's food allocation package on the availability, accessibility, and affordability of healthy foods in WIC-authorized grocery stores in Texas; and (2) how the impact of the policy change differed by store types and between rural and urban regions. WIC-approved stores (n=105) across Texas were assessed using a validated instrument (88 items). Pre- (June-September 2009) and post-new WIC package implementation (June-September 2012) audits were conducted. Paired-sample t tests were conducted to compare the differences between pre- and post-implementation audits on shelf width and number of varieties (ie, availability), visibility (ie, accessibility), and inflation-adjusted price (ie, affordability). Across the 105 stores, post-implementation audits showed increased availability in terms of shelf space for most key healthy food options, including fruit (PFood visibility increased for fresh juices (Pfoods such as fruits (Pbread (Pbread (Pfood availability and visibility were observed in stores of different types and in different locations, although smaller or fewer effects were noted in small stores and stores in rural regions. Implementation of the revised WIC food package has generally improved availability and accessibility, but not affordability, of healthy foods in WIC-authorized stores in Texas. Future studies are needed to explore the impact of the revised program on healthy food option purchases and consumption patterns among Texas WIC participants. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Statement on the risks for human health related to the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey, tea, herbal infusions and food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    EFSA was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on the risks for human health related to the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey, tea, herbal infusions and food supplements and to identify the PAs of relevance in the aforementioned food commodities...

  12. The use of energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications by United States college students to enhance athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyte, Christopher O; Albert, Donald; Heard, Kennon J

    2013-06-01

    While the use of performance enhancing substances by professional, collegiate, and Olympic athletes is well described, the rate of use in the general population is not well studied. We explored the use of energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications for the enhancement of athletic performance among college students using an ongoing survey system. We conducted a multi-round online questionnaire collecting data from self-identified students at two-year colleges, four-year colleges, online courses, or technical schools at least part-time during the specified sampling period. The sample is obtained through the use of a survey panel company in which respondents voluntarily register. Survey data were collected from December, 2010 through August, 2011. Subjects who reported participating in athletics were asked if they used any of the following substances to enhance athletic performance (1) energy drinks (2) dietary supplements (3) prescription medications within the last year. Data were analyzed from October, 2011 through January, 2012. There were 462 college students who responded to the survey reporting they participate in sports at various levels. Of these, 397 (85.9 %) responded that within the last year they used energy drinks, dietary supplements, or prescription medications to enhance athletic performance. Energy drinks had the highest prevalence (80.1 %), followed by dietary supplements (64.1 %) and prescription medications (53.3 %). Use was most prevalent amongst intercollegiate athletes (89.4 %) followed by club (88.5 %) and intermural (82.1 %) participants. The vast majority of survey respondents reported using energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications within the last year for athletic performance enhancement.

  13. Branched-chain amino acids supplementation enhances exercise capacity and lipid oxidation during endurance exercise after muscle glycogen depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualano, A B; Bozza, T; Lopes De Campos, P; Roschel, H; Dos Santos Costa, A; Luiz Marquezi, M; Benatti, F; Herbert Lancha Junior, A

    2011-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) transaminase activation occurs simultaneously with exercise-induced muscle glycogen reduction, suggesting that BCAA supplementation might play an energetic role in this condition. This study aimed to test whether BCAA supplementation enhances exercise capacity and lipid oxidation in glycogen-depleted subjects. Using a double-blind cross-over design, volunteers (N.=7) were randomly assigned to either the BCAA (300 mg . kg . day -1) or the placebo (maltodextrine) for 3 days. On the second day, subjects were submitted to an exercise-induced glycogen depletion protocol. They then performed an exhaustive exercise test on the third day, after which time to exhaustion, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), plasma glucose, free fatty acids (FFA), blood ketones and lactate were determined. BCAA supplementation promoted a greater resistance to fatigue when compared to the placebo (+17.2%). Moreover, subjects supplemented with BCAA showed reduced RER and higher plasma glucose levels during the exhaustive exercise test. In conclusion, BCAA supplementation increases resistance to fatigue and enhances lipid oxidation during exercise in glycogen-depleted subjects.

  14. ePlantLIBRA: A composition and biological activity database for bioactive compounds in plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, J; Lyons, J; Nørby, K; Thomas, M; Nørby, E; Poms, R; Bucchini, L; Restani, P; Kiely, M; Finglas, P

    2016-02-15

    The newly developed ePlantLIBRA database is a comprehensive and searchable database, with up-to-date coherent and validated scientific information on plant food supplement (PFS) bioactive compounds, with putative health benefits as well as adverse effects, and contaminants and residues. It is the only web-based database available compiling peer reviewed publications and case studies on PFS. A user-friendly, efficient and flexible interface has been developed for searching, extracting, and exporting the data, including links to the original references. Data from over 570 publications have been quality evaluated and entered covering 70 PFS or their botanical ingredients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Value of supplemental interventions to enhance the effectiveness of physical exercise during respiratory rehabilitation in COPD patients. A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schünemann Holger J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a controversy about the additional benefit of various supplemental interventions used in clinical practice to further enhance the effectiveness of respiratory rehabilitation in patients with Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The aim of this research was to assess randomised controlled trials (RCTs testing the additional benefit of supplemental interventions during respiratory rehabilitation in COPD patients. Methods Systematic review with literature searches in six electronic databases, extensive hand-searching and contacting of authors. Two reviewers selected independently eligible RCTs, rated the methodological quality and extracted the data, which were analyzed considering the minimal important difference of patient-important outcomes where possible. Findings We identified 20 RCTs whereof 18 provided sufficient data for analysis. The methodological quality was low and sample sizes were too small for most trials to produce meaningful results (median total sample size = 28. Data from five trials showed that supplemental oxygen during exercise did not have clinically meaningful effects on health-related quality of life while improvements of exercise capacity may be even larger for patients exercising on room air. RCTs of adding assisted ventilation, nutritional supplements or a number of anabolically acting drugs do not provide sufficient evidence for or against the use any of these supplemental interventions. Interpretation There is insufficient evidence for most supplemental interventions during respiratory rehabilitation to estimate their additional value, partly due to methodological shortcomings of included RCTs. Current data do not suggest benefit from supplemental oxygen during exercise, although the methodological quality of included trials limits conclusions. To appropriately assess any of the various supplemental interventions used in clinical practice, pragmatic trials on respiratory

  16. Enhancing food safety: the role of the Food and Drug Administration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wallace, Robert B; Oria, Maria

    2010-01-01

    .... Food and Drug Administration's abilities to discover potential threats to food safety and prevent outbreaks of foodborne illness are hampered by impediments to efficient use of its limited resources...

  17. Employing ionizing radiation to enhance food safety. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grolichova, M.; Dvorak, P.; Musilova, H.

    2004-01-01

    Food irradiation is employed to ensure food safety or food sterility, extend its shelf-life and reduce the losses due to sprouting, ripening or pests. In the Czech Republic mainly spices, mixed spices and dried vegetables are exposed to ionizing radiation. The leading suppliers of irradiated foodstuffs in Europe are Belgium, France and the Netherlands. In the USA, food irradiation is more common and there are also attempts to enforce irradiation not only for food safety, but also for technological purposes. Even though irradiation is a prospective technology, its application causes physico-chemical changes that may affect nutritional adequacy and sensory characteristics of irradiated food. In this paper, the chemical changes of basic food components (proteins, saccharides, fats) are reviewed. Some chemical changes lead to the formation of radiolytic products whose risks are still subject of scientific research. It is expected that the main use of gamma irradiation will be the treatment of diets for patients suffering from different disorders of the immune system, allergic patients or for the army and space flights. Irradiation may be a critical control point in the production of some types of foodstuffs

  18. Anthocyanidin pigments in clinical ophthalmology. Analysis of their profile in eye supplements and food additives containing bilberry extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Gottikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, several eye nutritional supplements and food additives with bilberry extract are approved in Russia. Bilberry effects directly depend on anthocyanidin content. Hence, the expertise of nutritional supplements and food additives with bilberry extract is required to determine their qualitative and quantitative composition. Aim. To determine qualitative and quantitative content of bilberry anthocyanidin pigments in food additives. Materials and methods. Anthocyanidins from five samples were extracted with distilled water per anthocyanidin content. The samples were obtained by the dilution of a pill or capsule in 50 mL of water. Extraction was performed under continuous mixing on hot shaker. 1 mL aliquots were taken from the solutions, centrifuged for 10 min at 14,000 rpm, and filtered through syringe filters. Total level (i.e., quantitative and qualitative content of bilberry anthocyanidin pigments in five samples was evaluated using UV spectroscopy. Experiment was performed twice for each sample. Qualitative content of anthocyanidin pigments was evaluated using reversed-phase HPLC. Results. All examined samples contain anthocyanidin pigments from bilberry extracts but no other natural sources. Their quantity which was measured by pH differential spectrophotometry varies greatly (from 0.168% to 8.30% and may significantly differ from that of declared by manufacturer. This is due to phytogenic raw material and difficulties in standardization of active component content. Conclusions. The data obtained optimize dosing of food additives with bilberry extract by clinicians and patients considering individual tolerance, needs, and disease severity. 

  19. Anthocyanidin pigments in clinical ophthalmology. Analysis of their profile in eye supplements and food additives containing bilberry extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Gottikh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, several eye nutritional supplements and food additives with bilberry extract are approved in Russia. Bilberry effects directly depend on anthocyanidin content. Hence, the expertise of nutritional supplements and food additives with bilberry extract is required to determine their qualitative and quantitative composition. Aim. To determine qualitative and quantitative content of bilberry anthocyanidin pigments in food additives. Materials and methods. Anthocyanidins from five samples were extracted with distilled water per anthocyanidin content. The samples were obtained by the dilution of a pill or capsule in 50 mL of water. Extraction was performed under continuous mixing on hot shaker. 1 mL aliquots were taken from the solutions, centrifuged for 10 min at 14,000 rpm, and filtered through syringe filters. Total level (i.e., quantitative and qualitative content of bilberry anthocyanidin pigments in five samples was evaluated using UV spectroscopy. Experiment was performed twice for each sample. Qualitative content of anthocyanidin pigments was evaluated using reversed-phase HPLC. Results. All examined samples contain anthocyanidin pigments from bilberry extracts but no other natural sources. Their quantity which was measured by pH differential spectrophotometry varies greatly (from 0.168% to 8.30% and may significantly differ from that of declared by manufacturer. This is due to phytogenic raw material and difficulties in standardization of active component content. Conclusions. The data obtained optimize dosing of food additives with bilberry extract by clinicians and patients considering individual tolerance, needs, and disease severity. 

  20. Responsive feeding and child interest in food vary when rural Malawian children are fed lipid-based nutrient supplements or local complementary food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L; Mäkinen, Samppa; Ashorn, Ulla; Cheung, Yin Bun; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per; Bentley, Margaret E

    2013-07-01

    Caregiver and child behaviours during feeding have been used to measure responsiveness, which has been recognised as important for child growth and development. The aims of this study were to understand how caregiver and child behaviours differ when feeding lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) vs. local complementary food and to detect associations between behaviours and child interest in food. Sixteen moderately underweight 6-17-month-old Malawian children receiving 50 g/day of supplementary LNS for 12 weeks were videotaped during LNS (n = 32) and local complementary feeding (n = 28) episodes. Behaviours were coded at the level of the intended bite (1674 total bites). The analysis used regression models adjusted for within-subject correlation. Caregivers were less likely to allow children to self-feed and more likely to use physical pressure during LNS vs. complementary food bites. Positive caregiver verbalization was infrequent and did not differ by type of food. Higher odds of accepting a bite were associated with the bite containing LNS, odds ratio (OR) 3.05; 90% confidence interval (CI) (1.98, 4.71), the child self-feeding, OR 5.70; 90% CI (2.77, 11.69), and positive caregiver verbalization, OR 2.46; 90% CI (1.26, 4.80), while lower odds of acceptance were associated with negative child verbalization during feeding, OR 0.27; 90% CI (0.17, 0.42). In this sample, caregivers used more responsive feeding practices during bites of local complementary food and were more controlling when feeding LNS. Responsive caregiver behaviours predicted child acceptance of food. These results could be used to design interventions in Malawi to improve responsive feeding practices in general and during LNS use. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Flight feeding systems design and evaluation. Supplement 1: Production guides. [for the Apollo food system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The requirements for processing, packaging, testing, and shipment of foods selected for use in the Apollo food system are presented. Specific foodstuffs chosen from the following categories are discussed: (1) soups; (2) juices; (3) breads; (4) meat and poultry products; (5) fruits and nuts; (6) desserts; and (7) beverages. Food procurement for the mobile quarantine facility and for Apollo preflight and postflight activities is also discussed.

  2. Development of lotus root fermented sugar syrup as a functional food supplement/condiment and evaluation of its physicochemical, nutritional and microbiological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shruti; Park, Juyeon; Park, Jung Hyun; Lee, Jong Suk; Kim, Myunghee

    2018-02-01

    Lotus ( Nelumbo nucifera ) root has been used as an edible vegetable in East Asia for thousands of years. The present research was aimed to explore the physicochemical, nutritional and microbiological safety of lotus root fermented sugar syrup as a fermented food supplement or condiment for human health benefits. In this study, the physicochemical, nutritional and microbiological safety properties of lotus root syrup fermented with 57° Brix brown sugar at different time periods until 6 months (180 days) was investigated. There was a significant improvement as compared to 57° Brix brown sugar broth (as a control) in the total acceptability and physicochemical properties of lotus root sugar syrup samples such as pH and color improvement. The red color values of 180 days lotus root fermented sugar syrup samples were significantly enhanced (6.85 ± 0.58) when compared with the control (0.20 ± 0.15). In addition, the total protein content was increased from 8.27 ± 0.86 to 392.33 ± 7.19 μg/mL, along with the increase in fermentation time reaching to the level of consumption acceptability. All the lotus root fermented sugar syrup samples were subjected to microbiological analysis. It was found that the coliform, Bacillus cereus , Escherichia coli , Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus counts were not detected in majority of the samples, confirming the high degree of hygiene processing of lotus root fermented sugar syrup samples for its use as a food supplement or condiment.

  3. Dietary Supplement Adverse Event Report Data From the FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Adverse Event Reporting System (CAERS), 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbo, Babgaleh B; Chirtel, Stuart J; Ihrie, John; Oladipo, Taiye; Velez-Suarez, Loy; Brewer, Vickery; Mozersky, Robert

    2018-05-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) oversees the safety of the nation's foods, dietary supplements, and cosmetic products. To present a descriptive analysis of the 2004-2013 dietary supplement adverse event report (AER) data from CAERS and evaluate the 2006 Dietary Supplements and Nonprescription Drug Consumer Protection Act as pertaining to dietary supplements adverse events reporting. We queried CAERS for data from the 2004-2013 AERs specifying at least 1 suspected dietary supplement product. We extracted the product name(s), the symptom(s) reported, age, sex, and serious adverse event outcomes. We examined time trends for mandatory and voluntary reporting and performed analysis using SAS v9.4 and R v3.3.0 software. Of the total AERs (n = 15 430) received from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2013, indicating at least 1 suspected dietary supplement product, 66.9% were mandatory, 32.2% were voluntary, and 0.9% were both mandatory and voluntary. Reported serious outcomes included death, life-threatening conditions, hospitalizations, congenital anomalies/birth defects and events requiring interventions to prevent permanent impairments (5.1%). The dietary supplement adverse event reporting rate in the United States was estimated at ~2% based on CAERS data. This study characterizes CAERS dietary supplement adverse event data for the 2004-2013 period and estimates a reporting rate of 2% for dietary supplement adverse events based on CAERS data. The findings show that the 2006 Dietary Supplements and Nonprescription Drug Consumer Protection Act had a substantial impact on the reporting of adverse events.

  4. Dietary supplementation with lactose or artificial sweetener enhances swine gut Lactobacillus population abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Kristian; Darby, Alistair C; Hall, Neil; Nau, Alexandra; Bravo, David; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

    2014-06-01

    The commensal bacteria Lactobacillus are widely used as probiotic organisms conferring a heath benefit on the host. They have been implicated in promoting gut health via the stimulation of host immunity and anti-inflammatory responses, as well as protecting the intestinalmucosa against pathogen invasion. Lactobacilli grow by fermenting sugars and starches and produce lactic acid as their primary metabolic product. For efficient utilisation of varied carbohydrates, lactobacilli have evolved diverse sugar transport and metabolic systems, which are specifically induced by their own substrates. Many bacteria are also capable of sensing and responding to changes in their environment. These sensory responses are often independent of transport or metabolism and are mediated through membrane-spanning receptor proteins. We employed DNA-based pyrosequencing technology to investigate the changes in the intestinal microbiota of piglets weaned to a diet supplemented with either a natural sugar, lactose or an artificial sweetener (SUCRAM®, consisting of saccharin and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC); Pancosma SA). The addition of either lactose or saccharin/NHDC to the piglets' feed dramatically increased the caecal population abundance of Lactobacillus, with concomitant increases in intraluminal lactic acid concentrations. This is the first report of the prebiotic-like effects of saccharin/NHDC, an artificial sweetener, being able to influence the commensal gut microbiota. The identification of the underlying mechanism(s) will assist in designing nutritional strategies for enhancing gut immunity and maintaining gut health.

  5. Green-light supplementation for enhanced lettuce growth under red- and blue-light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeon-Hye; Goins, Gregory D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Sager, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Plants will be an important component of future long-term space missions. Lighting systems for growing plants will need to be lightweight, reliable, and durable, and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have these characteristics. Previous studies demonstrated that the combination of red and blue light was an effective light source for several crops. Yet the appearance of plants under red and blue lighting is purplish gray making visual assessment of any problems difficult. The addition of green light would make the plant leave appear green and normal similar to a natural setting under white light and may also offer a psychological benefit to the crew. Green supplemental lighting could also offer benefits, since green light can better penetrate the plant canopy and potentially increase plant growth by increasing photosynthesis from the leaves in the lower canopy. In this study, four light sources were tested: 1) red and blue LEDs (RB), 2) red and blue LEDs with green fluorescent lamps (RGB), 3) green fluorescent lamps (GF), and 4) cool-white fluorescent lamps (CWF), that provided 0%, 24%, 86%, and 51% of the total PPF in the green region of the spectrum, respectively. The addition of 24% green light (500 to 600 nm) to red and blue LEDs (RGB treatment) enhanced plant growth. The RGB treatment plants produced more biomass than the plants grown under the cool-white fluorescent lamps (CWF treatment), a commonly tested light source used as a broad-spectrum control.

  6. Chronic L-arginine supplementation enhances endurance exercise tolerance in heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutreleau, S; Mettauer, B; Piquard, F; Rouyer, O; Schaefer, A; Lonsdorfer, J; Geny, B

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the potential beneficial effect of six weeks oral L-arginine supplementation (LAS) on endurance exercise, an important determinant of daily-life activity in patients with chronic stable heart failure (CHF). After an initial incremental maximal exercise test, CHF patients performed an identical thirty-minute interval endurance exercise test before and after six weeks with (L-arginine group; ARG) or without LAS (control group; CTL). Hemodynamic, respiratory, and metabolic parameters were determined at rest, during exercise, and during recovery. Mean heart rate decreased throughout exercise and recovery after LAS (- 8.2 +/- 1.4 b x min(-1); p = 0.003 and - 6.7 +/- 1.6 b x min(-1); p < 0.001, respectively), systemic blood pressure and respiratory parameters remaining unchanged. Resting L-argininaemia increased from 102 +/- 11 to 181 +/- 37 micromol x l(-1) (p < 0.004) and exercise-induced peak increase in plasma lactate was blunted after LAS (4.13 +/- 0.75 vs. 3.13 +/- 0.39 mmol x l(-1); p = 0.02). No significant change was observed in the control group. In heart failure patients, six weeks oral LAS enhances endurance exercise tolerance, reducing both heart rate and circulating lactates. This suggests that chronic LAS might be useful as a therapeutic adjuvant in order to improve the patient's physical fitness.

  7. Foods, Fortificants, and Supplements: Where Do Americans Get Their Nutrients?123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.; Bailey, Regan L.; Dwyer, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Limited data are available on the source of usual nutrient intakes in the United States. This analysis aimed to assess contributions of micronutrients to usual intakes derived from all sources (naturally occurring, fortified and enriched, and dietary supplements) and to compare usual intakes to the Dietary Reference Intake for U.S. residents aged ≥2 y according to NHANES 2003–2006 (n = 16,110). We used the National Cancer Institute method to assess usual intakes of 19 micronutrients by source. Only a small percentage of the population had total usual intakes (from dietary intakes and supplements) below the estimated average requirement (EAR) for the following: vitamin B-6 (8%), folate (8%), zinc (8%), thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-12, phosphorus, iron, copper, and selenium (supplements further reduced the percentage of the population consuming less than the EAR for all nutrients. The percentage of the population with total intakes greater than the tolerable upper intake level (UL) was very low for most nutrients, whereas 10.3 and 8.4% of the population had intakes greater than the UL for niacin and zinc, respectively. Without enrichment and/or fortification and supplementation, many Americans did not achieve the recommended micronutrient intake levels set forth in the Dietary Reference Intake. PMID:21865568

  8. Nutritional parameters and production of calves on pasture supplemented with different sources of protein foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Contreras Marquez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of multiple supplements with different protein sources on the performance, intake, nutrient digestibility, and microbial protein production efficiency of lactating beef heifers under grazing. The experiment was carried out during the period of transition from water-dry (February to July, 2012 using four paddocks with average of 4.5 ha. Twenty four lactating beef heifers with initial body weight of 113 kg and 3 month old, were used. The treatments were: mineral mixed (MM ad libitum, soybean meal (SM, cottonseed meal 38% crude protein (CM, and combination of SM and CM (SMCM. There was not observed effect (P>0.10 of different protein sources on average daily gain (ADG between the animals that received multiple supplement as well as difference was not verified for ADG between the multiple supplements and MM. Therefore, cottonseed meal can replace soybean meal or can be used in association to the soybean meal on multiple supplements for lactating beef heifers

  9. A Clinical Trial about a Food Supplement Containing α-Lipoic Acid on Oxidative Stress Markers in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Derosa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a food supplement containing α-lipoic acid and of a placebo on glyco-metabolic control and on oxidative stress markers in type 2 diabetics. We randomized 105 diabetics to either a supplementation containing 600 mg of α-lipoic acid, 165 mg of L-carnosin, 7.5 mg of zinc, and vitamins of group B, or a placebo, for three months. We evaluated body mass index, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, post-prandial-glucose (PPG, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, fasting plasma insulin (FPI, HOMA-index (HOMA-IR, lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, malondialdehyde (MDA. There was a reduction of FPG, PPG, and HbA1c with the food supplement containing α-lipoic acid compared with a baseline, and with the placebo. Concerning lipid profile, we observed a reduction of LDL-C, and Tg with the food supplement, compared with both the baseline, and the placebo. There was a reduction of Hs-CRP with the food supplement containing α-lipoic acid, both compared with the baseline and the placebo. An increase of SOD, and GSH-Px, and a decrease of MDA were reached by the food supplement containing α-lipoic acid, both compared with the baseline and the placebo. We can conclude that the food supplement containing α-lipoic acid, L-carnosin, zinc, and vitamins of group B improved glycemic control, lipid profile, and anti-oxidative stress markers.

  10. Detection and identification of multiple adulterants in plant food supplements using attenuated total reflectance-Infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Aouadi, C; Bothy, J L; Courselle, P

    2018-04-15

    Due to the rising popularity of dietary supplements, especially plant food supplements, and alternative herbal medicines, a whole market developed and these products became freely available through internet. Though several searches revealed that at least a part of these products, especially the ones obtained from websites disclosing their physical identity, are aldulterated with pharmaceutical compounds. This causes a threat for public health, since these compounds are not declared and therefore adverse effects will not immediately be related to the product. The more the adulterants can interfere with other medicinal treatments. Since the present active pharmaceutical ingredients are not declared on the package and the products are sold as 100% natural or herbal in nature, it is very difficult for custom personnel to discriminate between products to be confiscated or not. Therefore easy to apply analytical approaches to discriminate between adulterated and non-adulterated products are necessary. This paper presents an approach based on infrared spectroscopy combined with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and partial least squares- discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to easily differentiate between adulterated and non- adulterated plant food supplements and to get a first idea of the nature of the adulterant present. The performance of PLS-DA models based on Mid-IR and NIR data were compared as well as models based on the combined data. Further three preprocessing strategies were compared. The best performance was obtained for a PLS-DA model using Mid-IR data with the second derivative as preprocessing method. This model showed a correct classification rate of 98.3% for an external test set. Also eight real samples were screened using the model and for seven of these samples a correct classification was obtained. Generally it could be concluded that the obtained model and the presented approach could be used at customs to discriminate between adulterated and non

  11. Does eating local food reduce the environmental impact of food production and enhance consumer health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards-Jones, Gareth

    2010-11-01

    The concept of local food has gained traction in the media, engaged consumers and offered farmers a new marketing tool. Positive claims about the benefits of local food are probably not harmful when made by small-scale producers at the local level; however, greater concern would arise should such claims be echoed in policy circles. This review examines the evidence base supporting claims about the environmental and health benefits of local food. The results do not offer any support for claims that local food is universally superior to non-local food in terms of its impact on the climate or the health of consumers. Indeed several examples are presented that demonstrate that local food can on occasions be inferior to non-local food. The analysis also considers the impact on greenhouse gas emissions of moving the UK towards self-sufficiency. Quantitative evidence is absent on the changes in overall emissions that would occur if the UK switched to self-sufficiency. A qualitative assessment suggests the emissions per item of food would probably be greater under a scenario of self-sufficiency than under the current food system. The review does not identify any generalisable or systematic benefits to the environment or human health that arise from the consumption of local food in preference to non-local food.

  12. Conventional foods, followed by dietary supplements and fortified foods, are the key sources of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake in Dutch participants of the NU-AGE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, Agnes A.M.; Lieshout, van Lilou E.L.M.; Heuvel, van den Ellen G.H.M.; Matthys, Christophe; Péter, Szabolcs; Groot, de Lisette C.P.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    With aging, energy needs decrease, necessitating a more nutrient-dense diet to meet nutritional needs. To bridge this gap, the use of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements can be important. This observational study aims to describe current micronutrient intakes of Dutch

  13. Absorption Profile of (PolyPhenolic Compounds after Consumption of Three Food Supplements Containing 36 Different Fruits, Vegetables, and Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Bresciani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The market of plant-based nutraceuticals and food supplements is continuously growing due to the increased consumer demand. The introduction of new products with relevant nutritional characteristics represents a new way of providing bioactive compounds and (polyphenols to consumers, becoming a strategy to ideally guarantee the health benefits attributed to plant foodstuffs and allowing the increase of daily bioactive compound intake. A paramount step in the study of nutraceuticals is the evaluation of the bioavailability and metabolism of their putatively active components. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the absorption profile of the (polyphenolic compounds contained in three different plant-based food supplements, made of 36 different plant matrices, which were consumed by 20 subjects in an open one-arm study design. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 1, 2, 5, and 10 h after capsule intake. Twenty quantifiable metabolites deriving from different (polyphenolic compounds were identified. Results showed that the consumption of the three capsules allowed the effective absorption of several (polyphenolic compounds and metabolites appearing at different times in plasma, thereby indicating different absorption profiles. The capsules thus ensured potential health-promoting molecules to be potentially available to target tissues and organs.

