WorldWideScience

Sample records for food production environment

  1. Gram-positive bacteria persisting in the food production environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knøchel, Susanne; Harmsen, Morten; Knudsen, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    Many gram-positive bacteria are able to form aggregates or biofilms and resist external stress factors and some gram-positive pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus may persist in the food production environment for extended periods. Most research has focussed...

  2. Determining the potential productivity of food crops in controlled environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugbee, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    The quest to determine the maximum potential productivity of food crops is greatly benefitted by crop growth models. Many models have been developed to analyze and predict crop growth in the field, but it is difficult to predict biological responses to stress conditions. Crop growth models for the optimal environments of a Controlled Environment Life Support System (CELSS) can be highly predictive. This paper discusses the application of a crop growth model to CELSS; the model is used to evaluate factors limiting growth. The model separately evaluates the following four physiological processes: absorption of PPF by photosynthetic tissue, carbon fixation (photosynthesis), carbon use (respiration), and carbon partitioning (harvest index). These constituent processes determine potentially achievable productivity. An analysis of each process suggests that low harvest index is the factor most limiting to yield. PPF absorption by plant canopies and respiration efficiency are also of major importance. Research concerning productivity in a CELSS should emphasize: (1) the development of gas exchange techniques to continuously monitor plant growth rates and (2) environmental techniques to reduce plant height in communities.

  3. Global food chains and environment: agro-food production and processing in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sriwichailamphan, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study on the global food chain and the environment, the objective is to understand the dynamics of food safety and environmental improvements among the large and medium-sized agro-food processing industries and farmers in Thailand that operate in the global market. This study assesses

  4. GM crops, the environment and sustainable food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    Today, over 7.1 billion people rely on the earth's resources for sustenance, and nearly a billion people are malnourished, their minds and bodies unable to develop properly. Globally, population is expected to rise to more than 9 billion by 2050. Given the combined pressures of human population growth, the rapidly growing desire for increased levels of consumption, and the continued use of inappropriate technologies, it is not surprising that humans are driving organisms to extinction at an unprecedented rate. Many aspects of the sustainable functioning of the natural world are breaking down in the face of human-induced pressures including our individual and collective levels of consumption and our widespread and stubborn use of destructive technologies. Clearly, agriculture must undergo a redesign and be better and more effectively managed so as to contribute as well as possible to feeding people, while at the same time we strive to lessen the tragic loss of biodiversity and damage to all of its productive systems that the world is experiencing. For GM crops to be part of the solution, biosafety assessments should not be overly politically-driven or a burdensome impedance to delivering this technology broadly. Biosafety scientists and policy makers need to recognize the undeniable truth that inappropriate actions resulting in indecision also have negative consequences. It is no longer acceptable to delay the use of any strategy that is safe and will help us achieve the ability to feed the world's people.

  5. Integration of Product, Package, Process, and Environment: A Food System Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maya R.; Douglas, Grace L.

    2015-01-01

    The food systems slated for future NASA missions must meet crew nutritional needs, be acceptable for consumption, and use resources efficiently. Although the current food system of prepackaged, moderately stabilized food items works well for International Space Station (ISS) missions, many of the current space menu items do not maintain acceptability and/or nutritive value beyond 2 years. Longer space missions require that the food system can sustain the crew for 3 to 5 years without replenishment. The task "Integration of Product, Package, Process, and Environment: A Food System Optimization" has the objective of optimizing food-product shelf life for the space-food system through product recipe adjustments, new packaging and processing technologies, and modified storage conditions. Two emergent food processing technologies were examined to identify a pathway to stable, wet-pack foods without the detrimental color and texture effects. Both microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) and pressure-assisted thermal stabilization (PATS) were evaluated against traditional retort processing to determine if lower heat inputs during processing would produce a product with higher micronutrient quality and longer shelf life. While MATS products did have brighter color and better texture initially, the advantages were not sustained. The non-metallized packaging film used in the process likely provided inadequate oxygen barrier. No difference in vitamin stability was evident between MATS and retort processed foods. Similarly, fruit products produced using PATS showed improved color and texture through 3 years of storage compared to retort fruit, but the vitamin stability was not improved. The final processing study involved freeze drying. Five processing factors were tested in factorial design to assess potential impact of each to the quality of freeze-dried food, including the integrity of the microstructure. The initial freezing rate and primary freeze drying

  6. Biofuel production and implications for land use, food production and environment in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Sita Lakshmi, C.; Manuvie, Ritumbra; Balachandra, P.

    2011-01-01

    There is a large interest in biofuels in India as a substitute to petroleum-based fuels, with a purpose of enhancing energy security and promoting rural development. India has announced an ambitious target of substituting 20% of fossil fuel consumption by biodiesel and bioethanol by 2017. India has announced a national biofuel policy and launched a large program to promote biofuel production, particularly on wastelands: its implications need to be studied intensively considering the fact that India is a large developing country with high population density and large rural population depending upon land for their livelihood. Another factor is that Indian economy is experiencing high growth rate, which may lead to enhanced demand for food, livestock products, timber, paper, etc., with implications for land use. Studies have shown that area under agriculture and forest has nearly stabilized over the past 2-3 decades. This paper presents an assessment of the implications of projected large-scale biofuel production on land available for food production, water, biodiversity, rural development and GHG emissions. The assessment will be largely focused on first generation biofuel crops, since the Indian program is currently dominated by these crops. Technological and policy options required for promoting sustainable biofuel production will be discussed.

  7. Biofuel production and implications for land use, food production and environment in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Sita Lakshmi, C.; Manuvie, Ritumbra [Center for Sustainable Technologies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Balachandra, P., E-mail: patilb@mgmt.iisc.ernet.in [Center for Sustainable Technologies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2011-10-15

    There is a large interest in biofuels in India as a substitute to petroleum-based fuels, with a purpose of enhancing energy security and promoting rural development. India has announced an ambitious target of substituting 20% of fossil fuel consumption by biodiesel and bioethanol by 2017. India has announced a national biofuel policy and launched a large program to promote biofuel production, particularly on wastelands: its implications need to be studied intensively considering the fact that India is a large developing country with high population density and large rural population depending upon land for their livelihood. Another factor is that Indian economy is experiencing high growth rate, which may lead to enhanced demand for food, livestock products, timber, paper, etc., with implications for land use. Studies have shown that area under agriculture and forest has nearly stabilized over the past 2-3 decades. This paper presents an assessment of the implications of projected large-scale biofuel production on land available for food production, water, biodiversity, rural development and GHG emissions. The assessment will be largely focused on first generation biofuel crops, since the Indian program is currently dominated by these crops. Technological and policy options required for promoting sustainable biofuel production will be discussed.

  8. Life cycle of PCBs and contamination of the environment and of food products from animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Roland; Herold, Christine; Hollert, Henner; Kamphues, Josef; Ungemach, Linda; Blepp, Markus; Ballschmiter, Karlheinz

    2018-06-01

    This report gives a summary of the historic use, former management and current release of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Germany and assesses the impact of the life cycle of PCBs on the contamination of the environment and of food products of animal origin. In Germany 60,000 t of PCBs were used in transformers, capacitors or as hydraulic oils. The use of PCB oils in these "closed applications", has been banned in Germany in 2000. Thirty to 50% of these PCBs were not appropriately managed. In West Germany, 24,000 t of PCBs were used in open applications, mainly as additive (plasticiser, flame retardant) in sealants and paints in buildings and other construction. The continued use in open applications has not been banned, and in 2013, an estimated more than 12,000 t of PCBs were still present in buildings and other constructions. These open PCB applications continuously emit PCBs into the environment with an estimated release of 7-12 t per year. This amount is in agreement with deposition measurements (estimated to 18 t) and emission estimates for Switzerland. The atmospheric PCB releases still have an relevant impact on vegetation and livestock feed. In addition, PCBs in open applications on farms are still a sources of contamination for farmed animals. Furthermore, the historic production, use, recycling and disposal of PCBs have contaminated soils along the lifecycle. This legacy of contaminated soils and contaminated feed, individually or collectively, can lead to exceedance of maximum levels in food products from animals. In beef and chicken, soil levels of 5 ng PCB-TEQ/kg and for chicken with high soil exposure even 2 ng PCB-TEQ/kg can lead to exceedance of EU limits in meat and eggs. Areas at and around industries having produced or used or managed PCBs, or facilities and areas where PCBs were disposed need to be assessed in respect to potential contamination of food-producing animals. For a large share of impacted land, management measures

  9. Challenges for Life Support Systems in Space Environments, Including Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) refer to the technologies needed to sustain human life in space environments. Histor ically these technologies have focused on providing a breathable atmo sphere, clean water, food, managing wastes, and the associated monitoring capabilities. Depending on the space agency or program, ELCSS has sometimes expanded to include other aspects of managing space enviro nments, such as thermal control, radiation protection, fire detection I suppression, and habitat design. Other times, testing and providing these latter technologies have been associated with the vehicle engi neering. The choice of ECLSS technologies is typically driven by the mission profile and their associated costs and reliabilities. These co sts are largely defined by the mass, volume, power, and crew time req uirements. For missions close to Earth, e.g., low-Earth orbit flights, stowage and resupply of food, some 0 2, and some water are often the most cost effective option. But as missions venture further into spa ce, e.g., transit missions to Mars or asteroids, or surface missions to Moon or Mars, the supply line economics change and the need to clos e the loop on life support consumables increases. These are often ref erred to as closed loop or regenerative life support systems. Regardless of the technologies, the systems must be capable of operating in a space environment, which could include micro to fractional g setting s, high radiation levels, and tightly closed atmospheres, including perhaps reduced cabin pressures. Food production using photosynthetic o rganisms such as plants by nature also provides atmospheric regenerat ion (e.g., CO2 removal and reduction, and 0 2 production), yet to date such "bioregenerative" technologies have not been used due largely t o the high power requirements for lighting. A likely first step in te sting bioregenerative capabilities will involve production of small a mounts of fresh foods to supplement to crew

  10. School food environment: Quality and advertisement frequency of child-oriented packaged products within walking distance of public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missbach, Benjamin; Pachschwöll, Caterina; Kuchling, Daniel; König, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    Food marketing for children is a major concern for public health nutrition and many schools make efforts to increase healthy eating. Food environments surrounding schools in urban areas may undermine these efforts for healthy nutrition within school programs. Our study aim is to describe the nutrition environment within walking distance of schools in terms of food quality and food marketing and to explore the degree to which elements of the nutrition environment varies by proximity to schools. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed the surrounding food environments of a convenience sample of 46 target schools within 950m walking distance in 7 different urban districts across Vienna, Austria. In total, we analyzed data from 67 fast food outlets and 54 supermarkets analyzing a total of 43.129 packaged snack food and beverage products, from which 85% were for adults and 15% of the products were child-oriented. Proximity to the schools did not affect the availability of child-oriented products and dedicated food advertisements for children. After applying nutrient profiling using the Nutrient Profiling Model (NPM) on child-oriented products, results showed that 15.8% of the packaged snack food were categorized as "healthy" foods and 84.2% as "less healthy"; for beverages 65.7% were categorized as "healthy" and 34.3% as "less healthy". In conclusion, our results show that child-oriented snacks are not more frequently advertised around schools but substantially lack in nutritional quality with the potential to undermine efforts for promoting healthy eating practices within schools.

  11. School food environment: Quality and advertisement frequency of child-oriented packaged products within walking distance of public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Missbach

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Food marketing for children is a major concern for public health nutrition and many schools make efforts to increase healthy eating. Food environments surrounding schools in urban areas may undermine these efforts for healthy nutrition within school programs. Our study aim is to describe the nutrition environment within walking distance of schools in terms of food quality and food marketing and to explore the degree to which elements of the nutrition environment varies by proximity to schools. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed the surrounding food environments of a convenience sample of 46 target schools within 950m walking distance in 7 different urban districts across Vienna, Austria. In total, we analyzed data from 67 fast food outlets and 54 supermarkets analyzing a total of 43.129 packaged snack food and beverage products, from which 85% were for adults and 15% of the products were child-oriented. Proximity to the schools did not affect the availability of child-oriented products and dedicated food advertisements for children. After applying nutrient profiling using the Nutrient Profiling Model (NPM on child-oriented products, results showed that 15.8% of the packaged snack food were categorized as “healthy” foods and 84.2% as “less healthy”; for beverages 65.7% were categorized as “healthy” and 34.3% as “less healthy”. In conclusion, our results show that child-oriented snacks are not more frequently advertised around schools but substantially lack in nutritional quality with the potential to undermine efforts for promoting healthy eating practices within schools.

  12. Measurement of environment and food products radioactivity: the intercomparisons organised by OPRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    For the laboratories that measure the radioactivity of environment and foods, the analysis quality is essential. The test of intercomparison is unrivaled to check it. Since 1970, the sub-direction of sanitary impact organizes this kind of test at the French, European and International levels. Its objective is to contribute to the persistent improvement of participating laboratories analysis. (N.C.)

  13. Change of behaviour when selecting food products in a supermarket environment after reminding consumers about weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Anna-Maria

    2014-05-01

    The aim was to explore how the behaviour of consumers changed while they selected food in a supermarket environment after they were reminded about weight management. This investigation was carried out from the perspective of selection criteria, reading of package labels, nutritional quality of the products selected and time taken to select a product. The subjects, who were actively watching their weight, participated in two consecutive tasks in a supermarket. They were given a shopping list of eleven food categories and asked to think aloud while selecting from each category a product they usually buy and a product they would use for weight management. The data (n 792 selections) were collected through interviews and a verbal analysis protocol combined with wireless audio-visual observation. Thirty-six consumers were recruited from a sample of 367 supermarket customers. Kuopio, Finland. The subjects' behaviour changed radically after they were reminded about weight management. In the first selection, taste and familiarity were the main food selection criteria while in the latter selection the energy/fat content predominated. Consequently, the nutritional quality of products improved greatly because subjects read package labels twice as much in the latter selection. The time taken to select a product increased significantly, on average, from 23 (sd 10) to 60 (sd 51) s/product (P = 0·000). Only by reminding consumers about weight management was there a significant impact on their food selection behaviour. Marketing communication should be developed which quickly and easily promotes consumers' awareness of healthy food in supermarkets.

  14. Food environment and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Richard; Foster, Gary D

    2014-12-01

    The food environment plays an important and often dominant role in food choice, eating patterns, and ultimately, energy intake. The Obesity Society and the American Society for Nutrition jointly sponsored a series of reviews on topics of interest to both memberships. The goal was to consider the state of understanding on selected issues related to the food environment and obesity and to identify key knowledge gaps. The first article (not necessarily of importance) targeted energy density (ED) and focuses on the role of ED in the regulation of energy intake and body weight. It offers recommendations for prioritizing research. The second article addresses economic factors and examines food and beverage purchases as a function of price changes. It concludes that targeted food taxes and subsidies alone are unlikely to substantially affect obesity. The third article concerns sweetened beverages and points out the difficulty in establishing the strength of the association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain and obesity. In the fourth article, the contributions of palatability and variety to eating behavior and weight are reviewed. Article five explores the influence of portion size on energy intake and weight management. It finds that consumers generally tend to eat proportionally more as portion size increases. The sixth article focuses on the efficacy and effectiveness of eating frequency manipulations for body weight management and finds that such manipulations have consistently yielded null results. Finally, article seven identifies several limitations of the existing literature regarding neighborhood access to healthy foods. This series of reviews addresses important questions regarding the contribution of the food environment to obesity. Independent of physiological/genetic determinants, factors such as ED, cost, food form, palatability, variety, portion size, eating frequency, and access to healthy food are each evaluated for their role in

  15. Are products sold in university vending machines nutritionally poor? A food environment audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Amanda; Hebden, Lana; Roy, Rajshri; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    (i) To audit the nutritional composition, promotion and cost of products available from vending machines available to young adults; and (ii) to examine the relationship between product availability and sales. A cross-sectional analysis of snacks and beverages available and purchased at a large urban university was conducted between March and September 2014. Sales were electronically tracked for nine months. A total of 61 vending machines were identified; 95% (n = 864) of the available snacks and 49% of beverages (n = 455) were less-healthy items. The mean (SD) nutrient value of snacks sold was: energy 1173 kJ (437.5), saturated fat 5.36 g (3.6), sodium 251 mg (219), fibre 1.56 g (1.29) and energy density 20.16 kJ/g (2.34) per portion vended. There was a strong correlation between the availability of food and beverages and purchases (R 2 = 0.98, P Vending machines market and sell less-healthy food and beverages to university students. Efforts to improve the nutritional quality are indicated and afford an opportunity to improve the diet quality of young adults, a group at risk of obesity. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  16. Synthesis of available information in Japan about the contamination of food products by radionuclides remaining in the environment after the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report first proposes an overview of the general status of contamination of the land environment in Japan after the Fukushima accident (maps indicate level of Caesium 134 and 137). It outlines and comments that these radioactive caesium deposits are generally the reason of a persistent contamination of some food products. It describes the measures and arrangements implemented in Japan to control the contamination of food products and to restrict their marketing, comments the assessment of the contamination of food products according to results published in Japan since the accident for the different types of food products: agriculture, fishing, meat and milk, mushrooms, other land vegetal products

  17. Food Product Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Food Product Dating "Best if Used By" is a ...

  18. Ionization of food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    After general remarks on foods preservation, on international works and on ionization future prospects, main irradiation sources are described. Recalls on radioactivity, on radiation-matter interaction, on toxicology of ionized foods and on ionized foods detection are given. Ionization applications to various products are reviewed, especially in: - Poultry meat - Fishing products - Fresh fruits and vegetables - Dry fruits and vegetables - spices, tea, infusion - prepacked products... An evaluation of economics and sociocultural impacts is presented in connection with recent experiments [fr

  19. A review of the incidence and transmission of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat products in retail and food service environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lianou, Alexandra; Sofos, John N

    2007-09-01

    Contamination of ready-to-eat products with Listeria monocytogenes may occur at several stages before consumption. Accessibility to the public and relatively limited control interventions at retail and food service establishments (compared with the processing sector of the food industry) and the lack of a specific regulatory framework increase the likelihood of introduction of this pathogen into some foods in these establishments. This review is a compilation of available information on the incidence and transmission of L. monocytogenes through ready-to-eat products at the retail and food service level. The potential transmission of L. monocytogenes within retail and food service operations has been indicated in epidemiological investigations and by survey data. Potential sources of the organism in these operations include the environment, food handlers, and incoming raw ingredients or processed products that have become contaminated after the lethality treatment at the manufacturing facility. L. monocytogenes may be present at retail and food service establishments in various ready-to-eat products, both prepackaged and those packaged in the store, and occasionally at high concentrations. This issue dictates the need for development and application of effective control measures, and potential control approaches are discussed here. Good manufacturing practices, appropriate cleaning, sanitation and hygiene programs, and temperature control required for prevention or inhibition of growth of the pathogen to high levels are critical for control of L. monocytogenes in the retail and food service sector. A comprehensive food safety system designed to be functional in retail and food service operations and based on the philosophy of hazard analysis and critical control point systems and a series of sound prerequisite programs can provide effective control of L. monocytogenes in these environments. However, competent delivery of food safety education and training to retail

  20. Evaluation of carbon-14 (C14) levels of terrestrial and marine food products of the environment of the site of Cogema La Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    This evaluation has for object to inform about the levels in carbon 14 in the environment of the factories of La Hague. Two sectors were differentiated on one hand the terrestrial environment, and on the other hand the marine environment. The investigations concerned first and foremost food products stemming as the vegetable culture (vegetables) or individual breeding (milk, eggs) but also foodstuffs stemming from the local agriculture (cereal). In touch with the second sector, the marine environment, the sampling concerned the accessible products of the sea by all and those locally marketed (fishes, molluscs, shellfishes). The different results are presented in tables. (N.C.)

  1. Food Environment and Weight Outcomes: A Stochastic Frontier Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xun; Lopez, Rigoberto A.

    2013-01-01

    Food environment includes the presence of supermarkets, restaurants, warehouse clubs and supercenters, and other food outlets. This paper evaluates weight outcomes from a food environment using a stochastic production frontier and an equation for the determinants of efficiency, where the explanatory variables of the efficiency term include food environment indicators. Using individual consumer data and food environment data from New England counties, empirical results indicate that fruit and ...

  2. Radioactive food and environment contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Food and Environment Control Centre of Abu Dhabi Municipality with the help of IAEA has established facilities for regular monitoring of food and environmental samples for radioactive contamination. The Centre is now capable of measuring gamma, beta as well as alpha activity in different types of samples. The main activities in the area of food monitoring are as follows: General monitoring of food gamma radionuclides in foodstuffs by high resolution gamma spectrometry; Determination of specific gamma radionuclides in foodstuffs by high resolution gamma spectrometry; Radiochemical determination of Sr-90 using liquid scintillation analyzer or by gas flow proportional counter; Measurement of gross alpha activity in drinking water

  3. Farmers' welfare, food production and the environment: a model-based assessment of the effects of new technologies in the northern Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laborte, A.G.; Schipper, R.A.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Berg, van den M.M.; Keulen, van H.; Prins, A.G.; Hossain, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Policy objectives of attaining food self-sufficiency and improving the well-being of subsistence farmers while protecting the environment have stimulated the development of many improved agricultural production technologies. With a choice of technologies, farm household decisions are governed not

  4. From Environment to Production

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Behzad, H.; Archer, John A.C.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Gojobori, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Using Metagenomic analysis, computational modeling, single cell and genome editing technologies, we are expressing desired microbial genes and their networks in suitable hosts for mass production of energy, food, and fine chemicals

  5. From Environment to Production

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2014-04-29

    Using Metagenomic analysis, computational modeling, single cell and genome editing technologies, we are expressing desired microbial genes and their networks in suitable hosts for mass production of energy, food, and fine chemicals

  6. Analysis Effect of Environment Attitude, Health Consciousness and Knowledge in Developing Product Perception and Intention to Buy (A Study on Organic Food Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyasari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research intends to study the factors that can affect the product perception and consumer intention in buying organic product.The study is necessary in that it explores at least some of the factors that can affect the product perception and consumer intention in buying organic product. The research results indicated that there was a positive influence of health consciousness towards environment attitude, consumer’s organic product knowledge towards organic product perception, environment attitude and consumer’s organic knowledge towards intention to buy organic product. But, there was a negative influence between environment attitude, health consciousness towards consumer’s organic product perception, and consumer’s organic product towards intention to buy organic product.

  7. Analysis Effect of Environment Attitude, Health Consciousness and Knowledge in Developing Product Perception and Intention to Buy (A Study on Organic Food Product)

    OpenAIRE

    Widyasari; Jony Oktavian Haryanto

    2010-01-01

    This research intends to study the factors that can affect the product perception and consumer intention in buying organic product.The study is necessary in that it explores at least some of the factors that can affect the product perception and consumer intention in buying organic product. The research results indicated that there was a positive influence of health consciousness towards environment attitude, consumer’s organic product knowledge towards organic product perception, environm...

  8. Production of Secondary Metabolites in Extreme Environments: Food- and Airborne Wallemia spp. Produce Toxic Metabolites at Hypersaline Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jančič, Sašo; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Kocev, Dragi

    2016-01-01

    the genome data analysis of W. mellicola (previously W. sebi sensu lato) and W. ichthyophaga revealed a low number of secondary metabolites clusters, a substantial number of secondary metabolites were detected at different conditions. Machine learning analysis of the obtained dataset showed that NaCl has...... of salt or sugar. In relation to food safety, the effect of high salt and sugar concentrations on the production of secondary metabolites by this toxigenic fungus was investigated. The secondary metabolite profiles of 30 strains of the listed species were examined using general growth media, known...... to support the production of secondary metabolites, supplemented with different concentrations of NaCl, glucose and MgCl2. In more than two hundred extracts approximately one hundred different compounds were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Although...

  9. The role of water in food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacşu, A. N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Food is an indispensable factor for humans and animals, because it provides the energy and substances necessary for developing the metabolic processes, which generate the body’s growth. It is the source and regulator of exchange processes between the body and the environment. Since ancient times man has received the necessary nutrients from the environment but the operation and maintenance of the body physiology constantly needs energy. In this work we focus on the chemical composition of food, and more specifically, on the amount of water contained in food products (humidity, as a factor influencing the stability and quality of food products.

  10. Reducing human nitrogen use for food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junguo; Ma, Kun; Ciais, Philippe; Polasky, Stephen

    2016-07-22

    Reactive nitrogen (N) is created in order to sustain food production, but only a small fraction of this N ends up being consumed as food, the rest being lost to the environment. We calculated that the total N input (TN) of global food production was 171 Tg N yr(-1) in 2000. The production of animal products accounted for over 50% of the TN, against 17% for global calories production. Under current TN per unit of food production and assuming no change in agricultural practices and waste-to-food ratios, we estimate that an additional TN of 100 Tg N yr(-1) will be needed by 2030 for a baseline scenario that would meet hunger alleviation targets for over 9 billion people. Increased animal production will have the largest impact on increasing TN, which calls for new food production systems with better N-recycling, such as cooperation between crop and livestock producing farms. Increased N-use efficiency, healthier diet and decreased food waste could mitigate this increase and even reduce TN in 2030 by 8% relative to the 2000 level. Achieving a worldwide reduction of TN is a major challenge that requires sustained actions to improve nitrogen management practices and reduce nitrogen losses into the environment.

  11. Food sustainability, food security and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helms, M.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable development requires a deliberate choice in the direction of societal transition, but the options are narrowed down by the obligation to feed a growing world population. At present sufficient food is produced, but large differences exist in per capita supply. Poverty prevents many people

  12. Radioactivity in food and the environment, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This report continues the series which combines the results of the radioactivity monitoring programmes previously published by MAFF in two documents: the 'Terrestrial Radioactivity Monitoring Programme (TRAMP) Report: Radioactivity in food and agricultural products in England and Wales' and the 'Aquatic Environment Monitoring Report: Radioactivity in surface and coastal waters of the British Isles' (AEMR). For the first time the report includes the results of all environmental monitoring for radioactivity carried out on behalf of the regulatory authority in Scotland. These results were previously presented in the 'Statistical Bulletin: Environmental Monitoring for Radioactivity in Scotland' (e.g. The Scottish Office, (1996). Measurements in 1996 included the analysis of samples of food and other materials from the environment and detection of beta and gamma dose rates in the environment. The results show that radionuclide concentrations and radiation dose rates were generally similar to those in 1995. However, near Sellafield, despite the general downward trend in disposals from the site during 1996, there were some increases in concentrations of technetium-99 and carbon-14 in marine foodstuffs reflecting disposals from and operations on the site in previous years. These operations included processing of stored wastes and the operation of the Enhanced Actinide Removal Plant (EARP). The Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) continued its commissioning phase in 1996 and its disposals had little effect on food and the marine environment. The results of the monitoring have been interpreted in terms of public radiation exposures using data on activity levels in food and local surveys to establish potential 'critical groups' of people likely to be most exposed. (author)

  13. Water for Food, Energy, and the Environment: Assessing Streamflow Impacts of Increasing Cellulosic Biofuel Crop Production in the Corn Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaeger, M. A.; Housh, M.; Ng, T.; Cai, X.; Sivapalan, M.

    2012-12-01

    hypothesis: what may benefit the human system (farms, refineries, cities) may damage the environment. The hydrological and optimization models will be run interactively, with the optimization model run for 10 years and the resulting land use solution then used in the SWAT hydrologic model to provide more detailed information on river/ecosystem impacts, which are assessed using low flow analysis. Problem areas highlighted by this analysis can be targeted by implementing flow requirements at different locations in the watershed; these constraints are then added to the optimization model which is run for another 10 years, and the new solution again analyzed in more detail to assess the effectiveness of the imposed environmental measures. Preliminary results show that under proposed subsidies and current crop prices, the percentage of land planted with Miscanthus will increase to environmentally unsustainable levels, but that implementing flow and water quality constraints can mitigate the damage to some extent. Moreover, tributary and mainstem subwatersheds in the Sangamon do not respond equally, even in this very homogenous region, and thus the spatial context is important for understanding the tradeoffs between economic and hydrologic benefits, which become increasingly important in creating sustainable biofuel production.

  14. Collection of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Milk, Dairy Products and Food Processing Environments in Slovakia for the Purposes of European Molecular Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubicová Z.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular typing of Listeria monocytogenes isolates is an important tool for monitoring the spread of the strains in food chains, providing evidence for epidemiological investigations and for the detection of out-breaks. The demand of European typing data centralization, collection and sharing stimulated the generation of “EURL L. monocytogenes Database (EURL Lm DB” in 2012 led by the European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL for L. monocytogenes (ANSES Maisons-Alfort Laboratory for Food Safety, France in close collaboration with Applied Maths. This database includes the typing results and epidemiological information on strains isolated from food, environmental or animal samples and it is in connection with human strains database TESSy (The European Surveillance System led by the ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. In total 147 L. monocytogenes isolates were examined by PFGE (pulsed field gel electrophoresis in 2014—2015 in VFI Dolny Kubin from different sources. Nearly half (68 of the 147 isolates in the national Slovak database came from milk or dairy products samples and the related manufacturing environment. In this work, 68 isolates associated with milk were selected and divided into 27 clusters (95 % similarity level after combined comparison analysis (AscI and ApaI by BioNumerics 6.6 software. Eight clusters included three or more similar PFGE profiles.

  15. Community Food Environment, Home Food Environment, and Fruit and Vegetable Intake of Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F.; Norman, Gregory J.; Saelens, Brian E.; Harris, Sion Kim; Kerr, Jacqueline; Rosenberg, Dori; Durant, Nefertiti; Glanz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (1) reliability of new food environment measures; (2) association between home food environment and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake; and (3) association between community and home food environment. Methods: In 2005, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with readministration to assess test-retest reliability. Adolescents,…

  16. Autonomous Food Production

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Growing food in space will not only allow us to extend the length of future missions in space, but also significantly increase the astronauts' well-being. The...

  17. Food legume production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Food legumes comprise all legumes grown for human food in China as either dry grains or vegetables, except for soybean and groundnut. China has a vast territory with complex ecological conditions. Rotation, intercropping, and mixed cropping involving pulses are normal cropping systems in China. Whether indigenous or introduced crops, pulses have played an important role in Chinese cropping systems and made an important contribution to food resources for humans since ancient times. The six major food legume species (pea, faba bean, common bean, mung bean, adzuki bean, and cowpea are the most well-known pulses in China, as well as those with more local distributions; runner bean, lima bean, chickpea, lentil, grass pea, lupine, rice bean, black gram, hyacinth bean, pigeon pea, velvet bean, winged bean, guar bean, sword bean, and jack bean. China has remained the world's leading producer of peas, faba beans, mung beans, and adzuki beans in recent decades, as documented by FAO statistics and China Agriculture Statistical Reports. The demand for food legumes as a healthy food will markedly increase with the improvement of living standards in China. Since China officially joined the World Trade Organization (WTO in 2001, imports of pea from Canada and Australia have rapidly increased, resulting in reduced prices for dry pea and other food legumes. With reduced profits for food legume crops, their sowing area and total production has decreased within China. At the same time, the rising consumer demand for vegetable food legumes as a healthy food has led to attractive market prices and sharp production increases in China. Vegetable food legumes have reduced growing duration and enable flexibility in cropping systems. In the future, production of dry food legumes will range from stable to slowly decreasing, while production of vegetable food legumes will continue to increase.

  18. Association between fast food purchasing and the local food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Kavanagh, A M

    2012-12-03

    In this study, an instrument was created to measure the healthy and unhealthy characteristics of food environments and investigate associations between the whole of the food environment and fast food consumption. In consultation with other academic researchers in this field, food stores were categorised to either healthy or unhealthy and weighted (between +10 and -10) by their likely contribution to healthy/unhealthy eating practices. A healthy and unhealthy food environment score (FES) was created using these weightings. Using a cross-sectional study design, multilevel multinomial regression was used to estimate the effects of the whole food environment on the fast food purchasing habits of 2547 individuals. Respondents in areas with the highest tertile of the healthy FES had a lower likelihood of purchasing fast food both infrequently and frequently compared with respondents who never purchased, however only infrequent purchasing remained significant when simultaneously modelled with the unhealthy FES (odds ratio (OR) 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32-0.83). Although a lower likelihood of frequent fast food purchasing was also associated with living in the highest tertile of the unhealthy FES, no association remained once the healthy FES was included in the models. In our binary models, respondents living in areas with a higher unhealthy FES than healthy FES were more likely to purchase fast food infrequently (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.00-1.82) however no association was found for frequent purchasing. Our study provides some evidence to suggest that healthier food environments may discourage fast food purchasing.

  19. Food Production & Service Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This curriculum guide deals with planning and implementing a course in food production and service. Addressed in the course are the following topics: using basic food service processes; performing the tasks of a kitchen helper, stock clerk, baker's helper, pastry helper, cook's helper, pantry goods maker, short order cook, cook, dining room…

  20. Farmers, cooperatives, new food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Villy

    Executive Summary 1. Innovation intensity varies by several orders of magnitude across economic sectors. According to the evidence presented in Chapter 1, this is mainly due to differences in the demand for innovation. Thus, the relatively low levels of product orientated R & D for the food sectors...... of most countries are consistent with the comparatively long penetration periods and low success rates experienced with many new food products. 2. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that the demand for innovation within the food sector is positively related to the degree of processing. 3. The constitutive...... of primary input in order to support capacity utilization at the primary level and thereby increase the earnings of the membership. 9. Input substitution serves to intensify the focus on the primary product supplied by the membership, which is liable to reduce incentives to produce combined food products. 10...

  1. Product Origin and Food Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Delagneau, Bernard

    1987-01-01

    The consumer's knowledge and perception of a product's country of ongm play an important role m food marketing strategies. "Think-national" campaigns are used widelym some EC countries but are not, however, as effective as quantitative restnctions on imports. Surveys and leg1slat10n at both national and EC levels reflect the desire of European consumers for "origin markmg" to appear on food product labels. National stereotypes are frequently adopted by generic and brand advertisers to promote...

  2. In vitro food production for isolated closed environments: formation of ripe tomato fruits from excised flower buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applewhite, P B; K-Sawhney, R; Galston, A W

    1997-01-01

    Excised preanthesis flower buds of young Pixie Hybrid tomato plants develop into red ripe fruits in aseptic culture on a modified Murashige-Skoog medium with 3% sucrose at pH 5.8. The addition of certain synthetic auxins (IAA, NAA, IBA), auxin precursors (ISA), or cytokinins (KIN, IPA, ZEA, BAP) to the medium improved the percentage of buds developing into fruits, the weight of the ripe fruits, or both. The best results were obtained by an auxin-cytokinin combination of 10 microM IBA with 1 microM BAP. Storage of the excised buds at low temperature (6 degrees C) for up to 4 weeks before transfer to 27 degrees C caused only minimal deterioration in size and number of the fruit crop. Extension of low-temperature storage to 8 weeks produced smaller fruits that took longer to develop. This system could produce fresh, ripe small tomatoes on a sustained basis for up to 2 months for an isolated environment such as a space vehicle or submarine.

  3. Virtual Nitrogen Losses from Organic Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattell Noll, L.; Galloway, J. N.; Leach, A. M.; Seufert, V.; Atwell, B.; Shade, J.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is necessary for crop and animal production, but when it is lost to the environment, it creates a cascade of detrimental environmental impacts. The nitrogen challenge is to maximize the food production benefits of Nr, while minimizing losses to the environment. The first nitrogen footprint tool was created in 2012 to help consumers learn about the Nr losses to the environment that result from an individual's lifestyle choices. The nitrogen lost during food production was estimated with virtual nitrogen factors (VNFs) that quantify the amount of nitrogen lost to the environment per unit nitrogen consumed. Alternative agricultural systems, such as USDA certified organic farms, utilize practices that diverge from conventional production. In order to evaluate the potential sustainability of these alternative agricultural systems, our team calculated VNFs that reflect organic production. Initial data indicate that VNFs for organic grains and organic starchy roots are comparable to, but slightly higher than conventional (+10% and +20% respectively). In contrast, the VNF for organic vegetables is significantly higher (+90%) and the VNF for organic legumes is significantly lower (-90%). Initial data on organic meat production shows that organic poultry and organic pigmeat are comparable to conventional production (both <5% difference), but that the organic beef VNF is significantly higher (+30%). These data show that in some cases organic and conventional production are comparable in terms of nitrogen efficiency. However, since conventional production relies heavily on the creation of new reactive nitrogen (Haber-Bosch, biological nitrogen fixation) and organic production primarily utilizes already existing reactive nitrogen (manure, crop residue, compost), the data also show that organic production contributes less new reactive nitrogen to the environment than conventional production (approximately 70% less). Therefore, we conclude that on a local

  4. Soil Erosion Threatens Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Burgess

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Since humans worldwide obtain more than 99.7% of their food (calories from the land and less than 0.3% from the oceans and aquatic ecosystems, preserving cropland and maintaining soil fertility should be of the highest importance to human welfare. Soil erosion is one of the most serious threats facing world food production. Each year about 10 million ha of cropland are lost due to soil erosion, thus reducing the cropland available for world food production. The loss of cropland is a serious problem because the World Health Organization and the Food and Agricultural Organization report that two-thirds of the world population is malnourished. Overall, soil is being lost from agricultural areas 10 to 40 times faster than the rate of soil formation imperiling humanity’s food security.

  5. Food, Environment, and Health | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The goal of the Food, Environment, and Health program is to develop evidence, innovations, and policies to ... A young mother and her baby visit the local nutrition center in rural Madagascar to participate ... Gary Kobinger working in the lab.

  6. Claiming health in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    Health-related information is increasingly used on food products to convey their benefits. Health claims as a subcategory of these messages link the beneficial component, functions or health outcomes with specific products. For consumers, health claims seem to carry the message of increased...... healthiness, but not necessarily making the product more appealing. The wording of the claim seems to have little impact on claim perception, yet the health image of carrier products is important. From consumer-related factors the relevance and attitudes towards functional foods play a role, whereas socio......-demographic factors have only minor impact and the impact seems to be case-dependent. Familiarity with claims and functional foods increase perceived healthiness and acceptance of these products. Apparently consumers make rather rational interpretations of claims and their benefits when forced to assess...

  7. Understanding school food service characteristics associated with higher competitive food revenues can help focus efforts to improve school food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Joanne F; Newman, Constance; Ralston, Katherine; Prell, Mark; Ollinger, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Many school food services sell extra foods and beverages, popularly referred to as “competitive foods,” in addition to USDA school meals. On the basis of national survey data, most competitive foods and beverages selected by students are of low nutritional value. Recent federal legislation will allow schools that participate in USDA school meal programs to sell competitive foods only if the food items they sell meet nutrition standards based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Concerns have been raised about the potential effects of limiting competitive foods on local school food service finances. However, national data indicate that only in a subset of schools do food services receive large amounts of revenues from competitive foods. These food services are typically located in secondary schools in more affluent districts, serving higher proportions of students who do not receive free or reduced price meals. Compared to other food services, these food services couple higher competitive food revenues with lower school meal participation. Increasing school meal participation could increase meal revenues to offset any loss of competitive food revenues. Replacing less-healthful competitive items with healthier options could also help maintain school food service revenues while improving the school food environment. Nationally consistent nutrition standards for competitive foods may encourage development and marketing of healthful products.

  8. Production of Food Grade Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyro Bekatorou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts have been known to humans for thousands of years as they have been used in traditional fermentation processes like wine, beer and bread making. Today, yeasts are also used as alternative sources of high nutritional value proteins, enzymes and vitamins, and have numerous applications in the health food industry as food additives, conditioners and flavouring agents, for the production of microbiology media and extracts, as well as livestock feeds. Modern scientific advances allow the isolation, construction and industrial production of new yeast strains to satisfy the specific demands of the food industry. Types of commercial food grade yeasts, industrial production processes and raw materials are highlighted. Aspects of yeast metabolism, with respect to carbohydrate utilization, nutritional aspects and recent research advances are also discussed.

  9. Radioactivity in food and the environment, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    The safety of food and protection of the environment continue to be important issues on the Government's agenda. Radioactivity in food and the environment, a source of potential harm, therefore receives continuous surveillance to ensure that public safety targets and international commitments are met and ensure that the environment is effectively protected. The Government makes the results of such surveillance widely available through publication of this report and through regular updates on the MAFF Web site. This technical report presents the scope and results of our radiological surveillance programmes for 1998. It is complemented in England and Wales by the Environment Agency's surveillance report on non-food pathways. Sponsored by the Joint Food Safety and Standards Group of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency, measurements of radioactivity have been carried out in a wide range of foodstuffs and in the environment around nuclear sites and other potential sources of elevated radioactivity throughout the United Kingdom, and also at locations remote from these sources. This report demonstrates that the public is being protected against unacceptable contamination of the food chain and that the UK is fully meeting public safety targets. We remain committed to ensuring that a proper and rigorous surveillance programme is continued to ensure that this remains the case. (author)

  10. Palatable food consumption in children: interplay between (food) reward motivation and the home food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Decker, Annelies; Verbeken, Sandra; Sioen, Isabelle; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Braet, Caroline; Eiben, Gabriele; Pala, Valeria; Reisch, Lucia A; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2017-04-01

    To understand the importance of the home food environment on unhealthy food consumption in children high in reward sensitivity, this study tested the hypothesis that the home availability of unhealthy food moderates the effect of reward sensitivity on children's fast-food consumption frequency, exerted via food cue responsiveness. Children between 7.5 and 14 years (n = 174, 50.6% boys) reported on reward sensitivity and food cue responsiveness (by means of the subscale 'external eating'). Their height and weight were measured. Parents reported on their children's fast-food consumption frequency, food cue responsiveness (by means of the subscale 'food responsiveness'), and on the home availability of unhealthy foods. Two moderated mediation models were conducted, one with the parent- and one with the child-reported food cue responsiveness as mediator. Findings suggested that with a high home availability of unhealthy foods, (a) a higher fast-food consumption frequency was found in children high in reward sensitivity and (b) the relation between reward sensitivity and the fast-food consumption frequency was mediated by external eating. The findings point at the importance of the home food environment in children high in reward sensitivity. They suggest to limit the home availability of unhealthy foods. What is Known: • Reward sensitivity (RS) is positively associated with children's palatable food consumption • In adolescents, this effect is mediated by food cue responsiveness, which determines the strength of an individual's motivation to obtain food when perceiving food cues What is New: • Children high in RS may be more vulnerable to palatable food cues in their everyday food environment because of a higher food cue responsiveness • The home food environment may be an important determining factor of the palatable food consumption of these children.

  11. Sustainability labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    of sustainability was limited, but understanding of four selected labels (Fair Trade, Rainforest Alliance, Carbon Footprint, and Animal Welfare) was better, as some of them seem to be self-explanatory. The results indicated a low level of use, no matter whether use was measured as self-reported use of different......This study investigates the relationship between consumer motivation, understanding and use of sustainability labels on food products (both environmental and ethical labels), which are increasingly appearing on food products. Data was collected by means of an online survey implemented in the UK......, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, and Poland, with a total sample size of 4408 respondents. Respondents expressed medium high to high levels of concern with sustainability issues at the general level, but lower levels of concern in the context of concrete food product choices. Understanding of the concept...

  12. Towards sustainable food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aramyan, Lusine H; Hoste, Robert; van den Broek, Willie

    2011-01-01

    continuous innovation of supply chain network structures, reconsideration of business processes, relocation of logistics infrastructures and renewed allocation of chain activities to these infrastructures in order to achieve sustainable performances. This paper presents a scenario analysis of the spatial...... of pigs, processing of pork and pork consumption, is used to analyse the scenarios. The results reveal major opportunities for reductions in cost as well as in CO2 equivalent emissions if a European sector perspective is taken and some chain activities are relocated to other countries. However......, as minimizing costs will not always lead to an optimal reduction in CO2 equivalent emissions, a differentiated strategy is needed for the European pork sector to move towards more sustainable production...

  13. Product quality driven food process design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadiyanto, M.

    2007-01-01

    Consumers evaluate food products on their quality, and thus the product quality is a main target in industrial food production. In the last decade there has been a remarkable increase of interest of the food industry to put food product quality central in innovation. However, quality itself is

  14. Effect of TV food advertising restriction on food environment for children in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngmi; Yoon, Jihyun; Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Hyogyoo; Kim, Soyoung

    2017-02-01

    This study attempted to determine the effects of restrictions on television (TV) food advertising on children's food environments in South Korea. It examined changes that occurred in the marketing mix of food companies following enactment of those restrictions. An on-line survey was conducted with marketers or R&D managers of 108 food companies. A questionnaire was used to inquire about changes that occurred in Product, Place, Price and Promotion as a result of the restrictions placed on TV food advertising. Analysis was performed on the data collected from the responding 63 food companies (58.3%). The results of their answers showed that among the four marketing mix components the restrictions exerted relatively stronger effects on Product. Effects were stronger on companies that produced foods within the product categories of Energy-Dense and Nutrient-Poor foods (EDNP companies) in comparison with companies that did not (non-EDNP companies). The restrictions exerted positive effects on EDNP companies with respect to compliance with labeling requirements and reinforcement of nutritional contents examination, as well as changes to products such as reducing unhealthy ingredients and fortifying nutrients. Overall, the results revealed the possibility that restrictions on TV food advertising could improve children's food environments by encouraging EDNP companies to make favorable product changes. On the one hand, the results also found that some food companies attempted to bypass the regulations by changing marketing channels from TV to others and by reducing product serving sizes. Thus, future measures should be implemented to prevent food companies from bypassing regulations and to control children's exposure to marketing channels other than TV.

