WorldWideScience

Sample records for food production environment

  1. Greenhouses for food production and the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Abdeen Mustafa Omer

    2016-01-01

    A greenhouse is essentially an enclosed structure, which traps the short wavelength solar radiation and stores the long wavelength thermal radiation to create a favourable microclimate for higher productivity. The sun’s radiation incident on the greenhouse has two parts: direct radiation and an associated diffuse sky radiation. The diffuse part is not focused by the lenses and goes right through Frensel lenses onto the surface of the absorbers. This energy is absorbed and transformed into hea...

  2. Gram-positive bacteria persisting in the food production environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knøchel, Susanne; Harmsen, Morten; Knudsen, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    Many gram-positive bacteria are able to form aggregates or biofilms and resist external stress factors and some gram-positive pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus may persist in the food production environment for extended periods. Most research has focussed...

  3. Gram-positive bacteria persisting in the food production environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knøchel, Susanne; Harmsen, Morten; Knudsen, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    Many gram-positive bacteria are able to form aggregates or biofilms and resist external stress factors and some gram-positive pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus may persist in the food production environment for extended periods. Most research has focussed...... on the gram-negative bacteria and, in general, less is known abourt the gram poritives. At present much conflicting evidence has been presented perhaps because so many internal and external factors influence the ability to adhere. Some of the present knowledge of biofilm or aggregation forming properties...

  4. Determining the potential productivity of food crops in controlled environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugbee, Bruce

    The quest to determine the maximum potential productivity of food crops is greatly benefitted by crop growth models. Many models have been developed to analyze and predict crop growth in the field, but it is difficult to predict biological responses to stress conditions. Crop growth models for the optimal environments of a Controlled Environment Life Support System (CELSS) can be highly predictive. This paper discusses the application of a crop growth model to CELSS; the model is used to evaluate factors limiting growth. The model separately evaluates the following four physiological processes: absorption of PPF by photosynthetic tissue, carbon fixation (photosynthesis), carbon use (respiration), and carbon partitioning (harvest index). These constituent processes determine potentially achievable productivity. An analysis of each process suggests that low harvest index is the factor most limiting to yield. PPF absorption by plant canopies and respiration efficiency are also of major importance. Research concerning productivity in a CELSS should emphasize: 1) the development of gas exchange techniques to continuously monitor plant growth rates and 2) environmental techniques to reduce plant height in communities

  5. Global food chains and environment: agro-food production and processing in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sriwichailamphan, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study on the global food chain and the environment, the objective is to understand the dynamics of food safety and environmental improvements among the large and medium-sized agro-food processing industries and farmers in Thailand that operate in the global

  6. Global food chains and environment: agro-food production and processing in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sriwichailamphan, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study on the global food chain and the environment, the objective is to understand the dynamics of food safety and environmental improvements among the large and medium-sized agro-food processing industries and farmers in Thailand that operate in the global market. This study assesses

  7. GM crops, the environment and sustainable food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    Today, over 7.1 billion people rely on the earth's resources for sustenance, and nearly a billion people are malnourished, their minds and bodies unable to develop properly. Globally, population is expected to rise to more than 9 billion by 2050. Given the combined pressures of human population growth, the rapidly growing desire for increased levels of consumption, and the continued use of inappropriate technologies, it is not surprising that humans are driving organisms to extinction at an unprecedented rate. Many aspects of the sustainable functioning of the natural world are breaking down in the face of human-induced pressures including our individual and collective levels of consumption and our widespread and stubborn use of destructive technologies. Clearly, agriculture must undergo a redesign and be better and more effectively managed so as to contribute as well as possible to feeding people, while at the same time we strive to lessen the tragic loss of biodiversity and damage to all of its productive systems that the world is experiencing. For GM crops to be part of the solution, biosafety assessments should not be overly politically-driven or a burdensome impedance to delivering this technology broadly. Biosafety scientists and policy makers need to recognize the undeniable truth that inappropriate actions resulting in indecision also have negative consequences. It is no longer acceptable to delay the use of any strategy that is safe and will help us achieve the ability to feed the world's people.

  8. David Mills, Microbiology of food production built environments: dairies and wineries

    OpenAIRE

    Schriml, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    David Mills, University of California Davis Microbiology of food production built environments: dairies and wineriesOn October 10-12th, 2017 the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine co-hosting MoBE 2017 (Microbiology of the Built Environment Research and Applications Symposium) at the National Academy of Sciences Building to present the current state-of-the-science in understanding the formation and function of microbial communities in bu...

  9. Integration of Product, Package, Process, and Environment: A Food System Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maya R.; Douglas, Grace L.

    2015-01-01

    The food systems slated for future NASA missions must meet crew nutritional needs, be acceptable for consumption, and use resources efficiently. Although the current food system of prepackaged, moderately stabilized food items works well for International Space Station (ISS) missions, many of the current space menu items do not maintain acceptability and/or nutritive value beyond 2 years. Longer space missions require that the food system can sustain the crew for 3 to 5 years without replenishment. The task "Integration of Product, Package, Process, and Environment: A Food System Optimization" has the objective of optimizing food-product shelf life for the space-food system through product recipe adjustments, new packaging and processing technologies, and modified storage conditions. Two emergent food processing technologies were examined to identify a pathway to stable, wet-pack foods without the detrimental color and texture effects. Both microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) and pressure-assisted thermal stabilization (PATS) were evaluated against traditional retort processing to determine if lower heat inputs during processing would produce a product with higher micronutrient quality and longer shelf life. While MATS products did have brighter color and better texture initially, the advantages were not sustained. The non-metallized packaging film used in the process likely provided inadequate oxygen barrier. No difference in vitamin stability was evident between MATS and retort processed foods. Similarly, fruit products produced using PATS showed improved color and texture through 3 years of storage compared to retort fruit, but the vitamin stability was not improved. The final processing study involved freeze drying. Five processing factors were tested in factorial design to assess potential impact of each to the quality of freeze-dried food, including the integrity of the microstructure. The initial freezing rate and primary freeze drying

  10. The characterization of Listeria spp. isolated from food products and the food-processing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, L; O'Leary, M; Leonard, N; Godinho, M; O'Reilly, C; Coffey, L; Egan, J; O'Mahony, R

    2010-11-01

    To enhance the information pertaining to the epidemiology of a collection of 378 Listeria spp. isolates obtained from several food-processing plants in Ireland over a 3-year period (2004-2007). The collection was characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The most prevalent pulse-type was PFGE profile I (n=14·5%) that consisted mainly of environmental Listeria spp. samples. Serotyping of 145 Listeria monocytogenes isolates was performed. The most common serovar was 1/2a and comprised 57·4% (n=77) of the L. monocytogenes collection. The other serovars were as follows: 4b (14·1%, n=19), 1/2b (9·7%, n=13), 4c (4·4%, n=6) and 1/2c (6·7%, n=9), respectively. Eleven isolates were identified as non-Listeria spp., the remaining ten L. monocytogenes isolates were nontypeable. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed the antibiotic that isolates displayed the most resistance to was gentamicin (5%) followed by sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (2%), tetracycline and ciprofloxacin (1·5%). The subtyping has indicated the diversity of the Listeria spp. The presence of serotype 1/2a, 1/2b and 4b in both raw and cooked ready-to-eat food products is a public health concern, as these serotypes are frequently associated with foodborne outbreaks and sporadic cases of human listeriosis. In addition, the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant L. monocytogenes isolates could have serious therapeutic consequences. The molecular subtyping and the further characterization of these isolates may be valuable particularly in the context of a suspected common source outbreak in the future. © 2010 The Authors. © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Biofuel production and implications for land use, food production and environment in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Sita Lakshmi, C.; Manuvie, Ritumbra [Center for Sustainable Technologies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Balachandra, P., E-mail: patilb@mgmt.iisc.ernet.in [Center for Sustainable Technologies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2011-10-15

    There is a large interest in biofuels in India as a substitute to petroleum-based fuels, with a purpose of enhancing energy security and promoting rural development. India has announced an ambitious target of substituting 20% of fossil fuel consumption by biodiesel and bioethanol by 2017. India has announced a national biofuel policy and launched a large program to promote biofuel production, particularly on wastelands: its implications need to be studied intensively considering the fact that India is a large developing country with high population density and large rural population depending upon land for their livelihood. Another factor is that Indian economy is experiencing high growth rate, which may lead to enhanced demand for food, livestock products, timber, paper, etc., with implications for land use. Studies have shown that area under agriculture and forest has nearly stabilized over the past 2-3 decades. This paper presents an assessment of the implications of projected large-scale biofuel production on land available for food production, water, biodiversity, rural development and GHG emissions. The assessment will be largely focused on first generation biofuel crops, since the Indian program is currently dominated by these crops. Technological and policy options required for promoting sustainable biofuel production will be discussed.

  12. Biofuel production and implications for land use, food production and environment in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Sita Lakshmi, C.; Manuvie, Ritumbra; Balachandra, P.

    2011-01-01

    There is a large interest in biofuels in India as a substitute to petroleum-based fuels, with a purpose of enhancing energy security and promoting rural development. India has announced an ambitious target of substituting 20% of fossil fuel consumption by biodiesel and bioethanol by 2017. India has announced a national biofuel policy and launched a large program to promote biofuel production, particularly on wastelands: its implications need to be studied intensively considering the fact that India is a large developing country with high population density and large rural population depending upon land for their livelihood. Another factor is that Indian economy is experiencing high growth rate, which may lead to enhanced demand for food, livestock products, timber, paper, etc., with implications for land use. Studies have shown that area under agriculture and forest has nearly stabilized over the past 2-3 decades. This paper presents an assessment of the implications of projected large-scale biofuel production on land available for food production, water, biodiversity, rural development and GHG emissions. The assessment will be largely focused on first generation biofuel crops, since the Indian program is currently dominated by these crops. Technological and policy options required for promoting sustainable biofuel production will be discussed.

  13. Challenges for Life Support Systems in Space Environments, Including Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) refer to the technologies needed to sustain human life in space environments. Histor ically these technologies have focused on providing a breathable atmo sphere, clean water, food, managing wastes, and the associated monitoring capabilities. Depending on the space agency or program, ELCSS has sometimes expanded to include other aspects of managing space enviro nments, such as thermal control, radiation protection, fire detection I suppression, and habitat design. Other times, testing and providing these latter technologies have been associated with the vehicle engi neering. The choice of ECLSS technologies is typically driven by the mission profile and their associated costs and reliabilities. These co sts are largely defined by the mass, volume, power, and crew time req uirements. For missions close to Earth, e.g., low-Earth orbit flights, stowage and resupply of food, some 0 2, and some water are often the most cost effective option. But as missions venture further into spa ce, e.g., transit missions to Mars or asteroids, or surface missions to Moon or Mars, the supply line economics change and the need to clos e the loop on life support consumables increases. These are often ref erred to as closed loop or regenerative life support systems. Regardless of the technologies, the systems must be capable of operating in a space environment, which could include micro to fractional g setting s, high radiation levels, and tightly closed atmospheres, including perhaps reduced cabin pressures. Food production using photosynthetic o rganisms such as plants by nature also provides atmospheric regenerat ion (e.g., CO2 removal and reduction, and 0 2 production), yet to date such "bioregenerative" technologies have not been used due largely t o the high power requirements for lighting. A likely first step in te sting bioregenerative capabilities will involve production of small a mounts of fresh foods to supplement to crew

  14. School food environment: Quality and advertisement frequency of child-oriented packaged products within walking distance of public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missbach, Benjamin; Pachschwöll, Caterina; Kuchling, Daniel; König, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    Food marketing for children is a major concern for public health nutrition and many schools make efforts to increase healthy eating. Food environments surrounding schools in urban areas may undermine these efforts for healthy nutrition within school programs. Our study aim is to describe the nutrition environment within walking distance of schools in terms of food quality and food marketing and to explore the degree to which elements of the nutrition environment varies by proximity to schools. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed the surrounding food environments of a convenience sample of 46 target schools within 950m walking distance in 7 different urban districts across Vienna, Austria. In total, we analyzed data from 67 fast food outlets and 54 supermarkets analyzing a total of 43.129 packaged snack food and beverage products, from which 85% were for adults and 15% of the products were child-oriented. Proximity to the schools did not affect the availability of child-oriented products and dedicated food advertisements for children. After applying nutrient profiling using the Nutrient Profiling Model (NPM) on child-oriented products, results showed that 15.8% of the packaged snack food were categorized as "healthy" foods and 84.2% as "less healthy"; for beverages 65.7% were categorized as "healthy" and 34.3% as "less healthy". In conclusion, our results show that child-oriented snacks are not more frequently advertised around schools but substantially lack in nutritional quality with the potential to undermine efforts for promoting healthy eating practices within schools.

  15. School food environment: Quality and advertisement frequency of child-oriented packaged products within walking distance of public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Missbach

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Food marketing for children is a major concern for public health nutrition and many schools make efforts to increase healthy eating. Food environments surrounding schools in urban areas may undermine these efforts for healthy nutrition within school programs. Our study aim is to describe the nutrition environment within walking distance of schools in terms of food quality and food marketing and to explore the degree to which elements of the nutrition environment varies by proximity to schools. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed the surrounding food environments of a convenience sample of 46 target schools within 950m walking distance in 7 different urban districts across Vienna, Austria. In total, we analyzed data from 67 fast food outlets and 54 supermarkets analyzing a total of 43.129 packaged snack food and beverage products, from which 85% were for adults and 15% of the products were child-oriented. Proximity to the schools did not affect the availability of child-oriented products and dedicated food advertisements for children. After applying nutrient profiling using the Nutrient Profiling Model (NPM on child-oriented products, results showed that 15.8% of the packaged snack food were categorized as “healthy” foods and 84.2% as “less healthy”; for beverages 65.7% were categorized as “healthy” and 34.3% as “less healthy”. In conclusion, our results show that child-oriented snacks are not more frequently advertised around schools but substantially lack in nutritional quality with the potential to undermine efforts for promoting healthy eating practices within schools.

  16. Food Product Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... answering these and other questions about product dating. What is Food Product Dating? Does Federal Law Require Dating? Are ... Impact on Food Waste Proper Handling of Food What is Food Product Dating? Two types of product dating may ...

  17. The Food Production Environment and the Development of Antimicrobial Resistance in Human Pathogens of Animal Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjusha Lekshmi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne pathogens are a serious human health concern worldwide, and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant food pathogens has further confounded this problem. Once-highly-efficacious antibiotics are gradually becoming ineffective against many important pathogens, resulting in severe treatment crises. Among several reasons for the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance, their overuse in animal food production systems for purposes other than treatment of infections is prominent. Many pathogens of animals are zoonotic, and therefore any development of resistance in pathogens associated with food animals can spread to humans through the food chain. Human infections by antibiotic-resistant pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are increasing. Considering the human health risk due to emerging antibiotic resistance in food animal–associated bacteria, many countries have banned the use of antibiotic growth promoters and the application in animals of antibiotics critically important in human medicine. Concerted global efforts are necessary to minimize the use of antimicrobials in food animals in order to control the development of antibiotic resistance in these systems and their spread to humans via food and water.

  18. Food environment and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Richard; Foster, Gary D

    2014-12-01

    The food environment plays an important and often dominant role in food choice, eating patterns, and ultimately, energy intake. The Obesity Society and the American Society for Nutrition jointly sponsored a series of reviews on topics of interest to both memberships. The goal was to consider the state of understanding on selected issues related to the food environment and obesity and to identify key knowledge gaps. The first article (not necessarily of importance) targeted energy density (ED) and focuses on the role of ED in the regulation of energy intake and body weight. It offers recommendations for prioritizing research. The second article addresses economic factors and examines food and beverage purchases as a function of price changes. It concludes that targeted food taxes and subsidies alone are unlikely to substantially affect obesity. The third article concerns sweetened beverages and points out the difficulty in establishing the strength of the association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain and obesity. In the fourth article, the contributions of palatability and variety to eating behavior and weight are reviewed. Article five explores the influence of portion size on energy intake and weight management. It finds that consumers generally tend to eat proportionally more as portion size increases. The sixth article focuses on the efficacy and effectiveness of eating frequency manipulations for body weight management and finds that such manipulations have consistently yielded null results. Finally, article seven identifies several limitations of the existing literature regarding neighborhood access to healthy foods. This series of reviews addresses important questions regarding the contribution of the food environment to obesity. Independent of physiological/genetic determinants, factors such as ED, cost, food form, palatability, variety, portion size, eating frequency, and access to healthy food are each evaluated for their role in

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility and β-lactamase production in Bacillus cereus isolates from stool of patients, food and environment samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Dejana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bacillus cereus (B. cereus usually ingested by food can cause two types of diseases: vomiting due to the presence of emetic toxin and diarrheal syndrome, due to the presence of diarrheal toxins. Systemic manifestations can also occur. The severe forms of disease demand antibiotic treatmant. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in antibiotic susceptibility and β-lactamase activity of B. cereus isolates from stools of humans, food and environment. Methods. Identification of B. cereus was performed with selective medium, classical biochemical test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR with primers specific for bal gene. Thirty isolates from each group were analysed for antibiotic susceptibility using the disk-diffusion assay. Production of β-lactamase was determined by cefinase test, and double-disc method. Results. All strains identified as B. cereus using classical biochemical test, yielded 533 bp fragment with PCR. Isolates from all the three groups were susceptible to imipenem, vancomycin, and erythromycin. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin but one from the environment. A statistically significant difference between the groups was confirmed to tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole sensitivity. A total of 28/30 (93.33% samples from the foods and 25/30 (83.33% samples from environment were approved sensitive to tetracycline, while 10/30 (33.33% isolates from stools were sensitive. Opposite to this result, high susceptibility to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole was shown in samples from stools (100%, while isolates from foods (63.33% and from environment (70% had low susceptibility. All samples produced β-lactamases. Conclusion. The strains of B. cereus from all the three groups showed high rate of sensitivity to most tested antibiotics, except to tetracycline in samples from human stool and to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole in samples from food and environment. The production of

  20. Identifying rural food deserts: Methodological considerations for food environment interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Alexandre; Noreau, David; Tremblay, Lucie; Oberlé, Céline; Girard-Gadreau, Maurie; Duguay, Mathieu; Block, Jason P

    2016-06-09

    Food insecurity in an important public health issue and affects 13% of Canadian households. It is associated with poor accessibility to fresh, diverse and affordable food products. However, measurement of the food environment is challenging in rural settings since the proximity of food supply sources is unevenly distributed. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology to identify food deserts in rural environments. In-store evaluations of 25 food products were performed for all food stores located in four contiguous rural counties in Quebec. The quality of food products was estimated using four indices: freshness, affordability, diversity and the relative availability. Road network distance between all residences to the closest food store with a favourable score on the four dimensions was mapped to identify residential clusters located in deprived communities without reasonable access to a "good" food source. The result was compared with the food desert parameters proposed by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), as well as with the perceptions of a group of regional stakeholders. When food quality was considered, food deserts appeared more prevalent than when only the USDA definition was used. Objective measurements of the food environment matched stakeholders' perceptions. Food stores' characteristics are different in rural areas and require an in-store estimation to identify potential rural food deserts. The objective measurements of the food environment combined with the field knowledge of stakeholders may help to shape stronger arguments to gain the support of decision-makers to develop relevant interventions.

  1. Are products sold in university vending machines nutritionally poor? A food environment audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Amanda; Hebden, Lana; Roy, Rajshri; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    (i) To audit the nutritional composition, promotion and cost of products available from vending machines available to young adults; and (ii) to examine the relationship between product availability and sales. A cross-sectional analysis of snacks and beverages available and purchased at a large urban university was conducted between March and September 2014. Sales were electronically tracked for nine months. A total of 61 vending machines were identified; 95% (n = 864) of the available snacks and 49% of beverages (n = 455) were less-healthy items. The mean (SD) nutrient value of snacks sold was: energy 1173 kJ (437.5), saturated fat 5.36 g (3.6), sodium 251 mg (219), fibre 1.56 g (1.29) and energy density 20.16 kJ/g (2.34) per portion vended. There was a strong correlation between the availability of food and beverages and purchases (R 2 = 0.98, P food and beverages to university students. Efforts to improve the nutritional quality are indicated and afford an opportunity to improve the diet quality of young adults, a group at risk of obesity. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  2. Synthesis of available information in Japan about the contamination of food products by radionuclides remaining in the environment after the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report first proposes an overview of the general status of contamination of the land environment in Japan after the Fukushima accident (maps indicate level of Caesium 134 and 137). It outlines and comments that these radioactive caesium deposits are generally the reason of a persistent contamination of some food products. It describes the measures and arrangements implemented in Japan to control the contamination of food products and to restrict their marketing, comments the assessment of the contamination of food products according to results published in Japan since the accident for the different types of food products: agriculture, fishing, meat and milk, mushrooms, other land vegetal products

  3. Who Is Influencing Whom? Latino Parent-Child Request Interactions and Product Purchases in Food Retail Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Iana A; Calderon, Joanna; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2017-06-01

    This study examines Latino parent-child interactions about foods and beverages requested in food retail environments in San Diego, CA. It seeks to extend our understanding of parent-child request interactions and purchases by studying how the number of product request interactions and purchases differ based on four factors that have been understudied in previous parent-child interaction research: parent gender, child gender, product healthfulness, and who initiated the request interaction (parent or child). By unobtrusively observing Latino parent-child dyads for the duration of a brief shopping trip, we found that parent and child gender are related to the number of request interactions initiated by parents and children. For gender-specific child-initiated request interactions, sons initiated more request interactions with fathers while daughters initiated more request interactions with mothers. Most request interactions were for products that were categorized as calorie dense, and a higher percentage of these products were purchased as a result of parent-initiated (vs. child-initiated) request interactions. The results provide important considerations for practitioners and researchers working on improving nutrition and reducing obesity. Assumptions about who is influencing whom in food store request interactions are challenged, requiring more research.

  4. The value of the market environment in food production 2014-2013 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka HYCNAR

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Theaim of thisstudyis to presentthe food industry-Ambientmarket, investment and internationalexpansion. Market environmentin a givensector of the economyis a majorsourceofopportunities and threats, strengthsandweaknesses.Thepolisheconomy as a wholethere was a deficitofdomesticcapitalwasneededbecausetheinflow of capitalfromforeigninvestors.The most importantarethedirectinflow of capitalinvestments, whichhave a veryimportantsource of fundingfordevelopment and restructuringprocesses. Significantrapid development of polishagri-foodexportssuggeststhatdomesticcompaniesin the food industrywillcreatemore and moreinvestmentabroad. ForeignexpansionforPolishcompanieswasnoticedonly in the yearsafteraccession.InPoland,theshareofagri-food productsin the years2003- 2013in the foreigntradeincreased, mainlyexport to13%in 2013.In 2013, Poland wasineighthplaceamongthecountriesof the EuropeanUniontakingto the analysisofagri-food exports. The recipients ofpolishagrifoodproductsarepredominantlythecountriesof the EuropeanUnion, whichgetsabout 80% of exportsfrom thepolishagri-food.

  5. Ionization of food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    After general remarks on foods preservation, on international works and on ionization future prospects, main irradiation sources are described. Recalls on radioactivity, on radiation-matter interaction, on toxicology of ionized foods and on ionized foods detection are given. Ionization applications to various products are reviewed, especially in: - Poultry meat - Fishing products - Fresh fruits and vegetables - Dry fruits and vegetables - spices, tea, infusion - prepacked products... An evaluation of economics and sociocultural impacts is presented in connection with recent experiments [fr

  6. Food Environment and Weight Outcomes: A Stochastic Frontier Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xun; Lopez, Rigoberto A.

    2013-01-01

    Food environment includes the presence of supermarkets, restaurants, warehouse clubs and supercenters, and other food outlets. This paper evaluates weight outcomes from a food environment using a stochastic production frontier and an equation for the determinants of efficiency, where the explanatory variables of the efficiency term include food environment indicators. Using individual consumer data and food environment data from New England counties, empirical results indicate that fruit and ...

  7. Radioactive food and environment contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Food and Environment Control Centre of Abu Dhabi Municipality with the help of IAEA has established facilities for regular monitoring of food and environmental samples for radioactive contamination. The Centre is now capable of measuring gamma, beta as well as alpha activity in different types of samples. The main activities in the area of food monitoring are as follows: General monitoring of food gamma radionuclides in foodstuffs by high resolution gamma spectrometry; Determination of specific gamma radionuclides in foodstuffs by high resolution gamma spectrometry; Radiochemical determination of Sr-90 using liquid scintillation analyzer or by gas flow proportional counter; Measurement of gross alpha activity in drinking water

  8. Production, Distribution and Consumption in St. Petersburg: Favourable Environment for Development of Short Food Supply Chains? (in Russian language)

    OpenAIRE

    Gromasheva, O.; Brunori, G.

    2014-01-01

    Currently in developed countries there is growth of initiatives which are aimed to reconnect farmers and consumers whose relationships in the last century became as distant and detached as they had never been before (due to industrial food production, centralization of the market, etc.). The state-of-art and recent trends in agricultural production, distribution and consumption in Russia, and St. Petersburg in particular, are analyzed in the article (mainly from the prospective of supply and ...

  9. From Environment to Production

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2014-04-29

    Using Metagenomic analysis, computational modeling, single cell and genome editing technologies, we are expressing desired microbial genes and their networks in suitable hosts for mass production of energy, food, and fine chemicals

  10. Production of Secondary Metabolites in Extreme Environments: Food- and Airborne Wallemia spp. Produce Toxic Metabolites at Hypersaline Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jančič, Sašo; Frisvad, Jens C; Kocev, Dragi; Gostinčar, Cene; Džeroski, Sašo; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The food- and airborne fungal genus Wallemia comprises seven xerophilic and halophilic species: W. sebi, W. mellicola, W. canadensis, W. tropicalis, W. muriae, W. hederae and W. ichthyophaga. All listed species are adapted to low water activity and can contaminate food preserved with high amounts of salt or sugar. In relation to food safety, the effect of high salt and sugar concentrations on the production of secondary metabolites by this toxigenic fungus was investigated. The secondary metabolite profiles of 30 strains of the listed species were examined using general growth media, known to support the production of secondary metabolites, supplemented with different concentrations of NaCl, glucose and MgCl2. In more than two hundred extracts approximately one hundred different compounds were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Although the genome data analysis of W. mellicola (previously W. sebi sensu lato) and W. ichthyophaga revealed a low number of secondary metabolites clusters, a substantial number of secondary metabolites were detected at different conditions. Machine learning analysis of the obtained dataset showed that NaCl has higher influence on the production of secondary metabolites than other tested solutes. Mass spectrometric analysis of selected extracts revealed that NaCl in the medium affects the production of some compounds with substantial biological activities (wallimidione, walleminol, walleminone, UCA 1064-A and UCA 1064-B). In particular an increase in NaCl concentration from 5% to 15% in the growth media increased the production of the toxic metabolites wallimidione, walleminol and walleminone.

  11. Production of Secondary Metabolites in Extreme Environments: Food- and Airborne Wallemia spp. Produce Toxic Metabolites at Hypersaline Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jančič, Sašo; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Kocev, Dragi

    2016-01-01

    of salt or sugar. In relation to food safety, the effect of high salt and sugar concentrations on the production of secondary metabolites by this toxigenic fungus was investigated. The secondary metabolite profiles of 30 strains of the listed species were examined using general growth media, known...... to support the production of secondary metabolites, supplemented with different concentrations of NaCl, glucose and MgCl2. In more than two hundred extracts approximately one hundred different compounds were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Although...... the genome data analysis of W. mellicola (previously W. sebi sensu lato) and W. ichthyophaga revealed a low number of secondary metabolites clusters, a substantial number of secondary metabolites were detected at different conditions. Machine learning analysis of the obtained dataset showed that NaCl has...

  12. A study of institutional environment and household food security at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    also the much wanted institutional support being exposed. Key words: Food access, institutional environment, food production, district development plans, farmer cooperatives, household food security. 1. Introduction. Rwanda is .... institutions and their functions in the following definition: 'Formal or informal rules that govern ...

  13. Association between fast food purchasing and the local food environment

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Lukar E; Kavanagh, A M

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, an instrument was created to measure the healthy and unhealthy characteristics of food environments and investigate associations between the whole of the food environment and fast food consumption. Design and subjects: In consultation with other academic researchers in this field, food stores were categorised to either healthy or unhealthy and weighted (between +10 and ?10) by their likely contribution to healthy/unhealthy eating practices. A healthy and unhealthy fo...

  14. Food, Environment, and Health | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    such as hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease). The focus: public policy interventions and market innovations for changing local and national food systems in ways that enable healthy and sustainable diets. Food, Environment, and ...

  15. Food sustainability, food security and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helms, M.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable development requires a deliberate choice in the direction of societal transition, but the options are narrowed down by the obligation to feed a growing world population. At present sufficient food is produced, but large differences exist in per capita supply. Poverty prevents many people

  16. Radioactivity in food and the environment, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This report continues the series which combines the results of the radioactivity monitoring programmes previously published by MAFF in two documents: the 'Terrestrial Radioactivity Monitoring Programme (TRAMP) Report: Radioactivity in food and agricultural products in England and Wales' and the 'Aquatic Environment Monitoring Report: Radioactivity in surface and coastal waters of the British Isles' (AEMR). For the first time the report includes the results of all environmental monitoring for radioactivity carried out on behalf of the regulatory authority in Scotland. These results were previously presented in the 'Statistical Bulletin: Environmental Monitoring for Radioactivity in Scotland' (e.g. The Scottish Office, (1996). Measurements in 1996 included the analysis of samples of food and other materials from the environment and detection of beta and gamma dose rates in the environment. The results show that radionuclide concentrations and radiation dose rates were generally similar to those in 1995. However, near Sellafield, despite the general downward trend in disposals from the site during 1996, there were some increases in concentrations of technetium-99 and carbon-14 in marine foodstuffs reflecting disposals from and operations on the site in previous years. These operations included processing of stored wastes and the operation of the Enhanced Actinide Removal Plant (EARP). The Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) continued its commissioning phase in 1996 and its disposals had little effect on food and the marine environment. The results of the monitoring have been interpreted in terms of public radiation exposures using data on activity levels in food and local surveys to establish potential 'critical groups' of people likely to be most exposed. (author)

  17. Towards sustainable food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aramyan, Lusine H; Hoste, Robert; van den Broek, Willie

    2011-01-01

    European pork supply chains, like other agri-food supply chains, currently face numerous challenges such as globalization, emerging markets, changing consumer requirements, and new governmental regulations related to issues such as environmental pollution and food safety. These challenges require...

  18. Water for Food, Energy, and the Environment: Assessing Streamflow Impacts of Increasing Cellulosic Biofuel Crop Production in the Corn Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaeger, M. A.; Housh, M.; Ng, T.; Cai, X.; Sivapalan, M.

    2012-12-01

    hypothesis: what may benefit the human system (farms, refineries, cities) may damage the environment. The hydrological and optimization models will be run interactively, with the optimization model run for 10 years and the resulting land use solution then used in the SWAT hydrologic model to provide more detailed information on river/ecosystem impacts, which are assessed using low flow analysis. Problem areas highlighted by this analysis can be targeted by implementing flow requirements at different locations in the watershed; these constraints are then added to the optimization model which is run for another 10 years, and the new solution again analyzed in more detail to assess the effectiveness of the imposed environmental measures. Preliminary results show that under proposed subsidies and current crop prices, the percentage of land planted with Miscanthus will increase to environmentally unsustainable levels, but that implementing flow and water quality constraints can mitigate the damage to some extent. Moreover, tributary and mainstem subwatersheds in the Sangamon do not respond equally, even in this very homogenous region, and thus the spatial context is important for understanding the tradeoffs between economic and hydrologic benefits, which become increasingly important in creating sustainable biofuel production.

  19. The food environment is a complex social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David R; Brewster, Luther G

    2015-05-01

    The lack of demonstrated impact of the South LA fast food ban suggests that the policy was too narrowly crafted. Healthy food deserts like South LA are simultaneously unhealthy food swamps; and face myriad interrelated social, economic, and environmental challenges. The food environment is a complex social network impacted by social, economic and political factors at the neighborhood, regional, national, and international levels. Banning one subtype of unhealthy food venue is not likely to limit the availability of unhealthy processed and packaged foods nor result in increased access to affordable healthy foods. Food deserts and food insecurity are symptoms of the interacting pathologies of poverty, distressed communities, and unhealthy global macroeconomic and industrial policies. Policies that seek to impact urban health disparities need to tackle root causes including poverty and the global production and distribution of cheap, addictive, unhealthy products that promote unhealthy lifestyles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Food production and consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monaco, Federica; Zasada, Ingo; Wascher, Dirk; Glavan, Matjaž; Pintar, Marina; Schmutz, Ulrich; Mazzocchi, Chiara; Corsi, Stefano; Sali, Guido

    2017-01-01

    In the wider debate on urban resilience and metabolism, food-related aspects have gained increasing importance. At the same time, urban agro-food systems in city regions are facing major challenges with regard to often limited domestic supplies, resource-intensive producer-consumer relationships,

  1. Improving the School Food Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    CULLEN, KAREN W.; HARTSTEIN, JILL; REYNOLDS, KIM D.; VU, MAIHAN; RESNICOW, KEN; GREENE, NATASHA; WHITE, MAMIE A.

    2009-01-01

    Our objective for this study was to examine the feasibility of instituting environmental changes during a 6-week pilot in school foodservice programs, with long-term goals of improving dietary quality and preventing obesity and type 2 diabetes in youth. Participants included students and staff from six middle schools in three states. Formative assessment with students and school staff was conducted in the spring of 2003 to inform the development of school foodservice policy changes. Thirteen potential policy goals were delineated. These formed the basis for the environmental change pilot intervention implemented during the winter/spring of 2004. Questionnaires were used to assess the extent to which the 13 foodservice goals were achieved. Success was defined as achieving 75% of goals not met at baseline. Daily data were collected on goal achievement using the schools’ daily food production and sales records. Qualitative data were also collected after the pilot study to obtain feedback from students and staff. Formative research with staff and students identified potential environmental changes. Most schools made substantial changes in the National School Lunch Program meal and snack bar/a la carte offerings. Vending goals were least likely to be achieved. Only one school did not meet the 75% goal achievement objective. Based on the objective data as well as qualitative feedback from student focus groups and interviews with students and school staff, healthful school foodservice changes in the cafeteria and snack bar can be implemented and were acceptable to the staff and students. Implementing longer-term and more ambitious changes and assessing cost issues and the potential enduring impact of these changes on student dietary change and disease risk reduction merits investigation. PMID:17324667

  2. Autonomous Food Production

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Growing food in space will not only allow us to extend the length of future missions in space, but also significantly increase the astronauts' well-being. The...

  3. Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PC USER

    Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 13 Number 2 May 2014 pp. ... 1Dept. of Crop Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. 2Dept. of Crop Production, University of ..... genotypes of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.). Journal of the Science of Food and.

  4. Some effects of patch food environments on copepods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagg, M.

    1977-01-01

    Laboratory determinations of the time taken for copepods to starve to death and of the effects of discontinuous food availability on egg production are used to demonstrate that different species are adapted to different scales of patchiness in their food environment. Acartia tonsa and Centropages typicus depend on constant food availability and are therefore sensitive to small scales of patchiness, whereas Pseudocalanus minutus and Calanus finmarchicus can physiologically remove themselves from such small-scale variability. The success of these organisms in the natural environment may be related to the length of time that layers of food exist in the water column.

  5. Food Environments and Obesity: Household Diet Expenditure Versus Food Deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Danhong; Jaenicke, Edward C; Volpe, Richard J

    2016-05-01

    To examine the associations between obesity and multiple aspects of the food environments, at home and in the neighborhood. Our study included 38,650 individuals nested in 18,381 households located in 2104 US counties. Our novel home food environment measure, USDAScore, evaluated the adherence of a household's monthly expenditure shares of 24 aggregated food categories to the recommended values based on US Department of Agriculture food plans. The US Census Bureau's County Business Patterns (2008), the detailed food purchase information in the IRi Consumer Panel scanner data (2008-2012), and its associated MedProfiler data set (2012) constituted the main sources for neighborhood-, household-, and individual-level data, respectively. After we controlled for a number of confounders at the individual, household, and neighborhood levels, USDAScore was negatively linked with obesity status, and a census tract-level indicator of food desert status was positively associated with obesity status. Neighborhood food environment factors, such as food desert status, were associated with obesity status even after we controlled for home food environment factors.

  6. Association between fast food purchasing and the local food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Kavanagh, A M

    2012-12-03

    In this study, an instrument was created to measure the healthy and unhealthy characteristics of food environments and investigate associations between the whole of the food environment and fast food consumption. In consultation with other academic researchers in this field, food stores were categorised to either healthy or unhealthy and weighted (between +10 and -10) by their likely contribution to healthy/unhealthy eating practices. A healthy and unhealthy food environment score (FES) was created using these weightings. Using a cross-sectional study design, multilevel multinomial regression was used to estimate the effects of the whole food environment on the fast food purchasing habits of 2547 individuals. Respondents in areas with the highest tertile of the healthy FES had a lower likelihood of purchasing fast food both infrequently and frequently compared with respondents who never purchased, however only infrequent purchasing remained significant when simultaneously modelled with the unhealthy FES (odds ratio (OR) 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32-0.83). Although a lower likelihood of frequent fast food purchasing was also associated with living in the highest tertile of the unhealthy FES, no association remained once the healthy FES was included in the models. In our binary models, respondents living in areas with a higher unhealthy FES than healthy FES were more likely to purchase fast food infrequently (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.00-1.82) however no association was found for frequent purchasing. Our study provides some evidence to suggest that healthier food environments may discourage fast food purchasing.

  7. Back to Local Food in Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turiničová Zuzana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Post is focused on problems of activities aimed at local food in urban environment. The theme is studied in the view of cultural changes in nutrition in Slovakia after 1989, affecting of global phenomena, incoming of giant international companies and importing foreign food. On the other side, there is also globalizations and glolocation view as an impulse for return to local food. Post is focused on different organizations, civic associations, activities and shops, through wich people in urban environment can gain local food.

  8. Food Production & Service Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This curriculum guide deals with planning and implementing a course in food production and service. Addressed in the course are the following topics: using basic food service processes; performing the tasks of a kitchen helper, stock clerk, baker's helper, pastry helper, cook's helper, pantry goods maker, short order cook, cook, dining room…

  9. Virtual Nitrogen Losses from Organic Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattell Noll, L.; Galloway, J. N.; Leach, A. M.; Seufert, V.; Atwell, B.; Shade, J.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is necessary for crop and animal production, but when it is lost to the environment, it creates a cascade of detrimental environmental impacts. The nitrogen challenge is to maximize the food production benefits of Nr, while minimizing losses to the environment. The first nitrogen footprint tool was created in 2012 to help consumers learn about the Nr losses to the environment that result from an individual's lifestyle choices. The nitrogen lost during food production was estimated with virtual nitrogen factors (VNFs) that quantify the amount of nitrogen lost to the environment per unit nitrogen consumed. Alternative agricultural systems, such as USDA certified organic farms, utilize practices that diverge from conventional production. In order to evaluate the potential sustainability of these alternative agricultural systems, our team calculated VNFs that reflect organic production. Initial data indicate that VNFs for organic grains and organic starchy roots are comparable to, but slightly higher than conventional (+10% and +20% respectively). In contrast, the VNF for organic vegetables is significantly higher (+90%) and the VNF for organic legumes is significantly lower (-90%). Initial data on organic meat production shows that organic poultry and organic pigmeat are comparable to conventional production (both <5% difference), but that the organic beef VNF is significantly higher (+30%). These data show that in some cases organic and conventional production are comparable in terms of nitrogen efficiency. However, since conventional production relies heavily on the creation of new reactive nitrogen (Haber-Bosch, biological nitrogen fixation) and organic production primarily utilizes already existing reactive nitrogen (manure, crop residue, compost), the data also show that organic production contributes less new reactive nitrogen to the environment than conventional production (approximately 70% less). Therefore, we conclude that on a local

  10. Research Award: Food, Environment, and Health | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... Wherever possible, we also encourage applicants to include measures of impact of such interventions on different social groups, on different actors in the food system, and on the natural environment. Possible types and topics of research projects may include, but are not limited to: Analysis of food-system ...

  11. Soil Erosion Threatens Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Burgess

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Since humans worldwide obtain more than 99.7% of their food (calories from the land and less than 0.3% from the oceans and aquatic ecosystems, preserving cropland and maintaining soil fertility should be of the highest importance to human welfare. Soil erosion is one of the most serious threats facing world food production. Each year about 10 million ha of cropland are lost due to soil erosion, thus reducing the cropland available for world food production. The loss of cropland is a serious problem because the World Health Organization and the Food and Agricultural Organization report that two-thirds of the world population is malnourished. Overall, soil is being lost from agricultural areas 10 to 40 times faster than the rate of soil formation imperiling humanity’s food security.

  12. The economics of food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, M

    1993-01-01

    Although world average food production per person is increasing there are many countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where production has fallen in recent decades. The economic analysis of the world food problem concerns the dynamics of production, income, growth, demand and trade. The 'law of diminishing returns' suggests that labour incomes fall as population density increases. Capital investment and technological change, particularly with a land-saving bias, can overcome this effect. Such land-saving innovations are less appropriate where population densities are lower, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Innovations which reduce risk, such as stress- and disease-resistant crop varieties, may be more attractive to farmers. Communal or government action is required to ensure sustainability of food production; to reduce risk, through price stabilization, possibly crop insurance and contingency plans for famine relief; to promote equity and to ensure competitive market conditions. Public funding of agricultural research is necessary to promote growth in food supplies. If increases in supply do not keep pace with growth in demand, food prices rise, attracting resources into food production. If supply grows faster, food prices and farm incomes fall, driving resources out of agriculture. Resources may not move fast enough to correct imbalances. Primary producers are likely to face deteriorating terms of trade. Linkages between food production and other sectors are weak, so primary exports are not a good basis for economic development. Import substitution strategies may damage agriculture. Structural adjustment regimes have been adopted in some countries to correct imbalances and provide an incentive for farmers to increase production. Associated reductions in public expenditure may have a contrary impact.

  13. Radioactivity in food and the environment, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    The safety of food and protection of the environment continue to be important issues on the Government's agenda. Radioactivity in food and the environment, a source of potential harm, therefore receives continuous surveillance to ensure that public safety targets and international commitments are met and ensure that the environment is effectively protected. The Government makes the results of such surveillance widely available through publication of this report and through regular updates on the MAFF Web site. This technical report presents the scope and results of our radiological surveillance programmes for 1998. It is complemented in England and Wales by the Environment Agency's surveillance report on non-food pathways. Sponsored by the Joint Food Safety and Standards Group of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency, measurements of radioactivity have been carried out in a wide range of foodstuffs and in the environment around nuclear sites and other potential sources of elevated radioactivity throughout the United Kingdom, and also at locations remote from these sources. This report demonstrates that the public is being protected against unacceptable contamination of the food chain and that the UK is fully meeting public safety targets. We remain committed to ensuring that a proper and rigorous surveillance programme is continued to ensure that this remains the case. (author)

  14. Production of Food Grade Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyro Bekatorou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts have been known to humans for thousands of years as they have been used in traditional fermentation processes like wine, beer and bread making. Today, yeasts are also used as alternative sources of high nutritional value proteins, enzymes and vitamins, and have numerous applications in the health food industry as food additives, conditioners and flavouring agents, for the production of microbiology media and extracts, as well as livestock feeds. Modern scientific advances allow the isolation, construction and industrial production of new yeast strains to satisfy the specific demands of the food industry. Types of commercial food grade yeasts, industrial production processes and raw materials are highlighted. Aspects of yeast metabolism, with respect to carbohydrate utilization, nutritional aspects and recent research advances are also discussed.

  15. Understanding school food service characteristics associated with higher competitive food revenues can help focus efforts to improve school food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Joanne F; Newman, Constance; Ralston, Katherine; Prell, Mark; Ollinger, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Many school food services sell extra foods and beverages, popularly referred to as “competitive foods,” in addition to USDA school meals. On the basis of national survey data, most competitive foods and beverages selected by students are of low nutritional value. Recent federal legislation will allow schools that participate in USDA school meal programs to sell competitive foods only if the food items they sell meet nutrition standards based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Concerns have been raised about the potential effects of limiting competitive foods on local school food service finances. However, national data indicate that only in a subset of schools do food services receive large amounts of revenues from competitive foods. These food services are typically located in secondary schools in more affluent districts, serving higher proportions of students who do not receive free or reduced price meals. Compared to other food services, these food services couple higher competitive food revenues with lower school meal participation. Increasing school meal participation could increase meal revenues to offset any loss of competitive food revenues. Replacing less-healthful competitive items with healthier options could also help maintain school food service revenues while improving the school food environment. Nationally consistent nutrition standards for competitive foods may encourage development and marketing of healthful products.

  16. Food production -- problems and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anifowoshe, T O

    1990-03-01

    Improvements are needed in balancing the problems associated with population growth and food production. A review of the problems of rapid population growth and declining food production and suggestions for resolution are given. World population has increased over the past 10 years by 760 million, which is equal to adding the combined population of Africa and South America. Future increases are expected to bring total population to 6.1 billion by the year 2000 and 8.2 billion in 2025 (exponential increases). Food production/capita has declined since 1971 in the world and in Nigeria, particularly in the recent past. The food production problem is technical, environmental, social, political, and economic. Various scientific and technological methods for increasing food production are identified: mechanization, irrigation, use of fertilizers, control of weeds and insects, new varieties of farm animals or high-yielding strains of grain, land reclamation, soil conservation, river basin development, adequate storage facilities, infrastructure development, and birth control. Economic and social approaches involve short-term and long-term strategies in social readjustment and institutional change. For instance, large scale farmers should become contract growers for certain firms. Bureaucratic red tape should be eliminated in institutions which provide agricultural services. Environmental problems need urgent attention. Some of these problems are soil erosion from mechanization, water salinization from irrigation, accumulation of DDT in food and water and animal life from pesticide use, and water pollution from chemical fertilizers. Food production can be increased with more ecologically sound practices. Information about weather and weather forecasting allows for more suitable land management. The influence of rainfall (the amount and distribution) in Nigeria is greater than any other climatic factor. Solar radiation is a significant feature in production of dry matter and

  17. Food and eating environments: in Canadian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, H Frances; Laxer, Rachel E; Janssen, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This national study was conducted to examine healthy eating programs, healthy eating education, and the food retail environments of schools. A total of 436 Canadian schools were studied. Administrators completed a questionnaire designed to assess school healthy eating programs, healthy eating education, and food retail environment. The number of chain fast food restaurants, chain cafés/coffee shops, and convenience stores within 1 km of schools was measured using geographic information systems food retailer measures from DMTI Spatial Inc. and the Yellow Pages. During the preceding year, 67% of schools had initiated healthy eating lunch programs while 18% had junk food-free days. The majority of schools offered cooking classes (59%) and healthy eating media literacy education (67%), while a minority offered gardening activities (15%) and field trips to farmers' markets (27%) and grocery stores (36%). Fifty-three percent had a school cafeteria, and most had a school tuck shop (75%) and pop/juice vending machines (76%). Fifty percent had a chain fast food restaurant, 33% had a chain café/coffee shop, and 41% had a convenience store within 1 km. An important aspect of addressing childhood obesity will be improving the food environments of schools and their surrounding neighbourhoods, and providing healthy eating education for all students.

  18. Bacteriophage Applications for Food Production and Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Zachary D; Woolston, Joelle; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2018-04-19

    Foodborne illnesses remain a major cause of hospitalization and death worldwide despite many advances in food sanitation techniques and pathogen surveillance. Traditional antimicrobial methods, such as pasteurization, high pressure processing, irradiation, and chemical disinfectants are capable of reducing microbial populations in foods to varying degrees, but they also have considerable drawbacks, such as a large initial investment, potential damage to processing equipment due to their corrosive nature, and a deleterious impact on organoleptic qualities (and possibly the nutritional value) of foods. Perhaps most importantly, these decontamination strategies kill indiscriminately, including many—often beneficial—bacteria that are naturally present in foods. One promising technique that addresses several of these shortcomings is bacteriophage biocontrol, a green and natural method that uses lytic bacteriophages isolated from the environment to specifically target pathogenic bacteria and eliminate them from (or significantly reduce their levels in) foods. Since the initial conception of using bacteriophages on foods, a substantial number of research reports have described the use of bacteriophage biocontrol to target a variety of bacterial pathogens in various foods, ranging from ready-to-eat deli meats to fresh fruits and vegetables, and the number of commercially available products containing bacteriophages approved for use in food safety applications has also been steadily increasing. Though some challenges remain, bacteriophage biocontrol is increasingly recognized as an attractive modality in our arsenal of tools for safely and naturally eliminating pathogenic bacteria from foods.