  14. Thrombocytopenia as an adverse effect of complementary and alternative medicines, herbal remedies, nutritional supplements, foods, and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Derek J; George, James N; Terrell, Deirdra R

    2010-05-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a well-recognized adverse effect of many drugs. However, the association of thrombocytopenia with complementary/alternative medicines, herbal remedies, nutritional supplements, foods, and beverages has been rarely described, except for reports of thrombocytopenia caused by quinine-containing beverages. To systematically identify all published reports of thrombocytopenia associated with these substances and to assess the evidence supporting their causal association with thrombocytopenia. Eleven databases were searched to identify relevant published reports. A priori criteria were defined for article selection and assessment. Each selected article was independently assessed by the three authors to document the presence of the criteria and determine the level of evidence for a causal association of the reported substance with thrombocytopenia. Twenty-seven articles were identified that reported the occurrence of thrombocytopenia with 25 substances (other than quinine). However, only six articles describing five substances (cow's milk, cranberry juice, Jui [Chinese herbal tea], Lupinus termis bean, and tahini [pulped sesame seeds]) reported clinical data supporting definite evidence of a causal association with thrombocytopenia. Four articles provided probable evidence for four additional substances, and five articles provided possible evidence for five additional substances. In the remaining articles, the association with thrombocytopenia was unlikely or the articles were excluded from review. Reports of thrombocytopenia describing definite or probable evidence for an association of a complementary/alternative medicines, herbal remedies, nutritional supplements, foods, and beverages are rare. Whether the occurrence of thrombocytopenia with these substances is uncommon or unrecognized is unknown.

  15. Absorption Profile of (Poly)Phenolic Compounds after Consumption of Three Food Supplements Containing 36 Different Fruits, Vegetables, and Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Letizia; Martini, Daniela; Mena, Pedro; Tassotti, Michele; Calani, Luca; Brigati, Giacomo; Brighenti, Furio; Holasek, Sandra; Malliga, Daniela-Eugenia; Lamprecht, Manfred; Del Rio, Daniele

    2017-02-26

    The market of plant-based nutraceuticals and food supplements is continuously growing due to the increased consumer demand. The introduction of new products with relevant nutritional characteristics represents a new way of providing bioactive compounds and (poly)phenols to consumers, becoming a strategy to ideally guarantee the health benefits attributed to plant foodstuffs and allowing the increase of daily bioactive compound intake. A paramount step in the study of nutraceuticals is the evaluation of the bioavailability and metabolism of their putatively active components. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the absorption profile of the (poly)phenolic compounds contained in three different plant-based food supplements, made of 36 different plant matrices, which were consumed by 20 subjects in an open one-arm study design. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 1, 2, 5, and 10 h after capsule intake. Twenty quantifiable metabolites deriving from different (poly)phenolic compounds were identified. Results showed that the consumption of the three capsules allowed the effective absorption of several (poly)phenolic compounds and metabolites appearing at different times in plasma, thereby indicating different absorption profiles. The capsules thus ensured potential health-promoting molecules to be potentially available to target tissues and organs.

  16. Effects of Trang Phuc Linh Plus-Food Supplement on Irritable Bowel Syndrome Induced by Mustard Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thong T; Dau, Duong T; Nguyen, Dung C; Nguyen, Huong T T G; Ngo, Phuong T B; Nguyen, Thai Q; Han, Bo; Hoang, Ba X

    2017-04-01

    Trang phuc linh plus (TPLP) is a food supplement product derived from dried extracts of herbal agents Atractylodes macrocephala, Poria cocos, Paeonia lactiflora, Phellodendron amurense, and added lactobacillus fermentum lysate (ImmuneGamma ® ) and 5-hydroxytryptophan. TPLP is a functional food used as adjunctive treatment for treating irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However the biological effect and its mechanism of action in IBS have not been elucidated. In this study, we aimed to determine the pharmacological activities and mode of action of TPLP on IBS animal models. Mice were given a single administration of 5% mustard oil (MO) intracollonically. Acute colitis induction by MO resulted in later development of an IBS-like accelerated upper gastrointestinal transit in mice. Mice were treated with different does of TPLP and controls. Results showed that TPLP at the dose of 654 mg/kg/day given orally significantly decreased intestinal motility (IM) compared with the control animals. The effect was similar to Duspatalin (80 mg/kg/day) (Mebeverine Hydrochloride, an antispasmodic that helps to relieve the pain and discomfort associated with gastrointestinal spasms). Increased TPLP dose (1962 mg/kg/day) had a better effect on relief of IM than Duspatalin (80 mg/kg/day). TPLP also reduced peristalsis frequency and decreased fluid volume and electrolytes excretion in intestine tested in ex vivo models. Overall, TPLP may be an effective nutraceutical supplement for IBS.

  17. A Randomized Control Trial: Supplementing Hearing Aid Use with Listening and Communication Enhancement (LACE) Auditory Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Gabrielle H; Smith, Sherri L; Chisolm, Theresa H; Frederick, Melissa T; McArdle, Rachel A; Wilson, Richard H

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of the Listening and Communication Enhancement (LACE) program as a supplement to standard-of-care hearing aid intervention in a Veteran population. A multisite randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare outcomes following standard-of-care hearing aid intervention supplemented with (1) LACE training using the 10-session DVD format, (2) LACE training using the 20-session computer-based format, (3) placebo auditory training (AT) consisting of actively listening to 10 hr of digitized books on a computer, and (4) educational counseling-the control group. The study involved 3 VA sites and enrolled 279 veterans. Both new and experienced hearing aid users participated to determine if outcomes differed as a function of hearing aid user status. Data for five behavioral and two self-report measures were collected during three research visits: baseline, immediately following the intervention period, and at 6 months postintervention. The five behavioral measures were selected to determine whether the perceptual and cognitive skills targeted in LACE training generalized to untrained tasks that required similar underlying skills. The two self-report measures were completed to determine whether the training resulted in a lessening of activity limitations and participation restrictions. Outcomes were obtained from 263 participants immediately following the intervention period and from 243 participants 6 months postintervention. Analyses of covariance comparing performance on each outcome measure separately were conducted using intervention and hearing aid user status as between-subject factors, visit as a within-subject factor, and baseline performance as a covariate. No statistically significant main effects or interactions were found for the use of LACE on any outcome measure. Findings from this randomized controlled trial show that LACE training does not result in improved outcomes over standard-of-care hearing aid intervention alone

  18. Training Enhances Immune Cells Mitochondrial Biosynthesis, Fission, Fusion, and Their Antioxidant Capabilities Synergistically with Dietary Docosahexaenoic Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Busquets-Cortés

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training induces adaptations in mitochondrial metabolism, dynamics, and oxidative protection. Omega-3 fatty acids change membrane lipid composition and modulate mitochondrial function. The aim was to investigate the effect of 8-week training and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA supplementation (1.14 g/day on the mitochondria dynamics and antioxidant status in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from sportsmen. Subjects were assigned to an intervention (N=9 or placebo groups (N=7 in a randomized double-blind trial. Nutritional intervention significantly increased the DHA content in erythrocyte membranes from the experimental group. No significant differences were reported in terms of circulating PBMCs, Mn-superoxide dismutase protein levels, and their capability to produce reactive oxygen species. The proteins related to mitochondrial dynamics were, in general, increased after an 8-week training and this increase was enhanced by DHA supplementation. The content in mitofusins Mtf-1 and Mtf-2, optic atrophy protein-1 (Opa-1, and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam were significantly higher in the DHA-supplemented group after intervention. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX-IV activity and uncoupling proteins UCP-2 and UCP-3 protein levels were increased after training, with higher UCP-3 levels in the supplemented group. In conclusion, training induced mitochondrial adaptations which may contribute to improved mitochondrial function. This mitochondrial response was modulated by DHA supplementation.

  19. the potential for enhancement of immunity in cats by dietary supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutherfurd-Markwick, K.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Morel, P.C.H.; Thomas, D.G.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the potential benefits of dietary supplementation on the feline immune system. Forty three cats (8 or 9 per group) were fed a low protein control diet (22.7% DM basis), the same diet supplemented with yeast-derived nucleotides, salmon oil or l-arginine or a

  20. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius as a Food Supplement: Health-Promoting Benefits of Fructooligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunno F. R. Caetano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius, a perennial plant of the family Asteraceae native to the Andean regions of South America, is an abundant source of fructooligosaccharides (FOS. This comprehensive review of the literature addressed the role of yacon supplementation in promoting health and reducing the risk of chronic diseases. According to several preclinical and clinical trials, FOS intake favors the growth of health-promoting bacteria while reducing pathogenic bacteria populations. Moreover, the endproducts of FOS fermentation by the intestinal microbiota, short chain fatty acids (SCFA, act as substrates or signaling molecules in the regulation of the immune response, glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism. As a result, glycemic levels, body weight and colon cancer risk can be reduced. Based on these findings, most studies reviewed concluded that due to their functional properties, yacon roots may be effectively used as a dietary supplement to prevent and treat chronic diseases.

  1. A randomized trial of protein supplementation compared with extra fast food on the effects of resistance training to increase metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambre, David; Vergara, Marta; Lood, Yvonne; Bachrach-Lindström, Margareta; Lindström, Torbjörn; Nystrom, Fredrik H

    2012-10-01

    To prospectively evaluate the effects of resistance training combined with increased energy intake or protein-supplementation on lean body-mass, resting metabolic-rate (RMR) and cardiovascular risk factors. Twenty-four healthy males (aged 19-32 years) performed resistance exercise for 12 weeks aiming for at least 1 hour training-sessions 3 times a week. The participants were randomized to consume extra protein (33 g whey protein/day) or a meal of fast-food/day (1350 kcal, 41 g protein). Body-composition was measured with Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) and RMR by indirect calorimetry. Fasting blood samples were drawn before and after the 3-month training period and after 12 months. The body weight increased from 75.1 ± 6.9 kg to 78.7 ± 7.2 kg (p Fasting serum-insulin levels increased in the fast-food group compared with the extra-protein group (p = 0.03). ApoB increased from 0.691 ± 0.14 g/L to 0.768 ± 0.17 g/L, p = 0.004, in the fast-food group only. Long-term follow up after 12 months showed that RMR, body weight, total fat and lean body-masses did not differ from baseline (n = 19). Resistance training for 12 weeks increased RMR and lean body-mass similarly when based on either an increased energy-intake or protein supplement. However, the increase in RMR was higher than expected from the increase in lean body-mass. Thus resistance training could potentially decrease the risk of obesity by induction of increased RMR.

  2. Effects of Flavonoids from Food and Dietary Supplements on Glial and Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Vidak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin, catechins and proanthocyanidins are flavonoids that are prominently featured in foodstuffs and dietary supplements, and may possess anti-carcinogenic activity. Glioblastoma multiforme is the most dangerous form of glioma, a malignancy of the brain connective tissue. This review assesses molecular structures of these flavonoids, their importance as components of diet and dietary supplements, their bioavailability and ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, their reported beneficial health effects, and their effects on non-malignant glial as well as glioblastoma tumor cells. The reviewed flavonoids appear to protect glial cells via reduction of oxidative stress, while some also attenuate glutamate-induced excitotoxicity and reduce neuroinflammation. Most of the reviewed flavonoids inhibit proliferation of glioblastoma cells and induce their death. Moreover, some of them inhibit pro-oncogene signaling pathways and intensify the effect of conventional anti-cancer therapies. However, most of these anti-glioblastoma effects have only been observed in vitro or in animal models. Due to limited ability of the reviewed flavonoids to access the brain, their normal dietary intake is likely insufficient to produce significant anti-cancer effects in this organ, and supplementation is needed.

  3. Successful development of satiety enhancing food products: towards a multidisciplinary agenda of research challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Zondervan, C.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in societies worldwide, enhancing the satiating capacity of foods may help people control their energy intake and weight. This requires an integrated approach between various food related disciplines. By structuring this approach

  4. Nutravigilance: principles and practices to enhance adverse event reporting in the dietary supplement and natural products industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Stephen M; Lopez, Hector L; MacKay, Douglas

    2014-03-01

    Nutravigilance is defined as "the science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects related to the use of a food, dietary supplement, or medical food". The nutravigilance approach is derived from well-defined principles of pharmacovigilance in the drug and biologics industries, which have been developed and refined over a number of years through expert recommendations. While the primary purpose of nutravigilance is to protect customer/patient safety, it also serves to reduce product liability risks for manufacturers and marketing agents of such products. Compliance with the current FDA adverse event reporting requirements is suboptimal, and FDA oversight and enforcement activities have recently increased. In order to better protect customer and product safety, dietary supplement manufacturers must significantly change their current approach, and demonstrate a proactive, systematic, risk-based, scientific approach to product safety, similar to one utilized successfully in the pharmaceutical industry. While this article focuses on FDA regulations, the principles are widely relevant to the supplement industry in the rest of the world.

  5. Enhanced evaluation data initiates a collaborative out-of-school time food sponsors work group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin, Robin; Williams, Lauren A; Grode, Gabrielle M; Roberts-Johnson, Wendy-Anne

    2015-01-01

    Philadelphia's Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities Out-of-School Time (OST) Initiative led by the Health Promotion Council developed 10 Healthy Living Guidelines for Out-of-School Time Programs to support a healthy environment for Philadelphia youth in 200 OST programs. Health Promotion Council participated in an enhanced cross-site evaluation with the national Robert Wood Johnson Foundation evaluator during the final year of funding to learn more about food and nutrition in the OST setting, and to share data and engage the OST food providers. A plate waste study measured the quantity and nutrition composition of meals served to youth compared to food not eaten. Staff interviews measured program adherence to the Healthy Living Guidelines, along with other facets of the food environment in 7 Philadelphia OST programs. Online surveys were sent to OST programs. Food providers (sponsors) were interviewed using Appreciative Inquiry methodology to gain insight into systems, goals, and common interests. Aggregated plate waste data from 7 observations showed an average of 42% of the food uneaten after meal/snack consumption, and high sodium content of the meals. Twenty-nine staff at OST programs completed the online survey, and 3 food sponsors were interviewed. Recommendations to improve the food included increasing variety, offering more salads, fruits and vegetables, and culturally appropriate foods. Food sponsor interviews showed a variety of meal production, distribution, service and training systems, and an interest in working together. The food sponsors met to review the data and prioritized common goals. They continue to work together to improve systems and meals for food service. A food sponsors work group formed and continues as a result of sharing enhanced cross-site data about food in OST settings. Food sponsors continue to work together to improve systems and nutritional offerings for Philadelphia OST programs.

  6. The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsen, Monica H; Halvorsen, Bente L; Holte, Kari; B?hn, Siv K; Dragland, Steinar; Sampson, Laura; Willey, Carol; Senoo, Haruki; Umezono, Yuko; Sanada, Chiho; Barikmo, Ingrid; Berhe, Nega; Willett, Walter C; Phillips, Katherine M; Jacobs, David R

    2010-01-01

    Background A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs...

  7. Animal rights and welfare advocacy for enhanced food security in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tropical conditions of the Nigerian environment favours domestic and wild animal production. It, therefore, not only offers ample investment opportunities in the livestock sub-sector of the economy, but also guarantees food security for the nation. This study examined basic animal welfare rights, and ascertained selected ...

  8. Contribution of microfinance in enhancing food access and coping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 17, No 3 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Managing climatic risks for enhanced food security: Key information capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balaghi, R.; Badjeck, M.C.; Bakari, D.; Pauw, de E.D.; Wit, de A.J.W.; Defourny, P.; Donato, S.; Gommes, R.; Jlibene, M.; Ravelo, A.C.; Sivakumar, M.V.K.; Telahigue, N.; Tychon, B.

    2010-01-01

    Food security is expected to face increasing challenges from climatic risks that are more and more exacerbated by climate change, especially in the developing world. This document lists some of the main capabilities that have been recently developed, especially in the area of operational

  10. The use of Stationary Phase Optimized Selectivity Liquid Chromatography for the development of herbal fingerprints to detect targeted plants in plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Djiogo, C A Sokeng; Kamugisha, A; Courselle, P

    2017-08-01

    The consumption of plant food supplements is increasing steadily and more and more, these products are bought through internet. Often the products sold through internet are not registered or declared with a national authority, meaning that no or minimal quality control is performed and that they could contain herbs or plants that are regulated. Stationary Phase Optimized Selectivity Liquid Chromatography (SOS-LC) was evaluated for the development of specific fingerprints, to be used for the detection of targeted plants in plant food supplements. Three commonly used plants in plant food supplements and two regulated plants were used to develop fingerprints with SOS-LC. It was shown that for all plants specific fingerprints could be obtained, allowing the detection of these targeted plants in triturations with different herbal matrices as well as in real samples of suspicious supplements seized by the authorities. For three of the five plants a more specific fingerprint was obtained, compared to the ones developed on traditional columns described in literature. It could therefore be concluded that the combination of segments of different types of stationary phases, as used in SOS-LC, has the potential of becoming a valuable tool in the quality control and the identification of crude herbal or plant material and in the detection of regulated plants in plant food supplements or other herbal preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nutritional status of children after a food-supplementation program integrated with routine health care through mobile clinics in migrant communities in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Kavita; Marein-Efron, Gabriela; Huang, Shirley; O'Hare, Geraldine; Finalle, Rodney; Shah, Samir S

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare acute and chronic undernutrition rates before and after the introduction of a food-supplementation program as an adjunct to routine health care for children of migrant workers in the Dominican Republic. The cross-sectional study was conducted in five rural communities in the Dominican Republic. Children 18 years and younger were eligible if they received routine health care from local mobile clinics. Data were obtained before (2005) and after (2006) initiation of a food-supplementation program. chi(2) or Fisher exact tests were used for analysis. Among 175 children in 2005, 52% were female, and 59% were supplementation program. Rates of chronic undernutrition decreased from 33% to 18% after the initiation of the food-supplementation program (P = 0.003). Food supplementation in the context of routine health-care visits improved the nutritional status of children, and it warrants further exploration as a way to reduce childhood undernutrition in resource-scarce areas.

  12. Oral supplementation with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 8481 enhances systemic immunity in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro-García, Marco Antonio; Alonso-Arias, Rebeca; Baltadjieva, Maria; Fernández Benítez, Carlos; Fernández Barrial, Manuel Amadeo; Díaz Ruisánchez, Enrique; Alonso Santos, Ricardo; Alvarez Sánchez, Magdalena; Saavedra Miján, Juan; López-Larrea, Carlos

    2013-08-01

    Throughout life, there is an aging of the immune system that causes impairment of its defense capability. Prevention or delay of this deterioration is considered crucial to maintain general health and increase longevity. We evaluated whether dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 8481 could enhance the immune response in the elderly. This multi-center, double-blind, and placebo controlled study enrolled 61 elderly volunteers who were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or probiotics. Each capsule of probiotics contained at least 3 × 10(7)  L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 8481. Individuals in the study were administered three capsules per day for 6 months. Blood samples were obtained at baseline (time 0), end of month 3, and month 6. We characterized cell subpopulations, measured cytokines by flow cytometry, quantified T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) by real-time PCR (RT-PCR), and determined human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2) concentrations and human cytomegalovirus (CMV) titers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Elderly responded to the intake of probiotic with an increase in the percentage of NK cells, an improvement in the parameters defining the immune risk profile (IRP), and an increase in the T cell subsets that are less differentiated. The probiotic group also showed decreased concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 but increased antimicrobial peptide hBD-2. These effects disappeared within 6 months of stopping the probiotic intake. Immunomodulation induced by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 8481 could favor the maintenance of an adequate immune response, mainly by slowing the aging of the T cell subpopulations and increasing the number of immature T cells which are potential responders to new antigens.

  13. Compendium of botanicals reported to contain naturally occuring substances of possible concern for human health when used in food and food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kirsten

    In April 2009, EFSA published on its website a Compendium of botanicals reported to contain toxic, addictive, psychotropic or other substances of concern. The purpose of the Compendium is to assist risk assessors responsible for the evaluation of specific ingredients in food supplements, in more...... easily identifying the compound(s) of concern on which to focus the assessment. The Scientific Committee worked on a second version of that Compendium between January 2010 and February 2012, considering botanicals that appear on a negative list or subject to restricted use (e.g. max. level or certain...... parts allowed only) in at least one European Member State. Two annexes have been added compared to the first version; the first one lists botanicals for which not enough information on possible substances of concern could be found, or for which the information present could not be verified. The second...

  14. Zinc Bioavailability from Phytate-Rich Foods and Zinc Supplements. Modeling the Effects of Food Components with Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Sulfur Donor Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif H

    2017-10-04

    Aqueous solubility of zinc phytate (K sp = (2.6 ± 0.2) × 10 -47 mol 7 /L 7 ), essential for zinc bioavailability from plant foods, was found to decrease with increasing temperature corresponding to ΔH dis of -301 ± 22 kJ/mol and ΔS dis of -1901 ± 72 J/(mol K). Binding of zinc to phytate was found to be exothermic for the stronger binding site and endothermic for the weaker binding site. The solubility of the slightly soluble zinc citrate and insoluble zinc phytate was found to be considerably enhanced by the food components with oxygen donor, nitrogen donor, and sulfur donor ligands. The driving force for the enhanced solubility is mainly due to the complex formation between zinc and the investigated food components rather than ligand exchange and ternary complex formation as revealed by quantum mechanical calculations and isothermal titration calorimetry. Histidine and citrate are promising ligands for improving zinc absorption from phytate-rich foods.

  15. Participants' comments on changes in the revised special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children food packages: the Maryland food preference study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Hurley, Kristen M; Oberlander, Sarah E; Hager, Erin R; McGill, Adrienne E; White, Nneka T; Quigg, Anna M

    2009-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommended changes in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food packages to help families from diverse populations establish more healthful dietary patterns. A cross-sectional study conducted during summer 2007 included interviews and focus groups with 223 WIC participants throughout Maryland. The objectives were to examine participants' responses to food package changes, to identify racial/ethnic differences, and to assess costs. All participants (100%) consumed fruits and vegetables. They preferred fresh for taste, but many endorsed canned and frozen for convenience and cost. Most women (56%) and children (69%) consumed whole milk and did not want reduced-fat milk. Few participants (13%) consumed soy products and most were uninterested in future consumption. Participants endorsed whole-wheat bread as more healthful and reported that they (59%) and their children (51%) would increase consumption if provided by WIC. Non-Hispanic participants preferred peanut butter over beans, Hispanic participants reported that they (44%) and their children (57%) would consume more beans (substituting for peanut butter) if provided by WIC. There were few differences in preferences between African-American and white participants. Hispanics differed from non-Hispanics in preference for beans and dislike of frozen and canned vegetables, suggesting the importance of choices. The proposed food packages were cost-neutral, except when extensive substitutions with soy products were allowed. By providing fruits and vegetables, reduced-fat options, and increased opportunities for nutrition education, the revised food packages may reduce the risk of obesity among low-income women, infants, and children.

  16. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Sangwan, Naseer; Stefka, Andrew T; Nocerino, Rita; Paparo, Lorella; Aitoro, Rosita; Calignano, Antonio; Khan, Aly A; Gilbert, Jack A; Nagler, Cathryn R

    2016-03-01

    Dietary intervention with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHCF+LGG) accelerates tolerance acquisition in infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA). We examined whether this effect is attributable, at least in part, to an influence on the gut microbiota. Fecal samples from healthy controls (n=20) and from CMA infants (n=19) before and after treatment with EHCF with (n=12) and without (n=7) supplementation with LGG were compared by 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic unit clustering and oligotyping. Differential feature selection and generalized linear model fitting revealed that the CMA infants have a diverse gut microbial community structure dominated by Lachnospiraceae (20.5±9.7%) and Ruminococcaceae (16.2±9.1%). Blautia, Roseburia and Coprococcus were significantly enriched following treatment with EHCF and LGG, but only one genus, Oscillospira, was significantly different between infants that became tolerant and those that remained allergic. However, most tolerant infants showed a significant increase in fecal butyrate levels, and those taxa that were significantly enriched in these samples, Blautia and Roseburia, exhibited specific strain-level demarcations between tolerant and allergic infants. Our data suggest that EHCF+LGG promotes tolerance in infants with CMA, in part, by influencing the strain-level bacterial community structure of the infant gut.

  17. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) and yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) in combination with silymarin as food supplements: in vivo safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentová, Katerina; Stejskal, David; Bartek, Josef; Dvorácková, Svatava; Kren, Vladimír; Ulrichová, Jitka; Simánek, Vilím

    2008-03-01

    Yacon and maca are native Andean crops with growing popularity as food supplements often in combination with other components, e.g. silymarin. There are however no published data on their toxicity and safety in humans. The aim of our randomized placebo-controlled 90-day study was to evaluate the effects of yacon and maca in combination with silymarin on plasma and lipoprotein lipids, serum glucose and safety parameters in patients suffering from the metabolic syndrome. No adverse effects were found in volunteers using silymarin (0.8 g/day), silymarin+yacon (0.8+2.4 g/day) and silymarin+maca (0.6+0.2 g/day). A moderate AST level and diastolic blood pressure increase was found in volunteers using maca (0.6 g/day). In conclusion, the combination silymarin+yacon appears to be promising as a nutraceutical in the prevention of diseases with a proatherogenic lipoprotein profile and liver steatosis. The effect of maca on AST level and blood pressure must be considered when using high doses of maca powder. This effect could be reversed by supplementation with silymarin.

  18. Effect of magnesium ion supplementation on obesity and diabetes mellitus in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats under excessive food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa

    2013-01-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have found that magnesium ion (Mg²⁺) is related to obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there have been almost no reports on the effects of a combination of excessive food intake and Mg²⁺ supplementation on metabolic syndrome and various blood tests values for diabetes mellitus. In this study, we investigated changes in body weight and blood test values for diabetes mellitus of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a model for human type 2 diabetes mellitus via metabolic syndrome, under conditions of combined excessive food intake and Mg²⁺ supplementation. The rats received Mg²⁺ supplementation by drinking magnesium water (Mg²⁺; 200 mg/l). No significant differences were observed in the levels of food or water intake between OLETF rats drinking purified water (PW) or magnesium water (MW). Type 2 diabetes mellitus with metabolic syndrome developed at 30 weeks of age, and the body weights and plasma insulin levels of OLETF rats at 60 weeks of age were lower than those of normal rats. The plasma glucose (PG) levels in 38-week-old OLETF rats drinking MW were significantly lower than in those of rats drinking PW, while the body weights and the levels of triglycerides (TG) and insulin of 38-week-old MW-drinking OLETF rats were significantly higher than those of their PW-drinking counterparts. On the other hand, the decreases in body weight and insulin levels in 60-week-old OLETF rats were suppressed by MW supplementation. The present study demonstrates that Mg²⁺ supplementation delays the development of diabetes mellitus in OLETF rats under conditions of excessive food intake. In addition, obesity and high blood TG levels were observed in OLETF rats receiving Mg²⁺ supplementation in conjunction with excessive food intake.