  15. Real-life setting in data collection. The role of nutrition knowledge whilst selecting food products for weight management purposes in a supermarket environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Anna-Maria; Lapveteläinen, Anja T; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Kantanen, Teuvo T; Rissanen, Riitta L

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to explore the role of consumers' nutrition knowledge while selecting foods for weight management and the predominating food selection factors by combining quantitative and qualitative methodology in a real-life setting during two consecutive shopping tasks given in a supermarket. Thirty-six consumers were given a list of 11 products and asked to think-aloud while selecting (i) a product they usually buy and (ii) a product they use for weight management. After the consecutive shopping tasks, the subjects were interviewed and asked to answer a nutrition knowledge questionnaire. The subjects were categorized by the difference in the energy contents of their selections and the food selection criteria. The energy contents of the selections for weight management were reduced by 10-46%. Ten subjects with the greatest difference between the energy contents of their selections had higher level in nutrition knowledge and mentioned less nutritional issues during the selections than ten subjects with the smallest such differences. Taste was an important product selection criterion by the former group, while the latter focused primarily on price. Nutrition knowledge is interrelated with personal factors and selection goals. It is not necessarily utilized consistently when selecting food products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biofuels versus food production: Does biofuels production increase food prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajanovic, Amela

    2011-01-01

    Rapidly growing fossil energy consumption in the transport sector in the last two centuries caused problems such as increasing greenhouse gas emissions, growing energy dependency and supply insecurity. One approach to solve these problems could be to increase the use of biofuels. Preferred feedstocks for current 1st generation biofuels production are corn, wheat, sugarcane, soybean, rapeseed and sunflowers. The major problem is that these feedstocks are also used for food and feed production. The core objective of this paper is to investigate whether the recent increase of biofuels production had a significant impact on the development of agricultural commodity (feedstock) prices. The most important impact factors like biofuels production, land use, yields, feedstock and crude oil prices are analysed. The major conclusions of this analysis are: In recent years the share of bioenergy-based fuels has increased moderately, but continuously, and so did feedstock production, as well as yields. So far, no significant impact of biofuels production on feedstock prices can be observed. Hence, a co-existence of biofuel and food production seems possible especially for 2nd generation biofuels. However, sustainability criteria should be seriously considered. But even if all crops, forests and grasslands currently not used were used for biofuels production it would be impossible to substitute all fossil fuels used today in transport.

  17. Nuclear techniques in food production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, J.P.C.

    1975-01-01

    This study is divided into three parts. The first, devoted to the use of radiations in food production, deals especially with artificial mutagenesis, selectors taking advantage of altered hereditary features in plants from irradiated seed; sterilization of animals to eliminate harmful insects (male sterilization technique); the lethal power of radiations used for the production of animal vaccins, attenuated by irradiation, against organisms which infest or degrade food products. Part two shows that radioactive atoms used as tracers to reveal migrations and chemical transformations of products such as fertilizers and pesticides can speed up all kinds of agronomical research. Their possibilities in research on animal feeding and to detect poisonous substances in foodstuffs are also mentioned. The last part is devoted to the use of nuclear techniques in irrigation and more precisely in the study of underground water flows soil moisture and lastly the future of nuclear desalination [fr

  18. Food Products Procurement, Receiving and Storage Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansas Association of School Business Officials, Haysville.

    This guide is intended as a resource document for the beginner in food services and food purchasing. The publication is divided topically by (1) purchasing procedures, (2) specifications and evaluation, (3) sources for purchasing food products, (4) storage of food products and inventory procedures, (5) type of food service management, and (6)…

  19. Internet food marketing on popular children's websites and food product websites in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Bochynska, Katarzyna; Kornman, Kelly; Chapman, Kathy

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the nature and extent of food marketing on popular children's websites and food product websites in Australia. Food product websites (n 119) and popular children's websites (n 196) were selected based on website traffic data and previous research on frequently marketed food brands. Coding instruments were developed to capture food marketing techniques. All references to food on popular children's websites were also classified as either branded or non-branded and according to food categories. Websites contained a range of marketing features. On food product websites these marketing features included branded education (79.0% of websites), competitions (33.6%), promotional characters (35.3%), downloadable items (35.3%), branded games (28.6%) and designated children's sections (21.8%). Food references on popular children's websites were strongly skewed towards unhealthy foods (60.8% v. 39.2% healthy food references; Pfood references for unhealthy foods. Branded food references displayed similar marketing features to those identified on food product websites. Internet food marketing uses a range of techniques to ensure that children are immersed in brand-related information and activities for extended periods, thereby increasing brand familiarity and exposure. The relatively unregulated marketing environment and increasing use of the Internet by children point to the potential increase in food marketing via this medium. Further research is required to investigate the impact of Internet food marketing on children's food preferences and consumption, and regulatory options to protect children.

  20. Food production & availability--essential prerequisites for sustainable food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, M S; Bhavani, R V

    2013-09-01

    Food and nutrition security are intimately interconnected, since only a food based approach can help in overcoming malnutrition in an economically and socially sustainable manner. Food production provides the base for food security as it is a key determinant of food availability. This paper deals with different aspects of ensuring high productivity and production without associated ecological harm for ensuring adequate food availability. By mainstreaming ecological considerations in technology development and dissemination, we can enter an era of evergreen revolution and sustainable food and nutrition security. Public policy support is crucial for enabling this.

  1. Take off the heater: Utility effect and food environment effect in food consumption decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardini-Riipinen, Chiara; Lankoski, Leena

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe individual food consumption decisions as driven by a utility effect and a food environment effect. To outline the utility effect, we first develop a new theoretical model of individual food consumption. Next, we introduce the food environment effect by showing how the food environment can affect food consumption decisions and how this can skew the resulting food consumption vector. Finally, we analyse manipulations of the food environment as a potential form of poli...

  2. Agrochemicals: fate in food and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    At the conference 47 papers were presented of which 32 were included in INIS. The papers dealt with the use of tracer techniques for monitoring the metabolism, toxicity, degradation and accumulation of pesticides and fertilizers in the agricultural environment, aquatic ecosystems, soils and food

  3. Changing the food environment: the French experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauliac, Michel; Hercberg, Serge

    2012-07-01

    The French National Nutrition and Health Program was launched in 2001. To achieve its objectives, 2 main preventive strategies were identified: 1) provide information and education to help individuals make healthy food and physical activity choices; and 2) improve the food and physical environment so that making healthy choices is easier. School regulations have been established to improve the nutritional quality of meals served to children and adolescents, and vending machines have been banned. Since 2007, companies in France's food industry have had the option of signing the national government's "Charte d'engagement volontaire de progrès nutritionnel" (charter of commitments to nutritional improvements) which aims to benefit all consumers. A standard reference document, developed by public authorities as the basis for decisions made by a committee of experts in the food industry, aims to validate the voluntary commitments made by companies to improve the nutrient content of the foods they produce. There is strict follow-up. A Food Quality Observatory was created in 2009 to monitor the nutrient quality of the food supply in France. Various results show the positive impact of these actions.

  4. Comparison of organic and conventional food and food production

    OpenAIRE

    Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety

    2014-01-01

    The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety has performed an assessment of the differences between organic and conventional foods and food production on plant health, animal health and welfare and human health at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority.

  5. Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verain, M.C.D.; Dagevos, H.; Antonides, G.

    2015-01-01

    Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors

  6. Food production - Present and future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, C.G.

    1974-01-01

    This year the joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture celebrates its 10th anniversary. The aim of these two United Nations organizations is to ensure that the technical services of both FAO and IAEA are fully co-ordinated and their programmes are designed to assist developing Member States to apply isotopes and radiation techniques to the solution of food and agricultural problems. More precisely, the medium-term objectives of the Joint Division are to exploit the potential of nuclear techniques in research and development for increasing and stabilizing agricultural production, improving food quality, protecting agricultural products from spoilage and losses and minimizing pollution of food and the agricultural environment. This account of what radioisotopes can do for man in the agricultural field is therefore to a great extent a review of the activities of the Joint Division and a prediction of its future fields of emphasis, especially in the light of the present long-range and world-wide food crisis. (author)

  7. Neighborhood Disparities in the Restaurant Food Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Espino, Jennifer Valdivia; Meinen, Amy; Escaron, Anne L; Roubal, Anne; Nieto, Javier; Malecki, Kristen

    2016-11-01

    Restaurant meals account for a significant portion of the American diet. Investigating disparities in the restaurant food environment can inform targeted interventions to increase opportunities for healthy eating among those who need them most. To examine neighborhood disparities in restaurant density and the nutrition environment within restaurants among a statewide sample of Wisconsin households. Households (N = 259) were selected from the 2009-2010 Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW), a population-based survey of Wisconsin adults. Restaurants in the household neighborhood were enumerated and audited using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Restaurants (NEMS-R). Neighborhoods were defined as a 2- and 5-mile street-distance buffer around households in urban and non-urban areas, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models identified independent associations between sociodemographic household characteristics and neighborhood restaurant density and nutrition environment scores. On average, each neighborhood contained approximately 26 restaurants. On average, restaurants obtained 36.1% of the total nutrition environment points. After adjusting for household characteristics, higher restaurant density was associated with both younger and older household average age (P restaurant food environment in Wisconsin neighborhoods varies by age, race, and urbanicity, but offers ample room for improvement across socioeconomic groups and urbanicity levels. Future research must identify policy and environmental interventions to promote healthy eating in all restaurants, especially in young and/or rural neighborhoods in Wisconsin.

  8. ‘Obesogenic’ School Food Environments? An Urban Case Study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Joris; Dijkstra, Coosje; Kamphuis, Carlijn; Huitink, Marlijn; van der Zee, Egbert; Poelman, Maartje

    (1) Background: This study aimed to explore and define socio-economic (SES) differences in urban school food environments in The Netherlands. (2) Methods: Retail food outlets, ready-to-eat products, in-store food promotions and food advertisements in public space were determined within 400 m walking

  9. Food production and service in UK hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed; Jones, Eleri; Redmond, Elizabeth; Hewedi, Mahmoud; Wingert, Andreas; Gad El Rab, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to apply value stream mapping holistically to hospital food production/service systems focused on high-quality food. Multiple embedded case study of three (two private-sector and one public-sector) hospitals in the UK. The results indicated various issues affecting hospital food production including: the menu and nutritional considerations; food procurement; food production; foodservice; patient perceptions/expectations. Value stream mapping is a new approach for food production systems in UK hospitals whether private or public hospitals. The paper identifies opportunities for enhancing hospital food production systems. The paper provides a theoretical basis for process enhancement of hospital food production and the provision of high-quality hospital food.

  10. Food product design. An integrated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnemann, A.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2007-01-01

    This book explains how to apply barrier technology in food production to improve product stability and the possibilities of modelling and statistics in food product design are elaborated. Attention is given to Life Cycle Assessment as a method to determine the environmental impact of a food from

  11. Examining the interaction between food outlets and outdoor food advertisements with primary school food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Mat; Pearce, Jamie; Day, Peter

    2009-09-01

    Schools are commonly seen as a site of intervention to improve children's nutrition, and prevent excess weight gain. Schools may have limited influence over children's diets; however, with home and community environments also exerting an influence within schools. This study considered the environment of food outlets and outdoor food advertisements surrounding four case study primary schools in New Zealand, and the impact of that external environment on within-school food environments. The shortest travel route between school and home addresses, and the number of food outlets and advertisements passed on that route, was calculated for each student. Interviews with school management were conducted. The schools with a higher percentage of students passing food outlets and advertisements considered that their presence impacted on efforts within schools to improve the food environment. Limiting students' exposure to food outlets and outdoor food adverts through travel route planning, reducing advertising, or limiting the location of food outlets surrounding schools could be explored as intervention options to support schools in promoting nutrition.

  12. Sustainable diets: The interaction between food industry, nutrition, health and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaffar, Ayten Aylin

    2016-03-01

    Everyday great amounts of food are produced, processed, transported by the food industry and consumed by us and these activities have direct impact on our health and the environment. The current food system has started causing strain on the Earth's natural resources and that is why sustainable food production systems are needed. This review article discusses the need for sustainable diets by exploring the interactions between the food industry, nutrition, health and the environment, which are strongly interconnected. The most common environmental issues in the food industry are related to food processing loss, food wastage and packaging; energy efficiency; transportation of foods; water consumption and waste management. Among the foods produced and processed, meat and meat products have the greatest environmental impact followed by the dairy products. Our eating patterns impact the environment, but the environment can impact dietary choices as well. The foods and drinks we consume may also affect our health. A healthy and sustainable diet would minimise the consumption of energy-dense and highly processed and packaged foods, include less animal-derived foods and more plant-based foods and encourage people not to exceed the recommended daily energy intake. Sustainable diets contribute to food and nutrition security, have low environmental impacts and promote healthy life for present and future generations. There is an urgent need to develop and promote strategies for sustainable diets; and governments, United Nations agencies, civil society, research organisations and the food industry should work together in achieving this. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Recent developments in drying of food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valarmathi, T. N.; Sekar, S.; Purushothaman, M.; Sekar, S. D.; Rama Sharath Reddy, Maddela; Reddy, Kancham Reddy Naveen Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Drying is a dehydration process to preserve agricultural products for long period usage. The most common and cheapest method is open sun drying in which the products are simply laid on ground, road, mats, roof, etc. But the open sun drying has some disadvantages like dependent on good weather, contamination by dust, birds and animals consume a considerable quantity, slow drying rate and damages due to strong winds and rain. To overcome these difficulties solar dryers are developed with closed environment for drying agricultural products effectively. To obtain good quality food with reduced energy consumption, selection of appropriate drying process and proper input parameters is essential. In recent years several researchers across the world have developed new drying systems for improving the product quality, increasing the drying rate, decreasing the energy consumption, etc. Some of the new systems are fluidized bed, vibrated fluidized bed, desiccant, microwave, vacuum, freeze, infrared, intermittent, electro hydrodynamic and hybrid dryers. In this review the most recent progress in the field of drying of agricultural food products such as new methods, new products and modeling and optimization techniques has been presented. Challenges and future directions are also highlighted. The review will be useful for new researchers entering into this ever needed and ever growing field of engineering.

  14. Food production and environmental hazards in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris, M.; Iqbal, M.M.; Shah, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    , fertilizers, agro-chemicals and farm machinery which no doubt have help in increasing agricultural production but have simultaneous exerted telling effect on the environment. The effect of these resources on environment and human health is briefly reviewed below. In addition to this forest and food related hazards one on environment and human health are also discussed. (author)

  15. Research issues: the food environment and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Richard; Foster, Gary D

    2014-12-01

    "Research Issues: The Food Environment and Obesity" is an article series commissioned by the American Society for Nutrition and The Obesity Society in an attempt to consider the state of understanding on this topic and identify key knowledge gaps. Roberts and Karl focus on the role of energy density in the regulation of energy intake and body weight and offer recommendations for prioritizing research. Finkelstein et al examine food and beverage purchases as a function of price changes and conclude that targeted food taxes and subsidies alone are unlikely to substantially affect obesity. Pereira points out the difficulty in establishing the strength of the association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain and obesity. Johnson and Wardle review the effects of palatability and variety on eating behavior and weight. Livingstone and Pourshahidi examine the impact of portion size manipulations on energy intake and weight management and find that consumers generally tend to eat proportionally more as portion size increases. Kant focuses on the efficacy and effectiveness of eating frequency manipulation for body weight management and finds that such manipulation has consistently yielded null results. Finally, Gordon-Larsen identifies several limitations of the existing literature regarding neighborhood access to healthy foods. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Atypical Food Packaging Affects The Persuasive Impact of Product Claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, M.L.; Fransen, P.W.J.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Smit, E.G.

    2016-01-01

    Atypical food packaging draws attention in the retail environment, and therefore increases product salience. However, until now, no research has focused on how atypical packaging affects the persuasive impact of other food information. In the present study, we propose that atypical packaging

  17. Atypical food packaging affects the persuasive impact of product claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, I.; Fransen, M.L.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Smit, E.G.

    Atypical food packaging draws attention in the retail environment, and therefore increases product sal- ience. However, until now, no research has focused on how atypical packaging affects the persuasive impact of other food information. In the present study, we propose that atypical packaging

  18. Biofuels. Environment, technology and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, Jose C.; Lora, Electo S.; Venturini, Osvaldo J.; Yanez, Edgar E.; Castillo, Edgar F.; Almazan, Oscar

    2009-01-01

    The imminent decline of the world's oil production, its high market prices and environmental impacts have made the production of biofuels to reach unprecedent volumes over the last 10 years. This is why there have been intense debates among international organizations and political leaders in order to discuss the impacts of the biofuel use intensification. Besides assessing the causes of the rise in the demand and production of biofuels, this paper also shows the state of the art of their world's current production. It is also discussed different vegetable raw materials sources and technological paths to produce biofuels, as well as issues regarding production cost and the relation of their economic feasibility with oil international prices. The environmental impacts of programs that encourage biofuel production, farmland land requirements and the impacts on food production are also discussed, considering the life cycle analysis (LCA) as a tool. It is concluded that the rise in the use of biofuels is inevitable and that international cooperation, regulations and certification mechanisms must be established regarding the use of land, the mitigation of environmental and social impacts caused by biofuel production. It is also mandatory to establish appropriate working conditions and decent remuneration for workers of the biofuels production chain. (author)

  19. Comparing nutrition environments in bodegas and fast food restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Neckerman, Kathryn M.; Lovasi, Laszlo; Yousefzadeh, Paulette; Sheehan, Daniel; Milinkovic, Karla; Baecker, Aileen; Bader, Michael D. M.; Weiss, Christopher; Lovasi, Gina S.; Rundle, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Many small grocery stores or “bodegas” sell prepared or ready-to-eat items, filling a similar niche in the food environment as fast food restaurants. However, little comparative information is available about the nutrition environments of bodegas and fast food outlets. This study compared the nutrition environments of bodegas and national chain fast food restaurants using a common audit instrument, the Nutrition Environment Measures Study in Restaurants (NEMS-R) protocol. The analytic sample ...

  20. teaching food production and preservation using constructivist

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    teaching methods where students are actively involved in thinking and creating ... KEYWORDS: food production, food preservation Biology, 5Es constructivist model, self-reliance ... shelf live. The world's population is growing every day but food production which is the basic ... life matters so as to be self-reliant citizens of this.

  1. Strategies in marketing new food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    It is critical to the successful commercialization of the irradiated food process to secure either a full-time marketing person or a consulting organization to aid food industries in the successful world-wide commercialization of new irradiated food products. Expert advice/guidance is needed to help attain the goals on commercialization of this new product

  2. Agrofuels Production and its Relation with Food Security and Food Sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Vargas Barbosa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses agrofuels production as a reason for increasing the dissociation between the human being, the land and the environment, considering the issues involving food security and food sovereignty. By using the deductive method, it aims to demonstrate that the growing distance between men and land is one of the results determined by capitalism, which is based on exploitation and maximized land production in order to obtain profit, interfering thereas in national food security and food sovereignty. Thus, it first deals with the relation between the human being, land, the environment, economy, State and politics, focusing on environmental  human  rights  protagonism  such  as  side  for  recognizing  and  developing /enveloping fundamental rights material. Secondly, it brings agrofuels production scenario and its relation with food security and sovereignty. Finally, it concepts food security and food sovereignty, establishing its differences in order to permit the build up a solid reality that is also able to secure their implement in an economy of family polycultural basis even if there is an opposite side oriented by capitalism and protected by State, specially in which concerns to productions and environmental excessive exploitation. The article concludes that to secure fundamental rights the being needs to recognize oneself as part of the environment in order to develop a significant State behavior which will reflect on economical politics that favors food security and food sovereignty.

  3. Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verain, Muriel C D; Dagevos, Hans; Antonides, Gerrit

    2015-08-01

    Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors of the two types of behavior have been identified. Respondents were classified into four segments based on their sustainable food behaviors: unsustainers, curtailers, product-oriented consumers, and sustainers. Significant differences between the segments were found with regard to food choice motives, personal and social norms, food involvement, subjective knowledge on sustainable food, ability to judge how sustainably a product has been produced and socio-demographics. It is concluded that distinguishing between behavioral strategies toward sustainable food consumption is important as consumer segments can be identified that differ both in their level of sustainable food consumption and in the type of behavior they employ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Agrobiodiversity Genetic Variability Utilization in Organic Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Miodrag

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The food production at the global level is about to meet its border. Industrialization of agriculture correlates with an explosive enlargement of human population, during XX and at the beginning of XXI centuries. An ongoing process of environmental erosion has been speeding up during that period, not only in our physical surrounding, but also in biodiversity. A new direction in agricultural food production is in demand. Organic food production has been recognized as the way of providing safety and quality food, preserving the environment in the same time. In the other hand new land areas have to be explored for agricultural use, in order to enhance food quantity to meeting the increasing demand for food. These targets set new requirements in plant breeding. To fulfill these requirements the genetic variability harbored in genetic resources has to be preserved, examined and put to good use.

  5. Radiation processing of food and allied products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while reducing post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy has played a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

  6. Radioactivity in food and the environment, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report contains the results of radiological monitoring of food and the environment throughout the United Kingdom, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. The primary purpose of the monitoring programmes is to provide an independent check on the effects of discharges made by users of radioactive materials in the United Kingdom, and to ensure that any radioactivity present in food and the environment does not compromise public health.' For the first time, it represents a comprehensive summary of results across the United Kingdom from programmes sponsored by the Environment Agency, the Environment and Heritage Service, the Food Standards Agency and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency. The results of these monitoring programmes demonstrate that in 2002 even the most exposed members of the public received radiation doses from food and other pathways that were below the statutory United Kingdom annual dose limit to members of the public of 1 mSv (millisievert), European Union limits and Government targets. Assessed doses at all major sites in the United Kingdom are shown in Figure S and are detailed in the Summary Table. The highest radiation doses were received by a group of high-rate consumers offish and shellfish in Cumbria. The doses received by these consumers are a combination of contributions from liquid discharges from both Sellafield and from radioactivity in the environment as a result of past discharges from the Rhodia Consumer Specialties Ltd. (formerly Albright and Wilson) plant at Whitehaven. The dose to these high-rate consumers (including external doses) from Sellafield discharges was estimated to be 0.19 mSv in 2002 compared with 0.15 mSv in 2001. Concentrations in food and dose rates were largely unchanged in 2002 though there were some small increases in concentrations of tritium, carbon-14 and technetium-99 in seafood. The main reason for the increase in dose was an increase in the amount of seafood eaten. This group also received an

  7. Encapsulates for Food Bioconversions and Metabolite Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breguet, Véronique; Vojinovic, Vojislav; Marison, Ian W.

    The control of production costs in the food industry must be very strict as a result of the relatively low added value of food products. Since a wide variety of enzymes and/or cells are employed in the food industry for starch processing, cheese making, food preservation, lipid hydrolysis and other applications, immobilization of the cells and/or enzymes has been recognized as an attractive approach to improving food processes while minimizing costs. This is due to the fact that biocatalyst immobilization allows for easier separation/purification of the product and reutilization of the biocatalyst. The advantages of the use of immobilized systems are many, and they have a special relevance in the area of food technology, especially because industrial processes using immobilized biosystems are usually characterized by lower capital/energy costs and better logistics. The main applications of immobilization, related to the major processes of food bioconversions and metabolite production, will be described and discussed in this chapter.

  8. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  9. Importing food damages domestic environment: Evidence from global soybean trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Mooney, Harold; Wu, Wenbin; Tang, Huajun; Tong, Yuxin; Xu, Zhenci; Huang, Baorong; Cheng, Yeqing; Yang, Xinjun; Wei, Dan; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Jianguo

    2018-05-22

    Protecting the environment and enhancing food security are among the world's Sustainable Development Goals and greatest challenges. International food trade is an important mechanism to enhance food security worldwide. Nonetheless, it is widely concluded that in international food trade importing countries gain environmental benefits, while exporting countries suffer environmental problems by using land and other resources to produce food for exports. Our study shows that international food trade can also lead to environmental pollution in importing countries. At the global level, our metaanalysis indicates that there was increased nitrogen (N) pollution after much farmland for domestically cultivated N-fixing soybeans in importing countries was converted to grow high N-demanding crops (wheat, corn, rice, and vegetables). The findings were further verified by an intensive study at the regional level in China, the largest soybean-importing country, where the conversion of soybean lands to corn fields and rice paddies has also led to N pollution. Our study provides a sharp contrast to the conventional wisdom that only exports contribute substantially to environmental woes. Our results suggest the need to evaluate environmental consequences of international trade of all other major goods and products in all importing countries, which have significant implications for fundamental rethinking in global policy-making and debates on environmental responsibilities among consumers, producers, and traders across the world.

  10. Food culture in the home environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B. F. De Wit, John; Stok, Marijn; Smolenski, Derek J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overweight epidemics, including among children and adolescents, are fuelled by contemporary obesogenic environments. Recent research and theory highlight the importance of socio-cultural factors in mitigating adverse impacts of the abundance of food in high-income countries. The current...... study examines whether family meal culture shapes young people's eating behaviors and self-regulation. METHODS: Young people aged 10-17 years were recruited through schools in four European countries: the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and the United Kingdom. A total of 2,764 participants (mean age 13...... associated with young people's eating behaviors, as was self-regulation. Significant indirect effects of family meal culture were also found, through self-regulation. CONCLUSIONS: Results confirm that family meal culture, encompassing values as well as practices, shapes young people's eating behaviors...

  11. Measuring the Food Environment: A Systematic Technique for Characterizing Food Stores Using Display Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Miller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing research has documented the influence of in-store characteristics—such as the number and placement of display stands—on consumer purchases of a product. However, little information exists on this topic for key foods of interest to those studying the influence of environmental changes on dietary behavior. This study demonstrates a method for characterizing the food environment by measuring the number of separate displays of fruits, vegetables, and energy-dense snack foods (including chips, candies, and sodas and their proximity to cash registers in different store types. Observations in New Orleans stores (N=172 in 2007 and 2008 revealed significantly more displays of energy-dense snacks than of fruits and vegetables within all store types, especially supermarkets. Moreover, supermarkets had an average of 20 displays of energy-dense snacks within 1 meter of their cash registers, yet none of them had even a single display of fruits or vegetables near their cash registers. Measures of the number of separate display stands of key foods and their proximity to a cash register can be used by researchers to better characterize food stores and by policymakers to address improvements to the food environment.

  12. Monitoring product safety in the postmarketing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrar, Robert G; Dieck, Gretchen S

    2013-10-01

    The safety profile of a medicinal product may change in the postmarketing environment. Safety issues not identified in clinical development may be seen and need to be evaluated. Methods of evaluating spontaneous adverse experience reports and identifying new safety risks include a review of individual reports, a review of a frequency distribution of a list of the adverse experiences, the development and analysis of a case series, and various ways of examining the database for signals of disproportionality, which may suggest a possible association. Regulatory agencies monitor product safety through a variety of mechanisms including signal detection of the adverse experience safety reports in databases and by requiring and monitoring risk management plans, periodic safety update reports and postauthorization safety studies. The United States Food and Drug Administration is working with public, academic and private entities to develop methods for using large electronic databases to actively monitor product safety. Important identified risks will have to be evaluated through observational studies and registries.

  13. Bacteriocin producers from traditional food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thonart P.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 220 strains of LAB isolated from 32 samples of traditional fermented food from Senegal were screened for bacteriocin production. Two bacteriocin producers, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Enterococcus faecium, were identified from 12 bacteriocin-producing isolates on the basis of phenotypic analyses and 16S rDNA sequence. Both bacteriocins produced by new isolates show antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus coagulans whereas only that produced by Lactococcus lactis has an activity against Bacillus cereus. Bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis strains were found in a variety of traditional foods indicating a high potential of growth of this strain in variable ecological complex environment. Partial 16S rDNA of the two bacteriocin producers obtained in this study has been registered to Genbank databases under the accession number AY971748 for Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (named CWBI-B1410 and AY971749 for Enterococcus faecium (named CWBI-B1411. The new bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain has been selected for identification and application of the bacteriocin to food preservation.

  14. Changes in a middle school food environment affect food behavior and food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wordell, Doug; Daratha, Kenn; Mandal, Bidisha; Bindler, Ruth; Butkus, Sue Nicholson

    2012-01-01

    Increasing rates of obesity among children ages 12 to 19 years have led to recommendations to alter the school food environment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are associations between an altered school food environment and food choices of middle school students both in and outside of school. In a midsized western city, two of six middle schools allowed only bottled water in vending machines, only milk and fruit on à la carte menus, and offered a seasonal fruit and vegetable bar. Three years after the intervention was initiated, seventh- and eighth-grade students attending the two intervention schools and four control middle schools were surveyed about their food choices. A total of 2,292 surveys were completed. Self-reported frequency of consumption for nine food groups in the survey was low; consumption was higher outside than in school. Boys consumed more milk than girls although girls consumed more fruits and vegetables. Significant socioeconomic differences existed. Compared with students who paid the full lunch fee, students qualifying for free and reduced-price meals consumed more milk and juice in schools but less outside school; more candy and energy drinks in school; and more sweet drinks, candy, pastries, and energy drinks outside school. Students in intervention schools were 24% more likely to consume milk outside school, 27% less likely to consume juice in school, and 56% less likely to consume sweet pastries in school. There were no differences in fruit and vegetable consumption reported by children in control and intervention schools. Overall, there was a positive association between a modified school food environment and student food behavior in and outside school. Policies related to the school food environment are an important strategy to address the obesity epidemic in our country. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Consumer Protection Towards Local Food Production In Southeast Sulawesi Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriani BT. Tolo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumers have rights which should not just be ignored by businesses such as the right to be a safety the right be informed the right to be heard as well as the right to a good environment and healthy. Kendari Regency as a local government has been manifested by issuing regulations and policies that support the development of local food production such as the Mayor of Kendari regulation No. 15 of 2010 and Mayor Kendari Decree No. 427 of 2012 regarding the Establishment of Community Care Local Food. It appears that the local government is trying to make this local food as an alternative food. The type of research used in this paper is a socio-legal research reviewing the local food production from the perspective of consumer protection. The outcomes of the research indicate that responsibility of food business operators in the implementation of local production is essentially an effort to assist the government in ensuring the realization of food safety system. Therefore there is a need for awareness of the laws and regulations for all parties involved towards local food production especially in Kendari Regency Southeast Sulawesi on the food production process.

  16. Consumer attitudes to enzymes in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    The use of enzymes in food production has potential benefits for both food manufacturers and consumers. A central question is how consumers react to new ways of producing foods with enzymes. This study investigates the formation of consumer attitudes to different enzyme production methods in three...... European countries. Results show that consumers are most positive towards non-GM enzyme production methods. The enzyme production method is by far the most important factor for the formation of buying intentions compared to price and benefits. Results also show that environmental concern and attitudes...... to technological progress are the socio-political attitudes that have the highest predictive value regarding attitudes to enzyme production methods....

  17. Preservation of food products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGivney, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    The use of irradiation to preserve food has the potential to significantly enhance our capacity to maximize the quality and quantity of the food we consume. In a world in which distribution of food occurs across continents and in which malnourished populations are in dire need of basic food products, any safe, effective, and efficient means of preserving food is more than welcome. Irradiation, as a method for food preservation, has been studied for more than 30 years. This discussion focuses on this most recent method for the preservation of food with particular emphasis on its effects on the safety, nutritive, and aesthetic values of the food preserved by irradiation. The use of ionizing radiation as a method to preserve foods is one that has been demonstrated to be effective for a variety of food classes. Irradiation offers a means to decontaminate, disinfest, and retard the spoilage of the food supply. At the same time, it appears that the wholesomeness of these food products is maintained. Nutritive value can be sustained by use of effective doses of radiation. Concerns over the safety of irradiated food are rooted in questions regarding the potential induction of radioactivity, harmful radiolytic products, and pathogenic radiation-resistant or mutant strains of microorganisms. Research findings have allayed concerns over safety. However, more research is necessary to conclusively resolve these safety issues. Food irradiation is a promising technology that has and will contribute to our ability to feed the people of this world. This technology is but one of many available ways to preserve our greatest natural resource, the food supply. Enhancement of the ability to preserve food by irradiation will facilitate the distribution of food from fertile developed regions to the malnourished peoples of underdeveloped countries. 21 references

  18. Immobilization Technologies in Probiotic Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregoria Mitropoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various supports and immobilization/encapsulation techniques have been proposed and tested for application in functional food production. In the present review, the use of probiotic microorganisms for the production of novel foods is discussed, while the benefits and criteria of using probiotic cultures are analyzed. Subsequently, immobilization/encapsulation applications in the food industry aiming at the prolongation of cell viability are described together with an evaluation of their potential future impact, which is also highlighted and assessed.

  19. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops......, and gives examples of the unique challenges faced by the SME food industry....

  20. Consumer attitudes towards nanotechnology in food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, Nigel D.; Fischer, Arnout R.H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Nanotechnology is a technology that holds much promise for food production. It is, however not clear to what extent consumers will accept different types of nanotechnologies in food products. The purpose of this paper is to research consumer attitudes towards differing applications of

  1. Food and farm products surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the radiological analyses performed on food and farm samples collected during 1994. The food and farm sampling design addresses the potential influence of Hanford Site releases. Details of the sampling design and radionuclides analyzed are included in this section

  2. Food and farm products surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the radiological analyses performed on food and farm samples collected during 1994. The food and farm sampling design addresses the potential influence of Hanford Site releases. Details of the sampling design and radionuclides analyzed are included in this section.

  3. Product Category Layout and Organization: Retail Placement of Food Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van E.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the placement of food products in retail stores, in particular how the placement of food products can influence how consumers perceive the store in general and these products in particular. It reviews the overall layout of the store, assortment organization, and shelf

  4. Exploring the influence of local food environments on food behaviours: a systematic review of qualitative literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Erin; Gallegos, Danielle; Comans, Tracy; Cameron, Cate; Thornton, Lukar

    2017-09-01

    Systematic reviews investigating associations between objective measures of the food environment and dietary behaviours or health outcomes have not established a consistent evidence base. The present paper aims to synthesise qualitative evidence regarding the influence of local food environments on food and purchasing behaviours. A systematic review in the form of a qualitative thematic synthesis. Urban localities. Adults. Four analytic themes were identified from the review including community and consumer nutrition environments, other environmental factors and individual coping strategies for shopping and purchasing decisions. Availability, accessibility and affordability were consistently identified as key determinants of store choice and purchasing behaviours that often result in less healthy food choices within community nutrition environments. Food availability, quality and food store characteristics within consumer nutrition environments also greatly influenced in-store purchases. Individuals used a range of coping strategies in both the community and consumer nutrition environments to make optimal purchasing decisions, often within the context of financial constraints. Findings from the current review add depth and scope to quantitative literature and can guide ongoing theory, interventions and policy development in food environment research. There is a need to investigate contextual influences within food environments as well as individual and household socio-economic characteristics that contribute to the differing use of and views towards local food environments. Greater emphasis on how individual and environmental factors interact in the food environment field will be key to developing stronger understanding of how environments can support and promote healthier food choices.

  5. The Influence of Local Food Environments on Adolescents’ Food Purchasing Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Irwin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810 at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS was used to assess students’ home and school neighborhood food environment and land use characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the influence of the home neighborhood food environment on students’ food purchasing behaviors, while two-level Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Models were used to examine the effects of school neighborhood food environment factors on students’ food purchasing behaviors. The study showed that approximately 65% of participants reported self-purchasing foods from fast-food outlets or convenience stores. Close proximity (i.e., less than 1 km to the nearest fast-food outlet or convenience store in the home neighborhood increased the likelihood of food purchasing from these food establishments at least once per week by adolescents (p < 0.05. High fast-food outlet density in both home and school neighborhoods was associated with increased fast-food purchasing by adolescents (i.e., at least once per week; p < 0.05. In conclusion, macro-level regulations and policies are required to amend the health-detracting neighborhood food environment surrounding children and youth’s home and school.

  6. Convenience food products. Drivers for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Thomas A; van der Horst, Klazine; Siegrist, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Convenience is one of the big trends in the food business. The demand for convenience food products is steadily increasing; therefore, understanding convenience food consumption is an important issue. Despite being vital properties of convenience food, saving time and effort have not been very successful constructs for predicting convenience food consumption. To examine a wide range of possible drivers for convenience food consumption, the present study uses a convenience food frequency questionnaire that asks about consumption behavior. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was sent out to a representative sample of people in German-speaking Switzerland and yielded N = 918 complete datasets from persons mainly responsible for buying and preparing food in the household. The various convenience food products could be categorized into four groups, which we labeled as highly processed food items, moderately processed food items, single components, and salads. Fifteen drivers were found to have a significant impact either on total convenience consumption or on one of the identified categories. Strong predictors were age, concern about naturalness, nutrition knowledge, and cooking skills. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. MODELLING CONSUMERS' DEMAND FOR ORGANIC FOOD PRODUCTS: THE SWEDISH EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuchehr Irandoust

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine a few factors characterizing consumer preferences and behavior towards organic food products in the south of Sweden using a proportional odds model which captures the natural ordering of dependent variables and any inherent nonlinearities. The findings show that consumer's choice for organic food depends on perceived benefits of organic food (environment, health, and quality and consumer's perception and attitudes towards labelling system, message framing, and local origin. In addition, high willingness to pay and income level will increase the probability to buy organic food, while the cultural differences and socio-demographic characteristics have no effect on consumer behaviour and attitudes towards organic food products. Policy implications are offered.

  8. Product samples stimulate choice of unfamiliar healthful food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickenberg, B; van Assema, P; Brug, J; de Vries, N K

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the availability of a product sample of an unfamiliar low-fat or fruit and vegetable products stimulates choice for this product among food neophobic young adults. The study had a 2 (experimental vs. control group) by 4 (low-fat bread spread, low-fat cheese, fruit juice, fruit and vegetable juice) between subjects design with a pre-and post-experiment questionnaire. The study was conducted in restaurant rooms of several educational institutions in the Netherlands among a convenience sample of 197 food neophobic young adults aged 17-25 years. A small bite or sip-sized sample of the target product was provided as an intervention. The effect measure was choice of either an unfamiliar healthful food product or a traditional food product. Offering a sample of an unfamiliar healthful food product resulted in 51% of the participants in the experimental group choosing this product vs. 36.4% in the control group. Providing food product samples seems to be a promising strategy in healthy diet promotion programs for food neophobic young adults to increase first-time trial of unfamiliar low-fat and fruit and vegetable products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Productivity growth in food crop production in Imo State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agriculture plays pivotal roles in Nigeria including food security, employment, foreign exchange earnings and poverty reduction. This study examined the growth in food crop productivity in Imo State in Nigeria with emphasis on the decomposition of total factor productivity (TFP) into technical progress, changes in technical ...

  10. Careers in Organic Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibler, Adam

    2010-01-01

    New technology developed over the past several decades have allowed farmers to grow more food using fewer resources. Compared with 60 years ago, today's farm can supply more than three times more corn per acre, and the average dairy cow produces almost four times more milk. Even as technology improves farm yields, however, many consumers are…

  11. Processing Contaminants in Food Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Fromberg, Arvid

    Contaminants like acrylamide, furan or PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) as e.g. Benz(a)pyrene may be formed during food processing. All of the substances are genotoxic carcinogens, and for that reason mitigation strategies to reduce the levels are needed. Examples of the formation of the processing...... contaminants and factors that influence the occurrence are given as well as suggestions for mitigation....

  12. Food production and nature conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, Iain J.; Squire, Geoff R.; Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2016-01-01

    Feeding the world's growing human population is increasingly challenging, especially as more people adopt a western diet and lifestyle. Doing so without causing damage to nature poses an even greater challenge. This book argues that in order to create a sustainable food supply whilst conserving

  13. Processing Contaminants in Food Production

    OpenAIRE

    Granby, Kit; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Fromberg, Arvid; Pedreschi, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Contaminants like acrylamide, furan or PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) as e.g. Benz(a)pyrene may be formed during food processing. All of the substances are genotoxic carcinogens, and for that reason mitigation strategies to reduce the levels are needed. Examples of the formation of the processing contaminants and factors that influence the occurrence are given as well as suggestions for mitigation.

  14. Urban environment and health: food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Osman; Corroon, Meghan; Tirado, Cristina

    2010-07-01

    The authors examine the impact of urbanization on food security and human health in the Middle East. Within-urban-population disparities in food security represent one of the most dramatic indicators of economic and health disparities. These disparities are reflected in a double burden of health outcomes: increasing levels of chronic disease as well as growing numbers of undernourished among the urban poor. These require further comprehensive solutions. Some of the factors leading to food insecurity are an overdependence on purchased food commodities, lack of sufficient livelihoods, rapid reductions in peripheral agricultural land, and adverse impacts of climate change. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Food Security Framework is used to examine and compare 2 cities in the Middle East: Amman, Jordan, and Manama, Bahrain.

  15. Does opening a supermarket in a food desert change the food environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Hunter, Gerald; Collins, Rebecca L; Zenk, Shannon N; Cummins, Steven; Beckman, Robin; Nugroho, Alvin K; Sloan, Jennifer C; Wagner, La'Vette; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2017-07-01

    Improving access to healthy foods in low-income neighborhoods is a national priority. Our study evaluated the impact of opening a supermarket in a 'food desert' on healthy food access, availability and prices in the local food environment. We conducted 30 comprehensive in-store audits collecting information on healthy and unhealthy food availability, food prices and store environment, as well as 746 household surveys in two low-income neighborhoods before and after one of the two neighborhoods received a new supermarket. We found positive and negative changes in food availability, and an even greater influence on food prices in neighborhood stores. The supermarket opening in a 'food desert' caused little improvement in net availability of healthy foods, challenging the underpinnings of policies such as the Healthy Food Financing Initiative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Retail food environments research in Canada: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaker, Leia M; Shuh, Alanna; Olstad, Dana L; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Black, Jennifer L; Mah, Catherine L

    2016-06-09

    The field of retail food environments research is relatively new in Canada. The objective of this scoping review is to provide an overview of retail food environments research conducted before July 2015 in Canada. Specifically, this review describes research foci and key findings, identifies knowledge gaps and suggests future directions for research. A search of published literature concerning Canadian investigations of retail food environment settings (food stores, restaurants) was conducted in July 2015 using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, PsychInfo and ERIC. Studies published in English that reported qualitative or quantitative data on any aspect of the retail food environment were included, as were conceptual papers and commentaries. Eighty-eight studies were included in this review and suggest that the field of retail food environments research is rapidly expanding in Canada. While only 1 paper was published before 2005, 66 papers were published between 2010 and 2015. Canadian food environments research typically assessed either the socio-economic patterning of food environments (n = 28) or associations between retail food environments and diet, anthropometric or health outcomes (n = 33). Other papers profiled methodological research, qualitative studies, intervention research and critical commentaries (n = 27). Key gaps in the current literature include measurement inconsistency among studies and a lack of longitudinal and intervention studies. Retail food environments are a growing topic of research, policy and program development in Canada. Consistent methods (where appropriate), longitudinal and intervention research, and close partnerships between researchers and key stakeholders would greatly advance the field of retail food environments research in Canada.

  17. Consumer-driven food product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnemann, A.R.; Benner, M.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2006-01-01

    Food product development needs to be based on consumers' needs and wishes to be successful. Factors that have become relevant in this respect are presented and their impact discussed, like mass-individualization, globalization and an altered interpretation of the food quality concept by consumers.

  18. From Tobacco to Food Production : Consolidation, Dissemination ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    An earlier IDRC-supported project, 103435 From Tobacco to Food Production : Constraints and Transition Strategies (Bangladesh), provided a detailed understanding of the constraints tobacco farmers face and ... How are public health actors working with the food and drinks industry to prevent diet-related disease? A new ...

  19. Bioenergy production and food security in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    This will in turn, facilitate industrialization in other sectors of economy through provision of affordable ... bioenergy production on food security, land allocation for energy crop production can be regulated. ... bility determines the type of industries, and the cost of ...... African countries, yeast and crude enzyme production.

  20. Delta Healthy Sprouts: Participants' Diet and Food Environment at Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local food environments influence the nutrition and health of area residents. This baseline analysis focuses on the food environments of women who participated in the Delta Healthy Sprouts project, a randomized, controlled, comparative trial designed to test the efficacy of two Maternal, Infant, an...

  1. Are campus food environments healthy? A novel perspective for qualitatively evaluating the nutritional quality of food sold at foodservice facilities at a Brazilian university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulz, Isadora Santos; Martins, Paula Andréa; Feldman, Charles; Veiros, Marcela Boro

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this novel study was to evaluate the food environment at a Brazilian university, encompassing 6 restaurants and 13 snack bars. The investigation uniquely analyses the food environment (barriers, facilitators, type of foods and prices). This was a food-based analysis of the nutritional quality of the products sold on campus. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used, applying the classic Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Restaurants (NEMS-R) adapted for Brazil and an original methodology to evaluate and classify qualitatively the nutritional quality and characteristics of the food. A census of all campus food environments was applied. The main results show most food and beverage products were made with processed ingredients and had a lower nutritional quality and price when compared with similar products made on premises, that is, processed iced tea compared with fresh tea ( p flour salgados compared with baked wholegrain flour salgados ( p flour biscuits compared with those made with whole grains ( p = .028). Only 16% of the outlets provided food ingredients or nutritional information of products available. The overall options for healthy food choices and good nutritional quality on campus were mostly limited by the availability and higher prices of products. These findings could be used to develop new policy perspectives for the offering of healthy food items and to facilitate better food choices among students in a healthier food environment.

  2. Food store owners' and managers' perspectives on the food environment: an exploratory mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravlee, Clarence C; Boston, P Qasimah; Mitchell, M Miaisha; Schultz, Alan F; Betterley, Connie

    2014-10-03

    Neighborhood characteristics such as poverty and racial composition are associated with inequalities in access to food stores and in the risk of obesity, but the pathways between food environments and health are not well understood. This article extends research on consumer food environments by examining the perspectives of food-store owners and managers. We conducted semistructured, open-ended interviews with managers and owners of 20 food stores in low-income, predominantly African American neighborhoods in Tallahassee, Florida (USA). The interviews were designed to elicit store managers' and owners' views about healthy foods, the local food environment, and the challenges and opportunities they face in creating access to healthy foods. We elicited perceptions of what constitutes "healthy foods" using two free-list questions. The study was designed and implemented in accord with principles of community-based participatory research. Store owners' and managers' conceptions of "healthy foods" overlapped with public health messages, but (a) agreement about which foods are healthy was not widespread and (b) some retailers perceived processed foods such as snack bars and sugar-sweetened juice drinks as healthy. In semistructured interviews, store owners and managers linked the consumer food environment to factors across multiple levels of analysis, including: business practices such as the priority of making sales and the delocalization of decision-making, macroeconomic factors such as poverty and the cost of healthier foods, individual and family-level factors related to parenting and time constraints, and community-level factors such as crime and decline of social cohesion. Our results link food stores to multilevel, ecological models of the food environment. Efforts to reshape the consumer food environment require attention to factors across multiple levels of analysis, including local conceptions of "healthy foods", the business priority of making sales, and

  3. The influence of local food environments on adolescents' food purchasing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meizi; Tucker, Patricia; Gilliland, Jason; Irwin, Jennifer D; Larsen, Kristian; Hess, Paul

    2012-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810) at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to assess students' home and school neighborhood food environment and land use characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the influence of the home neighborhood food environment on students' food purchasing behaviors, while two-level Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Models were used to examine the effects of school neighborhood food environment factors on students' food purchasing behaviors. The study showed that approximately 65% of participants reported self-purchasing foods from fast-food outlets or convenience stores. Close proximity (i.e., less than 1 km) to the nearest fast-food outlet or convenience store in the home neighborhood increased the likelihood of food purchasing from these food establishments at least once per week by adolescents (p purchasing by adolescents (i.e., at least once per week; p < 0.05). In conclusion, macro-level regulations and policies are required to amend the health-detracting neighborhood food environment surrounding children and youth's home and school.