  19. Palatable food consumption in children: interplay between (food) reward motivation and the home food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Decker, Annelies; Verbeken, Sandra; Sioen, Isabelle; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Braet, Caroline; Eiben, Gabriele; Pala, Valeria; Reisch, Lucia A; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2017-04-01

    To understand the importance of the home food environment on unhealthy food consumption in children high in reward sensitivity, this study tested the hypothesis that the home availability of unhealthy food moderates the effect of reward sensitivity on children's fast-food consumption frequency, exerted via food cue responsiveness. Children between 7.5 and 14 years (n = 174, 50.6% boys) reported on reward sensitivity and food cue responsiveness (by means of the subscale 'external eating'). Their height and weight were measured. Parents reported on their children's fast-food consumption frequency, food cue responsiveness (by means of the subscale 'food responsiveness'), and on the home availability of unhealthy foods. Two moderated mediation models were conducted, one with the parent- and one with the child-reported food cue responsiveness as mediator. Findings suggested that with a high home availability of unhealthy foods, (a) a higher fast-food consumption frequency was found in children high in reward sensitivity and (b) the relation between reward sensitivity and the fast-food consumption frequency was mediated by external eating. The findings point at the importance of the home food environment in children high in reward sensitivity. They suggest to limit the home availability of unhealthy foods. What is Known: • Reward sensitivity (RS) is positively associated with children's palatable food consumption • In adolescents, this effect is mediated by food cue responsiveness, which determines the strength of an individual's motivation to obtain food when perceiving food cues What is New: • Children high in RS may be more vulnerable to palatable food cues in their everyday food environment because of a higher food cue responsiveness • The home food environment may be an important determining factor of the palatable food consumption of these children.

  20. Real-life setting in data collection. The role of nutrition knowledge whilst selecting food products for weight management purposes in a supermarket environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Anna-Maria; Lapveteläinen, Anja T; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Kantanen, Teuvo T; Rissanen, Riitta L

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to explore the role of consumers' nutrition knowledge while selecting foods for weight management and the predominating food selection factors by combining quantitative and qualitative methodology in a real-life setting during two consecutive shopping tasks given in a supermarket. Thirty-six consumers were given a list of 11 products and asked to think-aloud while selecting (i) a product they usually buy and (ii) a product they use for weight management. After the consecutive shopping tasks, the subjects were interviewed and asked to answer a nutrition knowledge questionnaire. The subjects were categorized by the difference in the energy contents of their selections and the food selection criteria. The energy contents of the selections for weight management were reduced by 10-46%. Ten subjects with the greatest difference between the energy contents of their selections had higher level in nutrition knowledge and mentioned less nutritional issues during the selections than ten subjects with the smallest such differences. Taste was an important product selection criterion by the former group, while the latter focused primarily on price. Nutrition knowledge is interrelated with personal factors and selection goals. It is not necessarily utilized consistently when selecting food products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of TV food advertising restriction on food environment for children in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngmi; Yoon, Jihyun; Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Hyogyoo; Kim, Soyoung

    2017-02-01

    This study attempted to determine the effects of restrictions on television (TV) food advertising on children's food environments in South Korea. It examined changes that occurred in the marketing mix of food companies following enactment of those restrictions. An on-line survey was conducted with marketers or R&D managers of 108 food companies. A questionnaire was used to inquire about changes that occurred in Product, Place, Price and Promotion as a result of the restrictions placed on TV food advertising. Analysis was performed on the data collected from the responding 63 food companies (58.3%). The results of their answers showed that among the four marketing mix components the restrictions exerted relatively stronger effects on Product. Effects were stronger on companies that produced foods within the product categories of Energy-Dense and Nutrient-Poor foods (EDNP companies) in comparison with companies that did not (non-EDNP companies). The restrictions exerted positive effects on EDNP companies with respect to compliance with labeling requirements and reinforcement of nutritional contents examination, as well as changes to products such as reducing unhealthy ingredients and fortifying nutrients. Overall, the results revealed the possibility that restrictions on TV food advertising could improve children's food environments by encouraging EDNP companies to make favorable product changes. On the one hand, the results also found that some food companies attempted to bypass the regulations by changing marketing channels from TV to others and by reducing product serving sizes. Thus, future measures should be implemented to prevent food companies from bypassing regulations and to control children's exposure to marketing channels other than TV.

  2. Product quality driven food process design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadiyanto, M.

    2007-01-01

    Consumers evaluate food products on their quality, and thus the product quality is a main target in industrial food production. In the last decade there has been a remarkable increase of interest of the food industry to put food product quality central in innovation. However, quality itself is

  3. Biofuels versus food production: Does biofuels production increase food prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajanovic, Amela

    2011-01-01

    Rapidly growing fossil energy consumption in the transport sector in the last two centuries caused problems such as increasing greenhouse gas emissions, growing energy dependency and supply insecurity. One approach to solve these problems could be to increase the use of biofuels. Preferred feedstocks for current 1st generation biofuels production are corn, wheat, sugarcane, soybean, rapeseed and sunflowers. The major problem is that these feedstocks are also used for food and feed production. The core objective of this paper is to investigate whether the recent increase of biofuels production had a significant impact on the development of agricultural commodity (feedstock) prices. The most important impact factors like biofuels production, land use, yields, feedstock and crude oil prices are analysed. The major conclusions of this analysis are: In recent years the share of bioenergy-based fuels has increased moderately, but continuously, and so did feedstock production, as well as yields. So far, no significant impact of biofuels production on feedstock prices can be observed. Hence, a co-existence of biofuel and food production seems possible especially for 2nd generation biofuels. However, sustainability criteria should be seriously considered. But even if all crops, forests and grasslands currently not used were used for biofuels production it would be impossible to substitute all fossil fuels used today in transport.

  4. A community response to the food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyzman, Denise; Wierenga, Janet; Sielawa, Julie

    2009-04-01

    In 2005, the Pioneering Healthier Communities initiative prompted the creation of the Activate West Michigan coalition. One of its earliest objectives was to increase fruit and vegetable consumption for people who lived in low-income, African American, and Latino communities in urban Grand Rapids. Because the existing food environment created barriers to this objective, the coalition created community and schoolyard gardens and farmers' markets. By 2008, the Activate West Michigan coalition had begun to improve the food environment by establishing nine community and schoolyard gardens and five farmers' markets.

  5. Nuclear techniques in food production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, J.P.C.

    1975-01-01

    This study is divided into three parts. The first, devoted to the use of radiations in food production, deals especially with artificial mutagenesis, selectors taking advantage of altered hereditary features in plants from irradiated seed; sterilization of animals to eliminate harmful insects (male sterilization technique); the lethal power of radiations used for the production of animal vaccins, attenuated by irradiation, against organisms which infest or degrade food products. Part two shows that radioactive atoms used as tracers to reveal migrations and chemical transformations of products such as fertilizers and pesticides can speed up all kinds of agronomical research. Their possibilities in research on animal feeding and to detect poisonous substances in foodstuffs are also mentioned. The last part is devoted to the use of nuclear techniques in irrigation and more precisely in the study of underground water flows soil moisture and lastly the future of nuclear desalination [fr

  6. Relevance of microbial finished product testing in food safety management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwietering, Marcel H.; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Membré, Jeanne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Management of microbiological food safety is largely based on good design of processes, products and procedures. Finished product testing may be considered as a control measure at the end of the production process. However, testing gives only very limited information on the safety status of a food......-active way by implementing an effective food safety management system. For verification activities in a food safety management system, finished product testing may however be useful. For three cases studies; canned food, chocolate and cooked ham, the relevance of testing both of finished products...... and the production environment is discussed. Since the level of control of different processes can be largely different it is beneficial if the frequency of sampling of finished products and production environments would be related to the associated human health risk, which can be assessed on the basis of risk...

  7. Food production & availability--essential prerequisites for sustainable food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, M S; Bhavani, R V

    2013-09-01

    Food and nutrition security are intimately interconnected, since only a food based approach can help in overcoming malnutrition in an economically and socially sustainable manner. Food production provides the base for food security as it is a key determinant of food availability. This paper deals with different aspects of ensuring high productivity and production without associated ecological harm for ensuring adequate food availability. By mainstreaming ecological considerations in technology development and dissemination, we can enter an era of evergreen revolution and sustainable food and nutrition security. Public policy support is crucial for enabling this.

  8. Investigating food environments in selected areas of Tshwane

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A food environment is a combination of physical, biological, social and psychological factors that affect the eating habits and patterns of people. The food environment is determined by the availability, affordability and access to the food required...

  9. Agrochemicals: fate in food and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    At the conference 47 papers were presented of which 32 were included in INIS. The papers dealt with the use of tracer techniques for monitoring the metabolism, toxicity, degradation and accumulation of pesticides and fertilizers in the agricultural environment, aquatic ecosystems, soils and food

  10. Food culture in the home environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B. F. De Wit, John; Stok, Marijn; Smolenski, Derek J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overweight epidemics, including among children and adolescents, are fuelled by contemporary obesogenic environments. Recent research and theory highlight the importance of socio-cultural factors in mitigating adverse impacts of the abundance of food in high-income countries. The current....... Findings extend and link previously separate lines of enquiry by showing how food cultures can play out in the home environment. Importantly, the study contributes novel evidence suggesting that self-regulation is shaped by the home environment and mediates its influence....... study examines whether family meal culture shapes young people's eating behaviors and self-regulation. METHODS: Young people aged 10-17 years were recruited through schools in four European countries: the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and the United Kingdom. A total of 2,764 participants (mean age 13...

  11. A new perspective on microbial landscapes within food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Lewis, Zachery T; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Mills, David A

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput, ‘next-generation’ sequencing tools offer many exciting new possibilities for food research. From investigating microbial dynamics within food fermentations to the ecosystem of the food-processing built environment, amplicon sequencing, metagenomics, and transcriptomics present novel applications for exploring microbial communities in, on, and around our foods. This review discusses the many uses of these tools for food-related and food facility-related research and highlights where they may yield nuanced insight into the microbial world of food production systems. PMID:26773388

  12. Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verain, M.C.D.; Dagevos, H.; Antonides, G.

    2015-01-01

    Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors

  13. Claiming health in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    healthiness, but not necessarily making the product more appealing. The wording of the claim seems to have little impact on claim perception, yet the health image of carrier products is important. From consumer-related factors the relevance and attitudes towards functional foods play a role, whereas socio...... the information, but we still know relatively little about consumer understanding of the message content in claims and even less about the assessment of personal relevance of the claimed benefits. In future studies more emphasis should be put on including contextual influences and realistic conditions...

  14. Food production - Present and future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, C.G.

    1974-01-01

    This year the joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture celebrates its 10th anniversary. The aim of these two United Nations organizations is to ensure that the technical services of both FAO and IAEA are fully co-ordinated and their programmes are designed to assist developing Member States to apply isotopes and radiation techniques to the solution of food and agricultural problems. More precisely, the medium-term objectives of the Joint Division are to exploit the potential of nuclear techniques in research and development for increasing and stabilizing agricultural production, improving food quality, protecting agricultural products from spoilage and losses and minimizing pollution of food and the agricultural environment. This account of what radioisotopes can do for man in the agricultural field is therefore to a great extent a review of the activities of the Joint Division and a prediction of its future fields of emphasis, especially in the light of the present long-range and world-wide food crisis. (author)

  15. Quality of food, water environment health and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Asi, M.R.; Aftab, T.

    2005-01-01

    Food is one of the most intimate and important components of our chemical environments. Whether we accept or reject food depends mainly on its flavor. Research into the chemistry of desirable and undesirable foods has been very popular. The advent of modern instrumentation has introduced rapid changes in the field. Recently, the concept of good food has changed considerably. Good food is not only expected to look fresh and tasty but it must be free from all contaminants. The presence of pesticide residues in food products is a clear violation of this simple reasonable expectation. The use of pesticides is indispensable to reduce crop losses (35-40%) from pests. If these pesticides were neither poisonous nor harmful, then the question of residues would have been unimportant. However, in order to accomplish their purposes, these compounds must be lethal to pests. The residues of these, when consumed along with food, may prove harmful to man. Although the per hectare use of pesticides in developing countries is less than that of developed countries, the problems caused by their unregulated use can be equally and sometimes even more severe. The use of pesticides in agriculture in developing countries is likely to increase; hence extreme precautions would be needed so that this prospective increased use of pesticides does not further degrade the quality of food, water and environment. In order to know the extent of contamination of different food commodities with pesticide residues, the studies have been conducted al lover the world on surveillance and compliance basis. This paper reports recent data on pesticide residues in food and water in relation to environment health and safety in Pakistan. (author)

  16. The food environment of students on a financial assistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: financial assistance, food environment, university students. Introduction. Food environment is defined as the social, policy, and spatial factors that influence access to food and the types of food accessible to people.1 Evidence on the relationship between the dietary habits of students and the campus food ...

  17. ‘Obesogenic’ School Food Environments? An Urban Case Study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Joris; Dijkstra, Coosje; Kamphuis, Carlijn; Huitink, Marlijn; van der Zee, Egbert; Poelman, Maartje

    (1) Background: This study aimed to explore and define socio-economic (SES) differences in urban school food environments in The Netherlands. (2) Methods: Retail food outlets, ready-to-eat products, in-store food promotions and food advertisements in public space were determined within 400 m walking

  18. Food product design. An integrated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnemann, A.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2007-01-01

    This book explains how to apply barrier technology in food production to improve product stability and the possibilities of modelling and statistics in food product design are elaborated. Attention is given to Life Cycle Assessment as a method to determine the environmental impact of a food from

  19. Sustainable diets: The interaction between food industry, nutrition, health and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaffar, Ayten Aylin

    2016-03-01

    Everyday great amounts of food are produced, processed, transported by the food industry and consumed by us and these activities have direct impact on our health and the environment. The current food system has started causing strain on the Earth's natural resources and that is why sustainable food production systems are needed. This review article discusses the need for sustainable diets by exploring the interactions between the food industry, nutrition, health and the environment, which are strongly interconnected. The most common environmental issues in the food industry are related to food processing loss, food wastage and packaging; energy efficiency; transportation of foods; water consumption and waste management. Among the foods produced and processed, meat and meat products have the greatest environmental impact followed by the dairy products. Our eating patterns impact the environment, but the environment can impact dietary choices as well. The foods and drinks we consume may also affect our health. A healthy and sustainable diet would minimise the consumption of energy-dense and highly processed and packaged foods, include less animal-derived foods and more plant-based foods and encourage people not to exceed the recommended daily energy intake. Sustainable diets contribute to food and nutrition security, have low environmental impacts and promote healthy life for present and future generations. There is an urgent need to develop and promote strategies for sustainable diets; and governments, United Nations agencies, civil society, research organisations and the food industry should work together in achieving this. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Recent developments in drying of food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valarmathi, T. N.; Sekar, S.; Purushothaman, M.; Sekar, S. D.; Rama Sharath Reddy, Maddela; Reddy, Kancham Reddy Naveen Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Drying is a dehydration process to preserve agricultural products for long period usage. The most common and cheapest method is open sun drying in which the products are simply laid on ground, road, mats, roof, etc. But the open sun drying has some disadvantages like dependent on good weather, contamination by dust, birds and animals consume a considerable quantity, slow drying rate and damages due to strong winds and rain. To overcome these difficulties solar dryers are developed with closed environment for drying agricultural products effectively. To obtain good quality food with reduced energy consumption, selection of appropriate drying process and proper input parameters is essential. In recent years several researchers across the world have developed new drying systems for improving the product quality, increasing the drying rate, decreasing the energy consumption, etc. Some of the new systems are fluidized bed, vibrated fluidized bed, desiccant, microwave, vacuum, freeze, infrared, intermittent, electro hydrodynamic and hybrid dryers. In this review the most recent progress in the field of drying of agricultural food products such as new methods, new products and modeling and optimization techniques has been presented. Challenges and future directions are also highlighted. The review will be useful for new researchers entering into this ever needed and ever growing field of engineering.

  1. Food production and environmental hazards in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris, M.; Iqbal, M.M.; Shah, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    , fertilizers, agro-chemicals and farm machinery which no doubt have help in increasing agricultural production but have simultaneous exerted telling effect on the environment. The effect of these resources on environment and human health is briefly reviewed below. In addition to this forest and food related hazards one on environment and human health are also discussed. (author)

  2. Research issues: the food environment and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Richard; Foster, Gary D

    2014-12-01

    "Research Issues: The Food Environment and Obesity" is an article series commissioned by the American Society for Nutrition and The Obesity Society in an attempt to consider the state of understanding on this topic and identify key knowledge gaps. Roberts and Karl focus on the role of energy density in the regulation of energy intake and body weight and offer recommendations for prioritizing research. Finkelstein et al examine food and beverage purchases as a function of price changes and conclude that targeted food taxes and subsidies alone are unlikely to substantially affect obesity. Pereira points out the difficulty in establishing the strength of the association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain and obesity. Johnson and Wardle review the effects of palatability and variety on eating behavior and weight. Livingstone and Pourshahidi examine the impact of portion size manipulations on energy intake and weight management and find that consumers generally tend to eat proportionally more as portion size increases. Kant focuses on the efficacy and effectiveness of eating frequency manipulation for body weight management and finds that such manipulation has consistently yielded null results. Finally, Gordon-Larsen identifies several limitations of the existing literature regarding neighborhood access to healthy foods. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Biofuels. Environment, technology and food security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar, Jose C.; Lora, Electo S.; Venturini, Osvaldo J. [NEST - Excellence Group in Thermal Power and Distributed Generation, Mechanical Engineering Institute, Universidade Federal de Itajuba (Brazil); Yanez, Edgar E. [CENIPALMA, Oil Palm Research Center - Cenipalma, Calle 21 42-C-47, Bogota (Colombia); Castillo, Edgar F. [CENICANA - Sugarcane Research Center of Colombia, Calle 58 N, 3BN-110, A.A., 9138 - Cali (Colombia); Almazan, Oscar [ICIDCA - Instituto Cubano de Investigaciones de los Derivados de la Cana de Azucar, Via Blanca y Carretera Central 804, San Miguel del Padron, A.P. 4036, La Habana (Cuba)

    2009-08-15

    The imminent decline of the world's oil production, its high market prices and environmental impacts have made the production of biofuels to reach unprecedent volumes over the last 10 years. This is why there have been intense debates among international organizations and political leaders in order to discuss the impacts of the biofuel use intensification. Besides assessing the causes of the rise in the demand and production of biofuels, this paper also shows the state of the art of their world's current production. It is also discussed different vegetable raw materials sources and technological paths to produce biofuels, as well as issues regarding production cost and the relation of their economic feasibility with oil international prices. The environmental impacts of programs that encourage biofuel production, farmland land requirements and the impacts on food production are also discussed, considering the life cycle analysis (LCA) as a tool. It is concluded that the rise in the use of biofuels is inevitable and that international cooperation, regulations and certification mechanisms must be established regarding the use of land, the mitigation of environmental and social impacts caused by biofuel production. It is also mandatory to establish appropriate working conditions and decent remuneration for workers of the biofuels production chain. (author)

  4. FDA's expanding postmarket authority to monitor and publicize food and consumer health product risks: the need for procedural safeguards to reduce "transparency" policy harms in the post-9/11 regulatory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Sarah Taylor; Pippins, Raqiyyah R; Ngai, Jennifer W

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the expansion of FDA's discretionary authority in the post-9/11 period, particularly with respect to FDA's authority to monitor and publicize potential health risks linked to food, dietary supplements, nonprescription drugs, and other consumer health products. In addition, this article evaluates the need for FDA to establish procedural safeguards to reduce the significant risks of unintended and undue harm to people and regulated companies that can result from adverse publicity in the more "transparent" post 9/11 FDA regulatory environment. Specifically, Part I summarizes the amendments to the FDCA enacted during the post-9/11 period that have expanded FDA's postmarket authority to monitor, evaluate, and publicize potential health risks linked to food, dietary supplements, nonprescription drugs and other consumer health products marketed in the United States, in conjunction with FDA's Sentinel Initiative, Reportable Food Registry, and other adverse event reporting requirements. Part II discusses the convergence of FDA's expanded postmarket authority to publicize product-related risks with President Obama's transparency initiative aimed at fostering "open government" through increased public access to government information. In addition, Part II considers the nature of the procedural safeguards needed in the post-9/11 FDA regulatory environment, in view of FDA's historical record and illustrative cases that help expose how adverse "transparency" surrounding FDA warning letters, recalls and safety alerts concerning products in the marketplace can have undue and unintended prejudicial and harmful effects for the people and companies that are legally responsible for such products. Finally, based on these analysis, this article concludes with some observations concerning the nature of the procedural safeguards needed to reduce the significant risks of "transparency" policy harms in the pos-9/11 regulatory environment.

  5. Comparing nutrition environments in bodegas and fast food restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Neckerman, Kathryn M.; Lovasi, Laszlo; Yousefzadeh, Paulette; Sheehan, Daniel; Milinkovic, Karla; Baecker, Aileen; Bader, Michael D. M.; Weiss, Christopher; Lovasi, Gina S.; Rundle, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Many small grocery stores or “bodegas” sell prepared or ready-to-eat items, filling a similar niche in the food environment as fast food restaurants. However, little comparative information is available about the nutrition environments of bodegas and fast food outlets. This study compared the nutrition environments of bodegas and national chain fast food restaurants using a common audit instrument, the Nutrition Environment Measures Study in Restaurants (NEMS-R) protocol. The analytic sample ...

  6. Atypical Food Packaging Affects The Persuasive Impact of Product Claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, M.L.; Fransen, P.W.J.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Smit, E.G.

    2016-01-01

    Atypical food packaging draws attention in the retail environment, and therefore increases product salience. However, until now, no research has focused on how atypical packaging affects the persuasive impact of other food information. In the present study, we propose that atypical packaging

  7. Atypical food packaging affects the persuasive impact of product claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, I.; Fransen, M.L.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Smit, E.G.

    Atypical food packaging draws attention in the retail environment, and therefore increases product sal- ience. However, until now, no research has focused on how atypical packaging affects the persuasive impact of other food information. In the present study, we propose that atypical packaging

  8. [Benzene in food and human environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedra, Małgorzata; Starski, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Benzene is releasing to environment in cause of industry activities. This compound is known as carcinogenic. This article contains information about benzene occurrence in people environment and sources of people exposition on this compound. Toxicology and metabolism in human organism were discussed. Benzene contamination of various food was presented on the basis of our results and also other European and American investigations and Codex Alimentarius documents. Especially formation and occurrence of benzene in non-alcoholic beverages preserved by benzoates were considered. Article describes also action, which was taken up by non-alcoholic beverages industry to mitigate benzene formation in soft drinks. National regulations concerning maximum levels of benzene in drinking water and air were also presented.

  9. Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verain, Muriel C D; Dagevos, Hans; Antonides, Gerrit

    2015-08-01

    Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors of the two types of behavior have been identified. Respondents were classified into four segments based on their sustainable food behaviors: unsustainers, curtailers, product-oriented consumers, and sustainers. Significant differences between the segments were found with regard to food choice motives, personal and social norms, food involvement, subjective knowledge on sustainable food, ability to judge how sustainably a product has been produced and socio-demographics. It is concluded that distinguishing between behavioral strategies toward sustainable food consumption is important as consumer segments can be identified that differ both in their level of sustainable food consumption and in the type of behavior they employ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Agrofuels Production and its Relation with Food Security and Food Sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Vargas Barbosa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses agrofuels production as a reason for increasing the dissociation between the human being, the land and the environment, considering the issues involving food security and food sovereignty. By using the deductive method, it aims to demonstrate that the growing distance between men and land is one of the results determined by capitalism, which is based on exploitation and maximized land production in order to obtain profit, interfering thereas in national food security and food sovereignty. Thus, it first deals with the relation between the human being, land, the environment, economy, State and politics, focusing on environmental  human  rights  protagonism  such  as  side  for  recognizing  and  developing /enveloping fundamental rights material. Secondly, it brings agrofuels production scenario and its relation with food security and sovereignty. Finally, it concepts food security and food sovereignty, establishing its differences in order to permit the build up a solid reality that is also able to secure their implement in an economy of family polycultural basis even if there is an opposite side oriented by capitalism and protected by State, specially in which concerns to productions and environmental excessive exploitation. The article concludes that to secure fundamental rights the being needs to recognize oneself as part of the environment in order to develop a significant State behavior which will reflect on economical politics that favors food security and food sovereignty.

  11. Consumer attitudes to enzymes in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    The use of enzymes in food production has potential benefits for both food manufacturers and consumers. A central question is how consumers react to new ways of producing foods with enzymes. This study investigates the formation of consumer attitudes to different enzyme production methods in thre...... to technological progress are the socio-political attitudes that have the highest predictive value regarding attitudes to enzyme production methods.......The use of enzymes in food production has potential benefits for both food manufacturers and consumers. A central question is how consumers react to new ways of producing foods with enzymes. This study investigates the formation of consumer attitudes to different enzyme production methods in three...... European countries. Results show that consumers are most positive towards non-GM enzyme production methods. The enzyme production method is by far the most important factor for the formation of buying intentions compared to price and benefits. Results also show that environmental concern and attitudes...

  12. Historic Food Production Shocks: Quantifying the Extremes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aled W. Jones

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding global food production trends is vital for ensuring food security and to allow the world to develop appropriate policies to manage the food system. Over the past few years, there has been an increasing attention on the global food system, particularly after the extreme shocks seen in food prices after 2007. Several papers and working groups have explored the links between food production and various societal impacts however they often categorise production shocks in different ways even to the extent of identifying different levels, countries and timings for shocks. In this paper we present a simple method to quantify and categorise cereal production shocks at a country level. This method can be used as a baseline for other studies that examine the impact of these production shocks on the global food system.

  13. Food and nutrition education in school environment: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Tecchio Borsoi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Food and Nutrition Education is a strategy to promote health and healthy eating habits. The school environment rises as a suitable place to develop these actions. Through Integrative Literature Review, we could identify the characteristics of scientific production on the Food and Nutrition Education at school from 2002 to 2013. The sample of this review consisted of 17 articles. It was observed that it has been giving more emphasis to this issue from 2009. Nine of the selected studies opted for intervention methodologies, and eight of them have proposed to consolidate the practice of educators, administrators and school cafeteria owners, the understanding of Food and Nutrition Education. The actions accomplished were characterized as slightly critical and participatory strategies based on the transmission of information. It concludes the need for approaches to treating eating disorders broadly at school, through problem-solving methodologies that go beyond the mere transmission of information.

  14. Encapsulates for Food Bioconversions and Metabolite Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breguet, Véronique; Vojinovic, Vojislav; Marison, Ian W.

    The control of production costs in the food industry must be very strict as a result of the relatively low added value of food products. Since a wide variety of enzymes and/or cells are employed in the food industry for starch processing, cheese making, food preservation, lipid hydrolysis and other applications, immobilization of the cells and/or enzymes has been recognized as an attractive approach to improving food processes while minimizing costs. This is due to the fact that biocatalyst immobilization allows for easier separation/purification of the product and reutilization of the biocatalyst. The advantages of the use of immobilized systems are many, and they have a special relevance in the area of food technology, especially because industrial processes using immobilized biosystems are usually characterized by lower capital/energy costs and better logistics. The main applications of immobilization, related to the major processes of food bioconversions and metabolite production, will be described and discussed in this chapter.

  15. Measuring the Food Environment: A Systematic Technique for Characterizing Food Stores Using Display Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Miller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing research has documented the influence of in-store characteristics—such as the number and placement of display stands—on consumer purchases of a product. However, little information exists on this topic for key foods of interest to those studying the influence of environmental changes on dietary behavior. This study demonstrates a method for characterizing the food environment by measuring the number of separate displays of fruits, vegetables, and energy-dense snack foods (including chips, candies, and sodas and their proximity to cash registers in different store types. Observations in New Orleans stores (N=172 in 2007 and 2008 revealed significantly more displays of energy-dense snacks than of fruits and vegetables within all store types, especially supermarkets. Moreover, supermarkets had an average of 20 displays of energy-dense snacks within 1 meter of their cash registers, yet none of them had even a single display of fruits or vegetables near their cash registers. Measures of the number of separate display stands of key foods and their proximity to a cash register can be used by researchers to better characterize food stores and by policymakers to address improvements to the food environment.

  16. Bacteriocin producers from traditional food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thonart P.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 220 strains of LAB isolated from 32 samples of traditional fermented food from Senegal were screened for bacteriocin production. Two bacteriocin producers, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Enterococcus faecium, were identified from 12 bacteriocin-producing isolates on the basis of phenotypic analyses and 16S rDNA sequence. Both bacteriocins produced by new isolates show antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus coagulans whereas only that produced by Lactococcus lactis has an activity against Bacillus cereus. Bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis strains were found in a variety of traditional foods indicating a high potential of growth of this strain in variable ecological complex environment. Partial 16S rDNA of the two bacteriocin producers obtained in this study has been registered to Genbank databases under the accession number AY971748 for Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (named CWBI-B1410 and AY971749 for Enterococcus faecium (named CWBI-B1411. The new bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain has been selected for identification and application of the bacteriocin to food preservation.

  17. Changes in a middle school food environment affect food behavior and food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wordell, Doug; Daratha, Kenn; Mandal, Bidisha; Bindler, Ruth; Butkus, Sue Nicholson

    2012-01-01

    Increasing rates of obesity among children ages 12 to 19 years have led to recommendations to alter the school food environment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are associations between an altered school food environment and food choices of middle school students both in and outside of school. In a midsized western city, two of six middle schools allowed only bottled water in vending machines, only milk and fruit on à la carte menus, and offered a seasonal fruit and vegetable bar. Three years after the intervention was initiated, seventh- and eighth-grade students attending the two intervention schools and four control middle schools were surveyed about their food choices. A total of 2,292 surveys were completed. Self-reported frequency of consumption for nine food groups in the survey was low; consumption was higher outside than in school. Boys consumed more milk than girls although girls consumed more fruits and vegetables. Significant socioeconomic differences existed. Compared with students who paid the full lunch fee, students qualifying for free and reduced-price meals consumed more milk and juice in schools but less outside school; more candy and energy drinks in school; and more sweet drinks, candy, pastries, and energy drinks outside school. Students in intervention schools were 24% more likely to consume milk outside school, 27% less likely to consume juice in school, and 56% less likely to consume sweet pastries in school. There were no differences in fruit and vegetable consumption reported by children in control and intervention schools. Overall, there was a positive association between a modified school food environment and student food behavior in and outside school. Policies related to the school food environment are an important strategy to address the obesity epidemic in our country. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Consumer Protection Towards Local Food Production In Southeast Sulawesi Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriani BT. Tolo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumers have rights which should not just be ignored by businesses such as the right to be a safety the right be informed the right to be heard as well as the right to a good environment and healthy. Kendari Regency as a local government has been manifested by issuing regulations and policies that support the development of local food production such as the Mayor of Kendari regulation No. 15 of 2010 and Mayor Kendari Decree No. 427 of 2012 regarding the Establishment of Community Care Local Food. It appears that the local government is trying to make this local food as an alternative food. The type of research used in this paper is a socio-legal research reviewing the local food production from the perspective of consumer protection. The outcomes of the research indicate that responsibility of food business operators in the implementation of local production is essentially an effort to assist the government in ensuring the realization of food safety system. Therefore there is a need for awareness of the laws and regulations for all parties involved towards local food production especially in Kendari Regency Southeast Sulawesi on the food production process.

  19. Food, Environment, and Health | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    such as hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease). The focus: public policy interventions and market innovations for changing local and national food systems in ways that enable healthy and sustainable diets. Food, Environment, and ...

  20. Preservation of food products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGivney, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    The use of irradiation to preserve food has the potential to significantly enhance our capacity to maximize the quality and quantity of the food we consume. In a world in which distribution of food occurs across continents and in which malnourished populations are in dire need of basic food products, any safe, effective, and efficient means of preserving food is more than welcome. Irradiation, as a method for food preservation, has been studied for more than 30 years. This discussion focuses on this most recent method for the preservation of food with particular emphasis on its effects on the safety, nutritive, and aesthetic values of the food preserved by irradiation. The use of ionizing radiation as a method to preserve foods is one that has been demonstrated to be effective for a variety of food classes. Irradiation offers a means to decontaminate, disinfest, and retard the spoilage of the food supply. At the same time, it appears that the wholesomeness of these food products is maintained. Nutritive value can be sustained by use of effective doses of radiation. Concerns over the safety of irradiated food are rooted in questions regarding the potential induction of radioactivity, harmful radiolytic products, and pathogenic radiation-resistant or mutant strains of microorganisms. Research findings have allayed concerns over safety. However, more research is necessary to conclusively resolve these safety issues. Food irradiation is a promising technology that has and will contribute to our ability to feed the people of this world. This technology is but one of many available ways to preserve our greatest natural resource, the food supply. Enhancement of the ability to preserve food by irradiation will facilitate the distribution of food from fertile developed regions to the malnourished peoples of underdeveloped countries. 21 references

  1. Food and farm products surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the radiological analyses performed on food and farm samples collected during 1994. The food and farm sampling design addresses the potential influence of Hanford Site releases. Details of the sampling design and radionuclides analyzed are included in this section

  2. Immobilization Technologies in Probiotic Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregoria Mitropoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various supports and immobilization/encapsulation techniques have been proposed and tested for application in functional food production. In the present review, the use of probiotic microorganisms for the production of novel foods is discussed, while the benefits and criteria of using probiotic cultures are analyzed. Subsequently, immobilization/encapsulation applications in the food industry aiming at the prolongation of cell viability are described together with an evaluation of their potential future impact, which is also highlighted and assessed.

  3. Immobilization Technologies in Probiotic Food Production

    OpenAIRE

    Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Nedovic, Viktor; Goyal, Arun; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2013-01-01

    Various supports and immobilization/encapsulation techniques have been proposed and tested for application in functional food production. In the present review, the use of probiotic microorganisms for the production of novel foods is discussed, while the benefits and criteria of using probiotic cultures are analyzed. Subsequently, immobilization/encapsulation applications in the food industry aiming at the prolongation of cell viability are described together with an evaluation of their poten...

  4. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops......, and gives examples of the unique challenges faced by the SME food industry....

  5. Consumer attitudes towards nanotechnology in food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, Nigel D.; Fischer, Arnout R.H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Nanotechnology is a technology that holds much promise for food production. It is, however not clear to what extent consumers will accept different types of nanotechnologies in food products. The purpose of this paper is to research consumer attitudes towards differing applications of

  6. Product Category Layout and Organization: Retail Placement of Food Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van E.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the placement of food products in retail stores, in particular how the placement of food products can influence how consumers perceive the store in general and these products in particular. It reviews the overall layout of the store, assortment organization, and shelf

  7. Exploring the influence of local food environments on food behaviours: a systematic review of qualitative literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Erin; Gallegos, Danielle; Comans, Tracy; Cameron, Cate; Thornton, Lukar

    2017-09-01

    Systematic reviews investigating associations between objective measures of the food environment and dietary behaviours or health outcomes have not established a consistent evidence base. The present paper aims to synthesise qualitative evidence regarding the influence of local food environments on food and purchasing behaviours. A systematic review in the form of a qualitative thematic synthesis. Urban localities. Adults. Four analytic themes were identified from the review including community and consumer nutrition environments, other environmental factors and individual coping strategies for shopping and purchasing decisions. Availability, accessibility and affordability were consistently identified as key determinants of store choice and purchasing behaviours that often result in less healthy food choices within community nutrition environments. Food availability, quality and food store characteristics within consumer nutrition environments also greatly influenced in-store purchases. Individuals used a range of coping strategies in both the community and consumer nutrition environments to make optimal purchasing decisions, often within the context of financial constraints. Findings from the current review add depth and scope to quantitative literature and can guide ongoing theory, interventions and policy development in food environment research. There is a need to investigate contextual influences within food environments as well as individual and household socio-economic characteristics that contribute to the differing use of and views towards local food environments. Greater emphasis on how individual and environmental factors interact in the food environment field will be key to developing stronger understanding of how environments can support and promote healthier food choices.

  8. The Influence of Local Food Environments on Adolescents’ Food Purchasing Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Irwin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810 at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS was used to assess students’ home and school neighborhood food environment and land use characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the influence of the home neighborhood food environment on students’ food purchasing behaviors, while two-level Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Models were used to examine the effects of school neighborhood food environment factors on students’ food purchasing behaviors. The study showed that approximately 65% of participants reported self-purchasing foods from fast-food outlets or convenience stores. Close proximity (i.e., less than 1 km to the nearest fast-food outlet or convenience store in the home neighborhood increased the likelihood of food purchasing from these food establishments at least once per week by adolescents (p < 0.05. High fast-food outlet density in both home and school neighborhoods was associated with increased fast-food purchasing by adolescents (i.e., at least once per week; p < 0.05. In conclusion, macro-level regulations and policies are required to amend the health-detracting neighborhood food environment surrounding children and youth’s home and school.

  9. Convenience food products. Drivers for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Thomas A; van der Horst, Klazine; Siegrist, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Convenience is one of the big trends in the food business. The demand for convenience food products is steadily increasing; therefore, understanding convenience food consumption is an important issue. Despite being vital properties of convenience food, saving time and effort have not been very successful constructs for predicting convenience food consumption. To examine a wide range of possible drivers for convenience food consumption, the present study uses a convenience food frequency questionnaire that asks about consumption behavior. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was sent out to a representative sample of people in German-speaking Switzerland and yielded N = 918 complete datasets from persons mainly responsible for buying and preparing food in the household. The various convenience food products could be categorized into four groups, which we labeled as highly processed food items, moderately processed food items, single components, and salads. Fifteen drivers were found to have a significant impact either on total convenience consumption or on one of the identified categories. Strong predictors were age, concern about naturalness, nutrition knowledge, and cooking skills. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Innovation of food production systems : product quality and consumer acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Jongen, W.M.F.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.

    1998-01-01

    he quality of food products, as perceived by consumers, is a main driving force behind today's innovations in the food industry. Product development represents large investments of companies both in money and human resources and has to be accomplished in a highly competitive market situation. Consequently, product innovation should be considered in this context. In order to be successful, all aspects of product development should be put into proportion in a balanced and structured way. Intern...

  11. Urban environment and health: food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Osman; Corroon, Meghan; Tirado, Cristina

    2010-07-01

    The authors examine the impact of urbanization on food security and human health in the Middle East. Within-urban-population disparities in food security represent one of the most dramatic indicators of economic and health disparities. These disparities are reflected in a double burden of health outcomes: increasing levels of chronic disease as well as growing numbers of undernourished among the urban poor. These require further comprehensive solutions. Some of the factors leading to food insecurity are an overdependence on purchased food commodities, lack of sufficient livelihoods, rapid reductions in peripheral agricultural land, and adverse impacts of climate change. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Food Security Framework is used to examine and compare 2 cities in the Middle East: Amman, Jordan, and Manama, Bahrain.

  12. MODELLING CONSUMERS' DEMAND FOR ORGANIC FOOD PRODUCTS: THE SWEDISH EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuchehr Irandoust

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine a few factors characterizing consumer preferences and behavior towards organic food products in the south of Sweden using a proportional odds model which captures the natural ordering of dependent variables and any inherent nonlinearities. The findings show that consumer's choice for organic food depends on perceived benefits of organic food (environment, health, and quality and consumer's perception and attitudes towards labelling system, message framing, and local origin. In addition, high willingness to pay and income level will increase the probability to buy organic food, while the cultural differences and socio-demographic characteristics have no effect on consumer behaviour and attitudes towards organic food products. Policy implications are offered.

  13. Product samples stimulate choice of unfamiliar healthful food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickenberg, B; van Assema, P; Brug, J; de Vries, N K

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the availability of a product sample of an unfamiliar low-fat or fruit and vegetable products stimulates choice for this product among food neophobic young adults. The study had a 2 (experimental vs. control group) by 4 (low-fat bread spread, low-fat cheese, fruit juice, fruit and vegetable juice) between subjects design with a pre-and post-experiment questionnaire. The study was conducted in restaurant rooms of several educational institutions in the Netherlands among a convenience sample of 197 food neophobic young adults aged 17-25 years. A small bite or sip-sized sample of the target product was provided as an intervention. The effect measure was choice of either an unfamiliar healthful food product or a traditional food product. Offering a sample of an unfamiliar healthful food product resulted in 51% of the participants in the experimental group choosing this product vs. 36.4% in the control group. Providing food product samples seems to be a promising strategy in healthy diet promotion programs for food neophobic young adults to increase first-time trial of unfamiliar low-fat and fruit and vegetable products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Productivity growth in food crop production in Imo State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agriculture plays pivotal roles in Nigeria including food security, employment, foreign exchange earnings and poverty reduction. This study examined the growth in food crop productivity in Imo State in Nigeria with emphasis on the decomposition of total factor productivity (TFP) into technical progress, changes in technical ...

  15. Innovation of food production systems : product quality and consumer acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, W.M.F.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.

    1998-01-01

    he quality of food products, as perceived by consumers, is a main driving force behind today's innovations in the food industry. Product development represents large investments of companies both in money and human resources and has to be accomplished in a highly competitive market situation.

  16. Retail food environments research in Canada: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaker, Leia M; Shuh, Alanna; Olstad, Dana L; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Black, Jennifer L; Mah, Catherine L

    2016-06-09

    The field of retail food environments research is relatively new in Canada. The objective of this scoping review is to provide an overview of retail food environments research conducted before July 2015 in Canada. Specifically, this review describes research foci and key findings, identifies knowledge gaps and suggests future directions for research. A search of published literature concerning Canadian investigations of retail food environment settings (food stores, restaurants) was conducted in July 2015 using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, PsychInfo and ERIC. Studies published in English that reported qualitative or quantitative data on any aspect of the retail food environment were included, as were conceptual papers and commentaries. Eighty-eight studies were included in this review and suggest that the field of retail food environments research is rapidly expanding in Canada. While only 1 paper was published before 2005, 66 papers were published between 2010 and 2015. Canadian food environments research typically assessed either the socio-economic patterning of food environments (n = 28) or associations between retail food environments and diet, anthropometric or health outcomes (n = 33). Other papers profiled methodological research, qualitative studies, intervention research and critical commentaries (n = 27). Key gaps in the current literature include measurement inconsistency among studies and a lack of longitudinal and intervention studies. Retail food environments are a growing topic of research, policy and program development in Canada. Consistent methods (where appropriate), longitudinal and intervention research, and close partnerships between researchers and key stakeholders would greatly advance the field of retail food environments research in Canada.

  17. Food environment and policies in private schools in Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Neha; Riddell, Lynn; Worsley, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    School food policies and services have the potential to influence the food practices and eating behaviours of adolescents which in turn may affect their lifestyles and health in adulthood. The aim of this qualitative investigation was to describe the opinions of adolescents, their parents, nutrition educators and school principals about the prevailing food environment and canteen policies in Indian schools. Fifteen adolescents aged 14-15 years, 15 parents, 12 teachers and 10 principals from 10 private schools in Kolkata, India participated in semi-structured interviews. The interview questions were primarily based on the existing literature related to school food environments and policies. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and assessed thematically. Throughout the 52 interviews, a number of inadequacies of the school food environment and policies were revealed. These included the absence of written food policies, the widespread supply of unhealthy foods, inadequate provision of healthy foods, misleading messages about food communicated by school authorities, lack of cleanliness in the school canteen and the high cost of canteen food. Current school food environments do not appear to promote healthy eating among adolescents. Therefore, it is important to upgrade the quality of food services in Indian schools through adoption of healthy eating policies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Processing Contaminants in Food Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Fromberg, Arvid

    Contaminants like acrylamide, furan or PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) as e.g. Benz(a)pyrene may be formed during food processing. All of the substances are genotoxic carcinogens, and for that reason mitigation strategies to reduce the levels are needed. Examples of the formation of the processing...

  19. Careers in Organic Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibler, Adam

    2010-01-01

    New technology developed over the past several decades have allowed farmers to grow more food using fewer resources. Compared with 60 years ago, today's farm can supply more than three times more corn per acre, and the average dairy cow produces almost four times more milk. Even as technology improves farm yields, however, many consumers are…

  20. From Tobacco to Food Production : Consolidation, Dissemination ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    An earlier IDRC-supported project, 103435 From Tobacco to Food Production : Constraints and Transition Strategies (Bangladesh), provided a detailed understanding of the constraints tobacco farmers face and ... How are public health actors working with the food and drinks industry to prevent diet-related disease? A new ...

  1. Climate change and sustainable food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pete; Gregory, Peter J

    2013-02-01

    One of the greatest challenges we face in the twenty-first century is to sustainably feed nine to ten billion people by 2050 while at the same time reducing environmental impact (e.g. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, biodiversity loss, land use change and loss of ecosystem services). To this end, food security must be delivered. According to the United Nations definition, 'food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life'. At the same time as delivering food security, we must also reduce the environmental impact of food production. Future climate change will make an impact upon food production. On the other hand, agriculture contributes up to about 30% of the anthropogenic GHG emissions that drive climate change. The aim of this review is to outline some of the likely impacts of climate change on agriculture, the mitigation measures available within agriculture to reduce GHG emissions and outlines the very significant challenge of feeding nine to ten billion people sustainably under a future climate, with reduced emissions of GHG. Each challenge is in itself enormous, requiring solutions that co-deliver on all aspects. We conclude that the status quo is not an option, and tinkering with the current production systems is unlikely to deliver the food and ecosystems services we need in the future; radical changes in production and consumption are likely to be required over the coming decades.

  2. The influence of local food environments on adolescents' food purchasing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meizi; Tucker, Patricia; Gilliland, Jason; Irwin, Jennifer D; Larsen, Kristian; Hess, Paul

    2012-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810) at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to assess students' home and school neighborhood food environment and land use characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the influence of the home neighborhood food environment on students' food purchasing behaviors, while two-level Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Models were used to examine the effects of school neighborhood food environment factors on students' food purchasing behaviors. The study showed that approximately 65% of participants reported self-purchasing foods from fast-food outlets or convenience stores. Close proximity (i.e., less than 1 km) to the nearest fast-food outlet or convenience store in the home neighborhood increased the likelihood of food purchasing from these food establishments at least once per week by adolescents (p purchasing by adolescents (i.e., at least once per week; p < 0.05). In conclusion, macro-level regulations and policies are required to amend the health-detracting neighborhood food environment surrounding children and youth's home and school.

  3. The Influence of Local Food Environments on Adolescents’ Food Purchasing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meizi; Tucker, Patricia; Gilliland, Jason; Irwin, Jennifer D.; Larsen, Kristian; Hess, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810) at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to assess students’ home and school neighborhood food environment and land use characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the influence of the home neighborhood food environment on students’ food purchasing behaviors, while two-level Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Models were used to examine the effects of school neighborhood food environment factors on students’ food purchasing behaviors. The study showed that approximately 65% of participants reported self-purchasing foods from fast-food outlets or convenience stores. Close proximity (i.e., less than 1 km) to the nearest fast-food outlet or convenience store in the home neighborhood increased the likelihood of food purchasing from these food establishments at least once per week by adolescents (p purchasing by adolescents (i.e., at least once per week; p < 0.05). In conclusion, macro-level regulations and policies are required to amend the health-detracting neighborhood food environment surrounding children and youth’s home and school. PMID:22690205

  4. School food environments associated with adiposity in Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, C; Datta, G D; Henderson, M; Gray-Donald, K; Kestens, Y; Barnett, T A

    2017-07-01

    Targeting obesogenic features of children's environment that are amenable to change represents a promising strategy for health promotion. The school food environment, defined as the services and policies regarding nutrition and the availability of food in the school and surrounding neighborhood, is particularly important given that students travel through the school neighborhood almost daily and that they consume a substantial proportion of their calories at school. As part of the Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth (QUALITY) cohort study, we assessed features of school indoor dietary environment and the surrounding school neighborhoods, when children were aged 8-10 years (2005-2008). School principals reported on food practices and policies within the schools. The density of convenience stores and fast-food outlets surrounding the school was computed using a Geographical Information System. Indicators of school neighborhood deprivation were derived from census data. Adiposity outcomes were measured in a clinical setting 2 years later, when participants were aged 10-12 years (2008-2011). We conducted cluster analyses to identify school food environment types. Associations between school types and adiposity were estimated in linear regression models. Cluster analysis identified three school types with distinct food environments. Schools were characterized as: overall healthful (45%); a healthful food environment in the surrounding neighborhood, but an unhealthful indoor food environment (22%); or overall unhealthful (33%). Less healthful schools were located in more deprived neighborhoods and were associated with greater child adiposity. Despite regulatory efforts to improve school food environments, there is substantial inequity in dietary environments across schools. Ensuring healthful indoor and outdoor food environments across schools should be included in comprehensive efforts to reduce obesity-related health disparities.

  5. Farmers, cooperatives, new food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Villy

    , the economic rationale of the marketing cooperative is to maximize its demand for the output of its membership, subject to the equal-treatment constraint. 5. This basic logic has serious consequences for the choice of product strategy. This may be discussed in terms of four dimensions of product strategy......, namely input substitution, product differentiation (at primary or processing level), product quality (at primary and processing level), and processing degree. 6. The maximization of derived demand inhibits the substitution of members' input with inputs from non-members. 7. However, although...... the differentiation of primary production might add to the derived demand for primary products, this is hard to reconcile with the equal-treatment principle, since differentiation tends to produce a need for interest alignment among the membership. 8. Input substitution adds to the incentives to improve the quality...