  19. Oral leucine supplementation is sensed by the brain but neither reduces food intake nor induces an anorectic pattern of gene expression in the hypothalamus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais T Zampieri

    Full Text Available Leucine activates the intracellular mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR pathway, and hypothalamic mTOR signaling regulates food intake. Although central infusion of leucine reduces food intake, it is still uncertain whether oral leucine supplementation is able to affect the hypothalamic circuits that control energy balance. We observed increased phosphorylation of p70s6k in the mouse hypothalamus after an acute oral gavage of leucine. We then assessed whether acute oral gavage of leucine induces the activation of neurons in several hypothalamic nuclei and in the brainstem. Leucine did not induce the expression of Fos in hypothalamic nuclei, but it increased the number of Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the area postrema. In addition, oral gavage of leucine acutely increased the 24 h food intake of mice. Nonetheless, chronic leucine supplementation in the drinking water did not change the food intake and the weight gain of ob/ob mice and of wild-type mice consuming a low- or a high-fat diet. We assessed the hypothalamic gene expression and observed that leucine supplementation increased the expression of enzymes (BCAT1, BCAT2 and BCKDK that metabolize branched-chain amino acids. Despite these effects, leucine supplementation did not induce an anorectic pattern of gene expression in the hypothalamus. In conclusion, our data show that the brain is able to sense oral leucine intake. However, the food intake is not modified by chronic oral leucine supplementation. These results question the possible efficacy of leucine supplementation as an appetite suppressant to treat obesity.

  20. Effects of a High Protein Food Supplement on Physical Activity, Motor Performance and Health Related Quality of Life of HIV Infected Botswana Children on Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malete, Leapetswe; Mokgatlhe, Lucky; Nnyepi, Maria; Jackson, Jose; Wen, Fujun; Bennink, Maurice; Anabwani, Gabriel; Makhanda, Jerry; Thior, Ibou; Lyoka, Philemon; Weatherspoon, Lorraine

    2017-01-01

    Despite existing evidence about the benefits of nutrition, physical activity (PA) and sport to the overall health and wellbeing of children, knowledge gaps remain on this relationship in children living with chronic conditions like HIV/AIDS. Such knowledge should inform context specific programs that could enhance the quality of life of children. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of integrating a nutrition intervention (culturally tailored food supplement) into antiretroviral therapy (ART) on psychosocial outcomes and physical activity among HIV-positive children in Botswana. 201 HIV-positive children (6-15 years; M = 9.44, SD = 2.40) were recruited and randomly assigned (stratified by age and gender) to two groups. The intervention group (n = 97) received a high protein (bean-sorghum plus micronutrients) food supplement, while the control group (n = 104) received a sorghum plus micronutrients supplement. Participants were followed over 12 months. Anthropometric measures, PA, motor performance, and health related quality of life (HRQL) were collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Mixed repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant time effect of the food supplement on target variables except body fat percentage, speed, and school functioning. Time × treatment interaction was found for physical functioning, psychosocial functioning and total quality of life score. Scores on physical functioning and total of quality life in the intervention group significantly increased from baseline to 6 months compared with the control group ( p = 0.015). A combination of ART and nutritional intervention had a positive effect on physical functioning and total quality of life of HIV-positive children in this study. There were also improvements to physical activity and motor performance tests over time. More research is needed on long term effects of nutrition and PA interventions on HRQL in children living with HIV.

  1. Supplementing the maternal diet of rats with butyrate enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in the skeletal muscles of weaned offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanping; Gao, Shixing; Jun, Guo; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal dietary butyrate supplementation on energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in offspring skeletal muscle and the possible mediating mechanisms. Virgin female rats were randomly assigned to either control or butyrate diets (1 % butyrate sodium) throughout gestation and lactation. At the end of lactation (21 d), the offspring were killed by exsanguination from the abdominal aorta under anaesthesia. The results showed that maternal butyrate supplementation throughout gestation and lactation did not affect offspring body weight. However, the protein expressions of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPR) 43 and 41 were significantly enhanced in offspring skeletal muscle of the maternal butyrate-supplemented group. The ATP content, most of mitochondrial DNA-encoded gene expressions, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 4 protein contents and the mitochondrial DNA copy number were significantly higher in the butyrate group than in the control group. Meanwhile, the protein expressions of type 1 myosin heavy chain, mitochondrial transcription factor A, PPAR-coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and uncoupling protein 3 were significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscle of the treatment group compared with the control group. These results indicate for the first time that maternal butyrate supplementation during the gestation and lactation periods influenced energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis through the GPR and PGC-1α pathways in offspring skeletal muscle at weaning.

  2. Data on screening and identification of genetically modified papaya in food supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Theo W.; Scholtens-Toma, Ingrid; Bak, Arno W.; Dijk, Van Jeroen P.; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M.; Laurensse, Emile J.; Kok, Esther J.

    2016-01-01

    This article contains data related to the research article entitled “A case study to determine the geographical origin of unknown GM papaya in routine food sample analysis, followed by identification of papaya events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4” (Prins et al., 2016) [1]. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) with

  3. 75 FR 74063 - Supplemental Funding Under the Food and Drug Administration's Convener of Active Medical Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... dissemination of Patient Medication Information (PMI). With this FOA, FDA proposes to further expand the scope... paragraphs. Patient Medication Information (PMI) To be able to use prescription medications safely, consumers... Guides. Such changes to the delivery of PMI may require changes to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics...

  4. Life history characteristics of Frankliniella occidentalis on cucumber leaves with and without supplemental food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, J.; Ketoja, E.; Vänninen, I.

    2003-01-01

    The development time, fecundity, longevity, and resultant intrinsic growth rate of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) [Thysanoptera: Thripidae] encaged on a cucumber leaf were compared among seven types of food supplied: six pollen species and a mixture of milk powder

  5. Enhancing Sustainable Food Cultures by Experience Based Learning in Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper

    The paper describes the results and niche forming methodology used in the commercial and in the R&D parts along the product-service chain of regional tourism. Obstacles and window of opportunities for further sustaining the tourism trade by enhancing the experience part of the business....

  6. Safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations used as ingredients in food supplements: testing an European Food Safety Authority-tiered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speijers, Gerrit; Bottex, Bernard; Dusemund, Birgit; Lugasi, Andrea; Tóth, Jaroslav; Amberg-Müller, Judith; Galli, Corrado L; Silano, Vittorio; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2010-02-01

    This article describes results obtained by testing the European Food Safety Authority-tiered guidance approach for safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food supplements. Main conclusions emerging are as follows. (i) Botanical ingredients must be identified by their scientific (binomial) name, in most cases down to the subspecies level or lower. (ii) Adequate characterization and description of the botanical parts and preparation methodology used is needed. Safety of a botanical ingredient cannot be assumed only relying on the long-term safe use of other preparations of the same botanical. (iii) Because of possible adulterations, misclassifications, replacements or falsifications, and restorations, establishment of adequate quality control is necessary. (iv) The strength of the evidence underlying concerns over a botanical ingredient should be included in the safety assessment. (v) The matrix effect should be taken into account in the safety assessment on a case-by-case basis. (vi) Adequate data and methods for appropriate exposure assessment are often missing. (vii) Safety regulations concerning toxic contaminants have to be complied with. The application of the guidance approach can result in the conclusion that safety can be presumed, that the botanical ingredient is of safety concern, or that further data are needed to assess safety.

  7. Effect of a micronutrient fortificant mixture and 2 amounts of calcium on iron and zinc absorption from a processed food supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Concepcion; Peerson, Janet M; Brown, Kenneth H; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2004-02-01

    Iron, zinc, and calcium can interact with each other in a way that inhibits their respective absorption. On the other hand, mineral fortification has been used to improve simultaneous iron and zinc absorption from food supplements. We evaluated the effect of a novel fortificant mixture consisting of NaFeEDTA, zinc methionine, ascorbic acid, and citric acid on iron and zinc absorption from a dry food supplement designed for preschool children. The standard food supplement contained cereal and legume flour, dried milk, and a mixture of micronutrients including ferrous sulfate and zinc sulfate as sources of supplemental iron and zinc, respectively. Standard and novel food products were prepared as porridge with or without the addition of 200 mg Ca as calcium phosphate. Iron absorption and zinc absorption from the food products were evaluated simultaneously in 13 nonpregnant, adult women by extrinsically labeling the products with radioisotopes of iron and zinc and carrying out whole-body counting 7 d after the food products were consumed in random order. The absorption of iron from the NaFeEDTA-containing (novel) food product was 1.7 times that from the ferrous sulfate-containing (standard) product (P = 0.015). There was no significant effect of dietary calcium on iron absorption. Zinc absorption was not associated with the form of zinc consumed, but higher dietary calcium was marginally associated with lower zinc absorption (P = 0.071). A mixture of fortificants containing NaFeEDTA, zinc sulfate or zinc methionine, ascorbic acid, and citric acid, but without calcium, can improve iron and zinc absorption from food products. A cost-benefit analysis of the novel fortificant mixture needs to be performed.

  8. Effects of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on child growth from birth to 54 months of age: a randomized trial in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Ashraful

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of information on the optimal timing of food supplementation to malnourished pregnant women and possible combined effects of food and multiple micronutrient supplementations (MMS on their offspring's growth. We evaluated the effects of prenatal food and micronutrient interventions on postnatal child growth. The hypothesis was that prenatal MMS and early invitation to food supplementation would increase physical growth in the offspring during 0-54 months and a combination of these interventions would further improve these outcomes. Methods In the large, randomized MINIMat trial (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab, Bangladesh, 4436 pregnant women were enrolled between November 2001 and October 2003 and their children were followed until March 2009. Participants were randomized into six groups comprising 30 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe30F, 60 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe60F or MMS combined with either an early (immediately after identification of pregnancy or a later usual (at the time of their choosing, i.e., usual care in this community program invitation to food supplementation. The anthropometry of 3267 children was followed from birth to 54 months, and 2735 children were available for analysis at 54 months. Results There were no differences in characteristics of mothers and households among the different intervention groups. The average birth weight was 2694 g and birth length was 47.7 cm, with no difference among intervention groups. Early invitation to food supplementation (in comparison with usual invitation reduced the proportion of stunting from early infancy up to 54 months for boys (p = 0.01, but not for girls (p = 0.31. MMS resulted in more stunting than standard Fe60F (p = 0.02. There was no interaction between the food and micronutrient supplementation on the growth outcome. Conclusions Early food supplementation in pregnancy reduced the occurrence of stunting during 0

  9. Effect of increasing dietary calcium through supplements and dairy food on body weight and body composition: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alison O; Huggins, Catherine E; Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-10-14

    This meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials assessed the effect of Ca on body weight and body composition through supplementation or increasing dairy food intake. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria (including fifty-one trial arms; thirty-one with dairy foods (n 2091), twenty with Ca supplements (n 2711). Ca intake was approximately 900 mg/d higher in the supplement groups compared with control. In the dairy group, Ca intake was approximately 1300 mg/d. Ca supplementation did not significantly affect body weight (mean change ( - 0·17, 95% CI - 0·70, 0·37) kg) or body fat (mean change ( - 0·19, 95% CI - 0·51, 0·13) kg) compared to control. Similarly, increased dairy food intake did not affect body weight ( - 0·06, 95% CI - 0·54, 0·43) kg or body fat change ( - 0·36, 95% CI - 0·80, 0·09) kg compared to control. Sub-analyses revealed that dairy supplementation resulted in no change in body weight (nineteen studies, n 1010) ( - 0·32, 95% CI - 0·93, 0·30 kg, P= 0·31), but a greater reduction in body fat (thirteen studies, n 564) ( - 0·96, 95% CI - 1·46, - 0·46 kg, P weight reduction strategy in adults. There is, however, an indication that approximately 3 servings of dairy may facilitate fat loss on weight reduction diets in the short term.

  10. Impact of Food Rations and Supplements on Micronutrient Status by Trimester of Pregnancy: Cross-Sectional Studies in the Maela Refugee Camp in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Stuetz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient fortified flour (MFF, supplementary food rations and micronutrient (MN supplements may prevent deficiencies among pregnant women. Objectives of cross-sectional surveys in 2004 (n = 533 and 2006 (n = 515 were to assess the impact of new food rations (flour, oil and supplements on MN status by trimester of pregnancy in the Maela refugee camp. Hemoglobin, iron status, zinc, retinol, β-carotene and tryptophan decreased, while α-/γ-tocopherol and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF increased from first to third trimester. In 2006, mean zinc and α-tocopherol for each trimester was significantly higher than in 2004. The weeks of supplemented thiamine and folic acid were positively correlated with thiamine diphosphate (TDP and 5-MTHF, but not for ferrous sulfate as iron deficiency was observed in 38.5% of third-trimester women. Frequent consumption of fish paste and owning a garden or animal were associated with significantly higher iron status, retinol, β-carotene, and 5-MTHF. In conclusion, MFF and supplementary oil were most likely to explain improved zinc and α-tocopherol status, while thiamine and folate supplements ensured high TDP and 5-MTHF in late pregnancy. MN supplements, MN-rich staple food, small gardens, and programs to improve iron compliance are promising strategies to prevent MN deficiencies during pregnancy in vulnerable populations.

  11. Dietary L-arginine supplementation enhances intestinal development and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in weanling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kang; Guan, Shu; Li, Tiejun; Huang, Ruilin; Wu, Guoyao; Ruan, Zheng; Yin, Yulong

    2011-03-01

    Oral administration of L-arginine has been reported to prevent gut disease in human infants. However, little is known about the effects of dietary arginine supplementation on intestinal development of weaned piglets. In the present study, twenty 21-d-old castrated piglets with 5·3 (SEM 0·13) kg body weight (BW) were weaned from sows, individually housed and randomly assigned to one of the two maize- and soyabean meal-based diets supplemented with 0 or 1% L-arginine. After consuming the diets for 7 d, six pigs were randomly selected from each group to obtain various tissues. Compared with control pigs, dietary supplementation with 1% L-arginine did not affect feed intake but enhanced (Psupplemented piglets was 21, 28 and 25% greater (Psupplementation increased (Psupplementation with 1% L-arginine increased (Psupplementation enhances intestinal growth, development and expression of VEGF in early-weaned pigs fed a maize- and soyabean meal-based diet. The findings may have important implications for neonatal pigs under stressful or diseased conditions.

  12. Arachidonic acid supplementation enhances in vitro skeletal muscle cell growth via a COX-2-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markworth, James F; Cameron-Smith, David

    2013-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is the metabolic precursor to a diverse range of downstream bioactive lipid mediators. A positive or negative influence of individual eicosanoid species [e.g., prostaglandins (PGs), leukotrienes, and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids] has been implicated in skeletal muscle cell growth and development. The collective role of AA-derived metabolites in physiological states of skeletal muscle growth/atrophy remains unclear. The present study aimed to determine the direct effect of free AA supplementation and subsequent eicosanoid biosynthesis on skeletal myocyte growth in vitro. C2C12 (mouse) skeletal myocytes induced to differentiate with supplemental AA exhibited dose-dependent increases in the size, myonuclear content, and protein accretion of developing myotubes, independent of changes in cell density or the rate/extent of myogenic differentiation. Nonselective (indomethacin) or cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2)-selective (NS-398) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs blunted basal myogenesis, an effect that was amplified in the presence of supplemental free AA substrate. The stimulatory effects of AA persisted in preexisting myotubes via a COX-2-dependent (NS-389-sensitive) pathway, specifically implying dependency on downstream PG biosynthesis. AA-stimulated growth was associated with markedly increased secretion of PGF(2α) and PGE(2); however, incubation of myocytes with PG-rich conditioned medium failed to mimic the effects of direct AA supplementation. In vitro AA supplementation stimulates PG release and skeletal muscle cell hypertrophy via a COX-2-dependent pathway.

  13. Fish oil versus arachis oil food supplementation in relation to pregnancy duration in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1990-01-01

    fatty acids and lower levels of n-6 fatty acids in maternal and fetal tissues at delivery. FO-rats had a longer average gestational age than AO-rats (p ... may be related to the lower maternal weight gain during pregnancy and the lower food consumption observed in FO-rats (p 0.1). The findings are compatible with the hypothesis that gestational age...

  14. How food cues can enhance and inhibit motivation to obtain and consume food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colagiuri, Ben; Lovibond, Peter F

    2015-01-01

    Learning may play an important role in over-eating. One example is Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT), whereby reward cues facilitate responding to obtain that reward. Whilst there is increasing research indicating PIT for food in humans, these studies have exclusively tested PIT under instrumental extinction (i.e. when the food is no longer available), which may reduce their ecological validity. To address this, we conducted two experiments exploring PIT for food in humans when tested under instrumental reinforcement. Participants first underwent Pavlovian discrimination training with an auditory cue paired with a chocolate reward (CS+) and another auditory cue unpaired (CS-). In instrumental training participants learnt to press a button to receive the chocolate reward on a VR10 schedule. In the test phase, each CS was presented whilst participants maintained the opportunity to press the button to receive chocolate. In Experiment 1, the PIT test was implemented after up to 20 min of instrumental training (satiation) whereas in Experiment 2 it was implemented after only 4 min of instrumental training. In both experiments there was evidence for differential PIT, but the pattern differed according to the rate of responding at the time of the PIT test. In low baseline responders the CS+ facilitated both button press responding and consumption, whereas in high baseline responders the CS- suppressed responding. These findings suggest that both excitatory and inhibitory associations may be learnt during PIT training and that the expression of these associations depends on motivation levels at the time the cues are encountered. Particularly concerning is that a food-paired cue can elicit increased motivation to obtain and consume food even when the participant is highly satiated and no longer actively seeking food, as this may be one mechanism by which over-consumption is maintained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Social Media as a Supplement to Face-to-Face Education: The Perspectives of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program Paraprofessionals and Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Sarah R.; Harrison, Judy A.; da Silva, Vanessa R.

    2016-01-01

    Using social media is an inexpensive, innovative approach to supplementing direct education provided by the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP). Focus group research was conducted with EFNEP paraprofessionals (n = 33) and participants (n = 39) to inform the development of a social media presence for the program. Although…

  16. A review of the experimental approaches used in clinical studies to evaluate the health benefits of plant food supplements associated with infectious diseases

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Dashnie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to evaluate the experimental approaches used in clinical trials to support the benefit claims of plant food supplements (PFS) with reported activity on infectious diseases. A literature search was conducted on a list...

  17. Review of the experimental approaches used in clinical studies to evaluate the health benefits of plant food supplements associated with infectious diseases

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Dashnie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to evaluate the experimental approaches used in clinical trials to support the benefit claims of plant food supplements (PFS) with reported activity on infectious diseases. A literature search was conducted on a list...

  18. Health risks related to illegal and on-line sale of drugs and food supplements: results of a survey on marketed products in Italy from 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiano, Maria Cristina; Manna, Livia; Bartolomei, Monica; Rodomonte, Andrea Luca; Bertocchi, Paola; Antoniella, Eleonora; Romanini, Laura; Alimonti, Stefano; Rufini, Leandro; Valvo, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    The increasing illegal and on-line market of medicines and food supplements is helping the widespread diffusion of harmful counterfeit and forbidden products among consumers of developed countries. The objectives of this survey were the description of the main frauds recognized by public officers and the detection of illegal or counterfeit drugs and food supplements. Medicines and food supplements found by Police forces on the illegal market or resulting from seizures made by Italian Customs authorities were visually inspected and analysed to evaluate their quality and the presence of other undeclared substances. The visual inspection and the chemical analysis revealed unsuitable packaging (mostly lacking of adequate information for consumers), absence of the declared active substances and presence of undeclared active substances. Products containing doping agents, illegal substances and active ingredients requiring medical supervision were found. The present work confirmed the health risk associated with assumption of medicines purchased on the Internet and from the illegal supply chain and evidenced a new threat to consumer safety related to the presence of pharmaceutical active ingredients in food supplements claiming to contain only "natural ingredients".

  19. Oral Lutein Supplementation Enhances Macular Pigment Density and Contrast Sensitivity but Not in Combination With Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf-Schnurrbusch, Ute E K; Zinkernagel, Martin S; Munk, Marion R; Ebneter, Andreas; Wolf, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    It has been shown that lutein and zeaxanthin accumulate in the macula where they enhance contrast sensitivity and may reduce the risk of progression to advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Furthermore, omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) might further reduce this risk. However, controversy exists regarding whether PUFA may reduce the bioavailability of lutein. This was a prospective 12-month, randomized, open label study evaluating the effect of supplementation with lutein, other antioxidants, and minerals on contrast sensitivity (CS) and macular pigment optical density (MPOD) in patients with age-related maculopathy. A total of 79 patients were randomized to either lutein (10 mg) and antioxidant supplement or lutein and antioxidant supplement in combination with PUFA. Patients received supplementation for a period of 6 months and were followed for a total of 12 months. Serum lutein and zeaxanthin increased significantly by the first follow-up visit at 1 month, and remained elevated throughout the intervention period of 6 months in the lutein-only group but not in the lutein+PUFA group. Macular pigment optical density and CS increased significantly in the lutein-only group (P lutein+PUFA group (P = 0.059) compared to baseline. Best-corrected visual acuity remained unchanged during the entire study period in both groups. Addition of PUFA may reduce the bioavailability of lutein and therefore lessen the beneficial effect on macular pigment and CS. This needs to be considered when prescribing lutein supplements to patients with low lutein levels. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00563979.).

  20. Evolutionary engineering to enhance starter culture performance in food fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Herwig; Pronk, Jack T; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Teusink, Bas

    2015-04-01

    Microbial starter cultures are essential for consistent product quality and functional properties such as flavor, texture, pH or the alcohol content of various fermented foods. Strain improvement programs to achieve desired properties in starter cultures are diverse, but developments in next-generation sequencing lead to an increased interest in evolutionary engineering of desired phenotypes. We here discuss recent developments of strain selection protocols and how computational approaches can assist such experimental design. Furthermore the analysis of evolved phenotypes and possibilities with complex consortia are highlighted. Studies carried out with mainly yeast and lactic acid bacteria demonstrate the power of evolutionary engineering to deliver strains with novel phenotypes as well as insight into underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Creatine supplementation enhances muscle force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cribb Paul J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eccentric exercise-induced damage leads to reductions in muscle force, increased soreness, and impaired muscle function. Creatine monohydrate's (Cr ergogenic potential is well established; however few studies have directly examined the effects of Cr supplementation on recovery after damage. We examined the effects of Cr supplementation on muscle proteins and force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals. Methods Fourteen untrained male participants (22.1 ± 2.3 yrs, 173 ± 7.7 cm, 76.2 ± 9.3 kg were randomly separated into 2 supplement groups: i Cr and carbohydrate (Cr-CHO; n = 7; or ii carbohydrate (CHO; n = 7. Participants consumed their supplement for a period of 5 days prior to, and 14 days following a resistance exercise session. Participants performed 4 sets of 10 eccentric-only repetitions at 120% of their maximum concentric 1-RM on the leg press, leg extension and leg flexion exercise machine. Plasma creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity were assessed as relevant blood markers of muscle damage. Muscle strength was examined by voluntary isokinetic knee extension using a Cybex dynamometer. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05. Results The Cr-supplemented group had significantly greater isokinetic (10% higher and isometric (21% higher knee extension strength during recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage. Furthermore, plasma CK activity was significantly lower (by an average of 84% after 48 hrs (P Conclusion The major finding of this investigation was a significant improvement in the rate of recovery of knee extensor muscle function after Cr supplementation following injury.

  2. Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, Shawn M; Harrison, Mark A; Law, S Edward

    2011-01-01

    Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic

  3. Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, Shawn M; Harrison, Mark A [Food Science and Technology Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-2610 (United States); Law, S Edward, E-mail: edlaw@engr.uga.edu [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Applied Electrostatics Laboratory www.ael.engr.uga.edu, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-4435 (United States)

    2011-06-23

    Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic

  4. Do We Need Plant Food Supplements? A Critical Examination of Quality, Safety, Efficacy, and Necessity for a New Regulatory Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Tawab, Mona

    2017-12-08

    Given the expanding market of plant food supplements (PFSs) not undergoing any pre-marketing authorization, the overall quality, safety and efficacy of PFSs were subjected to a critical examination. Although many high-quality PFSs exist on the legal market, quality concerns are in general justified. Besides economic adulteration, active ingredients dramatically differing from label claims and among products were reported in several studies. In addition, PFSs sold via the Internet may be intentionally adulterated with undeclared prescription drugs. Compared to PFSs with only one single herb, PFSs containing herbal mixtures were more involved in moderate and severe clinical courses. Although prohibited by regulation, misleading labels on PFSs are common. Above all, only vague evidence for the efficacy of PFSs exists. Notwithstanding the unproven efficacy and insufficient safety assessment, PFSs represent a relevant source for consumers to get access to herbal preparations in the United States and meanwhile also in Europe, as launching of licensed/registered European herbal medicinal products (HMPs) has steadily decreased. However, being non-vitamin, non-mineral products, PFSs are neither food nor drugs. In terms of protecting public health and providing the consumer with high-quality, effective, and safe PFSs, possibilities are shown how to deal with the many challenges of PFSs. Last but not least, suggestions are made for assigning PFSs a separate regulatory category being less regulated compared to HMPs but more strictly regulated compared to food laws including implementation of good manufacturing practices and a scientific pre-marketing review process by an expert commission. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Introducing Urban Food Forestry: A Multifunctional Strategy for Enhancing Urban Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Clark, K.

    2012-12-01

    We propose combining elements of urban agriculture and urban forestry into what we call "urban food forestry" (UFF), the practice of growing perennial woody food-producing species ("food trees") in cities. We used four approaches at different scales to gauge the potential of UFF to enhance urban sustainability, in the context of trends including increasing urbanization, resource demands, and climate change. First, we analyzed 37 current international initiatives based around urban food trees, finding that core activities included planting, mapping, and harvesting food trees, but that only about a quarter of initiatives engaged in more than one of these activities necessary to fully utilize the food potential of urban trees. Second, we analyzed 30 urban forestry master plans, finding that only 13% included human food security among their objectives. Third, we used Burlington, Vermont as a case study to quantify the potential caloric output of publicly accessible open space if planted with Malus domestica (the common apple) under 9 different scenarios. We found that the entire caloric deficit of the very low food security population could be met on as few as 29 hectares (representing 16% of total open space), and that 98% of the daily recommended minimum intake of fruit for the entire city's population could be met under the most ambitious planting scenario. Finally, we developed a decision-making tool for selecting potential food trees appropriate for temperate urban environments, the Climate-Food-Species Matrix. We identified a total of 70 species, 30 of which we deemed "highly suitable" for urban food forestry based on their cold hardiness, drought tolerance, and edibility. We conclude that urban food forestry provides multiple pathways for building urban sustainability through local food production, and that our framework can be used to increase the coordination between and effectiveness of a growing number of related initiatives.