  4. The Influence of Local Food Environments on Adolescents’ Food Purchasing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meizi; Tucker, Patricia; Gilliland, Jason; Irwin, Jennifer D.; Larsen, Kristian; Hess, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810) at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to assess students’ home and school neighborhood food environment and land use characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the influence of the home neighborhood food environment on students’ food purchasing behaviors, while two-level Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Models were used to examine the effects of school neighborhood food environment factors on students’ food purchasing behaviors. The study showed that approximately 65% of participants reported self-purchasing foods from fast-food outlets or convenience stores. Close proximity (i.e., less than 1 km) to the nearest fast-food outlet or convenience store in the home neighborhood increased the likelihood of food purchasing from these food establishments at least once per week by adolescents (p purchasing by adolescents (i.e., at least once per week; p < 0.05). In conclusion, macro-level regulations and policies are required to amend the health-detracting neighborhood food environment surrounding children and youth’s home and school. PMID:22690205

  5. Research Award: Food, Environment and Health

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    economic value/impact, multi-sector action, and environmental sustainability. FEH ... interventions to different actors in the food system, and the value and impact of changes in food ... (government, civil society and private sectors). While it ... exploring how public policy interventions can support healthy and sustainable diets.

  6. Collection of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Milk, Dairy Products and Food Processing Environments in Slovakia for the Purposes of European Molecular Database

    OpenAIRE

    Kubicová Z.; Filipová M.; Jurovčíková J.; Cabanová L

    2017-01-01

    The molecular typing of Listeria monocytogenes isolates is an important tool for monitoring the spread of the strains in food chains, providing evidence for epidemiological investigations and for the detection of out-breaks. The demand of European typing data centralization, collection and sharing stimulated the generation of “EURL L. monocytogenes Database (EURL Lm DB)” in 2012 led by the European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL) for L. monocytogenes (ANSES Maisons-Alfort Laboratory for Foo...

  7. Monitoring occurrence and persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in foods and food processing environments in the Republic of Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara eLeong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although rates of listeriosis are low in comparison to other foodborne pathogenic illnesses, listeriosis poses a significant risk to human health as the invasive form can have a mortality rate as high as 30%. Food processors, especially those who produce ready-to-eat products, need to be vigilant against Listeria monocytogenes, the causative pathogen of listeriosis, and as such, the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in food and in the food processing environment needs to be carefully monitored. To examine the prevalence and patterns of contamination in food processing facilities in Ireland, 48 food processors submitted 8 samples every 2 months from March 2013 to March 2014 to be analyzed for L. monocytogenes. No positive samples were detected for 38% of the processing facilities tested. Isolates found at the remaining 62% of facilities were characterized by serotyping and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE. A general L. monocytogenes prevalence of 4.6% was seen in all samples analyzed with similar rates seen in food and environmental samples. Differences in prevalence were seen across different food processors, food sectors, sampling months etc. and PFGE analysis allowed for the examination of contamination patterns and for the identification of several persistent strains. Seven of the food processing facilities tested showed contamination with persistent strains and evidence of bacterial transfer from the processing environment to food (the same pulsotype found in both was seen in four of the food processing facilities tested.

  8. Monitoring occurrence and persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in foods and food processing environments in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Dara; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Jordan, Kieran

    2014-01-01

    Although rates of listeriosis are low in comparison to other foodborne pathogenic illness, listeriosis poses a significant risk to human health as the invasive form can have a mortality rate as high as 30%. Food processors, especially those who produce ready-to-eat (RTE) products, need to be vigilant against Listeria monocytogenes, the causative pathogen of listeriosis, and as such, the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in food and in the food processing environment needs to be carefully monitored. To examine the prevalence and patterns of contamination in food processing facilities in Ireland, 48 food processors submitted 8 samples every 2 months from March 2013 to March 2014 to be analyzed for L. monocytogenes. No positive samples were detected at 38% of the processing facilities tested. Isolates found at the remaining 62% of facilities were characterized by serotyping and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). A general L. monocytogenes prevalence of 4.6% was seen in all samples analyzed with similar rates seen in food and environmental samples. Differences in prevalence were seen across different food processors, food sectors, sampling months etc. and PFGE analysis allowed for the examination of contamination patterns and for the identification of several persistent strains. Seven of the food processing facilities tested showed contamination with persistent strains and evidence of bacterial transfer from the processing environment to food (the same pulsotype found in both) was seen in four of the food processing facilities tested.

  9. Beyond Neighborhood Food Environments: Distance Traveled to Food Establishments in 5 US Cities, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jodi L; Han, Bing; Cohen, Deborah A

    2015-08-06

    Accurate conceptualizations of neighborhood environments are important in the design of policies and programs aiming to improve access to healthy food. Neighborhood environments are often defined by administrative units or buffers around points of interest. An individual may eat and shop for food within or outside these areas, which may not reflect accessibility of food establishments. This article examines the relevance of different definitions of food environments. We collected data on trips to food establishments using a 1-week food and travel diary and global positioning system devices. Spatial-temporal clustering methods were applied to identify homes and food establishments visited by study participants. We identified 513 visits to food establishments (sit-down restaurants, fast-food/convenience stores, malls or stores, groceries/supermarkets) by 135 participants in 5 US cities. The average distance between the food establishments and homes was 2.6 miles (standard deviation, 3.7 miles). Only 34% of the visited food establishments were within participants' neighborhood census tract. Buffers of 1 or 2 miles around the home covered 55% to 65% of visited food establishments. There was a significant difference in the mean distances to food establishments types (P = .008). On average, participants traveled the longest distances to restaurants and the shortest distances to groceries/supermarkets. Many definitions of the neighborhood food environment are misaligned with individual travel patterns, which may help explain the mixed findings in studies of neighborhood food environments. Neighborhood environments defined by actual travel activity may provide more insight on how the food environment influences dietary and food shopping choices.

  10. School food environments associated with adiposity in Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, C; Datta, G D; Henderson, M; Gray-Donald, K; Kestens, Y; Barnett, T A

    2017-07-01

    Targeting obesogenic features of children's environment that are amenable to change represents a promising strategy for health promotion. The school food environment, defined as the services and policies regarding nutrition and the availability of food in the school and surrounding neighborhood, is particularly important given that students travel through the school neighborhood almost daily and that they consume a substantial proportion of their calories at school. As part of the Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth (QUALITY) cohort study, we assessed features of school indoor dietary environment and the surrounding school neighborhoods, when children were aged 8-10 years (2005-2008). School principals reported on food practices and policies within the schools. The density of convenience stores and fast-food outlets surrounding the school was computed using a Geographical Information System. Indicators of school neighborhood deprivation were derived from census data. Adiposity outcomes were measured in a clinical setting 2 years later, when participants were aged 10-12 years (2008-2011). We conducted cluster analyses to identify school food environment types. Associations between school types and adiposity were estimated in linear regression models. Cluster analysis identified three school types with distinct food environments. Schools were characterized as: overall healthful (45%); a healthful food environment in the surrounding neighborhood, but an unhealthful indoor food environment (22%); or overall unhealthful (33%). Less healthful schools were located in more deprived neighborhoods and were associated with greater child adiposity. Despite regulatory efforts to improve school food environments, there is substantial inequity in dietary environments across schools. Ensuring healthful indoor and outdoor food environments across schools should be included in comprehensive efforts to reduce obesity-related health disparities.

  11. Healthier meat products as functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Eric A; Park, Yeonhwa

    2010-09-01

    A promising approach to improving health care would be to produce a healthier food supply as a preventive health care strategy. The food supply could be improved by producing functional foods that have nutritional profiles that are healthier than conventional products. However, production of functional foods is not always easily accomplished since they must also taste good, be convenient and reasonably priced so that consumers will regularly purchase and use the products. Meats have great potential for delivering important nutrients such as fatty acids, minerals, dietary fiber, antioxidants and bioactive peptides into the diet. However, to produce successful products with these ingredients, technologies must be developed to increase their stability and decrease their flavor impact on muscle foods. In addition, many regulatory hurdles must be overcome for the commercial production of meats with added nutrients. These include redefinition of standard of identities and policies that allow front of the package nutritional claims. Without these regulatory changes, production of healthier meat products won't become a reality since these products would not have a competitive advantage over unfortified meats.

  12. Biodiesel production from algae grown on food industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureed, Khadija; Kanwal, Shamsa; Hussain, Azhar; Noureen, Shamaila; Hussain, Sabir; Ahmad, Shakeel; Ahmad, Maqshoof; Waqas, Rashid

    2018-04-10

    Algae have an ample potential to produce biodiesel from spent wash of food industry. In addition, it is cheaper and presents an environment friendly way to handle food industry wastewater. This study was conducted to optimize the growth of microalgal strains and to assess biodiesel production potential of algae using untreated food industry wastewater as a source of nutrients. The food industry wastewater was collected and analyzed for its physicochemical characteristics. Different dilutions (10, 20, 40, 80, and 100%) of this wastewater were made with distilled water, and growth of two microalgal strains (Cladophora sp. and Spyrogyra sp.) was recorded. Each type of wastewater was inoculated with microalgae, and biomass was harvested after 7 days. The growth of both strains was also evaluated at varying temperatures, pH and light periods to optimize the algal growth for enhanced biodiesel production. After optimization, biodiesel production by Spyrogyra sp. was recorded in real food industry wastewater. The algal biomass increased with increasing level of food industry wastewater and was at maximum with 100% wastewater. Moreover, statistically similar results were found with algal growth on 100% wastewater and also on Bristol's media. The Cladophora sp. produced higher biomass than Spyrogyra sp. while growing on food industry wastewater. The optimal growth of both microalgal strains was observed at temperature 30 °C, pH: 8, light 24 h. Cladophora sp. was further evaluated for biodiesel production while growing on 100% wastewater and found that this strain produced high level of oil and biodiesel. Algae have an ample potential to produce biodiesel from spent wash of food industry. In addition, it is cheaper and presents an environment friendly way to handle food industry wastewater.

  13. Comparing nutrition environments in bodegas and fast-food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckerman, Kathryn M; Lovasi, Laszlo; Yousefzadeh, Paulette; Sheehan, Daniel; Milinkovic, Karla; Baecker, Aileen; Bader, Michael D M; Weiss, Christopher; Lovasi, Gina S; Rundle, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Many small grocery stores or "bodegas" sell prepared or ready-to-eat items, filling a niche in the food environment similar to fast-food restaurants. However, little comparative information is available about the nutrition environments of bodegas and fast-food outlets. This study compared the nutrition environments of bodegas and national chain fast-food restaurants using a common audit instrument, the Nutrition Environment Measures Study in Restaurants (NEMS-R) protocol. The analytic sample included 109 bodegas and 107 fast-food restaurants located in New York City neighborhoods in the upper third and lower third of the census tract poverty rate distribution. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated in 102 food outlets, including 31 from the analytic sample and 71 from a supplementary convenience sample. The analysis compared scores on individual NEMS-R items, a total summary score, and subscores indicating healthy food availability, nutrition information, promotions of healthy or unhealthy eating, and price incentives for healthy eating, using t tests and χ(2) statistics to evaluate differences by outlet type and neighborhood poverty. Fast-food restaurants were more likely to provide nutrition information, and bodegas scored higher on healthy food availability, promotions, and pricing. Bodegas and fast-food restaurants had similar NEMS-R total scores (bodegas 13.09, fast food 14.31; P=0.22). NEMS-R total scores were higher (indicating healthier environments) in low- than high-poverty neighborhoods among both bodegas (14.79 vs 11.54; P=0.01) and fast-food restaurants (16.27 vs 11.60; Pnutrition environments in the two types of food outlets. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in community and consumer retail food environments globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, C; Vandevijvere, S; Waterlander, W; Thornton, L E; Kelly, B; Cameron, A J; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B

    2013-10-01

    Retail food environments are increasingly considered influential in determining dietary behaviours and health outcomes. We reviewed the available evidence on associations between community (type, availability and accessibility of food outlets) and consumer (product availability, prices, promotions and nutritional quality within stores) food environments and dietary outcomes in order to develop an evidence-based framework for monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail food environments. Current evidence is suggestive of an association between community and consumer food environments and dietary outcomes; however, substantial heterogeneity in study designs, methods and measurement tools makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The use of standardized tools to monitor local food environments within and across countries may help to validate this relationship. We propose a step-wise framework to monitor and benchmark community and consumer retail food environments that can be used to assess density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets; measure proximity of healthy and unhealthy food outlets to homes/schools; evaluate availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in-store; compare food environments over time and between regions and countries; evaluate compliance with local policies, guidelines or voluntary codes of practice; and determine the impact of changes to retail food environments on health outcomes, such as obesity. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  15. Interspecies interactions result in enhanced biofilm formation by co-cultures of bacteria isolated from a food processing environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Henriette Lyng; Raghupathi, Prem Krishnan; Herschend, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial attachment and biofilm formation can lead to poor hygienic conditions in food processing environments. Furthermore, interactions between different bacteria may induce or promote biofilm formation. In this study, we isolated and identified a total of 687 bacterial strains from seven......-culture biofilm production with high relevance for food safety and food production facilities....

  16. Research award: Food, Environment, and Health | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-09-06

    Sep 6, 2017 ... ... skills and gain a fresh perspective on crucial development issues. ... food systems research and interventions in low- and middle-income countries. ... the research award recipient will contribute to the management of the ...

  17. The Ontario Food and Nutrition Strategy: identifying indicators of food access and food literacy for early monitoring of the food environment

    OpenAIRE

    Beatrice A. Boucher; Elizabeth Manafò; Meaghan R. Boddy; Lynn Roblin; Rebecca Truscott

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: To address challenges Canadians face within their food environments, a comprehensive, multistakeholder, intergovernmental approach to policy development is essential. Food environment indicators are needed to assess population status and change. The Ontario Food and Nutrition Strategy (OFNS) integrates the food, agriculture and nutrition sectors, and aims to improve the health of Ontarians through actions that promote healthy food systems and environments. This report describes ...

  18. THE ANALYSIS OF COUNTERFEITING FOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula - Angela VIDRASCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue addressed in this paper makes a significant contribution to research on the effects that food tampering has at the expense of consumer health. Nowadays quality and food safety that consumers are entitled directly reflects the quality of life. In other words the present subject is of particular importance to the work of the bodies created for the purpose of protecting the health and quality of life of consumers. This study has an important role both in the short and long term through proper understanding of the terms of quality, adulteration and food safety. The essential aim of this article is played understanding and easy identification of counterfeit food. Thus the awareness of counterfeit food products consumers are becoming more aware and responsible on quality of life. Quality will always be one of the most important competitive factors of ensuring health and environmental protection.

  19. productivity growth in food crop production in imo state, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Agriculture plays pivotal roles in Nigeria including food security, employment, foreign exchange earnings and ... Key Words: Productivity decomposition, scale effect, allocative efficiency ... and subsidies in the form of cheap credit was.

  20. Electron irradiation of dry food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenewald, Th.

    1983-01-01

    The interest of the industrial food producer is increasing in having the irradiation facility installed in the food processing chain. The throughput of the irradiator should be high and the residence time of the product in the facility should be short. These conditions can be accomplished by electron irradiators. To clarify the irradiation conditions spices taken out of the industrial process, food grade salt, sugar, and gums as models of dry food products were irradiated. With a radiation dose of 10 kGy microbial load can be reduced on 10**4 microorganisms/g. The sensory properties of the spices were not changed in an atypical way. For food grade salt and sugar changes of colour were observed which are due to lattice defects or initiated browning. The irradiation of several gums led only in some cases to an improvement of the thickness properties in the application below 50 deg C, in most cases the thickness effect was reduced. The products were packaged before irradiation. But it would be possible also to irradiate the products without packaging moving the product through the irradiation field in a closed conveyor system. (author)

  1. Electron irradiation of dry food products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenewald, Th [Bundesbahn-Zentralamt, Minden (Germany, F.R.)

    1983-01-01

    The interest of the industrial food producer is increasing in having the irradiation facility installed in the food processing chain. The throughput of the irradiator should be high and the residence time of the product in the facility should be short. These conditions can be accomplished by electron irradiators. To clarify the irradiation conditions spices taken out of the industrial process, food grade salt, sugar, and gums as models of dry food products were irradiated. With a radiation dose of 10 kGy microbial load can be reduced on 10**4 microorganisms/g. The sensory properties of the spices were not changed in an atypical way. For food grade salt and sugar changes of colour were observed which are due to lattice defects or initiated browning. The irradiation of several gums led only in some cases to an improvement of the thickness properties in the application below 50 deg C, in most cases the thickness effect was reduced. The products were packaged before irradiation. But it would be possible also to irradiate the products without packaging moving the product through the irradiation field in a closed conveyor system.

  2. LABELLING OF FOOD PRODUCTS AND SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nestorowicz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available  The manifestation of sustainable consumption on the food market is the consumer is choice of products originating from fair trade and/or organic farming. This paper presents the level of knowledge of Fairtrade signs and organic food logo of the EU. The author describes the importance of these signs by purchasing decisions and the relationship between these factors and the declared level ofknowledge about fair trade. In November 2013 research was conducted by the Department of Marketing Strategies at the Poznań University of Economics and Polish Scientifi c Association of Marketing (PNTM. We interviewed 444 people responsible for food shopping in their households. There were structured interviews in 3 Polish cities: Poznań, Szczecin and Lublin. The results confi rm low awareness of Polish consumers in respect of Fairtrade determinations and slightly higher in the case of organic products. Information regarding the origin of the product (fair trade or organic is not important to consumers when choosing food products. With increasing knowledge on products originating from fair trade derives knowledge of both organic foods and Fairtrade signs, but not the impact of these markings on consumers’ purchasing decisions. Still, people who attach importance to this type of information are niche on the Polish market.

  3. Nanotechnology in agri-food production: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Bhupinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the most important tools in modern agriculture, and agri-food nanotechnology is anticipated to become a driving economic force in the near future. Agri-food themes focus on sustainability and protection of agriculturally produced foods, including crops for human consumption and animal feeding. Nanotechnology provides new agrochemical agents and new delivery mechanisms to improve crop productivity, and it promises to reduce pesticide use. Nanotechnology can boost agricultural production, and its applications include: 1) nanoformulations of agrochemicals for applying pesticides and fertilizers for crop improvement; 2) the application of nanosensors/nanobiosensors in crop protection for the identification of diseases and residues of agrochemicals; 3) nanodevices for the genetic manipulation of plants; 4) plant disease diagnostics; 5) animal health, animal breeding, poultry production; and 6) postharvest management. Precision farming techniques could be used to further improve crop yields but not damage soil and water, reduce nitrogen loss due to leaching and emissions, as well as enhance nutrients long-term incorporation by soil microorganisms. Nanotechnology uses include nanoparticle-mediated gene or DNA transfer in plants for the development of insect-resistant varieties, food processing and storage, nanofeed additives, and increased product shelf life. Nanotechnology promises to accelerate the development of biomass-to-fuels production technologies. Experts feel that the potential benefits of nanotechnology for agriculture, food, fisheries, and aquaculture need to be balanced against concerns for the soil, water, and environment and the occupational health of workers. Raising awareness of nanotechnology in the agri-food sector, including feed and food ingredients, intelligent packaging and quick-detection systems, is one of the keys to influencing consumer acceptance. On the basis of only a handful of toxicological studies, concerns have

  4. Food Environments around American Indian Reservations: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodur, Gwen M; Shen, Ye; Kodish, Stephen; Oddo, Vanessa M; Antiporta, Daniel A; Jock, Brittany; Jones-Smith, Jessica C

    2016-01-01

    To describe the food environments experienced by American Indians living on tribal lands in California. Geocoded statewide food business data were used to define and categorize existing food vendors into healthy, unhealthy, and intermediate composite categories. Distance to and density of each of the composite food vendor categories for tribal lands and nontribal lands were compared using multivariate linear regression. Quantitative results were concurrently triangulated with qualitative data from in-depth interviews with tribal members (n = 24). After adjusting for census tract-level urbanicity and per capita income, results indicate there were significantly fewer healthy food outlets per square mile for tribal areas compared to non-tribal areas. Density of unhealthy outlets was not significantly different for tribal versus non-tribal areas. Tribal members perceived their food environment negatively and reported barriers to the acquisition of healthy food. Urbanicity and per capita income do not completely account for disparities in food environments among American Indians tribal lands compared to nontribal lands. This disparity in access to healthy food may present a barrier to acting on the intention to consume healthy food.

  5. Food Environments around American Indian Reservations: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwen M Chodur

    Full Text Available To describe the food environments experienced by American Indians living on tribal lands in California.Geocoded statewide food business data were used to define and categorize existing food vendors into healthy, unhealthy, and intermediate composite categories. Distance to and density of each of the composite food vendor categories for tribal lands and nontribal lands were compared using multivariate linear regression. Quantitative results were concurrently triangulated with qualitative data from in-depth interviews with tribal members (n = 24.After adjusting for census tract-level urbanicity and per capita income, results indicate there were significantly fewer healthy food outlets per square mile for tribal areas compared to non-tribal areas. Density of unhealthy outlets was not significantly different for tribal versus non-tribal areas. Tribal members perceived their food environment negatively and reported barriers to the acquisition of healthy food.Urbanicity and per capita income do not completely account for disparities in food environments among American Indians tribal lands compared to nontribal lands. This disparity in access to healthy food may present a barrier to acting on the intention to consume healthy food.

  6. Radiation disinfestation of food and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on the radiodisinfestation of food and crops. Topics considered at the conference included food irradiation's impact of the US Agency for International Development, FDA regulations, irradiation as a quarantine treatment, quality attributes of irradiated fruits, low-dose irradiation, cesium 137 as a radiation source, radiosterilization, economic feasibility, marketing, consumer acceptance, and the packaging of irradiated products

  7. Food for Thought: Analysing the Internal and External School Food Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Mary; Molcho, Michal; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Kelly, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Availability and access to food is a determinant of obesity. The purpose of this paper is to examine food availability within and outside of post-primary schools in Ireland. Design/methodology/approach: Data on the internal school food environment were collected from 63 post-primary schools using questionnaires. The external school food…

  8. [Academic production on food labeling in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, Maria Clara Coelho; Marinho, Carmem Luisa Cabral; Guilam, Maria Cristina; Braga, Ana Maria Cheble Bahia

    2008-01-01

    To review and discuss academic production (theses and dissertations) on the topic of labeling of prepackaged foods in Brazil. A search of the database maintained by the Coordination for the Development of Higher Education Professionals (CAPES), one of the two Brazilian government research funding and support agencies, was conducted on the following keywords: "rotulagem" (labeling), "rotulagem nutricional" (food labeling) and "rótulo de alimentos" (food labels). The search covered the years 1987 (earliest year available) to 2004. We identified 49 studies on this topic. Content analysis identified three major themes: the extent to which food labels meet specific legal requirements (57.2%); the degree to which consumers understand the information on labels (22.4%); and the labeling of transgenic or genetically-modified foods (20.4%). Food labeling is a frequent topic and is adequately covered by the Brazilian academic production. In most of the studies, ineffective law enforcement appears to be the main factor in the lack of compliance with and disrespect for the food labeling rules and regulations in Brazil.

  9. Research Award: Food, Environment, and Health | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... ... skills and gain a fresh perspective on crucial development issues. ... that impact food systems and promote healthy and sustainable diets. ... communication material; participating in project development, ... Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy · Research ethics · Transparency · Website usage.

  10. Application of fats in some food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Vallerio Rios

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils are very important raw materials and functional ingredients for several food products such as confectionery, bakery, ice creams, emulsions, and sauces, shortenings, margarines, and other specially tailored products. Formulated products are made with just about every part of chemistry, but they are not simple chemicals. In general, they consist of several, and often many, components. Each of these components has a purpose. Most formulated products have a micro- or nano-structure that is important for their function, but obtaining this structure is often the big challenge. Due to a rise in overweight or obesity, health concerns have increased. This fact has led to the need to the develop products with low fat content, which have become a market trend. In addition, the development of new products using fat substitutes can be a good option for companies that are always trying to reduce costs or substitute trans fat or saturated fat. However, the successful development of these products is still a challenge because fat plays multiple roles in determining the desirable physicochemical and sensory attributes, and because the consumers who want or need to replace these ingredients, seek products with similar characteristics to those of the original product. Important attributes such as smooth, creamy and rich texture; milky and creamy appearance; desirable flavor; and satiating effects are influenced by the droplets of fat, and these characteristics are paramount to the consumer and consequently crucial to the success of the product in the market. Therefore, it is important to identify commercially viable strategies that are capable of removing or reducing fat content of food products without altering their sensory and nutritional characteristics. This paper intended to provide an overview about the role of fat in different food systems such as chocolate, ice cream, bakery products like biscuits, breads, and cakes considering the major

  11. QFood - Optimal design of food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Anne C.; Engelund, Erling; Juhl, Hans Jørn

    1994-01-01

    of Quality is described with special reference to the development of food products. 5. An MDS-based model for use in the evaluation of an optimal product is developed. The model is based on the profit function from classical micro-economic theory. The imputed price is defined as a function of a Customer...... Satisfaction Index which is inversely proportional to how ""close"" the product is to the consumer's ideal....

  12. 3D food printing: a new dimension in food production processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    3D food printing, also known as food layered manufacture (FLM), is an exciting new method of digital food production that applies the process of additive manufacturing to food fabrication. In the 3D food printing process, a food product is first scanned or designed with computer-aided design softwa...

  13. Present Features and Sustainable Beef Production in Korea (SAFEA21 THIRD KOBE SYMPOSIUM ON AGRICULTURE, FOOD AND ENVIRONMENT IN ASIA : TOWARDS THE 21ST CETURY)

    OpenAIRE

    Yeo, Jung-sou

    2000-01-01

    Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle) has been preserved for more than 4,000 years in the Korean peninsula as a unique genetic source and a symbol of wealth in Korean life. The major role of Hanwoo was to cultivate rice field for a long time until it was changed to produce meat after 1970's. However, high production cost and unstable prices are the major problems to be solved in Hanwoo industry in the opening beef marker era according to Uruguay agreements. But it is convinced that Hanwoo industry wi...

  14. A COMPARATIVE ANALISYS ON THE TRADITIONAL FOOD PRODUCTS IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Mihaela Tarcza

    2016-12-01

    the elements pertaining to the marketing macro - environment reflect in the qualitative results, therefore bringing academic value to the aforementioned paper.The practicality of this paper can be highlighted by emphasizing the need to educate the consumers(well - informed, to know which and how many 'genuine', traditional food products are there but also the producers (to know how to relate to the competition.

  15. Geospatial analysis of food environment demonstrates associations with gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahr, Maike K; Suter, Melissa A; Ballas, Jerasimos; Ramin, Susan M; Monga, Manju; Lee, Wesley; Hu, Min; Shope, Cindy D; Chesnokova, Arina; Krannich, Laura; Griffin, Emily N; Mastrobattista, Joan; Dildy, Gary A; Strehlow, Stacy L; Ramphul, Ryan; Hamilton, Winifred J; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2016-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of most common complications of pregnancy, with incidence rates varying by maternal age, race/ethnicity, obesity, parity, and family history. Given its increasing prevalence in recent decades, covariant environmental and sociodemographic factors may be additional determinants of GDM occurrence. We hypothesized that environmental risk factors, in particular measures of the food environment, may be a diabetes contributor. We employed geospatial modeling in a populous US county to characterize the association of the relative availability of fast food restaurants and supermarkets to GDM. Utilizing a perinatal database with >4900 encoded antenatal and outcome variables inclusive of ZIP code data, 8912 consecutive pregnancies were analyzed for correlations between GDM and food environment based on countywide food permit registration data. Linkage between pregnancies and food environment was achieved on the basis of validated 5-digit ZIP code data. The prevalence of supermarkets and fast food restaurants per 100,000 inhabitants for each ZIP code were gathered from publicly available food permit sources. To independently authenticate our findings with objective data, we measured hemoglobin A1c levels as a function of geospatial distribution of food environment in a matched subset (n = 80). Residence in neighborhoods with a high prevalence of fast food restaurants (fourth quartile) was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing GDM (relative to first quartile: adjusted odds ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-2.19). In multivariate analysis, this association held true after controlling for potential confounders (P = .002). Measurement of hemoglobin A1c levels in a matched subset were significantly increased in association with residence in a ZIP code with a higher fast food/supermarket ratio (n = 80, r = 0.251 P analysis, a relationship of food environment and risk for gestational diabetes was

  16. Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PC USER

    Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 14 ... 3Department of Home Science, Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka,. Nigeria ..... work was found to be 25.7%. This value is higher.

  17. Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PC USER

    Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 12 ... proper financial analysis of beneficiaries' enterprises with the view to effectively ascertaining the quantum of ..... Quantitative Analysis of the Major ...

  18. Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PC USER

    Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 12 Number 3 ... agricultural field one could maintain a high level of soil fertility. ..... Journal of Applied Biosciences. 7: 202-206. ... International Journal of.

  19. Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE AKINNAGBE

    2009-09-03

    Sep 3, 2009 ... Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 8 ... 3 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, High Rainfall Station,. Onne, Rivers State ...... Biosciences proceedings. 6: 444-454.

  20. A food environments feedback system (FoodBack) for empowering citizens and change agents to create healthier community food places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Williams, Rachel; Tawfiq, Essa; Swinburn, Boyd

    2017-11-14

    This study developed a systems-based approach (called FoodBack) to empower citizens and change agents to create healthier community food places. Formative evaluations were held with citizens and change agents in six diverse New Zealand communities, supplemented by semi-structured interviews with 85 change agents in Auckland and Hamilton in 2015-2016. The emerging system was additionally reviewed by public health experts from diverse organizations. A food environments feedback system was constructed to crowdsource key indicators of the healthiness of diverse community food places (i.e. schools, hospitals, supermarkets, fast food outlets, sport centers) and outdoor spaces (i.e. around schools), comments/pictures about barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and exemplar stories on improving the healthiness of food environments. All the information collected is centrally processed and translated into 'short' (immediate) and 'long' (after analyses) feedback loops to stimulate actions to create healthier food places. FoodBack, as a comprehensive food environment feedback system (with evidence databases and feedback and recognition processes), has the potential to increase food sovereignty, and generate a sustainable, fine-grained database of food environments for real-time food policy research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. School Food Environment of Charter Schools in St. Louis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsenmeyer, Whitney; Kelly, Patrick; Jenkins, Steve; Mattfeldt-Berman, Mildred

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the school food environment of charter schools in Saint Louis, Missouri. The objectives were to: (1) describe the participation of charter schools in the National School Lunch Program and (2) describe the prevalence of competitive foods in charter schools. Methods: School administrators…

  2. Culture, Environment, and Food to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Culture, Environment, and Food to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency. Book cover Culture, Environment, and Food to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency. Auteur(s) : H.V. Kuhnlein and G.H. Pelto. Maison(s) d'édition : INFDC, IDRC. 1 janvier 1997. ISBN : Out of print. 220 pages. e-ISBN : 1552504409. Téléchargez le PDF · Téléchargez ...

  3. Dosimetric aspects of radiation processing of food and allied products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, G.; Bhat, R.M.; Bhatt, B.C.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Gamma radiation processing in the last 4-5 decades is continuously gaining importance in processing of a wide variety of products, as it can modify physical, chemical and biological properties of the materials, including food and allied products on industrial scale due its inherent qualities like ease of processing in finally packaged form, eco-friendly nature and other obvious reasons over conventional means of processing. Food and allied products are either from agricultural produce or animal origin; they get easily contaminated from soil during harvesting, handling, processing, environment conditions, storage and transport from various types of micro-organisms including pathogens. In many countries it is mandatory to bring down the population of micro-organisms to an acceptable level and complete elimination of pathogens before such products are accepted for human or animal consumption. Processing of food and allied products by radiation has its own challenges due to wider public acceptance of irradiated food, a wide range, 0.25-50kGy, of absorbed dose requirements for different category of such products and purposes, use of a variety of packaging materials in different shapes and sizes and because of its perishable nature. More than 50 countries including India in the world have accepted radiation processing of food and allied products by radiation. Dosimetry is an important aspect of radiation processing, whether it is food or allied product. Uniformity in dose delivered to these products depends on several factors such as product carrier to source frame alignment, product carrier and product/tote box design, product loading pattern, attenuation due to product thickness, product bulk density that varies from 0.1-1.0 kg/l and the plant design whether during processing product overlaps the source or otherwise. In this presentation dosimetric aspects of radiation processing of food and allied products and problems associated with dosimetry of such

  4. Perceptions of the food marketing environment among African American teen girls and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibeau, Wendy S; Saksvig, Brit I; Gittelsohn, Joel; Williams, Sonja; Jones, Lindsey; Young, Deborah Rohm

    2012-02-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects African American adolescents, particularly girls. While ethnically targeted marketing of unhealthful food products contributes to this disparity, it is not known how African Americans perceive the food marketing environment in their communities. Qualitative methods, specifically photovoice and group discussions, were used to understand perceptions of African American adults and teen girls regarding targeted food marketing to adolescent girls. An advisory committee of four students, two faculty, and two parents was formed, who recruited peers to photograph their environments and participate in group discussions to answer "what influences teen girls to eat what they do." Seven adults and nine teens (all female) participated in the study. Discussions were transcribed, coded, and analyzed with ATLAS.ti to identify common and disparate themes among participants. Results indicated that adults and teens perceived the type of food products, availability of foods, and price to influence the girls' choices. The girls spoke about products that were highly convenient and tasty as being particularly attractive. The adults reported that advertisements and insufficient nutrition education were also influencers. The teens discussed that the places in which food products were available influenced their choices. Results suggest that the marketing of highly available, convenient food at low prices sell products to teen girls. Future work is needed to better understand the consumer's perspective on the food and beverage marketing strategies used. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of carbon-14 (C{sup 14}) levels of terrestrial and marine food products of the environment of the site of Cogema La Hague; Evaluation des niveaux de carbone-14 ({sup 14}C) des denrees alimentaires terrestres et marines de l'environnement du site de COGEMA - La Hague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    This evaluation has for object to inform about the levels in carbon 14 in the environment of the factories of La Hague. Two sectors were differentiated on one hand the terrestrial environment, and on the other hand the marine environment. The investigations concerned first and foremost food products stemming as the vegetable culture (vegetables) or individual breeding (milk, eggs) but also foodstuffs stemming from the local agriculture (cereal). In touch with the second sector, the marine environment, the sampling concerned the accessible products of the sea by all and those locally marketed (fishes, molluscs, shellfishes). The different results are presented in tables. (N.C.)

  6. Design for the Environment Products (Raw Data)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains a list of products that carry the Design for the Environment (DfE) label. This mark enables consumers to quickly identify and choose products...

  7. Design for the Environment Products (Online Search)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains a list of products that carry the Design for the Environment (DfE) label. This mark enables consumers to quickly identify and choose products...

  8. PICKLED PUMPKIN IS VALUABLE FOOD PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Sannikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main directions of the food industry development is the production of functional food products. Changes in the human’s diet structure cause that none of population group does receive necessary amount of vitamins, macro and microelements in healthy routine diet. To solve this problem, food stuffs enhanced by different ingredients enable to improve the biological and food value. The pumpkin is a valuable source of such important substances as carotene and pectin. Addition of garlic and hot pepper ingredients to process of pumpkin pickling enables to enrich the products with carbohydrates, proteins, microelements, which have low or no content in the pumpkin fruit. Therefore, the study of the influence of the different quantities of garlic and hot pepper additions on chemical composition of finished product is very important. The influence of plant additions used on chemical composition of finished product had been well determined. It was shown that through increased doses of garlic and hot pepper ingredients as compared with control, the carotene and dry matter content then decreased by 1.16%-3.43% in pickled pumpkin, while the pectin content depended on added component. The highest pectin content, 0.71% was observed at addition of 10 g. garlic ingredient per 1 kg. of raw matter, that was 4.1 times higher than control. With increased addition of hot pepper ingredient the pectin accumulation was decreasing from 0.58% in control to 0.36% in variant 10g. per 1kg. of raw matter.

  9. The association between obesity and urban food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodor, J Nicholas; Rice, Janet C; Farley, Thomas A; Swalm, Chris M; Rose, Donald

    2010-09-01

    Several studies have examined associations between the food retail environment and obesity, though virtually no work has been done in the urban South, where obesity rates are among the highest in the country. This study assessed associations between access to food retail outlets and obesity in New Orleans. Data on individual characteristics and body weight were collected by telephone interviews from a random sample of adults (N = 3,925) living in New Orleans in 2004-2005. The neighborhood of each individual was geo-mapped by creating a 2-km buffer around the center point of the census tract in which they lived. Food retailer counts were created by summing the total number of each food store type and fast food establishment within this 2-km neighborhood. Hierarchical linear models assessed associations between access to food retailers and obesity status. After adjusting for individual characteristics, each additional supermarket in a respondent's neighborhood was associated with a reduced odds for obesity (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.88-0.99). Fast food restaurant (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02) and convenience store (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02) access were each predictive of greater obesity odds. An individual's access to food stores and fast food restaurants may play a part in determining weight status. Future studies with longitudinal and experimental designs are needed to test whether modifications in the food environment may assist in the prevention of obesity.

  10. Farm Organization, Ownership and Food Productivity in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkasiobi Silas Oguzor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available African food production is in crisis. Today, despite Africa’s vast physical and climatic potentials to produce food, most African States depend on food importation. Africa’s capacity to deal with its food battles is severely constrained by its political instability, its early stage of scientific and institutional development, and a rapidly changing and complex global environment. In Nigeria and in most developing economies, there is a fundamental lack of political commitment to come grips with poverty, malnutrition and access to food. Because of these barriers, traditional economics is a rather limited tool to understand food production and other related variables. Poverty, hunger, malnutrition, famine and starvation in developing economies are just as much a function of political, macroeconomic, and institutional barriers as lack of technology. Illustrations from the agrarian chaos in Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Chad and others are too numerous to conclude otherwise. The aim of this paper is to determine and analyze economics incentives and strategies, which could stimulate commercial agriculture in Nigeria. The analysis is based on the premise that the form of production organization in Nigerian agriculture is the major constraint to commercialization. The paper concludes that output price subsidy is the over-riding factor in the commercialization of agriculture in Nigeria.

  11. Food and beverage environment analysis and monitoring system: a reliability study in the school food and beverage environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Sally Lawrence; Craypo, Lisa; Clark, Sarah E; Barry, Jason; Samuels, Sarah E

    2010-07-01

    States and school districts around the country are developing policies that set nutrition standards for competitive foods and beverages sold outside of the US Department of Agriculture's reimbursable school lunch program. However, few tools exist for monitoring the implementation of these new policies. The objective of this research was to develop a computerized assessment tool, the Food and Beverage Environment Analysis and Monitoring System (FoodBEAMS), to collect data on the competitive school food environment and to test the inter-rater reliability of the tool among research and nonresearch professionals. FoodBEAMS was used to collect data in spring 2007 on the competitive foods and beverages sold in 21 California high schools. Adherence of the foods and beverages to California's competitive food and beverage nutrition policies for schools (Senate Bills 12 and 965) was determined using the data collected by both research and nonresearch professionals. The inter-rater reliability between the data collectors was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient. Researcher vs researcher and researcher vs nonresearcher inter-rater reliability was high for both foods and beverages, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from .972 to .987. Results of this study provide evidence that FoodBEAMS is a promising tool for assessing and monitoring adherence to nutrition standards for competitive foods sold on school campuses and can be used reliably by both research and nonresearch professionals. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The importance of the food and physical activity environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charreire, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in identifying characteristics of neighborhood environments (physical, social, economical) that might favor unhealthy dietary and physical activity patterns leading to excess weight at population level. Measurement of characteristics of the physical environment in relation to food and physical activity has greatly improved in recent years. Methods based on assessment of perceptions by residents of their neighborhood or on objective assessment of the actual built environment (such as provided by Geographic Information Systems tools) would benefit to be combined. A number of recent systematic reviews have updated our knowledge on relationships of food and physical activity environments with relevant behaviors and obesity. Available evidence appears to show more consistent evidence of association between built environment characteristics related to physical activity ('walkability' indices, land use mix, variety of transports. . .) with physical activity behavior than with weight status. In contrast, built environment characteristics related to food habits (accessibility to different types of food outlets, availability of healthy foods. . .) would be more consistently associated with weight status than with eating behavior. The need for data from different countries and cultures is emphasized, as much as the importance of transdisciplinary research efforts for translation of these findings into our living environment. Copyright © 2012 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Food Environment in Secondary Schools: À La Carte, Vending Machines, and Food Policies and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A.; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Gerlach, Anne Faricy

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This study described the food environment in 20 Minnesota secondary schools. Methods. Data were collected on school food policies and the availability and nutritional content of foods in school à la carte (ALC) areas and vending machines (VMs). Results. Approximately 36% and 35% of foods in ALC areas and in VMs, respectively, met the lower-fat criterion (≤ 5.5 fat grams/serving). The chips/crackers category constituted the largest share of ALC foods (11.5%). The median number of VMs per school was 12 (4 soft drink, 2 snack, 5 other). Few school food policies were reported. Conclusions. The availability of healthful foods and beverages in schools as well as school food policies that foster healthful food choices among students needs greater attention. PMID:12835203

  14. Evaluating the food environment: application of the Healthy Eating Index-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Jill; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Bosire, Claire

    2010-05-01

    The Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), a tool designed to evaluate concordance with the 2005 Dietary Guidelines, has been used to monitor the quality of foods consumed by Americans. Because the HEI-2005 is not tied to individual requirements and is scored on a per 1000 kcal basis, it can be used to assess the overall quality of any mix of foods. The goal of this paper is to examine whether the HEI-2005 can be applied to the food environment. Two examples were selected to examine the application of the HEI-2005 to the food environment: the dollar menu displayed at a fast-food restaurant (coded and linked to the MyPyramid Equivalents Database and the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies) to represent the community level and the 2005 U.S. Food Supply (measured with food availability data, loss-adjusted food availability data, nutrient availability data, and Salt Institute data) to represent the macro level. The dollar menu and the 2005 U.S. Food Supply received 43.4 and 54.9 points, respectively (100 possible points). According to the HEI-2005, for the offerings at a local fast-food restaurant and the U.S. Food Supply to align with national dietary guidance, substantial shifts would be necessary: a concomitant addition of fruit, dark-green vegetables, orange vegetables, legumes, and nonfat milk; replacement of refined grains with whole grains; and reduction in foods and food products containing sodium, solid fats, and added sugars. Because the HEI-2005 can be applied to both environmental- and individual-level data, it provides a useful metric for studies linking data across various levels of the socioecologic framework of dietary behavior. The present findings suggest that new dietary guidance could target not only individuals but also the architects of our food environment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Government regulation to promote healthy food environments--a view from inside state governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shill, J; Mavoa, H; Allender, S; Lawrence, M; Sacks, G; Peeters, A; Crammond, B; Swinburn, B

    2012-02-01

    Food policy interventions are an important component of obesity-prevention strategies and can potentially drive positive changes in obesogenic environments. This study sought to identify regulatory interventions targeting the food environment, and barriers/facilitators to their implementation at the Australian state government level. In-depth interviews were conducted with senior representatives from state/territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organizations (n =45) to examine participants' (i) suggestions for regulatory interventions for healthier food environments and (ii) support for pre-selected regulatory interventions derived from a literature review. Data were analysed using thematic and constant comparative analyses. Interventions commonly suggested by participants were regulating unhealthy food marketing; limiting the density of fast food outlets; pricing reforms to decrease fruit/vegetable prices and increase unhealthy food prices; and improved food labelling. The most commonly supported pre-selected interventions were related to food marketing and service. Primary production and retail sector interventions were least supported. The dominant themes were the need for whole-of-government and collaborative approaches; the influence of the food industry; conflicting policies/agenda; regulatory challenges; the need for evidence of effectiveness; and economic disincentives. While interventions such as public sector healthy food service policies were supported by participants, marketing restrictions and fiscal interventions face substantial barriers including a push for deregulation and private sector opposition. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  16. Food Production, Management, and Services: Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumme, Debbie; Koukel, Sonja

    This curriculum guide provides occupationally specific training designed to develop knowledge and skills for employment in the area of food production, management, and services. Contents include the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEAKS); sample course outlines; instructional strategies organized topically by chapters, each containing a…

  17. Electrostatic separation for functional food ingredient production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary

    Dry fractionation is a promising alternative to wet extraction processes for production of food ingredients, since it uses hardly any water, consumes less energy and retains the native functionality of the ingredients. It combines milling and dry separation to

  18. Water constraints on future food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, H.

    2012-01-01

    To meet the food demand of a growing global population, agricultural production will have to more than double in this century. Agricultural land expansion combined with yield increases will therefore be required. This thesis investigates whether enough water resources will be available to

  19. Price promotions for food and beverage products in a nationwide sample of food stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Isgor, Zeynep; Rimkus, Leah; Zenk, Shannon N; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-05-01

    Food and beverage price promotions may be potential targets for public health initiatives but have not been well documented. We assessed prevalence and patterns of price promotions for food and beverage products in a nationwide sample of food stores by store type, product package size, and product healthfulness. We also assessed associations of price promotions with community characteristics and product prices. In-store data collected in 2010-2012 from 8959 food stores in 468 communities spanning 46 U.S. states were used. Differences in the prevalence of price promotions were tested across stores types, product varieties, and product package sizes. Multivariable regression analyses examined associations of presence of price promotions with community racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics and with product prices. The prevalence of price promotions across all 44 products sampled was, on average, 13.4% in supermarkets (ranging from 9.1% for fresh fruits and vegetables to 18.2% for sugar-sweetened beverages), 4.5% in grocery stores (ranging from 2.5% for milk to 6.6% for breads and cereals), and 2.6% in limited service stores (ranging from 1.2% for fresh fruits and vegetables to 4.1% for breads and cereals). No differences were observed by community characteristics. Less-healthy versus more-healthy product varieties and larger versus smaller product package sizes generally had a higher prevalence of price promotion, particularly in supermarkets. On average, in supermarkets, price promotions were associated with 15.2% lower prices. The observed patterns of price promotions warrant more attention in public health food environment research and intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Food preference for milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Derflerová Brázdová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products constitute an important source of energy and nutrients for humans. Food preferences may significantly influence the actual consumption (and thus nutrition of people at the population level. The objective of the present large-scale survey was to specify current preferences for milk and dairy products with regard to age and sex. The study was conducted across the Moravia region, Czech Republic, on a sample of 451 individuals divided into 4 age groups: children, adolescents, young adults, and elderly people. A graphic scale questionnaire was administered, with respondents rating their degree of preference for each food item by drawing a mark on a 35 mm line. Out of the 115 items in the questionnaire, 11 items represented dairy products. Data was analysed by means of a general linear model using IBM SPSS Statistics software. Preference for milk was lower in the elderly group than the other groups (P P < 0.01. The overall preference for dairy products (21.6 was lower than the average preference for all foods on the list (22.5. The cross-sectional study revealed intergenerational differences in preferences for specific dairy products, which were most marked in case of cream, processed cheese, blue cheese, and buttermilk. The knowledge of these differences might help promote more focused action at the community level directed at increasing the overall consumption of dairy products in the population.