  6. Monitoring occurrence and persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in foods and food processing environments in the Republic of Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara eLeong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although rates of listeriosis are low in comparison to other foodborne pathogenic illnesses, listeriosis poses a significant risk to human health as the invasive form can have a mortality rate as high as 30%. Food processors, especially those who produce ready-to-eat products, need to be vigilant against Listeria monocytogenes, the causative pathogen of listeriosis, and as such, the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in food and in the food processing environment needs to be carefully monitored. To examine the prevalence and patterns of contamination in food processing facilities in Ireland, 48 food processors submitted 8 samples every 2 months from March 2013 to March 2014 to be analyzed for L. monocytogenes. No positive samples were detected for 38% of the processing facilities tested. Isolates found at the remaining 62% of facilities were characterized by serotyping and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE. A general L. monocytogenes prevalence of 4.6% was seen in all samples analyzed with similar rates seen in food and environmental samples. Differences in prevalence were seen across different food processors, food sectors, sampling months etc. and PFGE analysis allowed for the examination of contamination patterns and for the identification of several persistent strains. Seven of the food processing facilities tested showed contamination with persistent strains and evidence of bacterial transfer from the processing environment to food (the same pulsotype found in both was seen in four of the food processing facilities tested.

  7. Comparing nutrition environments in bodegas and fast food restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovasi, Laszlo; Yousefzadeh, Paulette; Sheehan, Daniel; Milinkovic, Karla; Baecker, Aileen; Bader, Michael D. M.; Weiss, Christopher; Lovasi, Gina S.; Rundle, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Many small grocery stores or “bodegas” sell prepared or ready-to-eat items, filling a similar niche in the food environment as fast food restaurants. However, little comparative information is available about the nutrition environments of bodegas and fast food outlets. This study compared the nutrition environments of bodegas and national chain fast food restaurants using a common audit instrument, the Nutrition Environment Measures Study in Restaurants (NEMS-R) protocol. The analytic sample included 109 bodegas and 107 fast food restaurants located in New York City neighborhoods in the upper third and lower third of the census tract poverty rate distribution. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated in 102 food outlets including 31 from the analytic sample and 71 from a supplementary convenience sample. The analysis compared scores on individual NEMS-R items, a total summary score, and sub-scores indicating healthy food availability, nutrition information, promotions of healthy or unhealthy eating, and price incentives for healthy eating, using t-tests and chi-square statistics to evaluate differences by outlet type and neighborhood poverty. Fast food restaurants were more likely to provide nutritional information, while bodegas scored higher on healthy food availability, promotions, and pricing. Bodegas and fast food restaurants had similar NEMS-R total scores (bodegas: 13.09, fast food: 14.31, p=0.22). NEMS-R total scores were higher (indicating healthier environments) in low- than high-poverty neighborhoods among both bodegas (14.79 vs. 11.54, p=0.01) and fast food restaurants (16.27 vs. 11.60, p<.01). Results imply different policy measures to improve nutrition environments in the two types of food outlets. PMID:24035459

  8. Nutrigenomics of taste - impact on food preferences and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Stewart, Lindsay; Khataan, Nora; Fontaine-Bisson, Bénédicte; Kwong, Pauline; Ozsungur, Stephen; Cornelis, Marilyn C

    2007-01-01

    Food preferences are influenced by a number of factors such as personal experiences, cultural adaptations and perceived health benefits. Taste, however, is the most important determinant of how much a food is liked or disliked. Based on the response to bitter-tasting compounds such as phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) or 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), individuals can be classified as supertasters, tasters or nontasters. Sensitivity to bitter-tasting compounds is a genetic trait that has been recognized for more than 70 years. Genetic differences in bitter taste perception may account for individual differences in food preferences. Other factors such as age, sex and ethnicity may also modify the response to bitter-tasting compounds. There are several members of the TAS2R receptor gene family that encode taste receptors on the tongue, and genetic polymorphisms of TAS2R38 have been associated with marked differences in the perception of PTC and PROP. However, the association between TAS2R38 genotypes and aversion to bitter-tasting foods is not clear. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in other taste receptor genes have recently been identified, but their role in bitter taste perception is not known. Establishing a genetic basis for food likes/dislikes may explain, in part, some of the inconsistencies among epidemiologic studies relating diet to risk of chronic diseases. Identifying populations with preferences for particular flavors or foods may lead to the development of novel food products targeted to specific genotypes or ethnic populations.

  9. Wheat production in controlled environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Frank B.; Bugbee, Bruce; Bubenheim, David

    Our goal is to optimize conditions for maximum yield and quality of wheat to be used in a controlled-environment, life-support system (CELSS) in a Lunar or Martian base or perhaps in a space craft. With yields of 23 to 57 g m-2 d-1 of edible biomass, a minimum size for a CELSS would be between 12 and 30 m2 per person, utilizing about 600 W m-2 of electrical energy for artificial light. Temperature, irradiance, photoperiod, carbon-dioxide levels, humidity, and wind velocity are controlled in state-of-the-art growth chambers. Nutrient solutions (adjusted for wheat) are supplied to the roots via a recirculating system that controls pH by adding HNO3 and controlling the NO3/NH4 ratio in solution. A rock-wool plant support allows direct seeding and densities up to 10,000 plants per meter2. Densities up to 2000 plants m-2 appear to increase seed yield. Biomass production increases almost linearily with increasing irradiance from 400 to 1700 μmol m-2 s-1 of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), but the efficiency of light utilization decreases over this range. Photoperiod and temperature both have a profound influence on floral initiation, spikelet formation, stem elongation, and fertilization. High temperatures (25 to 27°C) and long days shorten the life cycle and promote rapid growth, but cooler temperatures (20°C) and shorter days greatly increase seed number per head and thus yield (g m-2). The life cycle is lengthened in these conditions but yield per day (g m-2 d-1) is still increased. We have evaluated about 600 cultivars from around the world and have developed several breeding lines for our controlled conditions. Some of our ultra-dwarf lines (30 to 50 cm tall) look especially promising with high yields and high harvest indices (percent edible biomass).

  10. Occurrence of lipid oxidation products in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, P B

    1986-01-01

    Lipid oxidation products are ubiquitous in foods, although much variation exists in the levels present. Although these levels are generally low, the problem of lipid oxidation severely compromises the quality of some foods and limits the shelf-life of others. Lipid oxidation represents a key barrier in the development of new food products and processes, especially convenience items and processes required to manufacture them. Deleterious changes in foods caused by lipid oxidation include loss of flavour, development of off-flavours, loss of colour, nutrient value and functionally, and the accumulation of compounds which may be detrimental to the health of consumers. All foods that contain lipids are susceptible to oxidation but especially affected are foods which are dehydrated, subjected to high temperatures or cooked and subsequently stored, e.g. dehydrated eggs, cheeses and meats, foods fried in frying oils, and cooked (uncured) meats. Specific examples of compounds which are of health concern include lipid peroxides and the free radicals involved in their formation and propagation, malonaldehyde, and several cholesterol oxidation products. Coronary artery disease (CAD) may be in part caused by the consumption of lipid oxidation products.

  11. Sustainability labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    of sustainability was limited, but understanding of four selected labels (Fair Trade, Rainforest Alliance, Carbon Footprint, and Animal Welfare) was better, as some of them seem to be self-explanatory. The results indicated a low level of use, no matter whether use was measured as self-reported use of different......, human values as measured by the Schwartz value domains, and country differences. The results imply that sustainability labels currently do not play a major role in consumers’ food choices, and future use of these labels will depend on the extent to which consumers’ general concern about sustainability...

  12. Biodiesel production from algae grown on food industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureed, Khadija; Kanwal, Shamsa; Hussain, Azhar; Noureen, Shamaila; Hussain, Sabir; Ahmad, Shakeel; Ahmad, Maqshoof; Waqas, Rashid

    2018-04-10

    Algae have an ample potential to produce biodiesel from spent wash of food industry. In addition, it is cheaper and presents an environment friendly way to handle food industry wastewater. This study was conducted to optimize the growth of microalgal strains and to assess biodiesel production potential of algae using untreated food industry wastewater as a source of nutrients. The food industry wastewater was collected and analyzed for its physicochemical characteristics. Different dilutions (10, 20, 40, 80, and 100%) of this wastewater were made with distilled water, and growth of two microalgal strains (Cladophora sp. and Spyrogyra sp.) was recorded. Each type of wastewater was inoculated with microalgae, and biomass was harvested after 7 days. The growth of both strains was also evaluated at varying temperatures, pH and light periods to optimize the algal growth for enhanced biodiesel production. After optimization, biodiesel production by Spyrogyra sp. was recorded in real food industry wastewater. The algal biomass increased with increasing level of food industry wastewater and was at maximum with 100% wastewater. Moreover, statistically similar results were found with algal growth on 100% wastewater and also on Bristol's media. The Cladophora sp. produced higher biomass than Spyrogyra sp. while growing on food industry wastewater. The optimal growth of both microalgal strains was observed at temperature 30 °C, pH: 8, light 24 h. Cladophora sp. was further evaluated for biodiesel production while growing on 100% wastewater and found that this strain produced high level of oil and biodiesel. Algae have an ample potential to produce biodiesel from spent wash of food industry. In addition, it is cheaper and presents an environment friendly way to handle food industry wastewater.

  13. Monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in community and consumer retail food environments globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, C; Vandevijvere, S; Waterlander, W; Thornton, L E; Kelly, B; Cameron, A J; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B

    2013-10-01

    Retail food environments are increasingly considered influential in determining dietary behaviours and health outcomes. We reviewed the available evidence on associations between community (type, availability and accessibility of food outlets) and consumer (product availability, prices, promotions and nutritional quality within stores) food environments and dietary outcomes in order to develop an evidence-based framework for monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail food environments. Current evidence is suggestive of an association between community and consumer food environments and dietary outcomes; however, substantial heterogeneity in study designs, methods and measurement tools makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The use of standardized tools to monitor local food environments within and across countries may help to validate this relationship. We propose a step-wise framework to monitor and benchmark community and consumer retail food environments that can be used to assess density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets; measure proximity of healthy and unhealthy food outlets to homes/schools; evaluate availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in-store; compare food environments over time and between regions and countries; evaluate compliance with local policies, guidelines or voluntary codes of practice; and determine the impact of changes to retail food environments on health outcomes, such as obesity. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  14. Trade in Food and Food Products in Africa | Sekitoleko | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The scale of food insecurity and poverty in sub-Saharan Africa underscores the importance of economic growth in general and agricultural growth in particular, in view of the high dependence of the economies on agriculture. A growing and productive agricultural sector in the Region would be the driving force for their ...

  15. Food product design: emerging evidence for food policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdani, Mohammed; Smith, Steven

    2017-03-01

    The research on the impact of specific brand elements such as food descriptors and package colors is underexplored. We tested whether a "light" color and a "low-calorie" descriptor on food packages gain favorable consumer perception ratings as compared with regular packages. Our online experiment recruited 406 adults in a 3 (product type: Chips versus Juice versus Yoghurt) × 2 (descriptor type: regular versus low-calorie) × 2 (color type: regular versus light) mixed design. Dependent variables were sensory (evaluations of the product's nutritional value and quality), product-based (evaluations of the product's physical appeal), and consumer-based (evaluations of the potential consumers of the product) scales. "Low-calorie" descriptors were found to increase sensory ratings as compared with regular descriptors and light-colored packages received higher product-based ratings as compared with their regular-colored counterparts. Food package color and descriptors present a promising venue for understanding preventative measures against obesity.[Formula: see text].

  16. productivity growth in food crop production in imo state, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Agriculture plays pivotal roles in Nigeria including food security, employment, foreign exchange earnings and poverty reduction. This study examined the growth in food crop productivity in Imo State in Nigeria with emphasis on the decomposition of .... aggregates were used to define some variables such as land, labour and ...

  17. Comparing nutrition environments in bodegas and fast-food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckerman, Kathryn M; Lovasi, Laszlo; Yousefzadeh, Paulette; Sheehan, Daniel; Milinkovic, Karla; Baecker, Aileen; Bader, Michael D M; Weiss, Christopher; Lovasi, Gina S; Rundle, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Many small grocery stores or "bodegas" sell prepared or ready-to-eat items, filling a niche in the food environment similar to fast-food restaurants. However, little comparative information is available about the nutrition environments of bodegas and fast-food outlets. This study compared the nutrition environments of bodegas and national chain fast-food restaurants using a common audit instrument, the Nutrition Environment Measures Study in Restaurants (NEMS-R) protocol. The analytic sample included 109 bodegas and 107 fast-food restaurants located in New York City neighborhoods in the upper third and lower third of the census tract poverty rate distribution. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated in 102 food outlets, including 31 from the analytic sample and 71 from a supplementary convenience sample. The analysis compared scores on individual NEMS-R items, a total summary score, and subscores indicating healthy food availability, nutrition information, promotions of healthy or unhealthy eating, and price incentives for healthy eating, using t tests and χ(2) statistics to evaluate differences by outlet type and neighborhood poverty. Fast-food restaurants were more likely to provide nutrition information, and bodegas scored higher on healthy food availability, promotions, and pricing. Bodegas and fast-food restaurants had similar NEMS-R total scores (bodegas 13.09, fast food 14.31; P=0.22). NEMS-R total scores were higher (indicating healthier environments) in low- than high-poverty neighborhoods among both bodegas (14.79 vs 11.54; P=0.01) and fast-food restaurants (16.27 vs 11.60; Pfood outlets. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Climate Change and Food Safety: Beyond Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziska, L. H.; Crimmins, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    There is merited interest in determining the extent of climate disruption on agricultural production and food security. However, additional aspects of food security, including food safety, nutrition and distribution have, overall, received less attention. Beginning in 2013, the U.S. Global Change Research Program as part of the ongoing National Climate Assessment, began a directed effort to evaluate the vulnerability of climate change to these under-represented aspects of food security for developed countries. Based on this extensive review of current science, several key findings were developed: (a) Climate change, including rising temperatures and changes in weather extremes, is expected to increase the exposure of food to certain pathogens and toxins; (b) Climate change will increase human exposure to chemical contaminants in food through several pathways; (c) The nutritional value of agriculturally important food crops, including cereals, will decrease in response to the ongoing increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide; (d) Increases in the frequency or intensity of extreme weather events associated with climate change may disrupt food distribution. These findings will be presented as a means to describe the state of the science and expand on food security research in the broader context of public health and climate change.

  19. Design for the Environment Products (Online Search)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains a list of products that carry the Design for the Environment (DfE) label. This mark enables consumers to quickly identify and choose products...

  20. Design for the Environment Products (Raw Data)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains a list of products that carry the Design for the Environment (DfE) label. This mark enables consumers to quickly identify and choose products...

  1. Food Environments around American Indian Reservations: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodur, Gwen M; Shen, Ye; Kodish, Stephen; Oddo, Vanessa M; Antiporta, Daniel A; Jock, Brittany; Jones-Smith, Jessica C

    2016-01-01

    To describe the food environments experienced by American Indians living on tribal lands in California. Geocoded statewide food business data were used to define and categorize existing food vendors into healthy, unhealthy, and intermediate composite categories. Distance to and density of each of the composite food vendor categories for tribal lands and nontribal lands were compared using multivariate linear regression. Quantitative results were concurrently triangulated with qualitative data from in-depth interviews with tribal members (n = 24). After adjusting for census tract-level urbanicity and per capita income, results indicate there were significantly fewer healthy food outlets per square mile for tribal areas compared to non-tribal areas. Density of unhealthy outlets was not significantly different for tribal versus non-tribal areas. Tribal members perceived their food environment negatively and reported barriers to the acquisition of healthy food. Urbanicity and per capita income do not completely account for disparities in food environments among American Indians tribal lands compared to nontribal lands. This disparity in access to healthy food may present a barrier to acting on the intention to consume healthy food.

  2. Food Environments around American Indian Reservations: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwen M Chodur

    Full Text Available To describe the food environments experienced by American Indians living on tribal lands in California.Geocoded statewide food business data were used to define and categorize existing food vendors into healthy, unhealthy, and intermediate composite categories. Distance to and density of each of the composite food vendor categories for tribal lands and nontribal lands were compared using multivariate linear regression. Quantitative results were concurrently triangulated with qualitative data from in-depth interviews with tribal members (n = 24.After adjusting for census tract-level urbanicity and per capita income, results indicate there were significantly fewer healthy food outlets per square mile for tribal areas compared to non-tribal areas. Density of unhealthy outlets was not significantly different for tribal versus non-tribal areas. Tribal members perceived their food environment negatively and reported barriers to the acquisition of healthy food.Urbanicity and per capita income do not completely account for disparities in food environments among American Indians tribal lands compared to nontribal lands. This disparity in access to healthy food may present a barrier to acting on the intention to consume healthy food.

  3. Present Features and Sustainable Beef Production in Korea (SAFEA21 THIRD KOBE SYMPOSIUM ON AGRICULTURE, FOOD AND ENVIRONMENT IN ASIA : TOWARDS THE 21ST CETURY)

    OpenAIRE

    Yeo, Jung-sou

    2000-01-01

    Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle) has been preserved for more than 4,000 years in the Korean peninsula as a unique genetic source and a symbol of wealth in Korean life. The major role of Hanwoo was to cultivate rice field for a long time until it was changed to produce meat after 1970's. However, high production cost and unstable prices are the major problems to be solved in Hanwoo industry in the opening beef marker era according to Uruguay agreements. But it is convinced that Hanwoo industry wi...

  4. LABELLING OF FOOD PRODUCTS AND SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nestorowicz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available  The manifestation of sustainable consumption on the food market is the consumer is choice of products originating from fair trade and/or organic farming. This paper presents the level of knowledge of Fairtrade signs and organic food logo of the EU. The author describes the importance of these signs by purchasing decisions and the relationship between these factors and the declared level ofknowledge about fair trade. In November 2013 research was conducted by the Department of Marketing Strategies at the Poznań University of Economics and Polish Scientifi c Association of Marketing (PNTM. We interviewed 444 people responsible for food shopping in their households. There were structured interviews in 3 Polish cities: Poznań, Szczecin and Lublin. The results confi rm low awareness of Polish consumers in respect of Fairtrade determinations and slightly higher in the case of organic products. Information regarding the origin of the product (fair trade or organic is not important to consumers when choosing food products. With increasing knowledge on products originating from fair trade derives knowledge of both organic foods and Fairtrade signs, but not the impact of these markings on consumers’ purchasing decisions. Still, people who attach importance to this type of information are niche on the Polish market.

  5. Nanotechnology in agri-food production: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Bhupinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the most important tools in modern agriculture, and agri-food nanotechnology is anticipated to become a driving economic force in the near future. Agri-food themes focus on sustainability and protection of agriculturally produced foods, including crops for human consumption and animal feeding. Nanotechnology provides new agrochemical agents and new delivery mechanisms to improve crop productivity, and it promises to reduce pesticide use. Nanotechnology can boost agricultural production, and its applications include: 1) nanoformulations of agrochemicals for applying pesticides and fertilizers for crop improvement; 2) the application of nanosensors/nanobiosensors in crop protection for the identification of diseases and residues of agrochemicals; 3) nanodevices for the genetic manipulation of plants; 4) plant disease diagnostics; 5) animal health, animal breeding, poultry production; and 6) postharvest management. Precision farming techniques could be used to further improve crop yields but not damage soil and water, reduce nitrogen loss due to leaching and emissions, as well as enhance nutrients long-term incorporation by soil microorganisms. Nanotechnology uses include nanoparticle-mediated gene or DNA transfer in plants for the development of insect-resistant varieties, food processing and storage, nanofeed additives, and increased product shelf life. Nanotechnology promises to accelerate the development of biomass-to-fuels production technologies. Experts feel that the potential benefits of nanotechnology for agriculture, food, fisheries, and aquaculture need to be balanced against concerns for the soil, water, and environment and the occupational health of workers. Raising awareness of nanotechnology in the agri-food sector, including feed and food ingredients, intelligent packaging and quick-detection systems, is one of the keys to influencing consumer acceptance. On the basis of only a handful of toxicological studies, concerns have

  6. Nanotechnology in agri-food production: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Bhupinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the most important tools in modern agriculture, and agri-food nanotechnology is anticipated to become a driving economic force in the near future. Agri-food themes focus on sustainability and protection of agriculturally produced foods, including crops for human consumption and animal feeding. Nanotechnology provides new agrochemical agents and new delivery mechanisms to improve crop productivity, and it promises to reduce pesticide use. Nanotechnology can boost agricultural production, and its applications include: 1) nanoformulations of agrochemicals for applying pesticides and fertilizers for crop improvement; 2) the application of nanosensors/nanobiosensors in crop protection for the identification of diseases and residues of agrochemicals; 3) nanodevices for the genetic manipulation of plants; 4) plant disease diagnostics; 5) animal health, animal breeding, poultry production; and 6) postharvest management. Precision farming techniques could be used to further improve crop yields but not damage soil and water, reduce nitrogen loss due to leaching and emissions, as well as enhance nutrients long-term incorporation by soil microorganisms. Nanotechnology uses include nanoparticle-mediated gene or DNA transfer in plants for the development of insect-resistant varieties, food processing and storage, nanofeed additives, and increased product shelf life. Nanotechnology promises to accelerate the development of biomass-to-fuels production technologies. Experts feel that the potential benefits of nanotechnology for agriculture, food, fisheries, and aquaculture need to be balanced against concerns for the soil, water, and environment and the occupational health of workers. Raising awareness of nanotechnology in the agri-food sector, including feed and food ingredients, intelligent packaging and quick-detection systems, is one of the keys to influencing consumer acceptance. On the basis of only a handful of toxicological studies, concerns have

  7. Food for Thought: Analysing the Internal and External School Food Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Mary; Molcho, Michal; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Kelly, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Availability and access to food is a determinant of obesity. The purpose of this paper is to examine food availability within and outside of post-primary schools in Ireland. Design/methodology/approach: Data on the internal school food environment were collected from 63 post-primary schools using questionnaires. The external school food…

  8. Application of fats in some food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Vallerio Rios

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils are very important raw materials and functional ingredients for several food products such as confectionery, bakery, ice creams, emulsions, and sauces, shortenings, margarines, and other specially tailored products. Formulated products are made with just about every part of chemistry, but they are not simple chemicals. In general, they consist of several, and often many, components. Each of these components has a purpose. Most formulated products have a micro- or nano-structure that is important for their function, but obtaining this structure is often the big challenge. Due to a rise in overweight or obesity, health concerns have increased. This fact has led to the need to the develop products with low fat content, which have become a market trend. In addition, the development of new products using fat substitutes can be a good option for companies that are always trying to reduce costs or substitute trans fat or saturated fat. However, the successful development of these products is still a challenge because fat plays multiple roles in determining the desirable physicochemical and sensory attributes, and because the consumers who want or need to replace these ingredients, seek products with similar characteristics to those of the original product. Important attributes such as smooth, creamy and rich texture; milky and creamy appearance; desirable flavor; and satiating effects are influenced by the droplets of fat, and these characteristics are paramount to the consumer and consequently crucial to the success of the product in the market. Therefore, it is important to identify commercially viable strategies that are capable of removing or reducing fat content of food products without altering their sensory and nutritional characteristics. This paper intended to provide an overview about the role of fat in different food systems such as chocolate, ice cream, bakery products like biscuits, breads, and cakes considering the major

  9. Radiation disinfestation of food and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on the radiodisinfestation of food and crops. Topics considered at the conference included food irradiation's impact of the US Agency for International Development, FDA regulations, irradiation as a quarantine treatment, quality attributes of irradiated fruits, low-dose irradiation, cesium 137 as a radiation source, radiosterilization, economic feasibility, marketing, consumer acceptance, and the packaging of irradiated products

  10. Productivity and Environment in India

    OpenAIRE

    Shunsuke Managi; Pradyot Ranjan Jena

    2007-01-01

    As a result of this India's extremely rapid economic growth, the scale of environmental problems is no longer in doubt. Whether pollution abatement managements are efficiently controlled is an empirical question. Using recently developed productivity measurement technique, we show that overall environmental productivity decreases over time in India. At present, the existing environmental management is not sufficient to bring about sustainable development in India.

  11. Geospatial analysis of food environment demonstrates associations with gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahr, Maike K; Suter, Melissa A; Ballas, Jerasimos; Ramin, Susan M; Monga, Manju; Lee, Wesley; Hu, Min; Shope, Cindy D; Chesnokova, Arina; Krannich, Laura; Griffin, Emily N; Mastrobattista, Joan; Dildy, Gary A; Strehlow, Stacy L; Ramphul, Ryan; Hamilton, Winifred J; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2016-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of most common complications of pregnancy, with incidence rates varying by maternal age, race/ethnicity, obesity, parity, and family history. Given its increasing prevalence in recent decades, covariant environmental and sociodemographic factors may be additional determinants of GDM occurrence. We hypothesized that environmental risk factors, in particular measures of the food environment, may be a diabetes contributor. We employed geospatial modeling in a populous US county to characterize the association of the relative availability of fast food restaurants and supermarkets to GDM. Utilizing a perinatal database with >4900 encoded antenatal and outcome variables inclusive of ZIP code data, 8912 consecutive pregnancies were analyzed for correlations between GDM and food environment based on countywide food permit registration data. Linkage between pregnancies and food environment was achieved on the basis of validated 5-digit ZIP code data. The prevalence of supermarkets and fast food restaurants per 100,000 inhabitants for each ZIP code were gathered from publicly available food permit sources. To independently authenticate our findings with objective data, we measured hemoglobin A1c levels as a function of geospatial distribution of food environment in a matched subset (n = 80). Residence in neighborhoods with a high prevalence of fast food restaurants (fourth quartile) was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing GDM (relative to first quartile: adjusted odds ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-2.19). In multivariate analysis, this association held true after controlling for potential confounders (P = .002). Measurement of hemoglobin A1c levels in a matched subset were significantly increased in association with residence in a ZIP code with a higher fast food/supermarket ratio (n = 80, r = 0.251 P food environment and risk for gestational diabetes was identified. Copyright © 2016

  12. Evaluation of carbon-14 (C{sup 14}) levels of terrestrial and marine food products of the environment of the site of Cogema La Hague; Evaluation des niveaux de carbone-14 ({sup 14}C) des denrees alimentaires terrestres et marines de l'environnement du site de COGEMA - La Hague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    This evaluation has for object to inform about the levels in carbon 14 in the environment of the factories of La Hague. Two sectors were differentiated on one hand the terrestrial environment, and on the other hand the marine environment. The investigations concerned first and foremost food products stemming as the vegetable culture (vegetables) or individual breeding (milk, eggs) but also foodstuffs stemming from the local agriculture (cereal). In touch with the second sector, the marine environment, the sampling concerned the accessible products of the sea by all and those locally marketed (fishes, molluscs, shellfishes). The different results are presented in tables. (N.C.)

  13. Food ingredients from the marine environment. Marine biotechnology meets food science and technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis S. Boziaris

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine environment disposes a plethora of bioactive compounds with unique properties and remarkable potential for biotechnological applications. A lot of those compounds can be used by the food industry as natural preservatives, pigments, stabilizers, gelling agents, etc., while others exhibits beneficial effects and can be used as functional food ingredients, nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and prebiotics. Interdisciplinary approach is required to increase our knowledge, explore the potential of marine environment and produce value-added food for all.

  14. Culture, Environment, and Food to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Culture, Environment, and Food to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency. Book cover Culture, Environment, and Food to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency. Auteur(s) : H.V. Kuhnlein and G.H. Pelto. Maison(s) d'édition : INFDC, IDRC. 1 janvier 1997. ISBN : Out of print. 220 pages. e-ISBN : 1552504409. Téléchargez le PDF · Téléchargez ...

  15. Perceptions of the food marketing environment among African American teen girls and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibeau, Wendy S; Saksvig, Brit I; Gittelsohn, Joel; Williams, Sonja; Jones, Lindsey; Young, Deborah Rohm

    2012-02-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects African American adolescents, particularly girls. While ethnically targeted marketing of unhealthful food products contributes to this disparity, it is not known how African Americans perceive the food marketing environment in their communities. Qualitative methods, specifically photovoice and group discussions, were used to understand perceptions of African American adults and teen girls regarding targeted food marketing to adolescent girls. An advisory committee of four students, two faculty, and two parents was formed, who recruited peers to photograph their environments and participate in group discussions to answer "what influences teen girls to eat what they do." Seven adults and nine teens (all female) participated in the study. Discussions were transcribed, coded, and analyzed with ATLAS.ti to identify common and disparate themes among participants. Results indicated that adults and teens perceived the type of food products, availability of foods, and price to influence the girls' choices. The girls spoke about products that were highly convenient and tasty as being particularly attractive. The adults reported that advertisements and insufficient nutrition education were also influencers. The teens discussed that the places in which food products were available influenced their choices. Results suggest that the marketing of highly available, convenient food at low prices sell products to teen girls. Future work is needed to better understand the consumer's perspective on the food and beverage marketing strategies used. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 3D food printing: a new dimension in food production processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    3D food printing, also known as food layered manufacture (FLM), is an exciting new method of digital food production that applies the process of additive manufacturing to food fabrication. In the 3D food printing process, a food product is first scanned or designed with computer-aided design softwa...

  17. Dosimetric aspects of radiation processing of food and allied products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, G.; Bhat, R.M.; Bhatt, B.C.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Gamma radiation processing in the last 4-5 decades is continuously gaining importance in processing of a wide variety of products, as it can modify physical, chemical and biological properties of the materials, including food and allied products on industrial scale due its inherent qualities like ease of processing in finally packaged form, eco-friendly nature and other obvious reasons over conventional means of processing. Food and allied products are either from agricultural produce or animal origin; they get easily contaminated from soil during harvesting, handling, processing, environment conditions, storage and transport from various types of micro-organisms including pathogens. In many countries it is mandatory to bring down the population of micro-organisms to an acceptable level and complete elimination of pathogens before such products are accepted for human or animal consumption. Processing of food and allied products by radiation has its own challenges due to wider public acceptance of irradiated food, a wide range, 0.25-50kGy, of absorbed dose requirements for different category of such products and purposes, use of a variety of packaging materials in different shapes and sizes and because of its perishable nature. More than 50 countries including India in the world have accepted radiation processing of food and allied products by radiation. Dosimetry is an important aspect of radiation processing, whether it is food or allied product. Uniformity in dose delivered to these products depends on several factors such as product carrier to source frame alignment, product carrier and product/tote box design, product loading pattern, attenuation due to product thickness, product bulk density that varies from 0.1-1.0 kg/l and the plant design whether during processing product overlaps the source or otherwise. In this presentation dosimetric aspects of radiation processing of food and allied products and problems associated with dosimetry of such

  18. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Food and Personal Care Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Alex; Westerhoff, Paul; Fabricius, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Titanium dioxide is a common additive in many food, personal care, and other consumer products used by people, which after use can enter the sewage system, and subsequently enter the environment as treated effluent discharged to surface waters or biosolids applied to agricultural land, incinerated wastes, or landfill solids. This study quantifies the amount of titanium in common food products, derives estimates of human exposure to dietary (nano-) TiO2, and discusses the impact of the nanoscale fraction of TiO2 entering the environment. The foods with the highest content of TiO2 included candies, sweets and chewing gums. Among personal care products, toothpastes and select sunscreens contained 1% to >10% titanium by weight. While some other crèmes contained titanium, despite being colored white, most shampoos, deodorants, and shaving creams contained the lowest levels of titanium (titanium content ranged from below the instrument detection limit (0.0001 μg Ti/mg) to a high of 0.014 μg Ti/mg. Electron microscopy and stability testing of food-grade TiO2 (E171) suggests that approximately 36% of the particles are less than 100 nm in at least one dimension and that it readily disperses in water as fairly stable colloids. However, filtration of water solubilized consumer products and personal care products indicated that less than 5% of the titanium was able to pass through 0.45 or 0.7 μm pores. Two white paints contained 110 μg Ti/mg while three sealants (i.e., prime coat paint) contained less titanium (25 to 40 μg Ti/mg). This research showed that while many white-colored products contained titanium, it was not a prerequisite. Although several of these product classes contained low amounts of titanium, their widespread use and disposal down the drain and eventually to WWTPs deserves attention. A Monte Carlo human exposure analysis to TiO2 through foods identified children as having the highest exposures because TiO2 content of sweets is higher than other food

  19. Are campus food environments healthy? A novel perspective for qualitatively evaluating the nutritional quality of food sold at foodservice facilities at a Brazilian university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulz, Isadora Santos; Martins, Paula Andréa; Feldman, Charles; Veiros, Marcela Boro

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this novel study was to evaluate the food environment at a Brazilian university, encompassing 6 restaurants and 13 snack bars. The investigation uniquely analyses the food environment (barriers, facilitators, type of foods and prices). This was a food-based analysis of the nutritional quality of the products sold on campus. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used, applying the classic Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Restaurants (NEMS-R) adapted for Brazil and an original methodology to evaluate and classify qualitatively the nutritional quality and characteristics of the food. A census of all campus food environments was applied. The main results show most food and beverage products were made with processed ingredients and had a lower nutritional quality and price when compared with similar products made on premises, that is, processed iced tea compared with fresh tea ( p good nutritional quality on campus were mostly limited by the availability and higher prices of products. These findings could be used to develop new policy perspectives for the offering of healthy food items and to facilitate better food choices among students in a healthier food environment.

  20. School food environments and policies in US public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Daniel M; Hill, Elaine L; Whitaker, Robert C

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe school food environments and policies in US public schools and how they vary according to school characteristics. We analyzed cross-sectional data from the third School Nutrition and Dietary Assessment study by using a nationally representative sample of 395 US public schools in 129 school districts in 38 states. These 2005 data included school reports of foods and beverages offered in the National School Lunch Program and on-site observations, in a subsample of schools, of competitive foods and beverages (those sold in vending machines and a la carte and that are not part of the National School Lunch Program). Seventeen factors were used to characterize school lunches, competitive foods, and other food-related policies and practices. These factors were used to compute the food environment summary score (0 [least healthy] to 17 [most healthy]) of each school. There were vending machines in 17%, 82%, and 97% of elementary, middle, and high schools, respectively, and a la carte items were sold in 71%, 92%, and 93% of schools, respectively. Among secondary schools with vending and a la carte sales, these sources were free of low-nutrient energy-dense foods or beverages in 15% and 21% of middle and high schools, respectively. The food environment summary score was significantly higher (healthier) in the lower grade levels. The summary score was not associated with the percentage of students that was certified for free or reduced-price lunches or the percentage of students that was a racial/ethnic minority. As children move to higher grade levels, their school food environments become less healthy. The great majority of US secondary schools sell items a la carte in the cafeteria and through vending machines, and these 2 sources often contain low-nutrient, energy-dense foods and beverages, commonly referred to as junk food.

  1. The importance of the food and physical activity environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charreire, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in identifying characteristics of neighborhood environments (physical, social, economical) that might favor unhealthy dietary and physical activity patterns leading to excess weight at population level. Measurement of characteristics of the physical environment in relation to food and physical activity has greatly improved in recent years. Methods based on assessment of perceptions by residents of their neighborhood or on objective assessment of the actual built environment (such as provided by Geographic Information Systems tools) would benefit to be combined. A number of recent systematic reviews have updated our knowledge on relationships of food and physical activity environments with relevant behaviors and obesity. Available evidence appears to show more consistent evidence of association between built environment characteristics related to physical activity ('walkability' indices, land use mix, variety of transports. . .) with physical activity behavior than with weight status. In contrast, built environment characteristics related to food habits (accessibility to different types of food outlets, availability of healthy foods. . .) would be more consistently associated with weight status than with eating behavior. The need for data from different countries and cultures is emphasized, as much as the importance of transdisciplinary research efforts for translation of these findings into our living environment. Copyright © 2012 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Food and beverage environment analysis and monitoring system: a reliability study in the school food and beverage environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Sally Lawrence; Craypo, Lisa; Clark, Sarah E; Barry, Jason; Samuels, Sarah E

    2010-07-01

    States and school districts around the country are developing policies that set nutrition standards for competitive foods and beverages sold outside of the US Department of Agriculture's reimbursable school lunch program. However, few tools exist for monitoring the implementation of these new policies. The objective of this research was to develop a computerized assessment tool, the Food and Beverage Environment Analysis and Monitoring System (FoodBEAMS), to collect data on the competitive school food environment and to test the inter-rater reliability of the tool among research and nonresearch professionals. FoodBEAMS was used to collect data in spring 2007 on the competitive foods and beverages sold in 21 California high schools. Adherence of the foods and beverages to California's competitive food and beverage nutrition policies for schools (Senate Bills 12 and 965) was determined using the data collected by both research and nonresearch professionals. The inter-rater reliability between the data collectors was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient. Researcher vs researcher and researcher vs nonresearcher inter-rater reliability was high for both foods and beverages, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from .972 to .987. Results of this study provide evidence that FoodBEAMS is a promising tool for assessing and monitoring adherence to nutrition standards for competitive foods sold on school campuses and can be used reliably by both research and nonresearch professionals. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. PICKLED PUMPKIN IS VALUABLE FOOD PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Sannikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main directions of the food industry development is the production of functional food products. Changes in the human’s diet structure cause that none of population group does receive necessary amount of vitamins, macro and microelements in healthy routine diet. To solve this problem, food stuffs enhanced by different ingredients enable to improve the biological and food value. The pumpkin is a valuable source of such important substances as carotene and pectin. Addition of garlic and hot pepper ingredients to process of pumpkin pickling enables to enrich the products with carbohydrates, proteins, microelements, which have low or no content in the pumpkin fruit. Therefore, the study of the influence of the different quantities of garlic and hot pepper additions on chemical composition of finished product is very important. The influence of plant additions used on chemical composition of finished product had been well determined. It was shown that through increased doses of garlic and hot pepper ingredients as compared with control, the carotene and dry matter content then decreased by 1.16%-3.43% in pickled pumpkin, while the pectin content depended on added component. The highest pectin content, 0.71% was observed at addition of 10 g. garlic ingredient per 1 kg. of raw matter, that was 4.1 times higher than control. With increased addition of hot pepper ingredient the pectin accumulation was decreasing from 0.58% in control to 0.36% in variant 10g. per 1kg. of raw matter.

  4. Farm Organization, Ownership and Food Productivity in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkasiobi Silas Oguzor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available African food production is in crisis. Today, despite Africa’s vast physical and climatic potentials to produce food, most African States depend on food importation. Africa’s capacity to deal with its food battles is severely constrained by its political instability, its early stage of scientific and institutional development, and a rapidly changing and complex global environment. In Nigeria and in most developing economies, there is a fundamental lack of political commitment to come grips with poverty, malnutrition and access to food. Because of these barriers, traditional economics is a rather limited tool to understand food production and other related variables. Poverty, hunger, malnutrition, famine and starvation in developing economies are just as much a function of political, macroeconomic, and institutional barriers as lack of technology. Illustrations from the agrarian chaos in Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Chad and others are too numerous to conclude otherwise. The aim of this paper is to determine and analyze economics incentives and strategies, which could stimulate commercial agriculture in Nigeria. The analysis is based on the premise that the form of production organization in Nigerian agriculture is the major constraint to commercialization. The paper concludes that output price subsidy is the over-riding factor in the commercialization of agriculture in Nigeria.

  5. Localisation of primary food production in Finland: production potential and environmental impacts of food consumption patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. RISKU-NORJA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential for and environmental consequences of localising primary production of food were investigated by considering different food consumption patterns, based on conventional and organic production. Environmental impact was assessed according to agricultural land use and numbers of production animals, both of which depend on food consumption. The results were quantified in terms of nutrient balances, greenhouse gas and acid emissions and the diversity of crop cultivation, which indicate eutrophication of watersheds, climate change and landscape changes, respectively. The study region was able to satisfy its own needs for all farming and food consumption scenarios. Dietary choice had a marked impact on agricultural land use and on the environmental parameters considered. Organic farming for local food production resulted in higher greenhouse gas emissions. Compared with mixed diets, the vegetarian diet was associated with lower emissions and nutrient surpluses, but also with reduced crop diversity. The arable areas allocated to leys and pastures were also smaller. The study area represents a predominantly rural region and is a net exporter of agricultural produce. Therefore, only part of the environmental impact of food production results from local needs. Both the differences among the dietary options and the overall environmental benefit of localised primary food production were greatly reduced when considering total agricultural production of the region. Much of the negative impact of agriculture is due to food consumption in the densely populated urban areas, but the consequences are mainly felt in the production areas. The environmental impacts of localisation of primary food production for the rural areas are small and inconsistent. The results indicate the importance of defining ‘local’ on a regional basis and including the urban food sinks in impact assessment.;

  6. Secondary production in shallow marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeroy, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    Recommendations are discussed with regard to population ecology, microbial food webs, marine ecosystems, improved instrumentation, and effects of land and sea on shallow marine systems. The control of secondary production is discussed with regard to present status of knowledge; research needs for studies on dominant secondary producers, food webs that lead to commercial species, and significant features of the trophic structure of shallow water marine communities. Secondary production at the land-water interface is discussed with regard to present status of knowledge; importance of macrophytes to secondary production; export to secondary consumers; utilization of macrophyte primary production; and correlations between secondary production and river discharge. The role of microorganisms in secondary production is also discussed

  7. Secondary production in shallow marine environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, L.R. (ed.)

    1976-01-01

    Recommendations are discussed with regard to population ecology, microbial food webs, marine ecosystems, improved instrumentation, and effects of land and sea on shallow marine systems. The control of secondary production is discussed with regard to present status of knowledge; research needs for studies on dominant secondary producers, food webs that lead to commercial species, and significant features of the trophic structure of shallow water marine communities. Secondary production at the land-water interface is discussed with regard to present status of knowledge; importance of macrophytes to secondary production; export to secondary consumers; utilization of macrophyte primary production; and correlations between secondary production and river discharge. The role of microorganisms in secondary production is also discussed. (HLW)

  8. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-11-26

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  9. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Michimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US. The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  10. Water constraints on future food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, H.

    2012-01-01

    To meet the food demand of a growing global population, agricultural production will have to more than double in this century. Agricultural land expansion combined with yield increases will therefore be required. This thesis investigates whether enough water resources will be available to

  11. Electrostatic separation for functional food ingredient production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Dry fractionation is a promising alternative to wet extraction processes for production of food ingredients, since it uses hardly any water, consumes less energy and retains the native functionality of the ingredients. It combines milling and dry separation to enrich

  12. Electrostatic separation for functional food ingredient production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary

    Dry fractionation is a promising alternative to wet extraction processes for production of food ingredients, since it uses hardly any water, consumes less energy and retains the native functionality of the ingredients. It combines milling and dry separation to

  13. Food preference for milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Derflerová Brázdová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products constitute an important source of energy and nutrients for humans. Food preferences may significantly influence the actual consumption (and thus nutrition of people at the population level. The objective of the present large-scale survey was to specify current preferences for milk and dairy products with regard to age and sex. The study was conducted across the Moravia region, Czech Republic, on a sample of 451 individuals divided into 4 age groups: children, adolescents, young adults, and elderly people. A graphic scale questionnaire was administered, with respondents rating their degree of preference for each food item by drawing a mark on a 35 mm line. Out of the 115 items in the questionnaire, 11 items represented dairy products. Data was analysed by means of a general linear model using IBM SPSS Statistics software. Preference for milk was lower in the elderly group than the other groups (P P < 0.01. The overall preference for dairy products (21.6 was lower than the average preference for all foods on the list (22.5. The cross-sectional study revealed intergenerational differences in preferences for specific dairy products, which were most marked in case of cream, processed cheese, blue cheese, and buttermilk. The knowledge of these differences might help promote more focused action at the community level directed at increasing the overall consumption of dairy products in the population.

  14. Price promotions for food and beverage products in a nationwide sample of food stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Isgor, Zeynep; Rimkus, Leah; Zenk, Shannon N; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-05-01

    Food and beverage price promotions may be potential targets for public health initiatives but have not been well documented. We assessed prevalence and patterns of price promotions for food and beverage products in a nationwide sample of food stores by store type, product package size, and product healthfulness. We also assessed associations of price promotions with community characteristics and product prices. In-store data collected in 2010-2012 from 8959 food stores in 468 communities spanning 46 U.S. states were used. Differences in the prevalence of price promotions were tested across stores types, product varieties, and product package sizes. Multivariable regression analyses examined associations of presence of price promotions with community racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics and with product prices. The prevalence of price promotions across all 44 products sampled was, on average, 13.4% in supermarkets (ranging from 9.1% for fresh fruits and vegetables to 18.2% for sugar-sweetened beverages), 4.5% in grocery stores (ranging from 2.5% for milk to 6.6% for breads and cereals), and 2.6% in limited service stores (ranging from 1.2% for fresh fruits and vegetables to 4.1% for breads and cereals). No differences were observed by community characteristics. Less-healthy versus more-healthy product varieties and larger versus smaller product package sizes generally had a higher prevalence of price promotion, particularly in supermarkets. On average, in supermarkets, price promotions were associated with 15.2% lower prices. The observed patterns of price promotions warrant more attention in public health food environment research and intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Measuring the food and built environments in urban centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomerleau, Joceline; Knai, Cecile; McKee, M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The authors designed an instrument to measure objectively aspects of the built and food environments in urban areas, the EURO-PREVOB Community Questionnaire, within the EU-funded project ‘Tackling the social and economic determinants of nutrition and physical activity for the prevention...... levels of affluence or deprivation, within different countries. The questionnaire assesses (1) the food environment and (2) the built environment. Methods: Pilot tests of the EURO-PREVOB Community Questionnaire were conducted in five to 10 purposively sampled urban areas of different socio-economic...... of obesity across Europe’ (EURO-PREVOB). This paper describes its development, reliability, validity, feasibility and relevance to public health and obesity research. Study design: The Community Questionnaire is designed to measure key aspects of the food and built environments in urban areas of varying...

  16. Radioactive contamination in environment and food in Poland in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Muszynski, W.; Petrykowska, M.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Wilgos, J.

    1993-01-01

    The level analysis of the level of radioactive contamination in environment and food samples was carried out in Poland in 1992. The results were compared to the data from 1985-1991 period. Since the Chernobyl accident gradual decrease of contamination level has been stated. The gamma dose rate and the contamination of air, fallout, tap and surface water were at the level of 1985. Still higher contamination level of cesium isotopes in soil has been reported and as a consequence food contamination was higher particularly the animal food. Actually, the source of additional dose is ingestion of artificial isotopes with food as a result of food contamination. The average effective dose equivalent, due to the contaminated food consumption, was estimated at the level 15 μSv for a Pole in 1992. (author). 13 refs, 6 figs, 20 tabs

  17. Food Labeling and Consumer Associations with Health, Safety, and Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Joanna K; Doran, Neal

    2016-12-01

    The food supply is complicated and consumers are increasingly calling for labeling on food to be more informative. In particular, consumers are asking for the labeling of food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMO) based on health, safety, and environmental concerns. At issue is whether the labels that are sought would accurately provide the information desired. The present study examined consumer (n = 181) perceptions of health, safety and the environment for foods labeled organic, natural, fat free or low fat, GMO, or non-GMO. Findings indicated that respondents consistently believed that foods labeled GMO are less healthy, safe and environmentally-friendly compared to all other labels (ps labels mean something to consumers, but that a disconnect may exist between the meaning associated with the label and the scientific consensus for GMO food. These findings may provide insight for the development of labels that provide information that consumers seek.

  18. Do GIS-derived measures of fast food retailers convey perceived fast food opportunities? Implications for food environment assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Timothy L; Colabianchi, Natalie; Freedman, Darcy A; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2017-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GISs) have been used to define fast food availability, with higher availability perhaps promoting poorer quality diets. Alternative measures involve perceptions; however, few studies have examined associations between GIS-derived and perceived measures of the food environment. Telephone surveys of 705 participants within an eight-county region in South Carolina were analyzed using logistic regression to examine relationships between geographic presence of and distance to various types of food retailers and perceived fast food availability. The mean distance to the nearest fast food restaurant was 6.1 miles, with 16% of participants having a fast food restaurant within 1 mile of home. The geographic presence of and distance to all food retailer types were significantly associated with perceived availability of fast food in unadjusted models. After adjustment, only the presence of a fast food restaurant or pharmacy was significantly associated with greater odds of higher perceived availability of fast food. Greater odds of lower perceived availability of fast food were observed with the presence of a dollar store and increasing distance to the nearest supermarket or pharmacy. Measures of fast food availability, whether objective or perceived, may not be interchangeable. Researchers should carefully decide on the appropriate measurement tool-GIS-derived or perceived-in food environment studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PC USER

    Gomez, J., Pazos, M. Couto, S.R. and Sanroman, M.A.. (2005). Chestnut shell and barley bran as potential substrates for laccase production by. Coriolopsis rigida under solid-state conditions. Journal of Food Engineering 68: 315-319. Hahn, S. K. and Keyser, J. (1985).Cassava: A basic food in Africa. Outlook on Agriculture.