  6. Chromium supplementation enhances the metabolic response of steers to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of chromium (Cr; KemTRACE®brandChromiumProprionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) supplementation on the metabolic response to LPS challenge was examined. Steers (n=20; 235±4 kg body weight (BW)) received a premix that added 0 (Con) or 0.2 mg/kg Cr to the total diet (DM (dry matter) basis) for ...

  7. Chromium supplementation enhances the acute phase response of steers to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study examined the effect of chromium supplementation on the response of steers to an LPS challenge. Twenty crossbred steers (235±4 kg BW) received 0 ppb (Control; C) or 200 ppb chromium propionate (CHR) for 55 days. Steers were fitted with jugular catheters and rectal temperature (RT) recording...

  8. Enhancement of the acute phase response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in steers supplemented with chromium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study examined the effect of chromium supplementation on the response of steers to an LPS challenge. Twenty steers received a premix that added 0 (control) or 0.2 mg/kg of chromium (KemTRACE®brandChromiumProprionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) to the total diet on a dry matter basis for 55 d. Steer...

  9. Preoperative oral nutritional interventions in surgery, including arginine- and glutamine-enhanced supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkmann, S.J.H.; Buijs, N.; Luttikhold, J.; Mahdavian Delavary, B.; Niessen, F.B.; van Leeuwen, P.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The patients' condition prior to surgery is of major importance for clinical outcome. It is believed nowadays that artificial nutrition in the form of a preoperative drink may improve postoperative outcome. Until now, a clear overview concerning the effects of preoperative supplementation on

  10. Supplemental design requirements document enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage Phase V Project W-112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo, V.P.; Boothe, G.F.; Greager, T.M.; Johnson, K.D.; Kooiker, S.L.; Martin, J.D.

    1994-11-01

    This document provides additional and supplemental information to WHC-SD-W112-FDC-001, Project W-112 for radioactive and mixed waste storage. It provides additional requirements for the design and summarizes Westinghouse Hanford Company key design guidance and establishes the technical baseline agreements to be used for definitive design of the Project W-112 facilities.

  11. Supplemental design requirements document enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage Phase V Project W-112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocampo, V.P.; Boothe, G.F.; Greager, T.M.; Johnson, K.D.; Kooiker, S.L.; Martin, J.D.

    1994-11-01

    This document provides additional and supplemental information to WHC-SD-W112-FDC-001, Project W-112 for radioactive and mixed waste storage. It provides additional requirements for the design and summarizes Westinghouse Hanford Company key design guidance and establishes the technical baseline agreements to be used for definitive design of the Project W-112 facilities

  12. Data on screening and identification of genetically modified papaya in food supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo W. Prins

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contains data related to the research article entitled “A case study to determine the geographical origin of unknown GM papaya in routine food sample analysis, followed by identification of papaya events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4” (Prins et al., 2016 [1]. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR with targets that are putatively present in genetically modified (GM papaya was used as a first screening to narrow down the vast array of candidates. The combination of elements P-nos and nptII was further confirmed by amplification and subsequent sequencing of the P-nos/nptII construct. Next, presence of the candidate GM papayas 16-0-1 and 18-2-4 were investigated by amplification and sequencing of event-spanning regions on the left and right border. This data article reports the Cq values for GM elements, the nucleotide sequence of the P-nos/nptII construct and the presence of GM papaya events 18-2-4 and/or 16-0-1 in five samples that were randomly sampled to be analysed in the framework of the official Dutch GMO monitoring program for food.

  13. Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Whole Body Protein Metabolism and Performance Recovery after Resistance Exercise: A Double-Blind Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel W D; Abou Sawan, Sidney; Mazzulla, Michael; Williamson, Eric; Moore, Daniel R

    2017-07-11

    No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery of exercise performance during overnight (10 h) and 24 h recovery after whole body resistance exercise in trained men. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men (76 ± 8 kg, 24 ± 4 years old, 14% ± 5% body fat; means ± standard deviation (SD)) performed resistance exercise in the evening prior to consuming either 25 g of whey protein (PRO; MuscleTech 100% Whey) or an energy-matched placebo (CHO) immediately post-exercise (0 h), and again the following morning (~10 h of recovery). A third randomized trial, completed by the same participants, involving no exercise and no supplement served as a rested control trial (Rest). Participants ingested [ 15 N]glycine to determine whole body protein kinetics and net protein balance over 10 and 24 h of recovery. Performance was assessed pre-exercise and at 0, 10, and 24 h of recovery using a battery of tests. Net protein balance tended to improve in PRO ( P = 0.064; effect size (ES) = 0.61, PRO vs. CHO) during overnight recovery. Over 24 h, net balance was enhanced in PRO ( P = 0.036) but not in CHO ( P = 0.84; ES = 0.69, PRO vs. CHO), which was mediated primarily by a reduction in protein breakdown (PRO protein supplementation improved MVC (ES = 0.76), REP (ES = 0.44), and peak power (ES = 0.55). In conclusion, whey protein supplementation enhances whole body anabolism, and may improve acute recovery of exercise performance after a strenuous bout of resistance exercise.

  14. The Potential Role of Vitamin D Enhanced Foods in Improving Vitamin D Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Stepien

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Low vitamin D intake and status have been reported worldwide and many studies have suggested that this low status may be involved in the development of several chronic diseases. There are a limited number of natural dietary sources of vitamin D leading to a real need for alternatives to improve dietary intake. Enhancement of foods with vitamin D is a possible mode for ensuring increased consumption and thus improved vitamin D status. The present review examines studies investigating effects of vitamin D enhanced foods in humans and the feasibility of the approach is discussed.

  15. Enhanced Early Neuronal Processing of Food Pictures in Anorexia Nervosa: A Magnetoencephalography Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren R. Godier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies in Anorexia Nervosa (AN have shown increased activation in reward and cognitive control regions in response to food, and a behavioral attentional bias (AB towards food stimuli is reported. This study aimed to further investigate the neural processing of food using magnetoencephalography (MEG. Participants were 13 females with restricting-type AN, 14 females recovered from restricting-type AN, and 15 female healthy controls. MEG data was acquired whilst participants viewed high- and low-calorie food pictures. Attention was assessed with a reaction time task and eye tracking. Time-series analysis suggested increased neural activity in response to both calorie conditions in the AN groups, consistent with an early AB. Increased activity was observed at 150 ms in the current AN group. Neuronal activity at this latency was at normal level in the recovered group; however, this group exhibited enhanced activity at 320 ms after stimulus. Consistent with previous studies, analysis in source space and behavioral data suggested enhanced attention and cognitive control processes in response to food stimuli in AN. This may enable avoidance of salient food stimuli and maintenance of dietary restraint in AN. A later latency of increased activity in the recovered group may reflect a reversal of this avoidance, with source space and behavioral data indicating increased visual and cognitive processing of food stimuli.

  16. [Vitamin A and D status among child participants in a food supplementation program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihayashi, Aline Yukari; Augusto, Rosangela Aparecida; Escaldelai, Fernanda Martins Dias; Martini, Lígia Araújo

    2015-03-01

    Vitamin A and D serum concentrations and risk factors for their deficiencies were investigated in children participating in a government-sponsored fortified milk program. The study used multivariate linear regression analysis with hierarchical selection of independent variables: socio-demographic conditions, children's health, food consumption, breastfeeding, fortified milk, exposure to sunlight, anthropometric measurements, and serum concentration of retinol and 25(OH)D. Vitamin A and vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency values were defined as Vitamin A and D intake was inadequate. Prevalence rates for vitamin A and vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency were 19%, 6%, 82%, and 58%, respectively. Factors associated with low serum vitamin A were exclusive breastfeeding for less than 120 days, low maternal schooling, maternal unemployment, more consumers of fortified milk in the family, and low serum vitamin D. Factors associated with vitamin D deficiency were low exposure to sunlight and low serum vitamin A. Nutritional education is needed to improve children's nutritional status.

  17. 3D Late Gadolinium Enhancement in a Single Prolonged Breath-hold using Supplemental Oxygenation and Hyperventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roujol, Sébastien; Basha, Tamer A.; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Foppa, Murilo; Chan, Raymond H.; Kissinger, Kraig V.; Goddu, Beth; Berg, Sophie; Manning, Warren J.; Nezafat, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of 3D single breath-hold late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) of the left ventricle (LV) using supplemental oxygen and hyperventilation and compressed-sensing acceleration. Methods: Breath-hold metrics (breath-hold duration, diaphragmatic/LV position drift, and maximum variation of RR interval) without and with supplemental oxygen and hyperventilation were assessed in healthy adult subjects using a real time single shot acquisition. Ten healthy subjects and 13 patients then underwent assessment of the proposed 3D breath-hold LGE acquisition (FOV=320×320×100 mm3, resolution=1.6×1.6×5.0 mm3, acceleration rate of 4) and a free breathing acquisition with right hemidiaphragm navigator (NAV) respiratory gating. Semi-quantitative grading of overall image quality, motion artifact, myocardial nulling, and diagnostic value was performed by consensus of two blinded observers. Results: Supplemental oxygenation and hyperventilation increased the breath-hold duration (35±11 s to 58±21 s, p0.01). LGE images were of similar quality when compared to free breathing acquisitions but with reduced total scan time (85±22 s to 35±6 s, pbreath-holding and enable single breath-hold 3D accelerated LGE with similar image quality as free breathing with NAV. PMID:24186772

  18. Vitamin C supplementation enhances compact morulae formation but reduces the hatching blastocyst rate of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Li-Jun; Zhang, Hui; Li, Rui-Zhe; Cui, Chen-Chen; Li, Wen-Zhe; Zhang, Yong; Jin, Ya-Ping

    2014-08-01

    Vitamin C, an antioxidant that reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells, is capable of significantly improving the developmental competence of porcine and mouse somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, the effects of vitamin C on the developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos were investigated. The results indicated that vitamin C (40 μg/mL) positively affected the scavenging of intracellular ROS, cleavage rate at 24 h (76.67 vs. 68.26%, pvitamin C supplementation did not significantly affect the blastocyst formation rate and proportion of inner cell mass over total cells per blastocyst on day 7. Moreover, vitamin C supplementation obviously impaired the total cell numbers per blastocyst (97.20 ± 11.35 vs. 88.57 ± 10.43, pVitamin C supplementation preferentially improved the viability of bovine SCNT embryos prior to the blastocyst stage, but did not enhance the formation and quality of blastocysts in vitro. In conclusion, the effect of vitamin C on the development of bovine SCNT embryos is complex, and vitamin C is not a suitable antioxidant chemical for the in vitro culture of bovine SCNT embryos.

  19. Dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide enhances neonatal immune responses in chickens during natural exposure to Eimeria spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Gerardo M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Control and eradication of intestinal infections caused by protozoa are important biomedical challenges worldwide. Prophylactic control of coccidiosis has been achieved with the use of anticoccidial drugs; however, the increase in anticoccidial resistance has raised concerns about the need for new alternatives for the control of coccidial infections. In fact, new strategies are needed to induce potent protective immune responses in neonatal individuals. Methods The effects of a dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide (yeast cell wall; YCW on the local, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and intestinal replication of coccidia were evaluated in a neonatal animal model during natural exposure to Eimeria spp. A total of 840 one-day-old chicks were distributed among four dietary regimens: A Control diet (no YCW plus anticoccidial vaccine; B Control diet plus coccidiostat; C YCW diet plus anticoccidial vaccination; and D YCW diet plus coccidiostat. Weight gain, feed consumption and immunological parameters were examined within the first seven weeks of life. Results Dietary supplementation of 0.05% of YCW increased local mucosal IgA secretions, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and reduced parasite excretion in feces. Conclusion Dietary supplementation of yeast cell wall in neonatal animals can enhance the immune response against coccidial infections. The present study reveals the potential of YCW as adjuvant for modulating mucosal immune responses.

  20. Dietary nucleotide supplementation enhances immune responses and survival to Streptococcus iniae in hybrid tilapia fed diet containing low fish meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yen Shiau

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of nucleotide (NT supplementation in diet on immune responses and disease resistance of juvenile hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis aureus. Nucleotide was added at 0, 120, 240, 360, 480 and 600 mg NT/kg to low fish meal (6% and high soybean meal (56% basal diet for a total of 6 experimental diets. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of tilapia (initial body weight 0.15 ± 0.005 g in a recirculated freshwater rearing system for 10 weeks. Head kidney leukocyte superoxide anion production ratio was higher (P 80% were observed in fish fed diets supplemented with NT than fish fed the NT unsupplemented control diet (56.7%. These results suggest that nucleotides supplemented at 120–240 mg NT/kg in diet enhances immune responses and survival of tilapia fed low fish meal and high soybean meal diet.

  1. Nutritional status and food intake in nine patients with chronic low-limb ulcers and pressure ulcers: importance of oral supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffoul, Wassim; Far, Majid Shahin; Cayeux, Marie-Christine; Berger, Mette M

    2006-01-01

    Chronic low-limb ulcers and pressure ulcers are a serious and costly issue. Malnutrition is a risk factor. Searching for intervention strategies in elderly patients referred for surgical closure of their ulcers, the trial aimed at investigating the micronutrient status, determining the food intake of such patients, and the role of oral liquid supplements. Observational cohort study in 9 patients, starting 5 days prior to surgery until day 10 after surgery. body mass index (BMI), food intake assessed using standardized meals (energy target 25 kcal/kg/day). Oral liquid supplements were provided between meals. Laboratory: blood count, plasma proteins, antioxidant status, vitamins, Fe, Se, and Zn. The patients were aged 71+/-10 y (mean+/-SD), with a BMI of 23.3+/-3.3. Baseline blood samples showed anemia and strong inflammation in 4 patients: albumin, retinol, and selenium were low; iron and zinc were very low. Food intake was largely variable and covered only about 76% (31-95%) of energy requirements. Breakfast provided 225+/-110, lunch 570+/-215, and dinner 405+/-150 kcal. Supplements were willingly consumed covering 35+/-12% of energy target. While vitamin supply was adequate, selenium and zinc requirements were not met. Most patients with chronic skin ulcers suffered micronutrient status alterations, and borderline malnutrition. Meals did not cover energy requirements, while oral supplements covered basic micronutrient requirements and compensated for insufficient oral energy and protein intakes, justifying their use in hospitalized elderly patients.

  2. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know Share Tweet Linkedin ... and nutrients you personally need. What are dietary supplements? Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, ...

  3. The impact of integrating food supplementation, nutritional education and HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) on the nutritional status of patients living with HIV/AIDS in Mozambique: results from the DREAM Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarcella, P; Buonomo, E; Zimba, I; Doro Altan, A M; Germano, P; Palombi, L; Marazzi, M C

    2011-01-01

    DREAM (Drug Resources Enhancement against AIDS and Malnutrition) is a multiregional health program active in Mozambique since 2002 and provides free of charge an integrating package of care consisting of peer to peer nutritional and health education, food supplementation, voluntary counseling and testing, immunological, virological, clinical assessment and HAART (Highly Active AntiRetroviral Treatment). The main goals of this paper are to describe the state of health and nutrition and the adequacy of the diet of a sample of HIV/AIDS patients in Mozambique on HAART and not. A single-arm retrospective cohort study was conducted. 106 HIV/AIDS adult patients (84 in HAART), all receiving food supplementation and peer-to-peer nutritional education, were randomly recruited in Mozambique in two public health centres where DREAM is running. The programme is characterized by: provision of HAART, clinical and laboratory monitoring, peer to peer health and nutritional education and food supplementation. We measured BMI, haemoglobin, viral load, CD4 count at baseline (T0) and after at least 1 year (T1). Dietary intake was estimated using 24h food recall and dietary diversity was assessed by using the Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) at T1. Overall, the patients'diet appeared to be quite balanced in nutrients. In the cohort not in HAART the mean BMI values showed an increases but not significant (initial value: 21.9 ± 2.9; final value: 22.5 ± 3.3 ) and the mean haemoglobin values (g/dl) showed a significant increases (initial value: 10.5+ 2.1; final value: 11.5 ± 1.7 pnutritional status improvement was observed in both cohorts. The improvement in BMI was significant and substantially higher in HAART patients because of the impact of HAART on nutritional status of AIDS patients. Subjects on HAART and with a DDS > 5, showed a substantial BMI gain. This association showed an additional expression of the synergic effect of integrating food supplementation, nutritional education and

  4. Effect of vitamin E intake from food and supplement sources on plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations in a healthy Irish adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Monahan, Frank J; McNulty, Breige A; Gibney, Mike J; Gibney, Eileen R

    2014-11-14

    Vitamin E is believed to play a preventive role in diseases associated with oxidative stress. The aims of the present study were to quantify vitamin E intake levels and plasma concentrations and to assess dietary vitamin E adequacy in Irish adults. Intake data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey were used; plasma samples were obtained from a representative cohort of survey participants. Plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations were measured by HPLC. The main sources of vitamin E in the diet were 'butter, spreadable fats and oils' and 'vegetables and vegetable dishes'. When vitamin E intake from supplements was taken into account, supplements were found to be the main contributor, making a contribution of 29·2 % to vitamin E intake in the total population. Supplement consumers had significantly higher plasma α-tocopherol concentrations and lower plasma γ-tocopherol concentrations when compared with non-consumers. Consumers of 'vitamin E' supplements had significantly higher vitamin E intake levels and plasma α-tocopherol concentrations compared with consumers of other types of supplements, such as multivitamin and fish oil. Comparison with the Institute of Medicine Estimated Average Requirement of 12 mg/d indicated that when vitamin E intake from food and supplement sources was taken into account, 100 % of the study participants achieved the recommended intake levels. When vitamin E intake from food sources was taken into account, only 68·4 % of the females were found to achieve the recommended intake levels compared with 99·2 % of the males. The results of the present study show that dietary vitamin E intake has a significant effect on plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations. Furthermore, they show that the consumption of supplements is a major contributor to overall intake and has a significant effect on plasma vitamin E concentrations in the Irish population.

  5. Organic trace mineral supplementation enhances local and systemic innate immune responses and modulates oxidative stress in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverry, H; Yitbarek, A; Munyaka, P; Alizadeh, M; Cleaver, A; Camelo-Jaimes, G; Wang, P; O, K; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C

    2016-03-01

    The effect of organic trace mineral supplementation on performance, intestinal morphology, immune organ weights (bursa of Fabricius and spleen), expression of innate immune response related genes, blood heterophils/lymphocytes ratio, chemical metabolic panel, natural antibodies (IgG), and oxidative stress of broiler chickens was studied. A total of 1,080 day-old male broilers were assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments, which included basal diet with Monensin (control), control diet supplemented with bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD), and BMD diet supplemented with organic trace minerals (OTM). No difference in feed conversion ratio was observed among treatments; ileum histomorphological analysis showed a lower crypt depth, higher villi height/crypt depth ratio, and lower villi width in the OTM treatment compared to control. Furthermore, OTM treatment resulted in higher uric acid and lower plasma malondehaldehyde (MDA), indicating lower oxidative stress. Gene expression analysis showed that OTM treatment resulted in up-regulations of TLR2 bin the ileum, and TLR2b, TLR4, and IL-12p35 in the bursa of Fabricius, and down-regulation of TLR2b and TLR4 in the cecal tonsils. In the spleen, OTM treatment resulted in up-regulation of IL-10. In conclusion, OTM supplementation to broiler diets may have beneficial effects on intestinal development, immune system status, and survival by improving ileum histomorphological parameters, modulation of Toll-like receptors and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and decreasing level of MDA, which in conjunction could enhance health status. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine between days 14 and 25 of gestation enhances embryonic development and survival in gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xilong; Bazer, Fuller W; Johnson, Gregory A; Burghardt, Robert C; Frank, James W; Dai, Zhaolai; Wang, Junjun; Wu, Zhenlong; Shinzato, Izuru; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-02-01

    Embryonic loss is a major problem in mammals, but there are few effective ways to prevent it. Using a porcine model, we determined effects of dietary L-arginine supplementation between days 14 and 25 of gestation on embryonic growth and survival. Gilts were checked daily for estrus with boars in the morning and bred at onset of the second estrus and 12 h later (the time of breeding = day 0 of gestation). Between days 14 and 25 of gestation, 15 gilts/treatment were housed individually and fed twice daily 1 kg of a corn- and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0.0, 0.4, or 0.8 % L-arginine. All diets were made isonitrogenous by addition of L-alanine. On day 25 of gestation, gilts were hysterectomized to obtain conceptuses. Compared with controls, dietary supplementation with 0.4 or 0.8 % L-arginine increased (P ≤ 0.05) arginine concentrations in maternal plasma, total volume of amniotic fluid; total amounts of arginine in allantoic and amniotic fluids; total amounts of fructose and most amino acids in amniotic fluid; placental growth; and the number of viable fetuses per litter by 2. The numbers of total fetuses, fetal weight, corpora lutea, volume of allantoic fluid, maternal circulating levels of progesterone and estrogen, or total amounts of hormones in allantoic fluid did not differ among the three treatment groups. Reproductive performance of gilts did not differ between the 0.4 and 0.8 % L-arginine groups. Thus, dietary supplementation with 0.4 or 0.8 % L-arginine between days 14 and 25 of gestation enhances embryonic/fetal survival in swine.

  7. L-Arginine supplementation in mice enhances NO production in spleen cells and inhibits Plasmodium yoelii transmission in mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li; Pan, Yanyan; Feng, Yonghui; Cui, Liwang; Cao, Yaming

    2015-06-14

    The life cycle of Plasmodium is complex, requiring invasion of two different hosts, humans and mosquitoes. In humans, initiation of an effective Th1 response during early infection is critical for the control of parasite multiplication. In mosquitoes, inhibition of the development of sexual-stage parasites interrupts the parasite transmission. In this study, we aim to investigate whether dietary supplementation of L-arginine (L-Arg) in mice affects Plasmodium yoelii 17XL (Py17XL) transmission in mosquitoes. BALB/c mice were orally administered with 1.5 mg/g L-Arg daily for 7 days and infected with Py17XL. The mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase 1 in spleen cells were determined by real-time RT-PCR. The amount of nitric oxide (NO) released by spleen cells in vitro was determined by the Griess method. The effect of L-Arg supplementation on subsequent development of P. yoelii gametocytes was evaluated by an in vitro ookinete culture assay and mosquito feeding assay. Pretreatment of mice with L-Arg significantly increased the transcript level of iNOS in spleen cells and the amount of NO synthesized. Dietary L-Arg supplementation also significantly reduced the number of zygotes and ookinetes formed during in vitro culture and the number of oocysts formed on mosquito midguts after blood feeding. L-Arg enhances host immunity against blood-stage parasites as well as suppressing subsequent parasite development in mosquitoes. L-Arg as an inexpensive and safe supplement may be used as a novel adjunct treatment against malarial infection.

  8. Adequacy of nutritional intake from food and supplements in a cohort of pregnant women in Québec, Canada: the 3D Cohort Study (Design, Develop, Discover).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Lise; Diasparra, Maikol; Bédard, Brigitte; Colapinto, Cynthia K; Fontaine-Bisson, Bénédicte; Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Tremblay, Richard E; Fraser, William D

    2017-08-01

    Background: Assessments of the dietary intakes in various populations suggest that pregnant women have difficulty meeting all their nutritional requirements through diet alone. Few large-scale studies have considered both food sources and supplements in assessing the adequacy of nutritional intakes during pregnancy. Objective: Our study aimed to assess nutritional intakes during pregnancy by examining dietary sources and supplements. It then compared these findings with Dietary Reference Intakes. Design: We conducted a nutrition study in a large pregnancy cohort using a 3-d food record during the second trimester of pregnancy. Detailed information about supplement consumption was obtained by interview at each prenatal visit. We estimated the distribution of total usual intakes for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients for 1533 pregnant women. Results: A third of the participants had total fat intakes that exceeded the Acceptable Micronutrient Distribution Range. A majority of women (85%) had sodium intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). Median intakes for fiber and potassium were lower than Adequate Intakes. Dietary intakes of vitamin B-6, magnesium, and zinc were below the Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) for 10-15% of the women. A majority of the women had dietary intakes below the EARs for iron (97%), vitamin D (96%), and folate (70%). When we considered micronutrient intakes from both food and supplements, we found that the prevalence of inadequate intake was food alone remains low in the diets of pregnant women. Supplement use reduces the risk of inadequate intake for many micronutrients, but diet-related issues during pregnancy remain and deserve to be addressed in public health interventions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03113331. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Carotenoid supplementation enhances reproductive success in captive strawberry poison frogs (Oophaga pumilio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Matthew B; Yeager, Justin; Richards-Zawacki, Corinne L

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians are currently experiencing the most severe declines in biodiversity of any vertebrate, and their requirements for successful reproduction are poorly understood. Here, we show that supplementing the diet of prey items (fruit flies) with carotenoids has strong positive effects on the reproduction of captive strawberry poison frogs (Oophaga pumilio), substantially increasing the number of metamorphs produced by pairs. This improved reproduction most likely arose via increases in the quality of both the fertilized eggs from which tadpoles develop and trophic eggs that are fed to tadpoles by mothers. Frogs in this colony had previously been diagnosed with a Vitamin A deficiency, and this supplementation may have resolved this issue. These results support growing evidence of the importance of carotenoids in vertebrate reproduction and highlight the nuanced ways in which nutrition constrains captive populations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Enhanced task related brain activation and resting perfusion in healthy older adults after chronic blueberry supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Bowtell, J.; Zainie, A.; Conway, M. E.; Adlam, A.; Fulford, J.

    2017-01-01

    Blueberries are rich in flavonoids, which possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. High flavonoid intakes attenuate age-related cognitive decline, but data from human intervention studies are sparse. We investigated whether 12 weeks of blueberry concentrate supplementation improved brain\\ud perfusion, task-related activation and cognitive function in healthy older adults. Participants were randomised to consume either 30 ml blueberry concentrate providing 387 mg anthocyanidins (5...

  11. Is long term creatine and glutamine supplementation effective in enhancing physical performance of military police officers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Celismar Lázaro; de Souza, Thiago Siqueira Paiva; Batista, Gilmário Ricarte; de Araújo, Adenilson Targino; da Silva, Júlio César Gomes; de Sousa, Maria do Socorro Cirilo; Marta, Carlos; Garrido, Nuno Domingo

    2014-09-29

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of supplementation with creatine and glutamine on physical fitness of military police officers. Therefore, an experimental double blind study was developed, with the final sample composed by 32 men randomly distributed into three groups: a group supplemented with creatine (n=10), glutamine (n=10) and a placebo group (n=12) and evaluated in three distinct moments, in an interval of three months (T1, T2 and T3). The physical training had a weekly frequency of 5 sessions × 90 min, including strength exercises, local muscular resistance, flexibility and both aerobic and anaerobic capacity. After analyzing the effect of time, group and interaction (group × time) for measures that indicated the physical capabilities of the subjects, a significant effect of time for the entire variable was identified (p0,05). In face of the results it was concluded that supplementation with creatine and glutamine showed no ergogenic effect on physical performance in military police officers.