  1. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-11-26

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  2. Sodium in Store and Restaurant Food Environments - Guam, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sandra L; VanFrank, Brenna K; Lundeen, Elizabeth; Uncangco, Alyssa; Alam, Lawrence; King, Sallyann M Coleman; Cogswell, Mary E

    2016-05-27

    Compared with the United States overall, Guam has higher mortality rates from cardiovascular disease and stroke (1). Excess sodium intake can increase blood pressure and risk for cardiovascular disease (2,3). To determine the availability and promotion of lower-sodium options in the nutrition environment, the Guam Department of Public Health and Social Services (DPHSS) conducted an assessment in September 2015 using previously validated tools adapted to include sodium measures. Stores (N = 114) and restaurants (N = 63) were randomly sampled by region (north, central, and south). Data from 100 stores and 62 restaurants were analyzed and weighted to account for the sampling design. Across the nine product types assessed, lower-sodium products were offered less frequently than regular-sodium products (prestaurants engaged in promotion practices such as posting sodium information (3%) or identifying lower-sodium entrées (1%). Improving the availability and promotion of lower-sodium foods in stores and restaurants could help support healthier eating in Guam.

  3. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Food and Personal Care Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Alex; Westerhoff, Paul; Fabricius, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Titanium dioxide is a common additive in many food, personal care, and other consumer products used by people, which after use can enter the sewage system, and subsequently enter the environment as treated effluent discharged to surface waters or biosolids applied to agricultural land, incinerated wastes, or landfill solids. This study quantifies the amount of titanium in common food products, derives estimates of human exposure to dietary (nano-) TiO2, and discusses the impact of the nanoscale fraction of TiO2 entering the environment. The foods with the highest content of TiO2 included candies, sweets and chewing gums. Among personal care products, toothpastes and select sunscreens contained 1% to >10% titanium by weight. While some other crèmes contained titanium, despite being colored white, most shampoos, deodorants, and shaving creams contained the lowest levels of titanium (TiO2 (E171) suggests that approximately 36% of the particles are less than 100 nm in at least one dimension and that it readily disperses in water as fairly stable colloids. However, filtration of water solubilized consumer products and personal care products indicated that less than 5% of the titanium was able to pass through 0.45 or 0.7 μm pores. Two white paints contained 110 μg Ti/mg while three sealants (i.e., prime coat paint) contained less titanium (25 to 40 μg Ti/mg). This research showed that while many white-colored products contained titanium, it was not a prerequisite. Although several of these product classes contained low amounts of titanium, their widespread use and disposal down the drain and eventually to WWTPs deserves attention. A Monte Carlo human exposure analysis to TiO2 through foods identified children as having the highest exposures because TiO2 content of sweets is higher than other food products, and that a typical exposure for a US adult may be on the order of 1 mg Ti per kilogram body weight per day. Thus, because of the millions of tons of titanium based

  4. Infant Weaning Foods in Jos and Environs, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enrich this pap, most mothers add all sorts of food items. Some of these are ground fish, half cooked egg, soya-bean, grotmd groundnut, peanut, ground. crayfish, honey and even some canned infant foods such as Nutrend"and Cere1ac°. D D. Total aerobic counts on food products reflect not only the history of handling, ...

  5. Do GIS-derived measures of fast food retailers convey perceived fast food opportunities? Implications for food environment assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Timothy L.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Freedman, Darcy A.; Bell, Bethany A.; Liese, Angela D.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Geographic information systems (GISs) have been used to define fast food availability, with higher availability perhaps promoting poorer quality diets. Alternative measures involve perceptions; however, few studies have examined associations between GIS-derived and perceived measures of the food environment. Methods Telephone surveys of 705 participants within an eight-county region in South Carolina were analyzed using logistic regression to examine relationships between geographic presence of and distance to various types of food retailers and perceived fast food availability. Results The mean distance to the nearest fast food restaurant was 6.1 miles, with 16% of participants having a fast food restaurant within 1 mile of home. The geographic presence of and distance to all food retailer types were significantly associated with perceived availability of fast food in unadjusted models. After adjustment, only the presence of a fast food restaurant or pharmacy was significantly associated with greater odds of higher perceived availability of fast food. Greater odds of lower perceived availability of fast food were observed with the presence of a dollar store and increasing distance to the nearest supermarket or pharmacy. Conclusions Measures of fast food availability, whether objective or perceived, may not be interchangeable. Researchers should carefully decide on the appropriate measurement tool—GIS-derived or perceived—in food environment studies. PMID:27617371

  6. Do GIS-derived measures of fast food retailers convey perceived fast food opportunities? Implications for food environment assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Timothy L; Colabianchi, Natalie; Freedman, Darcy A; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2017-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GISs) have been used to define fast food availability, with higher availability perhaps promoting poorer quality diets. Alternative measures involve perceptions; however, few studies have examined associations between GIS-derived and perceived measures of the food environment. Telephone surveys of 705 participants within an eight-county region in South Carolina were analyzed using logistic regression to examine relationships between geographic presence of and distance to various types of food retailers and perceived fast food availability. The mean distance to the nearest fast food restaurant was 6.1 miles, with 16% of participants having a fast food restaurant within 1 mile of home. The geographic presence of and distance to all food retailer types were significantly associated with perceived availability of fast food in unadjusted models. After adjustment, only the presence of a fast food restaurant or pharmacy was significantly associated with greater odds of higher perceived availability of fast food. Greater odds of lower perceived availability of fast food were observed with the presence of a dollar store and increasing distance to the nearest supermarket or pharmacy. Measures of fast food availability, whether objective or perceived, may not be interchangeable. Researchers should carefully decide on the appropriate measurement tool-GIS-derived or perceived-in food environment studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbial Production of Food Grade Pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Dufossé

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The controversial topic of synthetic dyes in food has been discussed for many years. The scrutiny and negative assessment of synthetic food dyes by the modern consumer have raised a strong interest in natural colouring alternatives. Nature is rich in colours (minerals, plants, microalgae, etc., and pigment-producing microorganisms (fungi, yeasts, bacteria are quite common. Among the molecules produced by microorganisms are carotenoids, melanins, flavins, quinones, and more specifically monascins, violacein or indigo. The success of any pigment produced by fermentation depends upon its acceptability on the market, regulatory approval, and the size of the capital investment required to bring the product to market. A few years ago, some expressed doubts about the successful commercialization of fermentation-derived food grade pigments because of the high capital investment requirements for fermentation facilities and the extensive and lengthy toxicity studies required by regulatory agencies. Public perception of biotechnology-derived products also had to be taken into account. Nowadays some fermentative food grade pigments are on the market: Monascus pigments, astaxanthin from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, Arpink Red from Penicillium oxalicum, riboflavin from Ashbya gossypii, b-carotene from Blakeslea trispora. The successful marketing of pigments derived from algae or extracted from plants, both as a food colour and a nutritional supplement, reflects the presence and importance of niche markets in which consumers are willing to pay a premium for »all natural ingredients«.

  8. Bioactive Peptides in Animal Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Albenzio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of animal origin represent physiologically active components in the human diet; they exert a direct action or constitute a substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis upon food processing and consumption. Bioactive peptides may descend from the hydrolysis by digestive enzymes, enzymes endogenous to raw food materials, and enzymes from microorganisms added during food processing. Milk proteins have different polymorphisms for each dairy species that influence the amount and the biochemical characteristics (e.g., amino acid chain, phosphorylation, and glycosylation of the protein. Milk from other species alternative to cow has been exploited for their role in children with cow milk allergy and in some infant pathologies, such as epilepsy, by monitoring the immune status. Different mechanisms concur for bioactive peptides generation from meat and meat products, and their functionality and application as functional ingredients have proven effects on consumer health. Animal food proteins are currently the main source of a range of biologically-active peptides which have gained special interest because they may also influence numerous physiological responses in the organism. The addition of probiotics to animal food products represent a strategy for the increase of molecules with health and functional properties.

  9. Measuring the food and built environments in urban centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomerleau, Joceline; Knai, Cecile; McKee, M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The authors designed an instrument to measure objectively aspects of the built and food environments in urban areas, the EURO-PREVOB Community Questionnaire, within the EU-funded project ‘Tackling the social and economic determinants of nutrition and physical activity for the prevention...... of obesity across Europe’ (EURO-PREVOB). This paper describes its development, reliability, validity, feasibility and relevance to public health and obesity research. Study design: The Community Questionnaire is designed to measure key aspects of the food and built environments in urban areas of varying...... levels of affluence or deprivation, within different countries. The questionnaire assesses (1) the food environment and (2) the built environment. Methods: Pilot tests of the EURO-PREVOB Community Questionnaire were conducted in five to 10 purposively sampled urban areas of different socio...

  10. Radioactive contamination in environment and food in Poland in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Muszynski, W.; Petrykowska, M.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Wilgos, J.

    1993-01-01

    The level analysis of the level of radioactive contamination in environment and food samples was carried out in Poland in 1992. The results were compared to the data from 1985-1991 period. Since the Chernobyl accident gradual decrease of contamination level has been stated. The gamma dose rate and the contamination of air, fallout, tap and surface water were at the level of 1985. Still higher contamination level of cesium isotopes in soil has been reported and as a consequence food contamination was higher particularly the animal food. Actually, the source of additional dose is ingestion of artificial isotopes with food as a result of food contamination. The average effective dose equivalent, due to the contaminated food consumption, was estimated at the level 15 μSv for a Pole in 1992. (author). 13 refs, 6 figs, 20 tabs

  11. Food Labeling and Consumer Associations with Health, Safety, and Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Joanna K; Doran, Neal

    2016-12-01

    The food supply is complicated and consumers are increasingly calling for labeling on food to be more informative. In particular, consumers are asking for the labeling of food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMO) based on health, safety, and environmental concerns. At issue is whether the labels that are sought would accurately provide the information desired. The present study examined consumer (n = 181) perceptions of health, safety and the environment for foods labeled organic, natural, fat free or low fat, GMO, or non-GMO. Findings indicated that respondents consistently believed that foods labeled GMO are less healthy, safe and environmentally-friendly compared to all other labels (ps labels mean something to consumers, but that a disconnect may exist between the meaning associated with the label and the scientific consensus for GMO food. These findings may provide insight for the development of labels that provide information that consumers seek.

  12. A Systematic Examination of Food Intake and Adaptation to the Food Environment by Refugees Settled in the United States1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Min, Jungwon; Harris, Kisa; Khuri, Jacob; Anderson, Laura M

    2016-01-01

    The United States is the largest refugee resettlement country in the world. Refugees may face health-related challenges after resettlement in the United States, including higher rates of chronic diseases due to problems such as language barriers and difficulty adapting to new food environments. However, reported refugee diet challenges varied, and no systematic examination has been reported. This study examined refugee food intake pre- and postresettlement in the United States and differences in intake across various refugee groups. We systematically reviewed relevant studies that reported on refugee food intake and adaptation to the US food environment. We searched PubMed for literature published between January 1985 and April 2015, including cross-sectional and prospective studies. Eighteen studies met inclusion criteria. Limited research has been conducted, and most studies were based on small convenience samples. In general, refugees increased meat and egg consumption after resettling in the United States. Changes in refugee intake of vegetables, fruits, and dairy products varied by socioeconomic status, food insecurity, past food deprivation experience, length of stay in the United States, region of origin, and age. South Asians were more likely to maintain traditional diets, and increased age was associated with more conservative and traditional diets. Despite the abundance of food in the United States, postresettlement refugees reported difficulty in finding familiar or healthy foods. More research with larger samples and follow-up data are needed to study how refugees adapt to the US food environment and what factors may influence their food- and health-related outcomes. The work could inform future interventions to promote healthy eating and living among refugees and help to reduce health disparities. PMID:28140324

  13. Secondary production in shallow marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeroy, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    Recommendations are discussed with regard to population ecology, microbial food webs, marine ecosystems, improved instrumentation, and effects of land and sea on shallow marine systems. The control of secondary production is discussed with regard to present status of knowledge; research needs for studies on dominant secondary producers, food webs that lead to commercial species, and significant features of the trophic structure of shallow water marine communities. Secondary production at the land-water interface is discussed with regard to present status of knowledge; importance of macrophytes to secondary production; export to secondary consumers; utilization of macrophyte primary production; and correlations between secondary production and river discharge. The role of microorganisms in secondary production is also discussed

  14. Formulation of morning product using food residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Rosário de Fátima Padilha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, there is resistance of the population to the use of stalks, leaves, peels and seeds of vegetables and fruits, leading to trash important parts of the food in good physiological conditions and with the presence of potential nutrients. In this research, a morning product was elaborated using green and dry coconut residue, jerimum and melon seed, crystallized sicilian lemon peel, cashew nut, common rapadura sweet and ginger. The bacteriological tests proved the hygienic-sanitary quality of the product, therefore suitable for consumption, that is, according to RDC 12/2001. It was also observed that the dehydration of all the residues reached the legal levels and accepted by ANVISA that limits in 25% the water content in the dehydrated foods. As for the centesimal composition, it was observed that the elaborated product with residues and other ingredients had a good content of macro nutrients. A use of the type of waste as a new food proposal constitutes an alternative to avoid and reduce: the serious environmental problem caused by the large residual volume generated, and the inadequate places in which they are stored or deposited, aggravating the scenario of food-borne pollutants.

  15. The future of sustainable food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald, Pamela; Adamchak, Raoul

    2010-03-01

    By the year 2050, the number of people on Earth is expected to increase from the current 6.7 to 9.2 billion. What is the best way to produce enough food to feed all these people? If we continue with current farming practices, vast amounts of wilderness will be lost, millions of birds and billions of insects will die, farm workers will be at increased risk for disease, and the public will lose billions of dollars as a consequence of environmental degradation. Clearly, there must be a better way to resolve the need for increased food production with the desire to minimize its impact.

  16. Indian adolescents' perceptions of the home food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Neha; Riddell, Lynn; Worsley, Anthony

    2018-01-22

    The home food environment has the potential to influence the eating behaviour of adolescents. This investigation aimed to understand Indian adolescents' perspectives of their home food environments. Adolescents aged 14-16 years (n = 1026, 65.3% girls) attending private secondary schools in Kolkata completed a paper-based questionnaire during school time which included questions about family food rules, availability and accessibility of foods at home, and domestic cooking responsibility. Boys' and girls' opinions and experiences were compared through cross-tabulation analyses. Almost all the adolescents reported that fruits (91.6%) and vegetables (95.7%) were always available in their homes. Approximately two-fifths reported that sugar-sweetened beverages (36.2%) and salty snack foods (38.0%) were readily available. In 56.1% households, adolescents were expected to follow certain food rules during mealtimes (e.g. not talking with my mouth full). The majority of the respondents (80.4%) identified mothers as the primary meal providers, only a minority reported that fathers (5.1%) were responsible for preparation of family meals. This understanding of the family-environmental determinants of adolescent dietary habits provides useful directions for nutrition promotion interventions. Health and educational professionals associated with adolescents could communicate about the development of healthy home food environments to provide positive health benefits for adolescents and their families.

  17. Radiological control of food importation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre G, J.

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays exists the possibility of marketing products possibly polluted with radioactive isotopes, by that some countries like Mexico, they have been given to the task of creating legal bases and the necessary infrastructure with the end of carrying out the radiological surveillance of nutritious import products. In this work the legal bases that our country has established for the radiological control are presented besides the results of this radiological control carried out through the gamma spectroscopy analysis of nutritious import products sent to our country through diverse companies that import foods produced mainly in European countries. (Author)

  18. The home food environment of overweight gatekeepers in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelman, Maartje P; de Vet, Emely; Velema, Elizabeth; Seidell, Jacob C; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain insight into (i) processed snack-food availability, (ii) processed snack-food salience and (iii) the size of dinnerware among households with overweight gatekeepers. Moreover, associations between gatekeepers' characteristics and in-home observations were determined. A cross-sectional observation of home food environments was conducted as part of a baseline measurement of a larger study. Home food environments of overweight and obese gatekeepers in the Netherlands. Household gatekeepers (n 278). Mean household size of the gatekeepers was 3.0 (SD 1.3) persons. Mean age of the gatekeepers was 45.7 (SD 9.2) years, 34.9% were overweight and 65.1% were obese. Of the gatekeepers, 20.9% had a low level of education and 42.7% had a high level of education. In 70% of the households, eight or more packages of processed snack foods were present. In 54% of the households, processed snack foods were stored close to non-processed food items and in 78% of households close to non-food items. In 33% of the households, processed snack foods were visible in the kitchen and in 15% of the households processed snack foods were visible in the living room. Of the dinnerware items, 14% (plates), 57% (glasses), 78% (dessert bowls), 67% (soup bowls) and 58% (mugs) were larger than the reference norms of the Netherlands Nutrition Centre Foundation. Older gatekeepers used significantly smaller dinnerware than younger gatekeepers. Environmental factors endorsing overconsumption are commonly present in the home environments of overweight people and could lead to unplanned eating or passive overconsumption.

  19. Analysis of the Main Factors Influencing Food Production in China Based on Time Series Trend Chart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangjin; WANG; Jianying; LI

    2014-01-01

    Based on the annual sample data on food production in China since the reform and opening up,we select 8 main factors influencing the total food production( growing area,application rate of chemical fertilizer,effective irrigation area,the affected area,total machinery power,food production cost index,food production price index,financial funds for supporting agriculture,farmers and countryside),and put them into categories of material input,resources and environment,and policy factors. Using the factor analysis,we carry out the multi-angle analysis of these typical influencing factors one by one through the time series trend chart. It is found that application rate of chemical fertilizer,the growing area of food crops and drought-affected area become the key factors affecting food production. On this basis,we set forth the corresponding recommendations for improving the comprehensive food production capacity.

  20. Ecological determinants of health: food and environment on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Alice M L

    2017-04-01

    Human health and diseases are determined by many complex factors. Health threats from the human-animal-ecosystems interface (HAEI) and zoonotic diseases (zoonoses) impose an increasing risk continuously to public health, from those emerging pathogens transmitted through contact with animals, food, water and contaminated environments. Immense challenges forced on the ecological perspectives on food and the eco-environments, including aquaculture, agriculture and the entire food systems. Impacts of food and eco-environments on human health will be examined amongst the importance of human interventions for intended purposes in lowering the adverse effects on the biodiversity. The complexity of relevant conditions defined as factors contributing to the ecological determinants of health will be illuminated from different perspectives based on concepts, citations, examples and models, in conjunction with harmful consequential effects of human-induced disturbances to our environments and food systems, together with the burdens from ecosystem disruption, environmental hazards and loss of ecosystem functions. The eco-health literacy should be further promoting under the "One Health" vision, with "One World" concept under Ecological Public Health Model for sustaining our environments and the planet earth for all beings, which is coincidentally echoing Confucian's theory for the environmental ethics of ecological harmony.

  1. FOOD HYPERSENSITIVITY AND PRODUCTS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Lisitsyn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of people with food hypersensitivity, namely food intolerance and food allergies, grows every year. Food intolerance is classified into following types: enzymopathy; leaky gut syndrome; psychogenic food intolerance; detoxification insufficiency and true food intolerance. Food allergens mainly are glycoproteins, haptensor polypeptides. Most cases of food allergy are IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Recent discoveries in medicine, detailing and classification of food hypersensitivity require further researches to develop modern techniques and product recipes with specified propertiesfor consumers with food hypersensitivity. Existing technologies are based on the elimination and or reduction of the content of the allergenic substance in food. The article provides an overview of causes of food intolerance and food allergy, legislative background, a list of food allergens and methods of control, market profile of hypoallergenic produce and scientific approaches to creating hypoallergenic food products based on raw materials of animal origin.

  2. The neighborhood food environment: sources of historical data on retail food stores

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Alma A; Wang May C; Ritchie Lorrene D; Winkleby Marilyn A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract With the rapidly increasing prevalence of obesity in the United States, and the minimal success of education-based interventions, there is growing interest in understanding the role of the neighborhood food environment in determining dietary behavior. This study, as part of a larger study, identifies historical data on retail food stores, evaluates strengths and limitations of the data for research, and assesses the comparability of historical retail food store data from a government...

  3. Food product tracing technology capabilities and interoperability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Tejas; Zhang, Jianrong Janet

    2013-12-01

    Despite the best efforts of food safety and food defense professionals, contaminated food continues to enter the food supply. It is imperative that contaminated food be removed from the supply chain as quickly as possible to protect public health and stabilize markets. To solve this problem, scores of technology companies purport to have the most effective, economical product tracing system. This study sought to compare and contrast the effectiveness of these systems at analyzing product tracing information to identify the contaminated ingredient and likely source, as well as distribution of the product. It also determined if these systems can work together to better secure the food supply (their interoperability). Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) hypothesized that when technology providers are given a full set of supply-chain data, even for a multi-ingredient product, their systems will generally be able to trace a contaminated product forward and backward through the supply chain. However, when provided with only a portion of supply-chain data, even for a product with a straightforward supply chain, it was expected that interoperability of the systems will be lacking and that there will be difficulty collaborating to identify sources and/or recipients of potentially contaminated product. IFT provided supply-chain data for one complex product to 9 product tracing technology providers, and then compared and contrasted their effectiveness at analyzing product tracing information to identify the contaminated ingredient and likely source, as well as distribution of the product. A vertically integrated foodservice restaurant agreed to work with IFT to secure data from its supply chain for both a multi-ingredient and a simpler product. Potential multi-ingredient products considered included canned tuna, supreme pizza, and beef tacos. IFT ensured that all supply-chain data collected did not include any proprietary information or information that would otherwise

  4. Changing the Food Environment: The French Experience12

    OpenAIRE

    Chauliac, Michel; Hercberg, Serge

    2012-01-01

    The French National Nutrition and Health Program was launched in 2001. To achieve its objectives, 2 main preventive strategies were identified: 1) provide information and education to help individuals make healthy food and physical activity choices; and 2) improve the food and physical environment so that making healthy choices is easier. School regulations have been established to improve the nutritional quality of meals served to children and adolescents, and vending machines have been bann...

  5. Understanding interactions with the food environment: an exploration of supermarket food shopping routines in deprived neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Claire; Cummins, Steven; Brown, Tim; Kyle, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Despite a sustained academic interest in the environmental determinants of diet, relatively little is known about the ways in which individuals interact with their neighbourhood food environment and the use of its most important element, the supermarket. This qualitative study explores how residents of deprived neighbourhoods shop for food and how the supermarket environment influences their choices. Go-along interviews were conducted with 26 residents of Sandwell, a uniformly deprived metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, UK. Routine approaches to food shopping are characterised in terms of planning and reliance on the supermarket environment. Four distinct routines are identified: chaotic and reactive; working around the store; item-by-item; and restricted and budgeted. This suggests that residents of deprived neighbourhoods do not have uniform responses to food environments. Responses to supermarket environments appear to be mediated by levels of individual autonomy. A better understanding of how residents of deprived neighbourhoods interact with their food environment may help optimise environmental interventions aimed at improving physical access to food in these places. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nanotechnology in agri-food production: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekhon BS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bhupinder Singh SekhonInstitute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, PCTE Group of Institutes, Ludhiana, IndiaAbstract: Nanotechnology is one of the most important tools in modern agriculture, and agri-food nanotechnology is anticipated to become a driving economic force in the near future. Agri-food themes focus on sustainability and protection of agriculturally produced foods, including crops for human consumption and animal feeding. Nanotechnology provides new agrochemical agents and new delivery mechanisms to improve crop productivity, and it promises to reduce pesticide use. Nanotechnology can boost agricultural production, and its applications include: 1 nanoformulations of agrochemicals for applying pesticides and fertilizers for crop improvement; 2 the application of nanosensors/nanobiosensors in crop protection for the identification of diseases and residues of agrochemicals; 3 nanodevices for the genetic manipulation of plants; 4 plant disease diagnostics; 5 animal health, animal breeding, poultry production; and 6 postharvest management. Precision farming techniques could be used to further improve crop yields but not damage soil and water, reduce nitrogen loss due to leaching and emissions, as well as enhance nutrients long-term incorporation by soil microorganisms. Nanotechnology uses include nanoparticle-mediated gene or DNA transfer in plants for the development of insect-resistant varieties, food processing and storage, nanofeed additives, and increased product shelf life. Nanotechnology promises to accelerate the development of biomass-to-fuels production technologies. Experts feel that the potential benefits of nanotechnology for agriculture, food, fisheries, and aquaculture need to be balanced against concerns for the soil, water, and environment and the occupational health of workers. Raising awareness of nanotechnology in the agri-food sector, including feed and food ingredients, intelligent packaging and quick-detection systems, is

  7. Differences in Food Environment Perceptions and Spatial Attributes of Food Shopping between Residents of Low and High Food Access Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohi, Inderbir; Bell, Bethany A.; Liu, Jihong; Battersby, Sarah E.; Liese, Angela D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore potential differences in food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions between residents living in areas with low and high food access. Design A cross-sectional telephone survey to assess food shopping behaviors and perceptions. Data from an eight-county food environment field census used to define the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) healthier food retail tract and USDA ERS (United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service) food desert measure. Participants 968 residents in eight South Carolina counties. Main Outcome Measures Residents’ food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions. Analysis Linear and logistic regression. Results Compared to residents in high food access areas, residents in low food access areas traveled further to their primary food store (USDA ERS: 8.8 vs. 7.1 miles, p=0.03; CDC: 9.2 vs. 6.1 miles, pshopping miles per week; CDC 28.0 vs. 15.4 miles, pshopping access (p<0.001). Conclusions and Implications These findings lend support to ongoing community and policy interventions aimed at reducing food access disparities. PMID:24560861

  8. Meat, Milk and Eggs. Analysis of animal food environment relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elferink, E.

    2009-09-25

    This thesis aims at providing options for reduction of the consumption of natural resources by animal source food production and consumption. To formulate options for reducing the natural resource use of animal source food production systems, insight into how these systems function and knowledge of their natural resource use is required. The research goals of the thesis originate from this understanding: To gain insight into the natural resource use of animal source food production systems; To identify possibilities and options to reduce the natural resource use of animal source food production. The land requirements of beef, chicken and pork are determined in Chapter 2. Furthermore, the effect of system changes on the land requirement for meat is analyzed. The various factors that affect land requirements for meat production are identified.Chapter 3 analyses the energy use in the animal source food production systems for chicken, pork, eggs and milk. Results are compared on the basis of fresh weight and on their nutritional value as protein sources. The chapter identifies multiple options for reducing the energy use of animal source food products. A case study of how a change in policy (the banning of meat and bone meal in feed as a result of BSE) can affect the environmental impact of animal source food production is presented in Chapter 4. It also shows the global scale of the animal source food system and the trade-offs that can occur. The relationship between food consumption and the availability of human-inedible residues, feed composition and the environmental impact of meat is analysed in Chapter 5. This chapter shows the possible effect dietary changes can have on the environmental impact of meat. Chapter 6 compares organic and industrial pork production with respect to their natural resource use for different system settings. This chapter shows the factors that determine the natural resource use of feed. Finally, Chapter 7 provides an overview of the

  9. Field validation of food outlet databases: the Latino food environment in North Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummo, Pasquale E; Albrecht, Sandra S; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-04-01

    Obtaining valid, reliable measures of food environments that serve Latino communities is important for understanding barriers to healthy eating in this at-risk population. The primary aim of the study was to examine agreement between retail food outlet data from two commercial databases, Nielsen TDLinx (TDLinx) for food stores and Dun & Bradstreet (D&B) for food stores and restaurants, relative to field observations of food stores and restaurants in thirty-one census tracts in Durham County, NC, USA. We also examined differences by proportion of Hispanic population (Spanish language. One hundred and seventy-four food stores and 337 restaurants in Durham County, NC, USA. We found that overall sensitivity of food store listings in TDLinx was higher (64 %) than listings in D&B (55 %). Twenty-five food stores were characterized by auditors as Latino food stores, with 20 % identified in TDLinx, 52 % in D&B and 56 % in both sources. Overall sensitivity of restaurants (68 %) was higher than sensitivity of Latino restaurants (38 %) listed in D&B. Sensitivity did not differ substantially by Hispanic composition of neighbourhoods. Our findings suggest that while TDLinx and D&B commercial data sources perform well for total food stores, they perform less well in identifying small and independent food outlets, including many Latino food stores and restaurants.

  10. Did the Food Environment Cause the Obesity Epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D

    2018-01-01

    Several putative explanations of the obesity epidemic relate to the changing food environment. Individual dietary macronutrients have each been theorized to be the prime culprit for population obesity, but these explanations are unlikely. Rather, obesity probably resulted from changes in the caloric quantity and quality of the food supply in concert with an industrialized food system that produced and marketed convenient, highly processed foods from cheap agricultural inputs. Such foods often contain high amounts of salt, sugar, fat, and flavor additives and are engineered to have supernormal appetitive properties driving increased consumption. Ubiquitous access to convenient and inexpensive food also changed normative eating behavior, with more people snacking, eating in restaurants, and spending less time preparing meals at home. While such changes in the food environment provide a likely explanation of the obesity epidemic, definitive scientific demonstration is hindered by the difficulty in experimentally isolating and manipulating important variables at the population level. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Ergonomics study for workers at food production industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fazi Hamizatun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The health constraint faced by production workers affects the quality of the work. The productivity of the workers is affected by the Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorder (WMSD which limits the movement of the workers. The comfort workplace condition, known as ergonomic environment is important to prevent the occurrence of the WMSD. Proper ergonomic workplace considers the condition of the workers while doing the assigned work. The objectives of this study are to identify the current problems related to ergonomic in food production process, to analyse the actual production data by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA and to recommend the ergonomic workplace environment based on the condition of the study. The study was done at a Small and Medium Enterprises (SME food production company in the Klang Valley of Malaysia. The condition of the workers affects the productivity of the company due to workers’ health deficiency. From the findings, the workers are exposed to the awkward postures which leads to the Work-Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs. Besides, the best height of the worker at the study area (critical area to prevent the worker from WMSDs is within 155 cm to 160 cm. The results show that the workers are exposed to the WMSD in different level of risks which causes high absenteeism among the workers.

  12. Emotions in consumer research : An application to novel food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laros, F.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    During the last decades the general public has been confronted with a continuous stream of radically new food products as well as technologies that can be used to improve food production and food products. It is rather difficult, however, to convince consumers to accept these new products. For

  13. Street Food Environment in Maputo (STOOD Map): a Cross-Sectional Study in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelormini, Marcello; Damasceno, Albertino; Lopes, Simão António; Maló, Sérgio; Chongole, Célia; Muholove, Paulino; Casal, Susana; Pinho, Olívia; Moreira, Pedro; Padrão, Patrícia; Lunet, Nuno

    2015-08-05

    the urban population living or working in Maputo are exposed. Furthermore, this study protocol provides a framework for a stepwise standardized characterization of the street food environment, comprising 3 steps with increasing complexity and demand for human and technical resources: Step 1 consists of the evaluation of food advertising in the streets; Step 2 includes the identification of street food vendors and the characterization of the products available; and Step 3 requires the collection of food samples for bromatological analyses. This structured approach to the assessment of the street food environment may enable within-country and international comparisons as well as monitoring of temporal trends.

  14. Design for the Environment Products (Raw Data)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dataset contains a list of products that carry the Design for the Environment (DfE) label. This mark enables consumers to quickly identify and choose products that can help protect the environment and are safer for families. When you see the DfE logo on a product it means that the DfE scientific review team has screened each ingredient for potential human health and environmental effects and that-based on currently available information, EPA predictive models, and expert judgment-the product contains only those ingredients that pose the least concern among chemicals in their class. Product manufacturers who become DfE partners, and earn the right to display the DfE logo on recognized products, have invested heavily in research, development and reformulation to ensure that their ingredients and finished product line up on the green end of the health and environmental spectrum while maintaining or improving product performance. EPA's Design for the Environment Program (DfE) has allowed use of their logo on over 2500 products. These products are formulated from the safest possible ingredients and have reduced the use of chemicals of concern by hundreds of millions of pounds. A Spanish version of this dataset is available for download at http://www.epa.gov/dfe/pubs/products/list_of_labeled_products.html

  15. Microbial production of antioxidant food ingredients via metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuheng; Jain, Rachit; Yan, Yajun

    2014-04-01

    Antioxidants are biological molecules with the ability to protect vital metabolites from harmful oxidation. Due to this fascinating role, their beneficial effects on human health are of paramount importance. Traditional approaches using solvent-based extraction from food/non-food sources and chemical synthesis are often expensive, exhaustive, and detrimental to the environment. With the advent of metabolic engineering tools, the successful reconstitution of heterologous pathways in Escherichia coli and other microorganisms provides a more exciting and amenable alternative to meet the increasing demand of natural antioxidants. In this review, we elucidate the recent progress in metabolic engineering efforts for the microbial production of antioxidant food ingredients - polyphenols, carotenoids, and antioxidant vitamins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Differences in food environment perceptions and spatial attributes of food shopping between residents of low and high food access areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohi, Inderbir; Bell, Bethany A; Liu, Jihong; Battersby, Sarah E; Liese, Angela D

    2014-01-01

    To explore potential differences in food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions between residents living in areas with low and high food access. A cross-sectional telephone survey to assess food shopping behaviors and perceptions. Data from an 8-county food environment field census used to define the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) healthier food retail tract and US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service food desert measure. A total of 968 residents in 8 South Carolina counties. Residents' food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions. Linear and logistic regression. Compared with residents in high food access areas, residents in low food access areas traveled farther to their primary food store (US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service: 8.8 vs 7.1 miles, P = .03; CDC: 9.2 vs 6.1 miles, P shopping miles per week (CDC: 28.0 vs 15.4 miles; P shopping access (P Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Production of Fungal Glucoamylase for Glucose Production from Food Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Sze Ki Lin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using pastry waste as resource for glucoamylase (GA production via solid state fermentation (SSF was studied. The crude GA extract obtained was used for glucose production from mixed food waste. Our results showed that pastry waste could be used as a sole substrate for GA production. A maximal GA activity of 76.1 ± 6.1 U/mL was obtained at Day 10. The optimal pH and reaction temperature for the crude GA extract for hydrolysis were pH 5.5 and 55 °C, respectively. Under this condition, the half-life of the GA extract was 315.0 minutes with a deactivation constant (kd 2.20 × 10−3minutes−1. The application of the crude GA extract for mixed food waste hydrolysis and glucose production was successfully demonstrated. Approximately 53 g glucose was recovered from 100 g of mixed food waste in 1 h under the optimal digestion conditions, highlighting the potential of this approach as an alternative strategy for waste management and sustainable production of glucose applicable as carbon source in many biotechnological processes.

  18. Production of Fungal Glucoamylase for Glucose Production from Food Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wan Chi; Pleissner, Daniel; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of using pastry waste as resource for glucoamylase (GA) production via solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied. The crude GA extract obtained was used for glucose production from mixed food waste. Our results showed that pastry waste could be used as a sole substrate for GA production. A maximal GA activity of 76.1 ± 6.1 U/mL was obtained at Day 10. The optimal pH and reaction temperature for the crude GA extract for hydrolysis were pH 5.5 and 55 °C, respectively. Under this condition, the half-life of the GA extract was 315.0 minutes with a deactivation constant (kd) 2.20 × 10−3 minutes−1. The application of the crude GA extract for mixed food waste hydrolysis and glucose production was successfully demonstrated. Approximately 53 g glucose was recovered from 100 g of mixed food waste in 1 h under the optimal digestion conditions, highlighting the potential of this approach as an alternative strategy for waste management and sustainable production of glucose applicable as carbon source in many biotechnological processes. PMID:24970186

  19. Introduction to Food Production Challenges in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly

    2017-01-01

    Food is one of the most critical elements required for human survival. Though the time to effect may be shorter for oxygen, shelter, or water, the consequences are just as serious. Stored food has also been shown by studies performed by NASA's Evolvable Mars Campaign team to be a significant, multi-ton logistics burden for initial human exploration missions to Mars. Popular fiction and media assumes that in-situ production of food from plants will be part of future space missions. Scientific experiments have demonstrated that plant growth in space is feasible. Crew response to food and their time spent tending the plants also provide evidence for the benefit that plants can have for future missions. However, illustrations of possible options do not prove that biological systems will be cost effective or reliable. On Earth, biological systems are considered robust because they can recover with time, but success conditions for a space mission requires the safe return of the same crewmembers who began the mission, not just recovery of survivable conditions for another group of human beings.

  20. Monitoring the impacts of trade agreements on food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, S; Hattersley, L; Snowdon, W; Thow, A-M; Lobstein, T; Sanders, D; Barquera, S; Mohan, S; Hawkes, C; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; L'Abbe, M; Lee, A; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Rayner, M; Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Vandevijvere, S; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    The liberalization of international trade and foreign direct investment through multilateral, regional and bilateral agreements has had profound implications for the structure and nature of food systems, and therefore, for the availability, nutritional quality, accessibility, price and promotion of foods in different locations. Public health attention has only relatively recently turned to the links between trade and investment agreements, diets and health, and there is currently no systematic monitoring of this area. This paper reviews the available evidence on the links between trade agreements, food environments and diets from an obesity and non-communicable disease (NCD) perspective. Based on the key issues identified through the review, the paper outlines an approach for monitoring the potential impact of trade agreements on food environments and obesity/NCD risks. The proposed monitoring approach encompasses a set of guiding principles, recommended procedures for data collection and analysis, and quantifiable 'minimal', 'expanded' and 'optimal' measurement indicators to be tailored to national priorities, capacity and resources. Formal risk assessment processes of existing and evolving trade and investment agreements, which focus on their impacts on food environments will help inform the development of healthy trade policy, strengthen domestic nutrition and health policy space and ultimately protect population nutrition. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  1. The moderating role of food cue sensitivity in the behavioral response of children to their neighborhood food environment: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Catherine; de Montigny, Luc; Labban, Alice; Buckeridge, David; Ma, Yu; Arora, Narendra; Dubé, Laurette

    2017-07-05

    Neighborhood food cues have been inconsistently related to residents' health, possibly due to variations in residents' sensitivity to such cues. This study sought to investigate the degree to which children's predisposition to eat upon exposure to food environment and food cues (external eating), could explain differences in strength of associations between their food consumption and the type of food outlets and marketing strategies present in their neighborhood. Data were obtained from 616 6-12 y.o. children recruited into a population-based cross-sectional study in which food consumption was measured through a 24-h food recall and responsiveness to food cues measured using the external eating scale. The proportion of food retailers within 3 km of residence considered as "healthful" was calculated using a Geographical Information System. Neighborhood exposure to food marketing strategies (displays, discount frequency, variety, and price) for vegetables and soft drinks were derived from a geocoded digital marketing database. Adjusted mixed models with spatial covariance tested interaction effects of food environment indicators and external eating on food consumption. In children with higher external eating scores, healthful food consumption was more positively related to vegetable displays, and more negatively to the display and variety of soft drinks. No interactions were observed for unhealthful food consumption and no main effects of food environment indicators were found on food consumption. Children differ in their responsiveness to marketing-related visual food cues on the basis of their external eating phenotype. Strategies aiming to increase the promotion of healthful relative to unhealthful food products in stores may be particularly beneficial for children identified as being more responsive to food cues.

  2. Occurrence, Persistence, and Virulence Potential of Listeria ivanovii in Foods and Food Processing Environments in the Republic of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ciara A.; Hill, Colin; Gahan, Cormac G. M.; Jordan, Kieran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of L. ivanovii in foods and food processing environments in Ireland, to track persistence, and to characterize the disease causing potential of the isolated strains. A total of 2,006 samples (432 food samples and 1,574 environmental swabs) were collected between March 2013 and March 2014 from 48 food business operators (FBOs) belonging to different production sectors (dairy, fish, meat, and fresh-cut vegetable). Six of the forty-eight FBOs had samples positive for L. ivanovii on at least one sampling occasion. L. ivanovii was present in fifteen samples (fourteen environmental samples and one food sample). All but one of those positive samples derived from the dairy sector, where L. ivanovii prevalence was 1.7%. Six distinguishable pulsotypes were obtained by PFGE analysis, with one pulsotype being persistent in the environment of a dairy food business. Sequence analysis of the sigB gene showed that fourteen isolates belonged to L. ivanovii subsp. londoniensis, while only one isolate was L. ivanovii subsp. ivanovii. Cell invasion assays demonstrated that the majority of L. ivanovii strains were comparable to L. monocytogenes EGDe in their ability to invade CACO-2 epithelial cells whilst four isolates had significantly higher invasion efficiencies. PMID:26543856

  3. Occurrence, Persistence, and Virulence Potential of Listeria ivanovii in Foods and Food Processing Environments in the Republic of Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino Alvarez-Ordóñez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of L. ivanovii in foods and food processing environments in Ireland, to track persistence, and to characterize the disease causing potential of the isolated strains. A total of 2,006 samples (432 food samples and 1,574 environmental swabs were collected between March 2013 and March 2014 from 48 food business operators (FBOs belonging to different production sectors (dairy, fish, meat, and fresh-cut vegetable. Six of the forty-eight FBOs had samples positive for L. ivanovii on at least one sampling occasion. L. ivanovii was present in fifteen samples (fourteen environmental samples and one food sample. All but one of those positive samples derived from the dairy sector, where L. ivanovii prevalence was 1.7%. Six distinguishable pulsotypes were obtained by PFGE analysis, with one pulsotype being persistent in the environment of a dairy food business. Sequence analysis of the sigB gene showed that fourteen isolates belonged to L. ivanovii subsp. londoniensis, while only one isolate was L. ivanovii subsp. ivanovii. Cell invasion assays demonstrated that the majority of L. ivanovii strains were comparable to L. monocytogenes EGDe in their ability to invade CACO-2 epithelial cells whilst four isolates had significantly higher invasion efficiencies.

  4. Design for the Environment Products (Online Search)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dataset contains a list of products that carry the Design for the Environment (DfE) label. This mark enables consumers to quickly identify and choose products that can help protect the environment and are safer for families. When you see the DfE logo on a product it means that the DfE scientific review team has screened each ingredient for potential human health and environmental effects and that-based on currently available information, EPA predictive models, and expert judgment-the product contains only those ingredients that pose the least concern among chemicals in their class. Product manufacturers who become DfE partners, and earn the right to display the DfE logo on recognized products, have invested heavily in research, development and reformulation to ensure that their ingredients and finished product line up on the green end of the health and environmental spectrum while maintaining or improving product performance. EPA's Design for the Environment Program (DfE) has allowed use of their logo on over 2500 products. These products are formulated from the safest possible ingredients and have reduced the use of chemicals of concern by hundreds of millions of pounds.

  5. State of the safety assessment and current use of nanomaterials in food and food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, H.; Brandhoff, P.N.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Weigel, S.; Peters, R.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials are developed for and applied in food, food additives, supplements and food contact materials. In an inventory of internet databases 140 products in the food and food-related sectors were identified that claim to contain nanomaterials. A great diversity of nanomaterials is applied,

  6. From food production to food security: developing interdisciplinary, regional-level research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, J.S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Food security is a condition whereby “all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” (FAO World Food Summit, 1996). Globally, food production has kept

  7. Exploring Parent Perceptions of the Food Environment in Youth Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Megan; Nelson, Toben F.; Harwood, Eileen; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine parent perceptions of the food environment in youth sport. Methods: Eight focus group discussions were held with parents (n = 60) of youth aged 6-13 years participating in basketball programs in Minnesota. Key themes and concepts were identified via transcript-based analysis. Results: Parents reported that youth commonly…

  8. Concentration of stable elements in food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montford, M.A.; Shank, K.E.; Hendricks, C.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    Food samples were taken from commercial markets and analyzed for stable element content. The concentrations of most stable elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hf, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, V, Zn, Zr) were determined using multiple-element neutron activation analysis, while the concentrations of other elements (Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb) were determined using atomic absorption. The relevance of the concentrations found are noted in relation to other literature values. An earlier study was extended to include the determination of the concentration of stable elements in home-grown products in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Comparisons between the commercial and local food-stuff values are discussed

  9. Herbal products, food supplements and teas for improvement of digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Mozūraitienė, Vilija

    2016-01-01

    Objective of the study: To examine and systematize assortment of herbal products, food supplements and teas for improvement of digestion and also to find out public opinion about herbal products, food supplements and teas for improvement of digestion using questionnaire. Aim of the study: (1) To examine which digestive tract ailments are treated most frequently herbal products, food supplements and teas. (2) To examine which herbal products, food supplements and teas are used most frequent...