  20. Microbial Production of Food Grade Pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Dufossé

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The controversial topic of synthetic dyes in food has been discussed for many years. The scrutiny and negative assessment of synthetic food dyes by the modern consumer have raised a strong interest in natural colouring alternatives. Nature is rich in colours (minerals, plants, microalgae, etc., and pigment-producing microorganisms (fungi, yeasts, bacteria are quite common. Among the molecules produced by microorganisms are carotenoids, melanins, flavins, quinones, and more specifically monascins, violacein or indigo. The success of any pigment produced by fermentation depends upon its acceptability on the market, regulatory approval, and the size of the capital investment required to bring the product to market. A few years ago, some expressed doubts about the successful commercialization of fermentation-derived food grade pigments because of the high capital investment requirements for fermentation facilities and the extensive and lengthy toxicity studies required by regulatory agencies. Public perception of biotechnology-derived products also had to be taken into account. Nowadays some fermentative food grade pigments are on the market: Monascus pigments, astaxanthin from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, Arpink Red from Penicillium oxalicum, riboflavin from Ashbya gossypii, b-carotene from Blakeslea trispora. The successful marketing of pigments derived from algae or extracted from plants, both as a food colour and a nutritional supplement, reflects the presence and importance of niche markets in which consumers are willing to pay a premium for »all natural ingredients«.

  1. Bioactive Peptides in Animal Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Albenzio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of animal origin represent physiologically active components in the human diet; they exert a direct action or constitute a substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis upon food processing and consumption. Bioactive peptides may descend from the hydrolysis by digestive enzymes, enzymes endogenous to raw food materials, and enzymes from microorganisms added during food processing. Milk proteins have different polymorphisms for each dairy species that influence the amount and the biochemical characteristics (e.g., amino acid chain, phosphorylation, and glycosylation of the protein. Milk from other species alternative to cow has been exploited for their role in children with cow milk allergy and in some infant pathologies, such as epilepsy, by monitoring the immune status. Different mechanisms concur for bioactive peptides generation from meat and meat products, and their functionality and application as functional ingredients have proven effects on consumer health. Animal food proteins are currently the main source of a range of biologically-active peptides which have gained special interest because they may also influence numerous physiological responses in the organism. The addition of probiotics to animal food products represent a strategy for the increase of molecules with health and functional properties.

  2. Bioactive Peptides in Animal Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albenzio, Marzia; Santillo, Antonella; Caroprese, Mariangela; Della Malva, Antonella; Marino, Rosaria

    2017-05-09

    Proteins of animal origin represent physiologically active components in the human diet; they exert a direct action or constitute a substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis upon food processing and consumption. Bioactive peptides may descend from the hydrolysis by digestive enzymes, enzymes endogenous to raw food materials, and enzymes from microorganisms added during food processing. Milk proteins have different polymorphisms for each dairy species that influence the amount and the biochemical characteristics (e.g., amino acid chain, phosphorylation, and glycosylation) of the protein. Milk from other species alternative to cow has been exploited for their role in children with cow milk allergy and in some infant pathologies, such as epilepsy, by monitoring the immune status. Different mechanisms concur for bioactive peptides generation from meat and meat products, and their functionality and application as functional ingredients have proven effects on consumer health. Animal food proteins are currently the main source of a range of biologically-active peptides which have gained special interest because they may also influence numerous physiological responses in the organism. The addition of probiotics to animal food products represent a strategy for the increase of molecules with health and functional properties.

  3. A Systematic Examination of Food Intake and Adaptation to the Food Environment by Refugees Settled in the United States1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Min, Jungwon; Harris, Kisa; Khuri, Jacob; Anderson, Laura M

    2016-01-01

    The United States is the largest refugee resettlement country in the world. Refugees may face health-related challenges after resettlement in the United States, including higher rates of chronic diseases due to problems such as language barriers and difficulty adapting to new food environments. However, reported refugee diet challenges varied, and no systematic examination has been reported. This study examined refugee food intake pre- and postresettlement in the United States and differences in intake across various refugee groups. We systematically reviewed relevant studies that reported on refugee food intake and adaptation to the US food environment. We searched PubMed for literature published between January 1985 and April 2015, including cross-sectional and prospective studies. Eighteen studies met inclusion criteria. Limited research has been conducted, and most studies were based on small convenience samples. In general, refugees increased meat and egg consumption after resettling in the United States. Changes in refugee intake of vegetables, fruits, and dairy products varied by socioeconomic status, food insecurity, past food deprivation experience, length of stay in the United States, region of origin, and age. South Asians were more likely to maintain traditional diets, and increased age was associated with more conservative and traditional diets. Despite the abundance of food in the United States, postresettlement refugees reported difficulty in finding familiar or healthy foods. More research with larger samples and follow-up data are needed to study how refugees adapt to the US food environment and what factors may influence their food- and health-related outcomes. The work could inform future interventions to promote healthy eating and living among refugees and help to reduce health disparities. PMID:28140324

  4. Food Environments Near Home and School Related to Consumption of Soda and Fast Food

    OpenAIRE

    Babey, Susan H; Wolstein, Joelle; Diamant, Allison L

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY: In California, more than 2 million adolescents (58%) drink soda or other sugar-sweetened beverages every day, and more than 1.6 million adolescents (46%) eat fast food at least twice a week. Adolescents who live and go to school in areas with more fast food restaurants and convenience stores than healthier food outlets such as grocery stores are more likely to consume soda and fast food than teens who live and go to school in areas with healthier food environments. State and local po...

  5. Analysis of sterol oxidation products in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, Francesc; Bou, Ricard; Boatella, Josep; Codony, Rafael

    2004-01-01

    The main aspects related to the analysis of sterol oxidation products (SOP) in foods are comprehensively reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on the critical and controversial points of this analysis because these points affect crucial analytical parameters such as precision, accuracy, selectivity, and sensitivity. The effect of sample preparation and the conditions of quantification by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography on these parameters are also reviewed. The results show that, in order to choose an adequate method to analyze SOP in a certain food, the analyst must consider its SOP concentration and matrix complexity. The term SOP includes both cholesterol oxidation products (COP) and phytosterol oxidation products (POP). The state of the art of COP and POP analysis is quite different; many more studies have dealt with the analysis of COP than of POP. However, most of the results presented here about COP analysis may be extrapolated to POP analysis because both groups of compounds show similar structures and characteristics.

  6. Formulation of morning product using food residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Rosário de Fátima Padilha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, there is resistance of the population to the use of stalks, leaves, peels and seeds of vegetables and fruits, leading to trash important parts of the food in good physiological conditions and with the presence of potential nutrients. In this research, a morning product was elaborated using green and dry coconut residue, jerimum and melon seed, crystallized sicilian lemon peel, cashew nut, common rapadura sweet and ginger. The bacteriological tests proved the hygienic-sanitary quality of the product, therefore suitable for consumption, that is, according to RDC 12/2001. It was also observed that the dehydration of all the residues reached the legal levels and accepted by ANVISA that limits in 25% the water content in the dehydrated foods. As for the centesimal composition, it was observed that the elaborated product with residues and other ingredients had a good content of macro nutrients. A use of the type of waste as a new food proposal constitutes an alternative to avoid and reduce: the serious environmental problem caused by the large residual volume generated, and the inadequate places in which they are stored or deposited, aggravating the scenario of food-borne pollutants.

  7. Radiological control of food importation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre G, J.

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays exists the possibility of marketing products possibly polluted with radioactive isotopes, by that some countries like Mexico, they have been given to the task of creating legal bases and the necessary infrastructure with the end of carrying out the radiological surveillance of nutritious import products. In this work the legal bases that our country has established for the radiological control are presented besides the results of this radiological control carried out through the gamma spectroscopy analysis of nutritious import products sent to our country through diverse companies that import foods produced mainly in European countries. (Author)

  8. Food in My Neighborhood: Exploring the Food Environment through Photovoice with Urban, African American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katherine Abowd; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Gewanter, Zoë Reznick; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2017-01-01

    This study adapted Photovoice methodology for younger participants to better understand the perceptions of urban African American youth on their food environments and diets. Youth ( n = 17, ages 10-13 years) photographed and described, using novel narrative-based activities, the myriad places they regularly acquired "junk food" from environments saturated with such but differed in their assessments of the availability and desirability of more nutritious alternative foods. Youth often discussed specific foods as well as peers and adults in their lives as either entirely "healthy" or "unhealthy." This concrete thinking should be considered when designing messaging strategies to improve diets in similar populations. Overall, Photovoice is an engaging and effective method to engage youth in efforts to improve food environments and diets.

  9. Measuring the 'obesogenic' food environment in New Zealand primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Mary-Ann; Swinburn, Boyd

    2004-03-01

    Childhood obesity is an increasing health problem in New Zealand and many other countries. Information is needed to guide interventions that reduce the 'obesogenic' (obesity-promoting) elements of school environments. The aim of this study was to identify and measure the obesogenic elements of the school environment and the canteen sales of energy-dense foods and drinks. A self-completion questionnaire was developed for assessing each school's nutrition environment and mailed to a stratified random sample of New Zealand schools. The responses from primary schools (n = 200, response rate 61%) were analysed. Only 15.5% of schools had purpose-built canteen facilities and over half ran a food service for profit (31% profit to the school, 24.5% profit for the contractors). Only 16.5% of schools had a food policy, although 91% of those rated the policy as effective or very effective. The most commonly available foods for sale were pies (79%), juice (57%) and sausage rolls (54.5%). Filled rolls were the most expensive item (mean dollars 1.79) and fruit the least expensive (mean dollars 0.47). The ratio of 'less healthy' to 'more healthy' main choices was 5.6:1, for snacks it was 9.3:1 and for drinks it was 1.4:1. In contrast, approximately 60% of respondents said that nutrition was a priority for the school. Only 50% felt there was management support for healthy food choices and only 39% agreed that mainly nutritious food was offered by the food service. 'Less healthy' choices dominated food sales by more than 2:1, with pies being the top selling item (>55000 per week). We found that the food environment was not conducive to healthy food choices for the children at New Zealand schools and that this was reflected in the high sales of relatively unhealthy foods from the school food services. Programmes that improve school food through policies, availability, prices and school ethos are urgently needed.

  10. The neighborhood food environment: sources of historical data on retail food stores

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Alma A; Wang May C; Ritchie Lorrene D; Winkleby Marilyn A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract With the rapidly increasing prevalence of obesity in the United States, and the minimal success of education-based interventions, there is growing interest in understanding the role of the neighborhood food environment in determining dietary behavior. This study, as part of a larger study, identifies historical data on retail food stores, evaluates strengths and limitations of the data for research, and assesses the comparability of historical retail food store data from a government...

  11. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles in food and personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Alex; Westerhoff, Paul; Fabricius, Lars; Hristovski, Kiril; von Goetz, Natalie

    2012-02-21

    Titanium dioxide is a common additive in many food, personal care, and other consumer products used by people, which after use can enter the sewage system and, subsequently, enter the environment as treated effluent discharged to surface waters or biosolids applied to agricultural land, incinerated wastes, or landfill solids. This study quantifies the amount of titanium in common food products, derives estimates of human exposure to dietary (nano-) TiO(2), and discusses the impact of the nanoscale fraction of TiO(2) entering the environment. The foods with the highest content of TiO(2) included candies, sweets, and chewing gums. Among personal care products, toothpastes and select sunscreens contained 1% to >10% titanium by weight. While some other crèmes contained titanium, despite being colored white, most shampoos, deodorants, and shaving creams contained the lowest levels of titanium (paints contained 110 μg Ti/mg while three sealants (i.e., prime coat paint) contained less titanium (25 to 40 μg Ti/mg). This research showed that, while many white-colored products contained titanium, it was not a prerequisite. Although several of these product classes contained low amounts of titanium, their widespread use and disposal down the drain and eventually to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) deserves attention. A Monte Carlo human exposure analysis to TiO(2) through foods identified children as having the highest exposures because TiO(2) content of sweets is higher than other food products and that a typical exposure for a US adult may be on the order of 1 mg Ti per kilogram body weight per day. Thus, because of the millions of tons of titanium-based white pigment used annually, testing should focus on food-grade TiO(2) (E171) rather than that adopted in many environmental health and safety tests (i.e., P25), which is used in much lower amounts in products less likely to enter the environment (e.g., catalyst supports, photocatalytic coatings).

  12. Food product tracing technology capabilities and interoperability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Tejas; Zhang, Jianrong Janet

    2013-12-01

    Despite the best efforts of food safety and food defense professionals, contaminated food continues to enter the food supply. It is imperative that contaminated food be removed from the supply chain as quickly as possible to protect public health and stabilize markets. To solve this problem, scores of technology companies purport to have the most effective, economical product tracing system. This study sought to compare and contrast the effectiveness of these systems at analyzing product tracing information to identify the contaminated ingredient and likely source, as well as distribution of the product. It also determined if these systems can work together to better secure the food supply (their interoperability). Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) hypothesized that when technology providers are given a full set of supply-chain data, even for a multi-ingredient product, their systems will generally be able to trace a contaminated product forward and backward through the supply chain. However, when provided with only a portion of supply-chain data, even for a product with a straightforward supply chain, it was expected that interoperability of the systems will be lacking and that there will be difficulty collaborating to identify sources and/or recipients of potentially contaminated product. IFT provided supply-chain data for one complex product to 9 product tracing technology providers, and then compared and contrasted their effectiveness at analyzing product tracing information to identify the contaminated ingredient and likely source, as well as distribution of the product. A vertically integrated foodservice restaurant agreed to work with IFT to secure data from its supply chain for both a multi-ingredient and a simpler product. Potential multi-ingredient products considered included canned tuna, supreme pizza, and beef tacos. IFT ensured that all supply-chain data collected did not include any proprietary information or information that would otherwise

  13. Understanding interactions with the food environment: an exploration of supermarket food shopping routines in deprived neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Claire; Cummins, Steven; Brown, Tim; Kyle, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Despite a sustained academic interest in the environmental determinants of diet, relatively little is known about the ways in which individuals interact with their neighbourhood food environment and the use of its most important element, the supermarket. This qualitative study explores how residents of deprived neighbourhoods shop for food and how the supermarket environment influences their choices. Go-along interviews were conducted with 26 residents of Sandwell, a uniformly deprived metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, UK. Routine approaches to food shopping are characterised in terms of planning and reliance on the supermarket environment. Four distinct routines are identified: chaotic and reactive; working around the store; item-by-item; and restricted and budgeted. This suggests that residents of deprived neighbourhoods do not have uniform responses to food environments. Responses to supermarket environments appear to be mediated by levels of individual autonomy. A better understanding of how residents of deprived neighbourhoods interact with their food environment may help optimise environmental interventions aimed at improving physical access to food in these places. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Meat, Milk and Eggs. Analysis of animal food environment relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elferink, E.

    2009-09-25

    This thesis aims at providing options for reduction of the consumption of natural resources by animal source food production and consumption. To formulate options for reducing the natural resource use of animal source food production systems, insight into how these systems function and knowledge of their natural resource use is required. The research goals of the thesis originate from this understanding: To gain insight into the natural resource use of animal source food production systems; To identify possibilities and options to reduce the natural resource use of animal source food production. The land requirements of beef, chicken and pork are determined in Chapter 2. Furthermore, the effect of system changes on the land requirement for meat is analyzed. The various factors that affect land requirements for meat production are identified.Chapter 3 analyses the energy use in the animal source food production systems for chicken, pork, eggs and milk. Results are compared on the basis of fresh weight and on their nutritional value as protein sources. The chapter identifies multiple options for reducing the energy use of animal source food products. A case study of how a change in policy (the banning of meat and bone meal in feed as a result of BSE) can affect the environmental impact of animal source food production is presented in Chapter 4. It also shows the global scale of the animal source food system and the trade-offs that can occur. The relationship between food consumption and the availability of human-inedible residues, feed composition and the environmental impact of meat is analysed in Chapter 5. This chapter shows the possible effect dietary changes can have on the environmental impact of meat. Chapter 6 compares organic and industrial pork production with respect to their natural resource use for different system settings. This chapter shows the factors that determine the natural resource use of feed. Finally, Chapter 7 provides an overview of the

  15. 40 CFR 257.3-5 - Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... production of food-chain crops (interim final). 257.3-5 Section 257.3-5 Protection of Environment... Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final). (a) Cadmium. A facility or... for the production of food-chain crops shall not exist or occur, unless in compliance with all...

  16. Nanotechnology in agri-food production: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekhon BS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bhupinder Singh SekhonInstitute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, PCTE Group of Institutes, Ludhiana, IndiaAbstract: Nanotechnology is one of the most important tools in modern agriculture, and agri-food nanotechnology is anticipated to become a driving economic force in the near future. Agri-food themes focus on sustainability and protection of agriculturally produced foods, including crops for human consumption and animal feeding. Nanotechnology provides new agrochemical agents and new delivery mechanisms to improve crop productivity, and it promises to reduce pesticide use. Nanotechnology can boost agricultural production, and its applications include: 1 nanoformulations of agrochemicals for applying pesticides and fertilizers for crop improvement; 2 the application of nanosensors/nanobiosensors in crop protection for the identification of diseases and residues of agrochemicals; 3 nanodevices for the genetic manipulation of plants; 4 plant disease diagnostics; 5 animal health, animal breeding, poultry production; and 6 postharvest management. Precision farming techniques could be used to further improve crop yields but not damage soil and water, reduce nitrogen loss due to leaching and emissions, as well as enhance nutrients long-term incorporation by soil microorganisms. Nanotechnology uses include nanoparticle-mediated gene or DNA transfer in plants for the development of insect-resistant varieties, food processing and storage, nanofeed additives, and increased product shelf life. Nanotechnology promises to accelerate the development of biomass-to-fuels production technologies. Experts feel that the potential benefits of nanotechnology for agriculture, food, fisheries, and aquaculture need to be balanced against concerns for the soil, water, and environment and the occupational health of workers. Raising awareness of nanotechnology in the agri-food sector, including feed and food ingredients, intelligent packaging and quick-detection systems, is

  17. Ergonomics study for workers at food production industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fazi Hamizatun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The health constraint faced by production workers affects the quality of the work. The productivity of the workers is affected by the Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorder (WMSD which limits the movement of the workers. The comfort workplace condition, known as ergonomic environment is important to prevent the occurrence of the WMSD. Proper ergonomic workplace considers the condition of the workers while doing the assigned work. The objectives of this study are to identify the current problems related to ergonomic in food production process, to analyse the actual production data by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA and to recommend the ergonomic workplace environment based on the condition of the study. The study was done at a Small and Medium Enterprises (SME food production company in the Klang Valley of Malaysia. The condition of the workers affects the productivity of the company due to workers’ health deficiency. From the findings, the workers are exposed to the awkward postures which leads to the Work-Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs. Besides, the best height of the worker at the study area (critical area to prevent the worker from WMSDs is within 155 cm to 160 cm. The results show that the workers are exposed to the WMSD in different level of risks which causes high absenteeism among the workers.

  18. Field validation of food outlet databases: the Latino food environment in North Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummo, Pasquale E; Albrecht, Sandra S; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-04-01

    Obtaining valid, reliable measures of food environments that serve Latino communities is important for understanding barriers to healthy eating in this at-risk population. The primary aim of the study was to examine agreement between retail food outlet data from two commercial databases, Nielsen TDLinx (TDLinx) for food stores and Dun & Bradstreet (D&B) for food stores and restaurants, relative to field observations of food stores and restaurants in thirty-one census tracts in Durham County, NC, USA. We also examined differences by proportion of Hispanic population (outlets classified in the field as 'Latino' on the basis of signage and use of Spanish language. One hundred and seventy-four food stores and 337 restaurants in Durham County, NC, USA. We found that overall sensitivity of food store listings in TDLinx was higher (64 %) than listings in D&B (55 %). Twenty-five food stores were characterized by auditors as Latino food stores, with 20 % identified in TDLinx, 52 % in D&B and 56 % in both sources. Overall sensitivity of restaurants (68 %) was higher than sensitivity of Latino restaurants (38 %) listed in D&B. Sensitivity did not differ substantially by Hispanic composition of neighbourhoods. Our findings suggest that while TDLinx and D&B commercial data sources perform well for total food stores, they perform less well in identifying small and independent food outlets, including many Latino food stores and restaurants.

  19. Field validation of food outlet databases: The Latino food environment in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummo, Pasquale E.; Albrecht, Sandra S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obtaining valid, reliable measures of food environments that serve Latino communities is important for understanding barriers to healthy eating in this at-risk population. Design The primary aim of the study was to examine agreement between retail food outlet data from two commercial databases, Nielsen TDLinx (TDLinx) for food stores and Dun & Bradstreet (D&B) for food stores and restaurants, relative to field observations of food stores and restaurants in 31 census tracts in Durham County, NC. We also examined differences by proportion of Hispanic population (outlets classified in the field as ‘Latino’ on the basis of signage and use of Spanish language. Setting 174 food stores and 337 restaurants in Durham County, North Carolina Results We found that overall sensitivity of food store listings in TDLinx was higher (64%) than listings in D&B (55%). Twenty-five food stores were characterized by auditors as Latino food stores, with 20% identified in TDLinx, 52% in D&B, and 56% in both sources. Overall sensitivity of restaurants (68%) was higher than sensitivity of Latino restaurants (38%) listed in D&B. Sensitivity did not differ substantially by Hispanic composition of neighborhoods. Conclusion Our findings suggest that while TDLinx and D&B commercial data sources perform well for total food stores, they perform less well in identifying small and independent food outlets, including many Latino food stores and restaurants. PMID:24937758

  20. Emotions in consumer research : An application to novel food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laros, F.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    During the last decades the general public has been confronted with a continuous stream of radically new food products as well as technologies that can be used to improve food production and food products. It is rather difficult, however, to convince consumers to accept these new products. For

  1. Microbial production of antioxidant food ingredients via metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuheng; Jain, Rachit; Yan, Yajun

    2014-04-01

    Antioxidants are biological molecules with the ability to protect vital metabolites from harmful oxidation. Due to this fascinating role, their beneficial effects on human health are of paramount importance. Traditional approaches using solvent-based extraction from food/non-food sources and chemical synthesis are often expensive, exhaustive, and detrimental to the environment. With the advent of metabolic engineering tools, the successful reconstitution of heterologous pathways in Escherichia coli and other microorganisms provides a more exciting and amenable alternative to meet the increasing demand of natural antioxidants. In this review, we elucidate the recent progress in metabolic engineering efforts for the microbial production of antioxidant food ingredients - polyphenols, carotenoids, and antioxidant vitamins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Food production: technology and the resource base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, S H

    1975-05-09

    Despite a growing population and increasing demands of that population for improved diets, it appears that the world is not close to universal famine (3, 53). There is enough food now produced to feed the world's hungry (54). That people are malnourished or starving is a question of distribution, delivery, and economics, not agricultural limits. The problem is putting the food where the people are and providing an income so that they can buy it. As to the future, there are clouds on the far horizon. Only increased scientific and technological innovation, coupled with a change in human behavior and in national policy with regard to increased investments in agricultural research, can avert a growing food and population crisis. Only scientists develop new technology. Only farmers produce food. Motivation and incentives are important both for scientific discovery and food production. Agricultural research is also a process. There is no finite beginning or end. It is a continuing search to unravel mysteries. We must force the pace of agricultural development, but technology must be tailored to local conditions. Thiscan be done by scientists who also know how to farm. Individual dedication and sustained government commitments are important. Rapidity of information transfer and of acceptance of technology is also crucial (55). There is a wide gap between progress in research and the point of application for human benefit (Table 5). What accounts for the vast time differences in rapidity of technology acceptance? The current avalanche of new knowledge coupled with problems of food, feed, and fiber supplies, and issues of availability, preservation, protection, renewability, and costs of resources should bring to the front the urgency of rapid information transfer and reassessment of information systems for agricultural and other renewable resources.

  3. Architecture of the Product State Model Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Larsen, Michael; Lynggaard, Hans Jørgen B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of using product models to support product lifecycle activities withparticular focus on the production phase. The motivation of the research is that products are producedmore costly and with longer lead-time than necessary.The paper provides a review of product...... modelling technologies and approaches, and the overallarchitecture for the Product State Model (PSM) Environment as a basis for quality monitoring.Especially, the paper focuses on the circumstances prevailing in a one-of-a-kind manufacturingenvironment like the shipbuilding industry, where product modelling...... technologies already haveproved their worth in the design and engineering phases of shipbuilding and in the operation phase.However, the handling of product information on the shop floor is not yet equally developed.The paper reports from the Brite-Euram project (No. BE97-4510) QualiGlobe focusing...

  4. Production of Fungal Glucoamylase for Glucose Production from Food Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wan Chi; Pleissner, Daniel; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of using pastry waste as resource for glucoamylase (GA) production via solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied. The crude GA extract obtained was used for glucose production from mixed food waste. Our results showed that pastry waste could be used as a sole substrate for GA production. A maximal GA activity of 76.1 ± 6.1 U/mL was obtained at Day 10. The optimal pH and reaction temperature for the crude GA extract for hydrolysis were pH 5.5 and 55 °C, respectively. Under this condition, the half-life of the GA extract was 315.0 minutes with a deactivation constant (kd) 2.20 × 10−3 minutes−1. The application of the crude GA extract for mixed food waste hydrolysis and glucose production was successfully demonstrated. Approximately 53 g glucose was recovered from 100 g of mixed food waste in 1 h under the optimal digestion conditions, highlighting the potential of this approach as an alternative strategy for waste management and sustainable production of glucose applicable as carbon source in many biotechnological processes. PMID:24970186

  5. Production of Fungal Glucoamylase for Glucose Production from Food Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Sze Ki Lin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using pastry waste as resource for glucoamylase (GA production via solid state fermentation (SSF was studied. The crude GA extract obtained was used for glucose production from mixed food waste. Our results showed that pastry waste could be used as a sole substrate for GA production. A maximal GA activity of 76.1 ± 6.1 U/mL was obtained at Day 10. The optimal pH and reaction temperature for the crude GA extract for hydrolysis were pH 5.5 and 55 °C, respectively. Under this condition, the half-life of the GA extract was 315.0 minutes with a deactivation constant (kd 2.20 × 10−3minutes−1. The application of the crude GA extract for mixed food waste hydrolysis and glucose production was successfully demonstrated. Approximately 53 g glucose was recovered from 100 g of mixed food waste in 1 h under the optimal digestion conditions, highlighting the potential of this approach as an alternative strategy for waste management and sustainable production of glucose applicable as carbon source in many biotechnological processes.

  6. Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PC USER

    Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 12 Number 3 September 2013 pp. 15 - 24 .... structural compounds of the chloroplast. Therefore, utilization of locally produced manures ..... research grant to complete the work. REFERENCES. Akoun, J. (2004). Effect of plant density ...

  7. Exploring Parent Perceptions of the Food Environment in Youth Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Megan; Nelson, Toben F.; Harwood, Eileen; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine parent perceptions of the food environment in youth sport. Methods: Eight focus group discussions were held with parents (n = 60) of youth aged 6-13 years participating in basketball programs in Minnesota. Key themes and concepts were identified via transcript-based analysis. Results: Parents reported that youth commonly…

  8. Measuring and Benchmarking Food Environments and Policies in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are responsible for three out of every four deaths in Latin America. Poor diet is increasingly contributing to preventable, premature deaths and illnesses related to NCDs. This project will monitor and benchmark food policies and environments in Mexico and Chile to address the problem.

  9. Measurement of radionuclides in food and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This guidebook is a production of the Fallout Radioactivity Monitoring in Environment and Food (MEF) Programme created by the IAEA in response to requests from Member States. The guidebook is divided into two parts. The first contains seven sections, including the introduction. Sections 2 and 3 provide general information on samples and radionuclides of interest. Laboratory equipment, space and personnel needed for radioanalyses are described in section 4. General instructions for sample collection and preparation are given in section 5. Sections 6 and 7 briefly discuss analytical methods and analytical quality control respectively. The second part of the guidebook is composed of ten annexes. The first four contain detailed methods for determination of gamma emitters collectively, strontium isotopes, tritium, and the isotopes of plutonium, americium and curium. Annex V provides a list of units and symbols; Annex VI gives information on radionuclide spectra in four types of nuclear accidents; nuclear data tables are listed in Annex VII; an example of a sample collection programme is presented in Annex VIII; some examples of NaI- and HP-Ge gamma spectrometric systems are given in Annex IX; and potential suppliers of calibration sources and reference materials are listed in Annex X. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Occurrence, Persistence, and Virulence Potential of Listeria ivanovii in Foods and Food Processing Environments in the Republic of Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino Alvarez-Ordóñez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of L. ivanovii in foods and food processing environments in Ireland, to track persistence, and to characterize the disease causing potential of the isolated strains. A total of 2,006 samples (432 food samples and 1,574 environmental swabs were collected between March 2013 and March 2014 from 48 food business operators (FBOs belonging to different production sectors (dairy, fish, meat, and fresh-cut vegetable. Six of the forty-eight FBOs had samples positive for L. ivanovii on at least one sampling occasion. L. ivanovii was present in fifteen samples (fourteen environmental samples and one food sample. All but one of those positive samples derived from the dairy sector, where L. ivanovii prevalence was 1.7%. Six distinguishable pulsotypes were obtained by PFGE analysis, with one pulsotype being persistent in the environment of a dairy food business. Sequence analysis of the sigB gene showed that fourteen isolates belonged to L. ivanovii subsp. londoniensis, while only one isolate was L. ivanovii subsp. ivanovii. Cell invasion assays demonstrated that the majority of L. ivanovii strains were comparable to L. monocytogenes EGDe in their ability to invade CACO-2 epithelial cells whilst four isolates had significantly higher invasion efficiencies.

  11. Occurrence, Persistence, and Virulence Potential of Listeria ivanovii in Foods and Food Processing Environments in the Republic of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ciara A.; Hill, Colin; Gahan, Cormac G. M.; Jordan, Kieran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of L. ivanovii in foods and food processing environments in Ireland, to track persistence, and to characterize the disease causing potential of the isolated strains. A total of 2,006 samples (432 food samples and 1,574 environmental swabs) were collected between March 2013 and March 2014 from 48 food business operators (FBOs) belonging to different production sectors (dairy, fish, meat, and fresh-cut vegetable). Six of the forty-eight FBOs had samples positive for L. ivanovii on at least one sampling occasion. L. ivanovii was present in fifteen samples (fourteen environmental samples and one food sample). All but one of those positive samples derived from the dairy sector, where L. ivanovii prevalence was 1.7%. Six distinguishable pulsotypes were obtained by PFGE analysis, with one pulsotype being persistent in the environment of a dairy food business. Sequence analysis of the sigB gene showed that fourteen isolates belonged to L. ivanovii subsp. londoniensis, while only one isolate was L. ivanovii subsp. ivanovii. Cell invasion assays demonstrated that the majority of L. ivanovii strains were comparable to L. monocytogenes EGDe in their ability to invade CACO-2 epithelial cells whilst four isolates had significantly higher invasion efficiencies. PMID:26543856

  12. Occurrence, Persistence, and Virulence Potential of Listeria ivanovii in Foods and Food Processing Environments in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Leong, Dara; Morgan, Ciara A; Hill, Colin; Gahan, Cormac G M; Jordan, Kieran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of L. ivanovii in foods and food processing environments in Ireland, to track persistence, and to characterize the disease causing potential of the isolated strains. A total of 2,006 samples (432 food samples and 1,574 environmental swabs) were collected between March 2013 and March 2014 from 48 food business operators (FBOs) belonging to different production sectors (dairy, fish, meat, and fresh-cut vegetable). Six of the forty-eight FBOs had samples positive for L. ivanovii on at least one sampling occasion. L. ivanovii was present in fifteen samples (fourteen environmental samples and one food sample). All but one of those positive samples derived from the dairy sector, where L. ivanovii prevalence was 1.7%. Six distinguishable pulsotypes were obtained by PFGE analysis, with one pulsotype being persistent in the environment of a dairy food business. Sequence analysis of the sigB gene showed that fourteen isolates belonged to L. ivanovii subsp. londoniensis, while only one isolate was L. ivanovii subsp. ivanovii. Cell invasion assays demonstrated that the majority of L. ivanovii strains were comparable to L. monocytogenes EGDe in their ability to invade CACO-2 epithelial cells whilst four isolates had significantly higher invasion efficiencies.

  13. [Transgenic products. A scientific-production evaluation of possible food (in)security].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Maria Clara Coelho; Marinho, Carmem L C; Guilam, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Nodari, Rubens Onofre

    2009-01-01

    Based on a bibliographic review, the article identifies and offers a critical analysis of scientific production by the public health field in Brazil on genetically modified organisms and food (in)security. Of the 716 articles found on the portals of the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and the Coordinating Agency for the Development of Higher Education (Capes), only 8 address the food security of transgenic products, primarily in terms of risk exposure and the uncertainties about how these products impact health and the environment. The main conclusion involves the fact that the eight analyzed articles do not speak to the question of the security but rather the insecurity of genetically modified foods.

  14. The moderating role of food cue sensitivity in the behavioral response of children to their neighborhood food environment: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Catherine; de Montigny, Luc; Labban, Alice; Buckeridge, David; Ma, Yu; Arora, Narendra; Dubé, Laurette

    2017-07-05

    Neighborhood food cues have been inconsistently related to residents' health, possibly due to variations in residents' sensitivity to such cues. This study sought to investigate the degree to which children's predisposition to eat upon exposure to food environment and food cues (external eating), could explain differences in strength of associations between their food consumption and the type of food outlets and marketing strategies present in their neighborhood. Data were obtained from 616 6-12 y.o. children recruited into a population-based cross-sectional study in which food consumption was measured through a 24-h food recall and responsiveness to food cues measured using the external eating scale. The proportion of food retailers within 3 km of residence considered as "healthful" was calculated using a Geographical Information System. Neighborhood exposure to food marketing strategies (displays, discount frequency, variety, and price) for vegetables and soft drinks were derived from a geocoded digital marketing database. Adjusted mixed models with spatial covariance tested interaction effects of food environment indicators and external eating on food consumption. In children with higher external eating scores, healthful food consumption was more positively related to vegetable displays, and more negatively to the display and variety of soft drinks. No interactions were observed for unhealthful food consumption and no main effects of food environment indicators were found on food consumption. Children differ in their responsiveness to marketing-related visual food cues on the basis of their external eating phenotype. Strategies aiming to increase the promotion of healthful relative to unhealthful food products in stores may be particularly beneficial for children identified as being more responsive to food cues.

  15. Food and Beverage Environment Analysis and Monitoring System (FoodBEAMS™): A Reliability Study in the School Food and Beverage Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Sally Lawrence; Craypo, Lisa; Clark, Sarah E.; Barry, Jason; Samuels, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    States and school districts around the country are developing policies that set nutrition standards for competitive foods and beverages sold outside of the United States Department of Agriculture reimbursable school lunch program. However, few tools exist for monitoring the implementation of these new policies. The objective of this research was to develop a computerized assessment tool, the Food and Beverage Environment Analysis and Monitoring System (FoodBEAMS™), to collect data on the competitive school food environment and to test the inter-rater reliability of the tool among research and non-research professionals. FoodBEAMS was used to collect data in spring 2007, on the competitive foods and beverages sold in 21 California high schools. Adherence of the foods and beverages to California's competitive food and beverage nutrition policies for schools (Senate Bills 12 and 965) was determined using the data collected by both research and non-research professionals. The inter-rater reliability between the data collectors was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Researcher versus researcher and researcher versus non-researcher inter-rater reliability was high for both foods and beverages, with ICCs ranging from .972 to .987. The results of this study provide evidence that FoodBEAMS is a promising tool for assessing and monitoring adherence to nutrition standards for competitive foods sold on school campuses and can be used reliably by both research and non-research professionals. PMID:20630167

  16. Relation between local food environments and obesity among adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raine Kim D

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outside of the United States, evidence for associations between exposure to fast-food establishments and risk for obesity among adults is limited and equivocal. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether the relative availability of different types of food retailers around people's homes was associated with obesity among adults in Edmonton, Canada, and if this association varied as a function of distance between food locations and people's homes. Methods Data from a population health survey of 2900 adults (18 years or older conducted in 2002 was linked with geographic measures of access to food retailers. Based upon a ratio of the number of fast-food restaurants and convenience stores to supermarkets and specialty food stores, a Retail Food Environment Index (RFEI was calculated for 800 m and 1600 m buffers around people's homes. In a series of logistic regressions, associations between the RFEI and the level of obesity among adults were examined. Results The median RFEI for adults in Edmonton was 4.00 within an 800 m buffer around their residence and 6.46 within a 1600 m buffer around their residence. Approximately 14% of the respondents were classified as being obese. The odds of a resident being obese were significantly lower (OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.59 – 0.95 if they lived in an area with the lowest RFEI (below 3.0 in comparison to the highest RFEI (5.0 and above. These associations existed regardless of the covariates included in the model. No significant associations were observed between RFEI within a 1600 m buffer of the home and obesity. Conclusion The lower the ratio of fast-food restaurants and convenience stores to grocery stores and produce vendors near people's homes, the lower the odds of being obese. Thus the proximity of the obesogenic environment to individuals appears to be an important factor in their risk for obesity.

  17. QFood - Optimal design of food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Anne C.; Engelund, Erling; Juhl, Hans Jørn

    1994-01-01

    and quantitative methods. The QFood-project focuses on the quantitative part and two common methods, multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) and conjoiont analysis are briefly described. 4. Integration between sensory analysis and market analysis on the basis of House of Quality is the central part of the project. House...... of Quality is described with special reference to the development of food products. 5. An MDS-based model for use in the evaluation of an optimal product is developed. The model is based on the profit function from classical micro-economic theory. The imputed price is defined as a function of a Customer...... Satisfaction Index which is inversely proportional to how ""close"" the product is to the consumer's ideal....

  18. Concentration of stable elements in food products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montford, M.A.; Shank, K.E.; Hendricks, C.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    Food samples were taken from commercial markets and analyzed for stable element content. The concentrations of most stable elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hf, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, V, Zn, Zr) were determined using multiple-element neutron activation analysis, while the concentrations of other elements (Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb) were determined using atomic absorption. The relevance of the concentrations found are noted in relation to other literature values. An earlier study was extended to include the determination of the concentration of stable elements in home-grown products in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Comparisons between the commercial and local food-stuff values are discussed.

  19. Food and Beverage Environment Analysis and Monitoring System (FoodBEAMS™): A Reliability Study in the School Food and Beverage Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bullock, Sally Lawrence; Craypo, Lisa; Clark, Sarah E.; Barry, Jason; Samuels, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    States and school districts around the country are developing policies that set nutrition standards for competitive foods and beverages sold outside of the United States Department of Agriculture reimbursable school lunch program. However, few tools exist for monitoring the implementation of these new policies. The objective of this research was to develop a computerized assessment tool, the Food and Beverage Environment Analysis and Monitoring System (FoodBEAMS™), to collect data on the comp...

  20. Food deserts or food swamps?: A mixed-methods study of local food environments in a Mexican city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridle-Fitzpatrick, Susan

    2015-10-01

    Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to disparities in eating behaviors and health outcomes. While food deserts have been researched extensively in developed Anglophone countries, evidence from low- and middle-income countries is still scarce. In Mexico, prevalence of obesity is among the highest worldwide. As obesity has increased nationally and become a widespread public health issue, it is becoming concentrated in the low-income population. This mixed-methods study uses a multidimensional approach to analyze food environments in a low-, middle-, and high-income community in a Mexican city. The study advances understanding of the role that food environments may play in shaping eating patterns by analyzing the density and proximity of food outlet types as well as the variety, quantity, quality, pricing, and promotion of different foods. These measures are combined with in-depth qualitative research with families in the communities, including photo elicitation, to assess perceptions of food access. The central aims of the research were to evaluate physical and economic access and exposure to healthy and unhealthy foods in communities of differing socioeconomic status as well as participants' subjective perceptions of such access and exposure. The findings suggest a need to reach beyond a narrow focus on food store types and the distance from residence to grocery stores when analyzing food access. Results show that excessive access and exposure to unhealthy foods and drinks, or "food swamps," may be a greater concern than food deserts for obesity-prevention policy in Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exporting obesity: US farm and trade policy and the transformation of the Mexican consumer food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah E; Hawkes, Corinna; Murphy, Sophia M E; Hansen-Kuhn, Karen A; Wallinga, David

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions, in the United States as well as among its trade partners such as Mexico. It has been established that an "obesogenic" (obesity-causing) food environment is one influence on obesity prevalence. To isolate the particular role of NAFTA, the North American Free Trade Agreement, in changing Mexico's food environment, we plotted the flow of several key products between the United States and Mexico over the 14-year NAFTA period (1994-2008) and situated them in a broader historical context. Key sources of USDA data include the Foreign Agricultural Service's Global Agricultural Trade System, its official repository for current and historical data on imports, exports and re-exports, and its Production, Supply, and Distribution online database. US export data were queried for agricultural products linked to shifting diet patterns including: corn, soybeans, sugar and sweeteners, consumer-oriented products, and livestock products. The Bureau of Economic Analysis' Balance of Payments and Direct Investment Position Data in their web-based International Economic Accounts system also helped determine changes in US direct investment abroad from 1982 to 2009. Directly and indirectly, the United States has exported increasing amounts of corn, soybeans, sugar, snack foods, and meat products into Mexico over the last two decades. Facilitated by NAFTA, these exports are one important way in which US agriculture and trade policy influences Mexico's food system. Because of significant US agribusiness investment in Mexico across the full spectrum of the latter's food supply chain, from production and processing to distribution and retail, the Mexican food system increasingly looks like the industrialized food system of the United States.

  2. State of the safety assessment and current use of nanomaterials in food and food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, H.; Brandhoff, P.N.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Weigel, S.; Peters, R.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials are developed for and applied in food, food additives, supplements and food contact materials. In an inventory of internet databases 140 products in the food and food-related sectors were identified that claim to contain nanomaterials. A great diversity of nanomaterials is applied,

  3. From food production to food security: developing interdisciplinary, regional-level research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, J.S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Food security is a condition whereby “all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” (FAO World Food Summit, 1996). Globally, food production has kept

  4. PROMOTING TRADITIONAL FOOD PRODUCTS AS HEALTHY DIET PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Teodora TARCZA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a brief introspection in the literature review in an attempt to highlight the peculiarities of traditional foodstuffs that enable them to be promoted as the primary food for a healthy diet. The trend of healthy eating is gaining ground not only for experts and researchers, but also for consumers on a daily basis. Traditional foodstuffs are brought back into the consumers’ attention in a market full of highly-processed foodstuffs. Marketing specialists noticed the link between the two concepts and they elaborated promotional strategies for traditional foodstuffs, having the ‘healthy diet’ as insight. Throughout the paper we will present theoretical considerations such as the concept of ‘traditional food product’, ‘promotion’, and ‘healthy diet’ from a marketing perspective followed by several examples of traditional food products perceived as healthy, and lastly, we will highlight the benefits of promoting a healthy diet by consuming traditional food products.

  5. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food is an important basic human need for survival, growth, and good health. Most rural households in Tanzania, Kahama district inclusive produce the food they consume. Despite this reality, a number of households in the district suffer from food insecurity. However, there are inequalities across the districtfs ecological ...

  6. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    food security status based on Dietary Energy Consumed (DEC) per Adult Equivalent (AE) per day, identifies households' food ... recommended that, farming households adopt drought resistant food crops, diversify into off-farm income generating activities .... households (MHHs) possess more resources than female-headed ...

  7. [Environment load from China's cement production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tian-le; He, Wei; Zeng, Xiao-lan; Huang, Xin; Ma, Bao-guo

    2006-10-01

    Based on the life-cycle theory, a quantitative evaluation of the environment load caused by cement manufacturing in China was carried out with the application of the CML. environmental impact assessment method. The results show that global warming potential, energy depletion potential and abiotic depletion potential make the main contribution to the environment impact, their environmental loads corresponding to identical environmental impact sorts being 2.76%, 2.34% and 1.39% of the overall load of the whole world, respectively. In 2004, the environment load from cement manufacturing in China is roughly 1.28% of the overall load of the whole world, in which the environmental loads from the shaft kiln processing, wet rotary processing and new-type dry processing being 0.84%, 0.12% and 0.32%, respectively. And it can be reduced to about 1% by replacing backward production processes with the dry method production process.

  8. Validation of 3 food outlet databases: completeness and geospatial accuracy in rural and urban food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D; Colabianchi, Natalie; Lamichhane, Archana P; Barnes, Timothy L; Hibbert, James D; Porter, Dwayne E; Nichols, Michele D; Lawson, Andrew B

    2010-12-01

    Despite interest in the built food environment, little is known about the validity of commonly used secondary data. The authors conducted a comprehensive field census identifying the locations of all food outlets using a handheld global positioning system in 8 counties in South Carolina (2008-2009). Secondary data were obtained from 2 commercial companies, Dun & Bradstreet, Inc. (D&B) (Short Hills, New Jersey) and InfoUSA, Inc. (Omaha, Nebraska), and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC). Sensitivity, positive predictive value, and geospatial accuracy were compared. The field census identified 2,208 food outlets, significantly more than the DHEC (n = 1,694), InfoUSA (n = 1,657), or D&B (n = 1,573). Sensitivities were moderate for DHEC (68%) and InfoUSA (65%) and fair for D&B (55%). Combining InfoUSA and D&B data would have increased sensitivity to 78%. Positive predictive values were very good for DHEC (89%) and InfoUSA (86%) and good for D&B (78%). Geospatial accuracy varied, depending on the scale: More than 80% of outlets were geocoded to the correct US Census tract, but only 29%-39% were correctly allocated within 100 m. This study suggests that the validity of common data sources used to characterize the food environment is limited. The marked undercount of food outlets and the geospatial inaccuracies observed have the potential to introduce bias into studies evaluating the impact of the built food environment.

  9. Food Security, Adequate Care and Environment (Tanzania and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will investigate the links between environmental quality and food systems (production, consumption, biological utilization) in the context of climate variability and change. Researchers will carry out surveys in two similar (but not identical) settings in Tanzania and Malawi. They will examine nutrition status, dietary ...

  10. Food, Energy, and The Environment: Alternatives for Creating New Lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrells, Nancy R.; Pimentel, David

    1981-01-01

    Provides background information on the interdependency of agriculture and ecological and social systems. Discusses in detail: (1) fossil energy and food production; (2) energy-intensive agriculture and environmental pollution; and (3) methods for developing alternatives. Includes recommendations to conserve fossil energy used in current food…

  11. Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PC USER

    (TS) were evaluated on growth and moisture stress tolerance of macropropagated banana plantlets in the nursery. Un-amended topsoil was evaluated ... amounts by bananas. Although the use of plantain peel in biogas production and soap making ...... fertilizer: a strategy for promoting food security and institutional waste.

  12. Fish parasites, fish food, and the marine environment | Nnadi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper addresses the incontrovertible fact that fish and fish products have historically been a reliable supplier of protein, in particular, and food, in general for humans. Seventy to a hundred metric tons arc caught each year since the early seventies. Fish protein represents about twenty five percent of the total animal ...

  13. Obesity-promoting food environments and the spatial clustering of food outlets around schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Peter L; Pearce, Jamie

    2011-02-01

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in school-aged children is potentially linked to contextual influences such as the food environment around schools. The proximity of fast-food and convenience stores to schools may enhance access to unhealthy foods and have a negative impact on diet. This study used spatial cluster analysis to determine whether food outlets are clustered around schools and evaluated the extent of food outlet clustering by school and school neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics. The locations in 2008 of all schools, fast-food outlets, and convenience stores in five urban regions across New Zealand were geocoded. Using GIS analysis conducted in 2009, the number and proportion of outlets within 400-m and 800-m road distance around each school was calculated. The spatial clustering of food outlets within 1.5 km of schools was determined using a multi-type K-function. Food outlet type, school level, SES, the degree of population density, and commercial land use zoning around each school were compared. Primary/intermediate schools had a total proportion of 19.3 outlets per 1000 students within 800 m compared to 6.6 for secondary schools. The most socially deprived quintile of schools had three times the number and proportion of food outlets compared to the least-deprived quintile. There was a high degree of clustering of food outlets around schools, with up to 5.5 times more outlets than might be expected. Outlets were most clustered up to 800 m from schools and around secondary schools, socially deprived schools, and schools in densely populated and commercially zoned areas. Food environments in New Zealand within walking proximity to schools are characterized by a high density of fast-food outlets and convenience stores, particularly in more-socially deprived settings. These obesogenic environments provide ready access to obesity-promoting foods that may have a negative impact on student diet and contribute to inequalities in

  14. Consumer Protection Towards Local Food Production In Southeast Sulawesi Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Suriani BT. Tolo; Ahsan Yunus; Ahmadi Miru; Irwansyah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Consumers have rights which should not just be ignored by businesses such as the right to be a safety the right be informed the right to be heard as well as the right to a good environment and healthy. Kendari Regency as a local government has been manifested by issuing regulations and policies that support the development of local food production such as the Mayor of Kendari regulation No. 15 of 2010 and Mayor Kendari Decree No. 427 of 2012 regarding the Establishment of Community C...

  15. Culture, Environment, and Food to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Couverture du livre Culture, Environment, and Food to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency. Auteur(s) : H.V. Kuhnlein et G.H. Pelto. Maison(s) d'édition : ... Évaluation stratégique sur la communication des résultats de la recherche en vue d'exercer une influence : 1re partie. Le CRDI vise à appuyer de la recherche non seulement ...