  12. Enhancement of the nutritional value of whey drink by supplementing with leaves of moringa oleifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.; Hussain, I.; Abdullah, M.; Rehman, F.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of supplementing Moringa oleilera leaf powder (MOLP) on the nutritional and sensory characteristics of whey drink was investigated. Whey drink was supplemented with MOLP at four different concentrations i.e., 1% MOLP (TO, 2% MOLP (T.,), 3% MOLP (T,), 4% MOLP (1.4) and compared with a control (To). The addition of MOLP at any level did not have a negative effect on p11 and acidity of whey drink. Iron content of T, increased from 0.17 to 115 mg/100 mL, total phenolic content of MOLP was 7.4 g/100 g on dry weight basis (gallic acid). Vitamin C increased from 1.46 to 2.20 mg/100 g in -1.4. The overall acceptability score of T, was 6.9 out 9 (total score) which was more than 76%. These results suggest that nutritional value of whey can be increased by supplementing with 4% dry leaves of M. oleifera in the form of a whey based drink with acceptable sensory characteristics. (author)

  13. l-Arginine supplementation enhances antioxidant activity and erythrocyte integrity in sickle cell anaemia subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, M O; Ogungbemi, S I; Anigbogu, C N; Jaja, S I

    2015-09-01

    The effect of oral, low-dose l-arginine supplementation (1g/day for 6 weeks) on antioxidant activity, haematological parameters and osmotic fragility of red blood cells was investigated in sickle cell disease sufferers. Twenty eight sickle cell anaemia subjects were recruited for the study. Five millilitres of blood was withdrawn from an ante-cubital vein for the estimation of plasma arginine concentration ([R]), total antioxidant enzymes (TAE) activity, malondialdehyde concentration ([MDA]), RBC count, [Hb], PCV, MCHC, MCV, MCH, percent irreversibly sickled cells (%ISC)) and osmotic fragility of red blood cells in the subjects. l-arginine supplementation increased [R] (pSupplementation shifted the osmotic fragiligram to the right and reduced the concentrations of NaCl at which initial and complete lyses of erythrocytes occurred. Study showed that low-dose, oral l-arginine increased antioxidant activity, red blood cell resistance to osmotic lysis but reduced red cell density in SCD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary supplementation of milk fermented with probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum enhances systemic immune response and antioxidant capacity in aging mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rohit; Kapila, Rajeev; Kapasiya, Meena; Saliganti, Vamshi; Dass, Gulshan; Kapila, Suman

    2014-11-01

    Although probiotics are known to enhance the host immune response, their roles in modulating immunosenescence, resisting infection, and improving redox homeostasis during aging remain unclear. Therefore, the present study was devised in aging mice to assess the antiimmunosenescence potential from the consumption of milk that is fermented with probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum MTCC 5898 (LF). We hypothesized that probiotic supplementation would boost immunity, improve antioxidant capacity, and resist severity of pathogenic infection in aging mice. To test this hypothesis, during a trial period of 2 months, 16-month-old male Swiss mice were kept on 3 experimental diets: basal diet (BD), BD supplemented with skim milk, and BD supplemented with probiotic LF-fermented milk. A concurrent analysis of several immunosenescence markers that include neutrophil functions, interleukins profile, inflammation and antibody responses in the intestine as well as analysis of antioxidant enzymes in the liver and red blood cells was performed. Neutrophil respiratory burst enzymes and phagocytosis increased significantly in probiotic LF-fed groups, whereas no exacerbation in plasma levels of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 and tumor necrosis factor α was observed. Splenocytes registered increased interferon-γ but decreased interleukin 4 and interleukin 10 production, whereas humoral antibodies registered decreases in immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1)/IgG2a ratio and IgE levels in the probiotic-fed groups. Antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) in LF-fed groups showed increased activities, which were more pronounced in the liver than in red blood cell. An Escherichia coli-based infection model in aging mice was also designed to validate the protective attributes of LF. Administration of probiotic LF significantly reduced E coli population in organs (intestine, liver, spleen, and peritoneal fluid), as compared with control groups, by enhancing E coli

  15. Potential for Bacteriophage Endolysins to Supplement or Replace Antibiotics in Food Production and Clinical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Love

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There is growing concern about the emergence of bacterial strains showing resistance to all classes of antibiotics commonly used in human medicine. Despite the broad range of available antibiotics, bacterial resistance has been identified for every antimicrobial drug developed to date. Alarmingly, there is also an increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, rendering some patients effectively untreatable. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop alternatives to conventional antibiotics for use in the treatment of both humans and food-producing animals. Bacteriophage-encoded lytic enzymes (endolysins, which degrade the cell wall of the bacterial host to release progeny virions, are potential alternatives to antibiotics. Preliminary studies show that endolysins can disrupt the cell wall when applied exogenously, though this has so far proven more effective in Gram-positive bacteria compared with Gram-negative bacteria. Their potential for development is furthered by the prospect of bioengineering, and aided by the modular domain structure of many endolysins, which separates the binding and catalytic activities into distinct subunits. These subunits can be rearranged to create novel, chimeric enzymes with optimized functionality. Furthermore, there is evidence that the development of resistance to these enzymes may be more difficult compared with conventional antibiotics due to their targeting of highly conserved bonds.

  16. Focusing on food during lunch enhances lunch memory and decreases later snack intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Suzanne; Donohoe, Jessica E

    2011-08-01

    We investigated whether eating lunch mindfully, in contrast to eating with distractions or no particular focus, reduces later snack intake and if this is related to a measure of meal memory. The design was between-subjects with three conditions. Twenty-nine female undergraduate students either ate a fixed lunch while (1) focusing on the sensory characteristics of the food as they ate (food focus group), (2) reading a newspaper article about food (food thoughts control group) or (3) in the absence of any secondary task (neutral control group). Cookie intake later that afternoon was measured as well as rated vividness of memory of the lunch. Participants ate significantly fewer cookies in the food focus group than in both the food thoughts control group or the neutral control group. Rated appetite before the snack session was lower in the food focus group than in the other two groups and rated vividness of lunch memory was higher. Rated vividness of lunch memory was negatively correlated with snack intake. These results suggest that enhancing meal memory by paying attention to food while eating can reduce later intake and are consistent with the suggestion that memory plays an important role in appetite control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhanced anaerobic digestion of food waste by thermal and ozonation pretreatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariunbaatar, Javkhlan; Panico, Antonio; Frunzo, Luigi; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco

    2014-12-15

    Treatment of food waste by anaerobic digestion can lead to an energy production coupled to a reduction of the volume and greenhouse gas emissions from this waste type. According to EU Regulation EC1774/2002, food waste should be pasteurized/sterilized before or after anaerobic digestion. With respect to this regulation and also considering the slow kinetics of the anaerobic digestion process, thermal and chemical pretreatments of food waste prior to mesophilic anaerobic digestion were studied. A series of batch experiments to determine the biomethane potential of untreated as well as pretreated food waste was carried out. All tested conditions of both thermal and ozonation pretreatments resulted in an enhanced biomethane production. The kinetics of the anaerobic digestion process were, however, accelerated by thermal pretreatment at lower temperatures (food waste, was obtained with thermal pretreatment at 80 °C for 1.5 h. On the basis of net energy calculations, the enhanced biomethane production could cover the energy requirement of the thermal pretreatment. In contrast, the enhanced biomethane production with ozonation pretreatment is insufficient to supply the required energy for the ozonator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutritional Treatment for Inborn Errors of Metabolism: Indications, Regulations, and Availability of Medical Foods and Dietary Supplements Using Phenylketonuria as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Kathryn M.; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A.; Huntington, Kathleen L.

    2012-01-01

    Medical foods and dietary supplements are used to treat rare inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) identified through state-based universal newborn screening. These products are regulated under Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and dietary supplement statutes. The lack of harmony in terminology used to refer to medical foods and dietary supplements and the misuse of words that imply that FDA regulates these products as drugs have led to confusion. These products are expensive and, although they are used for medical treatment of IEM, third-party payer coverage of these products is inconsistent across the United States. Clinicians and families report termination of coverage in late adolescence, failure to cover treatment during pregnancy, coverage for select conditions only, or no coverage. We describe the indications for specific nutritional treatment products for IEM and their regulation, availability, and categorization. We conclude with a discussion of the problems that have contributed to the paradox of identifying individuals with IEM through newborn screening but not guaranteeing that they receive optimal treatment. Throughout the paper, we use the nutritional treatment of phenylketonuria as an example of IEM treatment. PMID:22854513

  19. Potential Effects of Nichi Glucan as a Food Supplement for Diabetes Mellitus and Hyperlipidemia: Preliminary Findings from the Study on Three Patients from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyasagar Devaprasad Dedeepiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta Glucan food supplements have been reported to be of benefit in diabetes and hyperlipidemia. We report a pilot study of the effects of Nichi Glucan, 1, 3-1, 6 Beta Glucan food supplement, in lowering the blood glucose and lipid levels in three patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM from India. These patients had increased blood glucose and lipid levels inspite of routine antidiabetic and lipid level lowering medications. Each of the participants took 1.5 g of Nichi Glucan per day with food for two months along with their routine medications. The relevant parameters to assess glycemic status and lipid levels were calculated at the baseline and at the end of two months. After two months of continuous consumption, in one patient, the HbA1c decreased from 9.1% to 7.8%, and the glycemic target of HbA1c <6.5% laid down by the International Diabetes Federation was reached in two patients. Lipid levels also decreased significantly. Based on our findings, Nichi Glucan food supplement can be considered along with routine medications in patients with Type II diabetes with hyperlipidemia. Further studies are needed to validate the results.

  20. Nutritional treatment for inborn errors of metabolism: indications, regulations, and availability of medical foods and dietary supplements using phenylketonuria as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Kathryn M; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A; Huntington, Kathleen L

    2012-09-01

    Medical foods and dietary supplements are used to treat rare inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) identified through state-based universal newborn screening. These products are regulated under Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and dietary supplement statutes. The lack of harmony in terminology used to refer to medical foods and dietary supplements and the misuse of words that imply that FDA regulates these products as drugs have led to confusion. These products are expensive and, although they are used for medical treatment of IEM, third-party payer coverage of these products is inconsistent across the United States. Clinicians and families report termination of coverage in late adolescence, failure to cover treatment during pregnancy, coverage for select conditions only, or no coverage. We describe the indications for specific nutritional treatment products for IEM and their regulation, availability, and categorization. We conclude with a discussion of the problems that have contributed to the paradox of identifying individuals with IEM through newborn screening but not guaranteeing that they receive optimal treatment. Throughout the paper, we use the nutritional treatment of phenylketonuria as an example of IEM treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhancement of select foods at breakfast and lunch increases energy intakes of nursing home residents with low meal intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Victoria H; Marra, Melissa Ventura; Johnson, Paulette

    2009-03-01

    Nursing facilities often provide enhanced or fortified foods as part of a "food-first" approach to increasing nutrient intakes in residents with inadequate intakes or who are experiencing weight loss. The study objective was to determine whether energy and protein enhancement of a small number of menu items would result in increased three-meal (breakfast, lunch, and supper) calorie and protein intakes in long-term care residents. A randomized cross-over design was used to compare investigator-weighed food intakes under three menu conditions: control (no meals enhanced); lunch only enhanced; and both breakfast and lunch enhanced. Two breakfast foods (juice and hot cereal) and two lunch foods (soup and potato side dish) were chosen for enhancement. Participants were 33 nursing home residents from a facility in South Florida (average age=87.3 years). Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to test the effects of the within-subjects factor (control, lunch enhanced, breakfast and lunch enhanced conditions), the between-subjects factor (smaller vs bigger eater), and the interaction on intakes (gram, kilocalories, and protein). Results revealed that bigger eaters consumed considerably more calories when breakfast foods, but not lunch foods, were enhanced. Smaller eaters achieved an increase in energy intake when either breakfast or lunch was enhanced. Overall daily protein intakes were not substantially increased by food enhancement. These data suggest that for an enhanced food program to be most effective for smaller eaters, who are at greatest risk for undernutrition and weight loss, it should include several enhanced foods at more than one meal.

  2. Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Whole Body Protein Metabolism and Performance Recovery after Resistance Exercise: A Double-Blind Crossover Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. D. West

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery of exercise performance during overnight (10 h and 24 h recovery after whole body resistance exercise in trained men. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men (76 ± 8 kg, 24 ± 4 years old, 14% ± 5% body fat; means ± standard deviation (SD performed resistance exercise in the evening prior to consuming either 25 g of whey protein (PRO; MuscleTech 100% Whey or an energy-matched placebo (CHO immediately post-exercise (0 h, and again the following morning (~10 h of recovery. A third randomized trial, completed by the same participants, involving no exercise and no supplement served as a rested control trial (Rest. Participants ingested [15N]glycine to determine whole body protein kinetics and net protein balance over 10 and 24 h of recovery. Performance was assessed pre-exercise and at 0, 10, and 24 h of recovery using a battery of tests. Net protein balance tended to improve in PRO (P = 0.064; effect size (ES = 0.61, PRO vs. CHO during overnight recovery. Over 24 h, net balance was enhanced in PRO (P = 0.036 but not in CHO (P = 0.84; ES = 0.69, PRO vs. CHO, which was mediated primarily by a reduction in protein breakdown (PRO < CHO; P < 0.01. Exercise decreased repetitions to failure (REP, maximal strength (MVC, peak and mean power, and countermovement jump performance (CMJ at 0 h (all P < 0.05 vs. Pre. At 10 h, there were small-to-moderate effects for enhanced recovery of the MVC (ES = 0.56, mean power (ES = 0.49, and CMJ variables (ES: 0.27–0.49 in PRO. At 24 h, protein supplementation improved MVC (ES = 0.76, REP (ES = 0.44, and peak power (ES = 0.55. In conclusion, whey protein supplementation enhances whole body anabolism, and may improve acute recovery of

  3. Feasibility of UV-VIS-Fluorescence spectroscopy combined with pattern recognition techniques to authenticate a new category of plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggia, Raffaella; Turrini, Federica; Anselmo, Marco; Zunin, Paola; Donno, Dario; Beccaro, Gabriele L

    2017-07-01

    Bud extracts, named also "gemmoderivatives", are a new category of natural products, obtained macerating meristematic fresh tissues of trees and plants. In the European Community these botanical remedies are classified as plant food supplements. Nowadays these products are still poorly studied, even if they are widely used and commercialized. Several analytical tools for the quality control of these very expensive supplements are urgently needed in order to avoid mislabelling and frauds. In fact, besides the usual quality controls common to the other botanical dietary supplements, these extracts should be checked in order to quickly detect if the cheaper adult parts of the plants are deceptively used in place of the corresponding buds whose harvest-period and production are extremely limited. This study aims to provide a screening analytical method based on UV-VIS-Fluorescence spectroscopy coupled to multivariate analysis for a rapid, inexpensive and non-destructive quality control of these products.

  4. Phenolic-enriched foods: sources and processing for enhanced health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Gordon J

    2017-05-01

    Polyphenols are ubiquitous secondary products present in many plant foods. Their intake has been associated with health benefits ranging from reduced incidence of CVD, diabetes and cancers to improved neurodegenerative outcomes. Major dietary sources include beverages such as coffee, teas and foods such as chocolate. Fruits are also major sources and berries in particular are a palatable source of a diverse range of polyphenol components. There are a number of ways that polyphenol uptake could be increased and healthier polyphenol-rich foods could be produced with specific compositions to target-specific health effects. Firstly, we could exploit the genetic diversity of plants (with a focus on berries) to select varieties that have enhanced levels of specific polyphenols implicated in disease mitigation (e.g. anthocyanins, tannins or flavonols). Working with variation induced by environmental and agronomic factors, modern molecular breeding techniques could exploit natural variation and beneficially alter polyphenol content and composition, although this could be relatively long term. Alternatively, we could employ a synthetic biology approach and design new plants that overexpress certain genes or re-deploy more metabolic effort into specific polyphenols. However, such 'polyphenol-plus' fruit could prove unpalatable as polyphenols contribute to sensorial properties (e.g. astringency of tannins). However, if the aim was to produce a polyphenol as a pharmaceutical then 'lifting' biosynthetic pathways from plants and expressing them in microbial vectors may be a feasible option. Secondly, we could design processing methods to enhance the polyphenolic composition or content of foods. Fermentation of teas, cocoa beans and grapes, or roasting of cocoa and coffee beans has long been used and can massively influence polyphenol composition and potential bioactivity. Simple methods such as milling, heat treatment, pasteurisation or juicing (v. pureeing) can have notable

  5. Supplemental irrigation as an initiative to support water and food security: A global evaluation of the potential to support and increase precipitation-fed wheat production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilovic, M.; Gleeson, T. P.; Adamowski, J. F.; Langhorn, C.; Kienzle, S. W.

    2016-12-01

    Supplemental irrigation is the practice of supporting precipitation-fed agriculture with limited irrigation. Precipitation-fed agriculture dominates the agricultural landscape, but is vulnerable to intraseasonal and interannual variability in precipitation and climate. The interplay between food security, water resources, ecosystem health, energy, and livelihoods necessitates evaluating and integrating initiatives that increase agricultural production while reducing demands on water resources. Supplemental irrigation is the practice of minimally irrigating in an effort to stabilize and increase agricultural production, as well as increase water productivity - the amount of crop produced per unit of water. The potential of supplemental irrigation to support both water and food security has yet to be evaluated at regional and global scales. We evaluate whether supplemental irrigation could stabilize and increase agricultural production of wheat by determining locally-calibrated water use-crop yield relationships, known as crop-water production functions. Crop-water production functions are functions of seasonal water use and crop yield, and previous efforts have largely ignored the effects of the temporal distribution of water use throughout the growing season. We significantly improve upon these efforts and provide an opportunity to evaluate supplemental irrigation that appropriately acknowledges the effects of irrigation scheduling. Integrating agroclimatic and crop data with the crop-water model Aquacrop, we determine the increases in wheat production achieved by maximizing water productivity, sharing limited water between different years, and other irrigation scenarios. The methodology presented and evaluation of supplemental irrigation provides water mangers, policy makers, governments, and non-governmental organizations the tools to appropriately understand and determine the potential of this initiative to support precipitation-fed agriculture.

  6. Probiotic-enriched foods and dietary supplement containing SYNBIO positively affects bowel habits in healthy adults: an assessment using standard statistical analysis and Support Vector Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvi, Stefania; Verdenelli, M Cristina; Cecchini, Cinzia; Coman, M Magdalena; Bernabei, M Simonetta; Rosati, Jessica; De Leone, Renato; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study assessed in healthy adults how daily consumption of the probiotic combination SYNBIO®, administered in probiotic-enriched foods or in a dietary supplement, affected bowel habits. Primary and secondary outcomes gave the overall assessment of bowel well-being, while a Psychological General Well-Being Index compiled by participants estimated the health-related quality of life as well as the gastrointestinal tolerance determined with the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale. Support Vector Machine models for classification problems were used to validate the total outcomes on bowel well-being. SYNBIO® consumption improved bowel habits of volunteers consuming the probiotic foods or capsules, while the same effects were not registered in the control groups. The recovery of probiotic bacteria from the faeces of a cohort of 100 subjects for each supplemented group showed the persistence of strains in the gastrointestinal tract.

  7. Early Zinc Supplementation and Enhanced Growth of the Low-Birth Weight Neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Farghali, Ola; El-Wahed, Mohamed Abd; Hassan, Nayera E; Imam, Safaa; Alian, Khadija

    2015-03-15

    Nutritional deficits are almost universal in Low-Birth Weight babies. Zinc is essential for normal infant growth and its supplementation assists growth probably through insulin-like growth factor-1. This double-blind randomized-controlled trial aimed at evaluating the role of zinc in catch-up growth of low-birth-weight infants and investigating its proposed mediator. The study was conducted in Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital. Two hundred low-birth-weight neonates were simply randomized to either oral zinc therapy or placebo. Anthropometric measurements were recorded at birth, 3, 6, and 12 months; including weight, recumbent length, head, waist, chest, and mid-upper arm circumferences, and triceps and sub-scapular skin fold thickness. We found that initial and 3-months measurements, except weight, were comparable in the 2 groups. All measurements at 6- and 12-months, except sub-scapular skin-fold-thickness, were significantly higher in zinc group than placebo. Catch-up growth, at 12-months, was significant in zinc group and was significantly higher in appropriate-for-gestational-age vs. small-for-gestational-age, in preterm vs. term, and in male vs. female infants. The median 6-months insulin-like growth factor-1 levels were significantly higher in zinc group. We conclude that early start of oral zinc supplementation in low-birth-weight neonates assists catch-up growth, probably through rise of insulin-like growth factor-1.

  8. Effect of magnesium, probiotic, and vitamin food supplementation in healthy subjects with psychological stress and evaluation of a persistent effect after discontinuing intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaert, Francois A; Courau, Stephanie; Forestier, Anne

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe the changes in subjects' psychological stress intensity under the effect of dietary supplements of magnesium, probiotics, and vitamins after one month of intake. Observational cohort study of subject complaining of psychological stress defined by a Perceived Stress Scale (PSS 10) score of more than 21. The study covered 242 healthy volunteers, 38.6±13.6-year-old, among whom 79.8% were women. Under the effect of the supplementation of magnesium, probiotics, and vitamins, the psychological stress of the subjects decreased significantly from 34.1±4.5 to 26.2±6.1 (Pstress level was strictly similar one month after the treatment was discontinued and therefore clearly demonstrated that the psychological benefit was maintained over time. Stress and fatigue are significantly reduced by the intake of a food supplement with probiotics, magnesium, vitamins, and minerals and this effect is fully maintained one month after discontinuing the food supplement intake.

  9. Fruit and vegetable consumption and food values: National patterns in the United States by Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program eligibility and cooking frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Bleich, Sara N

    2015-07-01

    More frequent cooking at home may help improve diet quality and be associated with food values, particularly for individuals participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). To examine patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption and food values among adults (aged 20 and older) in the United States, by SNAP participation and household cooking frequency. Analysis of cross-sectional 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 (N=9560). A lower percentage of SNAP participants consumed fruit (total: 35% vs. 46%, p=0.001; fresh: 30% vs. 41%, p6times/week was associated with greater vegetable consumption compared to cooking food keeps (medium cookers: 57% vs. 45%, pfrequency. Efforts to improve diet quality should consider values on which food purchases are based. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Emergency/Assault Food Packet with the Arctic Supplement. An Evaluation of an Arctic Ration and Assessment of Water Discipline in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    that the food items of both the E/AP and Arctic Supplement were acceptable. Of the "Candies," caramels received the highest rating, and vanilla pudding...By decreasing median hedonic rating, the ten most preferred items were cocoa beverage, lemon tea, oatmeal with apples, fig bars, caramels , chicken...Nine Equals Like Extremely Group Group Group 1981 Count 1980 Count 1979 Count Mean Median Meen Mean Candies Caramels 7.66 8.56* (154) 8.38 (148

  11. Energy and water tradeoffs in enhancing food security: A selective international assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, Shahbaz; Maraseni, Tek Narayan; Maroulis, Jerry; Hafeez, Mohsin

    2009-01-01

    Rice is the major staple food in most Asian countries. However, with rapidly growing populations, sustained high productivity and yields through improving water productivity is critically important. Increasingly complex energy-agriculture relationships require an in-depth understanding of water and energy tradeoffs. This study contributes to energy and food policies by analysing the complex energy, water and economics dynamics across a selection of major rice growing countries. The results show that tradeoffs exist between yield and energy inputs with high yield attributed to higher levels of energy input. The selected developed countries show higher energy productivity, relative to all other energy inputs, compared to the selected developing counties, owing to enhanced mechanisation, on-farm technology and improved farm management. Among all countries, China has the highest water productivity due to water-saving irrigation practices. These practices offer opportunities for developed and developing countries to increase water productivity at the same time taking advantage of economic and energy benefits of reduced pumping. Sustained production from agriculture is vital to food security. Improved irrigation practices can offset environmental footprints in the short run but their large-scale implementation remains an issue. In the long run, investments are needed to buffer the negative impacts of food production on the environment. Investments to boost water productivity and improved energy use efficiency in crop production are two pathways to reduce energy dependency, enhanced natural resource sustainability and ensuring future food security.

  12. Food-Grade Synthesis of Maillard-Type Taste Enhancers Using Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Kranz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for healthier food products, with reduced levels of table salt, sugar, and mono sodium glutamate, reinforce the need for novel taste enhancers prepared by means of food-grade kitchen-type chemistry. Although several taste modulating compounds have been discovered in processed foods, their Maillard-type ex food production is usually not exploited by industrial process reactions as the yields of target compounds typically do not exceed 1–2%. Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES are reported for the first time to significantly increase the yields of the taste enhancers 1-deoxy-ᴅ-fructosyl-N-β-alanyl-ʟ-histidine (49% yield, N-(1-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-2-ylidene aminopropionic acid (54% yield and N2-(1-carboxyethyl guanosine 5′-monophosphate (22% yield at low temperature (80–100 °C within a maximum reaction time of 2 h. Therefore, NADES open new avenues to a “next-generation culinary chemistry” overcoming the yield limitations of traditional Maillard chemistry approaches and enable a food-grade Maillard-type generation of flavor modulators.

  13. Dietary supplementation with phytosterol and ascorbic acid reduces body mass accumulation and alters food transit time in a diet-induced obesity mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlowski Petri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous research indicates that animals fed a high fat (HF diet supplemented with disodium ascorbyl phytostanyl phosphate (DAPP exhibit reduced mass accumulation when compared to HF control. This compound is a water-soluble phytostanol ester and consists of a hydrophobic plant stanol covalently bonded to ascorbic acid (Vitamin C. To provide insight into the mechanism of this response, we examined the in vivo effects of a high fat diet supplemented with ascorbic acid (AA in the presence and absence of unesterified phytosterols (PS, and set out to establish whether the supplements have a synergistic effect in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. Our data indicate that HF diet supplementation with a combination of 1% w/w phytosterol and 1% w/w ascorbic acid results in reduced mass accumulation, with mean differences in absolute mass between PSAA and HF control of 10.05%; and differences in mass accumulation of 21.6% (i.e. the PSAA group gained on average 21% less mass each week from weeks 7-12 than the HF control group. In our previous study, the absolute mass difference between the 2% DAPP and HF control was 41%, while the mean difference in mass accumulation between the two groups for weeks 7-12 was 67.9%. Mass loss was not observed in animals supplemented with PS or AA alone. These data suggest that the supplements are synergistic with respect to mass accumulation, and the esterification of the compounds further potentiates the response. Our data also indicate that chronic administration of PS, both in the presence and absence of AA, results in changes to fecal output and food transit time, providing insight into the possibility of long-term changes in intestinal function related to PS supplementation.