  10. Measurement of radionuclides in food and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This guidebook is a production of the Fallout Radioactivity Monitoring in Environment and Food (MEF) Programme created by the IAEA in response to requests from Member States. The guidebook is divided into two parts. The first contains seven sections, including the introduction. Sections 2 and 3 provide general information on samples and radionuclides of interest. Laboratory equipment, space and personnel needed for radioanalyses are described in section 4. General instructions for sample collection and preparation are given in section 5. Sections 6 and 7 briefly discuss analytical methods and analytical quality control respectively. The second part of the guidebook is composed of ten annexes. The first four contain detailed methods for determination of gamma emitters collectively, strontium isotopes, tritium, and the isotopes of plutonium, americium and curium. Annex V provides a list of units and symbols; Annex VI gives information on radionuclide spectra in four types of nuclear accidents; nuclear data tables are listed in Annex VII; an example of a sample collection programme is presented in Annex VIII; some examples of NaI- and HP-Ge gamma spectrometric systems are given in Annex IX; and potential suppliers of calibration sources and reference materials are listed in Annex X. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Relation between local food environments and obesity among adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raine Kim D

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outside of the United States, evidence for associations between exposure to fast-food establishments and risk for obesity among adults is limited and equivocal. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether the relative availability of different types of food retailers around people's homes was associated with obesity among adults in Edmonton, Canada, and if this association varied as a function of distance between food locations and people's homes. Methods Data from a population health survey of 2900 adults (18 years or older conducted in 2002 was linked with geographic measures of access to food retailers. Based upon a ratio of the number of fast-food restaurants and convenience stores to supermarkets and specialty food stores, a Retail Food Environment Index (RFEI was calculated for 800 m and 1600 m buffers around people's homes. In a series of logistic regressions, associations between the RFEI and the level of obesity among adults were examined. Results The median RFEI for adults in Edmonton was 4.00 within an 800 m buffer around their residence and 6.46 within a 1600 m buffer around their residence. Approximately 14% of the respondents were classified as being obese. The odds of a resident being obese were significantly lower (OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.59 – 0.95 if they lived in an area with the lowest RFEI (below 3.0 in comparison to the highest RFEI (5.0 and above. These associations existed regardless of the covariates included in the model. No significant associations were observed between RFEI within a 1600 m buffer of the home and obesity. Conclusion The lower the ratio of fast-food restaurants and convenience stores to grocery stores and produce vendors near people's homes, the lower the odds of being obese. Thus the proximity of the obesogenic environment to individuals appears to be an important factor in their risk for obesity.

  12. Modes of Disintegration of Solid Foods in Simulated Gastric Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanbin

    2009-01-01

    A model stomach system was used to investigate disintegration of various foods in simulated gastric environment. Food disintegration modes and typical disintegration profiles are summarized in this paper. Mechanisms contributing to the disintegration kinetics of different foods were investigated as related to acidity, temperature, and enzymatic effect on the texture and changes in microstructure. Food disintegration was dominated by either fragmentation or erosion, depending on the physical forces acting on food and the cohesive force within the food matrix. The internal cohesive forces changed during digestion as a result of water penetration and acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis. When erosion was dominant, the disintegration data (weight retention vs. disintegration time) may be expressed with exponential, sigmoidal, and delayed-sigmoidal profiles. The different profiles are the result of competition among the rates of water absorption, texture softening, and erosion. A linear-exponential equation was used to describe the different disintegration curves with good fit. Acidity and temperature of gastric juice showed a synergistic effect on carrot softening, while pepsin was the key factor in disintegrating high-protein foods. A study of the change of carrot microstructure during digestion indicated that degradation of the pectin and cell wall was responsible for texture softening that contributed to the sigmoidal profile of carrot disintegration. PMID:20401314

  13. Exporting obesity: US farm and trade policy and the transformation of the Mexican consumer food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah E; Hawkes, Corinna; Murphy, Sophia M E; Hansen-Kuhn, Karen A; Wallinga, David

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions, in the United States as well as among its trade partners such as Mexico. It has been established that an "obesogenic" (obesity-causing) food environment is one influence on obesity prevalence. To isolate the particular role of NAFTA, the North American Free Trade Agreement, in changing Mexico's food environment, we plotted the flow of several key products between the United States and Mexico over the 14-year NAFTA period (1994-2008) and situated them in a broader historical context. Key sources of USDA data include the Foreign Agricultural Service's Global Agricultural Trade System, its official repository for current and historical data on imports, exports and re-exports, and its Production, Supply, and Distribution online database. US export data were queried for agricultural products linked to shifting diet patterns including: corn, soybeans, sugar and sweeteners, consumer-oriented products, and livestock products. The Bureau of Economic Analysis' Balance of Payments and Direct Investment Position Data in their web-based International Economic Accounts system also helped determine changes in US direct investment abroad from 1982 to 2009. Directly and indirectly, the United States has exported increasing amounts of corn, soybeans, sugar, snack foods, and meat products into Mexico over the last two decades. Facilitated by NAFTA, these exports are one important way in which US agriculture and trade policy influences Mexico's food system. Because of significant US agribusiness investment in Mexico across the full spectrum of the latter's food supply chain, from production and processing to distribution and retail, the Mexican food system increasingly looks like the industrialized food system of the United States.

  14. PROMOTING TRADITIONAL FOOD PRODUCTS AS HEALTHY DIET PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Teodora TARCZA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a brief introspection in the literature review in an attempt to highlight the peculiarities of traditional foodstuffs that enable them to be promoted as the primary food for a healthy diet. The trend of healthy eating is gaining ground not only for experts and researchers, but also for consumers on a daily basis. Traditional foodstuffs are brought back into the consumers’ attention in a market full of highly-processed foodstuffs. Marketing specialists noticed the link between the two concepts and they elaborated promotional strategies for traditional foodstuffs, having the ‘healthy diet’ as insight. Throughout the paper we will present theoretical considerations such as the concept of ‘traditional food product’, ‘promotion’, and ‘healthy diet’ from a marketing perspective followed by several examples of traditional food products perceived as healthy, and lastly, we will highlight the benefits of promoting a healthy diet by consuming traditional food products.

  15. Trade in Food and Food Products in Africa | Sekitoleko | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food and Nutritional Security ... Apart from the growing number of chronically food insecure people, projected to ... do not benefit from economic growth and social security interventions that also have a development pay-off.

  16. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food is an important basic human need for survival, growth, and good health. Most rural households in Tanzania, Kahama district inclusive produce the food they consume. Despite this reality, a number of households in the district suffer from food insecurity. However, there are inequalities across the districtfs ecological ...

  17. 27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17.133 Section 17.133 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage...

  18. An Intervention To Enhance the Food Environment in Public Recreation and Sport Settings: A Natural Experiment in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Patti-Jean; Olstad, Dana Lee; Therrien, Suzanne

    2015-08-01

    Publicly funded recreation and sports facilities provide children with access to affordable physical activities, although they often have unhealthy food environments that may increase child obesity risk. This study evaluated the impact of a capacity-building intervention (Healthy Food and Beverage Sales; HFBS) on organizational capacity for providing healthy food environments, health of vending machine products, and food policy development in recreation and sport facilities in British Columbia, Canada. Twenty-one HFBS communities received training, resources, and technical support to improve their food environment over 8 months in 2009-2010, whereas 23 comparison communities did not. Communities self-reported organizational capacity, food policies, and audited vending machine products at baseline and follow-up. Repeated-measures analysis of variance evaluated intervention impact. Intervention and comparison communities reported higher organizational capacity at follow-up; however, improvements were greater in HFBS communities (pfood policy, whereas 48% reported one at follow-up. No comparison communities had food policies. This is the first large, controlled study to examine the impact of an intervention to improve recreation and sport facility food environments. HFBS communities increased their self-rated capacity to provide healthy foods, healthy vending product offerings, and food policies to a greater extent than comparison communities. Recreation and sport settings are a priority setting for supporting healthy dietary behaviors among children.

  19. Development and evaluation of a food environment survey in three urban environments of Kunming, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the rapid pace of urbanization and Westernization and the increasing prevalence of obesity, there is a need for research to better understand the influence of the built environment on overweight and obesity in world’s developing regions. Culturally-specific food environment survey instruments are important tools for studying changing food availability and pricing. Here, we present findings from an effort to develop and evaluate food environment survey instruments for use in a rapidly developing city in southwest China. Methods We developed two survey instruments (for stores and restaurants), each designed to be completed within 10 minutes. Two pairs of researchers surveyed a pre-selected 1-km stretch of street in each of three socio-demographically different neighborhoods to assess inter-rater reliability. Construct validity was assessed by comparing the food environments of the neighborhoods to cross-sectional height and weight data obtained on 575 adolescents in the corresponding regions of the city. Results 273 food establishments (163 restaurants and 110 stores) were surveyed. Sit-down, take-out, and fast food restaurants accounted for 40%, 21% and 19% of all restaurants surveyed. Tobacco and alcohol shops, convenience stores and supermarkets accounted for 25%, 12% and 11%, respectively, of all stores surveyed. We found a high percentage of agreement between teams (>75%) for all categorical variables with moderate kappa scores (0.4-0.6), and no statistically significant differences between teams for any of the continuous variables. More developed inner city neighborhoods had a higher number of fast food restaurants and convenience stores than surrounding neighborhoods. Adolescents who lived in the more developed inner neighborhoods also had a higher percentage of overweight, indicating well-founded construct validity. Depending on the cutoff used, 19% to 36% of male and 10% to 22% of female 16-year old adolescents were found to be overweight

  20. Development and evaluation of a food environment survey in three urban environments of Kunming, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Li, Yan; Wang, May C

    2014-03-06

    Given the rapid pace of urbanization and Westernization and the increasing prevalence of obesity, there is a need for research to better understand the influence of the built environment on overweight and obesity in world's developing regions. Culturally-specific food environment survey instruments are important tools for studying changing food availability and pricing. Here, we present findings from an effort to develop and evaluate food environment survey instruments for use in a rapidly developing city in southwest China. We developed two survey instruments (for stores and restaurants), each designed to be completed within 10 minutes. Two pairs of researchers surveyed a pre-selected 1-km stretch of street in each of three socio-demographically different neighborhoods to assess inter-rater reliability. Construct validity was assessed by comparing the food environments of the neighborhoods to cross-sectional height and weight data obtained on 575 adolescents in the corresponding regions of the city. 273 food establishments (163 restaurants and 110 stores) were surveyed. Sit-down, take-out, and fast food restaurants accounted for 40%, 21% and 19% of all restaurants surveyed. Tobacco and alcohol shops, convenience stores and supermarkets accounted for 25%, 12% and 11%, respectively, of all stores surveyed. We found a high percentage of agreement between teams (>75%) for all categorical variables with moderate kappa scores (0.4-0.6), and no statistically significant differences between teams for any of the continuous variables. More developed inner city neighborhoods had a higher number of fast food restaurants and convenience stores than surrounding neighborhoods. Adolescents who lived in the more developed inner neighborhoods also had a higher percentage of overweight, indicating well-founded construct validity. Depending on the cutoff used, 19% to 36% of male and 10% to 22% of female 16-year old adolescents were found to be overweight. The prevalence of

  1. Peering into the secrets of food and agricultural co-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Delilah; Williams, Tina; Glenn, Gregory; Pan, Zhongli; Orts, William; McHugh, Tara

    2010-06-01

    Scanning electron microscopy is a useful tool for understanding food contamination and directing product development of food and industrial products. The current trend in food research is to produce foods that are fast to prepare and/or ready to eat. At the same time, these processed foods must be safe, high quality and maintain all or most of the nutritional value of the original whole foods. Minimally processed foods, is the phrase used to characterize these "new" foods. New techniques are needed which take advantage of minimal processing or processing which enhances the fresh properties and characteristics of whole foods while spending less time on food preparation. The added benefit coupled to less cooking time in an individual kitchen translates to an overall energy savings and reduces the carbon emissions to the environment. Food processing changes the microstructure, and therefore, the quality, texture and flavor, of the resulting food product. Additionally, there is the need to reduce waste, transportation costs and product loss during transportation and storage. Unlike food processing, structural changes are desirable in co-products as function follows form for food packaging films and boxes as well as for building materials and other industrial products. Thus, the standard materials testing procedures are coupled with SEM to provide direction in the development of products from agricultural residues or what would otherwise be considered waste materials. The use of agricultural residues reduces waste and adds value to a currently underutilized or unutilized product. The product might be biodegradable or compostable, thus reducing landfill requirements. Manufacturing industrial and packaging products from biological materials also reduces the amount of petroleum products currently standard in the industry.

  2. A Complete Set of Technologies for Green Food Pork Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xing-wu; SHAN An-shan; JIANG Jiu-tian; ZHANG Tian-feng

    2003-01-01

    Key technologies for green food pork production were described in this article,as aspects of business standardization;production equipments and facilities,product quality control;and pork production site establishment.

  3. Association of food environment and food retailers with obesity in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Renfei; Bastian, Nathaniel D; Griffin, Paul M

    2015-05-01

    The food environment has been shown to be a factor affecting the obesity rate. We studied the association of density of food retailer type with obesity rate in U.S. adults in local regions controlling for socioeconomic factors. Parametric nonlinear regression was used on publically available data (year=2009) at the county level. We used the results of this association to estimate the impact of the addition of a new food retailer type in a geographic region. Obesity rate increased in supercenters (0.25-0.28%) and convenience stores (0.05%) and decreased in grocery stores (0.08%) and specialized food stores (0.27-0.36%). The marginal measures estimated in this work could be useful in identifying regions where interventions based on food retailer type would be most effective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mismatch between Probiotic Benefits in Trials versus Food Products

    OpenAIRE

    Scourboutakos, Mary J.; Franco-Arellano, Beatriz; Murphy, Sarah A.; Norsen, Sheida; Comelli, Elena M.; L?Abb?, Mary R.

    2017-01-01

    Probiotic food products contain a variety of different bacterial strains and may offer different health effects. The objective was to document the prevalence and dosage of probiotic strains in the Canadian food supply and to review the literature investigating these strains in order to understand what health benefits these products may offer. The Food Label Information Program was used to identify probiotic-containing products in the food supply. PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase were search...

  5. HACCP based quality assurance systems for organic food production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, C.; Stanley, R.

    2007-01-01

    HACCP provides an effective, logical and structured means of assuring food safety. Although first used in food manufacturing operations, HACCP can be – and, increasingly is – applied to food production and handling operations at all stages in the food chain. This includes the primary production sector. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how the principles of HACCP can be applied to organic production with special reference to the primary sector.

  6. Fish parasites, fish food, and the marine environment | Nnadi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper addresses the incontrovertible fact that fish and fish products have historically been a reliable supplier of protein, in particular, and food, in general for humans. Seventy to a hundred metric tons arc caught each year since the early seventies. Fish protein represents about twenty five percent of the total animal ...

  7. Consumer Protection Towards Local Food Production In Southeast Sulawesi Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Suriani BT. Tolo; Ahsan Yunus; Ahmadi Miru; Irwansyah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Consumers have rights which should not just be ignored by businesses such as the right to be a safety the right be informed the right to be heard as well as the right to a good environment and healthy. Kendari Regency as a local government has been manifested by issuing regulations and policies that support the development of local food production such as the Mayor of Kendari regulation No. 15 of 2010 and Mayor Kendari Decree No. 427 of 2012 regarding the Establishment of Community C...

  8. Predicting and preventing mold spoilage of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnas, Stéphane; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2013-03-01

    This article is a review of how to quantify mold spoilage and consequently shelf life of a food product. Mold spoilage results from having a product contaminated with fungal spores that germinate and form a visible mycelium before the end of the shelf life. The spoilage can be then expressed as the combination of the probability of having a product contaminated and the probability of mold growth (germination and proliferation) up to a visible mycelium before the end of the shelf life. For products packed before being distributed to the retailers, the probability of having a product contaminated is a function of factors strictly linked to the factory design, process, and environment. The in-factory fungal contamination of a product might be controlled by good manufacturing hygiene practices and reduced by particular processing practices such as an adequate air-renewal system. To determine the probability of mold growth, both germination and mycelium proliferation can be mathematically described by primary models. When mold contamination on the product is scarce, the spores are spread on the product and more than a few spores are unlikely to be found at the same spot. In such a case, models applicable for a single spore should be used. Secondary models can be used to describe the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on either the germination or proliferation of molds. Several polynomial models and gamma-type models quantifying the effect of water activity and temperature on mold growth are available. To a lesser extent, the effect of pH, ethanol, heat treatment, addition of preservatives, and modified atmospheres on mold growth also have been quantified. However, mold species variability has not yet been properly addressed, and only a few secondary models have been validated for food products. Once the probability of having mold spoilage is calculated for various shelf lives and product formulations, the model can be implemented as part of a risk management

  9. The Ontario Food and Nutrition Strategy: identifying indicators of food access and food literacy for early monitoring of the food environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice A. Boucher

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To address challenges Canadians face within their food environments, a comprehensive, multistakeholder, intergovernmental approach to policy development is essential. Food environment indicators are needed to assess population status and change. The Ontario Food and Nutrition Strategy (OFNS integrates the food, agriculture and nutrition sectors, and aims to improve the health of Ontarians through actions that promote healthy food systems and environments. This report describes the process of identifying indicators for 11 OFNS action areas in two strategic directions (SDs: Healthy Food Access, and Food Literacy and Skills. Methods: The OFNS Indicators Advisory Group used a five-step process to select indicators: (1 potential indicators from national and provincial data sources were identified; (2 indicators were organized by SD, action area and data type; (3 selection criteria were identified, pilot tested and finalized; (4 final criteria were applied to refine the indicator list; and (5 indicators were prioritized after reapplication of selection criteria. Results: Sixty-nine potential indicators were initially identified; however, many were individual-level rather than system-level measures. After final application of the selection criteria, one individual-level indicator and six system-level indicators were prioritized in five action areas; for six of the action areas, no indicators were available. Conclusion: Data limitations suggest that available data may not measure important aspects of the food environment, highlighting the need for action and resources to improve system-level indicators and support monitoring of the food environment and health in Ontario and across Canada.

  10. The Ontario Food and Nutrition Strategy: identifying indicators of food access and food literacy for early monitoring of the food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Beatrice A; Manafò, Elizabeth; Boddy, Meaghan R; Roblin, Lynn; Truscott, Rebecca

    2017-09-01

    To address challenges Canadians face within their food environments, a comprehensive, multistakeholder, intergovernmental approach to policy development is essential. Food environment indicators are needed to assess population status and change. The Ontario Food and Nutrition Strategy (OFNS) integrates the food, agriculture and nutrition sectors, and aims to improve the health of Ontarians through actions that promote healthy food systems and environments. This report describes the process of identifying indicators for 11 OFNS action areas in two strategic directions (SDs): Healthy Food Access, and Food Literacy and Skills. The OFNS Indicators Advisory Group used a five-step process to select indicators: (1) potential indicators from national and provincial data sources were identified; (2) indicators were organized by SD, action area and data type; (3) selection criteria were identified, pilot tested and finalized; (4) final criteria were applied to refine the indicator list; and (5) indicators were prioritized after reapplication of selection criteria. Sixty-nine potential indicators were initially identified; however, many were individual-level rather than system-level measures. After final application of the selection criteria, one individual-level indicator and six system-level indicators were prioritized in five action areas; for six of the action areas, no indicators were available. Data limitations suggest that available data may not measure important aspects of the food environment, highlighting the need for action and resources to improve system-level indicators and support monitoring of the food environment and health in Ontario and across Canada.

  11. Relationships between Vacant Homes and Food Swamps: A Longitudinal Study of an Urban Food Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mui, Yeeli; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Thornton, Rachel L J; Pollack Porter, Keshia; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2017-11-21

    Research indicates that living in neighborhoods with high concentrations of boarded-up vacant homes is associated with premature mortality due to cancer and diabetes, but the mechanism for this relationship is unclear. Boarded-up housing may indirectly impact residents' health by affecting their food environment. We evaluated the association between changes in vacancy rates and changes in the density of unhealthy food outlets as a proportion of all food outlets, termed the food swamp index, in Baltimore, MD (USA) from 2001 to 2012, using neighborhood fixed-effects linear regression models. Over the study period, the average food swamp index increased from 93.5 to 95.3 percentage points across all neighborhoods. Among non-African American neighborhoods, increases in the vacancy rate were associated with statistically significant decreases in the food swamp index (b = -0.38; 90% CI, -0.64 to -0.12; p -value: 0.015), after accounting for changes in neighborhood SES, racial diversity, and population size. A positive association was found among low-SES neighborhoods (b = 0.15; 90% CI, 0.037 to 0.27; p -value: 0.031). Vacant homes may influence the composition of food outlets in urban neighborhoods. Future research should further elucidate the mechanisms by which more distal, contextual factors, such as boarded-up vacant homes, may affect food choices and diet-related health outcomes.

  12. The nitrogen cost of food production: Norwegian society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azzaroli Bleken, M. [Agricultural Univ. of Norway, Aas (Norway). Dept. of Horticulture and Crop Sciences; Bakken, L.R. [Agricultural Univ. of Norway, Aas (Norway). Dept. of Soil and Water Sciences

    1997-05-01

    The N-enrichment of the biosphere due to human activities has potential global consequences in enhancing cumulatively, the emission of N{sub 2}O to the atmosphere. This aspect of nitrogen pollution demands a global analysis of the `human nitrogen cycle`. We have used Norway as an example to analyze the nitrogen flows within a society and the dissipation of N to the environment. The present paper concentrates on the food producing sector, which was found to represent the largest N-flow and had the most complex interferences within the nitrogen cycle. The edible products that reach the consumers` mouths account for around 10% of the total N inputs at the primary (plant) production level. The largest N-dissipation occurs in plant production, but the performance of the society as a whole is largely determined by the human diet. The N-cost, defined as the ratio between fertilizer N-input (including animal manure) and the N products, is around 3 for wheat, 14 for dairy products and 21 for meat. The analysis of different mitigation options also reveal the importance of recycling at the highest possible trophic level. Major reductions in the total consumption of N can be obtained by moderate changes towards a more vegetarian diet and better utilization of existing food. In contrast, recycling of waste at the lowest trophic level (compost) is very inefficient. 43 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  13. The interaction of human population, food production, and biodiversity protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Eileen; Mora, Camilo; Engelman, Robert

    2017-04-21

    Research suggests that the scale of human population and the current pace of its growth contribute substantially to the loss of biological diversity. Although technological change and unequal consumption inextricably mingle with demographic impacts on the environment, the needs of all human beings-especially for food-imply that projected population growth will undermine protection of the natural world. Numerous solutions have been proposed to boost food production while protecting biodiversity, but alone these proposals are unlikely to staunch biodiversity loss. An important approach to sustaining biodiversity and human well-being is through actions that can slow and eventually reverse population growth: investing in universal access to reproductive health services and contraceptive technologies, advancing women's education, and achieving gender equality. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. MANAGEMENT OF QUALITY AND SAFETY OF FOOD PRODUCTS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goryana Yonkova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bulgaria is famous not only in Europe but throughout the world, except for its rich natural and cultural heritage, but also traditional dairy products (yogurt and cheese - cow, sheep, buffalo and goats; yellow cheese, honey and bee products, rose oil. To be competitive on national and international markets, food production must meet the requirements for quality assurance and food safety. The article presents the key economic indicators and threats related to quality management and safety of food products of animal origin in relation to the conservation of components of the environment and human health.

  15. A systematic policy approach to changing the food system and physical activity environments to prevent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Gary; Swinburn, Boyd A; Lawrence, Mark A

    2008-06-05

    As obesity prevention becomes an increasing health priority in many countries, including Australia and New Zealand, the challenge that governments are now facing is how to adopt a systematic policy approach to increase healthy eating and regular physical activity. This article sets out a structure for systematically identifying areas for obesity prevention policy action across the food system and full range of physical activity environments. Areas amenable to policy intervention can be systematically identified by considering policy opportunities for each level of governance (local, state, national, international and organisational) in each sector of the food system (primary production, food processing, distribution, marketing, retail, catering and food service) and each sector that influences physical activity environments (infrastructure and planning, education, employment, transport, sport and recreation). Analysis grids are used to illustrate, in a structured fashion, the broad array of areas amenable to legal and regulatory intervention across all levels of governance and all relevant sectors. In the Australian context, potential regulatory policy intervention areas are widespread throughout the food system, e.g., land-use zoning (primary production within local government), food safety (food processing within state government), food labelling (retail within national government). Policy areas for influencing physical activity are predominantly local and state government responsibilities including, for example, walking and cycling environments (infrastructure and planning sector) and physical activity education in schools (education sector). The analysis structure presented in this article provides a tool to systematically identify policy gaps, barriers and opportunities for obesity prevention, as part of the process of developing and implementing a comprehensive obesity prevention strategy. It also serves to highlight the need for a coordinated approach to

  16. Supplement: Why Colour Foods? Colouring Food Products with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today, the food industry is the kitchen of the world. It has revolutionised nutrition. Never before have standards of purity, stability, and physiological harmlessness been as high as they are today. New raw materials and new methods of refining and preserving, however, often alter the natural appearance of fresh foods.

  17. Food environments of young people: linking individual behaviour to environmental context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Rachel L; Greenhalgh, Fiona; Hodgson, Susan; Wills, Wendy J; Mathers, John C; Adamson, Ashley J; Lake, Amelia A

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to identify and characterize the food environments from which young people obtain food and to explore associations between the type of food environment and food intakes. Young people (n = 86, mean age 17 years; combined data of two sequential pilot studies (collected in 2008-09) and a study conducted in 2011-12) recorded in 4-day self-complete food diaries what food they consumed and where food was sourced. Nutrient, fruit and vegetable intake was calculated according to the source of food, categorized using a food environment classification tool. Over 4 days, respondents sourced food from an average of 4.3 different food environments. Home food was used daily and was more favourable in terms of nutrient profile than out-of-home food. Food sourced from specialist outlets, convenience stores and retail bakers had the highest energy density. Food from retail bakers and 'takeaway and fast food' outlets were the richest sources of fat while vending machines and convenience stores had the highest percentage of energy from sugar. This work provides details of 'where' young people obtain food and the nutritional consequences of choosing those food environments. While home food was a significant contributor to total dietary intake, food was obtained from a broad range of environments; particularly takeaway, fast food and education establishments. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Food production in developing countries - the role of plant biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    D. I. Ferreira

    1995-01-01

    The world is facing major problems with regard to food production. Agricultural land suffers from various conditions which make it less efficient for crop production while the rapid population growth, especially in developing countries, raises concern for sustainable food production. The Green Revolution has failed to secure sustainable food production and it is hoped that biotechnology will facilitate the transition to more sustainable agriculture. Excellent progress has been made with b...

  19. Nutritional composition of five food trees species products used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional composition of five food trees species products used in human diet during food shortage period in Burkina Faso. Thiombiano Daniabla Natacha Edwige, Parkouda Charles, Lamien Nieyidouba, Sere Aminata, Castro-Euler Ana Margarida, Boussim Issaka Joseph ...

  20. Urban food crop production capacity and competition with the urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey J Richardson; L. Monika Moskal

    2016-01-01

    The sourcing of food plays a significant role in assessing the sustainability of a city, but it is unclear how much food a city can produce within its city limits. In this study, we propose a method for estimating the maximum food crop production capacity of a city and demonstrate the method in Seattle, WA USA by taking into account land use, the light environment, and...

  1. Consumer exposure to chemicals in indoor environment : A specific focus on chemicals from textile products

    OpenAIRE

    Wijnhoven SWP; Kooi MW; te Biesebeek JD; SIR; vgc

    2010-01-01

    Textile products in indoor environment contain a variety of chemicals. Well-known examples are flame retardants, phthalates, formaldehyde and dimethylfumarate. Consumers are potentially exposed to these chemicals since a lot of textile products are present in indoor environment (clothing, curtains, floor covering, and upholstery of furniture) and consumers are in contact with these products for up to 24 hours a day. The Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (VWA) commissioned RIVM to mak...

  2. The roles of productivity and ecosystem size in determining food chain length in tropical terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hillary S; McCauley, Douglas J; Dunbar, Robert B; Hutson, Michael S; Ter-Kuile, Ana Miller; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2013-03-01

    Many different drivers, including productivity, ecosystem size, and disturbance, have been considered to explain natural variation in the length of food chains. Much remains unknown about the role of these various drivers in determining food chain length, and particularly about the mechanisms by which they may operate in terrestrial ecosystems, which have quite different ecological constraints than aquatic environments, where most food chain length studies have been thus far conducted. In this study, we tested the relative importance of ecosystem size and productivity in influencing food chain length in a terrestrial setting. We determined that (1) there is no effect of ecosystem size or productive space on food chain length; (2) rather, food chain length increases strongly and linearly with productivity; and (3) the observed changes in food chain length are likely achieved through a combination of changes in predator size, predator behavior, and consumer diversity along gradients in productivity. These results lend new insight into the mechanisms by which productivity can drive changes in food chain length, point to potential for systematic differences in the drivers of food web structure between terrestrial and aquatic systems, and challenge us to consider how ecological context may control the drivers that shape food chain length.

  3. ‘Obesogenic’ School Food Environments? An Urban Case Study in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris Timmermans

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: This study aimed to explore and define socio-economic (SES differences in urban school food environments in The Netherlands. (2 Methods: Retail food outlets, ready-to-eat products, in-store food promotions and food advertisements in public space were determined within 400 m walking distance of all secondary schools in the 4th largest city of The Netherlands. Fisher’s exact tests were conducted. (3 Results: In total, 115 retail outlets sold ready-to-eat food and drink products during school hours. Fast food outlets were more often in the vicinity of schools in lower SES (28.6% than in higher SES areas (11.5%. In general, unhealthy options (e.g., fried snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB were more often for sale, in-store promoted or advertised in comparison with healthy options (e.g., fruit, vegetables, bottled water. Sport/energy drinks were more often for sale, and fried snacks/fries, hamburgers/kebab and SSB were more often promoted or advertised in lower SES areas than in higher SES-areas. (4 Conclusion: In general, unhealthy food options were more often presented than the healthy options, but only a few SES differences were observed. The results, however, imply that efforts in all school areas are needed to make the healthy option the default option during school time.

  4. ‘Obesogenic’ School Food Environments? An Urban Case Study in The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Joris; Dijkstra, Coosje; Kamphuis, Carlijn; van der Zee, Egbert; Poelman, Maartje

    2018-01-01

    (1) Background: This study aimed to explore and define socio-economic (SES) differences in urban school food environments in The Netherlands. (2) Methods: Retail food outlets, ready-to-eat products, in-store food promotions and food advertisements in public space were determined within 400 m walking distance of all secondary schools in the 4th largest city of The Netherlands. Fisher’s exact tests were conducted. (3) Results: In total, 115 retail outlets sold ready-to-eat food and drink products during school hours. Fast food outlets were more often in the vicinity of schools in lower SES (28.6%) than in higher SES areas (11.5%). In general, unhealthy options (e.g., fried snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB)) were more often for sale, in-store promoted or advertised in comparison with healthy options (e.g., fruit, vegetables, bottled water). Sport/energy drinks were more often for sale, and fried snacks/fries, hamburgers/kebab and SSB were more often promoted or advertised in lower SES areas than in higher SES-areas. (4) Conclusion: In general, unhealthy food options were more often presented than the healthy options, but only a few SES differences were observed. The results, however, imply that efforts in all school areas are needed to make the healthy option the default option during school time. PMID:29597308

  5. 'Obesogenic' School Food Environments? An Urban Case Study in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Joris; Dijkstra, Coosje; Kamphuis, Carlijn; Huitink, Marlijn; van der Zee, Egbert; Poelman, Maartje

    2018-03-28

    (1) Background: This study aimed to explore and define socio-economic (SES) differences in urban school food environments in The Netherlands. (2) Methods: Retail food outlets, ready-to-eat products, in-store food promotions and food advertisements in public space were determined within 400 m walking distance of all secondary schools in the 4th largest city of The Netherlands. Fisher's exact tests were conducted. (3) Results: In total, 115 retail outlets sold ready-to-eat food and drink products during school hours. Fast food outlets were more often in the vicinity of schools in lower SES (28.6%) than in higher SES areas (11.5%). In general, unhealthy options (e.g., fried snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB)) were more often for sale, in-store promoted or advertised in comparison with healthy options (e.g., fruit, vegetables, bottled water). Sport/energy drinks were more often for sale, and fried snacks/fries, hamburgers/kebab and SSB were more often promoted or advertised in lower SES areas than in higher SES-areas. (4) Conclusion: In general, unhealthy food options were more often presented than the healthy options, but only a few SES differences were observed. The results, however, imply that efforts in all school areas are needed to make the healthy option the default option during school time.

  6. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    insecurity existed among households in the study areas based on the recommended average DEC/AE, of 2200 kcal and ... An International Journal of Basic and Applied Research. 41 ... population, for example, eating of less preferred foods.

  7. Improving livestock production using indigenous resources and conserving the environment. A publication prepared under the framework of a Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific project with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Livestock farming is very important in Asia and the pacific region as a source of livelihood for resource poor farmers' - provision of food and food products and as a source of income. However, livestock productivity in many countries is below their genetic potential because of inadequate and imbalanced feeds and feeding, poor reproductive management and animal diseases exacerbated by lack of effective support services, such as animal husbandry extension, artificial insemination (AI) and/or veterinary services. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific (RCA), with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, implemented a Technical Cooperation (TC) project entitled 'Integrated Approach for Improving Livestock Production using Indigenous Resources and Conserving the Environment' (RAS/5/044). The overall objective of the project was to improve livestock productivity through better nutritional and reproduction strategies while conserving the environment. The specific objectives were (i) to improve animal productivity and decrease emission of selected greenhouse gases, (methane and carbon dioxide) and selected nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) into the environment; and (ii) to identify and adopt better breeding strategies that would improve animal productivity. This publication contains research results presented by scientists during the final review meeting incorporating the contributions of the experts associated with RAS/5/044. It is hoped that this publication will help stimulate further discussion, research and development into ways of improving the efficiency and productivity of livestock thus leading to higher income for smallholder farmers in the region

  8. Food product health warnings promote dietary self-control through reductions in neural signals indexing food cue reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Daniel H; Summerell, Patrick; Ng, Alyssa; Dixon, Helen; Murawski, Carsten; Wakefield, Melanie; Bode, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Modern societies are replete with palatable food cues. A growing body of evidence suggests that food cue exposure activates conditioned appetitive physiological and psychological responses that may override current metabolic needs and existing eating goals, such as the desire to maintain a healthy diet. This conditioned response results in unhealthy dietary choices and is a contributing factor in the current obesity epidemic. Prime based obesity prevention measures such as health warnings at point-of-sale or on product packaging may have the potential to counteract the influence of the obesogenic environment at the crucial moment when people make food purchasing or consumption decisions. Existing research into the efficacy of these intervention strategies has predominantly employed self-report and population level measures, and little evidence exists to support the contention that these measures counteract food cue reactivity at the time of decision making. Using a dietary self-control priming paradigm, we demonstrated that brief exposure to food product health warnings enhanced dietary self-control. Further, we analysed electroencephalographic correlates of selective attention and food cue evoked craving (N1, P3, LPP) to show that health warning exposure reduced the automatic appetitive response towards palatable food cues. These findings contribute to existing evidence that exogenous information can successfully prime latent goals, and substantiate the notion that food product health warnings may provide a new avenue through which to curb excessive energy intake and reduce rising obesity rates.

  9. Challenges in assessing food environments in northern and remote communities in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Kelly; Burnett, Kristin; Williams, Patricia; Martin, Debbie; Stothart, Christopher; LeBlanc, Joseph; Veeraraghavan, Gigi; Sheedy, Amanda

    2016-06-09

    Effective tools for retail food environments in northern and remote communities are lacking. This paper examines the challenges of conducting food environment assessments in northern and remote communities in Canada encountered during our experience with a food costing project. One of the goals of the Paying for Nutrition in the North project is to develop guidelines to improve current food costing tools for northern Canada. Paying for Nutrition illustrates the complex context of measuring food environments in northern and remote communities. Through the development of a food costing methodology guide to assess northern food environments, several contextual issues emerged, including retail store oligopolies in communities; the importance of assessing food quality; informal social food economies; and the challenge of costing the acquisition and consumption of land- and water-based foods. Food environment measures designed for northern and remote communities need to reflect the geographic context in which they are being employed and must include input from local residents.

  10. Consumers’ perceptions of HPP and PEF food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Mette Sonne; Grunert, Klaus G; Olsen, Nina V.

    2012-01-01

    for their future success. It is up to food producers and food scientists to provide the evidence that will convince consumers that these new technologies are safe to use. Originality/value – This research contributes to the limited knowledge on consumer attitudes towards food products produced by HPP and PEF. From...... consequences with product attributes related to the nutritional value and the taste of the products produced by means of these novel technologies. Also the environmental benefits from processing foods by applying these technologies were seen as highly positive characteristics of the technologies. However, many...... a general perspective, the research expands the body of knowledge on consumer perception of food technologies....

  11. Top of the food chain: Product services in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Andrew M.; Simon, Matthew

    2001-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the environmental impact of the food industry supply chain and explore the potential for new product-service systems in the food sector, which has not been subject to a great deal of eco-design research. Data from a cross-sector analysis of UK industry, concentrating on the sectors representing the food industry supply chain, is utilised. These sectors are agriculture, food processing, retailing, food services, and kitchen equipment. The analysis combines economic ...

  12. Halal Food : Thai Halal Food Products and International Market

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Noaman; Wanwang, Alisa

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to examine salient issues in the Halal food business with special focus on entering Thai Halal food products into international market. Market screening plays an important role in entering new market or setting up the business in the foreign country. In this paper we have analyzed the importance of Halal Food for the Muslims and explained the growth of Halal food in French markets. The study focuses attention on the identification of key areas in Halal food export and channel ...

  13. Liquid chromatographic separation of terpenoid pigments in foods and food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cserháti, T; Forgács, E

    2001-11-30

    The newest achievements in the use of various liquid chromatographic techniques such as adsorption and reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography and HPLC employed for the separation and quantitative determination of terpenoid-based color substances in foods and food products are reviewed. The techniques applied for the analysis of individual pigments and pigments classes are surveyed and critically evaluated. Future trends in the separation and identification of pigments in foods and food products are delineated.

  14. Impacts of fast food and food retail environment on overweight and obesity in China: a multilevel latent class cluster approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong; Lans, van der, I.A.; Dagevos, H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To simultaneously identify consumer segments based on individual-level consumption and community-level food retail environment data and to investigate whether the segments are associated with BMI and dietary knowledge in China. Design A multilevel latent class cluster model was applied to identify consumer segments based not only on their individual preferences for fast food, salty snack foods, and soft drinks and sugared fruit drinks, but also on the food retail environment at the ...

  15. Ensuring safe food: from production to consumption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee to Ensure Safe Food from Production to Consumption, Institute of Medicine and National Research Council

    .... Recent actions taken at the federal, state, and local levels in response to the increase in reported incidences of food borne illnesses point to the need to evaluate the food safety system in the United States...

  16. Relevance of microbial finished product testing in food safety management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwietering, M.H.; Jacxsens, L.; Membre, J.M.; Nauta, M.; Peterz, M.

    2016-01-01

    Management of microbiological food safety is largely based on good design of processes, products and procedures. Finished product testing may be considered as a control measure at the end of the production process. However, testing gives only very limited information on the safety status of a food.

  17. The neurobiology of food intake in an obesogenic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this non-systematic review of the literature is to highlight some of the neural systems and pathways that are affected by the various intake-promoting aspects of the modern food environment and explore potential modes of interaction between core systems such as hypothalamus and brainstem primarily receptive to internal signals of fuel availability and forebrain areas such as the cortex, amygdala and meso-corticolimbic dopamine system, primarily processing external signals. The modern lifestyle with its drastic changes in the way we eat and move puts pressure on the homoeostatic system responsible for the regulation of body weight, which has led to an increase in overweight and obesity. The power of food cues targeting susceptible emotions and cognitive brain functions, particularly of children and adolescents, is increasingly exploited by modern neuromarketing tools. Increased intake of energy-dense foods high in fat and sugar is not only adding more energy, but may also corrupt neural functions of brain systems involved in nutrient sensing as well as in hedonic, motivational and cognitive processing. It is concluded that only long-term prospective studies in human subjects and animal models with the capacity to demonstrate sustained over-eating and development of obesity are necessary to identify the critical environmental factors as well as the underlying neural systems involved. Insights from these studies and from modern neuromarketing research should be increasingly used to promote consumption of healthy foods.

  18. Safety aspects of the production of foods and food ingredients from insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Oliver; Rumpold, Birgit; Holzhauser, Thomas; Roth, Angelika; Vogel, Rudi F; Quasigroch, Walter; Vogel, Stephanie; Heinz, Volker; Jäger, Henry; Bandick, Nils; Kulling, Sabine; Knorr, Dietrich; Steinberg, Pablo; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2017-06-01

    At present, insects are rarely used by the European food industry, but they are a subject of growing interest as an alternative source of raw materials. The risks associated with the use of insects in the production of foods and food ingredients have not been sufficiently investigated. There is a lack of scientifically based knowledge of insect processing to ensure food safety, especially when these processes are carried out on an industrial scale. This review focuses on the safety aspects that need to be considered regarding the fractionation of insects for the production of foods and food ingredients. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Hotspots for Nitrogen and Phosphorus Losses from Food Production in China: A County-Scale Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengru; Ma, Lin; Strokal, Maryna; Ma, Wenqi; Liu, Xuejun; Kroeze, Carolien

    2018-04-27

    Food production in China results in large losses of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to the environment. Our objective is to identify hotspots for N and P losses to the environment from food production in China at the county scale. To do this, we used the NUFER (Nutrient flows in Food chains, Environment and Resources use) model. Between 1990 and 2012, the hotspot area expanded by a factor of 3 for N, and 24 for P. In 2012 most hotspots were found in the North China Plain. Hotspots covered less than 10% of the Chinese land area, but contributed by more than half to N and P losses to the environment. Direct discharge of animal manure to rivers was an important cause of N and P losses. Food production was found to be more intensive in hotspots than in other counties. Synthetic fertilizer use and animal numbers in hotspots were a factor of 4-5 higher than in other counties in 2012. Also the number of people working in food production and the incomes of farmers are higher in hotspots than in other counties. This study concludes with suggestions for region-specific pollution control technologies for food production in China.

  20. Hotspots for Nitrogen and Phosphorus Losses from Food Production in China: A County-Scale Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Food production in China results in large losses of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to the environment. Our objective is to identify hotspots for N and P losses to the environment from food production in China at the county scale. To do this, we used the NUFER (Nutrient flows in Food chains, Environment and Resources use) model. Between 1990 and 2012, the hotspot area expanded by a factor of 3 for N, and 24 for P. In 2012 most hotspots were found in the North China Plain. Hotspots covered less than 10% of the Chinese land area, but contributed by more than half to N and P losses to the environment. Direct discharge of animal manure to rivers was an important cause of N and P losses. Food production was found to be more intensive in hotspots than in other counties. Synthetic fertilizer use and animal numbers in hotspots were a factor of 4–5 higher than in other counties in 2012. Also the number of people working in food production and the incomes of farmers are higher in hotspots than in other counties. This study concludes with suggestions for region-specific pollution control technologies for food production in China. PMID:29671326

  1. Maillard reaction products in pet foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van C.

    2015-01-01

    Pet dogs and cats around the world are commonly fed processed commercial foods throughout their lives. Often heat treatments are used during the processing of these foods to improve nutrient digestibility, shelf life, and food safety. Processing is known to induce the Maillard reaction, in which

  2. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... products. (3) Frozen bakery products. (b) All procured frozen processed food products that contain meat... frozen bakery products that ship products in interstate commerce are required to comply with the Federal... products. 870.111-5 Section 870.111-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS...

  3. Flexibility Study of a Liquid Food Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Applying process engineering simulation method to model the processing of liquid food can provide a way to build a flexible food factory that can efficiently offer a wide range of tailored products in short delivery time. A milk production process, as an example, is simulated using a process...... engineering software to investigate the process operation conditions and flexibility. The established simulation method can be adapted to simulate similar liquid food production processes through suitable modifications....

  4. Product development in the European and overseas food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Balogh, Sandor

    2007-01-01

    In the present study various product development trends in the food industry are reviewed with the main focus on convenience, organic and functional foods. Also highlighted are differences between the U.S. and Europe in terms of consumer habits and food supply trends. Through exploring the reasons behind differences in the extent of product innovation, the author illustrates the different role convenience products have in the US and European markets. Also revealed is the relationship linking ...

  5. [The right to food in obesogenic environments: Reflections on the role of health professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaggio, Laura Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Faced with the current obesity epidemic, this article problematizes the way the right to food is often circumscribed to situations of nutritional deficit. It is argued that the right to adequate food is violated in obesogenic environments and that protection of the right requires the establishment of measures to regulate advertising and marketing practices regarding ultra-processed products. The work suggests that the main barriers to the implementation of such measures are the strategies employed by Big Food; among these, strategies that have the scientific community as a target and/or means are highlighted. Certain basic underlying assumptions are identified in the discourse of health professionals that contribute to create a framework of legitimacy regarding the consumption of ultra-processed products. The adoption of an ethical position that is free of conflicts of interest is suggested, so as to advocate for needed regulatory measures of a statutory nature.