  16. Relationships between Vacant Homes and Food Swamps: A Longitudinal Study of an Urban Food Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeeli Mui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that living in neighborhoods with high concentrations of boarded-up vacant homes is associated with premature mortality due to cancer and diabetes, but the mechanism for this relationship is unclear. Boarded-up housing may indirectly impact residents’ health by affecting their food environment. We evaluated the association between changes in vacancy rates and changes in the density of unhealthy food outlets as a proportion of all food outlets, termed the food swamp index, in Baltimore, MD (USA from 2001 to 2012, using neighborhood fixed-effects linear regression models. Over the study period, the average food swamp index increased from 93.5 to 95.3 percentage points across all neighborhoods. Among non-African American neighborhoods, increases in the vacancy rate were associated with statistically significant decreases in the food swamp index (b = −0.38; 90% CI, −0.64 to −0.12; p-value: 0.015, after accounting for changes in neighborhood SES, racial diversity, and population size. A positive association was found among low-SES neighborhoods (b = 0.15; 90% CI, 0.037 to 0.27; p-value: 0.031. Vacant homes may influence the composition of food outlets in urban neighborhoods. Future research should further elucidate the mechanisms by which more distal, contextual factors, such as boarded-up vacant homes, may affect food choices and diet-related health outcomes.

  17. The nitrogen cost of food production: Norwegian society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azzaroli Bleken, M. [Agricultural Univ. of Norway, Aas (Norway). Dept. of Horticulture and Crop Sciences; Bakken, L.R. [Agricultural Univ. of Norway, Aas (Norway). Dept. of Soil and Water Sciences

    1997-05-01

    The N-enrichment of the biosphere due to human activities has potential global consequences in enhancing cumulatively, the emission of N{sub 2}O to the atmosphere. This aspect of nitrogen pollution demands a global analysis of the `human nitrogen cycle`. We have used Norway as an example to analyze the nitrogen flows within a society and the dissipation of N to the environment. The present paper concentrates on the food producing sector, which was found to represent the largest N-flow and had the most complex interferences within the nitrogen cycle. The edible products that reach the consumers` mouths account for around 10% of the total N inputs at the primary (plant) production level. The largest N-dissipation occurs in plant production, but the performance of the society as a whole is largely determined by the human diet. The N-cost, defined as the ratio between fertilizer N-input (including animal manure) and the N products, is around 3 for wheat, 14 for dairy products and 21 for meat. The analysis of different mitigation options also reveal the importance of recycling at the highest possible trophic level. Major reductions in the total consumption of N can be obtained by moderate changes towards a more vegetarian diet and better utilization of existing food. In contrast, recycling of waste at the lowest trophic level (compost) is very inefficient. 43 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  18. Nanomaterials for products and application in agriculture, feed and food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Ruud J.B.; Bouwmeester, Hans; Gottardo, Stefania; Amenta, Valeria; Arena, Maria; Brandhoff, Puck; Marvin, Hans J.P.; Mech, Agnieszka; Moniz, Filipa Botelho; Pesudo, Laia Quiros; Rauscher, Hubert; Schoonjans, Reinhilde; Undas, Anna K.; Vettori, Maria Vittoria; Weigel, Stefan; Aschberger, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nanotechnology applications can be found in agricultural production, animal feed, food processing, food additives and food contact materials (hereinafter referred to as agri/feed/food). A great diversity of nanomaterials is reported to be currently used in various applications, while

  19. A systematic policy approach to changing the food system and physical activity environments to prevent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Gary; Swinburn, Boyd A; Lawrence, Mark A

    2008-06-05

    As obesity prevention becomes an increasing health priority in many countries, including Australia and New Zealand, the challenge that governments are now facing is how to adopt a systematic policy approach to increase healthy eating and regular physical activity. This article sets out a structure for systematically identifying areas for obesity prevention policy action across the food system and full range of physical activity environments. Areas amenable to policy intervention can be systematically identified by considering policy opportunities for each level of governance (local, state, national, international and organisational) in each sector of the food system (primary production, food processing, distribution, marketing, retail, catering and food service) and each sector that influences physical activity environments (infrastructure and planning, education, employment, transport, sport and recreation). Analysis grids are used to illustrate, in a structured fashion, the broad array of areas amenable to legal and regulatory intervention across all levels of governance and all relevant sectors. In the Australian context, potential regulatory policy intervention areas are widespread throughout the food system, e.g., land-use zoning (primary production within local government), food safety (food processing within state government), food labelling (retail within national government). Policy areas for influencing physical activity are predominantly local and state government responsibilities including, for example, walking and cycling environments (infrastructure and planning sector) and physical activity education in schools (education sector). The analysis structure presented in this article provides a tool to systematically identify policy gaps, barriers and opportunities for obesity prevention, as part of the process of developing and implementing a comprehensive obesity prevention strategy. It also serves to highlight the need for a coordinated approach to

  20. The interaction of human population, food production, and biodiversity protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Eileen; Mora, Camilo; Engelman, Robert

    2017-04-21

    Research suggests that the scale of human population and the current pace of its growth contribute substantially to the loss of biological diversity. Although technological change and unequal consumption inextricably mingle with demographic impacts on the environment, the needs of all human beings-especially for food-imply that projected population growth will undermine protection of the natural world. Numerous solutions have been proposed to boost food production while protecting biodiversity, but alone these proposals are unlikely to staunch biodiversity loss. An important approach to sustaining biodiversity and human well-being is through actions that can slow and eventually reverse population growth: investing in universal access to reproductive health services and contraceptive technologies, advancing women's education, and achieving gender equality. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the Federal...

  2. Supplement: Why Colour Foods? Colouring Food Products with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today, the food industry is the kitchen of the world. It has revolutionised nutrition. Never before have standards of purity, stability, and physiological harmlessness been as high as they are today. New raw materials and new methods of refining and preserving, however, often alter the natural appearance of fresh foods.

  3. Contribution of livestock to food production in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. FITZHUGH

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available On a global basis, livestock products - meat, milk, eggs and fibre - account for 40% of the value of total marketed agricultural product. Animal products provide essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals to help ensure nutritionally balanced diets. In developing countries, livestock traction and manure also contribute to food production through improved cultivation and soil fertility which increase crop yields. On average, the proportional contribution of livestock product to dietary calories and protein in developed countries is double that for developing countries. Demand for livestock products is fuelled by the population increase, income growth and urbanisation in developing countries. Therefore, over the past decade, consumption of livestock product has sharply increased in developing countries, while slightly decreasing in developed countries where consumption is already relatively high on average. Increased demand in developing countries increases income for producers, but also stresses the environment through pollution, soil erosion, overgrazing and deforestation. Research involving global partnerships of scientists and institutes can help ensure that the increased demands for livestock product in developing countries will be met in economically feasible and environmentally sustainable ways.;

  4. Food production in developing countries - the role of plant biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    D. I. Ferreira

    1995-01-01

    The world is facing major problems with regard to food production. Agricultural land suffers from various conditions which make it less efficient for crop production while the rapid population growth, especially in developing countries, raises concern for sustainable food production. The Green Revolution has failed to secure sustainable food production and it is hoped that biotechnology will facilitate the transition to more sustainable agriculture. Excellent progress has been made with b...

  5. Food production in developing countries - the role of plant biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Ferreira

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing major problems with regard to food production. Agricultural land suffers from various conditions which make it less efficient for crop production while the rapid population growth, especially in developing countries, raises concern for sustainable food production. The Green Revolution has failed to secure sustainable food production and it is hoped that biotechnology will facilitate the transition to more sustainable agriculture. Excellent progress has been made with both Cell Biology (tissue culture and Molecular Biology (genetic engineering.

  6. Improving livestock production using indigenous resources and conserving the environment. A publication prepared under the framework of a Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific project with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Livestock farming is very important in Asia and the pacific region as a source of livelihood for resource poor farmers' - provision of food and food products and as a source of income. However, livestock productivity in many countries is below their genetic potential because of inadequate and imbalanced feeds and feeding, poor reproductive management and animal diseases exacerbated by lack of effective support services, such as animal husbandry extension, artificial insemination (AI) and/or veterinary services. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific (RCA), with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, implemented a Technical Cooperation (TC) project entitled 'Integrated Approach for Improving Livestock Production using Indigenous Resources and Conserving the Environment' (RAS/5/044). The overall objective of the project was to improve livestock productivity through better nutritional and reproduction strategies while conserving the environment. The specific objectives were (i) to improve animal productivity and decrease emission of selected greenhouse gases, (methane and carbon dioxide) and selected nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) into the environment; and (ii) to identify and adopt better breeding strategies that would improve animal productivity. This publication contains research results presented by scientists during the final review meeting incorporating the contributions of the experts associated with RAS/5/044. It is hoped that this publication will help stimulate further discussion, research and development into ways of improving the efficiency and productivity of livestock thus leading to higher income for smallholder farmers in the region

  7. Urban food crop production capacity and competition with the urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey J Richardson; L. Monika Moskal

    2016-01-01

    The sourcing of food plays a significant role in assessing the sustainability of a city, but it is unclear how much food a city can produce within its city limits. In this study, we propose a method for estimating the maximum food crop production capacity of a city and demonstrate the method in Seattle, WA USA by taking into account land use, the light environment, and...

  8. Nutritional composition of five food trees species products used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional composition of five food trees species products used in human diet during food shortage period in Burkina Faso. Thiombiano Daniabla Natacha Edwige, Parkouda Charles, Lamien Nieyidouba, Sere Aminata, Castro-Euler Ana Margarida, Boussim Issaka Joseph ...

  9. 'Obesogenic' School Food Environments? An Urban Case Study in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Joris; Dijkstra, Coosje; Kamphuis, Carlijn; Huitink, Marlijn; van der Zee, Egbert; Poelman, Maartje

    2018-03-28

    (1) Background: This study aimed to explore and define socio-economic (SES) differences in urban school food environments in The Netherlands. (2) Methods: Retail food outlets, ready-to-eat products, in-store food promotions and food advertisements in public space were determined within 400 m walking distance of all secondary schools in the 4th largest city of The Netherlands. Fisher's exact tests were conducted. (3) Results: In total, 115 retail outlets sold ready-to-eat food and drink products during school hours. Fast food outlets were more often in the vicinity of schools in lower SES (28.6%) than in higher SES areas (11.5%). In general, unhealthy options (e.g., fried snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB)) were more often for sale, in-store promoted or advertised in comparison with healthy options (e.g., fruit, vegetables, bottled water). Sport/energy drinks were more often for sale, and fried snacks/fries, hamburgers/kebab and SSB were more often promoted or advertised in lower SES areas than in higher SES-areas. (4) Conclusion: In general, unhealthy food options were more often presented than the healthy options, but only a few SES differences were observed. The results, however, imply that efforts in all school areas are needed to make the healthy option the default option during school time.

  10. ‘Obesogenic’ School Food Environments? An Urban Case Study in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris Timmermans

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: This study aimed to explore and define socio-economic (SES differences in urban school food environments in The Netherlands. (2 Methods: Retail food outlets, ready-to-eat products, in-store food promotions and food advertisements in public space were determined within 400 m walking distance of all secondary schools in the 4th largest city of The Netherlands. Fisher’s exact tests were conducted. (3 Results: In total, 115 retail outlets sold ready-to-eat food and drink products during school hours. Fast food outlets were more often in the vicinity of schools in lower SES (28.6% than in higher SES areas (11.5%. In general, unhealthy options (e.g., fried snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB were more often for sale, in-store promoted or advertised in comparison with healthy options (e.g., fruit, vegetables, bottled water. Sport/energy drinks were more often for sale, and fried snacks/fries, hamburgers/kebab and SSB were more often promoted or advertised in lower SES areas than in higher SES-areas. (4 Conclusion: In general, unhealthy food options were more often presented than the healthy options, but only a few SES differences were observed. The results, however, imply that efforts in all school areas are needed to make the healthy option the default option during school time.

  11. The roles of productivity and ecosystem size in determining food chain length in tropical terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hillary S; McCauley, Douglas J; Dunbar, Robert B; Hutson, Michael S; Ter-Kuile, Ana Miller; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2013-03-01

    Many different drivers, including productivity, ecosystem size, and disturbance, have been considered to explain natural variation in the length of food chains. Much remains unknown about the role of these various drivers in determining food chain length, and particularly about the mechanisms by which they may operate in terrestrial ecosystems, which have quite different ecological constraints than aquatic environments, where most food chain length studies have been thus far conducted. In this study, we tested the relative importance of ecosystem size and productivity in influencing food chain length in a terrestrial setting. We determined that (1) there is no effect of ecosystem size or productive space on food chain length; (2) rather, food chain length increases strongly and linearly with productivity; and (3) the observed changes in food chain length are likely achieved through a combination of changes in predator size, predator behavior, and consumer diversity along gradients in productivity. These results lend new insight into the mechanisms by which productivity can drive changes in food chain length, point to potential for systematic differences in the drivers of food web structure between terrestrial and aquatic systems, and challenge us to consider how ecological context may control the drivers that shape food chain length.

  12. The neurobiology of food intake in an obesogenic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this non-systematic review of the literature is to highlight some of the neural systems and pathways that are affected by the various intake-promoting aspects of the modern food environment and explore potential modes of interaction between core systems such as hypothalamus and brainstem primarily receptive to internal signals of fuel availability and forebrain areas such as the cortex, amygdala and meso-corticolimbic dopamine system, primarily processing external signals. The modern lifestyle with its drastic changes in the way we eat and move puts pressure on the homoeostatic system responsible for the regulation of body weight, which has led to an increase in overweight and obesity. The power of food cues targeting susceptible emotions and cognitive brain functions, particularly of children and adolescents, is increasingly exploited by modern neuromarketing tools. Increased intake of energy-dense foods high in fat and sugar is not only adding more energy, but may also corrupt neural functions of brain systems involved in nutrient sensing as well as in hedonic, motivational and cognitive processing. It is concluded that only long-term prospective studies in human subjects and animal models with the capacity to demonstrate sustained over-eating and development of obesity are necessary to identify the critical environmental factors as well as the underlying neural systems involved. Insights from these studies and from modern neuromarketing research should be increasingly used to promote consumption of healthy foods.

  13. The neurobiology of food intake in an obesogenic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this non-systematic review of the literature is to highlight some of the neural systems and pathways that are affected by the various intake-promoting aspects of the modern food environment and explore potential modes of interaction between core systems such as hypothalamus and brainstem primarily receptive to internal signals of fuel availability and forebrain areas such as the cortex, amygdala and meso-corticolimbic dopamine system, primarily processing external signals. The modern lifestyle with its drastic changes in the way we eat and move puts pressure on the homoeostatic system responsible for the regulation of body weight, which has led to an increase in overweight and obesity. The power of food cues targeting susceptible emotions and cognitive brain functions, particularly of children and adolescents, is increasingly exploited by modern neuromarketing tools. Increased intake of energy-dense foods high in fat and sugar is not only adding more energy, but may also corrupt neural functions of brain systems involved in nutrient sensing as well as in hedonic, motivational and cognitive processing. It is concluded that only long-term prospective studies in human subjects and animal models with the capacity to demonstrate sustained over-eating and development of obesity are necessary to identify the critical environmental factors as well as the underlying neural systems involved. Insights from these studies and from modern neuromarketing research should be increasingly used to promote consumption of healthy foods. PMID:22800810

  14. Food product health warnings promote dietary self-control through reductions in neural signals indexing food cue reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Daniel H; Summerell, Patrick; Ng, Alyssa; Dixon, Helen; Murawski, Carsten; Wakefield, Melanie; Bode, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Modern societies are replete with palatable food cues. A growing body of evidence suggests that food cue exposure activates conditioned appetitive physiological and psychological responses that may override current metabolic needs and existing eating goals, such as the desire to maintain a healthy diet. This conditioned response results in unhealthy dietary choices and is a contributing factor in the current obesity epidemic. Prime based obesity prevention measures such as health warnings at point-of-sale or on product packaging may have the potential to counteract the influence of the obesogenic environment at the crucial moment when people make food purchasing or consumption decisions. Existing research into the efficacy of these intervention strategies has predominantly employed self-report and population level measures, and little evidence exists to support the contention that these measures counteract food cue reactivity at the time of decision making. Using a dietary self-control priming paradigm, we demonstrated that brief exposure to food product health warnings enhanced dietary self-control. Further, we analysed electroencephalographic correlates of selective attention and food cue evoked craving (N1, P3, LPP) to show that health warning exposure reduced the automatic appetitive response towards palatable food cues. These findings contribute to existing evidence that exogenous information can successfully prime latent goals, and substantiate the notion that food product health warnings may provide a new avenue through which to curb excessive energy intake and reduce rising obesity rates.

  15. [The right to food in obesogenic environments: Reflections on the role of health professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaggio, Laura Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Faced with the current obesity epidemic, this article problematizes the way the right to food is often circumscribed to situations of nutritional deficit. It is argued that the right to adequate food is violated in obesogenic environments and that protection of the right requires the establishment of measures to regulate advertising and marketing practices regarding ultra-processed products. The work suggests that the main barriers to the implementation of such measures are the strategies employed by Big Food; among these, strategies that have the scientific community as a target and/or means are highlighted. Certain basic underlying assumptions are identified in the discourse of health professionals that contribute to create a framework of legitimacy regarding the consumption of ultra-processed products. The adoption of an ethical position that is free of conflicts of interest is suggested, so as to advocate for needed regulatory measures of a statutory nature.

  16. Ensuring safe food: from production to consumption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine Staff; National Research Council Staff; National Academy of Sciences; Institute of Medicine; National Research Council

    .... Recent actions taken at the federal, state, and local levels in response to the increase in reported incidences of food borne illnesses point to the need to evaluate the food safety system in the United States...

  17. Guiding Principles And A Decision-Making Framework For Stakeholders Pursuing Healthy Food Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, Vivica I; Story, Mary

    2015-11-01

    To address obesity and diet-related chronic diseases in the United States, organizations such as the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Institute of Medicine have encouraged the use of voluntary engagement strategies among stakeholders. By using public-private partnerships as well as networks, alliances, and coalitions, voluntary engagement can translate evidence-informed dietary recommendations into effective policies and actions and into innovative products and services. We offer six guiding principles and a decision-making framework that stakeholders can use to ensure that partnerships are accountable and effective in their pursuit of health-related goals. We apply the principles and framework to four national partnerships of US food, beverage, and food retail industry stakeholders working to prevent child obesity and to promote healthy food environments through product reformulation and healthy food retail incentives. We conclude that partnerships should be evaluated for their synergy, accountability, and effectiveness at achieving the partners' objectives. Independent evaluations will help build credibility and public trust in the capacity of voluntary engagement strategies to promote healthy food environments and positively influence public health. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  18. Relevance of microbial finished product testing in food safety management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwietering, M.H.; Jacxsens, L.; Membre, J.M.; Nauta, M.; Peterz, M.

    2016-01-01

    Management of microbiological food safety is largely based on good design of processes, products and procedures. Finished product testing may be considered as a control measure at the end of the production process. However, testing gives only very limited information on the safety status of a food.

  19. [Role of environment in complex diseases: air pollution and food contaminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, A J; Giet, D

    2012-01-01

    Our polluted environment exposes human beings, along their life, to various toxic compounds that could trigger and aggravate different complex diseases. Such a phenomenon is well recognized for cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases and cancers, but other chronic inflammatory disorders may also been implicated. The most common factors, but also the most toxic, and thereby the most extensively investigated, are air pollutants (both indoor and outdoor pollution) and various contaminants present in drinking water and food (organic compounds, chemical products, heavy metals, ...). The complex interrelationships between food and pollutants, on the one hand, and between gene and environmental pollutants, including the influence of epigenetics, on the other hand, deserve further careful studies.

  20. Halal Food : Thai Halal Food Products and International Market

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Noaman; Wanwang, Alisa

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to examine salient issues in the Halal food business with special focus on entering Thai Halal food products into international market. Market screening plays an important role in entering new market or setting up the business in the foreign country. In this paper we have analyzed the importance of Halal Food for the Muslims and explained the growth of Halal food in French markets. The study focuses attention on the identification of key areas in Halal food export and channel ...

  1. Top of the food chain: Product services in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Andrew M.; Simon, Matthew

    2001-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the environmental impact of the food industry supply chain and explore the potential for new product-service systems in the food sector, which has not been subject to a great deal of eco-design research. Data from a cross-sector analysis of UK industry, concentrating on the sectors representing the food industry supply chain, is utilised. These sectors are agriculture, food processing, retailing, food services, and kitchen equipment. The analysis combines economic ...

  2. Ethical aspects of insect production for food and feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Gamborg, Christian; Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2016-01-01

    also entails ethical issues – both regarding the impact on human health, the environment and climate change and regarding production methods such as intensification and biotechnology. The aim of the paper is to give a systematic overview of ethical aspects embedded in the notion of utilising insects...... as protein providers in the Western food and feed production chains. We identify five areas where ethical questions are especially pertinent: environmental impact, human and animal health, human preferences and social acceptability, animal welfare and finally broader animal ethics issues. Especially...... the latter two are more scantly dealt with in the literature. This part of the review will therefore contain suggestions for ethical issues that should be examined closer....

  3. Maillard reaction products in pet foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van C.

    2015-01-01

    Pet dogs and cats around the world are commonly fed processed commercial foods throughout their lives. Often heat treatments are used during the processing of these foods to improve nutrient digestibility, shelf life, and food safety. Processing is known to induce the Maillard reaction, in which a

  4. Maillard reaction products in pet foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van C.

    2015-01-01

    Pet dogs and cats around the world are commonly fed processed commercial foods throughout their lives. Often heat treatments are used during the processing of these foods to improve nutrient digestibility, shelf life, and food safety. Processing is known to induce the Maillard reaction, in which

  5. Measuring the food environment: shelf space of fruits, vegetables, and snack foods in stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Thomas A; Rice, Janet; Bodor, J Nicholas; Cohen, Deborah A; Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Rose, Donald

    2009-09-01

    Dietary patterns may be influenced by the availability and accessibility within stores of different types of foods. However, little is known about the amount of shelf space used for healthy and unhealthy foods in different types of stores. We conducted measurements of the length of shelf space used for fruits, vegetables, and snack foods items in 419 stores in 217 urban census tracts in southern Louisiana and in Los Angeles County. Although supermarkets offered far more shelf space of fruits and vegetables than did other types of stores, they also devoted more shelf space to unhealthy snacks (mean 205 m for all of these items combined) than to fruits and vegetables (mean 117 m, p snack items was the lowest (0.10 or below) and very similar in convenience stores, drug stores, and liquor stores, was in a middle range (0.18 to 0.30) in small food stores, and was highest in medium-sized food stores (0.40 to 0.61) and supermarkets (0.55 to 0.72). Simple measurements of shelf space can be used by researchers to characterize the healthfulness of the food environment and by policymakers to establish criteria for favorable policy treatment of stores.

  6. The neighborhood food environment: sources of historical data on retail food stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Alma A

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the rapidly increasing prevalence of obesity in the United States, and the minimal success of education-based interventions, there is growing interest in understanding the role of the neighborhood food environment in determining dietary behavior. This study, as part of a larger study, identifies historical data on retail food stores, evaluates strengths and limitations of the data for research, and assesses the comparability of historical retail food store data from a government and a commercial source. Five government and commercial listings of retail food stores were identified. The California State Board of Equalization (SBOE database was selected and then compared to telephone business directory listings. The Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to assess the congruency of food store counts per census tract between the SBOE and telephone business directory databases. The setting was four cities in Northern California, 1979–1990. The SBOE and telephone business directory databases listed 127 and 351 retail food stores, respectively. The SBOE listed 36 stores not listed by the telephone business directories, while the telephone business directories listed 260 stores not listed by the SBOE. Spearman's correlation coefficients between estimates of stores per census tract made from the SBOE listings and those made from the telephone business directory listings were approximately 0.5 (p

  7. Food Melt in Consumer Food Environments in Low-income Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapl, Erika S; Pike, Stephanie N; Borawski, Elaine; Flocke, Susan A; Freedman, Darcy A; Walsh, Colleen C; Schneider, Christine; Yoder, Laura

    2017-11-01

    We systematically evaluated changes in availability, price, and quality of perishable food items from the beginning to the end of the month in lowincome, urban neighborhoods. The sample included grocery stores or supermarkets in Cleveland, Ohio, within neighborhoods with >30% of population receiving food assistance. We collected data for 2 sequential months during the first and fourth weeks of each month. Two coders evaluated stores, collecting measures of availability, price, and quality for 50 items. We examined difference in number and proportion of items available at the beginning of the month (BOM) to items remaining available at the end of the month (EOM), as well as quality and price of those items. Across 48 stores, availability at EOM was lower than BOM; as store size increased, reduction in availability (ie, food melt) was significantly (p Food melt differentially affects individuals in neighborhoods without grocery stores. Findings reveal composition of food environments is dynamic rather than static, influencing food-purchasing choices among lowincome consumers.

  8. Safety aspects of the production of foods and food ingredients from insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Oliver; Rumpold, Birgit; Holzhauser, Thomas; Roth, Angelika; Vogel, Rudi F; Quasigroch, Walter; Vogel, Stephanie; Heinz, Volker; Jäger, Henry; Bandick, Nils; Kulling, Sabine; Knorr, Dietrich; Steinberg, Pablo; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2017-06-01

    At present, insects are rarely used by the European food industry, but they are a subject of growing interest as an alternative source of raw materials. The risks associated with the use of insects in the production of foods and food ingredients have not been sufficiently investigated. There is a lack of scientifically based knowledge of insect processing to ensure food safety, especially when these processes are carried out on an industrial scale. This review focuses on the safety aspects that need to be considered regarding the fractionation of insects for the production of foods and food ingredients. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Flexibility Study of a Liquid Food Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Applying process engineering simulation method to model the processing of liquid food can provide a way to build a flexible food factory that can efficiently offer a wide range of tailored products in short delivery time. A milk production process, as an example, is simulated using a process...... engineering software to investigate the process operation conditions and flexibility. The established simulation method can be adapted to simulate similar liquid food production processes through suitable modifications....

  10. Food environments in university dorms: 20,000 calories per dorm room and counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Melissa C; Story, Mary

    2009-06-01

    Few young adults meet national dietary recommendations. Although home food availability likely has important influences on dietary intake, little research has examined this issue among young adults. The objective of this research was to conduct a detailed, observational assessment of food and beverages available in college-student dormitory rooms. Dormitory-residing students (n=100) were recruited from a large, public university. Research staff completed a detailed inventory of food and beverages in the dorm rooms, including nutrient contents and purchasing sources. Data were collected and analyzed in 2008. The mean number of food and beverage items per participant was 47 (range: 0-208), with 4% of participants not having any food or beverages. More than 70% of students had each of the following types of items: salty snacks, cereal or granola bars, main dishes, desserts or candy, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Fewer students had low-calorie beverages, fruits and vegetables, dairy products, tea/coffee, and 100% fruit/vegetable juice. The average number of calories per dorm room was 22,888. Items purchased by parents had a higher calorie and fat content than items purchased by students. Findings indicate that students maintain a wide array of food and beverages in their dormitory rooms. Parents purchased a substantial amount of food for their children's dormitory rooms, and these food items were less healthful than the food that students purchased. The foods observed in college students' living spaces may have an important impact on eating habits. Overall, young adult-oriented obesity prevention efforts are needed, and improving the various facets of campus food environments may mark an important component of such strategies.

  11. Investigations of Methane Production in Hypersaline Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, Brad M.

    2015-01-01

    The recent reports of methane in the atmosphere of Mars, as well as the findings of hypersaline paleo-environments on that planet, have underscored the need to evaluate the importance of biological (as opposed to geological) trace gas production and consumption. Methane in the atmosphere of Mars may be an indication of life but might also be a consequence of geologic activity and/or the thermal alteration of ancient organic matter. Hypersaline environments have now been reported to be extremely likely in several locations in our solar system, including: Mars, Europa, and Enceladus. Modern hypersaline microbial mat communities, (thought to be analogous to those present on the early Earth at a period of time when Mars was experiencing very similar environmental conditions), have been shown to produce methane. However, very little is known about the physical and/or biological controls imposed upon the rates at which methane, and other important trace gases, are produced and consumed in these environments. We describe here the results of our investigations of methane production in hypersaline environments, including field sites in Chile, Baja California Mexico, California, USA and the United Arab Emirates. We have measured high concentrations of methane in bubbles of gas produced both in the sediments underlying microbial mats, as well as in areas not colonized by microbial mats in the Guerrero Negro hypersaline ecosystem, Baja California Mexico, in Chile, and in salt ponds on the San Francisco Bay. The carbon isotopic (d13C) composition of the methane in the bubbles exhibited an extremely wide range of values, (ca. -75 per mille ca. -25 per mille). The hydrogen isotopic composition of the methane (d2H) ranged from -60 to -30per mille and -450 to -350per mille. These isotopic values are outside of the range of values normally considered to be biogenic, however incubations of the sediments in contact with these gas bubbles reveals that the methane is indeed being

  12. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    OpenAIRE

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Nalty, Courtney C; Xu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supe...

  13. Utilization of agricultural by-products in healthful food products: Organogelators, antioxidants, and spreadable products

    Science.gov (United States)

    It was found that several agricultural by-products could be utilized for healthful food products. Three major applications that our research group has been focusing on will be discussed: 1) plant waxes for trans-fat free, low saturated fat-containing margarine and spread products, 2) extracts of cor...

  14. [Problems and outlook for animal production in the aquatic environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, S

    1996-11-01

    The major source of aquatic animal production is based on fisheries. Currently, a significant portion of the fishery resources is used for non-food purposes. One of the first steps towards rational exploitation of the natural fishery resources should be to limit such abuse and address the needs of an increasing global population. The challenge for the fishery industry is to develop methods for early and reliable prediction of stock availability and fluctuations in order to maintain a sustainable supply. With the continuing decline in fishery resources, aquaculture is slowly becoming an interesting alternative for the supply of animal protein of high nutritional value. Aquaculture, like any other human activity can have adverse effects on the environment. In this context, the semi-intensive farming systems prevailing in the tropical areas should be encouraged, substantiating them with scientific knowledge on the nutrient flow in such confined ecosystems. In some instances of intensive culture systems, progress has been made in aquaculture waste management by applying adequate nutritional strategies. Such an approach should be extended to other cultured species. Be it production for profit or production for food, sustainable aquatic animal production is intimately connected with all human activities, in as much as all these activities invariably have an effect on water quality. Hence, greater consideration is needed towards a general strategy of protecting the aquatic ecosystem at all levels.

  15. Climate change and food security

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, P.J; Ingram, J.S.I; Brklacich, M

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are...

  16. Using geospatial technologies to explore activity-based retail food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, W Jay

    2012-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated relationships between neighborhood-level retail food environments and obesity, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Most, however, have been limited by the use of residential neighborhoods to define food environments. This study recruited 121 participants to supply three days of Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking data to explore daily activity spaces and food environments. Participants also answered two surveys regarding personal characteristics, and diet and food purchasing. Several food environment measures were calculated for food locations within a half-mile of their GPS tracks. Non-parametric statistics examined (1) differences between activity- and neighborhood-based food environments, (2) associations between personal characteristics and activity-based food environments, and (3) associations between diet, purchasing, and activity-based food environments. Activity- and neighborhood-based food environments were significantly different. Several associations were observed among activity-based food environment measures and personal characteristics. Dietary intake, food purchasing, and obesity were associated with some activity-based food environment measures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of aflatoxin B1 in food products in Thailand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxin B1 is generally found in feed and food stuff, such as cereal and all products derived from cereals, including processed cereals since it has been proven to be at least partly resistant to food processing methods. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the possibility of contamination of aflatoxin B1 in food ...

  18. Consumer attitudes to food quality products : emphasis on Southern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klopcic, M.; Kuipers, A.; Hocquette, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Quality foods, such as traditional, EU certified, organic and health claimed are part of a growing trend towards added value in the agri-food sector. In these foods, elements of production, processing, marketing, agro-tourism and speciality stores are combined. Paramount above all is the link to the

  19. Chemical education: A catalyst in food production (a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For any nation to command respect among the comity of nations, it has to be sufficient in terms of food production (to provide enough food for her citizens) and not depending on aids from other nations. To meet the food challenges of today, technological advancement via science education acquisition is necessary.

  20. Exergetic comparison of food waste valorization in industrial bread production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisopoulos, F.K.; Moejes, S.N.; Rossier Miranda, F.J.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the thermodynamic performance of three industrial bread production chains: one that generates food waste, one that avoids food waste generation, and one that reworks food waste to produce new bread. The chemical exergy flows were found to be much larger than the physical exergy

  1. Scale Up of Homestead Food Production for Improved Nutrition in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Household food insecurity, seasonal food shortages, and nutritional deficiencies among women and children are prevalent in Cambodia. This project will refine proven innovations in homestead food production and will test cost-sharing, financial, and social impact models at scale to improve nutrition, income, and gender ...

  2. Perceived Effect of Climate Variation on Food Crop Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study objective is to determine the perception of food crop farmers in Oyo state to climate variation as it affects their production, because the relationship between climate variation and food security is direct and Oyo State has enormous potentials to make Nigeria food secure. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to ...

  3. Food security and productivity among urban farmers in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study to investigated food security and productivity among urban farmers' in Kaduna State Two-stage sampling procedure was used to select 213 respondents for the study. Interview schedule was used to collect data. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics (food security index, food insecurity/ surplus gap index ...

  4. CHEMICAL EDUCATION: A CATALYST IN FOOD PRODUCTION (A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. For any nation to command respect among the comity of nations, it has to be sufficient in terms of food production (to provide enough food for her citizens) and not depending on aids from other nations. To meet the food challenges of today, technological advancement via science education acquisition is ...

  5. Agricultural Production, Food and Nutrition Security in Rural Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although agriculture is the major economic activity in Nigerian rural areas, its inhabitants are among the most vulnerable to food and nutrition insecurity. Therefore, any effort aimed at minimizing food and nutrition insecurity must start from rural areas. This study examines agricultural production, food and nutrition security in ...

  6. IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY ON ENVIRONMENT AND FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Jošt

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of modern biotechnology in agricultural production processes has generated new ethical, economic, social and environmental dilemmas confronting scientists all over the world. While current knowledge is insufficient for assessing the promised benefits and possible risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs, the principle of “substantial equivalence” in comparing GM and conventional food is profoundly flawed and scientifically insupportable. The current generation of GMOs provide small benefits except corporate profit and marginally improved grower returns. The TRIPS agreement has allowed worldwide patenting of genes and microorganisms, as well as genetically engineered organisms. Granting patents on life encourages biopiracy and the theft of genetic resources belonging to the local community. At the same time, the patented products are sold at relatively high prices to developing countries – the same countries from which the product originated.

  7. Food environments select microorganisms based on selfish energetic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego eMora

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient richness, and specifically the abundance of mono- and disaccharides that characterize several food matrixes, such as milk and grape juice, has allowed the speciation of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts with a high fermentation capacity instead of energetically favorable respiratory metabolism. In these environmental contexts, rapid sugar consumption and lactic acid or ethanol production, accumulation and tolerance, together with the ability to propagate in the absence of oxygen, are several of the ‘winning’ traits that have apparently evolved and become specialized to perfection in these fermenting microorganisms. Here, we summarize and discuss the evolutionary context that has driven energetic metabolism in food-associated microorganisms, using the dairy species Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus among prokaryotes and the bakers’ yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae among eukaryotes as model organisms.

  8. Healthy food access for urban food desert residents: examination of the food environment, food purchasing practices, diet and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Zenk, Shannon N; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Cohen, Deborah A; Beckman, Robin; Hunter, Gerald; Steiner, Elizabeth D; Collins, Rebecca L

    2015-08-01

    To provide a richer understanding of food access and purchasing practices among US urban food desert residents and their association with diet and BMI. Data on food purchasing practices, dietary intake, height and weight from the primary food shopper in randomly selected households (n 1372) were collected. Audits of all neighbourhood food stores (n 24) and the most-frequented stores outside the neighbourhood (n 16) were conducted. Aspects of food access and purchasing practices and relationships among them were examined and tests of their associations with dietary quality and BMI were conducted. Two low-income, predominantly African-American neighbourhoods with limited access to healthy food in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Household food shoppers. Only one neighbourhood outlet sold fresh produce; nearly all respondents did major food shopping outside the neighbourhood. Although the nearest full-service supermarket was an average of 2·6 km from their home, respondents shopped an average of 6·0 km from home. The average trip was by car, took approximately 2 h for the round trip, and occurred two to four times per month. Respondents spent approximately $US 37 per person per week on food. Those who made longer trips had access to cars, shopped less often and spent less money per person. Those who travelled further when they shopped had higher BMI, but most residents already shopped where healthy foods were available, and physical distance from full-service supermarkets was unrelated to weight or dietary quality. Improved access to healthy foods is the target of current policies meant to improve health. However, distance to the closest supermarket might not be as important as previously thought, and thus policy and interventions that focus merely on improving access may not be effective.

  9. An Environment for Managing Evolving Product Line Architectures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garg, Akash; Critchlow, Matt; Chen, Ping; Van der Westhuizen, Christopher; Van der Hoek, Andre

    2003-01-01

    ... environments for managing the evolution of a product line architecture are still lacking. In this paper, the authors present Menage, an environment specifically designed to alleviate this problem...

  10. CONCERN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR IN THE SPHERE OF FOOD AND NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Żakowska-Biemans

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Care for the environment is driving global developments in the fi eld of food and nutrition, which apply equally to consumption, production and distribution of food. To get insights into changes in consumer behaviour towards food implied by the concern for the environment, quantitative research was carried out on a representative sample of 1000 Polish consumers. The questionnaire contained, among others, variables describing various dimensions of food related lifestyle and willingness to pro-environmental changes in the sphere of food consumption. The data obtained was analysed using cluster analysis and dividing consumers into four segments with different inclinations to engage in behaviour in line with the concept of sustainable consumption. Concern for the environment was most strongly emphasized in the segment of “modern” consumers. Consumers representing this segment were distinguished by attention to environmental issues and at the same time they were willing to pay more for food products with outstanding quality attributes. They attached great importance to the brand when making food purchasing decision. Moreover, they declared more often to buy organic food, and at the same time refrain from ready meals and pre-prepared meal components. The slightest concern for the environment was observed in the segment of “uninvolved” taste-oriented consumers who are interested in new products but less in issues related to food and nutrition. The results of the research highlight the relationship between lifestyle, food choices, and concern for the environment, which can be used in the creation of marketing communication strategy to stimulate sustainable consumption.

  11. Association between school food environment and practices and body mass index of US public school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mary Kay; Dodd, Allison Hedley; Wilson, Ander; Gleason, Philip M

    2009-02-01

    With the ongoing interest in implementing school policies to address the problem of childhood obesity, there is a need for information about the relationships between school food environments and practices and children's weight status. To examine the association between school food environments and practices and children's body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)). The study used data from the third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study, a cross-sectional study that included a national sample of public school districts, schools, and children in the 2004-2005 school year. Data on school food environments and practices were collected through on-site observations and interviews with school principals, and children were weighed and measured by trained data collectors. The study included 287 schools and 2,228 children in grades 1 through 12. Ordinary least squares regression was used to estimate the associations between school food environments and practices and BMI z scores and logistic regression was used to estimate associations between school food environments and practices and the likelihood of obesity (defined as BMI-for-age >or=95th percentile). Models included controls for sociodemographic characteristics of schools and children, to control for potential endogeneity of school environments and practices, as well as controls for children's dietary and physical activity behaviors outside of school. Among elementary school children, offering french fries and similar potato products in subsidized school meals more than once per week and offering dessert more than once per week were each associated with a significantly higher likelihood of obesity. Among middle school children, the availability of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods in vending machines in or near the foodservice area was associated with a higher BMI z score, and the availability of such foods for à la carte purchase in the cafeteria was associated with a lower BMI z score. Findings from this

  12. Interdependence of Agricultural Production and Environment and the Road to Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curić Jasmina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of agricultural production in the world is in serious crisis. Interdependence of agricultural production and the environment is multiple and causality works both ways. On one hand, there are environmental changes which hamper food production, and on the other, the agricultural production, as it is, is severely damaging the environment. The very systems of agricultural production jeopardize future production. The goal of this paper is to explore causes of limitations of sustainable agricultural development in the world, where the authors emphasize the following: gas emissions with greenhouse effect, a disturbed cycle of nitrogen circulation and destruction of biodiversity.

  13. Climate Change, Agricultural Production and Food Security: Evidence from Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Breisinger; Olivier Ecker; Perrihan Al-Riffai; Richard Robertson; Rainer Thiele

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a model-based assessment of local and global climate change impacts for the case of Yemen, focusing on agricultural production, household incomes and food security. Global climate change is mainly transmitted through rising world food prices. Our simulation results suggest that climate change induced price increases for food will raise agricultural GDP while decreasing real household incomes and food security. Rural nonfarm households are hit hardest as they tend to be net...

  14. Isotope methods for the control of food products and beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillou, C.; Reniero, F.

    2001-01-01

    The measurement of the stable isotope contents provides useful information for the detection of many frauds in food products. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and isotopic ratio mass spectroscopy (IRMS) are the two main analytical techniques used for the determination of stable isotope contents in food products. These analytical techniques have been considerably improved in the last years offering wider possibilities of applications for food analysis. A review of the applications for the control of food products and beverages is presented. The need for new reference materials is discussed. (author)

  15. Food product prices and its implications for food security in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the prices of food products and its implications for food security in Nigeria. Data was obtained from Federal Office of Statistics and was analyzed using histogram and and price index number (Laspyres index). The study show that food price inflation is caused by frequent hike in the prices of petroleum ...

  16. 'Boko Haram is Losing, But so is Food Production': Conflict and Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    try to contain the insurgents, a bigger problem has been created or further .... The emphasis here is on access to sufficient food for a healthy and productive life that is free from hunger and the fear of starvation. People without physical, social and ... The mere availability of food does not guarantee food security except when.

  17. Green perspective in food industry production line design: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, C. Y.; Sin, T. C.; Liyana, M. R. N.; Awang, A.; Fathullah, M.

    2017-09-01

    The design of green manufacturing process in food industries is currently a hot research topic in the multidisciplinary area of applied chemistry, biology and technology. Several process such as freezing, cutting, drying, tempering, bleaching, sterilization, extraction and filtering have been applied efficiency in the food industry. Due to the rapid development of food and peripheral technology, the use of new physical processing or auxiliary processing methods can maintain food inherent nutrients, texture, color, and freshness and also reduce environmental pollution and energy consumption in food processing. Hence, this review paper will study and summarize the effects of green manufacturing process in food industries in term of waste reduction, materials and sustainability manufacturing. In any case, All the food processing equipment must comply with strict standards and regulation, this action will ensure the securing the food quality and safety of food products to consumers.

  18. Monitoring the impact of trade agreements on national food environments: trade imports and population nutrition risks in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravuvu, Amerita; Friel, Sharon; Thow, Anne-Marie; Snowdon, Wendy; Wate, Jillian

    2017-06-13

    Trade agreements are increasingly recognised as playing an influential role in shaping national food environments and the availability and nutritional quality of the food supply. Global monitoring of food environments and trade policies can strengthen the evidence base for the impact of trade policy on nutrition, and support improved policy coherence. Using the INFORMAS trade monitoring protocol, we reviewed available food supply data to understand associations between Fiji's commitments under WTO trade agreements and food import volume trends. First, a desk review was conducted to map and record in one place Fiji's commitments to relevant existing trade agreements that have implications for Fiji's national food environment under the domains of the INFORMAS trade monitoring protocol. An excel database was developed to document the agreements and their provisions. The second aspect of the research focused on data extraction. We began with identifying food import volumes into Fiji by country of origin, with a particular focus on a select number of 'healthy and unhealthy' foods. We also developed a detailed listing of transnational food corporations currently operating in Fiji. The study suggests that Fiji's WTO membership, in conjunction with associated economic and agricultural policy changes have contributed to increased availability of both healthy and less healthy imported foods. In systematically monitoring the import volume trends of these two categories of food, the study highlights an increase in healthy foods such as fresh fruits and vegetables and whole-grain refined cereals. The study also shows that there has been an increase in less healthy foods including fats and oils; meat; processed dairy products; energy-dense beverages; and processed and packaged foods. By monitoring the trends of imported foods at country level from the perspective of trade agreements, we are able to develop appropriate and targeted interventions to improve diets and health. This

  19. Health impact of nanotechnologies in food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, H.; Dekkers, S.; Noordam, M.Y.; Hagens, W.; Bulder, A.S.; Heer, de P.M.; Voorde, ten S.E.C.G.; Wijnhoven, S.; Sips, A.

    2007-01-01

    This report gives an overview and an advice for priority of scientific issues that need to be addressed in order to improve the process of risk assessment for nanoparticles in food and in order to gain insight in dossier requirements for nanoparticles in food.

  20. Exploring water and food security: the water footprint of domestic food production in the Gaza Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recanati, Francesca; Castelletti, Andrea; Dotelli, Giovanni; Melià, Paco

    2016-04-01

    Water scarcity and food security are major issues in the Gaza Strip. This area is characterized by one of the highest densities in the world and it is affected by both severe scarcity of water resources and limited trading possibilities.Given this context, the enhancement of domestic food production is considered a fundamental strategy in achieving food security in the area. For this reason, rural people play a crucial role in implementing sustainable strategies for enhancing the domestic food production while preserving water resources. In order to investigate the effectiveness of existing agricultural scenarios in achieving food security in a sustainable manner, we propose a framework to assess food production systems in terms of their contribution to the nutritional and economic conditions of rural households and their impact on water resources. In particular, the latter has been carried out through the water footprint indicator proposed by the Water Footprint Network. The case study analyzed is a sample farm located in the Gaza Strip, whose food production is based on horticulture, animal husbandry and aquaculture. The study is articulated into two main parts: first, we compare alternative scenarios of vegetal and animal food production in terms of food supply, water consumption and economic income at the household scale; then, we extend the analysis to evaluate the potential contribution of domestic food production to the food security in the whole Gaza Strip, focusing on the nutritional dimension, and providing a preliminary assessment of the environmental and economic sustainability. In particular, we evaluate water appropriation for domestic food production and compare it with the availability of water resources in the region. The outcomes highlight that the domestic food production can potentially satisfy both a basic diet and economic income for rural household, but the related appropriation of freshwater results unsustainable with respect to the fresh

  1. Predicting women purchase intention for green food products in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sudiyanti, Sudiyanti

    2009-01-01

    Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2009 This study investigated the applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior in predicting women consumers on their intention towards purchasing green food products among 406 participants. Using linear regression, five independent variables had been examined: attitude towards green food products, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and perceived difficulty in predicting purchase intention. The ...

  2. Benefits of nitrogen for food, fibre and industrial production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoumann Jensen, L.; Schjoerring, J.K.; Hoek, K.W. van der; Damgaard Poulsen, H.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Pallière, C.; Lammel, J.; Brentrup, F.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Willems, J.; Grinsven, H. van

    2011-01-01

    Nature of the issue • Reactive nitrogen (N r ) has well-documented positive eff ects in agricultural and industrial production systems, human nutrition and food security. Limited N r supply was a key constraint to European food and industrial production, which has been overcome by Nr from the

  3. Climate variability and sustainable food production: Insights from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The past two decades have seen invigorated debates on the causal link between climate variability and food crop production. This study[1] extends the debate further by investigating how climate variability has affected the production of four specific food crops: maize, millet, rice, and groundnuts in north-eastern Ghana.

  4. Presence and risks of nanosilica in food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, S.; Krystek, P.W.; Peters, R.J.B.; Lankveld, D.P.K.; Bokkers, B.G.H.; Hoeven-Arentzen, van P.H.; Bouwmeester, H.; Oomen, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    This study uniquely describes all steps of the risk assessment process for the use of one specific nanomaterial (nanosilica) in food products. The aim was to identify gaps in essential knowledge and the difficulties and uncertainties associated with each of these steps. Several food products with

  5. Swedish Consumers’ Perception of Food Quality and Sustainability in Relation to Organic Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Techane Bosona

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumers’ demand for locally produced and organic foods has increased in Sweden. This paper presents the results obtained from the analysis of data acquired from 100 consumers in Sweden who participated in an online survey during March to June 2016. The objective was to identify consumers’ demand in relation to organic food and sustainable food production, and to understand how the consumers evaluate food quality and make buying decisions. Qualitative descriptions, descriptive statistics and Pearson’s Chi-square test (with alpha value of p < 0.05 as level of significance, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used for analysis. About 72% of participants have the perception that organic food production method is more sustainable than conventional methods. Female consumers have more positive attitudes than men towards organic food. However, age difference, household size and income level do not significantly influence the consumers’ perception of sustainable food production concepts. Regionality, sustainable methods of production and organic production are the most important parameters to characterize the food as high quality and make buying decisions. On the other hand, product uniformity, appearance, and price were found to be relatively less important parameters. Food buying decisions and food quality were found to be highly related with Pearson’s correlation coefficient of r = 0.99.