  14. Dietary supplementation with phytosterol and ascorbic acid reduces body mass accumulation and alters food transit time in a diet-induced obesity mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Previous research indicates that animals fed a high fat (HF) diet supplemented with disodium ascorbyl phytostanyl phosphate (DAPP) exhibit reduced mass accumulation when compared to HF control. This compound is a water-soluble phytostanol ester and consists of a hydrophobic plant stanol covalently bonded to ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). To provide insight into the mechanism of this response, we examined the in vivo effects of a high fat diet supplemented with ascorbic acid (AA) in the presence and absence of unesterified phytosterols (PS), and set out to establish whether the supplements have a synergistic effect in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. Our data indicate that HF diet supplementation with a combination of 1% w/w phytosterol and 1% w/w ascorbic acid results in reduced mass accumulation, with mean differences in absolute mass between PSAA and HF control of 10.05%; and differences in mass accumulation of 21.6% (i.e. the PSAA group gained on average 21% less mass each week from weeks 7-12 than the HF control group). In our previous study, the absolute mass difference between the 2% DAPP and HF control was 41%, while the mean difference in mass accumulation between the two groups for weeks 7-12 was 67.9%. Mass loss was not observed in animals supplemented with PS or AA alone. These data suggest that the supplements are synergistic with respect to mass accumulation, and the esterification of the compounds further potentiates the response. Our data also indicate that chronic administration of PS, both in the presence and absence of AA, results in changes to fecal output and food transit time, providing insight into the possibility of long-term changes in intestinal function related to PS supplementation. PMID:21711516

  15. Analytical determination of selenium in medical samples, staple food and dietary supplements by means of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stosnach, Hagen, E-mail: hagen.stosnach@bruker-axs.d

    2010-09-15

    Selenium is essential for many aspects of human health and, thus, the object of intensive medical research. This demands the use of analytical techniques capable of analysing selenium at low concentrations with high accuracy in widespread matrices and sometimes smallest sample amounts. In connection with the increasing importance of selenium, there is a need for rapid and simple on-site (or near-to-site) selenium analysis in food basics like wheat at processing and production sites, as well as for the analysis of this element in dietary supplements. Common analytical techniques like electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETAAS) and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are capable of analysing selenium in medical samples with detection limits in the range from 0.02 to 0.7 {mu}g/l. Since in many cases less complicated and expensive analytical techniques are required, TXRF has been tested regarding its suitability for selenium analysis in different medical, food basics and dietary supplement samples applying most simple sample preparation techniques. The reported results indicate that the accurate analysis of selenium in all sample types is possible. The detection limits of TXRF are in the range from 7 to 12 {mu}g/l for medical samples and 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg for food basics and dietary supplements. Although this sensitivity is low compared to established techniques, it is sufficient for the physiological concentrations of selenium in the investigated samples.

  16. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination of chemical markers and principal component analysis of Vitex agnus-castus L. fruits (Verbenaceae) and derived food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Angela; Montoro, Paola; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2012-11-01

    A validated analytical method for the quantitative determination of seven chemical markers occurring in a hydroalcoholic extract of Vitex agnus-castus fruits by liquid chromatography electrospray triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/(QqQ)MSMS) is reported. To carry out a comparative study, five commercial food supplements corresponding to hydroalcoholic extracts of V. agnus-castus fruits were analysed under the same chromatographic conditions of the crude extract. Principal component analysis (PCA), based only on the variation of the amount of the seven chemical markers, was applied in order to find similarities between the hydroalcoholic extract and the food supplements. A second PCA analysis was carried out considering the whole spectroscopic data deriving from liquid chromatography electrospray linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/(LIT)MS) analysis. High similarity between the two PCA was observed, showing the possibility to select one of these two approaches for future applications in the field of comparative analysis of food supplements and quality control procedures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary Supplementation of Phoenix dactylifera Seeds Enhances Performance, Immune Response, and Antioxidant Status in Broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Far, Ali H.; Ahmed, Hamada A.

    2016-01-01

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) seeds were utilized in some traditional medical remedies and have been investigated for their possible health benefits. This proposed study wanted to assess the effect of date palm seeds (DPS) dietary supplementation in comparison to mannan-oligosaccharides (Bio-Mos®) and β-glucan over antioxidant and immunity events that have effect on growth and carcass performances of broilers. An aggregate of 180, one-day-old, chicks were raised in the wire-floored cages and allotted into control, Bio-Mos (0.1%  Bio-Mos), β-glucan (0.1%  β-glucan), DPS2 (2% date crushed seeds), DPS4 (4% date crushed seeds), and DPS6 (6% date crushed seeds) groups. Broilers in DPS2 and DPS4 groups showed significant variations (P dactylifera seeds. PMID:28127417

  18. Evaluating the Initial Impact of the Revised Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Food Packages on Dietary Intake and Home Food Availability in African American and Hispanic Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoms-Young, Angela M.; Kong, Angela; Schiffer, Linda A.; Porter, Summer J.; Blumstein, Lara; Bess, Stephanie; Berbaum, Michael L.; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present study assessed the impact of the 2009 food packages mandated by the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) on dietary intake and home food availability in low-income African American and Hispanic parent/child dyads. DESIGN A natural experiment was conducted to assess if the revised WIC food package altered dietary intake, home food availability, weight, and various lifestyle measures immediately (6 months) following policy implementation. SETTING 12 WIC clinics in Chicago, USA. SUBJECTS 273, 2–3 year old Hispanic and African American children enrolled in WIC and their mothers RESULTS Six months after the WIC food package revisions were implemented, we observed modest changes in dietary intake. Fruit consumption increased among Hispanic mothers (mean=0.33 servings/d, p=.04), and low-fat dairy intake increased among Hispanic mothers (0.21 servings/d, p=.02), Hispanic children (0.34 servings/d, pfood availability of low fat dairy and whole grains also increased. Dietary changes, however, varied by racial/ethnic group. Changes in home food availability were not significantly correlated with changes in diet. CONCLUSIONS The WIC food package revisions are one of the first efforts to modify the nutrition guidelines that govern foods provided in a federal food and nutrition assistance program. It will be important to examine the longer term impact of these changes on dietary intake and weight status. PMID:23544992

  19. Dietary supplementation with Cynodon dactylon (L.) enhances innate immunity and disease resistance of Indian major carp, Catla catla (Ham.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleeswaran, B; Ilavenil, S; Ravikumar, S

    2011-12-01

    Indian major carp (Catla catla) was subjected to study the immunostimulatory effects when the grass Cynodon dactylon(L) ethanolic extract administrated as feed supplement. C. catla was fed with 0% (Control), 0.05% (group I), 0.5% (group II) and 5% (group III) extract provided for 60 days. Blood samples were collected at every 10 days of interval up to 60 days for analyzing the non-specific humoral (lysozyme activity, antiprotease activity and haemolytic complement) and cellular (production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, myeloperoxidase activity) immune response study. The results indicate that C. dactylon ethanolic extract administered as feed supplement significantly (P feeding. Administration of C. dactylon mixed diet delayed the lymphocyte destruction with positive ultrastructural changes. An induced stress (A. hydrophila infection) was observed by using MMPs expression, which was reduced in the experimental diet groups than the control. All these experimental results prove that C. dactylon ethanolic extract enhances the immunity of Catla fish. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of the food supplement Nyaditum resae as a new tool to reduce the risk of tuberculosis development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestani Tukvadze

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nyaditum resae (NR is a galenic preparation of heat-killed Mycobacterium manresensis (hkMn. This is a new species that belongs to the Mycobacterium fortuitum complex, and it is present in drinking water—thus, regulatorily speaking, it is considered a food supplement. Preclinical studies in the murine model of active tuberculosis (TB in the C3HeB/FeJ strain have demonstrated that daily administration of NR containing 103–106 hkMn for 14 days was able to stop the progression toward active TB [1]. The mechanism of action was linked to the induction of low dose tolerance and was related to the increase of Tuberculin Purified Protein Derivative (PPD memory-specific Tregs (CD4+CD25+CD39+ cells after ex vivo incubation of splenocytes for 7 days. This increase of Tregs was related to the increase of interleukin (IL-10 in the spleen and in the reduction of IL-17 in the lungs, where there was also a reduction in bacillary load and the pathology caused by a reduction of neutrophiles' infiltration [2]. Two randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials (CTs have been conducted in humans. The NYADATREG study (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02076139; 2013–2014 was aimed to evaluate the safety and the immunogenicity of two concentrations of NR (containing 104 hkMn and 105 hkMn versus placebo (all administered orally everyday for 14 days in tuberculin-positive and tuberculin-negative volunteers (total n = 51. The results demonstrated an excellent safety record, with no differences between groups in terms of adverse effects. A significant increase in PPD-specific memory regulatory T cells was also detected in both NR groups [3]. The NYADAPETRICS study (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02581579 is evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of NR 105 hkMn (capsule format, orally in the pediatric population. Currently, an efficacy study (randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled CT is being conducted in Georgia. This NYADAGEORG trial

  1. Usage of Plant Food Supplements across Six European Countries: Findings from the PlantLIBRA Consumer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Egan, Bernadette; de Klein, Simone; Dima, Lorena; Maggi, Franco M.; Isoniemi, Merja; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Raats, Monique M.; Meissner, Eva Melanie; Badea, Mihaela; Bruno, Flavia; Salmenhaara, Maija; Milà-Villarroel, Raimon; Knaze, Viktoria; Hodgkins, Charo; Marculescu, Angela; Uusitalo, Liisa; Restani, Patrizia; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Background The popularity of botanical products is on the rise in Europe, with consumers using them to complement their diets or to maintain health, and products are taken in many different forms (e.g. teas, juices, herbal medicinal products, plant food supplements (PFS)). However there is a scarcity of data on the usage of such products at European level. Objective To provide an overview of the characteristics and usage patterns of PFS consumers in six European countries. Design Data on PFS usage were collected in a cross-sectional, retrospective survey of PFS consumers using a bespoke frequency of PFS usage questionnaire. Subjects/setting A total sample of 2359 adult PFS consumers from Finland, Germany, Italy, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom. Data analyses Descriptive analyses were conducted, with all data stratified by gender, age, and country. Absolute frequencies, percentages and 95% confidence intervals are reported. Results Overall, an estimated 18.8% of screened survey respondents used at least one PFS. Characteristics of PFS consumers included being older, well-educated, never having smoked and self-reporting health status as “good or very good”. Across countries, 491 different botanicals were identified in the PFS products used, with Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo), Oenothera biennis (Evening primrose) and Cynara scolymus (Artichoke) being most frequently reported; the most popular dose forms were capsules and pills/tablets. Most consumers used one product and half of all users took single-botanical products. Some results varied across countries. Conclusions The PlantLIBRA consumer survey is unique in reporting on usage patterns of PFS consumers in six European countries. The survey highlights the complexity of measuring the intake of such products, particularly at pan-European level. Incorporating measures of the intake of botanicals in national dietary surveys would provide much-needed data for comprehensive risk and benefit assessments at the European

  2. EVALUATION OF THE AMERICAN WATERWEED (ELODEA CANADENSIS MICHX. AS SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD FOR THE NOBLE CRAYFISH, ASTACUS ASTACUS

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    D’AGARO E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a preliminary study to evaluate the capacity of summerling Astacus astacus to consume the American waterweed (Elodea canadensis Michx..under artificial rearing conditions. Summerling A. astacus (initial b.w.: 0.32 ± 0.02 g were cultured (50 crayfish/m2 in 600l tanks for 89 days. The experimental design was composed of three treatments as follows: control diet (D (crude protein: 40.9% DM; ether extract: 7.4% DM, elodea (E (crude protein: 25.8% DM; ether extract: 1.4% DM and control diet + elodea (D + E with three replicates per treatment. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, and other water parameters were measured weekly (T: 20.1°C; O2: 7.2 mg/l; pH: 7.5; N-NH4: 0.05 mg/l; N-NO2: 0.01 mg/l; N-NO3: 29.9 mg/l. The relative growth rate was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in treatment D + E (195% and D (143% than in E (65%. The reduced growth observed in crayfish fed elodea only can probably be due to the lower dietary lipid level of the plant respect to the standard crayfish requirements. At the end of the experiment, the survival rate of A. astacus was higher (P < 0.05 for the treatment D + E (87% and D (81%, compared to E (56%. Our results suggest that E. canadensis can be used as a non-expensive supplemental food in order to increase growth and survival in summerling noble crayfish. They also showed that A. astacus has the potential to consume this macrophyte in nature.

  3. Labeled extra virgin olive oil as food supplement; phenolic compounds in oils from some autochthonous Croatian olives

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    Jakobušić Brala, C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of an incentive to provide labeled extra virgin olive oils as a food supplement in pharmacies, the phenolic profile analysis of extra virgin olive oils obtained from Croatian olive cultivars has been reported. With the aim of increasing the consumption of EVOO-s in northern Croatia, the varieties Bjelica, Buža and Italian Leccino have been studied involving two different agroclimatic locations, over two harvest years differing significantly in the amount of rainfall. The Croatian cultivars Plominka, Žižolera, Oblica and Lastovka, were also examined. Correlation tests and the insight from PCA reveal that the cultivars are highly individualized in character with regard to relationships among phenolic compounds. Some elements of an innovative labeling aimed to better present the authenticity, quality, excellence and uniqueness of the EVOO-s were suggested.En el marco de los incentivos que se han considerado para proporcionar el etiquetado de aceites de oliva virgen extra como suplemento alimenticio en farmacias, se reporta el análisis del perfil fenólico de aceites de oliva vírgenes extra obtenidos a partir de variedades croatas. Para ampliar el consumo de AOVE-s en el norte de Croacia, se han estudiado las variedades Bjelica, Buža y Leccino italiana procedentes de dos lugares agroclimáticos diferentes que difieren significativamente en la cantidad de lluvia y obtenidos en dos cosechas. Tambien fueron examinados los cultivares croatas Plominka, Žižolera, Oblica y Lastovka. Los test de correlación y los resultados de PCA revelan que las variedades están altamente individualizados en su carácter en lo que respecta a las relaciones entre los compuestos fenólicos. Se sugirieron algunos elementos innovadores para un etiquetado dirigido a presentar mejor la autenticidad, la calidad, la excelencia y la singularidad de los AOVE-s.

  4. Exploring enhanced menu labels' influence on fast food selections and exercise-related attitudes, perceptions, and intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Morgan S; Thompson, Joel Kevin

    2016-10-01

    Labeling restaurant menus with calorie counts is a popular public health intervention, but research shows these labels have small, inconsistent effects on behavior. Supplementing calorie counts with physical activity equivalents may produce stronger results, but few studies of these enhanced labels have been conducted, and the labels' potential to influence exercise-related outcomes remains unexplored. This online study evaluated the impact of no information, calories-only, and calories plus equivalent miles of walking labels on fast food item selection and exercise-related attitudes, perceptions, and intentions. Participants (N = 643) were randomly assigned to a labeling condition and completed a menu ordering task followed by measures of exercise-related outcomes. The labels had little effect on ordering behavior, with no significant differences in total calories ordered and counterintuitive increases in calories ordered in the two informational conditions in some item categories. The labels also had little impact on the exercise-related outcomes, though participants in the two informational conditions perceived exercise as less enjoyable than did participants in the no information condition, and trends following the same pattern were found for other exercise-related outcomes. The present findings concur with literature demonstrating small, inconsistent effects of current menu labeling strategies and suggest that alternatives such as traffic light systems should be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Commercial baby food consumption and dietary variety in a statewide sample of infants receiving benefits from the special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M

    2010-10-01

    Dietary variety and exposure to fruits and vegetables in infancy have been associated with nutritional benefits and later acceptance of these foods. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of fruit and vegetable commercial baby food consumption and its relation to dietary variety during infancy. A cross-sectional statewide telephone survey of 733 Maryland mothers and infants receiving benefits from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) was conducted between July 2004 and July 2005. A 24-hour dietary recall was examined to assess infant dietary variety. Among infants from birth to age 5 months, 54% had consumed complementary foods in the past 24 hours; 60% received commercial baby foods. Among infants aged 6 to 12 months, 98% had consumed complementary foods in the past 24 hours; 81% received commercial baby foods. In the latter age range, the average daily number of different types of fruits and vegetables consumed was 1.5±1.2, range 0 to 6). In a multivariate model, infants aged 6 to 12 months who received commercial baby foods consumed a greater variety of fruits and vegetables (β=.54, 95% confidence interval 0.26-0.84; Pbaby food is consumed by a majority of WIC infants, although many mothers introduce it before the recommended age of 6 months. Among infants aged 6 to 12 months, commercial baby food is associated with dietary variety in fruits and vegetables. By encouraging consumption of fruits and vegetables after 6 months of age, either through the provision of commercial baby foods and/or education and resources related to the preparation of fruits and vegetables for infants, WIC can increase dietary variety and appropriate introduction of complementary foods among infants. Copyright © 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stimuli associated with the cancellation of food and its cues enhance eating but display negative incentive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Peter C

    2014-12-01

    Initially neutral conditioned stimuli paired with food often acquire motivating properties, including serving as secondary reinforcers, enhancing instrumental responding in Pavlovian-instrumental transfer procedures, and potentiating food consumption under conditions of food satiation. Interestingly, cues associated with the cancellation of food and food cues may also potentiate food consumption (e.g., Galarce and Holland, 2009), despite their apparent negative correlations with food delivery. In three experiments with rats, we investigated conditions under which potentiation of feeding by such "interruption stimuIi" (ISs) develops, and some aspects of the content of that learning. Although in all three experiments ISs enhanced food consumption beyond control levels, they were found to act as conditioned inhibitors for anticipatory food cup entry (Experiment 1), to serve as conditioned punishers of instrumental responding (Experiment 2), and to suppress instrumental lever press responding in a Pavlovian instrumental transfer procedure (Experiment 3). Furthermore, when given concurrent choice between different foods, an IS enhanced consumption of the food whose interruption it had previously signaled, but when given a choice between performing two instrumental responses, the IS shifted rats' choice away from the response that had previously yielded the food whose interruption had been signaled by IS (Experiment 3). Thus, the effects of an IS on appetitive responses were opposite to its effects on consummatory responding. Implications for our understanding of learned incentive motivation and the control of overeating are discussed.

  7. Liquid chromatographic determination of caffeine and adrenergic stimulants in food supplements sold in Brazilian e-commerce for weight loss and physical fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Carine; Zemolin, Gabriela M; Müller, Larissa S; Dal Molin, Thaís R; Seiffert, Helena; de Carvalho, Leandro M

    2016-01-01

    Methyl-xanthines and adrenergic stimulants, such as caffeine and synephrine, are commonly added to food supplements due to their stimulating and thermogenic effects. In addition, the abusive consumption of food supplements with ergogenic and aesthetic purposes has been observed worldwide. This work describes the study of caffeine, p-synephrine, hordenine, octopamine, tyramine, ephedrine and salicin as stimulants in dietary supplements marketed in Brazil for weight loss and physical fitness claims. A total of 94 different products were acquired from 30 Brazilian websites. Thus, the sampling of marketed supplements was performed in virtual commerce (e-commerce) with claims of weight loss, appetite reduction, fat burning and metabolism acceleration. The developed analytical method involved the separation of the stimulants by HPLC with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) by using a gradient elution of flow rate (0.7-2.5 ml min(-1)) and mobile phase composition (0.1% H3PO4/methanol). The validated method was applied to the study of 46 dietary supplements. Caffeine, p-synephrine and ephedrine were found to be present as stimulants in 52% of the studied samples marketed as encapsulated or bulk forms. Caffeine was found to be present in concentrations that represent doses from 25.0 to 1476.7 mg day(-1). Synephrine was found in concentrations that represent doses from 59.1 to 127.0 mg day(-1). Ephedrine was found to be associated with caffeine in one formulation at a concentration representing a 26.1 mg day(-1) dosage.

  8. Junk-food enhances conditioned food cup approach to a previously established food cue, but does not alter cue potentiated feeding; implications for the effects of palatable diets on incentive motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Rifka C; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2018-03-16

    Efforts to stem the global rise in obesity have been minimally effective, perhaps in part because our understanding of the psychological and behavioral drivers of obesity is limited. It is well established that stimuli that are paired with palatable foods can powerfully influence food-seeking and feeding behaviors. However, how consumption of sugary, fatty "junk-foods" affects these motivational responses to food cues is poorly understood. Here, we determined the effects of short- and long-term "junk-food" consumption on the expression of cue potentiated feeding and conditioned food cup approach to Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CS). Further, to determine the degree to which effects of "junk-food" were selective to Pavlovian motivational processes, we varied the predictive validity of the CS by including training groups conditioned with unique CS-US contingencies ranging from -1.0 to +1.0. "Junk-food" did not enhance cue potentiated feeding in any group, but expression of this potentiation effect varied with the CS-US contingency independent of diet. In contrast, "junk-food" consistently enhanced conditioned approach to the food cup; this effect was dependent on the previously established CS-US contingency. That is, consumption of "junk-food" following training enhanced approach to the food cup only in response to CSs with previously positive CS-US contingencies. This was accompanied by reduced motivation for the US itself. Together these data show that "junk-food" consumption selectively enhances incentive motivational responses to previously established food CSs, without altering cue potentiated feeding induced by these same CSs, and in the absence of enhanced motivation for food itself. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhancement of food safety – antimicrobial effectiveness of cold plasma treatments

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    Irina SMEU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cold plasma treatment proved to be a flexible, efficient, chemical-free antimicrobial process and it can represent an easy to use sanitizing method for the food industry that does not require special temperature, humidity or pressure conditions. This paper reviews the classification of plasma and the main cold plasma generating devices used in the recent years to enhance food safety. A research of available literature was also conducted to identify the antimicrobial mode of action of cold plasma treatment as well as advantages and key limitations of this technique when applied to different food products such as fruits, vegetables, meat and milk. The study revealed that further development of this method will have to be carried out, allowing better understanding of the complex interactions during applications and its restrictions, as well as practice outlook.

  10. Antimicrobial peptides as natural bio-preservative to enhance the shelf-life of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Mahendra; Pandit, Raksha; Gaikwad, Swapnil; Kövics, György

    2016-09-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are diverse group of natural proteins present in animals, plants, insects and bacteria. These peptides are responsible for defense of host from pathogenic organisms. Chemical, enzymatic and recombinant techniques are used for the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides. These peptides have been found to be an alternative to the chemical preservatives. Currently, nisin is the only antimicrobial peptide, which is widely utilized in the preservation of food. Antimicrobial peptides can be used alone or in combination with other antimicrobial, essential oils and polymeric nanoparticles to enhance the shelf-life of food. This review presents an overview on different types of antimicrobial peptides, purification techniques, mode of action and application in food preservation.

  11. Mice with chronically elevated dopamine exhibit enhanced motivation, but not learning, for a food reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagniard, Barbara; Balsam, Peter D; Brunner, Daniela; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2006-07-01

    Dopamine has been critically implicated in learning and motivation, although its precise role remains to be determined. In order to investigate the involvement of dopamine in learning and motivation for a food reward, we used dopamine transporter knockdown mice (DAT KD) that have chronically elevated levels of extracellular dopamine. The present study demonstrates that chronically elevated dopamine enhances tendency to work for a food reward without apparent effects on Pavlovian and operant learning for this reward. The increase in dopamine is associated with elevated levels of dynorphin and Fos B expression in the dorsal caudate-putamen and the core but not the shell subregion of the nucleus accumbens. These data suggest that motivation to work, but not learning, for a food reward appears to be under the critical influence of tonic dopaminergic activity in discrete brain areas relevant for a reward-directed behavior.

  12. Advancement of puberty and enhancement of seminal characteristics by supplementation of trace minerals to bucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arangasamy, A; Venkata Krishnaiah, M; Manohar, N; Selvaraju, S; Guvvala, P R; Soren, N M; Reddy, I J; Roy, K S; Ravindra, J P

    2018-04-01

    Attainment of puberty in animals is dependent on their age, body weight, nutritional status, genetic and environmental conditions. Nutritionally, organic minerals are suggested to improve semen production, sperm motility and male fertility. In this context, role of organic zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) in advancing male puberty and semen characters in Osmanabadi goats were studied. Forty one (n = 41) bucks (Aged 5 months) were divided into ten groups and the dietary treatments comprised of a control group (basal diet; without additional trace mineral supplementation) and nine treatment groups that received, in addition to the basal diet, various doses of trace minerals (mg) on per kg dry matter basis, organic Zn as low Zn20, medium Zn40 and high Zn60, organic Cu as low Cu12.5, medium Cu25, high Cu37.5 and combination of organic Zn + Cu as low Zn20 + Cu12.5, medium Zn40 + Cu25, high Zn60 + Cu37.5, respectively fed for a period of 8 months. Bucks fed organic trace minerals reached puberty 28-35 days earlier than control group. In addition, improvement (P < .01) in testosterone hormone (ng/ml) levels (control: 1.63 ± 0.07 VS Zn60: 2.54 ± 0.02; Cu12.5: 6.17 ± 0.05; Cu25: 3.01 ± 0.04; Cu37.5: 2.39 ± 0.06; Zn20 + Cu12.5: 1.94 ± 0.02; Zn60 + Cu37.5: 2.44 ± 0.16 at 240 days), semen production capacity (sperm concentration, volume, mass motility) and semen quality (higher progressive motility, velocity, sperm membrane integrity and acrosome integrity) were observed in supplemented groups (P < .05) than the control bucks. The present study demonstrated that, additional feeding of organic Zn and Cu to growing male goats advanced onset of puberty and improved quantitative and qualitative semen characteristics. The results also implied that the organic Cu had a significant effect on overall performances of bucks as compared to Zn alone or Zn and Cu in combination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Supplemental butyrate does not enhance the absorptive or barrier functions of the isolated ovine ruminal epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D J; Mutsvangwa, T; Penner, G B

    2012-09-01

    Our objective was to determine if increasing the ruminal butyrate concentration would improve the selective permeability of ruminal epithelia. Suffolk wether lambs (n = 18) with an initial BW of 47.4 ±1.4 kg were housed in individual pens (1.5 × 1.5 m) with rubber mats on the floor. Lambs were blocked by initial BW into 6 blocks and, within block, were randomly assigned to either the control (CON) or 1 of 2 butyrate supplementation amounts (i.e., 1.25% or 2.50% butyrate as a proportion of DMI). With the exception of butyrate supplementation, all lambs were fed a common diet (90% concentrate and 10% barley silage). After a 14-d feeding period, lambs were killed, and ruminal epithelia from the ventral sac were mounted in Ussing chambers. To facilitate the Ussing chamber measurements, only 1 lamb was killed on an individual day. Thus, the starting date was staggered so that all lambs were exposed to the same experimental protocol. In Ussing chambers, epithelia were incubated using separate mucosal (pH 6.2) and serosal (pH 7.4) bathing solutions. Then 1-14C-butyrate (74 kBq/10 mL) was added to the mucosal side and was used to measure the mucosal-to-serosal flux (J(ms-butyrate)) in 2 consecutive 60-min flux periods with simultaneous measurement of transepithelial conductance (G(t)). During the first (challenge) flux period, the mucosal buffer solution was either acidified to pH 5.2 (ACID) or used as a control (pH 6.2; SHAM). Buffer solutions bathing the epithelia were replaced before the second flux period (recovery). Total ruminal short-chain fatty acid and butyrate concentrations were greater (P = 0.001) in lambs fed 2.50% compared with those fed 0% or 1.25% butyrate. The J(ms-butyrate) was less for lambs fed 1.25% and 2.50% butyrate [3.00 and 3.12 μmol/(cm2·h), respectively] than for CON [3.91 μmol/(cm2· h)]. However, no difference (P = 0.13)was observed for G(t). An ex vivo treatment × flux period interaction was detected (P = 0.003) for J(ms-butyrate), where

  14. Status and determinants of small farming households' food security and role of market access in enhancing food security in rural Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Ijaz Ahmed

    Full Text Available In most of the developing countries, lack of resources and little market accessibility are among the major factors that affect small farming household food security. This study aims to investigate the status of small farming households' food security, and its determinants including the role of market accessibility factors in enhancing food security at household level. In addition, this study also determines the households' perception about different kinds of livelihoods risks. This study is based on a household survey of 576 households conducted through face-to-face interviews using structured interviews in Punjab, Pakistan. Food security status is calculated using dietary intake method. The study findings show that one-fourth of the households are food insecure. The study findings reveal that farm households perceive increase in food prices, crop diseases, lack of irrigation water and increase in health expenses as major livelihood risks. Further, the results of logistic regression show that family size, monthly income, food prices, health expenses and debt are main factors influencing the food security status of rural households. Furthermore, the market accessibility factors (road distance and transportation cost do significantly affect the small farming household food security. The results suggest that local food security can be enhanced by creating off-farm employment opportunities, improved transportation facilities and road infrastructure.