  6. Food Melt in Consumer Food Environments in Low-income Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapl, Erika S; Pike, Stephanie N; Borawski, Elaine; Flocke, Susan A; Freedman, Darcy A; Walsh, Colleen C; Schneider, Christine; Yoder, Laura

    2017-11-01

    We systematically evaluated changes in availability, price, and quality of perishable food items from the beginning to the end of the month in lowincome, urban neighborhoods. The sample included grocery stores or supermarkets in Cleveland, Ohio, within neighborhoods with >30% of population receiving food assistance. We collected data for 2 sequential months during the first and fourth weeks of each month. Two coders evaluated stores, collecting measures of availability, price, and quality for 50 items. We examined difference in number and proportion of items available at the beginning of the month (BOM) to items remaining available at the end of the month (EOM), as well as quality and price of those items. Across 48 stores, availability at EOM was lower than BOM; as store size increased, reduction in availability (ie, food melt) was significantly (p Food melt differentially affects individuals in neighborhoods without grocery stores. Findings reveal composition of food environments is dynamic rather than static, influencing food-purchasing choices among lowincome consumers.

  7. The neighborhood food environment: sources of historical data on retail food stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Alma A

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the rapidly increasing prevalence of obesity in the United States, and the minimal success of education-based interventions, there is growing interest in understanding the role of the neighborhood food environment in determining dietary behavior. This study, as part of a larger study, identifies historical data on retail food stores, evaluates strengths and limitations of the data for research, and assesses the comparability of historical retail food store data from a government and a commercial source. Five government and commercial listings of retail food stores were identified. The California State Board of Equalization (SBOE database was selected and then compared to telephone business directory listings. The Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to assess the congruency of food store counts per census tract between the SBOE and telephone business directory databases. The setting was four cities in Northern California, 1979–1990. The SBOE and telephone business directory databases listed 127 and 351 retail food stores, respectively. The SBOE listed 36 stores not listed by the telephone business directories, while the telephone business directories listed 260 stores not listed by the SBOE. Spearman's correlation coefficients between estimates of stores per census tract made from the SBOE listings and those made from the telephone business directory listings were approximately 0.5 (p

  8. Food environments in university dorms: 20,000 calories per dorm room and counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Melissa C; Story, Mary

    2009-06-01

    Few young adults meet national dietary recommendations. Although home food availability likely has important influences on dietary intake, little research has examined this issue among young adults. The objective of this research was to conduct a detailed, observational assessment of food and beverages available in college-student dormitory rooms. Dormitory-residing students (n=100) were recruited from a large, public university. Research staff completed a detailed inventory of food and beverages in the dorm rooms, including nutrient contents and purchasing sources. Data were collected and analyzed in 2008. The mean number of food and beverage items per participant was 47 (range: 0-208), with 4% of participants not having any food or beverages. More than 70% of students had each of the following types of items: salty snacks, cereal or granola bars, main dishes, desserts or candy, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Fewer students had low-calorie beverages, fruits and vegetables, dairy products, tea/coffee, and 100% fruit/vegetable juice. The average number of calories per dorm room was 22,888. Items purchased by parents had a higher calorie and fat content than items purchased by students. Findings indicate that students maintain a wide array of food and beverages in their dormitory rooms. Parents purchased a substantial amount of food for their children's dormitory rooms, and these food items were less healthful than the food that students purchased. The foods observed in college students' living spaces may have an important impact on eating habits. Overall, young adult-oriented obesity prevention efforts are needed, and improving the various facets of campus food environments may mark an important component of such strategies.

  9. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    OpenAIRE

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Nalty, Courtney C; Xu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supe...

  10. Relevance of microbial finished product testing in food safety management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwietering, Marcel H.; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Membré, Jeanne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Management of microbiological food safety is largely based on good design of processes, products and procedures. Finished product testing may be considered as a control measure at the end of the production process. However, testing gives only very limited information on the safety status of a food......-active way by implementing an effective food safety management system. For verification activities in a food safety management system, finished product testing may however be useful. For three cases studies; canned food, chocolate and cooked ham, the relevance of testing both of finished products....... If a hazardous organism is found it means something, but absence in a limited number of samples is no guarantee of safety of a whole production batch. Finished product testing is often too little and too late. Therefore most attention should be focussed on management and control of the hazards in a more pro...

  11. Determination of aflatoxin B1 in food products in Thailand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxin B1 is generally found in feed and food stuff, such as cereal and all products derived from cereals, including processed cereals since it has been proven to be at least partly resistant to food processing methods. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the possibility of contamination of aflatoxin B1 in food ...

  12. Consumer attitudes to food quality products : emphasis on Southern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klopcic, M.; Kuipers, A.; Hocquette, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Quality foods, such as traditional, EU certified, organic and health claimed are part of a growing trend towards added value in the agri-food sector. In these foods, elements of production, processing, marketing, agro-tourism and speciality stores are combined. Paramount above all is the link to the

  13. Food security and productivity among urban farmers in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study to investigated food security and productivity among urban farmers' in Kaduna State Two-stage sampling procedure was used to select 213 respondents for the study. Interview schedule was used to collect data. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics (food security index, food insecurity/ surplus gap index ...

  14. Perceived Effect of Climate Variation on Food Crop Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study objective is to determine the perception of food crop farmers in Oyo state to climate variation as it affects their production, because the relationship between climate variation and food security is direct and Oyo State has enormous potentials to make Nigeria food secure. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to ...

  15. Exergetic comparison of food waste valorization in industrial bread production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisopoulos, F.K.; Moejes, S.N.; Rossier Miranda, F.J.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the thermodynamic performance of three industrial bread production chains: one that generates food waste, one that avoids food waste generation, and one that reworks food waste to produce new bread. The chemical exergy flows were found to be much larger than the physical exergy

  16. Employment status, residential and workplace food environments: associations with women's eating behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Lamb, Karen E; Ball, Kylie

    2013-11-01

    There remains a lack of consistent evidence linking food environments with eating behaviours. Studies to date have largely ignored the way different individuals interact with their local food environment and have primarily focussed on exposures within the residential neighbourhood without consideration of exposures around the workplace, for example. In this study we firstly examine whether associations between the residential food environment and eating behaviours differ by employment status and, secondly, whether food environments near employed women's workplaces are more strongly associated with dietary behaviours than food environments near home. Employment status did not modify the associations between residential food environments and eating behaviours, however results showed that having access to healthy foods near the workplace was associated with healthier food consumption. Policies focused on supportive environments should consider commercial areas as well as residential neighbourhoods. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Healthy food access for urban food desert residents: examination of the food environment, food purchasing practices, diet and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Zenk, Shannon N; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Cohen, Deborah A; Beckman, Robin; Hunter, Gerald; Steiner, Elizabeth D; Collins, Rebecca L

    2015-08-01

    To provide a richer understanding of food access and purchasing practices among US urban food desert residents and their association with diet and BMI. Data on food purchasing practices, dietary intake, height and weight from the primary food shopper in randomly selected households (n 1372) were collected. Audits of all neighbourhood food stores (n 24) and the most-frequented stores outside the neighbourhood (n 16) were conducted. Aspects of food access and purchasing practices and relationships among them were examined and tests of their associations with dietary quality and BMI were conducted. Two low-income, predominantly African-American neighbourhoods with limited access to healthy food in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Household food shoppers. Only one neighbourhood outlet sold fresh produce; nearly all respondents did major food shopping outside the neighbourhood. Although the nearest full-service supermarket was an average of 2·6 km from their home, respondents shopped an average of 6·0 km from home. The average trip was by car, took approximately 2 h for the round trip, and occurred two to four times per month. Respondents spent approximately $US 37 per person per week on food. Those who made longer trips had access to cars, shopped less often and spent less money per person. Those who travelled further when they shopped had higher BMI, but most residents already shopped where healthy foods were available, and physical distance from full-service supermarkets was unrelated to weight or dietary quality. Improved access to healthy foods is the target of current policies meant to improve health. However, distance to the closest supermarket might not be as important as previously thought, and thus policy and interventions that focus merely on improving access may not be effective.

  18. Mobile and Home-based Vendors’ Contributions to the Retail Food Environment in Rural South Texas Mexican-origin Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Zulema; Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R

    2012-01-01

    A growing concern with high rates of obesity and overweight among immigrant minority populations in the U.S. has focused attention on the availability and accessibility to healthy foods in such communities. Small-scale vending in rural, impoverished and underserved areas, however, is generally overlooked; yet, this type of informal activity and source for food is particularly important in such environs, or “food desserts,” where traditional forms of work and mainstream food outlets are limited or even absent. This exploratory study investigates two types of small-scale food vending that take place in rural colonias, or Mexican-origin settlements along the South Texas border with Mexico: mobile and home-based. Using a convenience sample of 23 vendors who live and work in Texas colonias, this study identifies the characteristics associated with mobile and home-based food vendors and their businesses and its contributions to the rural food environment. Findings reveal that mobile and home-based vending provides a variety of food and beverage options to colonia residents, and suggests that home-based vendors contribute a greater assortment of food options, including some healthier food items, than mobile food vendors, which offer and sell a limited range of products. Findings may contribute to the development of innovative policy solutions and interventions aimed at increasing healthy food options or reducing health disparities in immigrant communities. PMID:22531289

  19. Food environments select microorganisms based on selfish energetic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego eMora

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient richness, and specifically the abundance of mono- and disaccharides that characterize several food matrixes, such as milk and grape juice, has allowed the speciation of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts with a high fermentation capacity instead of energetically favorable respiratory metabolism. In these environmental contexts, rapid sugar consumption and lactic acid or ethanol production, accumulation and tolerance, together with the ability to propagate in the absence of oxygen, are several of the ‘winning’ traits that have apparently evolved and become specialized to perfection in these fermenting microorganisms. Here, we summarize and discuss the evolutionary context that has driven energetic metabolism in food-associated microorganisms, using the dairy species Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus among prokaryotes and the bakers’ yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae among eukaryotes as model organisms.

  20. Children's food store, restaurant, and home food environments and their relationship with body mass index: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsten, Joanna E; Compher, Charlene W

    2012-01-01

    This pilot research assessed the feasibility and utility of a study designed to examine the relationship between children's BMI and food store, restaurant, and home food environments. Home visits were conducted with sixth-grade children (N = 12). BMI z-scores were calculated with weight and height measurements. Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys evaluated children's food environments. The study protocol involved a feasible time duration, minimal missing data for primary variables, and participant satisfaction. Potential design problems included the homogeneous store environments and low restaurant exposure of the sample recruited from one school, and the adequacy of a single cross-sectional measure of the home environment.

  1. CONCERN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR IN THE SPHERE OF FOOD AND NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Żakowska-Biemans

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Care for the environment is driving global developments in the fi eld of food and nutrition, which apply equally to consumption, production and distribution of food. To get insights into changes in consumer behaviour towards food implied by the concern for the environment, quantitative research was carried out on a representative sample of 1000 Polish consumers. The questionnaire contained, among others, variables describing various dimensions of food related lifestyle and willingness to pro-environmental changes in the sphere of food consumption. The data obtained was analysed using cluster analysis and dividing consumers into four segments with different inclinations to engage in behaviour in line with the concept of sustainable consumption. Concern for the environment was most strongly emphasized in the segment of “modern” consumers. Consumers representing this segment were distinguished by attention to environmental issues and at the same time they were willing to pay more for food products with outstanding quality attributes. They attached great importance to the brand when making food purchasing decision. Moreover, they declared more often to buy organic food, and at the same time refrain from ready meals and pre-prepared meal components. The slightest concern for the environment was observed in the segment of “uninvolved” taste-oriented consumers who are interested in new products but less in issues related to food and nutrition. The results of the research highlight the relationship between lifestyle, food choices, and concern for the environment, which can be used in the creation of marketing communication strategy to stimulate sustainable consumption.

  2. IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY ON ENVIRONMENT AND FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Jošt

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of modern biotechnology in agricultural production processes has generated new ethical, economic, social and environmental dilemmas confronting scientists all over the world. While current knowledge is insufficient for assessing the promised benefits and possible risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs, the principle of “substantial equivalence” in comparing GM and conventional food is profoundly flawed and scientifically insupportable. The current generation of GMOs provide small benefits except corporate profit and marginally improved grower returns. The TRIPS agreement has allowed worldwide patenting of genes and microorganisms, as well as genetically engineered organisms. Granting patents on life encourages biopiracy and the theft of genetic resources belonging to the local community. At the same time, the patented products are sold at relatively high prices to developing countries – the same countries from which the product originated.

  3. Feed an food from desert environments. [Controlled environmental agricultural technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassham, J.A.

    1977-09-01

    Research programs on controlled environmental agricultural technology to allow a broad range of conventional and unconventional crops to be grown with very limited supplies of fresh or brackish water are reviewed. The use of water derived from the sea, from saline lakes, or from waste water treatment for crops in arid lands is discussed. Plant breeding programs to improve the nutritional value of food crops and irrigation systems to improve plant productivity are discussed. The production of liquid hydrocarbons and lubricating oils from plant species such as Euphorbic and Jojoba, and the use of leguminous plants such as mesquite (Prosopis juliflora), and other native plants, which thrive in arid regions, as important sources of proteins and carbohydrates are cited as examples of the productive potential of arid lands. 41 references.

  4. The influence of the WIC food package changes on the retail food environment in New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Donald; O'Malley, Keelia; Dunaway, Lauren Futrell; Bodor, J Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effect of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food package changes on availability of healthy foods in small stores. Pre-post comparison group design with repeat in-store observations. New Orleans. Small stores (n = 102; 77% of total) were visited in 2009. Of these, 91% were observed again in 2010, including both WIC (n = 27) and non-WIC (n = 66) stores. The 2009 WIC food package changes to include healthier foods. Change in store availability of fruits, vegetables, lower-fat milks, whole wheat bread, and brown rice. Change in number of varieties and shelf length of fruits and vegetables. Difference-in-differences analysis using logit models for change in availability and regression models for change in number of varieties or shelf length. The WIC stores were more likely to improve availability of lower-fat milks than non-WIC stores (adjusted odds ratio, 5.0, 95% confidence interval, 1.2-21.0). An even greater relative improvement was seen with whole grains. The WIC stores showed a relative increase in number of varieties of fresh fruits (0.9 ± 0.3; P New Orleans. Similar changes throughout the country could have a significant impact on neighborhood food environments. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Food product prices and its implications for food security in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The study examined the prices of food products and its implications for food security in Nigeria. Data was ... The study show that food price inflation is caused by frequent hike in the prices of ...

  6. The local food environment and diet: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin E; Sorensen, Glorian; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-09-01

    Despite growing attention to the problem of obesogenic environments, there has not been a comprehensive review evaluating the food environment-diet relationship. This study aims to evaluate this relationship in the current literature, focusing specifically on the method of exposure assessment (GIS, survey, or store audit). This study also explores 5 dimensions of "food access" (availability, accessibility, affordability, accommodation, acceptability) using a conceptual definition proposed by Penchansky and Thomas (1981). Articles were retrieved through a systematic keyword search in Web of Science and supplemented by the reference lists of included studies. Thirty-eight studies were reviewed and categorized by the exposure assessment method and the conceptual dimensions of access it captured. GIS-based measures were the most common measures, but were less consistently associated with diet than other measures. Few studies examined dimensions of affordability, accommodation, and acceptability. Because GIS-based measures on their own may not capture important non-geographic dimensions of access, a set of recommendations for future researchers is outlined. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Green perspective in food industry production line design: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, C. Y.; Sin, T. C.; Liyana, M. R. N.; Awang, A.; Fathullah, M.

    2017-09-01

    The design of green manufacturing process in food industries is currently a hot research topic in the multidisciplinary area of applied chemistry, biology and technology. Several process such as freezing, cutting, drying, tempering, bleaching, sterilization, extraction and filtering have been applied efficiency in the food industry. Due to the rapid development of food and peripheral technology, the use of new physical processing or auxiliary processing methods can maintain food inherent nutrients, texture, color, and freshness and also reduce environmental pollution and energy consumption in food processing. Hence, this review paper will study and summarize the effects of green manufacturing process in food industries in term of waste reduction, materials and sustainability manufacturing. In any case, All the food processing equipment must comply with strict standards and regulation, this action will ensure the securing the food quality and safety of food products to consumers.

  8. Investigations of Methane Production in Hypersaline Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, Brad M.

    2015-01-01

    The recent reports of methane in the atmosphere of Mars, as well as the findings of hypersaline paleo-environments on that planet, have underscored the need to evaluate the importance of biological (as opposed to geological) trace gas production and consumption. Methane in the atmosphere of Mars may be an indication of life but might also be a consequence of geologic activity and/or the thermal alteration of ancient organic matter. Hypersaline environments have now been reported to be extremely likely in several locations in our solar system, including: Mars, Europa, and Enceladus. Modern hypersaline microbial mat communities, (thought to be analogous to those present on the early Earth at a period of time when Mars was experiencing very similar environmental conditions), have been shown to produce methane. However, very little is known about the physical and/or biological controls imposed upon the rates at which methane, and other important trace gases, are produced and consumed in these environments. We describe here the results of our investigations of methane production in hypersaline environments, including field sites in Chile, Baja California Mexico, California, USA and the United Arab Emirates. We have measured high concentrations of methane in bubbles of gas produced both in the sediments underlying microbial mats, as well as in areas not colonized by microbial mats in the Guerrero Negro hypersaline ecosystem, Baja California Mexico, in Chile, and in salt ponds on the San Francisco Bay. The carbon isotopic (d13C) composition of the methane in the bubbles exhibited an extremely wide range of values, (ca. -75 per mille ca. -25 per mille). The hydrogen isotopic composition of the methane (d2H) ranged from -60 to -30per mille and -450 to -350per mille. These isotopic values are outside of the range of values normally considered to be biogenic, however incubations of the sediments in contact with these gas bubbles reveals that the methane is indeed being

  9. Isotope methods for the control of food products and beverages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillou, C; Reniero, F [Commission of the European Communities, Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy)

    2001-10-01

    The measurement of the stable isotope contents provides useful information for the detection of many frauds in food products. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and isotopic ratio mass spectroscopy (IRMS) are the two main analytical techniques used for the determination of stable isotope contents in food products. These analytical techniques have been considerably improved in the last years offering wider possibilities of applications for food analysis. A review of the applications for the control of food products and beverages is presented. The need for new reference materials is discussed. (author)

  10. Isotope methods for the control of food products and beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillou, C.; Reniero, F.

    2001-01-01

    The measurement of the stable isotope contents provides useful information for the detection of many frauds in food products. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and isotopic ratio mass spectroscopy (IRMS) are the two main analytical techniques used for the determination of stable isotope contents in food products. These analytical techniques have been considerably improved in the last years offering wider possibilities of applications for food analysis. A review of the applications for the control of food products and beverages is presented. The need for new reference materials is discussed. (author)

  11. Exploring water and food security: the water footprint of domestic food production in the Gaza Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recanati, Francesca; Castelletti, Andrea; Dotelli, Giovanni; Melià, Paco

    2016-04-01

    Water scarcity and food security are major issues in the Gaza Strip. This area is characterized by one of the highest densities in the world and it is affected by both severe scarcity of water resources and limited trading possibilities.Given this context, the enhancement of domestic food production is considered a fundamental strategy in achieving food security in the area. For this reason, rural people play a crucial role in implementing sustainable strategies for enhancing the domestic food production while preserving water resources. In order to investigate the effectiveness of existing agricultural scenarios in achieving food security in a sustainable manner, we propose a framework to assess food production systems in terms of their contribution to the nutritional and economic conditions of rural households and their impact on water resources. In particular, the latter has been carried out through the water footprint indicator proposed by the Water Footprint Network. The case study analyzed is a sample farm located in the Gaza Strip, whose food production is based on horticulture, animal husbandry and aquaculture. The study is articulated into two main parts: first, we compare alternative scenarios of vegetal and animal food production in terms of food supply, water consumption and economic income at the household scale; then, we extend the analysis to evaluate the potential contribution of domestic food production to the food security in the whole Gaza Strip, focusing on the nutritional dimension, and providing a preliminary assessment of the environmental and economic sustainability. In particular, we evaluate water appropriation for domestic food production and compare it with the availability of water resources in the region. The outcomes highlight that the domestic food production can potentially satisfy both a basic diet and economic income for rural household, but the related appropriation of freshwater results unsustainable with respect to the fresh

  12. Swedish Consumers’ Perception of Food Quality and Sustainability in Relation to Organic Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Techane Bosona

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumers’ demand for locally produced and organic foods has increased in Sweden. This paper presents the results obtained from the analysis of data acquired from 100 consumers in Sweden who participated in an online survey during March to June 2016. The objective was to identify consumers’ demand in relation to organic food and sustainable food production, and to understand how the consumers evaluate food quality and make buying decisions. Qualitative descriptions, descriptive statistics and Pearson’s Chi-square test (with alpha value of p < 0.05 as level of significance, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used for analysis. About 72% of participants have the perception that organic food production method is more sustainable than conventional methods. Female consumers have more positive attitudes than men towards organic food. However, age difference, household size and income level do not significantly influence the consumers’ perception of sustainable food production concepts. Regionality, sustainable methods of production and organic production are the most important parameters to characterize the food as high quality and make buying decisions. On the other hand, product uniformity, appearance, and price were found to be relatively less important parameters. Food buying decisions and food quality were found to be highly related with Pearson’s correlation coefficient of r = 0.99.

  13. Monitoring the impact of trade agreements on national food environments: trade imports and population nutrition risks in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravuvu, Amerita; Friel, Sharon; Thow, Anne-Marie; Snowdon, Wendy; Wate, Jillian

    2017-06-13

    Trade agreements are increasingly recognised as playing an influential role in shaping national food environments and the availability and nutritional quality of the food supply. Global monitoring of food environments and trade policies can strengthen the evidence base for the impact of trade policy on nutrition, and support improved policy coherence. Using the INFORMAS trade monitoring protocol, we reviewed available food supply data to understand associations between Fiji's commitments under WTO trade agreements and food import volume trends. First, a desk review was conducted to map and record in one place Fiji's commitments to relevant existing trade agreements that have implications for Fiji's national food environment under the domains of the INFORMAS trade monitoring protocol. An excel database was developed to document the agreements and their provisions. The second aspect of the research focused on data extraction. We began with identifying food import volumes into Fiji by country of origin, with a particular focus on a select number of 'healthy and unhealthy' foods. We also developed a detailed listing of transnational food corporations currently operating in Fiji. The study suggests that Fiji's WTO membership, in conjunction with associated economic and agricultural policy changes have contributed to increased availability of both healthy and less healthy imported foods. In systematically monitoring the import volume trends of these two categories of food, the study highlights an increase in healthy foods such as fresh fruits and vegetables and whole-grain refined cereals. The study also shows that there has been an increase in less healthy foods including fats and oils; meat; processed dairy products; energy-dense beverages; and processed and packaged foods. By monitoring the trends of imported foods at country level from the perspective of trade agreements, we are able to develop appropriate and targeted interventions to improve diets and health. This

  14. Online production validation in a HEP environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harenberg, T.; Lang, N.; Maettig, P.; Sandhoff, M.; Volkmer, F. [Bergische Universitaet, Wuppertal (Germany); Kuhl, T. [DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen (Germany); Schwanenberger, C. [DESY Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    In high energy physics (HEP) event simulations, petabytes of data are processed and stored requiring millions of CPU-years. This enormous demand for computing resources is handled by centers distributed worldwide, which form part of the LHC computing grid. The consumption of such an important amount of resources demands for an efficient production of simulation and for the early detection of potential errors. In this article we present a new monitoring framework for grid environments, which polls a measure of data quality during job execution. This online monitoring facilitates the early detection of configuration errors (specially in simulation parameters), and may thus contribute to significant savings in computing resources. (orig.)

  15. Climate variability and sustainable food production: Insights from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The past two decades have seen invigorated debates on the causal link between climate variability and food crop production. This study[1] extends the debate further by investigating how climate variability has affected the production of four specific food crops: maize, millet, rice, and groundnuts in north-eastern Ghana.

  16. Productivity of goats and their contribution to household food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Productivity of goats and their contribution to household food security in high potential areas of East Africa: A case of Mgeta, Tanzania. ... milk and meat, manure is also an important by-product for farmers in this area, and is used to fertilize ... particularly in developing countries, livestock remains a desired source of food for

  17. Predicting women purchase intention for green food products in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sudiyanti, Sudiyanti

    2009-01-01

    Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2009 This study investigated the applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior in predicting women consumers on their intention towards purchasing green food products among 406 participants. Using linear regression, five independent variables had been examined: attitude towards green food products, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and perceived difficulty in predicting purchase intention. The ...

  18. Benefits of nitrogen for food, fibre and industrial production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoumann Jensen, L.; Schjoerring, J.K.; Hoek, K.W. van der; Damgaard Poulsen, H.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Pallière, C.; Lammel, J.; Brentrup, F.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Willems, J.; Grinsven, H. van

    2011-01-01

    Nature of the issue • Reactive nitrogen (N r ) has well-documented positive eff ects in agricultural and industrial production systems, human nutrition and food security. Limited N r supply was a key constraint to European food and industrial production, which has been overcome by Nr from the

  19. Food Security and Productivity among Urban Farmers in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Food Security and Productivity among Urban Farmers in Kaduna State, Nigeria https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jae.v22i1.15. Saleh, M.K. ... increase income of urban farmers in the area. Keywords: Food security, urban agricultural productivity, farming household. ..... Access to Bank loans. 8. Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial and ...

  20. Bisphenol a in canned food products from canadian markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Corriveau, Jeannette; Popovic, Svetlana

    2010-06-01

    A method based on solid phase extraction followed by derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was validated for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in canned food products. This method was used to analyze 78 canned food products for BPA. Concentrations of BPA in canned food products differed considerably among food types, but all were below the specific migration limit of 0.6 mg/kg set by the European Commission Directive for BPA in food or food simulants. Canned tuna products had the highest BPA concentrations in general, with mean and maximum values of 137 and 534 ng/g, respectively. BPA concentrations in the condensed soup products were considerably higher than those in the ready-to-serve soup products, with mean and maximum values of 105 and 189 ng/g, respectively, for the condensed soups and 15 and 34 ng/g, respectively, for the ready-to-serve soups. BPA concentrations in canned vegetable products were relatively low; about 60% of the products had BPA concentrations of less than 10 ng/g. Canned tomato paste products had lower BPA concentrations than did canned pure tomato products. The mean and maximum BPA concentrations were 1.1 and 2.1 ng/g, respectively, for tomato paste products and 9.3 and 23 ng/g, respectively, for the pure tomato products.

  1. Swedish Consumers’ Perception of Food Quality and Sustainability in Relation to Organic Food Production

    OpenAIRE

    Techane Bosona; Girma Gebresenbet

    2018-01-01

    Consumers’ demand for locally produced and organic foods has increased in Sweden. This paper presents the results obtained from the analysis of data acquired from 100 consumers in Sweden who participated in an online survey during March to June 2016. The objective was to identify consumers’ demand in relation to organic food and sustainable food production, and to understand how the consumers evaluate food quality and make buying decisions. Qualitative descriptions, descriptive statistics and...

  2. Food-and-beverage environment and procurement policies for healthier work environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christopher D; Whitsel, Laurie P; Thorndike, Anne N; Marrow, Mary W; Otten, Jennifer J; Foster, Gary D; Carson, Jo Ann S; Johnson, Rachel K

    2014-06-01

    The importance of creating healthier work environments by providing healthy foods and beverages in worksite cafeterias, in on-site vending machines, and at meetings and conferences is drawing increasing attention. Large employers, federal and state governments, and hospital systems are significant purchasers and providers of food and beverages. The American Heart Association, federal government, and other organizations have created procurement standards to guide healthy purchasing by these entities. There is a need to review how procurement standards are currently implemented, to identify important minimum criteria for evaluating health and purchasing outcomes, and to recognize significant barriers and challenges to implementation, along with success stories. The purpose of this policy paper is to describe the role of food-and-beverage environment and procurement policy standards in creating healthier worksite environments; to review recently created national model standards; to identify elements across the standards that are important to consider for incorporation into policies; and to delineate issues to address as standards are implemented across the country. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  3. The significance and possibility of functional food production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević-Branković Suzana I.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abundant knowledge of the significance of food quality for all human living functions as well as growing human population and the occurrence of world "hidden hunger", directed food producers toward new production processes of and new product development that must satisfy the specific needs of different categories of consumers. The differences are reflected in sex age, religious affiliation, activity, health, social status etc. "Organic", "natural, minimal processing, functional (and often called "therapeutical" food nowadays represents the key interest of nutritionists, physicians and food producers. Such food should have a beneficial influence on human health, besides satisfying the nutritive and energetic necessities, by protective, prophylactic and healing performance. This paper discusses facts about the influence of food on human health, problems of malnutrition in developing and developed countries, presents states of food production in the world and in Yugoslavia, legislation and regulations on nourishment and food production, the disadvantages of former concepts of development of this production and possible directions of future trends with a particular review on functional food production.

  4. Potential hazards due to food additives in oral hygiene products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer Budanur, Damla; Yas, Murat Cengizhan; Sepet, Elif

    2016-01-01

    Food additives used to preserve flavor or to enhance the taste and appearance of foods are also available in oral hygiene products. The aim of this review is to provide information concerning food additives in oral hygiene products and their adverse effects. A great many of food additives in oral hygiene products are potential allergens and they may lead to allergic reactions such as urticaria, contact dermatitis, rhinitis, and angioedema. Dental practitioners, as well as health care providers, must be aware of the possibility of allergic reactions due to food additives in oral hygiene products. Proper dosage levels, delivery vehicles, frequency, potential benefits, and adverse effects of oral health products should be explained completely to the patients. There is a necessity to raise the awareness among dental professionals on this subject and to develop a data gathering system for possible adverse reactions.

  5. POTENTIAL HAZARDS DUE TO FOOD ADDITIVES IN ORAL HYGIENE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damla TUNCER-BUDANUR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food additives used to preserve flavor or to enhance the taste and appearance of foods are also available in oral hygiene products. The aim of this review is to provide information concerning food additives in oral hygiene products and their adverse effects. A great many of food additives in oral hygiene products are potential allergens and they may lead to allergic reactions such as urticaria, contact dermatitis, rhinitis, and angioedema. Dental practitioners, as well as health care providers, must be aware of the possibility of allergic reactions due to food additives in oral hygiene products. Proper dosage levels, delivery vehicles, frequency, potential benefits, and adverse effects of oral health products should be explained completely to the patients. There is a necessity to raise the awareness among dental professionals on this subject and to develop a data gathering system for possible adverse reactions.

  6. Novel Biocontrol Methods for Listeria monocytogenes Biofilms in Food Production Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Gray

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available High mortality and hospitalization rates have seen Listeria monocytogenes as a foodborne pathogen of public health importance for many years and of particular concern for high-risk population groups. Food manufactures face an ongoing challenge in preventing the entry of L. monocytogenes into food production environments (FPEs due to its ubiquitous nature. In addition to this, the capacity of L. monocytogenes strains to colonize FPEs can lead to repeated identification of L. monocytogenes in FPE surveillance. The contamination of food products requiring product recall presents large economic burden to industry and is further exacerbated by damage to the brand. Poor equipment design, facility layout, and worn or damaged equipment can result in Listeria hotspots and biofilms where traditional cleaning and disinfecting procedures may be inadequate. Novel biocontrol methods may offer FPEs effective means to help improve control of L. monocytogenes and decrease cross contamination of food. Bacteriophages have been used as a medical treatment for many years for their ability to infect and lyse specific bacteria. Endolysins, the hydrolytic enzymes of bacteriophages responsible for breaking the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria, are being explored as a biocontrol method for food preservation and in nanotechnology and medical applications. Antibacterial proteins known as bacteriocins have been used as alternatives to antibiotics for biopreservation and food product shelf life extension. Essential oils are natural antimicrobials formed by plants and have been used as food additives and preservatives for many years and more recently as a method to prevent food spoilage by microorganisms. Competitive exclusion occurs naturally among bacteria in the environment. However, intentionally selecting and applying bacteria to effect competitive exclusion of food borne pathogens has potential as a biocontrol application. This review discusses these novel biocontrol

  7. Novel Biocontrol Methods for Listeria monocytogenes Biofilms in Food Production Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jessica A; Chandry, P Scott; Kaur, Mandeep; Kocharunchitt, Chawalit; Bowman, John P; Fox, Edward M

    2018-01-01

    High mortality and hospitalization rates have seen Listeria monocytogenes as a foodborne pathogen of public health importance for many years and of particular concern for high-risk population groups. Food manufactures face an ongoing challenge in preventing the entry of L. monocytogenes into food production environments (FPEs) due to its ubiquitous nature. In addition to this, the capacity of L. monocytogenes strains to colonize FPEs can lead to repeated identification of L. monocytogenes in FPE surveillance. The contamination of food products requiring product recall presents large economic burden to industry and is further exacerbated by damage to the brand. Poor equipment design, facility layout, and worn or damaged equipment can result in Listeria hotspots and biofilms where traditional cleaning and disinfecting procedures may be inadequate. Novel biocontrol methods may offer FPEs effective means to help improve control of L. monocytogenes and decrease cross contamination of food. Bacteriophages have been used as a medical treatment for many years for their ability to infect and lyse specific bacteria. Endolysins, the hydrolytic enzymes of bacteriophages responsible for breaking the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria, are being explored as a biocontrol method for food preservation and in nanotechnology and medical applications. Antibacterial proteins known as bacteriocins have been used as alternatives to antibiotics for biopreservation and food product shelf life extension. Essential oils are natural antimicrobials formed by plants and have been used as food additives and preservatives for many years and more recently as a method to prevent food spoilage by microorganisms. Competitive exclusion occurs naturally among bacteria in the environment. However, intentionally selecting and applying bacteria to effect competitive exclusion of food borne pathogens has potential as a biocontrol application. This review discusses these novel biocontrol methods and their

  8. Novel Biocontrol Methods for Listeria monocytogenes Biofilms in Food Production Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jessica A.; Chandry, P. Scott; Kaur, Mandeep; Kocharunchitt, Chawalit; Bowman, John P.; Fox, Edward M.

    2018-01-01

    High mortality and hospitalization rates have seen Listeria monocytogenes as a foodborne pathogen of public health importance for many years and of particular concern for high-risk population groups. Food manufactures face an ongoing challenge in preventing the entry of L. monocytogenes into food production environments (FPEs) due to its ubiquitous nature. In addition to this, the capacity of L. monocytogenes strains to colonize FPEs can lead to repeated identification of L. monocytogenes in FPE surveillance. The contamination of food products requiring product recall presents large economic burden to industry and is further exacerbated by damage to the brand. Poor equipment design, facility layout, and worn or damaged equipment can result in Listeria hotspots and biofilms where traditional cleaning and disinfecting procedures may be inadequate. Novel biocontrol methods may offer FPEs effective means to help improve control of L. monocytogenes and decrease cross contamination of food. Bacteriophages have been used as a medical treatment for many years for their ability to infect and lyse specific bacteria. Endolysins, the hydrolytic enzymes of bacteriophages responsible for breaking the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria, are being explored as a biocontrol method for food preservation and in nanotechnology and medical applications. Antibacterial proteins known as bacteriocins have been used as alternatives to antibiotics for biopreservation and food product shelf life extension. Essential oils are natural antimicrobials formed by plants and have been used as food additives and preservatives for many years and more recently as a method to prevent food spoilage by microorganisms. Competitive exclusion occurs naturally among bacteria in the environment. However, intentionally selecting and applying bacteria to effect competitive exclusion of food borne pathogens has potential as a biocontrol application. This review discusses these novel biocontrol methods and their

  9. Potentials for Commercial Production of Biogas from Domestic Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Solid waste management, food waste, anaerobic digestion, biogas ... Ministry of Environment, 2005) have not been able to ... waste management system which ensures financial returns at ... that incorporates recycling, composting, incineration.

  10. Consumers' behaviours and attitudes toward healthy food products: The case of organic and functional foods

    OpenAIRE

    Annunziata, Azzurra; Pascale, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade consumers’ health consciousness is becoming an important factor driving the agrofood market. Healthier food products have entered the global markets with force in the past years and rapidly gained market share. Consequently, the food industry has reacted to this trend by developing a growing variety of new products with health-related claims and images, including organic and functional foods that are selected by consumers for their health-promoting properties. Currently, ...

  11. Interdependence of Agricultural Production and Environment and the Road to Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curić Jasmina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of agricultural production in the world is in serious crisis. Interdependence of agricultural production and the environment is multiple and causality works both ways. On one hand, there are environmental changes which hamper food production, and on the other, the agricultural production, as it is, is severely damaging the environment. The very systems of agricultural production jeopardize future production. The goal of this paper is to explore causes of limitations of sustainable agricultural development in the world, where the authors emphasize the following: gas emissions with greenhouse effect, a disturbed cycle of nitrogen circulation and destruction of biodiversity.

  12. Energy consumption in the food chain - Comparing alternative options in food production and consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutilh, CE; Kramer, KJ

    Energy consumption in the various stages of the food chain, provides a reasonable indicator for the environmental impact in the production of food. This paper provides specific information on the energy requirement for the main alternatives in each production stage, which should allow the

  13. Exploring experiences of the food environment among immigrants living in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Paulina I; Dean, Jennifer; Kirkpatrick, Sharon; Berbary, Lisbeth; Scott, Steffanie

    2016-06-09

    This exploratory study aimed to shed light on the role of the food environment in shaping food access among immigrants living in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario. In this qualitative case study, in-depth interviews aided by photovoice were conducted with nine immigrants, and key informant (KI) interviews were conducted with nine community stakeholders (e.g., settlement workers, planners) who held expert knowledge of the local context with respect to both the food system and experiences of immigrants in interacting with this system. In this paper, we focus specifically on insights related to the food environment, applying the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity Framework to assess economic, physical, socio-cultural and political aspects. Economic features of the food environment, including food prices and differential costs of different types of food, emerged as factors related to food access. However, interactions with the food environment were shaped by broader economic factors, such as limited employment opportunities and low income. Most immigrants felt that they had good geographic access to food, though KIs expressed concerns about the types of outlet and food that were most accessible. Immigrants discussed social networks and cultural food practices, whereas KIs discussed political issues related to supporting food security in the Region. This exploratory case study is consistent with prior research in highlighting the economic constraints within which food access exists but suggests that there may be a need to further dissect food environments.

  14. Types, production and assessment of biobased food packaging materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food packaging performs an essential function, but packaging materials can have a negative impact on the environment. This book describes the latest advances in bio-based food packaging materials. Book provides a comprehensive review on bio-based, biodegradable and recycled materials and discusses t...

  15. Application of controlled thermonuclear reactor fusion energy for food production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, M.

    1975-06-01

    Food and energy shortages in many parts of the world in the past two years raise an immediate need for the evaluation of energy input in food production. The present paper investigates systematically (1) the energy requirement for food production, and (2) the provision of controlled thermonuclear fusion energy for major energy intensive sectors of food manufacturing. Among all the items of energy input to the ''food industry,'' fertilizers, water for irrigation, food processing industries, such as beet sugar refinery and dough making and single cell protein manufacturing, have been chosen for study in detail. A controlled thermonuclear power reactor was used to provide electrical and thermal energy for all these processes. Conceptual design of the application of controlled thermonuclear power, water and air for methanol and ammonia synthesis and single cell protein production is presented. Economic analysis shows that these processes can be competitive. (auth)

  16. Creating Food Futures. Trade, Ethics and the Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farnworth, C.R.; Jiggins, J.L.S.; Thomas, E.V.

    2008-01-01

    A global transformation in food supply and consumption is placing our food security at risk. What changes need to be made to the ways we trade, process and purchase our food if everyone in the world is going to have enough wholesome food to eat? Is there genuine scope for creating food futures that

  17. Radiotracer studies on the fate and transformation of pesticide residues in the environment and food chains. Part of a coordinated programme on isotopic-tracer-aided studies of chemical residues in cotton seed, feed, oil and related products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.R.

    1980-10-01

    The magnitude and fate of some pesticide chemicals in Korean foods were studied with particular reference to oil-bearing crops and related products. Application of the chemicals was made under conditions of actual agricultural practice. Analytical methodologies included nuclear activation, gas chromatographic, spectrophotometric and radiotracer techniques. Residues of benzene hexachloride, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and DDT found in refined vegetable oil samples were below or within the tolerance limits set by international organizations and as such, these are unlikely to present any toxicological hazard to the consumer. Also, residues of the herbicides nitrogen, alachlor and butachlor applied to oil-bearing crops were not detected in the seeds. Studies on 14 C-BHC residues in rice revealed that polishing and washing play an important role in removing a considerable portion of the residue. Data on the arsenic-containing neoasozine residues suggest that the products consumed by the human (grain and oil) contained residues below the tolerance limit and are unlikely to present any toxicological hazard to the consumer. On the other hand, relatively high arsenic concentrations (2.2 mg/kg) were found in the cake (serving as animal feed) and should be carefully evaluated in the light of toxicological data

  18. Swedish Consumers’ Perception of Food Quality and Sustainability in Relation to Organic Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebresenbet, Girma

    2018-01-01

    Consumers’ demand for locally produced and organic foods has increased in Sweden. This paper presents the results obtained from the analysis of data acquired from 100 consumers in Sweden who participated in an online survey during March to June 2016. The objective was to identify consumers’ demand in relation to organic food and sustainable food production, and to understand how the consumers evaluate food quality and make buying decisions. Qualitative descriptions, descriptive statistics and Pearson’s Chi-square test (with alpha value of p production method is more sustainable than conventional methods. Female consumers have more positive attitudes than men towards organic food. However, age difference, household size and income level do not significantly influence the consumers’ perception of sustainable food production concepts. Regionality, sustainable methods of production and organic production are the most important parameters to characterize the food as high quality and make buying decisions. On the other hand, product uniformity, appearance, and price were found to be relatively less important parameters. Food buying decisions and food quality were found to be highly related with Pearson’s correlation coefficient of r = 0.99. PMID:29614785

  19. Mismatch between Probiotic Benefits in Trials versus Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scourboutakos, Mary J; Franco-Arellano, Beatriz; Murphy, Sarah A; Norsen, Sheida; Comelli, Elena M; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2017-04-19

    Probiotic food products contain a variety of different bacterial strains and may offer different health effects. The objective was to document the prevalence and dosage of probiotic strains in the Canadian food supply and to review the literature investigating these strains in order to understand what health benefits these products may offer. The Food Label Information Program was used to identify probiotic-containing products in the food supply. PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for randomized controlled trials that tested the health effects of these strains in humans. There were six probiotic strains/strain combinations identified in the food supply. Thirty-one studies investigated these strains and found that they are associated with decreased diarrhea and constipation, improved digestive symptoms, glycemic control, antioxidant status, blood lipids, oral health, and infant breastfeeding outcomes, as well as enhanced immunity and support for Helicobacter pylori eradication. There were a limited number of studies investigating these strains. Many studies were funded by the food industry and tested dosages that were up to twenty-five times the dosage found in most food products. Probiotic food products could have health benefits not currently reported on their labels. However, many dosages are too low to provide the benefits demonstrated in clinical trials. Further research is needed to enable more effective use of these functional foods.

  20. Non-dairy probiotic food products: An emerging group of functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Min; Bunt, Craig R; Mason, Susan L; Hussain, Malik A

    2018-04-09

    The functional food sector has shown tremendous growth in recent years with the application of probiotic bacteria as "food additives". The utilization of probiotic bacteria in food presents many challenges related to their growth, survival, viability, stability and functionality in food processing, storage and consumption as well as changes of sensory characteristics of probiotic foods. Although dairy foods are currently the most common food carrier to deliver probiotics, an increasing number of non-dairy food matrices exhibit potential for delivery of probiotics. This review provides more recent insight into the emergence of non-dairy probiotics products, the interactions between probiotics and different food matrices and the challenges in developing such products. Some of the technical issues are also reviewed and discussed. These issues include the efficacy of probiotic bacteria in non-chilled, low pH or high water activity foods; the potential loss of bacterial viability, additionally unwanted fermentation and changes of the sensory characteristics of food products which may result in poor microbiological quality and low acceptability to consumers.

  1. Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtar, R. H.; Whittaker, A.; Amar, N.; Burgess, W.

    2009-12-01

    Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program Nadia Amar, Wiella Burgess, Rabi H. Mohtar, and Dale Whitaker Purdue University Correspondence: mohtar@purdue.edu FEELS, the Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program is a grant of the National Science Foundation for the College of Agriculture at Purdue University. FEELS’ mission is to recruit, retain, and prepare high-achieving students with financial difficulties to pursue STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) careers. FEELS achieves its goals offering a scholarship of up to 10,000 per student each year, academic, research and industrial mentors, seminars, study tables, social and cultural activities, study abroad and community service projects. In year one, nine low-income, first generation and/or ethnic minority students joined the FEELS program. All 9 FEELS fellows were retained in Purdue’s College of Agriculture (100%) with 7 of 9 (77.7%) continuing to pursue STEM majors. FEELS fellows achieved an average GPA in their first year of 3.05, compared to the average GPA of 2.54 for low-income non- FEELS students in the College of Agriculture. A new cohort of 10 students joined the program in August 2009. FEELS fellows received total scholarships of nearly 50,000 for the 2008-2009 academic year. These scholarships were combined with a holistic program that included the following key elements: FEELS Freshman Seminars I and II, 2 study tables per week, integration activities and frequent meetings with FEELS academic mentors and directors. Formative assessments of all FEELS activities were used to enhance the first year curriculum for the second cohort. Cohort 1 will continue into their second year where the focus will be on undergraduate research. More on FEELS programs and activities: www.purdue.edu/feels.

  2. Food and beverage product reformulation as a corporate political strategy.

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, C; Hawkins, B; Knai, C

    2016-01-01

    : Product reformulation- the process of altering a food or beverage product's recipe or composition to improve the product's health profile - is a prominent response to the obesity and noncommunicable disease epidemics in the U.S. To date, reformulation in the U.S. has been largely voluntary and initiated by actors within the food and beverage industry. Similar voluntary efforts by the tobacco and alcohol industry have been considered to be a mechanism of corporate political strategy to shape...

  3. Junk Food, Health and Productivity: Taste, Price, Risk and Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Amnon

    2006-01-01

    Junk-food consumption, health and productivity are analyzed within an expectedlifetime- utility-maximizing framework in which the probability of living and productivity rise with health and health deteriorate with the consumption of junkfood. So long that the junk food’s relative taste-price differential is positive, the rational diet deviates from the physiologically optimal and renders the levels of health and productivity lower than the maximal. Taxing junk-food can eliminate this discrepa...