  6. Swedish Consumers' Perception of Food Quality and Sustainability in Relation to Organic Food Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosona, Techane; Gebresenbet, Girma

    2018-04-01

    Consumers' demand for locally produced and organic foods has increased in Sweden. This paper presents the results obtained from the analysis of data acquired from 100 consumers in Sweden who participated in an online survey during March to June 2016. The objective was to identify consumers' demand in relation to organic food and sustainable food production, and to understand how the consumers evaluate food quality and make buying decisions. Qualitative descriptions, descriptive statistics and Pearson's Chi-square test (with alpha value of p organic food production method is more sustainable than conventional methods. Female consumers have more positive attitudes than men towards organic food. However, age difference, household size and income level do not significantly influence the consumers' perception of sustainable food production concepts. Regionality, sustainable methods of production and organic production are the most important parameters to characterize the food as high quality and make buying decisions. On the other hand, product uniformity, appearance, and price were found to be relatively less important parameters. Food buying decisions and food quality were found to be highly related with Pearson's correlation coefficient of r = 0.99.

  7. The significance and possibility of functional food production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević-Branković Suzana I.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abundant knowledge of the significance of food quality for all human living functions as well as growing human population and the occurrence of world "hidden hunger", directed food producers toward new production processes of and new product development that must satisfy the specific needs of different categories of consumers. The differences are reflected in sex age, religious affiliation, activity, health, social status etc. "Organic", "natural, minimal processing, functional (and often called "therapeutical" food nowadays represents the key interest of nutritionists, physicians and food producers. Such food should have a beneficial influence on human health, besides satisfying the nutritive and energetic necessities, by protective, prophylactic and healing performance. This paper discusses facts about the influence of food on human health, problems of malnutrition in developing and developed countries, presents states of food production in the world and in Yugoslavia, legislation and regulations on nourishment and food production, the disadvantages of former concepts of development of this production and possible directions of future trends with a particular review on functional food production.

  8. Radiotracer studies on the fate and transformation of pesticide residues in the environment and food chains. Part of a coordinated programme on isotopic-tracer-aided studies of chemical residues in cotton seed, feed, oil and related products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.R.

    1980-10-01

    The magnitude and fate of some pesticide chemicals in Korean foods were studied with particular reference to oil-bearing crops and related products. Application of the chemicals was made under conditions of actual agricultural practice. Analytical methodologies included nuclear activation, gas chromatographic, spectrophotometric and radiotracer techniques. Residues of benzene hexachloride, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and DDT found in refined vegetable oil samples were below or within the tolerance limits set by international organizations and as such, these are unlikely to present any toxicological hazard to the consumer. Also, residues of the herbicides nitrogen, alachlor and butachlor applied to oil-bearing crops were not detected in the seeds. Studies on 14 C-BHC residues in rice revealed that polishing and washing play an important role in removing a considerable portion of the residue. Data on the arsenic-containing neoasozine residues suggest that the products consumed by the human (grain and oil) contained residues below the tolerance limit and are unlikely to present any toxicological hazard to the consumer. On the other hand, relatively high arsenic concentrations (2.2 mg/kg) were found in the cake (serving as animal feed) and should be carefully evaluated in the light of toxicological data

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from food and food processing environment in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsak, Dorota; Borek, Anna; Daniluk, Sylwia; Grabowska, Anna; Pappelbaum, Krystyna

    2012-09-03

    A total of 471 Listeria monocytogenes isolates from different types of food and food-related sources in Poland during 2004-2010 were examined. This number includes 200 isolates from fish, 144 from fresh and frozen vegetables, 43 ready-to-eat products (deli foods, cold cuts), 13 from dairy products, 16 from raw meats, 15 from confectionery products and 40 directly from processing plants. All isolates were subjected to serotyping and lineage assays using PCR, and antimicrobial susceptibility using E-test and a broth microdilution method. Of all isolates, 256 (54.4%), 120 (25.5%), 59 (12.5%), 36 (7.6%) were identified as serotypes 1/2a (or 3a), 1/2c (or 3c), 1/2b (or 3b or 7), and 4b (or 4d or 4e), respectively. A direct correlation between the most common serotypes and three L. monocytogenes lineages was also observed. All L. monocytogenes isolates belonged to lineages I (20.2%) and II (79.8%). All strains were sensitive to ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamicin, erythromycin, trimethoprim, rifampicin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol and sulfamethoxazol. Two of the L. monocytogenes strains (0.42%) showed phenotypic resistance. One strain was resistant to tetracycline and minocycline due to the presence of tet(M). It did not carry gene int, which may indicate that the tet(M) gene in this strain was not integrated in the transposon Tn916-Tn1545 family. The resistance of the second strain to ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin was attributed to active efflux associated with overexpression of gene lde. Our data indicate the low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among L. monocytogenes isolates from food and food-related sources in Poland. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. POTENTIAL HAZARDS DUE TO FOOD ADDITIVES IN ORAL HYGIENE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damla TUNCER-BUDANUR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food additives used to preserve flavor or to enhance the taste and appearance of foods are also available in oral hygiene products. The aim of this review is to provide information concerning food additives in oral hygiene products and their adverse effects. A great many of food additives in oral hygiene products are potential allergens and they may lead to allergic reactions such as urticaria, contact dermatitis, rhinitis, and angioedema. Dental practitioners, as well as health care providers, must be aware of the possibility of allergic reactions due to food additives in oral hygiene products. Proper dosage levels, delivery vehicles, frequency, potential benefits, and adverse effects of oral health products should be explained completely to the patients. There is a necessity to raise the awareness among dental professionals on this subject and to develop a data gathering system for possible adverse reactions.

  11. Potential hazards due to food additives in oral hygiene products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer Budanur, Damla; Yas, Murat Cengizhan; Sepet, Elif

    2016-01-01

    Food additives used to preserve flavor or to enhance the taste and appearance of foods are also available in oral hygiene products. The aim of this review is to provide information concerning food additives in oral hygiene products and their adverse effects. A great many of food additives in oral hygiene products are potential allergens and they may lead to allergic reactions such as urticaria, contact dermatitis, rhinitis, and angioedema. Dental practitioners, as well as health care providers, must be aware of the possibility of allergic reactions due to food additives in oral hygiene products. Proper dosage levels, delivery vehicles, frequency, potential benefits, and adverse effects of oral health products should be explained completely to the patients. There is a necessity to raise the awareness among dental professionals on this subject and to develop a data gathering system for possible adverse reactions.

  12. Food production and the energy crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, D; Hurd, L E; Bellotti, A C; Forster, M J; Oka, I N; Sholes, O D; Whitman, R J

    1973-11-02

    The principal raw material of modern U.S. agriculture is fossil fuel, whereas the labor input is relatively small (about 9 hours per crop acre). As agriculture is dependent upon fossil energy, crop production costs will also soar when fuel costs increase two- to fivefold. A return of 2.8 kcal of corn per 1 kcal of fuel input may then be uneconomical. Green revolution agriculture also uses high energy crop production technology, especially with respect to fertilizers and pesticides. While one may not doubt the sincerity of the U.S. effort to share its agricultural technology so that the rest of the world can live and eat as it does, one must be realistic about the resources available to accomplish this mission. In the United States we are currently using an equivalent of 80 gallons of gasoline to produce an acre of corn. With fuel shortages and high prices to come, we wonder if many developing nations will be able to afford the technology of U.S. agriculture. Problems have already occurred with green revolution crops, particularly problems related to pests (57). More critical problems are expected when there is a world energy crisis. A careful assessment should be made of the benefits, costs, and risks of high energy-demand green revolution agriculture in order to be certain that this program will not aggravate the already serious world food situation (58). To reduce energy inputs, green revolution and U.S. agriculture might employ such alternatives as rotations and green manures to reduce the high energy demand of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. U.S. agriculture might also reduce energy expenditures by substituting some manpower currently displaced by mechanization. While no one knows for certain what changes will have to be made, we can be sure that when conventional energy resources become scarce and expensive, the impact on agriculture as an industry and a way of life will be significant. This analysis is but a preliminary investigation of a significant

  13. CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE OF FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY: WILLINGNESS TO BUY GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Ferdaus; Onyango, Benjamin M.; Adelaja, Adesoji O.; Schilling, Brian J.; Hallman, William K.

    2002-01-01

    Biotechnology is often viewed as the defining technology for the future of food and agriculture with the potential to deliver a wide range of economic and health benefits. Public acceptance of genetically modified food products is a critical factor for this emerging technology. Using data from a national survey, this study examines public acceptance of food biotechnology by modeling consumers' willingness to buy genetically modified foods. Empirical results suggest that younger, white, male a...

  14. Views of consumers and other food chain actors on organic food and its production

    OpenAIRE

    Aakkula, Jyrki; Forsman-Hugg, Sari; Jakosuo, Katri; Kottila, Marja-Riitta; Rönni, Päivi; Sarkkinen, Eliisa

    2006-01-01

    In this study we have examined what kind of views and attitudes consumers and other food chain actors have concerning organic food and its production and how these views and attitudes differ. The survey data from year 2003 consist of responses by 1 186 consumers and 333 other food chain actors. The main methods used in the analysis of survey responses were factor, cluster and discriminant analyses. With the help of these methods, consumers and other food chain actors were clustered into vario...

  15. Swedish Consumers’ Perception of Food Quality and Sustainability in Relation to Organic Food Production

    OpenAIRE

    Techane Bosona; Girma Gebresenbet

    2018-01-01

    Consumers’ demand for locally produced and organic foods has increased in Sweden. This paper presents the results obtained from the analysis of data acquired from 100 consumers in Sweden who participated in an online survey during March to June 2016. The objective was to identify consumers’ demand in relation to organic food and sustainable food production, and to understand how the consumers evaluate food quality and make buying decisions. Qualitative descriptions, descriptive statistics and...

  16. Novel Biocontrol Methods for Listeria monocytogenes Biofilms in Food Production Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Gray

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available High mortality and hospitalization rates have seen Listeria monocytogenes as a foodborne pathogen of public health importance for many years and of particular concern for high-risk population groups. Food manufactures face an ongoing challenge in preventing the entry of L. monocytogenes into food production environments (FPEs due to its ubiquitous nature. In addition to this, the capacity of L. monocytogenes strains to colonize FPEs can lead to repeated identification of L. monocytogenes in FPE surveillance. The contamination of food products requiring product recall presents large economic burden to industry and is further exacerbated by damage to the brand. Poor equipment design, facility layout, and worn or damaged equipment can result in Listeria hotspots and biofilms where traditional cleaning and disinfecting procedures may be inadequate. Novel biocontrol methods may offer FPEs effective means to help improve control of L. monocytogenes and decrease cross contamination of food. Bacteriophages have been used as a medical treatment for many years for their ability to infect and lyse specific bacteria. Endolysins, the hydrolytic enzymes of bacteriophages responsible for breaking the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria, are being explored as a biocontrol method for food preservation and in nanotechnology and medical applications. Antibacterial proteins known as bacteriocins have been used as alternatives to antibiotics for biopreservation and food product shelf life extension. Essential oils are natural antimicrobials formed by plants and have been used as food additives and preservatives for many years and more recently as a method to prevent food spoilage by microorganisms. Competitive exclusion occurs naturally among bacteria in the environment. However, intentionally selecting and applying bacteria to effect competitive exclusion of food borne pathogens has potential as a biocontrol application. This review discusses these novel biocontrol

  17. Exploring experiences of the food environment among immigrants living in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Paulina I; Dean, Jennifer; Kirkpatrick, Sharon; Berbary, Lisbeth; Scott, Steffanie

    2016-06-09

    This exploratory study aimed to shed light on the role of the food environment in shaping food access among immigrants living in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario. In this qualitative case study, in-depth interviews aided by photovoice were conducted with nine immigrants, and key informant (KI) interviews were conducted with nine community stakeholders (e.g., settlement workers, planners) who held expert knowledge of the local context with respect to both the food system and experiences of immigrants in interacting with this system. In this paper, we focus specifically on insights related to the food environment, applying the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity Framework to assess economic, physical, socio-cultural and political aspects. Economic features of the food environment, including food prices and differential costs of different types of food, emerged as factors related to food access. However, interactions with the food environment were shaped by broader economic factors, such as limited employment opportunities and low income. Most immigrants felt that they had good geographic access to food, though KIs expressed concerns about the types of outlet and food that were most accessible. Immigrants discussed social networks and cultural food practices, whereas KIs discussed political issues related to supporting food security in the Region. This exploratory case study is consistent with prior research in highlighting the economic constraints within which food access exists but suggests that there may be a need to further dissect food environments.

  18. Furan in food including homemade and ready-to-eat food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Granby, Kit; Mariotti Celis, M.

    a bit further, hence furan is relatively stable in food products. Of the food items surveyed relatively many sundried fruit and vegetable products like raisins, tomatoes, and dried bananas contained furan, for example a sample of raisins contained 83 ng/g and banana crisps 11ng/g furan. Furthermore one...... and reheating of meals. In addition the occurrence of furan in some commercially dried and browned food products were determined. Several recipes of European homemade food were prepared but in most cases fortunately furan was not found. I few exceptions were e.g. apple pie (133 ng/g furan in the rasp) and tea...

  19. Associations between the local food environment and the severity of food insecurity among new families using community food security interventions in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Elsury; Roncarolo, Federico; Potvin, Louise

    2017-04-20

    To examine the association between the local food environment and the severity of food insecurity among new families using community food security interventions in Montreal. In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed baseline data from 785 adults aged 18-65 years enrolled in the evaluation of the effects of organizations delivering community food security interventions in Montreal. The dependent variable was household food insecurity, while the independent variable was the local food environment, assessed through: location of the most frequently used grocery store, distance between the participant's residence and the community organization used, mode of transportation, walking time to the most frequently used grocery store, satisfaction with the acceptability and affordability of food available at the most frequently used grocery store, and self-reported difficulties in accessing food. We used polytomous logistic regression to estimate the association between household food insecurity and the local food environment. In all the models, we coded food security status in three categories: food security, moderate food insecurity and severe food insecurity. The last group was used as a reference group. Our data suggest that compared to households with severe food insecurity, those with moderate food insecurity (OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.28-0.62) and those with food security (OR = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.06-0.26) were less likely to report difficulties in accessing food due to food affordability. Food-secure households also had lower odds of reporting difficulties in accessing food due to transportation constraints (OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.06-0.55) compared with severe food-insecure households. Living a distance of between 1 and 2 km from the organization used was significantly correlated with moderate food insecurity (OR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.12-2.88). The local food environment is associated with severity of household food insecurity among new families using community food security

  20. Types, production and assessment of biobased food packaging materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food packaging performs an essential function, but packaging materials can have a negative impact on the environment. This book describes the latest advances in bio-based food packaging materials. Book provides a comprehensive review on bio-based, biodegradable and recycled materials and discusses t...

  1. Interspecies interactions result in enhanced biofilm formation by co-cultures of bacteria isolated from a food processing environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Henriette Lyng; Raghupathi, Prem Krishnan; Herschend, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial attachment and biofilm formation can lead to poor hygienic conditions in food processing environments. Furthermore, interactions between different bacteria may induce or promote biofilm formation. In this study, we isolated and identified a total of 687 bacterial strains from seven...... was enhanced when comparing to monospecies biofilms. Two specific isolates (one from each location) were found to be present in synergistic combinations with higher frequencies than the remaining isolates tested. This data provides insights into the ability of co-localized isolates to influence co......-culture biofilm production with high relevance for food safety and food production facilities....

  2. Energy consumption in the food chain - Comparing alternative options in food production and consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutilh, CE; Kramer, KJ

    Energy consumption in the various stages of the food chain, provides a reasonable indicator for the environmental impact in the production of food. This paper provides specific information on the energy requirement for the main alternatives in each production stage, which should allow the

  3. Application of controlled thermonuclear reactor fusion energy for food production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, M.

    1975-06-01

    Food and energy shortages in many parts of the world in the past two years raise an immediate need for the evaluation of energy input in food production. The present paper investigates systematically (1) the energy requirement for food production, and (2) the provision of controlled thermonuclear fusion energy for major energy intensive sectors of food manufacturing. Among all the items of energy input to the ''food industry,'' fertilizers, water for irrigation, food processing industries, such as beet sugar refinery and dough making and single cell protein manufacturing, have been chosen for study in detail. A controlled thermonuclear power reactor was used to provide electrical and thermal energy for all these processes. Conceptual design of the application of controlled thermonuclear power, water and air for methanol and ammonia synthesis and single cell protein production is presented. Economic analysis shows that these processes can be competitive. (auth)

  4. Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtar, R. H.; Whittaker, A.; Amar, N.; Burgess, W.

    2009-12-01

    Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program Nadia Amar, Wiella Burgess, Rabi H. Mohtar, and Dale Whitaker Purdue University Correspondence: mohtar@purdue.edu FEELS, the Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program is a grant of the National Science Foundation for the College of Agriculture at Purdue University. FEELS’ mission is to recruit, retain, and prepare high-achieving students with financial difficulties to pursue STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) careers. FEELS achieves its goals offering a scholarship of up to 10,000 per student each year, academic, research and industrial mentors, seminars, study tables, social and cultural activities, study abroad and community service projects. In year one, nine low-income, first generation and/or ethnic minority students joined the FEELS program. All 9 FEELS fellows were retained in Purdue’s College of Agriculture (100%) with 7 of 9 (77.7%) continuing to pursue STEM majors. FEELS fellows achieved an average GPA in their first year of 3.05, compared to the average GPA of 2.54 for low-income non- FEELS students in the College of Agriculture. A new cohort of 10 students joined the program in August 2009. FEELS fellows received total scholarships of nearly 50,000 for the 2008-2009 academic year. These scholarships were combined with a holistic program that included the following key elements: FEELS Freshman Seminars I and II, 2 study tables per week, integration activities and frequent meetings with FEELS academic mentors and directors. Formative assessments of all FEELS activities were used to enhance the first year curriculum for the second cohort. Cohort 1 will continue into their second year where the focus will be on undergraduate research. More on FEELS programs and activities: www.purdue.edu/feels.

  5. Mismatch between Probiotic Benefits in Trials versus Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scourboutakos, Mary J; Franco-Arellano, Beatriz; Murphy, Sarah A; Norsen, Sheida; Comelli, Elena M; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2017-04-19

    Probiotic food products contain a variety of different bacterial strains and may offer different health effects. The objective was to document the prevalence and dosage of probiotic strains in the Canadian food supply and to review the literature investigating these strains in order to understand what health benefits these products may offer. The Food Label Information Program was used to identify probiotic-containing products in the food supply. PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for randomized controlled trials that tested the health effects of these strains in humans. There were six probiotic strains/strain combinations identified in the food supply. Thirty-one studies investigated these strains and found that they are associated with decreased diarrhea and constipation, improved digestive symptoms, glycemic control, antioxidant status, blood lipids, oral health, and infant breastfeeding outcomes, as well as enhanced immunity and support for Helicobacter pylori eradication. There were a limited number of studies investigating these strains. Many studies were funded by the food industry and tested dosages that were up to twenty-five times the dosage found in most food products. Probiotic food products could have health benefits not currently reported on their labels. However, many dosages are too low to provide the benefits demonstrated in clinical trials. Further research is needed to enable more effective use of these functional foods.

  6. Swedish Consumers’ Perception of Food Quality and Sustainability in Relation to Organic Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebresenbet, Girma

    2018-01-01

    Consumers’ demand for locally produced and organic foods has increased in Sweden. This paper presents the results obtained from the analysis of data acquired from 100 consumers in Sweden who participated in an online survey during March to June 2016. The objective was to identify consumers’ demand in relation to organic food and sustainable food production, and to understand how the consumers evaluate food quality and make buying decisions. Qualitative descriptions, descriptive statistics and Pearson’s Chi-square test (with alpha value of p production method is more sustainable than conventional methods. Female consumers have more positive attitudes than men towards organic food. However, age difference, household size and income level do not significantly influence the consumers’ perception of sustainable food production concepts. Regionality, sustainable methods of production and organic production are the most important parameters to characterize the food as high quality and make buying decisions. On the other hand, product uniformity, appearance, and price were found to be relatively less important parameters. Food buying decisions and food quality were found to be highly related with Pearson’s correlation coefficient of r = 0.99. PMID:29614785

  7. Is there a robust relationship between neighbourhood food environment and childhood obesity in the USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shier, V; An, R; Sturm, R

    2012-09-01

    To examine the robustness of the relationship between neighbourhood food environment and youth body mass index (BMI) percentile using alternative measures of food environment and model specifications. Observational study using individual-level longitudinal survey data of children in fifth and eighth grades merged with food outlet data based on student residential census tracts. The relationship between food environment and BMI was examined with two individual outcomes (BMI percentile in eighth grade and change in BMI percentile from fifth to eighth grade) and three alternative measures of food environment (per-capita counts of a particular outlet type, food environment indices, and indicators for specific combinations of outlet types). No consistent evidence was found across measures (counts of a particular type of food outlet per population, food environment indices, and indicators for the presence of specific combinations of types of food stores) and outcomes to support the hypothesis that improved access to large supermarkets results in lower youth BMI; or that greater exposure to fast food restaurants, convenience stores and small food stores increases BMI. To the extent that there is an association between food environment and youth BMI, the existence of more types of food outlets in an area, including supermarkets, is associated with higher BMI. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. All rights reserved.

  8. Your health!? Transforming health perception into food product characteristics in consumer-oriented product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: food perception, health, consumer orientation, product developmentFood is part of everyday life and few things have changed more drastically in the last century than the way food is produced, processed, distributed, marketed and consumed. Food companies want to be more successful in

  9. Food environments of young people: linking individual behaviour to environmental context.

    OpenAIRE

    Tyrrell, RL; Greenhalgh, F; Hodgson, S; Wills, WJ; Mathers, JC; Adamson, AJ; Lake, AA

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify and characterize the food environments from which young people obtain food and to explore associations between the type of food environment and food intakes.Young people (n = 86, mean age 17 years; combined data of two sequential pilot studies (collected in 2008-09) and a study conducted in 2011-12) recorded in 4-day self-complete food diaries what food they consumed and where food was sourced. Nutrient, fruit and vegetable intake was calculated according to the source of...

  10. Fungal Laccases: Production, Function, and Applications in Food Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijwani, Khushal; Rigdon, Anne; Vadlani, Praveen V.

    2010-01-01

    Laccases are increasingly being used in food industry for production of cost-effective and healthy foods. To sustain this trend widespread availability of laccase and efficient production systems have to be developed. The present paper delineate the recent developments that have taken place in understanding the role of laccase action, efforts in overexpression of laccase in heterologous systems, and various cultivation techniques that have been developed to efficiently produce laccase at the industrial scale. The role of laccase in different food industries, particularly the recent developments in laccase application for food processing, is discussed. PMID:21048859

  11. Fungal Laccases: Production, Function, and Applications in Food Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushal Brijwani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Laccases are increasingly being used in food industry for production of cost-effective and healthy foods. To sustain this trend widespread availability of laccase and efficient production systems have to be developed. The present paper delineate the recent developments that have taken place in understanding the role of laccase action, efforts in overexpression of laccase in heterologous systems, and various cultivation techniques that have been developed to efficiently produce laccase at the industrial scale. The role of laccase in different food industries, particularly the recent developments in laccase application for food processing, is discussed.

  12. Non-dairy Probiotic Food Products: An Emerging Group of Functional Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Min; Bunt, Craig R; Mason, Susan L; Hussain, Malik A

    2018-04-09

    The functional food sector has shown tremendous growth in recent years with the application of probiotic bacteria as "food additives". The utilization of probiotic bacteria in food presents many challenges related to their growth, survival, viability, stability and functionality in food processing, storage and consumption as well as changes of sensory characteristics of probiotic foods. Although dairy foods are currently the most common food carrier to deliver probiotics, an increasing number of non-dairy food matrices exhibit potential for delivery of probiotics. This review provides more recent insight into the emergence of non-dairy probiotics products, the interactions between probiotics and different food matrices and the challenges in developing such products. Some of the technical issues are also reviewed and discussed. These issues include the efficacy of probiotic bacteria in non-chilled, low pH or high water activity foods; the potential loss of bacterial viability, additionally unwanted fermentation and changes of the sensory characteristics of food products which may result in poor microbiological quality and low acceptability to consumers.

  13. Quality and innovation between tipical products exploiting and new food design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Dalla Rosa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Scientific approach is often ignored in the production of typical and marginal foods which come from empiric trial and procedures consolidated along the time. At the beginning of the twentieth century food science starter influencing food production and processing by a multidisciplinary approach aiming at the safety guarantee of industrial products intended for large scale consumption. In the last decades researchers started taking into account traditional and marginal food products by an accurate scientific approach aiming to their exploitation and to define their quality and safety parameters. Scientific approach to marginal products can be schematically divided in two levels: analytical and technological/engineering. In general, the analytical approach focuses on chemical aspects, physical properties, aromatic and sensorial characteristics and on the microbiological and genetic characterizations. 

    The technological/engineering approach must be considered a san integration of the knowledge both about the finished product and the production process and consists of: the definition of markers connecting quality to first matter; the study of seasonal and annual variability; the search for correlations among process/environment/quality on molecular basis; the pointing out of markers to set traceability systems up; the definition of key-factors to characterize the land according to its food production as an impulse for the development of other sectors such as tourism. Finally, innovation in the sector of traditional and marginal production should concern the definition of chemicalphysical and sensorial characteristics, the rationalization of traditional processes and the introduction of new compatible technology phases, the introduction of new packaging forms to elongate the shelf life and to enlarge distribution areas guaranteeing, at the same time, the maintenance of product peculiarity and typicality. New food design is one of the most

  14. Global Food Security-support Analysis Data (GFSAD) Cropland Extent 2015 Southeast and Northeast Asia product 30 m V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Global Food Security-support Analysis Data (GFSAD) data product provides...

  15. Global Food Security-support Analysis Data (GFSAD) Cropland Extent 2015 South America product 30 m V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Global Food Security-support Analysis Data (GFSAD) data product provides...

  16. Global Food Security-support Analysis Data (GFSAD) Cropland Extent 2010 North America product 30 m V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Global Food Security-support Analysis Data (GFSAD) data product provides...

  17. Global Food Security-support Analysis Data (GFSAD) Cropland Extent-Product 2015 Validation 30 m V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Global Food Security-support Analysis Data (GFSAD) data product provides...

  18. Global warming, population growth, and natural resources for food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, D

    1991-01-01

    Destruction of forests and the considerable burning of fossil fuels is directly causing the level of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases including methane, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere to rise. Population growth in the US and the world indirectly contributes to this global warming. This has led the majority of scientists interested in weather and climate to predict that the planet's temperature will increase from 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius by 2050. These forecasted climactic changes will most likely strongly affect crop production. Specifically these scientists expect the potential changes in temperature, moisture, carbon dioxide, and pests to decrease food production in North America. The degree of changes hinges on each crop and its environmental needs. If farmers begin using improved agricultural technology, the fall in crop yields can be somewhat counterbalanced. Even without global warming, however, agriculture in North America must embrace sensible ecological resource management practices such as conserving soil, water, energy, and biological resources. These sustainable agricultural practices would serve agriculture, farmers, the environment, and society. Agriculturalists, farmers, and society are already interested in sustainable agriculture. Still scientists must conduct more research on the multiple effects of potential global climate change on many different crops under various environmental conditions and on new technologies that farmers might use in agricultural production. We must cut down our consumption of fossil fuel, reduce deforestation, erase poverty, and protect our soil, water, and biological resources. The most important action we need to take, however, is to check population growth.

  19. 77 FR 64999 - Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food Product Categories in Food Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ...] Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food Product Categories in Food Facility Registrations and... industry entitled ``Necessity of the Use of Food Product Categories in Food Facility Registrations and... made available a draft guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food [[Page...

  20. RISKS AND SAFETY OF USING NANOTECHNOLOGIES OF FOOD PRODUCTS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Gorbunova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of healthy and quality nutrition has a global character. The modern development of technologies including nanotechnologies allowed obtaining materials with unique properties, which began to be actively used in food industry and agriculturebut, at the same time, require thorough investigation of their properties and effects on the human body and environment. The paper demonstrates the main directions of the nanotechnology use in the agricultural production and food industry, examines the safetyproblems and risks occurred when using nanotechnologies in food industry with account for insufficient research on the influence of food nanotechnologies on human health and environmental ecology, and presents the normative and methodical base of the RussianFederation for assurance of safe consumption of food products produced from nanomaterials.

  1. Retail food environments in Canada: Maximizing the impact of research, policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaker, Leia M

    2016-06-09

    Retail food environments are gaining national and international attention as important determinants of population dietary intake. Communities across Canada are beginning to discuss and implement programs and policies to create supportive retail food environments. Three considerations should drive the selection of food environment assessment methods: relevance (What is the problem, and how is it related to dietary outcomes?); resources (What human, time and financial resources are required to undertake an assessment?); and response (How will policy-makers find meaning out of and act on the information gained through the food environment assessment?). Ultimately, food environment assessments should be conducted in the context of stakeholder buy-in and multi-sectoral partnerships, since food environment solutions require multi-sectoral action. Partnerships between public health actors and the food and beverage industry can be challenging, especially when mandates are not aligned. Clarifying the motivations, expectations and roles of all stakeholders takes time but is important if the impact of food environment research, policy and practice is to be maximized. The articles contained in this special supplementary issue describe ongoing food environments research across Canada and fill some of the important gaps in the current body of Canadian food environments literature.

  2. Developing and modelling of ohmic heating for solid food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Frosch, Stina

    Heating of solid foods using the conventional technologies is time-consuming due to the fact that heat transfer is limited by internal conduction within the product. This is a big challenge to food manufactures who wish to heat the product faster to the desired core temperature and to ensure more...... uniform quality across the product. Ohmic heating is one of the novel technologies potentially solving this problem by allowing volumetric heating of the product and thereby reducing or eliminating temperature gradients within the product. However, the application of ohmic heating for solid food products...... and current were continuously measured inside the product. The model has been validated using the experimental data. Good agreement was achieved between model predictions and the experimental values. The model has been utilized to predict the temperature distribution and to control the process by tracking...

  3. Bioenergy production and food security in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    Food and energy insecurities are the two greatest problems in Africa. Per capita energy consumption in. Africa is less than 10% of that of United States of America while 18 out of 23 countries where starvation and malnutrition are most severe in the world are in Africa. Although various African governments have.

  4. Ultra-processed products are becoming dominant in the global food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, C A; Moubarac, J-C; Cannon, G; Ng, S W; Popkin, B

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between the global food system and the worldwide rapid increase of obesity and related diseases is not yet well understood. A reason is that the full impact of industrialized food processing on dietary patterns, including the environments of eating and drinking, remains overlooked and underestimated. Many forms of food processing are beneficial. But what is identified and defined here as ultra-processing, a type of process that has become increasingly dominant, at first in high-income countries, and now in middle-income countries, creates attractive, hyper-palatable, cheap, ready-to-consume food products that are characteristically energy-dense, fatty, sugary or salty and generally obesogenic. In this study, the scale of change in purchase and sales of ultra-processed products is examined and the context and implications are discussed. Data come from 79 high- and middle-income countries, with special attention to Canada and Brazil. Results show that ultra-processed products dominate the food supplies of high-income countries, and that their consumption is now rapidly increasing in middle-income countries. It is proposed here that the main driving force now shaping the global food system is transnational food manufacturing, retailing and fast food service corporations whose businesses are based on very profitable, heavily promoted ultra-processed products, many in snack form. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  5. A methodology for controlling dispersion in food production and distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Grunow, Martin

    2010-01-01

    /customers, and logistics efforts connected to solving the safety problem. In this paper we are developing a production and distribution planning model for food supply chains to address these issues. We also present heuristics for solving the resulting mixed-integer linear programming model and demonstrate......A number of food safety crises, the design and implementation of traceability systems became an important tool for managing safety risks in the food industry. In the literature, numerous studies deal with traceability from the viewpoint of the information system and technology development. However......, traceability and its implications for food safety receive less attention in literature on production and distribution planning. From the viewpoint of operations management, an efficient management of food safety risks requires the consideration of the amounts of potentially recalled products, affected regions...

  6. Problems of environment pollution in energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyberk, Oe.

    2000-01-01

    This publication relates to nuclear fuel cycle and environment, nuclear accidents, risk analysis, test of nuclear weapon, security problems of nuclear power plants, advantages and disadvantages of energy sources, climate variation due to environment pollution

  7. FOOD II: an interactive code for calculating concentrations of radionuclides in food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, R.

    1978-11-01

    An interactive code, FOOD II, has been written in FORTRAN IV for the PDP 10 to allow calculation of concentrations of radionuclides in food products and internal doses to man under chronic release conditions. FOOD II uses models unchanged from a previous code, FOOD, developed at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories. The new code has different input and output features than FOOD and a number of options have been added to increase flexibility. Data files have also been updated. FOOD II takes into account contamination of vegetation by air and irrigation water containing radionuclides. Contamination can occur simultaneously by air and water. Both direct deposition of radionuclides on leaves, and their uptake from soil are possible. Also, animals may be contaminated by ingestion of vegetation and drinking water containing radionuclides. At present, FOOD II provides selection of 14 food types, 13 diets and numerous radionuclides. Provisions have been made to expand all of these categories. Six additional contaminated food products can also be entered directly into the dose model. Doses may be calculated for the total body and six internal organs. Summaries of concentrations in food products and internal doses to man can be displayed at a local terminal or at an auxiliary high-speed printer. (author)

  8. Sustainable consumption and production in the food supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan

    2018-01-01

    Increased globalization and a growing world population have a great impact on the sustainability of supply chains, especially within the food industry. The way food is produced, processed, transported, and consumed has a great impact on whether sustainability is achieved throughout the whole food...... supply chain. Due to the complexity that persists in coordinating the members of food supply chain, food wastage has increased over the past few years. To achieve sustainable consumption and production (SCP), food industry stakeholders need to be coordinated and to have their views reflected...... in an optimized manner. However, not much research has been done concerning the influence of stakeholders and supply chain members’ coordination in the food industry's SCP context. To facilitate the theory development for SCP, in this work, a short literature review on sustainable supply chain management...

  9. Food Security Through the Eyes of AVHRR: Changes and Variability of African Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, A.; de Beurs, K. M.; Brown, M. E.

    2008-12-01

    Food security is defined by FAO as a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Despite globalization and food trade, access to food remains a major problem for an important part of Africa's population. As a contribution to the food security analysis we identify at a coarse scale where trends and high interannual variability of food production occur within Africa. We use the 8-km resolution AVHRR NDVI 15-day composites of the GIMMS group (1981-2006). Two methods were applied to extract phenology indicators from the dataset. The indicators are start of season, length of season, time of maximum NDVI, maximum NDVI, and cumulated NDVI over the season. To focus the analysis on food production we spatially aggregate the annual indicators at sub-national level using a general crop mask. Persistent changes during the 26-year period were assessed using trend analysis on the yearly aggregated indicators. These trends may indicate changes in production, and consequent potential increases of food insecurity. We evaluate then where strong interannual variability of phenology indicators occurs. This relates to regular shortages of food availability. For Africa, field information on phenology or accurate time series of production figures at the sub-national scale are scarce. Validating the outcome of the AVHRR analysis is consequently difficult. We propose to use crop-specific national FAOSTAT yield statistics. For this purpose, we aggregate phenology outputs per country using specific masks for the major staple food crops. Although data quality and scale issues influence results, for several countries and crops significant positive correlations between indicators and crop production exist. We conclude that AVHRR-derived phenology information can provide useful inputs to food security analysis.

  10. Price strategies for sustainable food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Sustainable products often suffer a competitive disadvantage compared with mainstream products because they must cover ecological and social costs that their competitors leave to future generations. The purpose of this paper is to identify price strategies for sustainable products that

  11. Impact of Maine’s Statewide Nutrition Policy on High School Food Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Whatley Blum, Janet E.; Beaudoin, Christina M.; O'Brien, Liam M.; Polacsek, Michele; Harris, David E.; O'Rourke, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction We assessed the effect on the food environments of public high schools of Maine's statewide nutrition policy (Chapter 51), which banned "foods of minimal nutritional value" (FMNV) in public high schools that participated in federally funded meal programs. We documented allowable exceptions to the policy and describe the school food environments. Methods We mailed surveys to 89 high school food-service directors to assess availability pre–Chapter 51 and post–Chapter 51 of soda, ot...

  12. Food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Nazlina Haiza Mohd; Mumtaz, Tabassum; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Abd Rahman, Nor'Aini

    2013-11-30

    Food waste and food processing wastes which are abundant in nature and rich in carbon content can be attractive renewable substrates for sustainable biohydrogen production due to wide economic prospects in industries. Many studies utilizing common food wastes such as dining hall or restaurant waste and wastes generated from food processing industries have shown good percentages of hydrogen in gas composition, production yield and rate. The carbon composition in food waste also plays a crucial role in determining high biohydrogen yield. Physicochemical factors such as pre-treatment to seed culture, pH, temperature (mesophilic/thermophilic) and etc. are also important to ensure the dominance of hydrogen-producing bacteria in dark fermentation. This review demonstrates the potential of food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production and provides a brief overview of several physicochemical factors that affect biohydrogen production in dark fermentation. The economic viability of biohydrogen production from food waste is also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates...

  14. Food Security and Productivity among Urban Farmers in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    agriculture is being explored by this study is design to assess food insecurity and conflicts situations in urban centres because it has the capacity to engage the teeming unemployed urban youth in productive vocations in different aspects of agro-allied ventures for the benefit of all. By definition, food security is a condition in ...

  15. Review of health safety aspects of nanotechnologies in food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, H.; Dekkers, S.; Noordam, M.Y.; Hagens, W.; Bulder, A.S.; Heer, de P.M.; Voorde, ten S.E.C.G.; Wijnhoven, S.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Sips, A.

    2009-01-01

    Due to new, previously unknown, properties attributed to engineered nanoparticles many new products are introduced in the agro-food area. Nanotechnologies cover many aspects, such as disease treatment, food security, new materials for pathogen detection, packaging materials and delivery systems. As

  16. Sub-Micron Grinding of a Food Product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennart, S.L.A.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes how the activity of a preservative product used in food coatings can be optimized. This project is partly sponsored by the European Marie Curie Framework projects as part of the BioPowders research training network. DSM Food Specialties hosts and co finances this project. The

  17. Staple Food and Livestock Production among the Yoruba of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    some farming innovations or propaganda by the government were also ... food among the people. This was unlike the situation with the Ondos and the Ijebus. Staple Food & Livestock production among the Yoruba of the Colonial Nigeria ... While many Ekiti farmers were already being influenced by the new methods of crop ...

  18. Resources Use Efficiency In Food Crop Production In Ekiti State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to examine resource use efficiency in food crop production in Ekiti State of Nigeria. Primary data were collected from 110 food crop farmers selected using multi-stage random sampling technique. Data analysis was done using both inferential statistics and regression analysis. Marginal value ...

  19. Successful new product development in the food packaging industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the context of the food industry, process and product innovations are usually the result of cross-discipline ideas, involving, for instance, biology, chemistry, technology, engineering, nutrition and law. Furthermore, the food industry suffers from the fact that the benefits of innovations are often not evident at the manufacturing ...

  20. Bio-ethanol production from non-food parts of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwamanya, Ephraim; Chiwona-Karltun, Linley; Kawuki, Robert S; Baguma, Yona

    2012-05-01

    Global climate issues and a looming energy crisis put agriculture under pressure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate adaptation measures must entail sustainable development benefits, and growing crops for food as well as energy may be a solution, removing people from hunger and poverty without compromising the environment. The present study investigated the feasibility of using non-food parts of cassava for energy production and the promising results revealed that at least 28% of peels and stems comprise dry matter, and 10 g feedstock yields >8.5 g sugar, which in turn produced >60% ethanol, with pH ≈ 2.85, 74-84% light transmittance and a conductivity of 368 mV, indicating a potential use of cassava feedstock for ethanol production. Thus, harnessing cassava for food as well as ethanol production is deemed feasible. Such a system would, however, require supportive policies to acquire a balance between food security and fuel.

  1. Bio-ethanol production from non-food parts of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuwamanya, Ephraim; Kawuki, Robert S.; Baguma, Yona [National Agricultural Research organization, National Crops Resources Research Inst. (NaCRRI), Kampala (Uganda); Chiwona-Karltun, Linley [Dept. of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)], email: Linley.karltun@slu.se

    2012-03-15

    Global climate issues and a looming energy crisis put agriculture under pressure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate adaptation measures must entail sustainable development benefits, and growing crops for food as well as energy may be a solution, removing people from hunger and poverty without compromising the environment. The present study investigated the feasibility of using non-food parts of cassava for energy production and the promising results revealed that at least 28% of peels and stems comprise dry matter, and 10 g feedstock yields >8.5 g sugar, which in turn produced >60% ethanol, with pH {approx} 2.85, 74-84% light transmittance and a conductivity of 368 mV, indicating a potential use of cassava feedstock for ethanol production. Thus, harnessing cassava for food as well as ethanol production is deemed feasible. Such a system would, however, require supportive policies to acquire a balance between food security and fuel.

  2. The analysis of food products retailing in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapaić Stevan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Author is analyzing a share of food products in the structural profile of retail trade in European Union by presenting areas of retailing in which food, beverages, and tobacco products are predominant. The main task of retailing is to overcome gaps in time and space between production and consumption, in order to meet the needs of consumers. This main task of retailing becomes more difficult considering the fact that the European Union consists of demanding consumers that expect all products, especially food, to be served to them at the most accessible places, in most suitable time, and with prices that coincide with the worth of products. In the structure of retail trade of the European Union, food products can be found in sector of non-specialised in-store retailing (hypermarkets, supermarkets, Cash&Carry stores as well as in sector of specialised in-store food retailing (butcher shops, bakeries, fish markets, etc.. Restructure of retailing, internationalization, and concentration of total retail trade network are only some of the basic trends in contemporary retail sale of food products in the European Union, that are being explored in this text.

  3. Probiotic bacteria in fermented foods: product characteristics and starter organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, K J

    2001-02-01

    Probiotic bacteria are sold mainly in fermented foods, and dairy products play a predominant role as carriers of probiotics. These foods are well suited to promoting the positive health image of probiotics for several reasons: 1) fermented foods, and dairy products in particular, already have a positive health image; 2) consumers are familiar with the fact that fermented foods contain living microorganisms (bacteria); and 3) probiotics used as starter organisms combine the positive images of fermentation and probiotic cultures. When probiotics are added to fermented foods, several factors must be considered that may influence the ability of the probiotics to survive in the product and become active when entering the consumer's gastrointestinal tract. These factors include 1) the physiologic state of the probiotic organisms added (whether the cells are from the logarithmic or the stationary growth phase), 2) the physical conditions of product storage (eg, temperature), 3) the chemical composition of the product to which the probiotics are added (eg, acidity, available carbohydrate content, nitrogen sources, mineral content, water activity, and oxygen content), and 4) possible interactions of the probiotics with the starter cultures (eg, bacteriocin production, antagonism, and synergism). The interactions of probiotics with either the food matrix or the starter culture may be even more intensive when probiotics are used as a component of the starter culture. Some of these aspects are discussed in this article, with an emphasis on dairy products such as milk, yogurt, and cheese.

  4. Application of Proteomics in Food Technology and Food Biotechnology: Process Development, Quality Control and Product Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajana Gašo-Sokač

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human food is a very complex biological mixture and food processing and safety are very important and essential disciplines. Proteomics technology using different high-performance separation techniques such as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, one-dimensional and multidimensional chromatography, combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry has the power to monitor the protein composition of foods and their changes during the production process. The use of proteomics in food technology is presented, especially for characterization and standardization of raw materials, process development, detection of batch-to-batch variations and quality control of the final product. Further attention is paid to the aspects of food safety, especially regarding biological and microbial safety and the use of genetically modified foods.

  5. Subsistence Food Production Practices: An Approach to Food Security and Good Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankoana, Sejabaledi A

    2017-10-05

    Food security is a prerequisite for health. Availability and accessibility of food in rural areas is mainly achieved through subsistence production in which community members use local practices to produce and preserve food. Subsistence food production ensures self-sufficiency and reduction of poverty and hunger. The main emphasis with the present study is examining subsistence farming and collection of edible plant materials to fulfill dietary requirements, thereby ensuring food security and good health. Data collected from a purposive sample show that subsistence crops produced in the home-gardens and fields, and those collected from the wild, are sources of grain, vegetables and legumes. Sources of grain and legumes are produced in the home-gardens and fields, whereas vegetables sources are mostly collected in the wild and fewer in the home-gardens. These food sources have perceived health potential in child and maternal care of primary health care.

  6. Subsistence Food Production Practices: An Approach to Food Security and Good Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejabaledi A. Rankoana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food security is a prerequisite for health. Availability and accessibility of food in rural areas is mainly achieved through subsistence production in which community members use local practices to produce and preserve food. Subsistence food production ensures self-sufficiency and reduction of poverty and hunger. The main emphasis with the present study is examining subsistence farming and collection of edible plant materials to fulfill dietary requirements, thereby ensuring food security and good health. Data collected from a purposive sample show that subsistence crops produced in the home-gardens and fields, and those collected from the wild, are sources of grain, vegetables and legumes. Sources of grain and legumes are produced in the home-gardens and fields, whereas vegetables sources are mostly collected in the wild and fewer in the home-gardens. These food sources have perceived health potential in child and maternal care of primary health care.

  7. Does eating local food reduce the environmental impact of food production and enhance consumer health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards-Jones, Gareth

    2010-11-01

    The concept of local food has gained traction in the media, engaged consumers and offered farmers a new marketing tool. Positive claims about the benefits of local food are probably not harmful when made by small-scale producers at the local level; however, greater concern would arise should such claims be echoed in policy circles. This review examines the evidence base supporting claims about the environmental and health benefits of local food. The results do not offer any support for claims that local food is universally superior to non-local food in terms of its impact on the climate or the health of consumers. Indeed several examples are presented that demonstrate that local food can on occasions be inferior to non-local food. The analysis also considers the impact on greenhouse gas emissions of moving the UK towards self-sufficiency. Quantitative evidence is absent on the changes in overall emissions that would occur if the UK switched to self-sufficiency. A qualitative assessment suggests the emissions per item of food would probably be greater under a scenario of self-sufficiency than under the current food system. The review does not identify any generalisable or systematic benefits to the environment or human health that arise from the consumption of local food in preference to non-local food.

  8. Decadal Variations in NDVI and Food Production in India

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this study we use long-term satellite, climate, and crop observations to document the spatial distribution of the recent stagnation in food grain production...

  9. Research Regarding the Nutritional Value of the Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Food products have in composition the necessary substances for human body but also anti-nutritional substances fulfilling an energetic, plastic, catalytic and sensorial role. The researches conducted enable a new vision on the nutritional value of food products starting from the general methodology for studying the goods, meaning from the report, necessity-use value-quality. The nutritional value represents the major criteria in assessing the quality of food products being regarded as the degree of satisfaction of a consumption necessity, representing all the properties and characteristics, that offer the possibility of satisfy the explicit and implicit needs of the food products consumers. A rational optimal nutrition must respect four essential laws (quantity, quality, balance and appropriateness.

  10. Control of Listeria species food safety at a poultry food production facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Edward M; Wall, Patrick G; Fanning, Séamus

    2015-10-01

    Surveillance and control of food-borne human pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, is a critical aspect of modern food safety programs at food production facilities. This study evaluated contamination patterns of Listeria species at a poultry food production facility, and evaluated the efficacy of procedures to control the contamination and transfer of the bacteria throughout the plant. The presence of Listeria species was studied along the production chain, including raw ingredients, food-contact, non-food-contact surfaces, and finished product. All isolates were sub-typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to identify possible entry points for Listeria species into the production chain, as well as identifying possible transfer routes through the facility. The efficacy of selected in-house sanitizers against a sub-set of the isolates was evaluated. Of the 77 different PFGE-types identified, 10 were found among two or more of the five categories/areas (ingredients, food preparation, cooking and packing, bulk packing, and product), indicating potential transfer routes at the facility. One of the six sanitizers used was identified as unsuitable for control of Listeria species. Combining PFGE data, together with information on isolate location and timeframe, facilitated identification of a persistent Listeria species contamination that had colonized the facility, along with others that were transient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploration and production environment. Preserving the future our responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document presents the Total Group commitments to manage natural resources in a rational way, to preserve biodiversity for future generations and protect the environment. It contains the health, safety, environment and quality charter of Total, the 12 exploration and production health, safety and environment rules and the exploration and production environmental policy. (A.L.B.)

  12. Exploring nutrient management options to increase nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiencies in food production of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Mengru; Ma, Lin; Strokal, Maryna; Chu, Yanan; Kroeze, Carolien

    2017-01-01

    Low nitrogen (NUE) and phosphorus (PUE) use efficiencies in food production in China result in large losses of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to the environment. The Chinese government formulated policies to increase the NUEs and PUEs. Recent policies aim for zero growth in synthetic fertilizer

  13. Measuring acceptance of new food product concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Perrea, Toula; Kügler, Jens

    product concepts. We develop a new form of concept test that, employing structural equation modelling, allows us to trace how different elements of the concept description contribute to acceptance or rejection of the concept, either cognitively mediated by triggering expectations about product quality......New product concepts are routinely tested by showing members of the target group verbal and/or pictorial descriptions of new products and measuring reactions like overall liking and purchase intention. However, little is known about the processes leading to consumer acceptance or rejection of new...... and convenience, or without cognitive mediation (see figure). Using examples of new pork-based product concepts and data from four countries (Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, UK), we elaborate on the role of these two routes towards new product acceptance. We propose that the increased role of storytelling...