  15. Status and determinants of small farming households' food security and role of market access in enhancing food security in rural Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Umar Ijaz; Ying, Liu; Bashir, Muhammad Khalid; Abid, Muhammad; Zulfiqar, Farhad

    2017-01-01

    In most of the developing countries, lack of resources and little market accessibility are among the major factors that affect small farming household food security. This study aims to investigate the status of small farming households' food security, and its determinants including the role of market accessibility factors in enhancing food security at household level. In addition, this study also determines the households' perception about different kinds of livelihoods risks. This study is based on a household survey of 576 households conducted through face-to-face interviews using structured interviews in Punjab, Pakistan. Food security status is calculated using dietary intake method. The study findings show that one-fourth of the households are food insecure. The study findings reveal that farm households perceive increase in food prices, crop diseases, lack of irrigation water and increase in health expenses as major livelihood risks. Further, the results of logistic regression show that family size, monthly income, food prices, health expenses and debt are main factors influencing the food security status of rural households. Furthermore, the market accessibility factors (road distance and transportation cost) do significantly affect the small farming household food security. The results suggest that local food security can be enhanced by creating off-farm employment opportunities, improved transportation facilities and road infrastructure.

  16. Intranasal Insulin Suppresses Food Intake via Enhancement of Brain Energy Levels in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Friedrich, Alexia; Rezmer, Magdalena; Melchert, Uwe H.; G. Scholand-Engler, Harald; Hallschmid, Manfred; Oltmanns, Kerstin M.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral insulin exerts anorexic effects in humans and animals. The underlying mechanisms, however, are not clear. Because insulin physiologically facilitates glucose uptake by most tissues of the body and thereby fosters intracellular energy supply, we hypothesized that intranasal insulin reduces food consumption via enhancement of the neuroenergetic level. In a double-blind, placebo?controlled, within-subject comparison, 15 healthy men (BMI 22.2 ? 0.37 kg/m2) aged 22?28 years were intranasa...

  17. Enhanced preservation of the rat heart after prolonged hypothermic ischemia with erythropoietin-supplemented Celsior solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alasdair J; Gao, Ling; Sun, Lin; Tsun, Jireh; Jabbour, Andrew; Ru Qiu, Min; Jansz, Paul C; Hicks, Mark; Macdonald, Peter S

    2013-06-01

    The cardioprotective efficacy of erythropoietin (EPO) has been widely documented in rodent models of acute coronary syndrome. We sought to evaluate its cardioprotective potential as an adjunct to Celsior cardioplegia in a rodent model of prolonged hypothermic global ischemia-reperfusion injury. Isolated working rat hearts were subjected to 6 or 10 hours of hypothermic ischemic storage in Celsior cardioplegic solution. Celsior was supplemented with EPO over a dose range of 0 to 5 units/ml, as well as with glyceryl trinitrate (0.1 mg/ml) and zoniporide (1 µmol/liter). Myocardial functional recovery was determined after 45 minutes of reperfusion, then left ventricular tissue was prepared for Western blotting. The presence of EPO in Celsior dose-dependently improved recovery of myocardial function after 6 hours ischemic storage time (cardiac output recovery: 52.5 ± 11.3% vs 2.5 ± 0.4%; EPO: 5 units/ml vs 0 units/ml; p zoniporide. EPO has demonstrated cardioprotective efficacy in a rodent model of ischemia-reperfusion injury simulating cardiac allograft preservation, which appears to be mediated via activation of the SAFE cytoprotective signaling pathway. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary Supplementation of Blueberry Juice Enhances Hepatic Expression of Metallothionein and Attenuates Liver Fibrosis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuping; Cheng, Mingliang; Zhang, Baofang; Nie, Fei; Jiang, Hongmei

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the effect of blueberry juice intake on rat liver fibrosis and its influence on hepatic antioxidant defense. Methods Rabbiteye blueberry was used to prepare fresh juice to feed rats by daily gastric gavage. Dan-shao-hua-xian capsule (DSHX) was used as a positive control for liver fibrosis protection. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by subcutaneous injection of CCl4 and feeding a high-lipid/low-protein diet for 8 weeks. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by Masson staining. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen III (Col III) were determined by immunohistochemical techniques. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver homogenates were determined. Metallothionein (MT) expression was detected by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical techniques. Results Blueberry juice consumption significantly attenuates CCl4-induced rat hepatic fibrosis, which was associated with elevated expression of metallothionein (MT), increased SOD activity, reduced oxidative stress, and decreased levels of α-SMA and Col III in the liver. Conclusion Our study suggests that dietary supplementation of blueberry juice can augment antioxidative capability of the liver presumably via stimulating MT expression and SOD activity, which in turn promotes HSC inactivation and thus decreases extracellular matrix collagen accumulation in the liver, and thereby alleviating hepatic fibrosis. PMID:23554912

  19. Xylitol-supplemented nutrition enhances bacterial killing and prolongs survival of rats in experimental pneumococcal sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renko, Marjo; Valkonen, Päivi; Tapiainen, Terhi; Kontiokari, Tero; Mattila, Pauli; Knuuttila, Matti; Svanberg, Martti; Leinonen, Maija; Karttunen, Riitta; Uhari, Matti

    2008-01-01

    Background Xylitol has antiadhesive effects on Streptococcus pneumoniae and inhibits its growth, and has also been found to be effective in preventing acute otitis media and has been used in intensive care as a valuable source of energy. Results We evaluated the oxidative burst of neutrophils in rats fed with and without xylitol. The mean increase in the percentage of activated neutrophils from the baseline was higher in the xylitol-exposed group than in the control group (58.1% vs 51.4%, P = 0.03 for the difference) and the mean induced increase in the median strength of the burst per neutrophil was similarly higher in the xylitol group (159.6 vs 140.3, P = 0.04). In two pneumococcal sepsis experiments rats were fed either a basal powder diet (control group) or the same diet supplemented with 10% or 20% xylitol and infected with an intraperitoneal inoculation of S. pneumoniae after two weeks. The mean survival time was 48 hours in the xylitol groups and 34 hours in the control groups (P Xylitol has beneficial effects on both the oxidative killing of bacteria in neutrophilic leucocytes and on the survival of rats with experimental pneumococcal sepsis. PMID:18334022

  20. Late diagnosis of an outbreak of leanness-enhancing agent-related food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Ling; Deng, Jou-Fang; Chen, Yi; Chu, Wei-Lan; Hung, Dong-Zong; Yang, Chen-Chang

    2013-10-01

    Ractopamine is a leanness-enhancing agent approved in the United States and 26 other countries to reduce body fat content, increase muscle mass, and improve growth rate of certain food-producing animals. Other β-agonists with stronger pharmacologic effects, especially clenbuterol, had been illegally used as leanness-enhancing agents in the United States, China, and the European Union, and foodborne poisonings related to clenbuterol residue in meat or liver were rarely reported in the European Union and China. We describe an unusual outbreak of leanness-enhancing agent-related food poisoning in Taiwan and its associated diagnostic challenge. Twelve patients presented to the emergency department of a regional hospital after having dinner together. Their clinical manifestations included nausea, vomiting, palpitation, facial flush, trunk or limb numbness, tremor, headache, weakness, chill, and dyspnea. Laboratory workup revealed the presence of hypokalemia, leukocytosis, and hyperglycemia. Poisoning attributable to β-agonists was suspected; however, the diagnosis of leanness-enhancing agent poisoning was delayed because there was no leftover meat for analysis and because the veterinary medicine was illegal in Taiwan. Clenbuterol and salbutamol were eventually detected in 10 patients' urine sample by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and the concentrations ranged from 54 to 806 μg/L and from 0 to 4052 μg/L, respectively. β-Agonist leanness-enhancing agent-related food poisonings are rarely encountered, especially in those countries where relevant veterinary medicines are banned, and may thus pose diagnostic challenge to both emergency physicians and clinical toxicologists. © 2013.

  1. Interlaboratory Trial for Measurement of Vitamin D and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in Foods and a Dietary Supplement Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roseland, Janet Maxwell; Patterson, Kristine Y; Andrews, Karen W

    2016-01-01

    performance has been needed. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate whether vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D3 concentrations in food and DS materials could be measured with acceptable reproducibility. Five experienced laboratories from the United States and other countries participated, all using liquid......Assessment of total vitamin D intake from foods and dietary supplements (DSs) may be incomplete if 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] intake is not included. However, 25(OH)D data for such intake assessments are lacking, no food or DS reference materials (RMs) are available, and comparison of laboratory...... chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry but no common analytical protocol; however, various methods were used for determining vitamin D3 in the DS. Five animal-based materials (including three commercially available RMs) and one DS were analyzed. Reproducibility results for the materials were acceptable. Thus...

  2. Fruit and vegetable consumption and food values: National patterns in the United States by Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program eligibility and cooking frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A.; Bleich, Sara N.

    2015-01-01

    Background More frequent cooking at home may help improve diet quality and be associated with food values, particularly for individuals participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Objective To examine patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption and food values among adults (aged 20 and older) in the United States, by SNAP participation and household cooking frequency. Methods Analysis of cross-sectional 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 (N=9,560). Results A lower percentage of SNAP participants consumed fruit (total: 35% vs. 46%, p=0.001; fresh: 30% vs. 41%, pcooking > 6 times/week was associated with greater vegetable consumption compared to cooking cooked ≥ 2 times/week were more to report price (medium cookers: 47% vs. 33%, p=0.001; high cookers: 52% vs. 40%, pcooking frequency. Efforts to improve diet quality should consider values on which food purchases are based. PMID:25847732

  3. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Botanical species being used for manufacturing plant food supplements (PFS) and related products in the EU member states and selected third countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Chlodwig; Chizzola, Remigius; Novak, Johannes; Sponza, Silvia

    2011-12-01

    A great wealth of plants and plant derived preparations are used in the intention to supplement the basic nutrition in order to sustain and promote health. They may be used directly or consumed as manufactured plant food supplements (PFS) in dosed form. The use of these plants may already have a long tradition as fruit, vegetable or (folk) medicinal plants. Due to globalisation, more and more plants originating from all over the world are now offered and marketed in European countries, including species from China, South Africa and the American continent. For reasons of security, EU wide lists of plants accepted or prohibited to be used in food supplements are in elaboration. A crucial point is the correct identification of the plant material. The identity can be assessed by morphological, chemical and DNA specific methods. The active substances usable in PFS are secondary plant products that are often characteristic for certain plant groups (taxa), species or plant parts. They comprise not only polyphenols, essential oils, carotenoids and phytosterols, but also glucosinolates or saponins. The quality of the plant material used for PFS depends on a variety of factors, including the natural phytochemical, intraspecific variation with the occurrence of chemotypes, the ontogenetic variation, the considered plant parts and environmental influences during plant growth. In the production of the raw materials for PFS international standards (good agricultural practice, fair trade) should be applied.

  5. Enhanced production of tetramethylpyrazine in Bacillus licheniformis BL1 by bdhA disruption and 2,3-butanediol supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Wu; Xiao, Dongguang; Wang, Ruiming

    2016-03-01

    The 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) dehydrogenase gene (bdhA) of Bacillus licheniformis BL1 was disrupted to construct the tetramethylpyrazine (TMP)-producing BLA strain. During microaerobic fermentation, the bdhA-disrupted BLA strain produced 46.98 g TMP/l, and this yield was 23.99% higher than that produced by the parent BL1 strain. In addition, the yield of acetoin, which is a TMP precursor, also increased by 28.98% in BLA. The TMP production by BL1 was enhanced by supplementing the fermentation medium with 2,3-BD. The yield of TMP improved from 37.89 to 44.77 g/l as the concentration of 2,3-BD increased from 0 to 2 g/l. The maximum TMP and acetoin yields increased by 18.16 and 17.87%, respectively with the increase in 2,3-BD concentration from 0 to 2 g/l. However, no increase was observed when the concentration of 2,3-BD in the matrix was ≥3 g/l. This study provides a valuable strategy to enhance TMP and acetoin productivity of mutagenic strains by gene manipulation and optimizing fermentation conditions.

  6. Potensi Kapsul Bee Pollen Plus sebagai Food Supplement Inovatif Peningkat Stamina dalam Rangka Pencegahan Penggunaan Doping pada Atlet Makassar : Uji Coba pada Mahasiswa UKM Sepak Bola

    OpenAIRE

    Utomo, Emilia; Saidah, Lia Nurmilatun; Utami, Iin Fadhilah; Sartini, Sartini

    2017-01-01

    Doping used for stamina enhancement and athletes' performance is actually a medicine that has negative effects on health and potentially causes an addiction. Therefore, it is necessary supplements that can increase the stamina and endurance of an athlete and at the same time could minimize the possibility of doping USAge. Bee pollen is one of the products of bees which is rich nutrients. The nutrients content of Bee pollen such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, minerals, vitamins, and polyp...

  7. Mothers prefer fresh fruits and vegetables over jarred baby fruits and vegetables in the new Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children food package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Loan P; Whaley, Shannon E; Gradziel, Pat H; Crocker, Nancy J; Ritchie, Lorrene D; Harrison, Gail G

    2013-01-01

    This study examined Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) participant use and satisfaction with jarred baby foods, assessed preference for cash value vouchers (CVVs) for fruits and vegetables vs jarred baby foods, and examined whether preferences varied among selected ethnic groups. A survey of California WIC participants and statewide redemption data were used. Participants reported high satisfaction with the CVV for fruits and vegetables and jarred baby foods, with statistically significant variation across ethnic groups. About two thirds of all participants reported a preference for CVVs for fruits and vegetables over jarred baby foods. Redemption data indicated declining redemption rates for jarred fruits and vegetables with increasing age of the infant across all ethnic groups. Although the addition of jarred fruits and vegetables to the food package for infants ages 6-11 months was well received, many caregivers want the option to choose between jarred foods and fresh fruits and vegetables. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  8. Eating ‘Junk-Food' Produces Rapid and Long-Lasting Increases in NAc CP-AMPA Receptors: Implications for Enhanced Cue-Induced Motivation and Food Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginsky, Max F; Goforth, Paulette B; Nobile, Cameron W; Lopez-Santiago, Luis F; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2016-01-01

    Urges to eat are influenced by stimuli in the environment that are associated with food (food cues). Obese people are more sensitive to food cues, reporting stronger craving and consuming larger portions after food cue exposure. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) mediates cue-triggered motivational responses, and activations in the NAc triggered by food cues are stronger in people who are susceptible to obesity. This has led to the idea that alterations in NAc function similar to those underlying drug addiction may contribute to obesity, particularly in obesity-susceptible individuals. Motivational responses are mediated in part by NAc AMPA receptor (AMPAR) transmission, and recent work shows that cue-triggered motivation is enhanced in obesity-susceptible rats after ‘junk-food' diet consumption. Therefore, here we determined whether NAc AMPAR expression and function is increased by ‘junk-food' diet consumption in obesity-susceptible vs -resistant populations using both outbred and selectively bred models of susceptibility. In addition, cocaine-induced locomotor activity was used as a general ‘read out' of mesolimbic function after ‘junk-food' consumption. We found a sensitized locomotor response to cocaine in rats that gained weight on a ‘junk-food' diet, consistent with greater responsivity of mesolimbic circuits in obesity-susceptible groups. In addition, eating ‘junk-food' increased NAc calcium-permeable-AMPAR (CP-AMPAR) function only in obesity-susceptible rats. This increase occurred rapidly, persisted for weeks after ‘junk-food' consumption ceased, and preceded the development of obesity. These data are considered in light of enhanced cue-triggered motivation and striatal function in obesity-susceptible rats and the role of NAc CP-AMPARs in enhanced motivation and addiction. PMID:27383008

  9. Eating 'Junk-Food' Produces Rapid and Long-Lasting Increases in NAc CP-AMPA Receptors: Implications for Enhanced Cue-Induced Motivation and Food Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginsky, Max F; Goforth, Paulette B; Nobile, Cameron W; Lopez-Santiago, Luis F; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2016-12-01

    Urges to eat are influenced by stimuli in the environment that are associated with food (food cues). Obese people are more sensitive to food cues, reporting stronger craving and consuming larger portions after food cue exposure. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) mediates cue-triggered motivational responses, and activations in the NAc triggered by food cues are stronger in people who are susceptible to obesity. This has led to the idea that alterations in NAc function similar to those underlying drug addiction may contribute to obesity, particularly in obesity-susceptible individuals. Motivational responses are mediated in part by NAc AMPA receptor (AMPAR) transmission, and recent work shows that cue-triggered motivation is enhanced in obesity-susceptible rats after 'junk-food' diet consumption. Therefore, here we determined whether NAc AMPAR expression and function is increased by 'junk-food' diet consumption in obesity-susceptible vs -resistant populations using both outbred and selectively bred models of susceptibility. In addition, cocaine-induced locomotor activity was used as a general 'read out' of mesolimbic function after 'junk-food' consumption. We found a sensitized locomotor response to cocaine in rats that gained weight on a 'junk-food' diet, consistent with greater responsivity of mesolimbic circuits in obesity-susceptible groups. In addition, eating 'junk-food' increased NAc calcium-permeable-AMPAR (CP-AMPAR) function only in obesity-susceptible rats. This increase occurred rapidly, persisted for weeks after 'junk-food' consumption ceased, and preceded the development of obesity. These data are considered in light of enhanced cue-triggered motivation and striatal function in obesity-susceptible rats and the role of NAc CP-AMPARs in enhanced motivation and addiction.

  10. The Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Supplement: 7 Sessions of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Charles; Scudder, Meleney; Kaminer, Yifrah; Kaden, Ron

    This manual, a supplement to "Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users: 5 Sessions, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 1", presents a seven-session cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT7) approach designed especially for adolescent cannabis users. It addresses the implementation and…

  11. The use of dietary supplements by athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ronald J; Depiesse, Frederic; Geyer, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements as part of their regular training or competition routine, including about 85% of elite track and field athletes. Supplements commonly used include vitamins, minerals, protein, creatine, and various "ergogenic" compounds. These supplements are often used without a full understanding or evaluation of the potential benefits and risks associated with their use, and without consultation with a sports nutrition professional. A few supplements may be helpful to athletes in specific circumstances, especially where food intake or food choice is restricted. Vitamin and mineral supplements should be used only when a food-based solution is not available. Sports drinks, energy bars, and protein-carbohydrate shakes may all be useful and convenient at specific times. There are well-documented roles for creatine, caffeine, and alkalinizing agents in enhancing performance in high-intensity exercise, although much of the evidence does not relate to specific athletic events. There are potential costs associated with all dietary supplements, including the risk of a positive doping result as a consequence of the presence of prohibited substances that are not declared on the label.

  12. Enhancement of growth performance in pre-weaning suckling Boer kids supplemented with creep feed containing alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htoo, Nay Nang; Khaing, Aung Tun; Abba, Yusuf; Htin, Nwe Nwe; Abdullah, Jesse Faez Firdaus; Kyaw, Than; Khan, Mohd Azam Khan Goriman; Lila, Mohd Azmi Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study examined the effects of creep feed (CF) supplementation (with or without Alfalfa) on the pre-weaning growth performance of nursing goat kids. Materials and Methods: A total of forty eight (48), 7 days old, single born kids (live weight 4.4±0.09 kg) were divided into three treatment groups, each containing eight males and eight females. All three groups had access to their dams’ milk (DM). The kids from the first treatment group had free access to CF containing alfalfa (CFA) while those from the second group had free access to CF without alfalfa. The third treatment group (control) had access to their DM only. All three groups were kept isolated from the dams from 800 to 1200 h and from 1400 to 1800 h while having access to CF. Results: Total weight gain and average daily gain of kids from CFA group (11.2±0.36 kg, 145.2±4.64 g) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than kids from CF (7.9±0.49 kg, 102.9±6.43 g) and DM (5.5±0.43 kg, 71.1±5.56 g) groups. The weaning weight of kids from CFA group (15.6±0.39 kg) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than those from CF (12.1±0.56 kg) and DM (9.9±0.59 kg) groups. Conclusion: This result shows that supplementation of CF combined with alfalfa from birth to weaning enhances growth performance of cross-bred Boer goat kids. PMID:27065636

  13. Enhancement of growth performance in pre-weaning suckling Boer kids supplemented with creep feed containing alfalfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nay Naing Htoo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study examined the effects of creep feed (CF supplementation (with or without Alfalfa on the pre-weaning growth performance of nursing goat kids. Materials and Methods: A total of forty eight (48, 7 days old, single born kids (live weight 4.4±0.09 kg were divided into three treatment groups, each containing eight males and eight females. All three groups had access to their dams’ milk (DM. The kids from the first treatment group had free access to CF containing alfalfa (CFA while those from the second group had free access to CF without alfalfa. The third treatment group (control had access to their DM only. All three groups were kept isolated from the dams from 800 to 1200 h and from 1400 to 1800 h while having access to CF. Results: Total weight gain and average daily gain of kids from CFA group (11.2±0.36 kg, 145.2±4.64 g was significantly higher (p<0.05 than kids from CF (7.9±0.49 kg, 102.9±6.43 g and DM (5.5±0.43 kg, 71.1±5.56 g groups. The weaning weight of kids from CFA group (15.6±0.39 kg was significantly higher (p<0.05 than those from CF (12.1±0.56 kg and DM (9.9±0.59 kg groups. Conclusion: This result shows that supplementation of CF combined with alfalfa from birth to weaning enhances growth performance of cross-bred Boer goat kids.

  14. The Hip Functional Retrieval after Elective Surgery May Be Enhanced by Supplemented Essential Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissarro, Eleonora; Aquilani, Roberto; Boschi, Federica; Baiardi, Paola; Iadarola, Paolo; Fumagalli, Marco; Pasini, Evasio; Verri, Manuela; Dossena, Maurizia; Gambino, Arianna; Cammisuli, Sharon; Viglio, Simona

    2016-01-01

    It is not known whether postsurgery systemic inflammation and plasma amino acid abnormalities are still present during rehabilitation of individuals after elective hip arthroplasty (EHA). Sixty subjects (36 females; age 66.58 ± 8.37 years) were randomized to receive 14-day oral EAAs (8 g/day) or a placebo (maltodextrin). At admission to and discharge from the rehabilitation center, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and venous plasma amino acid concentrations were determined. Post-EHA hip function was evaluated by Harris hip score (HHS) test. Ten matched healthy subjects served as controls. At baseline, all patients had high CRP levels, considerable reduction in several amino acids, and severely reduced hip function (HHS 40.78 ± 2.70 scores). After treatment, inflammation decreased both in the EAA group and in the placebo group. Only EAA patients significantly improved their levels of glycine, alanine, tyrosine, and total amino acids. In addition, they enhanced the rate of hip function recovery (HHS) (from baseline 41.8 ± 1.15 to 76.37 ± 6.6 versus baseline 39.78 ± 4.89 to 70.0 ± 7.1 in placebo one; p = 0.006). The study documents the persistence of inflammation and plasma amino acid abnormalities in post-EHA rehabilitation phase. EAAs enhance hip function retrieval and improve plasma amino acid abnormalities. PMID:27110573

  15. The Hip Functional Retrieval after Elective Surgery May Be Enhanced by Supplemented Essential Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Baldissarro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not known whether postsurgery systemic inflammation and plasma amino acid abnormalities are still present during rehabilitation of individuals after elective hip arthroplasty (EHA. Sixty subjects (36 females; age 66.58±8.37 years were randomized to receive 14-day oral EAAs (8 g/day or a placebo (maltodextrin. At admission to and discharge from the rehabilitation center, serum C-reactive protein (CRP and venous plasma amino acid concentrations were determined. Post-EHA hip function was evaluated by Harris hip score (HHS test. Ten matched healthy subjects served as controls. At baseline, all patients had high CRP levels, considerable reduction in several amino acids, and severely reduced hip function (HHS 40.78±2.70 scores. After treatment, inflammation decreased both in the EAA group and in the placebo group. Only EAA patients significantly improved their levels of glycine, alanine, tyrosine, and total amino acids. In addition, they enhanced the rate of hip function recovery (HHS (from baseline 41.8±1.15 to 76.37±6.6 versus baseline 39.78±4.89 to 70.0±7.1 in placebo one; p=0.006. The study documents the persistence of inflammation and plasma amino acid abnormalities in post-EHA rehabilitation phase. EAAs enhance hip function retrieval and improve plasma amino acid abnormalities.