  4. Disinfection ultraviolet radiation bulk food products

    OpenAIRE

    Семенов, А. А.

    2014-01-01

    В работе представлены результаты обеззараживания сыпучих пищевых продуктов ультрафиолетовым излучением. Предложена технология бактерицидного обеззараживания сыпучих продуктов с размером частиц до 50 мкм. Проведены необходимые расчеты, связанные с дозой облучения, с временем пребывания частиц в зоне облучения и необходимой дозой инактивации в зависимости от вида бактерий. Considered the results of bulk food products disinfection by ultraviolet radiation. The technology bactericidal disinfec...

  5. Food environments of young people: linking individual behaviour to environmental context.

    OpenAIRE

    Tyrrell, RL; Greenhalgh, F; Hodgson, S; Wills, WJ; Mathers, JC; Adamson, AJ; Lake, AA

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify and characterize the food environments from which young people obtain food and to explore associations between the type of food environment and food intakes.Young people (n = 86, mean age 17 years; combined data of two sequential pilot studies (collected in 2008-09) and a study conducted in 2011-12) recorded in 4-day self-complete food diaries what food they consumed and where food was sourced. Nutrient, fruit and vegetable intake was calculated according to the source of...

  6. Quality and innovation between tipical products exploiting and new food design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Dalla Rosa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Scientific approach is often ignored in the production of typical and marginal foods which come from empiric trial and procedures consolidated along the time. At the beginning of the twentieth century food science starter influencing food production and processing by a multidisciplinary approach aiming at the safety guarantee of industrial products intended for large scale consumption. In the last decades researchers started taking into account traditional and marginal food products by an accurate scientific approach aiming to their exploitation and to define their quality and safety parameters. Scientific approach to marginal products can be schematically divided in two levels: analytical and technological/engineering. In general, the analytical approach focuses on chemical aspects, physical properties, aromatic and sensorial characteristics and on the microbiological and genetic characterizations. 

    The technological/engineering approach must be considered a san integration of the knowledge both about the finished product and the production process and consists of: the definition of markers connecting quality to first matter; the study of seasonal and annual variability; the search for correlations among process/environment/quality on molecular basis; the pointing out of markers to set traceability systems up; the definition of key-factors to characterize the land according to its food production as an impulse for the development of other sectors such as tourism. Finally, innovation in the sector of traditional and marginal production should concern the definition of chemicalphysical and sensorial characteristics, the rationalization of traditional processes and the introduction of new compatible technology phases, the introduction of new packaging forms to elongate the shelf life and to enlarge distribution areas guaranteeing, at the same time, the maintenance of product peculiarity and typicality. New food design is one of the most

  7. Quality and innovation between tipical products exploiting and new food design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Mastrocola

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific approach is often ignored in the production of typical and marginal foods which come from empiric trial and procedures consolidated along the time. At the beginning of the twentieth century food science starter influencing food production and processing by a multidisciplinary approach aiming at the safety guarantee of industrial products intended for large scale consumption. In the last decades researchers started taking into account traditional and marginal food products by an accurate scientific approach aiming to their exploitation and to define their quality and safety parameters. Scientific approach to marginal products can be schematically divided in two levels: analytical and technological/engineering. In general, the analytical approach focuses on chemical aspects, physical properties, aromatic and sensorial characteristics and on the microbiological and genetic characterizations. The technological/engineering approach must be considered a san integration of the knowledge both about the finished product and the production process and consists of: the definition of markers connecting quality to first matter; the study of seasonal and annual variability; the search for correlations among process/environment/quality on molecular basis; the pointing out of markers to set traceability systems up; the definition of key-factors to characterize the land according to its food production as an impulse for the development of other sectors such as tourism. Finally, innovation in the sector of traditional and marginal production should concern the definition of chemicalphysical and sensorial characteristics, the rationalization of traditional processes and the introduction of new compatible technology phases, the introduction of new packaging forms to elongate the shelf life and to enlarge distribution areas guaranteeing, at the same time, the maintenance of product peculiarity and typicality. New food design is one of the most

  8. 77 FR 64999 - Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food Product Categories in Food Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ...] Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food Product Categories in Food Facility Registrations and... industry entitled ``Necessity of the Use of Food Product Categories in Food Facility Registrations and... made available a draft guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food [[Page...

  9. Prediction of frozen food properties during freezing using product composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsupthip, W; Heldman, D R

    2007-06-01

    Frozen water fraction (FWF), as a function of temperature, is an important parameter for use in the design of food freezing processes. An FWF-prediction model, based on concentrations and molecular weights of specific product components, has been developed. Published food composition data were used to determine the identity and composition of key components. The model proposed in this investigation had been verified using published experimental FWF data and initial freezing temperature data, and by comparison to outputs from previously published models. It was found that specific food components with significant influence on freezing temperature depression of food products included low molecular weight water-soluble compounds with molality of 50 micromol per 100 g food or higher. Based on an analysis of 200 high-moisture food products, nearly 45% of the experimental initial freezing temperature data were within an absolute difference (AD) of +/- 0.15 degrees C and standard error (SE) of +/- 0.65 degrees C when compared to values predicted by the proposed model. The predicted relationship between temperature and FWF for all analyzed food products provided close agreements with experimental data (+/- 0.06 SE). The proposed model provided similar prediction capability for high- and intermediate-moisture food products. In addition, the proposed model provided statistically better prediction of initial freezing temperature and FWF than previous published models.

  10. THE ANALYSIS OF COUNTERFEITING FOOD PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Paula - Angela VIDRASCU

    2013-01-01

    The issue addressed in this paper makes a significant contribution to research on the effects that food tampering has at the expense of consumer health. Nowadays quality and food safety that consumers are entitled directly reflects the quality of life. In other words the present subject is of particular importance to the work of the bodies created for the purpose of protecting the health and quality of life of consumers. This study has an important role both in the short and long term through...

  11. RISKS AND SAFETY OF USING NANOTECHNOLOGIES OF FOOD PRODUCTS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Gorbunova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of healthy and quality nutrition has a global character. The modern development of technologies including nanotechnologies allowed obtaining materials with unique properties, which began to be actively used in food industry and agriculturebut, at the same time, require thorough investigation of their properties and effects on the human body and environment. The paper demonstrates the main directions of the nanotechnology use in the agricultural production and food industry, examines the safetyproblems and risks occurred when using nanotechnologies in food industry with account for insufficient research on the influence of food nanotechnologies on human health and environmental ecology, and presents the normative and methodical base of the RussianFederation for assurance of safe consumption of food products produced from nanomaterials.

  12. Measuring the food service environment: development and implementation of assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaker, Leia M; Raine, Kim D; Cash, Sean B

    2009-01-01

    The food environment is increasingly being implicated in the obesity epidemic, though few reported measures of it exist. In order to assess the impact of the food environment on food intake, valid measures must be developed and tested. The current study describes the development of a food service environment assessment tool and its implementation in a community setting. A descriptive study with mixed qualitative and quantitative methods at a large, North American university campus was undertaken. Measures were developed on the basis of a conceptual model of nutrition environments. Measures of community nutrition environment were the number, type and hours of operation of each food service outlet on campus. Measures of consumer nutrition environment were food availability, food affordability, food promotion and nutrition information availability. Seventy-five food service outlets within the geographic boundaries were assessed. Assessment tools could be implemented in a reasonable amount of time and showed good face and content validity. The food environments were described and measures were grouped so that food service outlet types could be compared in terms of purchasing convenience, cost/value, healthy food promotion and health. Food service outlet types that scored higher in purchasing convenience and cost/value tended to score lower in healthy food promotion and health. This study adds evidence that food service outlet types that are convenient to consumers and supply high value (in terms of calories per dollar) tend to be less health-promoting. Results from this study also suggest the possibility of characterizing the food environment according to the type of food service outlet observed.

  13. FOOD II: an interactive code for calculating concentrations of radionuclides in food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, R.

    1978-11-01

    An interactive code, FOOD II, has been written in FORTRAN IV for the PDP 10 to allow calculation of concentrations of radionuclides in food products and internal doses to man under chronic release conditions. FOOD II uses models unchanged from a previous code, FOOD, developed at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories. The new code has different input and output features than FOOD and a number of options have been added to increase flexibility. Data files have also been updated. FOOD II takes into account contamination of vegetation by air and irrigation water containing radionuclides. Contamination can occur simultaneously by air and water. Both direct deposition of radionuclides on leaves, and their uptake from soil are possible. Also, animals may be contaminated by ingestion of vegetation and drinking water containing radionuclides. At present, FOOD II provides selection of 14 food types, 13 diets and numerous radionuclides. Provisions have been made to expand all of these categories. Six additional contaminated food products can also be entered directly into the dose model. Doses may be calculated for the total body and six internal organs. Summaries of concentrations in food products and internal doses to man can be displayed at a local terminal or at an auxiliary high-speed printer. (author)

  14. Ultra-processed products are becoming dominant in the global food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, C A; Moubarac, J-C; Cannon, G; Ng, S W; Popkin, B

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between the global food system and the worldwide rapid increase of obesity and related diseases is not yet well understood. A reason is that the full impact of industrialized food processing on dietary patterns, including the environments of eating and drinking, remains overlooked and underestimated. Many forms of food processing are beneficial. But what is identified and defined here as ultra-processing, a type of process that has become increasingly dominant, at first in high-income countries, and now in middle-income countries, creates attractive, hyper-palatable, cheap, ready-to-consume food products that are characteristically energy-dense, fatty, sugary or salty and generally obesogenic. In this study, the scale of change in purchase and sales of ultra-processed products is examined and the context and implications are discussed. Data come from 79 high- and middle-income countries, with special attention to Canada and Brazil. Results show that ultra-processed products dominate the food supplies of high-income countries, and that their consumption is now rapidly increasing in middle-income countries. It is proposed here that the main driving force now shaping the global food system is transnational food manufacturing, retailing and fast food service corporations whose businesses are based on very profitable, heavily promoted ultra-processed products, many in snack form. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  15. Sustainable consumption and production in the food supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan

    2018-01-01

    Increased globalization and a growing world population have a great impact on the sustainability of supply chains, especially within the food industry. The way food is produced, processed, transported, and consumed has a great impact on whether sustainability is achieved throughout the whole food...... supply chain. Due to the complexity that persists in coordinating the members of food supply chain, food wastage has increased over the past few years. To achieve sustainable consumption and production (SCP), food industry stakeholders need to be coordinated and to have their views reflected...... in an optimized manner. However, not much research has been done concerning the influence of stakeholders and supply chain members’ coordination in the food industry's SCP context. To facilitate the theory development for SCP, in this work, a short literature review on sustainable supply chain management...

  16. Developing and modelling of ohmic heating for solid food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Frosch, Stina

    Heating of solid foods using the conventional technologies is time-consuming due to the fact that heat transfer is limited by internal conduction within the product. This is a big challenge to food manufactures who wish to heat the product faster to the desired core temperature and to ensure more...... uniform quality across the product. Ohmic heating is one of the novel technologies potentially solving this problem by allowing volumetric heating of the product and thereby reducing or eliminating temperature gradients within the product. However, the application of ohmic heating for solid food products...... such as meat and seafood is not industrially utilized yet. Therefore, the aim of the current work is to model and develop the ohmic heating technology for heating of solid meat and seafood. A 3D mathematical model of coupled heat transfer and electric field during ohmic heating of meat products has been...

  17. Insect disinfestation of food and agricultural products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Insect infestation is a major cause of post-harvest food loss. Use of chemical pesticides is one of the main methods of controlling storage losses caused by insects. Decades of research conducted worldwide on radiation disinfestation of food and agricultural products have shown that this method could be an alternative to the chemical treatment of foods. The advantages of irradiation processing include no undesirable residues in the foods, no resistance developed by the insects and no significant changes in the physicochemical properties or the nutritive value of the treated products. This volume contains the proceedings of the final Research Co-ordination Meeting on insect disinfestation of food and agricultural products by irradiation, held in May 1987. The individual contributions are indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Retail food environments in Canada: Maximizing the impact of research, policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaker, Leia M

    2016-06-09

    Retail food environments are gaining national and international attention as important determinants of population dietary intake. Communities across Canada are beginning to discuss and implement programs and policies to create supportive retail food environments. Three considerations should drive the selection of food environment assessment methods: relevance (What is the problem, and how is it related to dietary outcomes?); resources (What human, time and financial resources are required to undertake an assessment?); and response (How will policy-makers find meaning out of and act on the information gained through the food environment assessment?). Ultimately, food environment assessments should be conducted in the context of stakeholder buy-in and multi-sectoral partnerships, since food environment solutions require multi-sectoral action. Partnerships between public health actors and the food and beverage industry can be challenging, especially when mandates are not aligned. Clarifying the motivations, expectations and roles of all stakeholders takes time but is important if the impact of food environment research, policy and practice is to be maximized. The articles contained in this special supplementary issue describe ongoing food environments research across Canada and fill some of the important gaps in the current body of Canadian food environments literature.

  19. Food product health warnings promote dietary self-control through reductions in neural signals indexing food cue reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. Rosenblatt

    Full Text Available Modern societies are replete with palatable food cues. A growing body of evidence suggests that food cue exposure activates conditioned appetitive physiological and psychological responses that may override current metabolic needs and existing eating goals, such as the desire to maintain a healthy diet. This conditioned response results in unhealthy dietary choices and is a contributing factor in the current obesity epidemic. Prime based obesity prevention measures such as health warnings at point-of-sale or on product packaging may have the potential to counteract the influence of the obesogenic environment at the crucial moment when people make food purchasing or consumption decisions. Existing research into the efficacy of these intervention strategies has predominantly employed self-report and population level measures, and little evidence exists to support the contention that these measures counteract food cue reactivity at the time of decision making. Using a dietary self-control priming paradigm, we demonstrated that brief exposure to food product health warnings enhanced dietary self-control. Further, we analysed electroencephalographic correlates of selective attention and food cue evoked craving (N1, P3, LPP to show that health warning exposure reduced the automatic appetitive response towards palatable food cues. These findings contribute to existing evidence that exogenous information can successfully prime latent goals, and substantiate the notion that food product health warnings may provide a new avenue through which to curb excessive energy intake and reduce rising obesity rates. Keywords: Health warnings, Dietary decision making, Self-control, Electroencephalogram, EEG, N1, P3, LPP

  20. Food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Nazlina Haiza Mohd; Mumtaz, Tabassum; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Abd Rahman, Nor'Aini

    2013-11-30

    Food waste and food processing wastes which are abundant in nature and rich in carbon content can be attractive renewable substrates for sustainable biohydrogen production due to wide economic prospects in industries. Many studies utilizing common food wastes such as dining hall or restaurant waste and wastes generated from food processing industries have shown good percentages of hydrogen in gas composition, production yield and rate. The carbon composition in food waste also plays a crucial role in determining high biohydrogen yield. Physicochemical factors such as pre-treatment to seed culture, pH, temperature (mesophilic/thermophilic) and etc. are also important to ensure the dominance of hydrogen-producing bacteria in dark fermentation. This review demonstrates the potential of food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production and provides a brief overview of several physicochemical factors that affect biohydrogen production in dark fermentation. The economic viability of biohydrogen production from food waste is also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance in Food Animals and the Environment in Nigeria: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurudeen Olalekan Oloso

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance (AMR has emerged as a global health threat, which has elicited a high-level political declaration at the United Nations General Assembly, 2016. In response, member countries agreed to pay greater attention to the surveillance and implementation of antimicrobial stewardship. The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control called for a review of AMR in Nigeria using a “One Health approach”. As anecdotal evidence suggests that food animal health and production rely heavily on antimicrobials, it becomes imperative to understand AMR trends in food animals and the environment. We reviewed previous studies to curate data and evaluate the contributions of food animals and the environment (2000–2016 to the AMR burden in Nigeria using a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA flowchart focused on three areas: Antimicrobial resistance, residues, and antiseptics studies. Only one of the 48 antimicrobial studies did not report multidrug resistance. At least 18 bacterial spp. were found to be resistant to various locally available antimicrobials. All 16 residue studies reported high levels of drug residues either in the form of prevalence or concentration above the recommended international limit. Fourteen different “resistotypes” were found in some commonly used antiseptics. High levels of residues and AMR were found in food animals destined for the human food chain. High levels of residues and antimicrobials discharged into environments sustain the AMR pool. These had evolved into potential public health challenges that need attention. These findings constitute public health threats for Nigeria’s teeming population and require attention.

  2. Chapter 14. Radionuclides in vegetal production and food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with using of radionuclides in vegetal production and food processing. Chapter consist of next parts: (1) Influence of radiation on foods; (2) Radiation sterilisation in health service

  3. Review of health safety aspects of nanotechnologies in food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, H.; Dekkers, S.; Noordam, M.Y.; Hagens, W.; Bulder, A.S.; Heer, de P.M.; Voorde, ten S.E.C.G.; Wijnhoven, S.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Sips, A.

    2009-01-01

    Due to new, previously unknown, properties attributed to engineered nanoparticles many new products are introduced in the agro-food area. Nanotechnologies cover many aspects, such as disease treatment, food security, new materials for pathogen detection, packaging materials and delivery systems. As

  4. Sub-Micron Grinding of a Food Product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennart, S.L.A.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes how the activity of a preservative product used in food coatings can be optimized. This project is partly sponsored by the European Marie Curie Framework projects as part of the BioPowders research training network. DSM Food Specialties hosts and co finances this project. The

  5. Protection against radioactive contamination of foods and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.; Kovacs, Z.

    1977-01-01

    Methods suitable for diminishing radioactive contamination of foods and agricultural products and reducing at the same time the irradiation hazards for the human organism are dealt with. The possibilities for the decontamination of foods vegetal and of animal origin are discussed separately. (author)

  6. Price strategies for sustainable food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Sustainable products often suffer a competitive disadvantage compared with mainstream products because they must cover ecological and social costs that their competitors leave to future generations. The purpose of this paper is to identify price strategies for sustainable products that

  7. Subsistence Food Production Practices: An Approach to Food Security and Good Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankoana, Sejabaledi A

    2017-10-05

    Food security is a prerequisite for health. Availability and accessibility of food in rural areas is mainly achieved through subsistence production in which community members use local practices to produce and preserve food. Subsistence food production ensures self-sufficiency and reduction of poverty and hunger. The main emphasis with the present study is examining subsistence farming and collection of edible plant materials to fulfill dietary requirements, thereby ensuring food security and good health. Data collected from a purposive sample show that subsistence crops produced in the home-gardens and fields, and those collected from the wild, are sources of grain, vegetables and legumes. Sources of grain and legumes are produced in the home-gardens and fields, whereas vegetables sources are mostly collected in the wild and fewer in the home-gardens. These food sources have perceived health potential in child and maternal care of primary health care.

  8. Application of Proteomics in Food Technology and Food Biotechnology: Process Development, Quality Control and Product Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajana Gašo-Sokač

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human food is a very complex biological mixture and food processing and safety are very important and essential disciplines. Proteomics technology using different high-performance separation techniques such as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, one-dimensional and multidimensional chromatography, combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry has the power to monitor the protein composition of foods and their changes during the production process. The use of proteomics in food technology is presented, especially for characterization and standardization of raw materials, process development, detection of batch-to-batch variations and quality control of the final product. Further attention is paid to the aspects of food safety, especially regarding biological and microbial safety and the use of genetically modified foods.

  9. Does eating local food reduce the environmental impact of food production and enhance consumer health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards-Jones, Gareth

    2010-11-01

    The concept of local food has gained traction in the media, engaged consumers and offered farmers a new marketing tool. Positive claims about the benefits of local food are probably not harmful when made by small-scale producers at the local level; however, greater concern would arise should such claims be echoed in policy circles. This review examines the evidence base supporting claims about the environmental and health benefits of local food. The results do not offer any support for claims that local food is universally superior to non-local food in terms of its impact on the climate or the health of consumers. Indeed several examples are presented that demonstrate that local food can on occasions be inferior to non-local food. The analysis also considers the impact on greenhouse gas emissions of moving the UK towards self-sufficiency. Quantitative evidence is absent on the changes in overall emissions that would occur if the UK switched to self-sufficiency. A qualitative assessment suggests the emissions per item of food would probably be greater under a scenario of self-sufficiency than under the current food system. The review does not identify any generalisable or systematic benefits to the environment or human health that arise from the consumption of local food in preference to non-local food.

  10. Food Safety Regulation and Firm Productivity: Evidence from the French Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Requillart, Vincent; Nauges, Celine; Simioni, Michel; Bontemps, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess whether food safety regulations imposed by the European Union in the 2000s may have induced a slow-down in the productivity of firms in the food processing sector. The impact of regulations on costs and productivity has seldom been studied. This article contributes to the literature by measuring productivity change using a panel of French food processing firms for the years 1996 to 2006. To do so, we develop an original iterative testing procedure b...

  11. Bio-ethanol production from non-food parts of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuwamanya, Ephraim; Kawuki, Robert S.; Baguma, Yona [National Agricultural Research organization, National Crops Resources Research Inst. (NaCRRI), Kampala (Uganda); Chiwona-Karltun, Linley [Dept. of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)], email: Linley.karltun@slu.se

    2012-03-15

    Global climate issues and a looming energy crisis put agriculture under pressure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate adaptation measures must entail sustainable development benefits, and growing crops for food as well as energy may be a solution, removing people from hunger and poverty without compromising the environment. The present study investigated the feasibility of using non-food parts of cassava for energy production and the promising results revealed that at least 28% of peels and stems comprise dry matter, and 10 g feedstock yields >8.5 g sugar, which in turn produced >60% ethanol, with pH {approx} 2.85, 74-84% light transmittance and a conductivity of 368 mV, indicating a potential use of cassava feedstock for ethanol production. Thus, harnessing cassava for food as well as ethanol production is deemed feasible. Such a system would, however, require supportive policies to acquire a balance between food security and fuel.

  12. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Grunow, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates are

  13. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates...

  14. The analysis of food products retailing in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapaić Stevan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Author is analyzing a share of food products in the structural profile of retail trade in European Union by presenting areas of retailing in which food, beverages, and tobacco products are predominant. The main task of retailing is to overcome gaps in time and space between production and consumption, in order to meet the needs of consumers. This main task of retailing becomes more difficult considering the fact that the European Union consists of demanding consumers that expect all products, especially food, to be served to them at the most accessible places, in most suitable time, and with prices that coincide with the worth of products. In the structure of retail trade of the European Union, food products can be found in sector of non-specialised in-store retailing (hypermarkets, supermarkets, Cash&Carry stores as well as in sector of specialised in-store food retailing (butcher shops, bakeries, fish markets, etc.. Restructure of retailing, internationalization, and concentration of total retail trade network are only some of the basic trends in contemporary retail sale of food products in the European Union, that are being explored in this text.

  15. Control of Listeria species food safety at a poultry food production facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Edward M; Wall, Patrick G; Fanning, Séamus

    2015-10-01

    Surveillance and control of food-borne human pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, is a critical aspect of modern food safety programs at food production facilities. This study evaluated contamination patterns of Listeria species at a poultry food production facility, and evaluated the efficacy of procedures to control the contamination and transfer of the bacteria throughout the plant. The presence of Listeria species was studied along the production chain, including raw ingredients, food-contact, non-food-contact surfaces, and finished product. All isolates were sub-typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to identify possible entry points for Listeria species into the production chain, as well as identifying possible transfer routes through the facility. The efficacy of selected in-house sanitizers against a sub-set of the isolates was evaluated. Of the 77 different PFGE-types identified, 10 were found among two or more of the five categories/areas (ingredients, food preparation, cooking and packing, bulk packing, and product), indicating potential transfer routes at the facility. One of the six sanitizers used was identified as unsuitable for control of Listeria species. Combining PFGE data, together with information on isolate location and timeframe, facilitated identification of a persistent Listeria species contamination that had colonized the facility, along with others that were transient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Impact of Cooling Rate on the Safety of Food Products as Affected by Food Containers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coorey, Ranil; Ng, Denise Sze Hu; Jayamanne, Vijith S.

    2018-01-01

    In recent decades, the demand for ready‐to‐eat (RTE) food items prepared by the food catering sector has increased together with the value of cook‐serve, cook‐chill, and cook‐freeze food products. The technologies by which foods are cooked, chilled, refrigerated for storage, and reheated before...... serving are of prime importance to maintain safety. Packaging materials and food containers play an important role in influencing the cooling rate of RTE foods. Food items that are prepared using improper technologies and inappropriate packaging materials may be contaminated with foodborne pathogens....... Numerous research studies have shown the impact of deficient cooling technologies on the survival and growth of foodborne pathogens, which may subsequently pose a threat to public health. The operating temperatures and cooling rates of the cooling techniques applied must be appropriate to inhibit...

  17. Electromagnetic radiation properties of foods and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsenin, N.N.

    1984-01-01

    In this book, the author examines the effects of the various regions of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum on foods and agricultural products. Among the regions of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum covered are high-energy beta and neutron particles, gamma-rays and X-rays, to lower-energy visible, near infrared, infrared, microwave and low-energy radiowaves and electric currents. Dr. Mohsenin applies these electromagnetic phenomena to food products such as fruits, vegetables, seeds, dairy products, meat and processed foods. Contents: Some Basic Concepts of Electromagnetic Radiation. Basic Instruments for Measurement of Optical Properties. Applications of Radiation in the Visible Spectrum. Color and its Measurement. Sorting for Color and Appearance. Near-Infrared and Infrared Radiation Applications. Applications of High-Energy Radiation. Related Concepts of Microwaves, Radiowaves, and Electric Currents. Measurement of Electrical Properties of Foods and Agricultural Products. Applications of Electrical Properties. Appendix, Cited References. Subject Index

  18. Agricultural Production, Food and Nutrition Security in Rural Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural Production, Food and Nutrition Security in Rural Benin, Nigeria. ... that rural-urban migration results in shortage of manpower for agricultural activities. ... to support education, health care, sanitation and safe drinking water supply.

  19. New bean products to improve food security | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    ... Agricultural Research Organisation and the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research ... New bean products to improve food security. April 21, 2016. Image ... more lucrative market for smallholder bean farmers, most of whom are women.

  20. Food Production and Processing Considerations of Allergenic Food Ingredients: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Pedro A.; Boye, Joyce I.

    2012-01-01

    Although most consumers show no adverse symptoms to food allergens, health consequences for sensitized individuals can be very serious. As a result, the Codex General Standard for the Labelling of Prepackaged Foods has specified a series of allergenic ingredients/substances requiring mandatory declaration when present in processed prepackaged food products. Countries adhering to international standards are required to observe this minimum of eight substances, but additional priority allergens are included in the list in some countries. Enforcement agencies have traditionally focused their effort on surveillance of prepackaged goods, but there is a growing need to apply a bottom-up approach to allergen risk management in food manufacturing starting from primary food processing operations in order to minimize the possibility of allergen contamination in finished products. The present paper aims to review food production considerations that impact allergen risk management, and it is directed mainly to food manufacturers and policy makers. Furthermore, a series of food ingredients and the allergenic fractions identified from them, as well as the current methodology used for detection of these allergenic foods, is provided. PMID:22187573

  1. Processing- and product-related causes for food waste and implications for the food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raak, Norbert; Symmank, Claudia; Zahn, Susann; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Rohm, Harald

    2017-03-01

    Reducing food waste is one of the prominent goals in the current research, which has also been set by the United Nations to achieve a more sustainable world by 2030. Given that previous studies mainly examined causes for food waste generation related to consumers, e.g., expectations regarding quality or uncertainties about edibility, this review aims at providing an overview on losses in the food industry, as well as on natural mechanisms by which impeccable food items are converted into an undesired state. For this, scientific literature was reviewed based on a keyword search, and information not covered was gathered by conducting expert interviews with representatives from 13 German food processing companies. From the available literature, three main areas of food waste generation were identified and discussed: product deterioration and spoilage during logistical operations, by-products from food processing, and consumer perception of quality and safety. In addition, expert interviews revealed causes for food waste in the processing sector, which were categorised as follows: losses resulting from processing operations and quality assurance, and products not fulfilling quality demands from trade. The interviewees explained a number of strategies to minimise food losses, starting with alternative tradeways for second choice items, and ending with emergency power supplies to compensate for power blackouts. It became clear that the concepts are not universally applicable for each company, but the overview provided in the present study may support researchers in finding appropriate solutions for individual cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stress-adapted extremophiles provide energy without interference with food production

    KAUST Repository

    Bressan, Ray Anthony; Reddy, Muppala P.; Chung, Suk-Ho; Yun, Daejin; Hardin, Lowell S.; Bohnert, Hans Jü rgen

    2011-01-01

    of food crops for biofuels is immoral, and that for this purpose using land suitable for growing crops productively is to be avoided. We advocate a focus on new "extremophile" crops. These would either be wild species adapted to extreme environments which

  3. Exploring nutrient management options to increase nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiencies in food production of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Mengru; Ma, Lin; Strokal, Maryna; Chu, Yanan; Kroeze, Carolien

    2018-01-01

    Low nitrogen (NUE) and phosphorus (PUE) use efficiencies in food production in China result in large losses of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to the environment. The Chinese government formulated policies to increase the NUEs and PUEs. Recent policies aim for zero growth in synthetic fertilizer

  4. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in food production plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available L. monocytogenes has been established in different plants for the production of food, including dairy plants, abattoirs, plants for the processing of fish, as well as those for the production of ready-to-eat (RTE food and this fact is being considered as the primary mechanism of food contamination with this bacteria. There is also the factor of numerous and diverse contaminated production equipment, because it has certain parts that are inaccessible for the necessary cleaning and disinfection. The temperature, position, as well as the material of the work surface are also linked to the contamination of plants with this bacteria. Investigations carried out so far have helped toward the better understanding of the manner and time of contamination of food items in the course of the production process, but there are still unresolved problems, including most certainly the biggest one - the adherence of bacteria and the creation of a biofilm, when the bacteria is in that condition more resistant to so-called stress factors which are usually used in the food industry for the purpose of decontamination of the surfaces with which foods come into contact. The control of L. monocytogenes in food production plants is possible primarily by using an integrated programme, compatible with the systems Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP and Good Hygiene Practice (GHP, necessary in the production of food that is safe for the consumer. Essentially, the control measures that can contribute to reducing the incidence of findings of L.monocytogenes in the finished product, as well as the reducing of the level of contamination with this bacteria are linked, on the one hand, with hygiene procedures in the production process, and, on the other, with the applied technological procedures.

  5. Exploring the food chain. Food production and food processing in Western Europe, 1850-1990

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bieleman, J.; Segers, Y.; Buyst, E.

    2009-01-01

    Until the late 19th century the food industry was restricted to a few activities, usually based on small scale industries. The links between agriculture and food processing were very tight. Due to increased purchasing power, population growth and urbanisation, the demand for food grew substantially.

  6. Strategies of Market Development of for Healthy Food Products in Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vahid Azizi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the aim of determining development strategies for marketing healthy food products. The study data was collected by conducting field survey and compeleting a questionnaire. Using simple random sampling, about 400 Hamedan citizens were selected in 2013. The data analysis was conducted by ordinal Logit model with method of maximum Likelihood. According to the results, 32 percent of people do not tend to shopping healthy food products, 34.3 percent of people ignored shopping of healthy food products, 33.8 percent of them tend to shopping of healthy food products. The results of estimating the ordinal Logit model presented that strategies such as cognition indicators, environment lover, Advertising and Information, Education, Supportive and monitoring facilities, structural and Service facilities and economic indicator should be considered as marketing strategies to develop healthy food products. In order to develop the healthy food market, the long term programs in the three sectors of products, consumption and marketing should be considered from specific purposes.

  7. Retail food environments research: Promising future with more work to be done.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Daniel; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2016-06-09

    As members of the scientific committee for the Food Environments in Canada conference, we reflect on the current state of food environments research in Canada. We are very encouraged that the field is growing and there have been many collaborative efforts to link researchers in Canada, including the 2015 Food Environments in Canada Symposium and Workshop. We believe there are 5 key challenges the field will need to collectively address: theory and causality; replication and extension; consideration of rural, northern and vulnerable populations; policy analysis; and intervention research. In addressing the challenges, we look forward to working together to conduct more sophisticated, complex and community-driven food environments research in the future.

  8. Adoptable Interventions, Human Health, and Food Safety Considerations for Reducing Sodium Content of Processed Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Abimbola; Fouladkhah, Aliyar

    2018-02-01

    Although vital for maintaining health when consumed in moderation, various epidemiological studies in recent years have shown a strong association between excess dietary sodium with an array of health complications. These associations are robust and clinically significant for development of hypertension and prehypertension, two of the leading causes of preventable mortality worldwide, in adults with a high-sodium diet. Data from developed nations and transition economies show worldwide sodium intake of higher than recommended amounts in various nations. While natural foods typically contain a moderate amount of sodium, manufactured food products are the main contributor to dietary sodium intake, up to 75% of sodium in diet of American adults, as an example. Lower cost in formulation, positive effects on organoleptic properties of food products, effects on food quality during shelf-life, and microbiological food safety, make sodium chloride a notable candidate and an indispensable part of formulation of various products. Although low-sodium formulation of each product possesses a unique set of challenges, review of literature shows an abundance of successful experiences for products of many categories. The current study discusses adoptable interventions for product development and reformulation of products to achieve a modest amount of final sodium content while maintaining taste, quality, shelf-stability, and microbiological food safety.

  9. Adoptable Interventions, Human Health, and Food Safety Considerations for Reducing Sodium Content of Processed Food Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Abimbola; Fouladkhah, Aliyar

    2018-01-01

    Although vital for maintaining health when consumed in moderation, various epidemiological studies in recent years have shown a strong association between excess dietary sodium with an array of health complications. These associations are robust and clinically significant for development of hypertension and prehypertension, two of the leading causes of preventable mortality worldwide, in adults with a high-sodium diet. Data from developed nations and transition economies show worldwide sodium intake of higher than recommended amounts in various nations. While natural foods typically contain a moderate amount of sodium, manufactured food products are the main contributor to dietary sodium intake, up to 75% of sodium in diet of American adults, as an example. Lower cost in formulation, positive effects on organoleptic properties of food products, effects on food quality during shelf-life, and microbiological food safety, make sodium chloride a notable candidate and an indispensable part of formulation of various products. Although low-sodium formulation of each product possesses a unique set of challenges, review of literature shows an abundance of successful experiences for products of many categories. The current study discusses adoptable interventions for product development and reformulation of products to achieve a modest amount of final sodium content while maintaining taste, quality, shelf-stability, and microbiological food safety. PMID:29389843

  10. [Bacteria of Lactobacillus casei group: characterization, viability as probiotic in food products and their importance for human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buriti, Flávia Carolina Alonso; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2007-12-01

    Lactobacillus casei is a group of phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous lactic acid bacteria, able to colonize various natural and man-made environments. Strains of the Lactobacillus casei group have been widely studied with respect to their health-promoting properties. Several beneficial functions for the human organism have been attributed to regular consumption of food products containing these strains. Bacteria of the Lactobacillus casei group are of great interest for the food industry to improve food quality. A number of studies have been conducted in order to evaluate the viability of strains of Lactobacillus casei group as probiotic in dairy products, desserts, among others food products. Despite its importance for the food industry, the taxonomy of the Lactobacillus casei group is still unclear. This review discusses important studies related to characterization of strains of Lactobacillus casei group, the application of these bacteria as probiotic in different food products and the main beneficial effects attributed to regular consumption of products containing such microorganisms.

  11. Global challenges and perspectives of marketing of healthy food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with global trends of healthy food market growth, Serbian export potential as well as with the importance and role of positioning and other marketing strategies in this field. Secondary data will be used for identifying characteristics and range of healthy food market on a global level and key segments. In that context, the economic importance and export potential of this sector in Serbia will be discussed. Food sector accounts for high percentage of total Serbian export. Yet, those products are of low added value, neither branded nor packed. In order to position producers of healthy food on an international market successfully, strength and weaknesses of domestic production and export will be identified as well as measures for its promotion. In this paper, literature review in field of food positioning and marketing will be presented. Various positioning strategies of healthy food will be discussed from the aspect of branding, country of origin image, marketing mix instruments, with special emphasis on promotion and product labelling. Special part of paper will be dedicated to specific aspects of buying and food consumption behaviour. This behaviour is under the influence of numerous factors, both personal and sociodemographic, which will be analyzed in order to identify adequate positioning strategies. At the end, recommendations for successfully healthy food positioning on an international market will be given. We will present ways of improving marketing strategies regarding exploiting identified chances on an international market.

  12. Workable methods for risks control in the food chain production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilla Iacumin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Several food pathologies due to new or already known micro-organisms occur all over the world every year. Food concerned are more and more frequently traditional typical, ethnical products coming from fast or slow food systems. Most of food-borne pathologies develop through neurological, gastrointestinal (watery, bloody or persistent diarrhoea abdominal pain, sickness and vomiting. The causes of these epidemics, apart from the concerned pathogen, are linked to the contaminated first matter or to contaminations occurred during food processing and consequently due to the lack of employment of the most fundamental sanitary measures and to non-control of the critical points of the HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point systems. The pre-requirements to promote food health consist of the implementation of good agriculture husbandry and production practices, the use of HACCP systems, the training of the workers employed in the different productive rows and in the adoption of identification and traceability systems. The EU implemented the so-called hygiene pack, that is a list of rules imposing food control in each processing, marketing and consumption phase, from husbandry or cropping to consumer’s table, to promote health in food (circulating all over Europe.

  13. The structure of a food product assortment modulates the effect of providing choice on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizel, Odile; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Fromentin, Gilles; Delarue, Julien; Labouré, Hélène; Benamouzig, Robert; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès

    2016-09-01

    Several authors showed that providing choice may increase food liking and food intake. However, the impact of choice may be modulated by assortment's characteristics, such as the number of alternatives or their dissimilarity. The present study compared the impact of choice on food liking and intake under the two following conditions: (1) when choosing a product to consume from among similar products versus dissimilar products; and (2) when choosing a product to consume from among pleasant products versus unpleasant products. Two experiments were carried out using the same design: the "apple puree" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among similar products (apple purees varying in texture) and the "dessert" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among dissimilar products (fruit dessert, dairy dessert, custard, pudding). During the first session, participants rated their liking for 12 products (apples purees or desserts). Then the participants were divided into a "pleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three pleasant products, and an "unpleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three unpleasant products. Finally, all of the volunteers participated in a choice session - volunteers were presented with their three assigned products and asked to choose one of the products, and a no-choice session - volunteers were served with one product that was randomly selected from among their three assigned products. Providing choice led to an increase in food liking in both experiments and an increase in food intake only for the desserts, namely only when the volunteers chose the product to consume from among "not too similar" alternatives. No effect of assortment's pleasantness was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characteristics of Serbian foreign trade of agricultural and food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Dragica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural and food products are a significant segment of the total foreign trade of Serbia, which is characterized by a relatively high import dependency, modest export and constantly present deficit. In such conditions, agrarian sector serves as a stabilizer, and its importance is reflected in the permanently positive balance, increased participation, particularly in total exports, and balancing the trade balance of the country. The aim of the paper is to analyze the basic characteristics of foreign trade of agricultural and food products of Serbia in the period 2005-2015. The tendencies in export, import, and the level of coverage of import by export of agro-food (or agrarian products are analysed. The participation of these products in the total foreign trade of Serbia is also considered, followed by the comparison of this indicator with the neighbouring countries. In the next part of the paper, the structure of Serbian export and import of agricultural and food products (by product groups is analysed. Special attention is given to the territorial orientation of export and import of agrarian products by the most important trade partners. In order to conduct more comprehensive analysis of comparative advantages, or competitiveness of certain groups of agro-food products of Serbia in the exchange with the world, indicator of Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA is calculated. The analysis of qualitative competitiveness is derived using the indicator - unit value of export and import. The analysis points to the dynamic growth in the value of Serbian export and import of agro-food products, with the constant surplus of trade balance in the observed period. These products are significantly represented in the structure of the total foreign trade of the country, particularly in export (with about 20%. RCA indicators show that Serbia has a comparative advantage in trade of agro-food products to the world in primary products and products of lower

  15. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Joop; Schösler, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers' relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different affinities towards foods. These product types may be denoted as 'conventional', 'efficient', 'gourmet' and 'pure'. A comparative analysis, based on Higgins' Regulatory Focus Theory, was performed to examine whether food-related value motivations could explain different consumer affinities for these product types. The affinities of consumers were measured by means of a non-verbal, visual presentation of four samples of food products in a nationwide survey (n = 742) among consumers who were all involved in food purchasing and/or cooking. The affinities found could be predicted fairly well from a number of self-descriptions relating to food and eating, which expressed different combinations of type of value motivation and involvement with food. The analysis demonstrated the contrasting role of high and low involvement as well as the potential complementarity of promotion- and prevention-focused value motivation. It is suggested that knowledge of the relationships between product types, consumer affinities and value motivation can help improve the effectiveness of interventions that seek to promote healthy and sustainable diets in developed countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Closing data gaps for LCA of food products: estimating the energy demand of food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuán, Neus; Stoessel, Franziska; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-01-21

    Food is one of the most energy and CO2-intensive consumer goods. While environmental data on primary agricultural products are increasingly becoming available, there are large data gaps concerning food processing. Bridging these gaps is important; for example, the food industry can use such data to optimize processes from an environmental perspective, and retailers may use this information for purchasing decisions. Producers and retailers can then market sustainable products and deliver the information demanded by governments and consumers. Finally, consumers are increasingly interested in the environmental information of foods in order to lower their consumption impacts. This study provides estimation tools for the energy demand of a representative set of food process unit operations such as dehydration, evaporation, or pasteurization. These operations are used to manufacture a variety of foods and can be combined, according to the product recipe, to quantify the heat and electricity demand during processing. In combination with inventory data on the production of the primary ingredients, this toolbox will be a basis to perform life cycle assessment studies of a large number of processed food products and to provide decision support to the stakeholders. Furthermore, a case study is performed to illustrate the application of the tools.

  17. Exploitation of Food Industry Waste for High-Value Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    A growing global population leads to an increasing demand for food production and the processing industry associated with it and consequently the generation of large amounts of food waste. This problem is intensified due to slow progress in the development of effective waste management strategies and measures for the proper treatment and disposal of waste. Food waste is a reservoir of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nutraceuticals and can form the raw materials for commercially important metabolites. The current legislation on food waste treatment prioritises the prevention of waste generation and least emphasises disposal. Recent valorisation studies for food supply chain waste opens avenues to the production of biofuels, enzymes, bioactive compounds, biodegradable plastics, and nanoparticles among many other molecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Neighbourhood food environment and gestational diabetes in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Janevic, Teresa; Borrell, Luisa N.; Savitz, David A.; Herring, Amy H.; Rundle, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The association between neighbourhood characteristics and gestational diabetes has not been examined previously. We investigated the relationship between the number of healthy food outlets (supermarkets; fruit/vegetable and natural food stores), and unhealthy food outlets (fast food; pizza; bodegas; bakeries; convenience, candy/nut and meat stores) in census tract of residence, and gestational diabetes in New York City. Gestational diabetes, census tract and individual-level covariates were a...

  19. Problems of environment pollution in energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyberk, Oe.

    2000-01-01

    This publication relates to nuclear fuel cycle and environment, nuclear accidents, risk analysis, test of nuclear weapon, security problems of nuclear power plants, advantages and disadvantages of energy sources, climate variation due to environment pollution

  20. Sustainability and democracy in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard

    2005-01-01

    The author discuss and presents an empirical study of Danish bread production. The study is organised as action research proces. In the project a method called research workshop is tested as a new form of dialogue creation among groups with different interests and knowledge. The study has generated...... a proposal for a democratic legitimate concept of sustainable bread production...

  1. Protection against radioactive contamination of food and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.; Kovacs, Z.

    1977-01-01

    Due to contaminating effects from nuclear explosions and nuclear power plants, the systematic investigation of environmental radioactive contamination is absolutely necessary. In order to reduce the artificial radiation dose to which the human body is exposed, isotope content of foods and agricultural products should be known. The authors evaluate the decontamination possibilities of food produced from vegetable and animal products, starting from the contamination of some products. For vegetable product decontamination the use of suitable fertilizers, thorough scrubbing in excess water and, for cereals, milling is proposed. As the most effective preventive measure of radiation contamination of food products of animal origin, appropriate packing is proposed. The storage and preservation problems are emphasized for short half-life radiation contamination. (P.J.)

  2. Quantifying parental preferences for interventions designed to improve home food preparation and home food environments during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virudachalam, Senbagam; Chung, Paul J; Faerber, Jennifer A; Pian, Timothy M; Thomas, Karen; Feudtner, Chris

    2016-03-01

    Though preparing healthy food at home is a critical health promotion habit, few interventions have aimed to improve parental cooking skills and behaviors. We sought to understand parents' preferences and priorities regarding interventions to improve home food preparation practices and home food environments during early childhood. We administered a discrete choice experiment using maximum difference scaling. Eighty English-speaking parents of healthy 1-4 year-old children rated the relative importance of potential attributes of interventions to improve home food preparation practices and home food environments. We performed latent class analysis to identify subgroups of parents with similar preferences and tested for differences between the subgroups. Participants were mostly white or black 21-45 year-old women whose prevalence of overweight/obesity mirrored the general population. Latent class analysis revealed three distinct groups of parental preferences for intervention content: a healthy cooking group, focused on nutrition and cooking healthier food; a child persuasion group, focused on convincing toddlers to eat home-cooked food; and a creative cooking group, focused on cooking without recipes, meal planning, and time-saving strategies. Younger, lower income, 1-parent households comprised the healthy cooking group, while older, higher income, 2-parent households comprised the creative cooking group (p cooked dinner regularly, unlike the other two groups (p food preparation practices. Such interventions are important for creating healthier home food environments and preventing obesity starting from early childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The association between organic school food policy and school food environment: results from an observational study in Danish schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent E

    2014-03-01

    School food in many countries has become the object of change and innovation processes, not only in relation to policies for healthier eating but also in relation to policies for more sustainable food consumption and procurement. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible influence that organic food sourcing policies in Danish school meal systems may have on the development of healthier school food environments. The study was a cross-sectional analysis undertaken among 179 school food coordinators (SFCs) through a web-based questionnaire (WBQ) in a sample of Danish public primary schools. The 'organic' schools were compared to 'non-organic' schools. The questionnaire explored the attitudes, intentions/policies and actions in relation to organic and healthy foods served in the schools. Data indicates that 20 'organic' schools were associated with the indicators of healthier school environments, including adopting a Food and Nutrition Policy (FNP) in the school (p = .032), recommending children to eat healthily (p = .004). The study suggests that organic food policies in schools may have potential to support a healthier school food environment.