  14. Retail food environments research: Promising future with more work to be done.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Daniel; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2016-06-09

    As members of the scientific committee for the Food Environments in Canada conference, we reflect on the current state of food environments research in Canada. We are very encouraged that the field is growing and there have been many collaborative efforts to link researchers in Canada, including the 2015 Food Environments in Canada Symposium and Workshop. We believe there are 5 key challenges the field will need to collectively address: theory and causality; replication and extension; consideration of rural, northern and vulnerable populations; policy analysis; and intervention research. In addressing the challenges, we look forward to working together to conduct more sophisticated, complex and community-driven food environments research in the future.

  15. Inter-Rater Reliability of the Food Environment Audit for Diverse Neighborhoods (FEAD-N)

    OpenAIRE

    Izumi, Betty T.; Zenk, Shannon N.; Schulz, Amy J.; Mentz, Graciela B.; Sand, Sharon L.; de Majo, Ricardo F.; Wilson, Christine; Odoms-Young, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that neighborhood food environments are important influences on dietary intake and may contribute to health disparities. While instruments with high reliability have been developed to assess food availability, price, and quality, few measures to assess items associated with the physical and social features of food stores have been developed. Yet, recent qualitative studies have documented aspects associated with such features of urban food stores that are barriers to food a...

  16. Neighbourhood food environment and gestational diabetes in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Janevic, Teresa; Borrell, Luisa N.; Savitz, David A.; Herring, Amy H.; Rundle, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The association between neighbourhood characteristics and gestational diabetes has not been examined previously. We investigated the relationship between the number of healthy food outlets (supermarkets; fruit/vegetable and natural food stores), and unhealthy food outlets (fast food; pizza; bodegas; bakeries; convenience, candy/nut and meat stores) in census tract of residence, and gestational diabetes in New York City. Gestational diabetes, census tract and individual-level covariates were a...

  17. Processing- and product-related causes for food waste and implications for the food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raak, Norbert; Symmank, Claudia; Zahn, Susann; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Rohm, Harald

    2017-03-01

    Reducing food waste is one of the prominent goals in the current research, which has also been set by the United Nations to achieve a more sustainable world by 2030. Given that previous studies mainly examined causes for food waste generation related to consumers, e.g., expectations regarding quality or uncertainties about edibility, this review aims at providing an overview on losses in the food industry, as well as on natural mechanisms by which impeccable food items are converted into an undesired state. For this, scientific literature was reviewed based on a keyword search, and information not covered was gathered by conducting expert interviews with representatives from 13 German food processing companies. From the available literature, three main areas of food waste generation were identified and discussed: product deterioration and spoilage during logistical operations, by-products from food processing, and consumer perception of quality and safety. In addition, expert interviews revealed causes for food waste in the processing sector, which were categorised as follows: losses resulting from processing operations and quality assurance, and products not fulfilling quality demands from trade. The interviewees explained a number of strategies to minimise food losses, starting with alternative tradeways for second choice items, and ending with emergency power supplies to compensate for power blackouts. It became clear that the concepts are not universally applicable for each company, but the overview provided in the present study may support researchers in finding appropriate solutions for individual cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sustainability and democracy in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard

    2005-01-01

    The author discuss and presents an empirical study of Danish bread production. The study is organised as action research proces. In the project a method called research workshop is tested as a new form of dialogue creation among groups with different interests and knowledge. The study has generated...... a proposal for a democratic legitimate concept of sustainable bread production...

  19. Adoptable Interventions, Human Health, and Food Safety Considerations for Reducing Sodium Content of Processed Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Abimbola; Fouladkhah, Aliyar

    2018-02-01

    Although vital for maintaining health when consumed in moderation, various epidemiological studies in recent years have shown a strong association between excess dietary sodium with an array of health complications. These associations are robust and clinically significant for development of hypertension and prehypertension, two of the leading causes of preventable mortality worldwide, in adults with a high-sodium diet. Data from developed nations and transition economies show worldwide sodium intake of higher than recommended amounts in various nations. While natural foods typically contain a moderate amount of sodium, manufactured food products are the main contributor to dietary sodium intake, up to 75% of sodium in diet of American adults, as an example. Lower cost in formulation, positive effects on organoleptic properties of food products, effects on food quality during shelf-life, and microbiological food safety, make sodium chloride a notable candidate and an indispensable part of formulation of various products. Although low-sodium formulation of each product possesses a unique set of challenges, review of literature shows an abundance of successful experiences for products of many categories. The current study discusses adoptable interventions for product development and reformulation of products to achieve a modest amount of final sodium content while maintaining taste, quality, shelf-stability, and microbiological food safety.

  20. Adoptable Interventions, Human Health, and Food Safety Considerations for Reducing Sodium Content of Processed Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola Allison

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although vital for maintaining health when consumed in moderation, various epidemiological studies in recent years have shown a strong association between excess dietary sodium with an array of health complications. These associations are robust and clinically significant for development of hypertension and prehypertension, two of the leading causes of preventable mortality worldwide, in adults with a high-sodium diet. Data from developed nations and transition economies show worldwide sodium intake of higher than recommended amounts in various nations. While natural foods typically contain a moderate amount of sodium, manufactured food products are the main contributor to dietary sodium intake, up to 75% of sodium in diet of American adults, as an example. Lower cost in formulation, positive effects on organoleptic properties of food products, effects on food quality during shelf-life, and microbiological food safety, make sodium chloride a notable candidate and an indispensable part of formulation of various products. Although low-sodium formulation of each product possesses a unique set of challenges, review of literature shows an abundance of successful experiences for products of many categories. The current study discusses adoptable interventions for product development and reformulation of products to achieve a modest amount of final sodium content while maintaining taste, quality, shelf-stability, and microbiological food safety.

  1. Characteristics of Serbian foreign trade of agricultural and food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Dragica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural and food products are a significant segment of the total foreign trade of Serbia, which is characterized by a relatively high import dependency, modest export and constantly present deficit. In such conditions, agrarian sector serves as a stabilizer, and its importance is reflected in the permanently positive balance, increased participation, particularly in total exports, and balancing the trade balance of the country. The aim of the paper is to analyze the basic characteristics of foreign trade of agricultural and food products of Serbia in the period 2005-2015. The tendencies in export, import, and the level of coverage of import by export of agro-food (or agrarian products are analysed. The participation of these products in the total foreign trade of Serbia is also considered, followed by the comparison of this indicator with the neighbouring countries. In the next part of the paper, the structure of Serbian export and import of agricultural and food products (by product groups is analysed. Special attention is given to the territorial orientation of export and import of agrarian products by the most important trade partners. In order to conduct more comprehensive analysis of comparative advantages, or competitiveness of certain groups of agro-food products of Serbia in the exchange with the world, indicator of Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA is calculated. The analysis of qualitative competitiveness is derived using the indicator - unit value of export and import. The analysis points to the dynamic growth in the value of Serbian export and import of agro-food products, with the constant surplus of trade balance in the observed period. These products are significantly represented in the structure of the total foreign trade of the country, particularly in export (with about 20%. RCA indicators show that Serbia has a comparative advantage in trade of agro-food products to the world in primary products and products of lower

  2. [Bacteria of Lactobacillus casei group: characterization, viability as probiotic in food products and their importance for human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buriti, Flávia Carolina Alonso; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2007-12-01

    Lactobacillus casei is a group of phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous lactic acid bacteria, able to colonize various natural and man-made environments. Strains of the Lactobacillus casei group have been widely studied with respect to their health-promoting properties. Several beneficial functions for the human organism have been attributed to regular consumption of food products containing these strains. Bacteria of the Lactobacillus casei group are of great interest for the food industry to improve food quality. A number of studies have been conducted in order to evaluate the viability of strains of Lactobacillus casei group as probiotic in dairy products, desserts, among others food products. Despite its importance for the food industry, the taxonomy of the Lactobacillus casei group is still unclear. This review discusses important studies related to characterization of strains of Lactobacillus casei group, the application of these bacteria as probiotic in different food products and the main beneficial effects attributed to regular consumption of products containing such microorganisms.

  3. The structure of a food product assortment modulates the effect of providing choice on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizel, Odile; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Fromentin, Gilles; Delarue, Julien; Labouré, Hélène; Benamouzig, Robert; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès

    2016-09-01

    Several authors showed that providing choice may increase food liking and food intake. However, the impact of choice may be modulated by assortment's characteristics, such as the number of alternatives or their dissimilarity. The present study compared the impact of choice on food liking and intake under the two following conditions: (1) when choosing a product to consume from among similar products versus dissimilar products; and (2) when choosing a product to consume from among pleasant products versus unpleasant products. Two experiments were carried out using the same design: the "apple puree" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among similar products (apple purees varying in texture) and the "dessert" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among dissimilar products (fruit dessert, dairy dessert, custard, pudding). During the first session, participants rated their liking for 12 products (apples purees or desserts). Then the participants were divided into a "pleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three pleasant products, and an "unpleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three unpleasant products. Finally, all of the volunteers participated in a choice session - volunteers were presented with their three assigned products and asked to choose one of the products, and a no-choice session - volunteers were served with one product that was randomly selected from among their three assigned products. Providing choice led to an increase in food liking in both experiments and an increase in food intake only for the desserts, namely only when the volunteers chose the product to consume from among "not too similar" alternatives. No effect of assortment's pleasantness was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Global challenges and perspectives of marketing of healthy food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with global trends of healthy food market growth, Serbian export potential as well as with the importance and role of positioning and other marketing strategies in this field. Secondary data will be used for identifying characteristics and range of healthy food market on a global level and key segments. In that context, the economic importance and export potential of this sector in Serbia will be discussed. Food sector accounts for high percentage of total Serbian export. Yet, those products are of low added value, neither branded nor packed. In order to position producers of healthy food on an international market successfully, strength and weaknesses of domestic production and export will be identified as well as measures for its promotion. In this paper, literature review in field of food positioning and marketing will be presented. Various positioning strategies of healthy food will be discussed from the aspect of branding, country of origin image, marketing mix instruments, with special emphasis on promotion and product labelling. Special part of paper will be dedicated to specific aspects of buying and food consumption behaviour. This behaviour is under the influence of numerous factors, both personal and sociodemographic, which will be analyzed in order to identify adequate positioning strategies. At the end, recommendations for successfully healthy food positioning on an international market will be given. We will present ways of improving marketing strategies regarding exploiting identified chances on an international market.

  5. Workable methods for risks control in the food chain production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilla Iacumin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Several food pathologies due to new or already known micro-organisms occur all over the world every year. Food concerned are more and more frequently traditional typical, ethnical products coming from fast or slow food systems. Most of food-borne pathologies develop through neurological, gastrointestinal (watery, bloody or persistent diarrhoea abdominal pain, sickness and vomiting. The causes of these epidemics, apart from the concerned pathogen, are linked to the contaminated first matter or to contaminations occurred during food processing and consequently due to the lack of employment of the most fundamental sanitary measures and to non-control of the critical points of the HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point systems. The pre-requirements to promote food health consist of the implementation of good agriculture husbandry and production practices, the use of HACCP systems, the training of the workers employed in the different productive rows and in the adoption of identification and traceability systems. The EU implemented the so-called hygiene pack, that is a list of rules imposing food control in each processing, marketing and consumption phase, from husbandry or cropping to consumer’s table, to promote health in food (circulating all over Europe.

  6. Exploitation of Food Industry Waste for High-Value Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    A growing global population leads to an increasing demand for food production and the processing industry associated with it and consequently the generation of large amounts of food waste. This problem is intensified due to slow progress in the development of effective waste management strategies and measures for the proper treatment and disposal of waste. Food waste is a reservoir of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nutraceuticals and can form the raw materials for commercially important metabolites. The current legislation on food waste treatment prioritises the prevention of waste generation and least emphasises disposal. Recent valorisation studies for food supply chain waste opens avenues to the production of biofuels, enzymes, bioactive compounds, biodegradable plastics, and nanoparticles among many other molecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of Listeria species in food products in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, M; Abedi, D

    2008-03-20

    A total of 617 meat and meat products, diary, vegetables and ready to eat food samples were collected. Listeria spp. isolated by using USDA method of isolation and L. monocytogenes identified by biochemical and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The incidence of Listeria spp. was 4.6% in all food samples. L. monocytogenes was found in 1.2% of food samples. It was found that Listeria spp. was present in 6.7% of meat and meat product samples, 1.3% of diary samples, 1.2% of vegetable samples and 12% ready to eat samples. The results presented in this study indicate, the potential risk of eating ready to eat food or raw and undercooked foods.

  8. Creating healthful home food environments: Results of a study with participants in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to evaluate a modified curriculum for the 6-session Texas Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP), promoting healthful home food environments and parenting skills related to obesity prevention. We used a two-group randomized control trial: intervention versus usual EF...

  9. Closing data gaps for LCA of food products: estimating the energy demand of food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuán, Neus; Stoessel, Franziska; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-01-21

    Food is one of the most energy and CO2-intensive consumer goods. While environmental data on primary agricultural products are increasingly becoming available, there are large data gaps concerning food processing. Bridging these gaps is important; for example, the food industry can use such data to optimize processes from an environmental perspective, and retailers may use this information for purchasing decisions. Producers and retailers can then market sustainable products and deliver the information demanded by governments and consumers. Finally, consumers are increasingly interested in the environmental information of foods in order to lower their consumption impacts. This study provides estimation tools for the energy demand of a representative set of food process unit operations such as dehydration, evaporation, or pasteurization. These operations are used to manufacture a variety of foods and can be combined, according to the product recipe, to quantify the heat and electricity demand during processing. In combination with inventory data on the production of the primary ingredients, this toolbox will be a basis to perform life cycle assessment studies of a large number of processed food products and to provide decision support to the stakeholders. Furthermore, a case study is performed to illustrate the application of the tools.

  10. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Joop; Schösler, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers' relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different affinities towards foods. These product types may be denoted as 'conventional', 'efficient', 'gourmet' and 'pure'. A comparative analysis, based on Higgins' Regulatory Focus Theory, was performed to examine whether food-related value motivations could explain different consumer affinities for these product types. The affinities of consumers were measured by means of a non-verbal, visual presentation of four samples of food products in a nationwide survey (n = 742) among consumers who were all involved in food purchasing and/or cooking. The affinities found could be predicted fairly well from a number of self-descriptions relating to food and eating, which expressed different combinations of type of value motivation and involvement with food. The analysis demonstrated the contrasting role of high and low involvement as well as the potential complementarity of promotion- and prevention-focused value motivation. It is suggested that knowledge of the relationships between product types, consumer affinities and value motivation can help improve the effectiveness of interventions that seek to promote healthy and sustainable diets in developed countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling intermediate product selection under production and storage capacity limitations in food processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur Alper; Akkerman, Renzo; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In the food industry products are usually characterized by their recipes, which are specified by various quality attributes. For end products, this is given by customer requirements, but for intermediate products, the recipes can be chosen in such a way that raw material procurement costs...... with production and inventory planning, thereby considering the production and storage capacity limitations. The resulting model can be used to solve an important practical problem typical for many food processing industries....

  12. Sustainability and democracy in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard

    2005-01-01

    The author discuss and presents an empirical study of Danish bread production. The study is organised as action research proces. In the project a method called research workshop is tested as a new form of dialogue creation among groups with different interests and knowledge. The study has generat...... a proposal for a democratic legitimate concept of sustainable bread production......The author discuss and presents an empirical study of Danish bread production. The study is organised as action research proces. In the project a method called research workshop is tested as a new form of dialogue creation among groups with different interests and knowledge. The study has generated...

  13. The association between organic school food policy and school food environment: results from an observational study in Danish schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent E

    2014-03-01

    School food in many countries has become the object of change and innovation processes, not only in relation to policies for healthier eating but also in relation to policies for more sustainable food consumption and procurement. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible influence that organic food sourcing policies in Danish school meal systems may have on the development of healthier school food environments. The study was a cross-sectional analysis undertaken among 179 school food coordinators (SFCs) through a web-based questionnaire (WBQ) in a sample of Danish public primary schools. The 'organic' schools were compared to 'non-organic' schools. The questionnaire explored the attitudes, intentions/policies and actions in relation to organic and healthy foods served in the schools. Data indicates that 20 'organic' schools were associated with the indicators of healthier school environments, including adopting a Food and Nutrition Policy (FNP) in the school (p = .032), recommending children to eat healthily (p = .004). The study suggests that organic food policies in schools may have potential to support a healthier school food environment.

  14. Socioeconomic inequalities in children’s diet: the role of the home food environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background It is well documented in the literature that low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with lower consumption of healthy foods and that these differences in consumption patterns are influenced by neighborhood food environments. Less understood is the role that SES differences in physical and social aspects of the home food environment play in consumption patterns. Methods Using data on 4th grade children from the 2009–2011 Texas School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) study, we used mixed-effects regression models to test the magnitude of differences in the SPAN Health Eating Index (SHEI) by parental education as an indicator of SES, and the extent to which adjusting for measures of the home food environment, and measures of the neighborhood environment accounted for these SES differences. Results Small but significant differences in children’s SHEI by SES strata exist (-1.33 between highest and lowest SES categories, pfood environment and neighborhood environment measures in this model eliminates these differences (-0.7, p=0.145). Home food environment explains a greater portion of the difference. Both social (mealtime structure) and physical aspects (food availability) of the home food environment are strongly associated with consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. Conclusions Our findings suggest that modifiable parent behaviors at home can improve children’s eating habits and that the neighborhood may impact diet in ways other than through access to healthy food. PMID:26222785

  15. Socioeconomic inequalities in children's diet: the role of the home food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjit, Nalini; Wilkinson, Anna V; Lytle, Leslie M; Evans, Alexandra E; Saxton, Debra; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2015-07-27

    It is well documented in the literature that low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with lower consumption of healthy foods and that these differences in consumption patterns are influenced by neighborhood food environments. Less understood is the role that SES differences in physical and social aspects of the home food environment play in consumption patterns. Using data on 4th grade children from the 2009-2011 Texas School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) study, we used mixed-effects regression models to test the magnitude of differences in the SPAN Health Eating Index (SHEI) by parental education as an indicator of SES, and the extent to which adjusting for measures of the home food environment, and measures of the neighborhood environment accounted for these SES differences. Small but significant differences in children’s SHEI by SES strata exist (-1.33 between highest and lowest SES categories, pfood environment and neighborhood environment measures in this model eliminates these differences (-0.7, p=0.145). Home food environment explains a greater portion of the difference. Both social (mealtime structure) and physical aspects (food availability) of the home food environment are strongly associated with consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. Our findings suggest that modifiable parent behaviors at home can improve children’s eating habits and that the neighborhood may impact diet in ways other than through access to healthy food.

  16. Obesity and the Food Environment: Income and Ethnicity Differences Among People With Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Smith, Jessica C.; Karter, Andrew J.; Warton, E. Margaret; Kelly, Maggi; Kersten, Ellen; Moffet, Howard H.; Adler, Nancy; Schillinger, Dean; Laraia, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE It is unknown whether any association between neighborhood food environment and obesity varies according to individual income and/or race/ethnicity. The objectives of this study were to test whether there was an association between food environments and obesity among adults with diabetes and whether this relationship differed according to individual income or race/ethnicity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subjects (n = 16,057) were participants in the Diabetes Study of Northern California survey. Kernel density estimation was used to create a food environment score for each individual’s residence address that reflected the mix of healthful and unhealthful food vendors nearby. Logistic regression models estimated the association between the modeled food environment and obesity, controlling for confounders, and testing for interactions between food environment and race/ethnicity and income. RESULTS The authors found that more healthful food environments were associated with lower obesity in the highest income groups (incomes 301–600% and >600% of U.S. poverty line) among whites, Latinos, and Asians. The association was negative, but smaller and not statistically significant, among high-income blacks. On the contrary, a more healthful food environment was associated with higher obesity among participants in the lowest-income group (food environments may have different health implications when financial resources are severely constrained. PMID:23637355

  17. Climate and Food Production: Understanding Vulnerability from Past Trends in Africa’s Sudan-Sahel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genesis T. Yengoh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Just how influential is rainfall on agricultural production in the Sudan-Sahel of Africa? And, is there evidence that support for small-scale farming can reduce the vulnerability of crop yields to rainfall in these sensitive agro-ecological zones? These questions are explored based on a case study from Cameroon’s Sudan-Sahel region. Climate data for 20 years and crop production data for six major food crops for the same years are used to find patterns of correlation over this time period. Results show a distinction of three periods of climatic influence of agriculture: one period before 1989, another between 1990 and 1999 and the last from 2000 to 2004. The analysis reveals that, while important in setting the enabling biophysical environment for food crop cultivation, the influence of rainfall in agriculture can be diluted by proactive policies that support food production. Proactive policies also reduce the impact of agriculturally relevant climatic shocks, such as droughts on food crop yields over the time-series. These findings emphasize the extent of vulnerability of food crop production to rainfall variations among small-holder farmers in these agro-ecological zones and reinforce the call for the proactive engagement of relevant institutions and support services in assisting the efforts of small-scale food producers in Africa’s Sudan-Sahel. The implications of climate variability on agriculture are discussed within the context of food security with particular reference to Africa’s Sudan-Sahel.

  18. Protection against radioactive contamination of food and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.; Kovacs, Z.

    1977-01-01

    Due to contaminating effects from nuclear explosions and nuclear power plants, the systematic investigation of environmental radioactive contamination is absolutely necessary. In order to reduce the artificial radiation dose to which the human body is exposed, isotope content of foods and agricultural products should be known. The authors evaluate the decontamination possibilities of food produced from vegetable and animal products, starting from the contamination of some products. For vegetable product decontamination the use of suitable fertilizers, thorough scrubbing in excess water and, for cereals, milling is proposed. As the most effective preventive measure of radiation contamination of food products of animal origin, appropriate packing is proposed. The storage and preservation problems are emphasized for short half-life radiation contamination. (P.J.)

  19. [Climate change, food production and human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faergeman, Ole; Østergaard, Lars

    2009-10-26

    Production of livestock accounts for 18% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Although livestock products can alleviate malnutrition in poor countries, they are associated with diseases of affluence in wealthy countries. Red meat (pork, beef, sheep and goat), especially, is associated with higher rates of death due to cardiovascular disease and cancer. A policy of reducing consumption of red meat in wealthy countries and encouraging a limited consumption increase in poor countries would benefit the climate as well as human health.

  20. Enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsøe, Merete Norsker; Jensen, Mette; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    was formed which bound the meat pieces together thereby making the product sliceable. However, in two of the food products some unwanted side effects were observed. The enzymes did not only catalyse the cross-linking, but also oxidised the anthocyanins in the black currant juice and short chained fatty acids......Sugar beet pectin is a food ingredient with specific functional properties. It may form gels by an oxidative cross-linking of ferulic acid. In the present study, the gel forming properties of three oxidative enzymes were examined in different food relevant conditions. The enzymes chosen were two...... laccases and one peroxidase. The textural properties of the produced gels were measured on a texture analyser. The influence of sugar, salt and protein were analysed. Finally, the enzymatic gelation was studied in three food products with added sugar beet pectin. These were black currant juice, milk...

  1. Consumers’ perceptions of HPP and PEF food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Mette Sonne; Grunert, Klaus G; Olsen, Nina V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine consumer attitudes towards apple juice produced by means of two new processing technologies, high-pressure processing (HPP) and pulsed electric field processing (PEF). Design/methodology/approach – Means-end chain approach is used. Laddering...... for their future success. It is up to food producers and food scientists to provide the evidence that will convince consumers that these new technologies are safe to use. Originality/value – This research contributes to the limited knowledge on consumer attitudes towards food products produced by HPP and PEF. From...... consequences with product attributes related to the nutritional value and the taste of the products produced by means of these novel technologies. Also the environmental benefits from processing foods by applying these technologies were seen as highly positive characteristics of the technologies. However, many...

  2. Food Safety Practices in the Egg Products Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K; Noyes, Gary

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a national census survey of egg product plants (n = 57) to obtain information on the technological and food safety practices of the egg products industry and to assess changes in these practices from 2004 to 2014. The questionnaire asked about operational and sanitation practices, microbiological testing practices, food safety training for employees, other food safety issues, and plant characteristics. The findings suggest that improvements were made in the industry's use of food safety technologies and practices between 2004 and 2014. The percentage of plants using advanced pasteurization technology and an integrated, computerized processing system increased by almost 30 percentage points. Over 90% of plants voluntarily use a written hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan to address food safety for at least one production step. Further, 90% of plants have management employees who are trained in a written HACCP plan. Most plants (93%) conduct voluntary microbiological testing. The percentage of plants conducting this testing on egg products before pasteurization has increased by almost 30 percentage points since 2004. The survey findings identify strengths and weaknesses in egg product plants' food safety practices and can be used to guide regulatory policymaking and to conduct required regulatory impact analysis of potential regulations.

  3. Can Differentiated Production Planning and Control enable both Responsiveness and Efficiency in Food Production?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Romsdal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the complex production planning and control (PPC challenges in food supply chains. The study illustrates how food producers' traditional make‐to‐stock (MTS approach is not well suited to meet the trends of increasing product variety, higher demand uncertainty, increasing sales of fresh food products and more demanding customers. The paper proposes a framework for differentiated PPC that combines MTS with make‐to‐order (MTO.The framework matches products with the most appropriate PPC approaches and buffering techniques depending on market and product characteristics. The core idea is to achieve more volume flexibility in the production system by exploiting favourable product and market characteristics (high demand predictability, long customer order leadtime allowances and low product perishability. A case study is used to demonstrate how the framework can enable food producers to achieve efficiency in production, inventory and PPC processes – and simultaneously be responsive to market requirements.

  4. Increased leukotriene production by food additives in patients with atopic dermatitis and proven food intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, M; Vieth, W; Ehlers, I; Sterry, W; Zuberbier, T

    2001-02-01

    Recently, we identified a subgroup of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) with a clinical relevant food intolerance proven by double blind placebo controlled challenge. In search of possible pathomechanisms involved in this food intolerance, which leads to aggravation of the disease, the aim of the present study was to determine sulfidoleukotriene production in these patients using isolated leucocytes from the peripheral blood after stimulation with different food additives. Leukotriene production of peripheral leucocytes was detected by incubation of isolated cells with the food additives at different concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 200 microg/mL after pre-stimulation with IL-3. Ten non-atopic donors (A), nine AD patients of the diet responder group with negative oral provocation test against food additives (B) and nine patients of the responder group with positive reactions after the oral provocation test (C) were investigated. In the non-atopic group (A), no increased sulfidoleukotriene (sLT) release was observed for all food additives tested. In group B, increased sLT production was determined using tartrazine in one patient (1/9) and using nitrite in two patients (2/9), whereas sLT production remained below the cut-off range in all patients of group B (9/9) using benzoate, metabisulfite and salicylate. By contrast, in group C increased sLT production was observed with food colour mix in 1/9, with tartrazine in 3/9, with benzoate in 4/9, with nitrite in 5/9, with salicylate in 2/9 and with metabisulfite in 1/9. However, no increased sLT concentration was determined in the presence of the tested food additives in two patients of group C. Increased sLT production by peripheral leucocytes in the presence of single food additives was observed in the majority of patients with a proven food intolerance towards food additives proven by double-blind-placebo-controlled challenges. These food additives were particulary tartrazine, benzoate and nitrite. These findings

  5. Prevalence of food production systems in school foodservice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Denise M

    2005-08-01

    What is the prevalence of central kitchens that use either cook-chill or cook-freeze production systems in school foodservice settings? A descriptive study using a 5-minute telephone survey during normal working hours was conducted. Questions were designed to be easily answered with minimal need to reference other documentation. Five hundred forty school foodservice directors, managers, and supervisors working in school districts of all sizes across the United States were randomly sampled from a national commercial directory of school districts for the study. A total of 353 individuals completed the survey representing 49 of 50 states. Means, standard deviations, and percentages were evaluated for all data collected. Descriptive statistics of school district characteristics, prevalence of production systems, food transport systems, inventory methods and equipment used for reheating food are reported. The most frequently reported production system was on-site kitchens (45.3%) followed by combination production systems (40.5%) where a central kitchen delivered to a number of satellite locations in addition to schools with on-site food preparation. Central kitchens without additional on-site kitchens represented 14.2% of this study. Of those school districts using either central kitchens or combination production systems, 78% reported hot-food preparation using hot-food delivery to satellites. Cook-chill or cook-freeze production systems were reported by 22% of respondents. The high proportion of school districts that prepared and delivered foods hot to satellite sites supports continuing efforts to identify food safety practices and issues related to maintaining food quality in schools.

  6. Population and prehistory III: food-dependent demography in variable environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charlotte T; Puleston, Cedric O; Tuljapurkar, Shripad

    2009-11-01

    The population dynamics of preindustrial societies depend intimately on their surroundings, and food is a primary means through which environment influences population size and individual well-being. Food production requires labor; thus, dependence of survival and fertility on food involves dependence of a population's future on its current state. We use a perturbation approach to analyze the effects of random environmental variation on this nonlinear, age-structured system. We show that in expanding populations, direct environmental effects dominate induced population fluctuations, so environmental variability has little effect on mean hunger levels, although it does decrease population growth. The growth rate determines the time until population is limited by space. This limitation introduces a tradeoff between population density and well-being, so population effects become more important than the direct effects of the environment: environmental fluctuation increases mortality, releasing density dependence and raising average well-being for survivors. We discuss the social implications of these findings for the long-term fate of populations as they transition from expansion into limitation, given that conditions leading to high well-being during growth depress well-being during limitation.

  7. Sensitizing Black Adult and Youth Consumers to Targeted Food Marketing Tactics in Their Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isselmann DiSantis, Katherine; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Rohm Young, Deborah; Grier, Sonya A; Lassiter, Vikki

    2017-10-29

    Food marketing environments of Black American consumers are heavily affected by ethnically-targeted marketing of sugar sweetened beverages, fast foods, and other products that may contribute to caloric overconsumption. This qualitative study assessed Black consumers' responses to targeted marketing. Black adults (2 mixed gender groups; total n = 30) and youth (2 gender specific groups; total n = 35) from two U.S. communities participated before and after a sensitization procedure-a critical practice used to understand social justice concerns. Pre-sensitization focus groups elicited responses to scenarios about various targeted marketing tactics. Participants were then given an informational booklet about targeted marketing to Black Americans, and all returned for the second (post-sensitization) focus group one week later. Conventional qualitative content analysis of transcripts identified several salient themes: seeing the marketer's perspective ("it's about demand"; "consumers choose"), respect for community ("marketers are setting us up for failure"; "making wrong assumptions"), and food environments as a social justice issue ("no one is watching the door"; "I didn't realize"). Effects of sensitization were reflected in participants' stated reactions to the information in the booklet, and also in the relative occurrence of marketer-oriented themes and social justice-oriented themes, respectively, less and more after sensitization.

  8. Sensitizing Black Adult and Youth Consumers to Targeted Food Marketing Tactics in Their Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isselmann DiSantis, Katherine; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Rohm Young, Deborah; Grier, Sonya A.; Lassiter, Vikki

    2017-01-01

    Food marketing environments of Black American consumers are heavily affected by ethnically-targeted marketing of sugar sweetened beverages, fast foods, and other products that may contribute to caloric overconsumption. This qualitative study assessed Black consumers’ responses to targeted marketing. Black adults (2 mixed gender groups; total n = 30) and youth (2 gender specific groups; total n = 35) from two U.S. communities participated before and after a sensitization procedure—a critical practice used to understand social justice concerns. Pre-sensitization focus groups elicited responses to scenarios about various targeted marketing tactics. Participants were then given an informational booklet about targeted marketing to Black Americans, and all returned for the second (post-sensitization) focus group one week later. Conventional qualitative content analysis of transcripts identified several salient themes: seeing the marketer’s perspective (“it’s about demand”; “consumers choose”), respect for community (“marketers are setting us up for failure”; “making wrong assumptions”), and food environments as a social justice issue (“no one is watching the door”; “I didn’t realize”). Effects of sensitization were reflected in participants’ stated reactions to the information in the booklet, and also in the relative occurrence of marketer-oriented themes and social justice-oriented themes, respectively, less and more after sensitization. PMID:29109377

  9. Sensitizing Black Adult and Youth Consumers to Targeted Food Marketing Tactics in Their Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Isselmann DiSantis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food marketing environments of Black American consumers are heavily affected by ethnically-targeted marketing of sugar sweetened beverages, fast foods, and other products that may contribute to caloric overconsumption. This qualitative study assessed Black consumers’ responses to targeted marketing. Black adults (2 mixed gender groups; total n = 30 and youth (2 gender specific groups; total n = 35 from two U.S. communities participated before and after a sensitization procedure—a critical practice used to understand social justice concerns. Pre-sensitization focus groups elicited responses to scenarios about various targeted marketing tactics. Participants were then given an informational booklet about targeted marketing to Black Americans, and all returned for the second (post-sensitization focus group one week later. Conventional qualitative content analysis of transcripts identified several salient themes: seeing the marketer’s perspective (“it’s about demand”; “consumers choose”, respect for community (“marketers are setting us up for failure”; “making wrong assumptions”, and food environments as a social justice issue (“no one is watching the door”; “I didn’t realize”. Effects of sensitization were reflected in participants’ stated reactions to the information in the booklet, and also in the relative occurrence of marketer-oriented themes and social justice-oriented themes, respectively, less and more after sensitization.

  10. Safeguarding food and food products from radiological contamination through gammametric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racho, Joseph Michael D.; Bautista, Angel T.VII; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Sucgang, Raymond J.; Mendoza, Norman DS.; Cuyco, Danilo A.; Jimenez, Gloria R.; Bucal, Camille Grace D.; Morco, Ryan P.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to demonstrate gammametric analysis in safeguarding food and food products from radioactive contamination caused by a nuclear accident. Different food and food products submitted for analysis from March 2011 to September 2011 were analyzed for Cesium-137, Cesium 134, and Iodine-131 radioactivity levels using a high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector gamma spectrometer system. Radioactivity levels of the said samples were found to be less than 1-4 Bq/Kg for both Cs-137 and Cs-134, and less than 0.2 - 2 Bq/Kg for I-131, and were found to below the Codex Alimentarius Commission Guideline Levels for Radionuclides in Foods Following Accidental Nuclear Contamination for Use in International Trade limits of 1,000 Bq/Kg for the sum of Cs-137 and Cs-134 in feeding stuffs, and that of 100 Bq/Kg for the sum of all isotopes of iodine notably I-131 in feeding stuff. (author)

  11. Energy Analysis of the Danish Food Production System: Food-EROI and Fossil Fuel Dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Østergård, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Modern food production depends on limited natural resources for providing energy and fertilisers. We assess the fossil fuel dependency for the Danish food production system by means of Food Energy Returned on fossil Energy Invested (Food-EROI) and by the use of energy intensive nutrients from....... Furthermore, nutrients in commercial fertiliser and imported feed account for 84%, 90% and 90% of total supply of N, P and K, respectively. We conclude that the system is unsustainable because it is embedded in a highly fossil fuel dependent system based on a non-circular flow of nutrients. As energy and thus...... imported livestock feed and commercial fertilisers. The analysis shows that the system requires 221 PJ of fossil energy per year and that for each joule of fossil energy invested in farming, processing and transportation, 0.25 J of food energy is produced; 0.28 when crediting for produced bioenergy...

  12. Promoting Productive Urban Green Open Space Towards Food Security: Case Study Taman Sari, Bandung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridwan, M.; Sinatra, Fran; Natalivan, Petrus

    2017-10-01

    The common trend of urban population has been growing significantly in Indonesia for decades, are affected by urban green space conversion. Generally, this area is utilized for urban infrastructures and residences. Furthermore, urban area has grown uncontrollably that could enhance the phenomenon of urban sprawl. The conversion of green urban area and agricultural area will significantly decrease urban food security and quality of urban environment. This problem becomes a serious issue for urban sustainability. Bandung is a city with dense population where there are many poor inhabitants. Families living in poverty are subjected to food insecurity caused by the rise of food prices. Based on the urgency of urban food security and urban environment quality the local government has to achieve comprehensive solutions. This research aims to formulate the policy of productive green open space towards food security for poor people in Bandung. This research not only examines the role played by productive green open space to supply food for the urban poor but also how to govern urban areas sustainably and ensure food security. This research uses descriptive explanatory methodology that describes and explains how to generate policy and strategic planning for edible landscape to promote urban food security. Taman Sari is the location of this research, this area is a populous area that has amount of poor people and has a quite worse quality of urban environment. This study shows that urban green open space has the potential to be utilized as an urban farming land, which poor inhabitants could be main actors to manage urban agriculture to provide their food. Meanwhile, local government could contribute to subsidize the financial of urban farming activities.

  13. Neighborhood food environment role in modifying psychosocial stress-diet relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N; Schulz, Amy J; Izumi, Betty T; Mentz, Graciela; Israel, Barbara A; Lockett, Murlisa

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to highly palatable foods may increase eating in response to stress, but this behavioral response has not been examined in relation to the neighborhood food environment. This study examined whether the neighborhood food environment modified relationships between psychosocial stress and dietary behaviors. Probability-sample survey (n=460) and in-person food environment audit data were used. Dietary behaviors were measured using 17 snack food items and a single eating-out-of-home item. Chronic stress was derived from five subscales; major life events was a count of nine items. The neighborhood food environment was measured as availability of large grocery stores, small grocery stores, and convenience stores, as well as proportion of restaurants that were fast food. Two-level hierarchical regression models were estimated. Snack food intake was positively associated with convenience store availability and negatively associated with large grocery store availability. The measures of chronic stress and major life events were generally not associated with either dietary behavior overall, although Latinos were less likely to eat out at high levels of major life events than African Americans. Stress-neighborhood food environment interactions were not statistically significant. Important questions remain regarding the role of the neighborhood food environment in the stress-diet relationship that warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kramkowska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed ‘modified organisms’, which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers.

  15. Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramkowska, Marta; Grzelak, Teresa; Czyżewska, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed 'modified organisms', which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers.

  16. Relationships between expected, online and remembered enjoyment for food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric

    2014-03-01

    How enjoyable a food product is remembered to be is likely to shape future choice. The present study tested the influence that expectations and specific moments during consumption experiences have on remembered enjoyment for food products. Sixty-four participants consumed three snack foods (savoury, sweet and savoury-sweet) and rated expected and online enjoyment for each product. Twenty-four hours later participants rated remembered enjoyment and future expected enjoyment for each product. Remembered enjoyment differed to online enjoyment for two of the three products, resulting in the foods being remembered as less enjoyable than they actually were. Both expected enjoyment and specific moments during the consumption experience (e.g. the least enjoyable mouthful) influenced remembered enjoyment. However, the factors that shaped remembered enjoyment were not consistent across the different food products. Remembered enjoyment was also shown to be a better predictor of future expected enjoyment than online enjoyment. Remembered enjoyment is likely to influence choice behaviour and can be discrepant to actual enjoyment. Specific moments during a consumption experience can have disproportionately large influence on remembered enjoyment (whilst others are neglected), but the factors that determine which moments influence remembered enjoyment are unclear. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Upgrading Women's Food Product Value Chains in Northern Ethiopia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Promoting agricultural product value chains and linking farmers to markets are key strategies in Ethiopia's efforts to fight poverty and improve food security. However, many of these initiatives fail to integrate women's products and priorities into value chain development. This research project will help rural women in remote ...

  18. Bioenergy production and food security in Africa | Ogbonna | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This will in turn, facilitate industrialization in other sectors of economy through provision of affordable, renewable and clean energy. In order to minimize possible negative effects of bioenergy production on food security, land allocation for energy crop production can be regulated. Energy security cannot be separated from ...

  19. Alternaria in Food: Ecophysiology, Mycotoxin Production and Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyang Burm; Patriarca, Andrea; Magan, Naresh

    2015-06-01

    Alternaria species are common saprophytes or pathogens of a wide range of plants pre- and post-harvest. This review considers the relative importance of Alternaria species, their ecology, competitiveness, production of mycotoxins and the prevalence of the predominant mycotoxins in different food products. The available toxicity data on these toxins and the potential future impacts of Alternaria species and their toxicity in food products pre- and post-harvest are discussed. The growth of Alternaria species is influenced by interacting abiotic factors, especially water activity (aw), temperature and pH. The boundary conditions which allow growth and toxin production have been identified in relation to different matrices including cereal grain, sorghum, cottonseed, tomato, and soya beans. The competitiveness of Alternaria species is related to their water stress tolerance, hydrolytic enzyme production and ability to produce mycotoxins. The relationship between A. tenuissima and other phyllosphere fungi has been examined and the relative competitiveness determined using both an Index of Dominance (ID) and the Niche Overlap Index (NOI) based on carbon-utilisation patterns. The toxicology of some of the Alternaria mycotoxins have been studied; however, some data are still lacking. The isolation of Alternaria toxins in different food products including processed products is reviewed. The future implications of Alternaria colonization/infection and the role of their mycotoxins in food production chains pre- and post-harvest are discussed.

  20. Managing the soil for enhanced food production in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper reviews soil management practices for enhanced food production in Nigeria. The different types of soil in Nigeria were discussed. The paper further gave details of the management practices that farmers could benefit from to enhance their productivity. These included alley cropping, agro-forestry, minimum ...

  1. Alternaria in Food: Ecophysiology, Mycotoxin Production and Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriarca, Andrea; Magan, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    Alternaria species are common saprophytes or pathogens of a wide range of plants pre- and post-harvest. This review considers the relative importance of Alternaria species, their ecology, competitiveness, production of mycotoxins and the prevalence of the predominant mycotoxins in different food products. The available toxicity data on these toxins and the potential future impacts of Alternaria species and their toxicity in food products pre- and post-harvest are discussed. The growth of Alternaria species is influenced by interacting abiotic factors, especially water activity (aw), temperature and pH. The boundary conditions which allow growth and toxin production have been identified in relation to different matrices including cereal grain, sorghum, cottonseed, tomato, and soya beans. The competitiveness of Alternaria species is related to their water stress tolerance, hydrolytic enzyme production and ability to produce mycotoxins. The relationship between A. tenuissima and other phyllosphere fungi has been examined and the relative competitiveness determined using both an Index of Dominance (ID) and the Niche Overlap Index (NOI) based on carbon-utilisation patterns. The toxicology of some of the Alternaria mycotoxins have been studied; however, some data are still lacking. The isolation of Alternaria toxins in different food products including processed products is reviewed. The future implications of Alternaria colonization/infection and the role of their mycotoxins in food production chains pre- and post-harvest are discussed. PMID:26190916

  2. Impact of perennial cash croppin on food crop productivity. | Debela ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perennial cash crops (PCC) can relax household liquidity constraints for purchasing productive inputs, maintain soil fertility and moisture and save inputs such as seeds and draft power, which can be used for food crop production even in the absence of arrangements for interlinked markets. In this study we build on ...

  3. Unpacking the Nexus in Food Prices, Agricultural Productivity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rising food prices and low agricultural productivity are major threats to feeding the teeming population of the most populous nation in Africa - Nigeria. Besides, poverty incidence in Nigeria constitutes a drawback to agricultural and economic development. Low agricultural productivity (output per hectare or yield) for cereals ...

  4. Climate variability and sustainable food production: Insights from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between food crop production and climate variability, we used multiple regression and a matrix plot with Locally-Weighted ... Our trend analysis indicates that the production of rice and maize have been showing an increasing trend per hectare ..... of Botany and Zoology, Australian National University, Australia. Devereux, S.

  5. Prototype Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies: Branded Food Products Database for Public Health Proof of Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Prototype Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (Prototype FNDDS) Branded Food Products Database for Public Health is a proof of concept database. The database contains a small selection of food products which is being used to exhibit the approach for incorporation of the Branded Food ...

  6. Mobile materials handling platform interface architecture for mass production environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walker, A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available the processing environment. Due to the operational structure of mass customisation, passive methods alone cannot facilitate customer influenced production dynamics. This is due to the fact that every product is different from the last. Active methods...

  7. Explaining consumer attitudes to genetic modification in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    Consumers have not had many possibilities yet for seeking out, buying and consuming genetically modified food products. However, for various reasons consumer attitude formation with regard to these products is likely to be complex and closely related to personal values. The paper presents a model...... for explaining consumer attitudes to genetic modification in food production which builds on modern cognitive psychology and multi-attribute attitude theory. In addition, the paper introduces the empirical research which is undertaken at present to validate and estimate the parameters of the model by means...

  8. Changes in School Competitive Food Environments after a Health Promotion Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sarah H.; Mallya, Giridhar; Brensinger, Colleen; Tierney, Ann; Glanz, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Background: Schools can reduce student access to competitive foods and influence healthy food choices by improving the school nutrition environment. This study describes changes in competitive nutrition environments in 100 K-8 schools participating in the Philadelphia Campaign for Healthier Schools. Methods: Interviews with school staff were used…

  9. Recent trends in bioethanol production from food processing byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbas, Meltem Yesilcimen; Stark, Benjamin C

    2016-11-01

    The widespread use of corn starch and sugarcane as sources of sugar for the production of ethanol via fermentation may negatively impact the use of farmland for production of food. Thus, alternative sources of fermentable sugars, particularly from lignocellulosic sources, have been extensively investigated. Another source of fermentable sugars with substantial potential for ethanol production is the waste from the food growing and processing industry. Reviewed here is the use of waste from potato processing, molasses from processing of sugar beets into sugar, whey from cheese production, byproducts of rice and coffee bean processing, and other food processing wastes as sugar sources for fermentation to ethanol. Specific topics discussed include the organisms used for fermentation, strategies, such as co-culturing and cell immobilization, used to improve the fermentation process, and the use of genetic engineering to improve the performance of ethanol producing fermenters.

  10. Identifying fast-food restaurants using a central register as a measure of the food environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla; Erbs-Maibing, Peter; Glümer, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    To validate the identification and location of fast-food restaurants according to a government list of inspected food stores and restaurants.......To validate the identification and location of fast-food restaurants according to a government list of inspected food stores and restaurants....

  11. Socioeconomic Differences in the Association between Competitive Food Laws and the School Food Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Powell, Lisa M.; Perna, Frank M.; Robinson, Whitney R.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schools of low socioeconomic status (SES) tend to sell fewer healthy competitive foods/beverages. This study examined whether state competitive food laws may reduce such disparities. Methods: School administrators for fifth- and eighth grade reported foods and beverages sold in school. Index measures of the food/beverage environments…

  12. Production loss among employees perceiving work environment problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohela-Karlsson, Malin; Hagberg, Jan; Bergström, Gunnar

    2015-08-01

    The overall aim of this explorative study was to investigate the relationship between factors in the psychosocial work environment and work environment-related production loss. Employees at a Swedish university were invited to answer a workplace questionnaire and were selected for this study if they reported having experienced work environment-related problems in the past 7 days (n = 302). A stepwise logistic regression and a modified Poisson regression were used to identify psychosocial work factors associated with work environment-related production loss as well as to identify at what level those factors are associated with production loss. Employees who reported having experienced work environment problems but also fair leadership, good social climate, role clarity and control of decision had significantly lower levels of production loss, whereas employees who reported inequality and high decision demands reported significantly higher levels of production loss. Never or seldom experiencing fair leadership, role clarity, equality, decision demands and good social climate increase the risk of production loss due to work environment problems, compared to those who experience these circumstances frequently, always or most of the time. Several psychosocial work factors are identified as factors associated with a reduced risk of production losses among employees despite the nature of the work environment problem. Knowledge of these factors may be important not only to reduce employee ill-health and the corresponding health-related production loss, but also reduce immediate production loss due to work environment-related problems.

  13. The Healthy School Canteen Programme: A Promising Intervention to Make the School Food Environment Healthier

    OpenAIRE

    Mensink, Fréderike; Schwinghammer, Saskia Antoinette; Smeets, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The environment can exert a strong influence on people's food decisions. In order to facilitate students to make more healthy food choices and to develop healthy eating habits, it is important that the school food environment is healthy. The Healthy School Canteen programme of The Netherlands Nutrition Centre is an intervention that helps schools to make their cafeteria's offering healthier. A descriptive study was conducted by an independent research agency to survey the perceptions, experie...

  14. Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PC USER

    grown on saline lands with Cellulomonas biazotea. World Journal of Microbiology &. Biotechnology 21:207-211. Rosenberg, E. (1993). Exploiting microbial growth on hydrocarbons: new markets. Trends in. Biotechnology 11: 419-424. Subrahmanyan, D. (1990). Processing: Fermented. Foods of Cassava. Food Laboratory ...

  15. A study of institutional environment and household food security at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study looked into the current scenario of food security in Rwanda. After analysing the national level institutional and food security scenarios by using available secondary data, the researchers used primary data that have been collected from a random sample of 200 households spreading over six sectors of the Huye ...

  16. Infant Weaning Foods in Jos and Environs, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THERE are various types of weaning foods available in the world today ranging from the oommercialised .... lated into well dried nutrient agar, blood agar and potato dextrose agar plates. The drops were allowed .... rejection of the prepared food by the infants, which may give rise to malnutrition. The preponderance of.