  16. Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthesis in the outer envelope membrane of chloroplasts is required for enhanced growth under sucrose supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato eMurakawa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant galactolipid synthesis on the outer envelope membranes of chloroplasts is an important biosynthetic pathway for sustained growth under conditions of phosphate (Pi depletion. During Pi starvation, the amount of digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG is increased to substitute for the phospholipids that are degraded for supplying Pi. An increase in DGDG concentration depends on an adequate supply of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG, which is a substrate for DGDG synthesis and is synthesized by a type-B MGDG synthase, MGD3. Recently, sucrose was suggested to be a global regulator of plant responses to Pi starvation. Thus, we analyzed expression levels of several genes involved in lipid remodeling during Pi starvation in Arabidopsis thaliana and found that the abundance of MGD3 mRNA increased when sucrose was exogenously supplied to the growth medium. Sucrose supplementation retarded the growth of the Arabidopsis MGD3 knockout mutant mgd3 but enhanced the growth of transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing MGD3 compared with wild type, indicating the involvement of MGD3 in plant growth under sucrose-replete conditions. Although most features such as chlorophyll content, photosynthetic activity, and Pi content were comparable between wild-type and the transgenic plants overexpressing MGD3, sucrose content in shoot tissues decreased and incorporation of exogenously supplied carbon to DGDG was enhanced in the MGD3-overexpressing plants compared with wild type. Our results suggest that MGD3 plays an important role in supplying DGDG as a component of extraplastidial membranes to support enhanced plant growth under conditions of carbon excess.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus and Zygosaccharomyces bailii as primary microbial contaminants of a spoiled herbal food supplement and evaluation of their survival during shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Franca; Gaio, Elena; Torriani, Sandra

    2010-05-01

    This investigation was carried out to identify the microbiota in a spoiled commercial food supplement consisting of a syrup suspension of a mixture of dried herbs and herb extracts. The product did not contain alkyl-p-hydroxybenzoates (parabens) as preservatives, was kept at room temperature and showed abundant gas formation. Colonies of distinct morphology were recovered on bacteria- and yeast-specific media, and tested for their ability to grow in the product. Genetic differentiation and identification of the microbial contaminants were achieved by RAPD-PCR and rDNA sequence analysis. The bacteria Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Paenibacillus humicus, Paenibacillus glycanilyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and the yeasts Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii were detected. Of the two S. aureus strains isolated, one was enterotoxigenic, as indicated by the presence of five SE genes. Quantitative Real-Time PCR tests, specific for this pathogen and for Z. bailii, a microbial agent causing fermentation processes and consequent food spoilage, were carried out to quantify these microorganisms in the product and identify their source among the herbal ingredients and the fructose syrup used as sweetener. Most components appeared to be contaminated by both S. aureus and Z. bailii. These findings indicate the need to improve hygienic practices in the industrial manufacturing of the food supplement, starting with herbal ingredients, to ensure a high quality of the product. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Descriptive and hedonic analyses of low-Phe food formulations containing corn (Zea mays) seedling roots: toward development of a dietary supplement for individuals with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Margaret A; Law, Jessica R; Lücker, Joost; Scaman, Christine H; Kermode, Allison R

    2016-01-15

    Seedling roots of anthocyanin-rich corn (Zea mays) cultivars contain high levels of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity. The development of a natural dietary supplement containing corn roots could provide the means to improve the restrictive diet of phenylketonuria (PKU) patients by increasing their tolerance to dietary phenylalanine (Phe). Therefore this research was undertaken to explore the sensory characteristics of roots of four corn cultivars as well as to develop and evaluate food products (cereal bar, beverage, jam-like spread) to which roots had been added. Sensory profiles of corn roots were investigated using ten trained judges. Roots of Japanese Striped corn seedlings were more bitter, pungent and astringent than those of white and yellow cultivars, while roots from the Blue Jade cultivar had a more pronounced earthy/mushroom aroma. Consumer research using 24 untrained panelists provided hedonic (degree-of-liking) assessments for products with and without roots (controls). The former had lower mean scores than the controls; however, the cereal bar had scores above 5 on the nine-point scale for all hedonic assessments compared with the other treated products. By evaluating low-Phe food products containing corn roots, this research ascertained that the root-containing low-Phe cereal bar was an acceptable 'natural' dietary supplement for PKU-affected individuals. © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Silica in situ enhanced PVA/chitosan biodegradable films for food packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhen; Li, Baoqiang; Chu, Jiayu; Zhang, Peifeng

    2018-03-15

    Non-degradable plastic food packages threaten the security of environment. The cost-effective and biodegradable polymer films with good mechanical properties and low permeability are very important for food packages. Among of biodegradable polymers, PVA/chitosan (CS) biodegradable films have attracted considerable attention because of feasible film forming ability. However, PVA/CS biodegradable films suffered from poor mechanical properties. To improve mechanical properties of PVA/CS biodegradable films, we developed SiO 2 in situ to enhance PVA/CS biodegradable films via hydrolysis of sodium metasilicate in presence of PVA and chitosan solution. The tensile strength of PVA/CS biodegradable films was improved 45% when 0.6 wt.% SiO 2 was incorporated into the films. Weight loss of PVA/CS biodegradable films was 60% after 30 days in the soil. The permeability of oxygen and moisture of PVA/CS biodegradable films was reduced by 25.6% and 10.2%, respectively. SiO 2 in situ enhanced PVA/CS biodegradable films possessed not only excellent mechanical properties, but also barrier of oxygen and water for food packages to extend the perseveration time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhancing anaerobic digestion performance of crude lipid in food waste by enzymatic pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ying; Luan, Fubo; Yuan, Hairong; Chen, Xue; Li, Xiujin

    2017-01-01

    Three lipases were applied to hydrolyze the floatable grease (FG) in the food waste for eliminating FG inhibition and enhancing digestion performance in anaerobic process. Lipase-I, Lipase-II, and Lipase-III obtained from different sources were used. Animal fat (AF) and vegetable oil (VO) are major crude lipids in Chinese food waste, therefore, applied as substrates for anaerobic digestion tests. The results showed that Lipase-I and Lipase-II were capable of obviously releasing long chain fatty acid in AF, VO, and FG when hydrolyzed in the conditions of 24h, 1000-1500μL and 40-50°C. Compared to the untreated controls, the biomethane production rate were increased by 80.8-157.7%, 26.9-53.8%, and 37.0-40.7% for AF, VO, and FG, respectively, and the digestion time was shortened by 10-40d. The finding suggests that pretreating lipids with appropriate lipase could be one of effective methods for enhancing anaerobic digestion of food waste rich in crude lipid. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Peripheral ghrelin enhances sweet taste food consumption and preference, regardless of its caloric content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disse, Emmanuel; Bussier, Anne-Lise; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Deblon, Nicolas; Pfluger, Paul T; Tschöp, Matthias H; Laville, Martine; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise

    2010-09-01

    Ghrelin is one of the most potent orexigens known to date. While the prevailing view is that ghrelin participates in the homeostatic control of feeding, the question arose as to whether consummatory responses evoked by this compound could be related to search for reward. We therefore attempted to delineate the involvement of ghrelin in the modulation of non-caloric but highly rewarding consumption. We tested the effect of intraperitoneally injected ghrelin on the acceptance and preference for a 0.3% saccharin solution using single bottle tests and free-choice preference test procedures in C57BL6/J mice, as well as in mice lacking the ghrelin receptor (GHSR1a -/-) and their wild-type (WT) littermates. In the single bottle tests, peripheral ghrelin consistently increased the consumption of saccharin, independently of availability of caloric food. In the free-choice preference test procedures, ghrelin increased the preference for saccharin in WT mice, while it did had not effect in GHSR1a -/-animals, indicating that the ghrelin receptor pathway is necessary to mediate this parameter. Peripheral ghrelin enhances intake and preference for a sweet food, regardless of whether the food has caloric content. This effect, mediated through the ghrelin receptor pathway, may serve as additional enhancers of energy intake. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Maternal N-Carbamylglutamate Supplementation during Early Pregnancy Enhances Embryonic Survival and Development through Modulation of the Endometrial Proteome in Gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinlong; Zeng, Xiangfang; Peng, Qian; Zeng, Shenming; Zhao, Haiyi; Shen, Hexiao; Qiao, Shiyan

    2015-10-01

    Early pregnancy loss is a major concern in humans and animals. N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) has been found to enhance embryonic survival during early pregnancy in rats. However, little is known about the key factors in the endometrium involved in the improvement of embryonic implantation and development induced by maternal NCG supplementation. Our objectives were to investigate whether NCG supplementation during early gestation enhanced embryonic survival and development in gilts and to uncover the related factors using the approach of endometrium proteome analysis with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). Uteruses and embryos/fetuses were obtained on days 14 and 28 of gestation from gilts fed a basal diet that was or was not supplemented with 0.05% NCG. The iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics approach was performed to explore the endometrium proteome altered by NCG supplementation. Maternal NCG supplementation significantly increased the number of total fetuses and live fetuses on day 28 of gestation by 1.32 and 1.29, respectively (P gilts. The differentially expressed proteins primarily are involved in cell adhesion, energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, protein metabolism, antioxidative stress, and immune response. On day 14 of gestation, several proteins closely related to embryonic implantation and development, such as integrin-αv, integrin-β3, talin, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase, were upregulated (3.7-, 4.1-, 2.4-, and 5.4-fold increases, respectively) by NCG supplementation. To our knowledge, our results provide the first evidence that altered abundance of the endometrial proteome induced by NCG supplementation is highly associated with the improvement of embryonic survival and development in gilts. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Long-term intermittent multiple micronutrient supplementation enhances hemoglobin and micronutrient status more than iron + folic acid supplementation in Bangladeshi rural adolescent girls with nutritional anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Faruk; Khan, Moududur R; Akhtaruzzaman, Mohammad; Karim, Rezaul; Williams, Gail; Torlesse, Harriet; Darnton-Hill, Ian; Dalmiya, Nita; Banu, Cadi P; Nahar, Badrun

    2010-10-01

    Previous short-term supplementation studies showed no additional hematologic benefit of multiple micronutrients (MMN) compared with iron + folic acid (IFA) in adolescent girls. This study examines whether long-term once- or twice-weekly supplementation of MMN can improve hemoglobin (Hb) and micronutrient status more than twice-weekly IFA supplementation in anemic adolescent girls in Bangladesh. Anemic girls (n = 324) aged 11-17 y attending rural schools were given once- or twice-weekly MMN or twice-weekly IFA, containing 60 mg iron/dose in both supplements, for 52 wk in a randomized double-blind trial. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 26 and 52 wk. Intent to treat analysis showed no significant difference in the Hb concentration between treatments at either 26 or 52 wk. However, after excluding girls with hemoglobinopathy and adjustment for baseline Hb, a greater increase in Hb was observed with twice-weekly MMN at 26 wk (P = 0.045). Although all 3 treatments effectively reduced iron deficiency, once-weekly MMN produced significantly lower serum ferritin concentrations than the other treatments at both 26 and 52 wk. Both once- and twice-weekly MMN significantly improved riboflavin, vitamin A, and vitamin C status compared with IFA. Overall, once-weekly MMN was less efficacious than twice-weekly MMN in improving iron, riboflavin, RBC folic acid, and vitamin A levels. Micronutrient supplementation beyond 26 wk was likely important in sustaining improved micronutrient status. These findings highlight the potential usefulness of MMN intervention in this population and have implications for programming.

  4. Randomized controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of an interactive multimedia food safety education program for clients of the special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Newman, Frederick L; Davila, Evelyn P; Matthew, Karen J; Dixon, Zisca; Huffman, Fatma G

    2008-06-01

    Pregnant women and the very young are among those most susceptible to foodborne infections and at high risk of a severe outcome from foodborne infections. To determine if interactive multimedia is a more effective method than pamphlets for delivering food safety education to Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clients. A randomized controlled trial of WIC clients was conducted. Self-reported food safety practices were compared between pre- and postintervention questionnaires completed >or=2 months after the intervention. Pregnant WIC clients or female caregivers (usually mothers) of WIC clients who were 18 years of age or older and able to speak and read English were recruited from an inner-city WIC clinic. Participants were randomized to receive food safety pamphlets or complete an interactive multimedia food safety education program on a computer kiosk. Change from pre- to postintervention food safety scores. A mean food safety score was determined for each participant for the pre- and postintervention questionnaires. The scores were used in a two-group repeated measures analysis of variance. Of the 394 participants, 255 (64.7%) completed the postintervention questionnaire. Satisfaction with the program was high especially among those with no education beyond high school. When considering a repeated measures analysis of variance model with the two fixed between-subject effects of group and age, a larger improvement in score in the interactive multimedia group than in the pamphlet group (P=0.005) was found, but the size of the group effect was small (partial eta(2)=0.033). Women aged 35 years or older in the interactive multimedia group had the largest increase in score. The interactive multimedia was well-accepted and resulted in improved self-reported food safety practices, suggesting that interactive multimedia is an effective option for food safety education in WIC clinics.

  5. The Impact of the 2009 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Food Package Revisions on Participants: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Daniel Joseph; Byker Shanks, Carmen; Houghtaling, Bailey

    2015-11-01

    For the first time since 1980, the US Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food package policies were revised in 2009 to meet the Institute of Medicine's nutrition recommendations. These changes included increases in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy to improve nutrition and health of WIC participants. Our systematic review of the literature assessed the influence that the 2009 WIC food package revisions have had on dietary intake, healthy food and beverage availability, and breastfeeding participation. The systematic review followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations. Four electronic databases were searched between April 1 and 30, 2014, for peer-reviewed research. Two reviewers screened the articles, extracted the data, and established inter-rater reliability by discussing and resolving discrepancies. Twenty articles were included that met our inclusion criteria. Nine of the studies analyzed changes in dietary intake, eight examined changes in healthy food and beverage availability, and three evaluated breastfeeding participation exclusively. The review demonstrated an improved dietary intake and an increase in the availability of healthier foods and beverages in authorized WIC stores. The revised food package was also associated with improved dietary intake of WIC participants. Mixed results were demonstrated in regard to improved breastfeeding outcomes. Further research is needed to assess the influence of WIC 2009 food package revisions on breastfeeding outcomes and to make conclusions about broad nutrition-related implications. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ghrelin enhances food intake and carbohydrate oxidation in a nitric oxide dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtahi, Shayan; Mirza, Aaisha; Howell, Erin; Currie, Paul J

    2017-09-01

    In the present study we sought to investigate interactions between hypothalamic nitric oxide (NO) and ghrelin signaling on food intake and energy substrate utilization as measured by the respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Guide cannulae were unilaterally implanted in either the arcuate (ArcN) or paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were pretreated with subcutaneous (2.5-10mg/kg/ml) or central (0-100pmol) N-nitro-l-Arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) followed by 50pmol of ghrelin administered into either the ArcN or PVN. Both l-NAME and ghrelin were microinjected at the onset of the active cycle and food intake and RER were assessed 2h postinjection. RER was measured as the ratio of the volume of carbon dioxide expelled relative to the volume of oxygen consumed (VCO 2 /VO 2 ) using an open-circuit indirect calorimeter. Our results demonstrated that peripheral and central l-NAME pretreatment dose-dependently attenuated ghrelin induced increases in food intake and RER in either the ArcN or PVN. In fact the 100pmol dose largely reversed the metabolic effects of ghrelin in both anatomical regions. These findings suggest that ghrelin enhancement of food intake and carbohydrate oxidation in the rat ArcN and PVN is NO-dependent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Food macromolecule based nanodelivery systems for enhancing the bioavailability of polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet polyphenols—primarily categorized into flavonoids (e.g., flavonols, flavones, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanidins, flavanones, and isoflavones and nonflavonoids (with major subclasses of stilbenes and phenolic acids—are reported to have health-promoting effects, such as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, anticarcinoma, antimicrobial, antiviral, and cardioprotective properties. However, their applications in functional foods or medicine are limited because of their inefficient systemic delivery and poor oral bioavailability. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, curcumin, and resveratrol are the well-known representatives of the bioactive diet polyphenols but with poor bioavailability. Food macromolecule based nanoparticles have been fabricated using reassembled proteins, crosslinked polysaccharides, protein–polysaccharide conjugates (complexes, as well as emulsified lipid via safe procedures that could be applied in food. The human gastrointestinal digestion tract is the first place where the food grade macromolecule nanoparticles exert their effects on improving the bioavailability of diet polyphenols, via enhancing their solubility, preventing their degradation in the intestinal environment, elevating the permeation in small intestine, and even increasing their contents in the bloodstream. We contend that the stability and structure behaviors of nanocarriers in the gastrointestinal tract environment and the effects of nanoencapsulation on the metabolism of polyphenols warrant more focused attention in further studies.

  8. Higher bioavailability of isoflavones after a single ingestion of a soya-based supplement than a soya-based food in young healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, Sébastien; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine; Lamothe, Valérie; Chantre, Philippe; Potier, Mylène; Asselineau, Julien; Perez, Paul; Durand, Marlène; Moore, Nicholas; Sauvant, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    Soya isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, are the focus of numerous studies investigating their potential effects on health and results remain controversial. Bioavailability is clearly a crucial factor influencing their bioefficacy and could explain these discrepancies. This study aimed at assessing: (1) the isoflavone content of sixty-nine European soya-derivative products sold on the French market; (2) the bioavailability of isoflavones comparing supplement with food. Twelve healthy volunteers were recruited in a randomized two-way crossover trial and received 35 mg isoflavones equivalent aglycone either through supplements or through cheese, both containing different patterns of isoflavone conjugates and different daidzein:genistein ratios. A specific ELISA method was used to assess the plasma and urinary concentrations of isoflavones and thus the pharmacokinetic parameters, which were then normalized to mg of each isoflavone ingested. Results showed that the normalized Cmax of daidzein (P = 0.002) and similarly the normalized AUC0 --> infinity and Cmax of genistein (P = 0.002) from soya-based capsules were higher than that from soya-based cheese. In conclusion, this work completes studies on isoflavone bioavailability and presents new data regarding isoflavone concentrations in soya-derivative products. Assuming that isoflavone conjugation patterns do not influence isoflavone bioavailability, this study shows that isoflavones contained in capsules are more bioavailable than those contained in soya-based cheese. Although the supplement is more bioavailable, the relative importance of this is difficult to interpret as there is little evidence that supplements are biologically active in human subjects to date and further studies will be necessary for this specific supplement to prove its efficacy.

  9. Body and Mind: Mindfulness Helps Consumers to Compensate for Prior Food Intake by Enhancing the Responsiveness to Physiological Cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van de E.; Herpen, van E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    External cues regularly override physiological cues in food consumption resulting in mindless eating. In a series of experiments, this study shows that mindfulness, an enhanced attention state, improves consumers’ reliance on physiological cues across consumption episodes. Consumers who are

  10. Adverse Effects of Plant Food Supplements Self-Reported by Consumers in the PlantLIBRA Survey Involving Six European Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Restani

    Full Text Available The use of food supplements containing botanicals is increasing in European markets. Although intended to maintain the health status, several cases of adverse effects to Plant Food Supplements (PFS have been described.To describe the self-reported adverse effects collected during the European PlantLIBRA PFS Consumer Survey 2011-2012, with a critical evaluation of the plausibility of the symptomatology reported using data from the literature and from the PlantLIBRA Poisons Centers' survey.From the total sample of 2359 consumers involved in the consumers' survey, 82 subjects reported adverse effects due to a total of 87 PFS.Cases were self-reported, therefore causality was not classified on the basis of clinical evidence, but by using the frequency/strength of adverse effects described in scientific papers: 52 out of 87 cases were defined as possible (59.8% and 4 as probable (4.6%. Considering the most frequently cited botanicals, eight cases were due to Valeriana officinalis (garden valerian; seven to Camellia sinensis (tea; six to Ginkgo biloba (Maidenhair tree and Paullinia cupana (guarana. Most adverse events related to the gastrointestinal tract, nervous and cardiovascular systems.Comparing the data from this study with those published in scientific papers and obtained by the PlantLIBRA Poisons Centers' survey, some important conclusions can be drawn: severe adverse effects to PFS are quite rare, although mild or moderate adverse symptoms can be present. Data reported in this paper can help health professionals (and in particular family doctors to become aware of possible new problems associated with the increasing use of food supplements containing botanicals.

  11. Solar-powered drip irrigation enhances food security in the Sudano-Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, Jennifer; Woltering, Lennart; Burke, Marshall; Naylor, Rosamond; Pasternak, Dov

    2010-02-02

    Meeting the food needs of Africa's growing population over the next half-century will require technologies that significantly improve rural livelihoods at minimal environmental cost. These technologies will likely be distinct from those of the Green Revolution, which had relatively little impact in sub-Saharan Africa; consequently, few such interventions have been rigorously evaluated. This paper analyzes solar-powered drip irrigation as a strategy for enhancing food security in the rural Sudano-Sahel region of West Africa. Using a matched-pair comparison of villages in northern Benin (two treatment villages, two comparison villages), and household survey and field-level data through the first year of harvest in those villages, we find that solar-powered drip irrigation significantly augments both household income and nutritional intake, particularly during the dry season, and is cost effective compared to alternative technologies.

  12. Solar-powered drip irrigation enhances food security in the Sudano–Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, Jennifer; Woltering, Lennart; Burke, Marshall; Naylor, Rosamond; Pasternak, Dov

    2010-01-01

    Meeting the food needs of Africa’s growing population over the next half-century will require technologies that significantly improve rural livelihoods at minimal environmental cost. These technologies will likely be distinct from those of the Green Revolution, which had relatively little impact in sub-Saharan Africa; consequently, few such interventions have been rigorously evaluated. This paper analyzes solar-powered drip irrigation as a strategy for enhancing food security in the rural Sudano–Sahel region of West Africa. Using a matched-pair comparison of villages in northern Benin (two treatment villages, two comparison villages), and household survey and field-level data through the first year of harvest in those villages, we find that solar-powered drip irrigation significantly augments both household income and nutritional intake, particularly during the dry season, and is cost effective compared to alternative technologies. PMID:20080616

  13. The unhealthy food environment does not modify the association between obesity and participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, M Pia; Harrison, Gail G; Wang, May C; Seto, Edmund Y W; Pebley, Anne R

    2017-01-14

    Participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) has been linked to an increased risk of obesity, but not much is known about the mechanisms behind this association. The objective of this study was to determine if the neighborhood density of unhealthy food outlets modifies the association between obesity and participation in SNAP. Data comes from the first wave of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey; included are a subsample of adults (18+ years) who were SNAP participants or eligible non-participants (N = 1,176). We carried out multilevel analyses with obesity (BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m 2 ), SNAP participation, and the neighborhood density of unhealthy food outlets as dependent, independent and modifying variables, respectively, controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, marital status, working status, mental health, and neighborhood poverty. SNAP participants had double the odds of obesity compared to eligible non-participants (OR = 2.02; 95%CI = 1.44-2.83). However, the neighborhood density of unhealthy food outlets did not modify this association. SNAP participation was associated with higher odds of obesity in our primarily Hispanic sample in Los Angeles County, with no effect modification found for the unhealthy portion of the food environment. More research is needed with additional food environment measures to confirm our null findings. Additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms linking SNAP participation and obesity as they remain unclear.

  14. Enhancing processes for introduction, production, quality assurance, and delivery of US Title II food aid products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossman, Nina; Webb, Patrick; Bagriansky, Jack; Johnson, Quentin; Rogers, Beatrice; Tilahun, Jessica; Masterson, Amelia Reese

    2011-09-01

    Enacted in 1950, Public Law 480 (PL480) dramatically increased the volume of U.S.food aid and the scope of interventions it supports. Billions of dollars have been invested, both to enhance the diets of chronically undernourished people in development settings, and to support nutritional needs during conflicts and natural disasters. Review the institutional processes-from procurement to delivery-that support this programming. We examined the systems that govern and oversee the many components of food aid programming and the extent to which they support a whole-of-government, multi-agency food aid agenda. We conducted consultations with US government employees and contractors, academics, industry representatives, donor agency staff United Nations personnel, and field-level food aid programming technical staff from many countries. A survey of USAID implementing partners conducted among 64 responding offices in 40 countries provided data on the use and effectiveness of enriched, fortified, or blended Title II commodities, the use of new commodities, and related procurement or logistics aspects. Expert panels provided input and feedback throughout the process. We identified potential improvements to overall delivery and cost-effectiveness of USAID programming to better meet the nutrition needs of beneficiaries. Options include changes in product formulation, the range of products provided, and/or the modes of product approval, processing, procurement, and distribution. This research points to several improvements in processes related to food aid: 1) Establish an interagency committee to oversee all government interests in the food aid agenda through an ongoing review process. 2) Enhance processes and quality assurance along the product value chain including the importance of effective interaction with the private sector to incorporate industry best practices and create public-private partnerships to promote product innovations. 3) Strengthen the evidence base for

  15. Oreochromis mossambicus diet supplementation with Psidium guajava leaf extracts enhance growth, immune, antioxidant response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobi, Narayanan; Ramya, Chinnu; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Vijayakumar, Sekar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    In this research, we focused on the efficacy of aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of Psidium guajava L. (guava) based experimental diets on the growth, immune, antioxidant and disease resistance of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus following challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. The experimental diets were prepared by mixing powdered (1, 5 and 10 mg/g) aqueous and ethanol extract of guava leaf with commercial diet. The growth (FW, FCR and SGR), non-specific cellular immune (myeloperoxidase activity, reactive oxygen activity and reactive nitrogen activity) humoral immune (complement activity, antiprotease, alkaline phosphatase activity and lysozyme activity) and antioxidant enzyme responses (SOD, GPX, and CAT) were examined after 30 days of post-feeding. A significant enhancement in the biochemical and immunological parameters of fish were observed fed with experimental diets compared to control. The dietary supplementation of P. guajava leaf extract powder for 30 days significantly reduced the mortality and increased the disease resistance of O. mossambicus following challenge with A. hydrophila at 50 μl (1 × 10 7  cells ml -1 ) compared to control after post-infection. The results suggest that the guava leaf extract could be used as a promising feed additive in aquaculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Supplementation of exogenous adenosine 5'-triphosphate enhances mechanical properties of 3D cell-agarose constructs for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadjanski, Ivana; Yodmuang, Supansa; Spiller, Kara; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2013-10-01

    Formation of tissue-engineered cartilage is greatly enhanced by mechanical stimulation. However, direct mechanical stimulation is not always a suitable method, and the utilization of mechanisms underlying mechanotransduction might allow for a highly effective and less aggressive alternate means of stimulation. In particular, the purinergic, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-mediated signaling pathway is strongly implicated in mechanotransduction within the articular cartilage. We investigated the effects of transient and continuous exogenous ATP supplementation on mechanical properties of cartilaginous constructs engineered using bovine chondrocytes and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) encapsulated in an agarose hydrogel. For both cell types, we have observed significant increases in equilibrium and dynamic compressive moduli after transient ATP treatment applied in the fourth week of cultivation. Continuous ATP treatment over 4 weeks of culture only slightly improved the mechanical properties of the constructs, without major changes in the total glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen content. Structure-function analyses showed that transiently ATP-treated constructs, and in particular those based on hMSCs, had the highest level of correlation between compositional and mechanical properties. Transiently treated groups showed intense staining of the territorial matrix for GAGs and collagen type II. These results indicate that transient ATP treatment can improve functional mechanical properties of cartilaginous constructs based on chondrogenic cells and agarose hydrogels, possibly by improving the structural organization of the bulk phase and territorial extracellular matrix (ECM), that is, by increasing correlation slopes between the content of the ECM components (GAG, collagen) and mechanical properties of the construct.

  17. Food insecurity, diet quality and body mass index of women participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: The role of intrapersonal, home environment, community and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjeevi, Namrata; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne; Hersh, Matthew

    2018-06-01

    Obesity is a public health problem that disproportionately affects low-income populations. Moreover, participation in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) has been associated with obesity among low-income women. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of intrapersonal, home environment, community and social factors on diet quality and body mass index (BMI) of low-income women participating in SNAP. This study also aimed to examine the role of these factors in mediating the relationship between food insecurity and diet quality, and BMI. A total of 152 women receiving SNAP benefits were recruited from low-incom