  17. The home food environment of overweight gatekeepers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, M.P.; de Vet, E.W.M.L.; Velema, E.; Seidell, J.C.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to gain insight into (i) processed snack-food availability, (ii) processed snack-food salience and (iii) the size of dinnerware among households with overweight gatekeepers. Moreover, associations between gatekeepers' characteristics and in-home

  18. Food environments in schools and in the immediate vicinity are associated with unhealthy food consumption among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo, Catarina Machado; de Rezende, Leandro Fórnias Machado; Canella, Daniela Silva; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; França-Junior, Ivan; Kinra, Sanjay; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Levy, Renata Bertazzi

    2016-07-01

    Evidence of the influence of the school food environment on adolescent diet is still little explored in low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to evaluate the association between food environment in schools and the immediate vicinity and the regular consumption of unhealthy food among adolescents. We used cross-sectional data collected by the Brazilian National Survey of School Health (PeNSE) from a representative sample of adolescents attending 9th grade public and private schools in Brazil, in 2012. We estimated students' regular consumption (>5days/week) of unhealthy food (soft drinks, bagged salty snacks, deep fried salty snacks and sweets) and school availability, in the cafeteria or an alternative outlet, of the same food plus some healthy options (fruit and natural fruit juice). We performed multilevel logistic regression models. Having a cafeteria inside school selling soft drinks (private schools OR=1.23; 95% CI=1.14-1.33; public schools OR=1.13; 95% CI=1.06-1.20) and deep fried salty snacks (private schools OR=1.41 95% CI=1.26-1.57; public schools OR=1.16 95% CI=1.08-1.24) was associated with a higher consumption of these unhealthy foods of among students. In private schools, cafeteria selling fruit and natural fruit juice was associated with lower student consumption of bagged salty snacks (OR=0.86; 95% CI 0.77-0.96) and soft drinks (OR=0.85; 95% CI=0.76-0.94). In addition, eating meals from the Brazilian School Food Program in public schools was associated with a lower consumption of unhealthy foods. Foods available in the school food environment are associated with the consumption of unhealthy food among adolescents in Brazil. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Exploring the Dynamics of Responses to Food Production Shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aled Jones

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Food production shocks can lead to food crises where access to appropriate quantities and quality of food become inadequate, unaffordable, or unreliable on a major scale. While the physical causes of food production shocks are well researched, the dynamics of responses to them are less well understood. This paper reviews those dynamics and includes evidence gathered via interviews of 44 expert practitioners sourced globally from academia, government, industry, think-tanks, and development/relief organizations. The paper confirms that policy interventions are often prioritised for national interests and poorly coordinated at regional and global scales. The paper acknowledges future compounding trends such as climate change and demographic shifts and suggests that while there are signs of incremental progress in better managing the impacts of shock events, coordinated responses at scale will require a paradigm shift involving major policy, market, and technological advancements, and a wide range of public and private sector stakeholders.

  20. Phenolipids as antioxidants in omega-3 enriched food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Aleman, M.; Durand, E.

    Foods containing omega-3 PUFA are highly susceptible to oxidation. This causes formation of undesirable flavors and loss of health-beneficial fatty acids. To protect these food products, antioxidant addition may be a solution. Lately, extensive work has been performed on phenolipids...... and their efficacy in model emulsion systems. Since the polar paradox hypothesis was a simplified statement of the antioxidant efficacy in emulsions, a new term, “cut-off effect”, was introduced. The cut-off effect describes the efficacy of phenolipids in simple emulsions. However, most food products consist...... of a complex matrix where several factors may influence the oxidative stability, e.g. type and concentration of emulsifier. Thus, a better understanding of the antioxidative effect of phenolipids in complex foods is of great interest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidative effect of caffeic...

  1. How can GPS technology help us better understand exposure to the food environment? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Cetateanu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Global Positioning Systems (GPS are increasingly being used to objectively assess movement patterns of people related to health behaviours. However research detailing their application to the food environment is scarce. This systematic review examines the application of GPS in studies of exposure to food environments and their potential influences on health. Methods: Based on an initial scoping exercise, published articles to be included in the systematic review were identified from four electronic databases and reference lists and were appraised and analysed, the final cut-off date for inclusion being January 2015. Included studies used GPS to identify location of individuals in relation to food outlets and link that to health or diet outcomes. They were appraised against a set of quality criteria. Results: Six studies met the inclusion criteria, which were appraised to be of moderate quality. Newer studies had a higher quality score. Associations between observed mobility patterns in the food environment and diet related outcomes were equivocal. Findings agreed that traditional food exposure measures overestimate the importance of the home food environment. Conclusions: The use of GPS to measure exposure to the food environment is still in its infancy yet holds much potential. There are considerable variations and challenges in developing and standardising the methods used to assess exposure. Keywords: Global positioning systems, Geographic information system, Food environments, Food exposure, Systematic review

  2. Bacteriocins From Lactic Acid Bacteria: Interest For Food Products Biopreservation

    OpenAIRE

    Dortu, C.; Thonart, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria: interest for food products biopreservation. Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria are low molecular weight antimicrobial peptides. They have inhibitory activity against the bacteria that are closed related to the producer strains and a narrow inhibitory spectrum. Nevertheless, most of them have activity against some food-born pathogenic bacteria as Listeria monocytogenes. The application of bacteriocins or bacteriocin producing lactic acid bacteria in ...

  3. [Intention] to buy organic food products among norwegian consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Muhammed Zabiullah

    2012-01-01

    Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2012 The purpose of this thesis is to examine the buying intention of the Norwegian consumers towards ecological or eco-labeled food products. What are the factors that are leading people to buy organic food and which one are the most important factors among consumers. The thesis is divided into four sections, Phenomena, Theory, Reality, and conclusion. Each section is interrelated with each other. In this thesis, data w...

  4. Phenolipids as antioxidants in omega-3 enriched food products

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Aleman, M.; Durand, E.; Villeneuve, P.; Bou, R.; Guardiola, F.; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Foods containing omega-3 PUFA are highly susceptible to oxidation. This causes formation of undesirable flavors and loss of health-beneficial fatty acids. To protect these food products, antioxidant addition may be a solution. Lately, extensive work has been performed on phenolipids and their efficacy in model emulsion systems. Since the polar paradox hypothesis was a simplified statement of the antioxidant efficacy in emulsions, a new term, “cut-off effect”, was introduced. The cut-off effec...

  5. Safety assessments and public concern for genetically modified food products: the American view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlander, Susan K

    2002-01-01

    In the relatively short time since their commercial introduction in 1996, genetically modified (GM) crops have been rapidly adopted in the United States GM crops are regulated through a coordinated framework developed in 1992 and administered by three agencies-the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) that ensures the products are safe to grow, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that ensures the products are safe for the environment, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that ensures the products are safe to eat. Rigorous food and environmental safety assessments must be completed before GM crops can be commercialized. Fifty-one products have been reviewed by the FDA, including several varieties of corn, soybeans, canola, cotton, rice, sugar beets, potatoes, tomatoes, squash, papaya, and flax. Because FDA considers these crops "substantially equivalent" to their conventional counterparts, no special labeling is required for GM crops in the United States and they are managed as commodities with no segregation or identity preservation. GM crops have thus made their way through commodity distribution channels into thousands of ingredients used in processed foods. It has been estimated that 70% to 85% of processed foods on supermarket shelves in the United States today contain one or more ingredients potentially derived from GM crops. The food industry and retail industry have been monitoring the opinions of their consumers on the GM issue for the past several years. Numerous independent groups have also surveyed consumer concerns about GM foods. The results of these surveys are shared and discussed here.

  6. Occurrence of transformation products in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpin, Dana W.; Battaglin, William A.; Conn, Kathleen E.; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Meyer, Michael T.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Boxall, Alistair B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, most environmental occurrence research has focused on the parent compounds of organic contaminants. Research, however, has documented that the environmental transport of chemicals, such as pesticides and emerging contaminants, are substantially underestimated if transformation products are not considered. Although most examples described herein were drawn from research conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, such results are generally reflective of those found in other parts of the world. Results from a study of 51 streams in the Midwestern United States found that transformation products were seven of the ten most frequently detected pesticide compounds in late spring runoff (after application of pre-emergent herbicides), and nine of the ten most frequently detected compounds in fall season runoff (during and after harvest). In fact, 70% of the total herbicide concentration in water from the Mississippi River Basin was from transformation products. Results from a study of 86 municipal wells in Iowa found the frequency of detection increased from 17%, when pesticide parent compounds were considered, to 53%, when both parents and transformation products were considered. Transformation products were 12 of the 15 most frequently detected compounds for this groundwater study. Although studies on transformation products of synthetic organic compounds other than pesticides are not as common, wastewater treatment plant discharges have repeatedly been shown to contribute such transformation products to streams. In addition, select detergent transformation products have been commonly found in solid waste in the 1000's mg/kg. These findings and many others document that transformation products must be considered to fully assess the potential environmental occurrence of chemical contaminants and their transport and fate in various compartments of the hydrologic system. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  7. APPLICATIONS OF MOLECULAR DISTILLATION TECHNIQUE IN FOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ketenoglu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are several separation techniques -including conventional distillation- for extracting heat sensitive compounds from food products. However, some compounds may have high boiling points at which other compounds might be adversely affected. Vacuum application is also needed for such kinds of foods. Molecular distillation is an advanced vacuum distillation method performed by short-path evaporators. Distance between evaporator and condenser is extremely reduced which results in minimized pressure drop. Heat sensitive material meets heat for a shorttime under high vacuum, thus low or no decomposition occurs. This review aims to discuss the basics and uses of molecular distillation in foods.

  8. [The microbiological safety of food products, and environmental factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheveleva, S A

    2006-01-01

    The author of the review analyzes the mechanisms of changes of biological properties of microorganisms causing alimentary infections and intoxications. A complex of environmental factors, such as anthropogenic, technogenic, social, ecological, and climatic ones, are considered to be the main cause of these changes. Food contamination by microorganisms and their toxins is facilitated by climatic warming. The exposure of consumers to food toxins grows, and alimentary infections become more frequent. New classes of alimentary infections have appeared; clinical manifestations and complications of food-related infections have become more serious. Besides, the quality and value of food products may be reduced by lactic acid microorganisms and moulds, whose content in food chains increases due to warming, especially in regions with a high anthropogenic load. From the economic perspective, the behavior of microbial food contaminants under the conditions of climatic warming increase direct losses of agricultural products due to their lesion by microscopic fungi, mycotoxins etc., as well as spoilage microflora. This may result in food shortage and famine in distant regions. The article covers control measures and the management of microbiological risks under the condition of climatic warming.

  9. Past, Present and Future of Sensors in Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine C. Adley

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbial contamination management is a crucial task in the food industry. Undesirable microbial spoilage in a modern food processing plant poses a risk to consumers’ health, causing severe economic losses to the manufacturers and retailers, contributing to wastage of food and a concern to the world’s food supply. The main goal of the quality management is to reduce the time interval between the filling and the detection of a microorganism before release, from several days, to minutes or, at most, hours. This would allow the food company to stop the production, limiting the damage to just a part of the entire batch, with considerable savings in terms of product value, thereby avoiding the utilization of raw materials, packaging and strongly reducing food waste. Sensor systems offer major advantages over current systems as they are versatile and affordable but need to be integrated in the existing processing systems as a process analytical control (PAT tool. The desire for good selectivity, low cost, portable and usable at working sites, sufficiently rapid to be used at-line or on-line, and no sample preparation devices are required. The application of biosensors in the food industry still has to compete with the standard analytical techniques in terms of cost, performance and reliability.

  10. Past, Present and Future of Sensors in Food Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adley, Catherine C

    2014-08-19

    Microbial contamination management is a crucial task in the food industry. Undesirable microbial spoilage in a modern food processing plant poses a risk to consumers' health, causing severe economic losses to the manufacturers and retailers, contributing to wastage of food and a concern to the world's food supply. The main goal of the quality management is to reduce the time interval between the filling and the detection of a microorganism before release, from several days, to minutes or, at most, hours. This would allow the food company to stop the production, limiting the damage to just a part of the entire batch, with considerable savings in terms of product value, thereby avoiding the utilization of raw materials, packaging and strongly reducing food waste. Sensor systems offer major advantages over current systems as they are versatile and affordable but need to be integrated in the existing processing systems as a process analytical control (PAT) tool. The desire for good selectivity, low cost, portable and usable at working sites, sufficiently rapid to be used at-line or on-line, and no sample preparation devices are required. The application of biosensors in the food industry still has to compete with the standard analytical techniques in terms of cost, performance and reliability.

  11. Market-based process and product innovation in the food sector: A Danish research programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Baadsgaard, Allan

    1992-01-01

    This note informs about the Danish MAPP research programme, a collection of 15 research projects aimed at making product and process innovation in the food sector more market-based. The programme, which has an interdisciplinary base, but is geared towards marketing applications, is concerned...... with the organization of the innovation process, the interaction of consumer and producer criteria in product development, the assessment of long-term developments in the market environment and the role distribution system in product innovation. Innovation in both primary production and processing are considered....

  12. Russian food products marke: New CEFTA export opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to point out the unexploited export potential of CEFTA economies to the Russian market, using both quantitative and qualitative methods. More precisely, the Russian food market is examined, because of its size, the lack of domestic supply and actual changes of trading partners due to political and security antagonisms. The competitiveness of CEFTA food production on the Russian food market was analyzed by using two classical instruments of competitiveness - coefficient of conformity (CC and real effective exchange rate (RER.CC is applied first to the CEFTA export and Russian import of food in total, and then to the six main Russian import food products. The results indicate the highest degree of matching between Russian import and all CEFTA country export of fruits, vegetable and its processed commodities. RER is calculated to show competitiveness in terms of prices in bilateral trade, and result shows a very favorable ratio of currency, except in the case of Montenegro and Bosnia because their fixation to euro. Due to the small size of CEFTA production and non-proportional large Russian market, the interconnection, e.g. forming the value chain made of CEFTAs agriculture and food industry companies is suggested as the basis of new CEFTA export strategy.

  13. [Milk and milk products: food sources of calcium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré Rovira, Rosaura

    2015-04-07

    The importance of calcium in human nutrition, the mechanisms of absorption and excretion of the element, and the factors affecting them with special reference to dietary factors are described. After reviewing daily dietary intakes of calcium and the main contributors in European and Spanish population, recommended intakes in Spain, the Nordic countries and the United States are mentioned. In relation to the dietary sources of calcium it has to be noted that the value of a given food as a source of a nutrient depends on its content in the food, the bioavailability of the nutrient and the usual food consumption. The calcium contents of potential food sources of the element are reported and its value is estimated according to the potential absorbability of the calcium they contain. The benefits of milk and dairy products as sources of calcium are also highlighted. Populations such as children or elderly may require fortified foods or supplements to satisfy their high calcium needs, so some examples of the efficacy of this supplementation are discussed. It is concluded that food and drinks are the best choice to obtain calcium. Taking into account the calcium content, the usual portion size and the consumption habits milk and dairy products, nuts, green leafy vegetables and legumes can provide adequate amounts of calcium. However, milk and dairy products constitute the best dietary source thanks to the bioavailability of the calcium they contain. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Studies on some irradiated food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, H.M.B.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the possibility of using some doses of gamma irradiation and cold storage (4+1 C) for improving the hygienic quality and shelf-life of some meat products ( beef luncheon, processed minced beef and fresh beef sausage). luncheon meat samples were irradiated at doses of 4,6,8,10 and 12 k Gy, while beef and sausage samples were subjected to 4,6 and 8 KGy gamma rays doses and the effects of irradiation on the organoleptic properties, microbiological aspects and the chemical composition were studied during cold storage (4+1 C) of samples. Attention was focussed on the changes occurred in the organoleptic properties of these products by the evaluation of sensory scores for appearance, color and odor of samples post irradiation and during cold storage (4+1 C). In addition, the effects of treatments and cold storage on the microbiological quality by the determination of total bacterial count, total psychropilic bacteria, total coliforms, total molds and yeasts, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus faecalis as well as the detection of salmonellae were studied

  15. UTILIZATION OF BY-PRODUCT OF CHEESEMAKING AGRIBUSINESS INDUSTRY FOR DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD PRODUCTS AND REDUCTION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Becker Rohlfes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The uses of by-products of cheese industry is still not significant in Brazil, since about 15% of liquid whey is used as raw material in food industry technology. The liquid whey has excellent technological properties, making it an alternative to minimize environmental impacts, besides it enables the use of the same nutritional properties in the production of new food products or adding value to the existing ones. The present study aimed to use liquid whey as an ingredient in the formulation of ice cream, hard candies, ham and breads, as well as to evaluate the influence of it in technological characteristics of the products and to quantify the volume of whey used. In order to evaluate the use of liquid whey, the products were developed with partial or total replacement of milk or water by whey, being the substitution accompanied by the determination of centesimal composition, as well as evaluating the visual characteristics of each product. The results show that the preparation of the products under study with substitution of raw milk or water is viable, proving that using liquid whey is a technological possibility of using a by-product considered to be an environmental pollutant. It was concluded that the use of liquid whey in the food industry reduces the environmental impact, since there is a reduction in the volume of whey discharged into the environment.

  16. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-10-01

    `Wood for Energy Production`, 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named `Wood Chips for Energy Production`. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. `Wood for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  17. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C.

    1999-01-01

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  18. Food and agriculture in relation to energy, environment and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winteringham, F.P.W.

    1980-01-01

    Current trends in cultivated land, world population, agricultural practices food and energy are briefly reviewed. The rise in energy input/food energy output ratios with modernization is indicated. Nutritional needs, and trends in food and energy demand per capita are also indicated. Some emerging constraints in relation to soil fertility and agrochemical usage are identified. A growing pressure on land for ''energy and chemical farming'' is foreseen. Losses of native and added soil nitrogen, comparable with total industrial fertilizer nitrogen fixation, seem unavoidable for two decades at least. This consideration of trends and their interactions suggests the need for more effective interdisciplinary study, longer-term planning and international cooperation. (author)

  19. Work group IV: Future directions for measures of the food and physical activity environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Mary; Giles-Corti, Billie; Yaroch, Amy Lazarus; Cummins, Steven; Frank, Lawrence Douglas; Huang, Terry T-K; Lewis, LaVonna Blair

    2009-04-01

    Much progress has been made in the past 5 to 10 years in measuring and understanding the impact of the food and physical activity environments on behavioral outcomes. Nevertheless, this research is in its infancy. A work group was convened to identify current evidence gaps and barriers in food and physical activity environments and policy research measures, and develop recommendations to guide future directions for measurement and methodologic research efforts. A nominal group process was used to determine six priority areas for food and physical activity environments and policy measures to move the field forward by 2015, including: (1) identify relevant factors in the food and physical activity environments to measure, including those most amenable to change; (2) improve understanding of mechanisms for relationships between the environment and physical activity, diet, and obesity; (3) develop simplified measures that are sensitive to change, valid for different population groups and settings, and responsive to changing trends; (4) evaluate natural experiments to improve understanding of food and physical activity environments and their impact on behaviors and weight; (5) establish surveillance systems to predict and track change over time; and (6) develop standards for adopting effective health-promoting changes to the food and physical activity environments. The recommendations emanating from the work group highlight actions required to advance policy-relevant research related to food and physical activity environments.

  20. Behaviour of Czech customers when buying food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Starzyczná

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents partial results of the primary research conducted through a questionnaire survey focused on the behaviour of Czech consumers when buying food, with regard to the behaviour of men and women. Specific objectives included are a brief outline of the theoretical issues examined and secondary research on the buying behaviour of consumers when buying food, based on available statistical data and information. After 1989, the quality of the market has changed, sales space has increased as well as the level of sales conditions. Offer in stores has widened. Recently the results of inspections of supervisory authorities show a lot of negative information, mainly relating to foreign chains. The supply of poor quality food is more common. Some food is offered even though it’s expired. The proposed premises are based on the current situation in the Czech retail market. Despite increased consumer awareness about the quality of food, the majority of respondents buy food in large commercial units (supermarket, hypermarket, discounts. The majority of respondents do not follow information on the packaging of food products, but follow the expiration date. Sales of food with expired shelf life or expiration date re-taped is usually notified by the supervisory authorities, therefore, is noticed by consumers. Buying behaviour of men and women shows some differences. Our results, however, have not proved any significant ones, although a small difference has emerged.

  1. Neighborhood and home food environment and children's diet and obesity: Evidence from military personnel's installation assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shier, Victoria; Nicosia, Nancy; Datar, Ashlesha

    2016-06-01

    Research and policy initiatives are increasingly focused on the role of neighborhood food environment in children's diet and obesity. However, existing evidence relies on observational data that is limited by neighborhood selection bias. The Military Teenagers' Environments, Exercise, and Nutrition Study (M-TEENS) leverages the quasi-random variation in neighborhood environment generated by military personnel's assignment to installations to examine whether neighborhood food environments are associated with children's dietary behaviors and BMI. Our results suggest that neither the actual nor the perceived availability of particular food outlets in the neighborhood is associated with children's diet or BMI. The availability of supermarkets and convenience stores in the neighborhood was not associated with where families shop for food or children's dietary behaviors. Further, the type of store that families shop at was not associated with the healthiness of food available at home. Similarly, availability of fast food and restaurants was unrelated to children's dietary behaviors or how often children eat fast food or restaurant meals. However, the healthiness of food available at home was associated with healthy dietary behaviors while eating at fast food outlets and restaurants were associated with unhealthy dietary behaviors in children. Further, parental supervision, including limits on snack foods and meals eaten as a family, was associated with dietary behaviors. These findings suggest that focusing only on the neighborhood food environment may ignore important factors that influence children's outcomes. Future research should also consider how families make decisions about what foods to purchase, where to shop for foods and eating out, how closely to monitor their children's food intake, and, ultimately how these decisions collectively impact children's outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Food safety implications of ochratoxin A in animal-derived food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Sofia C; Lino, Celeste M; Pena, Angelina

    2012-06-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is an important mycotoxin with potential to reach the human food chain through carry-over of contaminated, mostly cereal-based, feed into animal-derived products. Certain population groups, such as infants and children, are intensive and relatively restricted consumers of some animal-derived products, particularly milk and other dairy products, which may become contaminated with OTA. This review examines the literature on the occurrence of OTA in animal-derived products and discusses the public health and food safety implications of consumption of these products. The risk of OTA contamination of meat, milk, blood and derived products is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Alison; Christian, Jay W; Lewis, Sarah; Moore, Kate; Jilcott, Stephanie

    2013-01-29

    The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals' food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study's aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. 1) Food venue availability within activity space - no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice - Shopping at farmers' markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers' markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store - those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95% CI [0.14, 0.83]). Interventions aimed at

  4. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafson Alison

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals’ food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study’s aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1 food venue availability; 2 food venue choice and frequency; and 3 availability of healthy food within food venue. Methods In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121 age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. Results 1 Food venue availability within activity space – no significant associations. 2 Food Venue Choice – Shopping at farmers’ markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]. Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers’ markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]. Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]. 3 Availability of food within store – those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages

  5. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals’ food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study’s aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. Methods In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. Results 1) Food venue availability within activity space – no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice – Shopping at farmers’ markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers’ markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store – those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95

  6. Innovative food products for cancer patients: future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tueros, Itziar; Uriarte, Matxalen

    2017-11-23

    One of the main challenges for cancer patients under treatment is to prevent and tackle malnutrition. The current clinical nutrition market offers different food supplements or oral nutritional support products (mainly milkshakes or modified texture products) for cancer patients under risk of malnutrition. However, it is worth mentioning that these products do not address the pleasure of eating, since they do not meet sensory requirements, such as taste and smell alterations, nor patients' food preferences, leading to a big impact on their quality of life (QOL). Still, controversy remains regarding the specific nutritional requirements for cancer patients during the disease. Several randomized controlled clinical trials yield opposite results when using different bioactive compounds such as omega-3 fatty acids or antioxidants in order to prevent malnutrition or improve QOL. The use of 'omics' technologies in oncology, such as membrane lipidomics, as a powerful tool to provide new insights for the understanding of diet and cancer and their interacting metabolic pathways, will be discussed. The better knowledge of specific requirements (nutrients, sensory parameters and food preferences) for cancer patients provides valuable information for the food industry in the design of customized food products capable of preventing malnutrition, alleviating symptoms and improving QOL. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Inulin content of fortified food products in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaito, Chanantita; Judprasong, Kunchit; Puwastien, Prapasri

    2016-02-15

    This study examined inulin content in 266 samples. They were 126 dried, 105 liquid and 27 semi-solid of twelve commercial inulin fortified food products and 8 samples of natural dried sunchoke. For dried food products, inulin content ranged from 3.0 ±0.8g/100g fresh weight (FW) in milk powder to 83.7± 17.8g/100g FW in inulin powder. The levels in a descending order are the powder of inulin, weight control diet, coffee mixed, instant beverage, supplemented food products for pregnant and milk. For liquid fortified foods, inulin at the level of 0.3± 0.1g/100mL FW was found in UHT milk, and up to 13.5± 4.1g/100mL FW in weight control diet beverage. The level of 2.0-2.3g/100g FW of inulin was found in beverage with different flavours, soybean milk and fruit juice. For semi-solid food, cream yoghurt, inulin at 3.9± 1.1g/100g FW was found. A serving of most products contributes inulin at 11-33% of the recommended daily intake of dietary fibre. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PC USER

    ). Kinetic compensation effect in the heat denaturation of whey protein. Journal of Food. Science, 55 (2):589-592. Selmar, D., Lieberei, R. and Biehl, B.(2005). Mobilization and utilization of cyanogenic glucosides. The linastatin pathway. Plant.

  9. Culture, Environment, and Food to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Aimed at development planners and students of nutrition, public health, anthropology, and human cultural ecology, this book discusses issues surrounding the use of natural sources of food for the prevention of vitamin A deficiency.

  10. Investigating the food environment in Hatfield and Hillcrest, Tshwane

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lubisi, Sibusiso X

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available to accessing enough of the right food are physical (eg: railway lines or mountains), psychological (eg: personal safety concerns), sociological (eg: cultural or religious dietary practices), personal (eg: allergies, shopping patterns, grocery carrying capacity...

  11. Optimization of large scale food production using Lean Manufacturing principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Eva Høy; Friis, Alan; Breum, Gitte

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how the production principles of Lean Manufacturing (Lean) can be applied in a large-scale meal production. Lean principles are briefly presented, followed by a field study of how a kitchen at a Danish hospital has implemented Lean in the daily production. In the kitchen...... not be negatively affected by the rationalisation of production procedures. The field study shows that Lean principles can be applied in meal production and can result in increased production efficiency and systematic improvement of product quality without negative effects on the working environment. The results...

  12. The Food Environment in an Urban Mexican American Community

    OpenAIRE

    Lisabeth, Lynda D; Sánchez, Brisa N; Escobar, James; Hughes, Rebecca; Meurer, William J; Zuniga, Belinda; Garcia, Nelda; Brown, Devin L; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to determine whether ethnic composition of neighborhoods is associated with number and type of food stores in an urban, Mexican American US community. Data were from a commercial food store data source and the US Census. Multivariate count models were used to test associations with adjustment for neighborhood demographics, income, and commercialization. Neighborhoods at the 75th percentile of percent Mexican American (76%) had nearly four times the number of convenience stor...

  13. The significance of food safety in trade and banning the importation of GMO products into Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Aghaiypour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to legislation in Iran, the importation of transgenic products should be banned due to the lack of strong evidence for the safety of genetically modified foods. Therefore, the detection of genetically modified on importing products should perform by food control laboratories. In this study, specific primers were designed for 35S promoter (500 bp, NOS terminator (253 bp, NPT (470 bp and GUS (443 bp for the detection of GMO in 134 imported samples by Polymerase chain reaction. The results showed the identification of GMO in food has become an important issue in food control, and Iranian Government has not adopted to import any GMO products into Iran. Therefore, this could indicate the significance of food safety and low confidence of people on the safety of these products in Iran. In fact, this protocol can be used for detection of GM products and for the labeling GM samples in order to ensure human health safety and protect the environment.

  14. Radioactive contamination of environment and food in Poland in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.; Wilgos, J.

    1998-01-01

    The analysis of the level of radioactive contamination in environmental and food samples was carried out in Poland in 1997. The results were compared to the data from the period 1985-1996. Since the Chernobyl accident gradual decrease of contamination level has been observed. The gamma dose rate and the contamination of air, fallout, tape and surface water were at the level of 1985. The only contamination enhanced in relation to pre-Chernobyl period was the content of cesium isotopes in soil and as a consequence food contamination was higher particularly milk and meat. At present, the source of additional dose is ingestion of artificial isotopes with food as a result of food contamination. No significant regional differences in the distribution of the level of cesium in food over the territory of Poland has been registered. Milk can be assumed as the main contributor of cesium to the diet, its share is about 35% of annual intake of cesium. The average effective dose equivalent, resulting from the contaminated food consumption, was estimated to be at the level of 13 μSv per capita of the Polish population in 1997. (author)

  15. Radioactive contamination of environment and food in Poland in 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.; Wilgos, J.

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of the level of radioactive contamination in environmental and food samples was carried out in Poland in 1996. The results were compared to the data from the period 1985-1995. Since the Chernobyl accident gradual decrease of contamination level has been observed. The gamma dose rate and the contamination of air, fallout, tape and surface water were at the level of 1985. The only contamination enhanced in relation to pre-Chernobyl period was the content of cesium isotopes in soil and as a consequence food contamination was higher particularly milk and meat. At present, the source of additional dose is ingestion of artificial isotopes with food as a result of food contamination. No significant regional differences in the distribution of the level of cesium in food over the territory of Poland has been registered. Milk can be assumed as the main contributor of cesium to the diet, its share is about 40% of annual intake of cesium. The average effective dose equivalent, resulting from the contaminated food consumption, was estimated to be at the level of 14 μSv per capita of the Polish population in 1996. (author)

  16. Straw for energy production. Technology - Environment - Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Nielsen, C.; Larsen, M.G.; Nielsen, V.; Zielke, U.; Kristensen, J.K.; Holm-Christensen, B.

    1998-12-31

    `Straw for Energy Production`, second edition, provides a readily accessible background information of special relevance to the use of straw in the Danish energy supply. Technical, environmental, and economic aspects are described in respect of boiler plants for farms, district heating plants, and combined heat and power plants (CHP). The individual sections deal with both well-known, tested technology and the most recent advances in the field of CHP production. This publication is designed with the purpose of reaching the largest possible numbers of people and so adapted that it provides a valuable aid and gives the non-professional, general reader a thorough knowledge of the subject. `Straw for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  17. Consumers’ willingness to pay for health benefits in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolgopolova, Irina; Teuber, Ramona

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the existing literature on consumers’ marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for health benefits in food products. Results indicate that the presence of a health claim does not only increase MWTP for health benefits in foods but also reduces heterogeneity among MWTP estimates....... Hypothetical methods significantly positively affect MWTP. The most popular product category “dairy” negatively influences MWTP. The popular health claim of “lowering cholesterol” has a significantly positive influence on MWTP. In addition, our review highlights that existing studies significantly differ...

  18. Consumer perceptions of the application of biotechnology in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    Background: There has been considerable enthusiasm among scientists and industry about the possibilities of biotechnology and especially genetically modified organisms (GMO) in food production. At the same time, there has been considerable scepticism by consumers, much public debate, and a cautious...... approach from retailers. On this background, a study was designed to answer four questions: 1. How negative are consumer attitudes to GMO applications in food? 2. How much do these attitudes affect product evaluation and purchase behaviour? 3. How deeply rooted are these attitudes? 4. Can the attitudes...

  19. Energy Analysis of the Danish Food Production System: Food-EROI and Fossil Fuel Dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Østergård

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern food production depends on limited natural resources for providing energy and fertilisers. We assess the fossil fuel dependency for the Danish food production system by means of Food Energy Returned on fossil Energy Invested (Food-EROI and by the use of energy intensive nutrients from imported livestock feed and commercial fertilisers. The analysis shows that the system requires 221 PJ of fossil energy per year and that for each joule of fossil energy invested in farming, processing and transportation, 0.25 J of food energy is produced; 0.28 when crediting for produced bioenergy. Furthermore, nutrients in commercial fertiliser and imported feed account for 84%, 90% and 90% of total supply of N, P and K, respectively. We conclude that the system is unsustainable because it is embedded in a highly fossil fuel dependent system based on a non-circular flow of nutrients. As energy and thus nutrient constraints may develop in the coming decades, the current system may need to adapt by reducing use of fossil energy at the farm and for transportation of food and feed. An operational strategy may be to relocalise the supply of energy, nutrients, feed and food.

  20. Persistence and survival of pathogens in dry foods and dry food processing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuchat, L.; Komitopoulou, E.; Betts, R.; Beckers, H.; Bourdichon, F.; Joosten, H.; Fanning, S.; ter Kuile, B.

    2011-01-01

    Low-moisture foods and food ingredients, i.e., those appearing to be dry or that have been subjected to a drying process, represent important nutritional constituents of human diets. Some of these foods are naturally low in moisture, such as cereals, honey and nuts, whereas others are produced from

  1. Overcoming limits set by scarce resources - role of local food production and food imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porkka, Miina; Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Siebert, Stefan; Gerten, Dieter; Kummu, Matti

    2017-04-01

    There is a fundamental tension between population growth and carrying capacity, i.e. the population that could potentially be supported using the resources and technologies available at a given time. This makes the assessments of resource use and agricultural productivity central to the debate on future food security. Local carrying capacity can be increased by expanding (e.g. through land conversion and irrigation infrastructure) or intensifying (e.g. through technologies and practices that increase efficiency) the resource use in agriculture. Food imports can be considered another way of overcoming current local limits and continuing growth beyond the local human-carrying capacity. Focusing on water as the key limiting resource, we performed a global assessment of the capacity for food self-sufficiency at sub-national and national scale for 1961-2009, taking into account the availability of both green and blue water as well as technology and management practices affecting water productivity at a given time, and using the hydrology and agriculture model LPJmL as our primary tool. Furthermore, we examined the use of food imports as a strategy to increase carrying capacity in regions where the potential for food self-sufficiency was limited by water availability and productivity. We found that the capacity for food self-sufficiency reduced notably during the study period due to the rapid population growth that outpaced the substantial improvements in water productivity. In 2009 more than a third (2.2 billion people) of the world's population lived in areas where sufficient food production to meet the needs of the population was not possible, and some 800 million people more were approaching this threshold. Food imports have nearly universally been used to overcome these local limits to growth, though the success of this strategy has been highly dependent on economic purchasing power. In the unsuccessful cases, increases in imports and local productivity have not

  2. Layer breeding programmes in changing production environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LEENSTRA, F.; TEN NAPEL, J.; VISSCHER, J.; VAN SAMBEEK, F.

    2016-01-01

    The housing and management of laying hens and their productivity has gone through enormous developments in the last century. Housing has changed from free-range systems, via battery cages to a variety of loose housing and different types of battery cages, and back to outdoor access systems.

  3. Childhood obesity and community food environments in Alabama's Black Belt region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Robinson, L E; Carter, W M; Gupta, R

    2015-09-01

    Childhood obesity has been rising rapidly in the USA. The rate is higher among those at a lower socioeconomic status and racial/ethnic minority groups. In Alabama, nearly half of the children from rural African American families are overweight or obese. Studies suggest that children's eating behaviours and weight could be influenced by surrounding food environments. The purpose of this paper is to assess the community food environment and examine the associations with childhood obesity in Alabama's Black Belt region. This research uses both qualitative and quantitative methods. Weight status of 613 African American students in four elementary schools in a rural county of Alabama was assessed. We examined community food environments around children's home through GIS (Geographic Information System) and statistical methods. The interrelations between children's weight and community food environments are explored with multi-level models. Approximately 42.1% of surveyed children were overweight or obese, much higher than the national average, 30.6%. In Model 1, convenience stores (3.44; P types of food outlets. The percentage of African American population (90.23, P environments, sociodemographic factors and school context. Findings suggest that policymakers and planners need to improve community food environments of low-income minority communities. Parents and schools should pay more attention to reduce the negative impacts of food environments on children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Food, livestock production, energy, climate change, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J; Powles, John W; Butler, Colin D; Uauy, Ricardo

    2007-10-06

    Food provides energy and nutrients, but its acquisition requires energy expenditure. In post-hunter-gatherer societies, extra-somatic energy has greatly expanded and intensified the catching, gathering, and production of food. Modern relations between energy, food, and health are very complex, raising serious, high-level policy challenges. Together with persistent widespread under-nutrition, over-nutrition (and sedentarism) is causing obesity and associated serious health consequences. Worldwide, agricultural activity, especially livestock production, accounts for about a fifth of total greenhouse-gas emissions, thus contributing to climate change and its adverse health consequences, including the threat to food yields in many regions. Particular policy attention should be paid to the health risks posed by the rapid worldwide growth in meat consumption, both by exacerbating climate change and by directly contributing to certain diseases. To prevent increased greenhouse-gas emissions from this production sector, both the average worldwide consumption level of animal products and the intensity of emissions from livestock production must be reduced. An international contraction and convergence strategy offers a feasible route to such a goal. The current global average meat consumption is 100 g per person per day, with about a ten-fold variation between high-consuming and low-consuming populations. 90 g per day is proposed as a working global target, shared more evenly, with not more than 50 g per day coming from red meat from ruminants (ie, cattle, sheep, goats, and other digastric grazers).

  5. Review of health safety aspects of nanotechnologies in food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmeester, Hans; Dekkers, Susan; Noordam, Maryvon Y; Hagens, Werner I; Bulder, Astrid S; de Heer, Cees; ten Voorde, Sandra E C G; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Marvin, Hans J P; Sips, Adriënne J A M

    2009-02-01

    Due to new, previously unknown, properties attributed to engineered nanoparticles many new products are introduced in the agro-food area. Nanotechnologies cover many aspects, such as disease treatment, food security, new materials for pathogen detection, packaging materials and delivery systems. As with most new and evolving technologies, potential benefits are emphasized, while little is known on safety of the application of nanotechnologies in the agro-food sector. This review gives an overview of scientific issues that need to be addressed with priority in order to improve the risk assessment for nanoparticles in food. The following research topics are considered to contribute pivotally to risk assessment of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles in food products. Set a definition for NPs to facilitate regulatory discussions, prioritization of research and exchange of study results. Develop analytical tools for the characterization of nanoparticles in complex biological matrices like food. Establish relevant dose metrics for nanoparticles used for both interpretation of scientific studies as well as regulatory frameworks. Search for deviant behavior (kinetics) and novel effects (toxicity) of nanoparticles and assess the validity of currently used test systems following oral exposure. Estimate the consumer exposure to nanoparticles.

  6. Design of New Food Technology: Social Shaping of Working Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2000-01-01

    A five-year design process of a continuous process wok has been studied with the aim of elucidating the conditions for integrating working environment aspects. The design process is seen as a network building activity and as a social shaping process of the artefact. A working environment log...... is suggested as a tool designers can use to integrate considerations of future operators' working environment....

  7. Characterization of the School Neighborhood Food Environment in Three Mexican Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltero, Erica G; Ortiz Hernández, Luis; Jauregui, Edtna; Lévesque, Lucie; Lopez Y Taylor, Juan; Barquera, Simón; Lee, Rebecca E

    2017-01-01

    Food resources in school neighborhoods can negatively influence diet; however, this environment is understudied. This study characterized the school neighborhood food environment in Guadalajara (n=11), Puerto Vallarta (n=7), and Mexico City (n=14). Convenience stores, table-service restaurants, and taco stands were highly available in all three cities. Grocery stores were highly available in Mexico City school neighborhoods, yet less frequently observed in Guadalajara and Puerto Vallarta. Socioeconomic differences in food cart and grocery store availability were observed in Guadalajara and Puerto Vallarta. Policy and intervention strategies are needed to address the saturation of food resources in Mexico school neighborhoods.

  8. Exploring obesogenic food environments in Edmonton, Canada: the association between socioeconomic factors and fast-food outlet access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Eric; Raine, Kim; Spence, John C; Smoyer-Tomic, Karen E

    2008-01-01

    To explore the relationship between the placement of fast-food outlets and neighborhood-level socioeconomic variables by determining if indicators of lower socioeconomic status were predictive of exposure to fast food. A descriptive analysis of the fast-food environment in a Canadian urban center, using secondary analysis of census data and Geographic Information Systems technology. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Neighborhoods were classified as High, Medium, or Low Access based on the number of fast-food opportunities available to them. Neighborhood-level socioeconomic data (income, education, employment, immigration status, and housing tenure) from the 2001 Statistics Canada federal census were obtained. A discriminant function analysis was used to determine if any association existed between neighborhood demographic characteristics and accessibility of fast-food outlets. Significant differences were found between the three levels of fast-food accessibility across the socioeconomic variables, with successively greater percentages of unemployment, low income, and renters in neighborhoods with increasingly greater access to fast-food restaurants. A high score on several of these variables was predictive of greater access to fast-food restaurants. Although a causal inference is not possible, these results suggest that the distribution of fast-food outlets relative to neighborhood-level socioeconomic status requires further attention in the process of explaining the increased rates of obesity observed in relatively deprived populations.

  9. Food access and children's BMI in Toronto, Ontario: assessing how the food environment relates to overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kristian; Cook, Brian; Stone, Michelle R; Faulkner, Guy E J

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to examine how access to fast food restaurants, less healthy/healthier food outlets and supermarkets relate to measured levels of overweight and obesity among grade 5 and 6 students. Measured height and weight data were obtained to measure BMI. The location and type of food outlet were derived from Toronto Public Health. The density of fast food, less healthy/healthy food outlets and supermarkets within a 1-km walk of the child's home was calculated along with the distance to the closest. Logistic regression models examined the relationship between food access and overweight/obesity. Lower income residents were more likely to be overweight or obese, as were boys. Living in an area with a higher density of healthy food outlets and in close proximity to a supermarket decreased the odds of being overweight or obese. Addressing several limitations in the literature, the findings confirm an association between the food retail environment and body weight. Density of healthy food outlets and distance to the nearest supermarket are important factors to be considered in addressing the childhood obesity pandemic.

  10. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharkey Joseph R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores, convenience (convenience stores and food marts, and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant’s residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE, based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Results Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated

  11. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores), convenience (convenience stores and food marts), and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores) retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant’s residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI) of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R) was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE), based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Results Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated fat. Participation in

  12. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Nalty, Courtney C; Xu, Jin

    2013-01-17

    Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores), convenience (convenience stores and food marts), and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores) retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant's residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI) of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R) was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE), based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated fat. Participation in the National School Lunch

  13. Uranium production and the environment in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyodorov, G.V.

    2002-01-01

    The production of uranium from open-pit and underground mines in Kazakhstan has terminated. Currently, uranium is extracted in Kazakhstan only by the In Situ Leaching (ISL) method. This method has a number of economical and ecological advantages. During a short period in the 70s-80s, Kazakhstan created a firm basis for developing uranium extraction by the ISL method. Now more than half of the world's uranium reserves amenable to the ISL method are located in Kazakhstan. By 2005, a significant increase in uranium production is planned. Thereby, Kazakhstan has the ability to grow into a world leader in uranium extraction through a lower cost and low environmental impact operations using the ISL method. (author)

  14. Biocide By-Products in Aquatic Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bean, R. M.; Gibson, C. I.; Anderson, D. R.

    1981-05-01

    A three-year program has been conducted to study the chemistry and biological effects of products arising from the low-level chlorination of natural waters. These studies are related to environmental concerns arising from the discharge of chlorine-treated power plant cooling water. The studies have shown that addition of low levels (2 mg/l) of chlorine to natural waters produces haloforms in concentrations which are orders of magnitude lower than the LC{sub 50}'s measured in a number of fresh ana salt water organisms. Chlorination also produces nonhaloform lipophilic organohalogen products in concentrations much lower than the naloforms, although no evidence was obtained which suggested significant olomagnification of these during chronic exposure of juvenile salmon to chlorinated fresh water. No dramatic effects were noted in organisms chronically exposed to chlorinated waters, but changes in general condition were observed.

  15. Electronic Nose for Microbiological Quality Control of Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Falasconi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic noses (ENs have recently emerged as valuable candidates in various areas of food quality control and traceability, including microbial contamination diagnosis. In this paper, the EN technology for microbiological screening of food products is reviewed. Four paradigmatic and diverse case studies are presented: (a Alicyclobacillus spp. spoilage of fruit juices, (b early detection of microbial contamination in processed tomatoes, (c screening of fungal and fumonisin contamination of maize grains, and (d fungal contamination on green coffee beans. Despite many successful results, the high intrinsic variability of food samples together with persisting limits of the sensor technology still impairs ENs trustful applications at the industrial scale. Both advantages and drawbacks of sensor technology in food quality control are discussed. Finally, recent trends and future directions are illustrated.

  16. Production of Ethanol Fuel from Organic and Food Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak George AKPAN, Adamu Ali ALHAKIM, and Udeme Joshua Josiah IJAH

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of ethanol fuel from organic and food waste has been carried out with the singular aim of converting the waste to useful material. To achieve this, the conversion of organic waste (Old newspapers and food waste (maize were respectively carried out via acid and microbial hydrolysis, which yielded 42% and 63% fermentable sugar wort. This was then converted into ethanol by fermentation process using Sacchromyces ceverisiae. 95% ethanol was obtained by fractional distillation of the fermentable wort and the total volume of ethanol produced from 2,500 grams of the organic and food wastes was 0.86 liters.Fermentation Kinetic parameters were evaluated. Considering the percentage fermentable sugar yield from the biomasses in study, it is more economical to produce ethanol from food waste (maize than old organic waste (old newspaper.

  17. Connecting cities and their environments: Harnessing the water-energy-food nexus for sustainable urban development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of years of development have made the production and consumption of water, energy, and food for urban environments more complex. While the rise of cities has fostered social and economic progress, the accompanying environmental pressures threaten to undermine these benefits. The compounding effects of climate change, habitat loss, pollution, overexploitation (in addition to financial constraints make the individual management of these three vital resources incompatible with rapidly growing populations and resource-intensive lifestyles. Nexus thinking is a critical tool to capture opportunities for urban sustainability in both industrialised and developing cities. A nexus approach to water, energy, and food security recognises that conventional decisionmaking, strictly confined within distinct sectors, limits the sustainability of urban development. Important nexus considerations include the need to collaborate with a wide spectrum of stakeholders, and to “re-integrate” urban systems. This means recognising the opportunities coming from the interconnected nature of cities and metropolitan regions, including links with rural environments and wider biophysical dynamics.

  18. Consumer attitudes towards sustainability aspects of food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Grunert, Klaus G; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to analyse citizens' sustainability attitudes towards food production in the EU, Brazil, and China (n = 2885), using pork as an exemplary production system. The objective is to map citizens' attitudes towards sustainable characteristics of pig production systems, and investigate...... resulting segments. Results for the three continents point out that general sustainability attitudes relate to citizens' attitudes towards pig farming only for specific small-sized social groups. However, what the large majority of respondents think in their role as citizens related to pig production did....... This study therefore provides valuable insights to policymakers and practitioners for improvements in an integrated management of food chains to meet consumer sustainability-related expectations better....

  19. Consumer attitudes towards sustainability aspects of food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Grunert, Klaus G; de Barcellos, Marcia D.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to analyse citizens' sustainability attitudes towards food production in the EU, Brazil, and China (n = 2885), using pork as an exemplary production system. The objective is to map citizens' attitudes towards sustainable characteristics of pig production systems, and investigate...... resulting segments. Results for the three continents point out that general sustainability attitudes relate to citizens' attitudes towards pig farming only for specific small-sized social groups. However, what the large majority of respondents think in their role as citizens related to pig production did....... This study therefore provides valuable insights to policymakers and practitioners for improvements in an integrated management of food chains to meet consumer sustainability-related expectations better....

  20. Food and beverage product reformulation as a corporate political strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C; Hawkins, B; Knai, C

    2017-01-01

    Product reformulation- the process of altering a food or beverage product's recipe or composition to improve the product's health profile - is a prominent response to the obesity and noncommunicable disease epidemics in the U.S. To date, reformulation in the U.S. has been largely voluntary and initiated by actors within the food and beverage industry. Similar voluntary efforts by the tobacco and alcohol industry have been considered to be a mechanism of corporate political strategy to shape public health policies and decisions to suit commercial needs. We propose a taxonomy of food and beverage industry corporate political strategies that builds on the existing literature. We then analyzed the industry's responses to a 2014 U.S. government consultation on product reformulation, run as part of the process to define the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. We qualitatively coded the industry's responses for predominant narratives and framings around reformulation using a purposely-designed coding framework, and compared the results to the taxonomy. The food and beverage industry in the United States used a highly similar narrative around voluntary product reformulation in their consultation responses: that reformulation is "part of the solution" to obesity and NCDs, even though their products or industry are not large contributors to the problem, and that progress has been made despite reformulation posing significant technical challenges. This narrative and the frames used in the submissions illustrate the four categories of the taxonomy: participation in the policy process, influencing the framing of the nutrition policy debate, creating partnerships, and influencing the interpretation of evidence. These strategic uses of reformulation align with previous research on food and beverage corporate political strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.