  4. Phenolipids as antioxidants in omega-3 enriched food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Aleman, M.; Durand, E.

    Foods containing omega-3 PUFA are highly susceptible to oxidation. This causes formation of undesirable flavors and loss of health-beneficial fatty acids. To protect these food products, antioxidant addition may be a solution. Lately, extensive work has been performed on phenolipids...... and their efficacy in model emulsion systems. Since the polar paradox hypothesis was a simplified statement of the antioxidant efficacy in emulsions, a new term, “cut-off effect”, was introduced. The cut-off effect describes the efficacy of phenolipids in simple emulsions. However, most food products consist...... acid and its esters, caffeates, in two different fish-oil-enriched food products: mayonnaise and milk. Lipid oxidation was evaluated from 3 parameters measured over storage time: peroxide value, volatiles and tocopherol concentrations. The results demonstrate the influence of the complex emulsions...

  5. Food Safety Practices in the Egg Products Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K; Noyes, Gary

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a national census survey of egg product plants (n = 57) to obtain information on the technological and food safety practices of the egg products industry and to assess changes in these practices from 2004 to 2014. The questionnaire asked about operational and sanitation practices, microbiological testing practices, food safety training for employees, other food safety issues, and plant characteristics. The findings suggest that improvements were made in the industry's use of food safety technologies and practices between 2004 and 2014. The percentage of plants using advanced pasteurization technology and an integrated, computerized processing system increased by almost 30 percentage points. Over 90% of plants voluntarily use a written hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan to address food safety for at least one production step. Further, 90% of plants have management employees who are trained in a written HACCP plan. Most plants (93%) conduct voluntary microbiological testing. The percentage of plants conducting this testing on egg products before pasteurization has increased by almost 30 percentage points since 2004. The survey findings identify strengths and weaknesses in egg product plants' food safety practices and can be used to guide regulatory policymaking and to conduct required regulatory impact analysis of potential regulations.

  6. Socioeconomic inequalities in children’s diet: the role of the home food environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background It is well documented in the literature that low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with lower consumption of healthy foods and that these differences in consumption patterns are influenced by neighborhood food environments. Less understood is the role that SES differences in physical and social aspects of the home food environment play in consumption patterns. Methods Using data on 4th grade children from the 2009–2011 Texas School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) study, we used mixed-effects regression models to test the magnitude of differences in the SPAN Health Eating Index (SHEI) by parental education as an indicator of SES, and the extent to which adjusting for measures of the home food environment, and measures of the neighborhood environment accounted for these SES differences. Results Small but significant differences in children’s SHEI by SES strata exist (-1.33 between highest and lowest SES categories, pfood environment and neighborhood environment measures in this model eliminates these differences (-0.7, p=0.145). Home food environment explains a greater portion of the difference. Both social (mealtime structure) and physical aspects (food availability) of the home food environment are strongly associated with consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. Conclusions Our findings suggest that modifiable parent behaviors at home can improve children’s eating habits and that the neighborhood may impact diet in ways other than through access to healthy food. PMID:26222785

  7. Obesity and the Food Environment: Income and Ethnicity Differences Among People With Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Smith, Jessica C.; Karter, Andrew J.; Warton, E. Margaret; Kelly, Maggi; Kersten, Ellen; Moffet, Howard H.; Adler, Nancy; Schillinger, Dean; Laraia, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE It is unknown whether any association between neighborhood food environment and obesity varies according to individual income and/or race/ethnicity. The objectives of this study were to test whether there was an association between food environments and obesity among adults with diabetes and whether this relationship differed according to individual income or race/ethnicity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subjects (n = 16,057) were participants in the Diabetes Study of Northern California survey. Kernel density estimation was used to create a food environment score for each individual’s residence address that reflected the mix of healthful and unhealthful food vendors nearby. Logistic regression models estimated the association between the modeled food environment and obesity, controlling for confounders, and testing for interactions between food environment and race/ethnicity and income. RESULTS The authors found that more healthful food environments were associated with lower obesity in the highest income groups (incomes 301–600% and >600% of U.S. poverty line) among whites, Latinos, and Asians. The association was negative, but smaller and not statistically significant, among high-income blacks. On the contrary, a more healthful food environment was associated with higher obesity among participants in the lowest-income group (food environments may have different health implications when financial resources are severely constrained. PMID:23637355

  8. Safeguarding food and food products from radiological contamination through gammametric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racho, Joseph Michael D.; Bautista, Angel T.VII; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Sucgang, Raymond J.; Mendoza, Norman DS.; Cuyco, Danilo A.; Jimenez, Gloria R.; Bucal, Camille Grace D.; Morco, Ryan P.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to demonstrate gammametric analysis in safeguarding food and food products from radioactive contamination caused by a nuclear accident. Different food and food products submitted for analysis from March 2011 to September 2011 were analyzed for Cesium-137, Cesium 134, and Iodine-131 radioactivity levels using a high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector gamma spectrometer system. Radioactivity levels of the said samples were found to be less than 1-4 Bq/Kg for both Cs-137 and Cs-134, and less than 0.2 - 2 Bq/Kg for I-131, and were found to below the Codex Alimentarius Commission Guideline Levels for Radionuclides in Foods Following Accidental Nuclear Contamination for Use in International Trade limits of 1,000 Bq/Kg for the sum of Cs-137 and Cs-134 in feeding stuffs, and that of 100 Bq/Kg for the sum of all isotopes of iodine notably I-131 in feeding stuff. (author)

  9. Energy Analysis of the Danish Food Production System: Food-EROI and Fossil Fuel Dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Østergård, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Modern food production depends on limited natural resources for providing energy and fertilisers. We assess the fossil fuel dependency for the Danish food production system by means of Food Energy Returned on fossil Energy Invested (Food-EROI) and by the use of energy intensive nutrients from....... Furthermore, nutrients in commercial fertiliser and imported feed account for 84%, 90% and 90% of total supply of N, P and K, respectively. We conclude that the system is unsustainable because it is embedded in a highly fossil fuel dependent system based on a non-circular flow of nutrients. As energy and thus...... imported livestock feed and commercial fertilisers. The analysis shows that the system requires 221 PJ of fossil energy per year and that for each joule of fossil energy invested in farming, processing and transportation, 0.25 J of food energy is produced; 0.28 when crediting for produced bioenergy...

  10. New product, familiar taste: Effects of slogans on cognitive and affective responses to an unknown food product among food neophobics and neophilics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Leufkens, Jean-Marie; van Hoof, Joris Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Food neophobia is considered a potential barrier for the introduction of new food products. This study investigated how advertising slogans could influence cognitive and affective responses to a new product in food neophobics and food neophilics. An unknown dairy product was used to examine the

  11. Prevalence of food production systems in school foodservice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Denise M

    2005-08-01

    What is the prevalence of central kitchens that use either cook-chill or cook-freeze production systems in school foodservice settings? A descriptive study using a 5-minute telephone survey during normal working hours was conducted. Questions were designed to be easily answered with minimal need to reference other documentation. Five hundred forty school foodservice directors, managers, and supervisors working in school districts of all sizes across the United States were randomly sampled from a national commercial directory of school districts for the study. A total of 353 individuals completed the survey representing 49 of 50 states. Means, standard deviations, and percentages were evaluated for all data collected. Descriptive statistics of school district characteristics, prevalence of production systems, food transport systems, inventory methods and equipment used for reheating food are reported. The most frequently reported production system was on-site kitchens (45.3%) followed by combination production systems (40.5%) where a central kitchen delivered to a number of satellite locations in addition to schools with on-site food preparation. Central kitchens without additional on-site kitchens represented 14.2% of this study. Of those school districts using either central kitchens or combination production systems, 78% reported hot-food preparation using hot-food delivery to satellites. Cook-chill or cook-freeze production systems were reported by 22% of respondents. The high proportion of school districts that prepared and delivered foods hot to satellite sites supports continuing efforts to identify food safety practices and issues related to maintaining food quality in schools.

  12. Can Differentiated Production Planning and Control enable both Responsiveness and Efficiency in Food Production?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Romsdal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the complex production planning and control (PPC challenges in food supply chains. The study illustrates how food producers' traditional make‐to‐stock (MTS approach is not well suited to meet the trends of increasing product variety, higher demand uncertainty, increasing sales of fresh food products and more demanding customers. The paper proposes a framework for differentiated PPC that combines MTS with make‐to‐order (MTO.The framework matches products with the most appropriate PPC approaches and buffering techniques depending on market and product characteristics. The core idea is to achieve more volume flexibility in the production system by exploiting favourable product and market characteristics (high demand predictability, long customer order leadtime allowances and low product perishability. A case study is used to demonstrate how the framework can enable food producers to achieve efficiency in production, inventory and PPC processes – and simultaneously be responsive to market requirements.

  13. Exploration and production environment. Preserving the future our responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document presents the Total Group commitments to manage natural resources in a rational way, to preserve biodiversity for future generations and protect the environment. It contains the health, safety, environment and quality charter of Total, the 12 exploration and production health, safety and environment rules and the exploration and production environmental policy. (A.L.B.)

  14. Furan in food including homemade and ready-to-eat food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Granby, Kit; Mariotti Celis, M.

    Furan is formed in canned, jarred or browned food items. As furan is carcinogenic in animal experiments, attention has been drawn to the presence in commercial and home-cooked foods. The formation of furan in home cooked foods were studied as well as the stability of furan during cooking, saving...... and reheating of meals. In addition the occurrence of furan in some commercially dried and browned food products were determined. Several recipes of European homemade food were prepared but in most cases fortunately furan was not found. I few exceptions were e.g. apple pie (133 ng/g furan in the rasp) and tea...... buns with raisins (83 ng/g furan in the raisins). The influence on heating and reheating of ready to eat foods like different soups, baked beans and vegetable meals known to contain furan, showed that heating roughly reduced the furan level to half the initial level and reheating reduced the level...

  15. Swedish Consumers' Perception of Food Quality and Sustainability in Relation to Organic Food Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosona, Techane; Gebresenbet, Girma

    2018-04-01

    Consumers' demand for locally produced and organic foods has increased in Sweden. This paper presents the results obtained from the analysis of data acquired from 100 consumers in Sweden who participated in an online survey during March to June 2016. The objective was to identify consumers' demand in relation to organic food and sustainable food production, and to understand how the consumers evaluate food quality and make buying decisions. Qualitative descriptions, descriptive statistics and Pearson's Chi-square test (with alpha value of p price were found to be relatively less important parameters. Food buying decisions and food quality were found to be highly related with Pearson's correlation coefficient of r = 0.99.

  16. Clustering of fast-food restaurants around schools: a novel application of spatial statistics to the study of food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn; Melly, Steven J; Sanchez, Brisa N; Patel, Aarti; Buka, Stephen; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2005-09-01

    We examined the concentration of fast food restaurants in areas proximal to schools to characterize school neighborhood food environments. We used geocoded databases of restaurant and school addresses to examine locational patterns of fast-food restaurants and kindergartens and primary and secondary schools in Chicago. We used the bivariate K function statistical method to quantify the degree of clustering (spatial dependence) of fast-food restaurants around school locations. The median distance from any school in Chicago to the nearest fast-food restaurant was 0.52 km, a distance that an adult can walk in little more than 5 minutes, and 78% of schools had at least 1 fast-food restaurant within 800 m. Fast-food restaurants were statistically significantly clustered in areas within a short walking distance from schools, with an estimated 3 to 4 times as many fast-food restaurants within 1.5 km from schools than would be expected if the restaurants were distributed throughout the city in a way unrelated to school locations. Fast-food restaurants are concentrated within a short walking distance from schools, exposing children to poor-quality food environments in their school neighborhoods.

  17. Promoting Productive Urban Green Open Space Towards Food Security: Case Study Taman Sari, Bandung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridwan, M.; Sinatra, Fran; Natalivan, Petrus

    2017-10-01

    The common trend of urban population has been growing significantly in Indonesia for decades, are affected by urban green space conversion. Generally, this area is utilized for urban infrastructures and residences. Furthermore, urban area has grown uncontrollably that could enhance the phenomenon of urban sprawl. The conversion of green urban area and agricultural area will significantly decrease urban food security and quality of urban environment. This problem becomes a serious issue for urban sustainability. Bandung is a city with dense population where there are many poor inhabitants. Families living in poverty are subjected to food insecurity caused by the rise of food prices. Based on the urgency of urban food security and urban environment quality the local government has to achieve comprehensive solutions. This research aims to formulate the policy of productive green open space towards food security for poor people in Bandung. This research not only examines the role played by productive green open space to supply food for the urban poor but also how to govern urban areas sustainably and ensure food security. This research uses descriptive explanatory methodology that describes and explains how to generate policy and strategic planning for edible landscape to promote urban food security. Taman Sari is the location of this research, this area is a populous area that has amount of poor people and has a quite worse quality of urban environment. This study shows that urban green open space has the potential to be utilized as an urban farming land, which poor inhabitants could be main actors to manage urban agriculture to provide their food. Meanwhile, local government could contribute to subsidize the financial of urban farming activities.

  18. Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramkowska, Marta; Grzelak, Teresa; Czyżewska, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed 'modified organisms', which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers.

  19. Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kramkowska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed ‘modified organisms’, which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers.

  20. Prototype Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies: Branded Food Products Database for Public Health Proof of Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Prototype Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (Prototype FNDDS) Branded Food Products Database for Public Health is a proof of concept database. The database contains a small selection of food products which is being used to exhibit the approach for incorporation of the Branded Food ...

  1. The future of European agriculture: food, energy, paper and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christersson, L.

    1994-01-01

    European agriculture must progress towards a more multi-faceted utilization of different types of land in order to conserve arable land and thereby food production. The simultaneous production of food, energy and fibres appears economically viable. This also provides a solution to environmental problems of the community. The utilization of waste products as fertilizer when cultivating biomass should be done in such a way that we remain able to return rapidly to full-scale food production if unexpected developments occur. (author)

  2. Sensitizing Black Adult and Youth Consumers to Targeted Food Marketing Tactics in Their Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isselmann DiSantis, Katherine; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Rohm Young, Deborah; Grier, Sonya A; Lassiter, Vikki

    2017-10-29

    Food marketing environments of Black American consumers are heavily affected by ethnically-targeted marketing of sugar sweetened beverages, fast foods, and other products that may contribute to caloric overconsumption. This qualitative study assessed Black consumers' responses to targeted marketing. Black adults (2 mixed gender groups; total n = 30) and youth (2 gender specific groups; total n = 35) from two U.S. communities participated before and after a sensitization procedure-a critical practice used to understand social justice concerns. Pre-sensitization focus groups elicited responses to scenarios about various targeted marketing tactics. Participants were then given an informational booklet about targeted marketing to Black Americans, and all returned for the second (post-sensitization) focus group one week later. Conventional qualitative content analysis of transcripts identified several salient themes: seeing the marketer's perspective ("it's about demand"; "consumers choose"), respect for community ("marketers are setting us up for failure"; "making wrong assumptions"), and food environments as a social justice issue ("no one is watching the door"; "I didn't realize"). Effects of sensitization were reflected in participants' stated reactions to the information in the booklet, and also in the relative occurrence of marketer-oriented themes and social justice-oriented themes, respectively, less and more after sensitization.

  3. Sensitizing Black Adult and Youth Consumers to Targeted Food Marketing Tactics in Their Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Isselmann DiSantis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food marketing environments of Black American consumers are heavily affected by ethnically-targeted marketing of sugar sweetened beverages, fast foods, and other products that may contribute to caloric overconsumption. This qualitative study assessed Black consumers’ responses to targeted marketing. Black adults (2 mixed gender groups; total n = 30 and youth (2 gender specific groups; total n = 35 from two U.S. communities participated before and after a sensitization procedure—a critical practice used to understand social justice concerns. Pre-sensitization focus groups elicited responses to scenarios about various targeted marketing tactics. Participants were then given an informational booklet about targeted marketing to Black Americans, and all returned for the second (post-sensitization focus group one week later. Conventional qualitative content analysis of transcripts identified several salient themes: seeing the marketer’s perspective (“it’s about demand”; “consumers choose”, respect for community (“marketers are setting us up for failure”; “making wrong assumptions”, and food environments as a social justice issue (“no one is watching the door”; “I didn’t realize”. Effects of sensitization were reflected in participants’ stated reactions to the information in the booklet, and also in the relative occurrence of marketer-oriented themes and social justice-oriented themes, respectively, less and more after sensitization.

  4. Population and prehistory III: food-dependent demography in variable environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charlotte T; Puleston, Cedric O; Tuljapurkar, Shripad

    2009-11-01

    The population dynamics of preindustrial societies depend intimately on their surroundings, and food is a primary means through which environment influences population size and individual well-being. Food production requires labor; thus, dependence of survival and fertility on food involves dependence of a population's future on its current state. We use a perturbation approach to analyze the effects of random environmental variation on this nonlinear, age-structured system. We show that in expanding populations, direct environmental effects dominate induced population fluctuations, so environmental variability has little effect on mean hunger levels, although it does decrease population growth. The growth rate determines the time until population is limited by space. This limitation introduces a tradeoff between population density and well-being, so population effects become more important than the direct effects of the environment: environmental fluctuation increases mortality, releasing density dependence and raising average well-being for survivors. We discuss the social implications of these findings for the long-term fate of populations as they transition from expansion into limitation, given that conditions leading to high well-being during growth depress well-being during limitation.

  5. Sensitizing Black Adult and Youth Consumers to Targeted Food Marketing Tactics in Their Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isselmann DiSantis, Katherine; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Rohm Young, Deborah; Grier, Sonya A.; Lassiter, Vikki

    2017-01-01

    Food marketing environments of Black American consumers are heavily affected by ethnically-targeted marketing of sugar sweetened beverages, fast foods, and other products that may contribute to caloric overconsumption. This qualitative study assessed Black consumers’ responses to targeted marketing. Black adults (2 mixed gender groups; total n = 30) and youth (2 gender specific groups; total n = 35) from two U.S. communities participated before and after a sensitization procedure—a critical practice used to understand social justice concerns. Pre-sensitization focus groups elicited responses to scenarios about various targeted marketing tactics. Participants were then given an informational booklet about targeted marketing to Black Americans, and all returned for the second (post-sensitization) focus group one week later. Conventional qualitative content analysis of transcripts identified several salient themes: seeing the marketer’s perspective (“it’s about demand”; “consumers choose”), respect for community (“marketers are setting us up for failure”; “making wrong assumptions”), and food environments as a social justice issue (“no one is watching the door”; “I didn’t realize”). Effects of sensitization were reflected in participants’ stated reactions to the information in the booklet, and also in the relative occurrence of marketer-oriented themes and social justice-oriented themes, respectively, less and more after sensitization. PMID:29109377

  6. Neighborhood food environment role in modifying psychosocial stress-diet relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N; Schulz, Amy J; Izumi, Betty T; Mentz, Graciela; Israel, Barbara A; Lockett, Murlisa

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to highly palatable foods may increase eating in response to stress, but this behavioral response has not been examined in relation to the neighborhood food environment. This study examined whether the neighborhood food environment modified relationships between psychosocial stress and dietary behaviors. Probability-sample survey (n=460) and in-person food environment audit data were used. Dietary behaviors were measured using 17 snack food items and a single eating-out-of-home item. Chronic stress was derived from five subscales; major life events was a count of nine items. The neighborhood food environment was measured as availability of large grocery stores, small grocery stores, and convenience stores, as well as proportion of restaurants that were fast food. Two-level hierarchical regression models were estimated. Snack food intake was positively associated with convenience store availability and negatively associated with large grocery store availability. The measures of chronic stress and major life events were generally not associated with either dietary behavior overall, although Latinos were less likely to eat out at high levels of major life events than African Americans. Stress-neighborhood food environment interactions were not statistically significant. Important questions remain regarding the role of the neighborhood food environment in the stress-diet relationship that warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The insurability of product recall in food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Valeeva, N.I.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Insurers face growing difficulties with insuring food-related risks among others due to an increasing number of product recalls and an increasing amount of claims being pushed back into the chain. This paper focuses on the risk of product recall in dairy supply chains. The paper aims at providing

  8. Resources Use Efficiency In Food Crop Production In Ekiti State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marginal value productivity of resources were computed and compared with the acquisition/prices of these resources. Result of regression analysis indicates that farm size, fertilizer and purchased inputs were significant inputs that accounted for variation in the output of food crops. The Marginal Value Product (MVP) of all ...

  9. Explaining consumer attitudes to genetic modification in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    for explaining consumer attitudes to genetic modification in food production which builds on modern cognitive psychology and multi-attribute attitude theory. In addition, the paper introduces the empirical research which is undertaken at present to validate and estimate the parameters of the model by means......Consumers have not had many possibilities yet for seeking out, buying and consuming genetically modified food products. However, for various reasons consumer attitude formation with regard to these products is likely to be complex and closely related to personal values. The paper presents a model...

  10. Socioeconomic inequalities in children's diet: the role of the home food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjit, Nalini; Wilkinson, Anna V; Lytle, Leslie M; Evans, Alexandra E; Saxton, Debra; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2015-07-27

    It is well documented in the literature that low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with lower consumption of healthy foods and that these differences in consumption patterns are influenced by neighborhood food environments. Less understood is the role that SES differences in physical and social aspects of the home food environment play in consumption patterns. Using data on 4th grade children from the 2009-2011 Texas School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) study, we used mixed-effects regression models to test the magnitude of differences in the SPAN Health Eating Index (SHEI) by parental education as an indicator of SES, and the extent to which adjusting for measures of the home food environment, and measures of the neighborhood environment accounted for these SES differences. Small but significant differences in children’s SHEI by SES strata exist (-1.33 between highest and lowest SES categories, penvironment and neighborhood environment measures in this model eliminates these differences (-0.7, p=0.145). Home food environment explains a greater portion of the difference. Both social (mealtime structure) and physical aspects (food availability) of the home food environment are strongly associated with consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. Our findings suggest that modifiable parent behaviors at home can improve children’s eating habits and that the neighborhood may impact diet in ways other than through access to healthy food.

  11. Recent trends in bioethanol production from food processing byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbas, Meltem Yesilcimen; Stark, Benjamin C

    2016-11-01

    The widespread use of corn starch and sugarcane as sources of sugar for the production of ethanol via fermentation may negatively impact the use of farmland for production of food. Thus, alternative sources of fermentable sugars, particularly from lignocellulosic sources, have been extensively investigated. Another source of fermentable sugars with substantial potential for ethanol production is the waste from the food growing and processing industry. Reviewed here is the use of waste from potato processing, molasses from processing of sugar beets into sugar, whey from cheese production, byproducts of rice and coffee bean processing, and other food processing wastes as sugar sources for fermentation to ethanol. Specific topics discussed include the organisms used for fermentation, strategies, such as co-culturing and cell immobilization, used to improve the fermentation process, and the use of genetic engineering to improve the performance of ethanol producing fermenters.

  12. Socioeconomic Differences in the Association between Competitive Food Laws and the School Food Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Powell, Lisa M.; Perna, Frank M.; Robinson, Whitney R.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schools of low socioeconomic status (SES) tend to sell fewer healthy competitive foods/beverages. This study examined whether state competitive food laws may reduce such disparities. Methods: School administrators for fifth- and eighth grade reported foods and beverages sold in school. Index measures of the food/beverage environments…

  13. Identifying fast-food restaurants using a central register as a measure of the food environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla; Erbs-Maibing, Peter; Glümer, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    To validate the identification and location of fast-food restaurants according to a government list of inspected food stores and restaurants.......To validate the identification and location of fast-food restaurants according to a government list of inspected food stores and restaurants....

  14. Changes in School Competitive Food Environments after a Health Promotion Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sarah H.; Mallya, Giridhar; Brensinger, Colleen; Tierney, Ann; Glanz, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Background: Schools can reduce student access to competitive foods and influence healthy food choices by improving the school nutrition environment. This study describes changes in competitive nutrition environments in 100 K-8 schools participating in the Philadelphia Campaign for Healthier Schools. Methods: Interviews with school staff were used…

  15. Family Food Environment and Child Eating Behavior in a Private School of Abu Dhabi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Amoodi Sara Ahmed Abdulla Saeed

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: This study is in line with other studies showing that aspects in the family food environment have an influence on eating behaviour of children. Educating parents on food environment and its impact on child behaviour is crucial in order to make them able to develop feeding strategies most likely to benefit children's' health.

  16. Ethical aspects of insect production for food and feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Gamborg, Christian; Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Given a growing global human population and high pressures on resources, interest in insects as a source of protein for human food (entomophagy) and for animal feed is growing. So far, the main issues discussed have been the embedded technical challenges of scaling up the production. The use...... as protein providers in the Western food and feed production chains. We identify five areas where ethical questions are especially pertinent: environmental impact, human and animal health, human preferences and social acceptability, animal welfare and finally broader animal ethics issues. Especially...... of insects as a major human food and feed source is thought to present two major challenges: (1) how to turn insects into safe, tasty socially acceptable feed and food; and (2) how to cheaply yet sustainably produce enough insects? Entomophagy, however, as any utilisation of animals and the rest of nature...

  17. Exploring the Dynamics of Responses to Food Production Shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aled Jones

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Food production shocks can lead to food crises where access to appropriate quantities and quality of food become inadequate, unaffordable, or unreliable on a major scale. While the physical causes of food production shocks are well researched, the dynamics of responses to them are less well understood. This paper reviews those dynamics and includes evidence gathered via interviews of 44 expert practitioners sourced globally from academia, government, industry, think-tanks, and development/relief organizations. The paper confirms that policy interventions are often prioritised for national interests and poorly coordinated at regional and global scales. The paper acknowledges future compounding trends such as climate change and demographic shifts and suggests that while there are signs of incremental progress in better managing the impacts of shock events, coordinated responses at scale will require a paradigm shift involving major policy, market, and technological advancements, and a wide range of public and private sector stakeholders.

  18. Family Food Security and Children’s Environment: A Comprehensive Analysis with Structural Equation Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Che Wan Jasimah bt Wan Mohamed Radzi; Huang Hui; Nur Anisah Binti Mohamed @ A. Rahman; Hashem Salarzadeh Jenatabadi

    2017-01-01

    Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) has been used extensively in sustainability studies to model relationships among latent and manifest variables. This paper provides a tutorial exposition of the SEM approach in food security studies and introduces a basic framework based on family food security and children’s environment sustainability. This framework includes family food security and three main concepts representing children’s environment, including children’s BMI, health, and school perfor...

  19. Nutrient Content and Nutritional Water Productivity of Selected Grain Legumes in Response to Production Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibarabada, Tendai Polite; Modi, Albert Thembinkosi; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe

    2017-10-26

    There is a need to incorporate nutrition into aspects of crop and water productivity to tackle food and nutrition insecurity (FNS). The study determined the nutritional water productivity (NWP) of selected major (groundnut, dry bean) and indigenous (bambara groundnut and cowpea) grain legumes in response to water regimes and environments. Field trials were conducted during 2015/16 and 2016/17 at three sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (Ukulinga, Fountainhill and Umbumbulu). Yield and evapotranspiration (ET) data were collected. Grain was analysed for protein, fat, Ca, Fe and Zn nutrient content (NC). Yield, ET and NC were then used to compute NWP. Overall, the major legumes performed better than the indigenous grain legumes. Groundnut had the highest NWP fat . Groundnut and dry bean had the highest NWP protein . For NWP Fe, Zn and Ca , dry bean and cowpea were more productive. Yield instability caused fluctuations in NWP. Water treatments were not significant ( p > 0.05). While there is scope to improve NWP under rainfed conditions, a lack of crop improvement currently limits the potential of indigenous grain legumes. This provides an initial insight on the nutrient content and NWP of a limited number of selected grain legumes in response to the production environment. There is a need for follow-up research to include cowpea data. Future studies should provide more experimental data and explore effects of additional factors such as management practices (fertiliser levels and plant density), climate and edaphic factors on nutrient content and NWP of crops.

  20. [Intention] to buy organic food products among norwegian consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Muhammed Zabiullah

    2012-01-01

    Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2012 The purpose of this thesis is to examine the buying intention of the Norwegian consumers towards ecological or eco-labeled food products. What are the factors that are leading people to buy organic food and which one are the most important factors among consumers. The thesis is divided into four sections, Phenomena, Theory, Reality, and conclusion. Each section is interrelated with each other. In this thesis, data w...

  1. Safety assessments and public concern for genetically modified food products: the American view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlander, Susan K

    2002-01-01

    In the relatively short time since their commercial introduction in 1996, genetically modified (GM) crops have been rapidly adopted in the United States GM crops are regulated through a coordinated framework developed in 1992 and administered by three agencies-the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) that ensures the products are safe to grow, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that ensures the products are safe for the environment, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that ensures the products are safe to eat. Rigorous food and environmental safety assessments must be completed before GM crops can be commercialized. Fifty-one products have been reviewed by the FDA, including several varieties of corn, soybeans, canola, cotton, rice, sugar beets, potatoes, tomatoes, squash, papaya, and flax. Because FDA considers these crops "substantially equivalent" to their conventional counterparts, no special labeling is required for GM crops in the United States and they are managed as commodities with no segregation or identity preservation. GM crops have thus made their way through commodity distribution channels into thousands of ingredients used in processed foods. It has been estimated that 70% to 85% of processed foods on supermarket shelves in the United States today contain one or more ingredients potentially derived from GM crops. The food industry and retail industry have been monitoring the opinions of their consumers on the GM issue for the past several years. Numerous independent groups have also surveyed consumer concerns about GM foods. The results of these surveys are shared and discussed here.

  2. Culture, Environment, and Food to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The critical immediate need for vitamin A could be met by periodic high-dose ... Hence, the approach deals with issues of food availability from a perspective not ..... As a general rule, foods boiled in an open container show the greatest losses.

  3. Investigating the food environment in Hatfield and Hillcrest, Tshwane

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lubisi, Sibusiso X

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available or hours of work), information (eg: knowing what to eat and where to buy) and economical (ie: poverty). Currently, there are no clear measures to define a food desert or a neighbourhood that lacks access to healthy foods, and there are many complications...

  4. A study of institutional environment and household food security at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study looked into the current scenario of food security in Rwanda. After analysing the national level institutional and food security scenarios by using available secondary data, the researchers used primary data that have been collected from a random sample of 200 households spreading over six sectors of the Huye ...

  5. The home food environment of overweight gatekeepers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, M.P.; de Vet, E.W.M.L.; Velema, E.; Seidell, J.C.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to gain insight into (i) processed snack-food availability, (ii) processed snack-food salience and (iii) the size of dinnerware among households with overweight gatekeepers. Moreover, associations between gatekeepers' characteristics and in-home

  6. Food, Environment, and Health | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... that improve the health of millions of people, particularly women and children. ... is the prevention of food-related chronic illnesses (such as hypertension, diabetes, ... and national food systems in ways that enable healthy and sustainable diets. ... tobacco control research in low- and middle-income countries (PDF, 169KB).

  7. Past, Present and Future of Sensors in Food Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adley, Catherine C

    2014-08-19

    Microbial contamination management is a crucial task in the food industry. Undesirable microbial spoilage in a modern food processing plant poses a risk to consumers' health, causing severe economic losses to the manufacturers and retailers, contributing to wastage of food and a concern to the world's food supply. The main goal of the quality management is to reduce the time interval between the filling and the detection of a microorganism before release, from several days, to minutes or, at most, hours. This would allow the food company to stop the production, limiting the damage to just a part of the entire batch, with considerable savings in terms of product value, thereby avoiding the utilization of raw materials, packaging and strongly reducing food waste. Sensor systems offer major advantages over current systems as they are versatile and affordable but need to be integrated in the existing processing systems as a process analytical control (PAT) tool. The desire for good selectivity, low cost, portable and usable at working sites, sufficiently rapid to be used at-line or on-line, and no sample preparation devices are required. The application of biosensors in the food industry still has to compete with the standard analytical techniques in terms of cost, performance and reliability.

  8. Siloxanes in silicone products intended for food contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger

    oligomers which might migrate to the food when the product is being used. DTU has proposed two action limits for low molecular weight siloxanes in food contact materials. For the sum of cyclic siloxanes D3 to D8 the limits are 12 mg/kg food for adults and 2 mg/kg food for children. For the sum of cyclic...... siloxanes D3 to D13 and linear siloxanes L3-L13 the limit is 60 mg/kg food. In 49 samples of silicone products intended for food contact from the Norwegian markets content of siloxanes has been measured. Coated paper for baking constituted 8 of the samples and in none of those samples siloxanes were found......Silicone is used in food contact materials due to its excellent physical and chemical properties. It is thermostable and flexible and is used in bakeware and kitchen utensils. Silicone is also used to coat paper to make it water and fat resistant. There is no specific regulation in EU which covers...

  9. Past, Present and Future of Sensors in Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine C. Adley

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbial contamination management is a crucial task in the food industry. Undesirable microbial spoilage in a modern food processing plant poses a risk to consumers’ health, causing severe economic losses to the manufacturers and retailers, contributing to wastage of food and a concern to the world’s food supply. The main goal of the quality management is to reduce the time interval between the filling and the detection of a microorganism before release, from several days, to minutes or, at most, hours. This would allow the food company to stop the production, limiting the damage to just a part of the entire batch, with considerable savings in terms of product value, thereby avoiding the utilization of raw materials, packaging and strongly reducing food waste. Sensor systems offer major advantages over current systems as they are versatile and affordable but need to be integrated in the existing processing systems as a process analytical control (PAT tool. The desire for good selectivity, low cost, portable and usable at working sites, sufficiently rapid to be used at-line or on-line, and no sample preparation devices are required. The application of biosensors in the food industry still has to compete with the standard analytical techniques in terms of cost, performance and reliability.

  10. Optimization of large scale food production using Lean Manufacturing principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Eva Høy; Friis, Alan; Breum, Gitte

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how the production principles of Lean Manufacturing (Lean) can be applied in a large-scale meal production. Lean principles are briefly presented, followed by a field study of how a kitchen at a Danish hospital has implemented Lean in the daily production. In the kitchen...... not be negatively affected by the rationalisation of production procedures. The field study shows that Lean principles can be applied in meal production and can result in increased production efficiency and systematic improvement of product quality without negative effects on the working environment. The results...... show that Lean can be applied and used to manage the production of meals in the kitchen....

  11. Plants for water recycling, oxygen regeneration and food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    During long-duration space missions that require recycling and regeneration of life support materials the major human wastes to be converted to usable forms are CO2, hygiene water, urine and feces. A Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) relies on the air revitalization, water purification and food production capabilities of higher plants to rejuvenate human wastes and replenish the life support materials. The key processes in such a system are photosynthesis, whereby green plants utilize light energy to produce food and oxygen while removing CO2 from the atmosphere, and transpiration, the evaporation of water from the plant. CELSS research has emphasized the food production capacity and efforts to minimize the area/volume of higher plants required to satisfy all human life support needs. Plants are a dynamic system capable of being manipulated to favour the supply of individual products as desired. The size and energy required for a CELSS that provides virtually all human needs are determined by the food production capacity. Growing conditions maximizing food production do not maximize transpiration of water; conditions favoring transpiration and scaling to recycle only water significantly reduces the area, volume, and energy inputs per person. Likewise, system size can be adjusted to satisfy the air regeneration needs. Requirements of a waste management system supplying inputs to maintain maximum plant productivity are clear. The ability of plants to play an active role in waste processing and the consequence in terms of degraded plant performance are not well characterized. Plant-based life support systems represent the only potential for self sufficiency and food production in an extra-terrestrial habitat.

  12. How can GPS technology help us better understand exposure to the food environment? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Cetateanu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Global Positioning Systems (GPS are increasingly being used to objectively assess movement patterns of people related to health behaviours. However research detailing their application to the food environment is scarce. This systematic review examines the application of GPS in studies of exposure to food environments and their potential influences on health. Methods: Based on an initial scoping exercise, published articles to be included in the systematic review were identified from four electronic databases and reference lists and were appraised and analysed, the final cut-off date for inclusion being January 2015. Included studies used GPS to identify location of individuals in relation to food outlets and link that to health or diet outcomes. They were appraised against a set of quality criteria. Results: Six studies met the inclusion criteria, which were appraised to be of moderate quality. Newer studies had a higher quality score. Associations between observed mobility patterns in the food environment and diet related outcomes were equivocal. Findings agreed that traditional food exposure measures overestimate the importance of the home food environment. Conclusions: The use of GPS to measure exposure to the food environment is still in its infancy yet holds much potential. There are considerable variations and challenges in developing and standardising the methods used to assess exposure. Keywords: Global positioning systems, Geographic information system, Food environments, Food exposure, Systematic review

  13. Russian food products marke: New CEFTA export opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to point out the unexploited export potential of CEFTA economies to the Russian market, using both quantitative and qualitative methods. More precisely, the Russian food market is examined, because of its size, the lack of domestic supply and actual changes of trading partners due to political and security antagonisms. The competitiveness of CEFTA food production on the Russian food market was analyzed by using two classical instruments of competitiveness - coefficient of conformity (CC and real effective exchange rate (RER.CC is applied first to the CEFTA export and Russian import of food in total, and then to the six main Russian import food products. The results indicate the highest degree of matching between Russian import and all CEFTA country export of fruits, vegetable and its processed commodities. RER is calculated to show competitiveness in terms of prices in bilateral trade, and result shows a very favorable ratio of currency, except in the case of Montenegro and Bosnia because their fixation to euro. Due to the small size of CEFTA production and non-proportional large Russian market, the interconnection, e.g. forming the value chain made of CEFTAs agriculture and food industry companies is suggested as the basis of new CEFTA export strategy.

  14. The obesogenic environment around elementary schools: food and beverage marketing to children in two Mexican cities

    OpenAIRE

    Barquera, Simón; Hernández-Barrera, Lucia; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Cifuentes, Enrique

    2018-01-01

    Background: Unhealthy environments and food advertisements are major determinants of childhood obesity. Recent regulation has banned unhealthy foods from schools in Mexico. However, currently there is no regulation limiting exposure to food marketing around schools. Thus, our objective was to analyze the characteristics of food advertising practices around 60 elementary schools in two cities and to evaluate compliance with the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) recommendations and the lo...

  15. Food, energy and the environment from a Swedish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, Rebecka

    2006-10-01

    policies (Paper III) showed that both sectors are focusing on some of the hotspots identified, but other important problems are not receiving sufficient attention. In the agriculture sector, the focus is principally on biodiversity and toxicity, while the energy sector mainly focuses on issues of climate change and non-renewable resources. A second hybrid IOA-LCA method (Energy Analysis Programme, EAP) was employed to study direct and indirect use of energy carriers in households (Papers IV and V). Through a combination of IOA and process data, the energy intensity (energy per monetary unit, e.g. MJ/SEK) of a large number of goods and services was calculated. When combined with information on household expenditure, these data provided information on total household use of fuels and electricity and provided insights into spending patterns that could result in lower energy intensity. A final study investigated the significance of reducing food losses as a strategy to reduce environmental impacts from the food sector (Paper VI). The results from the studies with a consumer perspective were used to identify how consumers can contribute to reducing environmental impacts in the two sectors investigated. For agriculture, consumers can help reduce impacts through reduced consumption of animal products, while for energy, reduced energy use in households is important, as is further substitution of fossil fuels

  16. Market-based process and product innovation in the food sector: A Danish research programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Baadsgaard, Allan

    1992-01-01

    This note informs about the Danish MAPP research programme, a collection of 15 research projects aimed at making product and process innovation in the food sector more market-based. The programme, which has an interdisciplinary base, but is geared towards marketing applications, is concerned...... with the organization of the innovation process, the interaction of consumer and producer criteria in product development, the assessment of long-term developments in the market environment and the role distribution system in product innovation. Innovation in both primary production and processing are considered....

  17. Behaviour of Czech customers when buying food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Starzyczná

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents partial results of the primary research conducted through a questionnaire survey focused on the behaviour of Czech consumers when buying food, with regard to the behaviour of men and women. Specific objectives included are a brief outline of the theoretical issues examined and secondary research on the buying behaviour of consumers when buying food, based on available statistical data and information. After 1989, the quality of the market has changed, sales space has increased as well as the level of sales conditions. Offer in stores has widened. Recently the results of inspections of supervisory authorities show a lot of negative information, mainly relating to foreign chains. The supply of poor quality food is more common. Some food is offered even though it’s expired. The proposed premises are based on the current situation in the Czech retail market. Despite increased consumer awareness about the quality of food, the majority of respondents buy food in large commercial units (supermarket, hypermarket, discounts. The majority of respondents do not follow information on the packaging of food products, but follow the expiration date. Sales of food with expired shelf life or expiration date re-taped is usually notified by the supervisory authorities, therefore, is noticed by consumers. Buying behaviour of men and women shows some differences. Our results, however, have not proved any significant ones, although a small difference has emerged.

  18. Studies on some irradiated food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, H.M.B.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the possibility of using some doses of gamma irradiation and cold storage (4+1 C) for improving the hygienic quality and shelf-life of some meat products ( beef luncheon, processed minced beef and fresh beef sausage). luncheon meat samples were irradiated at doses of 4,6,8,10 and 12 k Gy, while beef and sausage samples were subjected to 4,6 and 8 KGy gamma rays doses and the effects of irradiation on the organoleptic properties, microbiological aspects and the chemical composition were studied during cold storage (4+1 C) of samples. Attention was focussed on the changes occurred in the organoleptic properties of these products by the evaluation of sensory scores for appearance, color and odor of samples post irradiation and during cold storage (4+1 C). In addition, the effects of treatments and cold storage on the microbiological quality by the determination of total bacterial count, total psychropilic bacteria, total coliforms, total molds and yeasts, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus faecalis as well as the detection of salmonellae were studied

  19. UTILIZATION OF BY-PRODUCT OF CHEESEMAKING AGRIBUSINESS INDUSTRY FOR DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD PRODUCTS AND REDUCTION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Becker Rohlfes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The uses of by-products of cheese industry is still not significant in Brazil, since about 15% of liquid whey is used as raw material in food industry technology. The liquid whey has excellent technological properties, making it an alternative to minimize environmental impacts, besides it enables the use of the same nutritional properties in the production of new food products or adding value to the existing ones. The present study aimed to use liquid whey as an ingredient in the formulation of ice cream, hard candies, ham and breads, as well as to evaluate the influence of it in technological characteristics of the products and to quantify the volume of whey used. In order to evaluate the use of liquid whey, the products were developed with partial or total replacement of milk or water by whey, being the substitution accompanied by the determination of centesimal composition, as well as evaluating the visual characteristics of each product. The results show that the preparation of the products under study with substitution of raw milk or water is viable, proving that using liquid whey is a technological possibility of using a by-product considered to be an environmental pollutant. It was concluded that the use of liquid whey in the food industry reduces the environmental impact, since there is a reduction in the volume of whey discharged into the environment.

  20. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals’ food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study’s aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. Methods In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. Results 1) Food venue availability within activity space – no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice – Shopping at farmers’ markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers’ markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store – those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95

  1. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Alison; Christian, Jay W; Lewis, Sarah; Moore, Kate; Jilcott, Stephanie

    2013-01-29

    The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals' food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study's aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. 1) Food venue availability within activity space - no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice - Shopping at farmers' markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers' markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store - those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95% CI [0.14, 0.83]). Interventions aimed at

  2. Degree of food processing of household acquisition patterns in a Brazilian urban area is related to food buying preferences and perceived food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedovato, G M; Trude, A C B; Kharmats, A Y; Martins, P A

    2015-04-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between local food environment and consumers' acquisition of ultra-processed food. Households were randomly selected from 36 census tracts in Santos City, Brazil. Mothers, of varying economic status, who had children ages 10 or younger (n = 538) were interviewed concerning: their household food acquisition of 31 groups of food and beverages, perceptions of local food environment, food sources destinations, means of transportation used, and socioeconomic status. Food acquisition patterns were classified based on the degree of industrial food processing. Logistic regression models were fitted to assess the association between consumer behaviors and acquisition patterns. The large variety of fresh produce available in supermarkets was significantly related to lower odds of ultra-processed food purchases. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, higher odds for minimally-processed food acquisition were associated with: frequent use of specialized markets to purchase fruits and vegetables (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.01-2.34), the habit of walking to buy food (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.08-2.30), and perceived availability of fresh produce in participants' neighborhood (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.08-2.30). Acquisition of ultra-processed food was positively associated with the use of taxis as principal means of transportation to food sources (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.08-5.13), and negatively associated with perceived availability of a variety of fruits and vegetables in the neighborhood (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.37-0.88). The results suggest that interventions aiming to promote acquisition of less processed food in settings similar to Santos, may be most effective if they focus on increasing the number of specialized fresh food markets in local neighborhood areas, improve residents' awareness of these markets' availability, and provide appropriate transportation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inulin content of fortified food products in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaito, Chanantita; Judprasong, Kunchit; Puwastien, Prapasri

    2016-02-15

    This study examined inulin content in 266 samples. They were 126 dried, 105 liquid and 27 semi-solid of twelve commercial inulin fortified food products and 8 samples of natural dried sunchoke. For dried food products, inulin content ranged from 3.0 ±0.8g/100g fresh weight (FW) in milk powder to 83.7± 17.8g/100g FW in inulin powder. The levels in a descending order are the powder of inulin, weight control diet, coffee mixed, instant beverage, supplemented food products for pregnant and milk. For liquid fortified foods, inulin at the level of 0.3± 0.1g/100mL FW was found in UHT milk, and up to 13.5± 4.1g/100mL FW in weight control diet beverage. The level of 2.0-2.3g/100g FW of inulin was found in beverage with different flavours, soybean milk and fruit juice. For semi-solid food, cream yoghurt, inulin at 3.9± 1.1g/100g FW was found. A serving of most products contributes inulin at 11-33% of the recommended daily intake of dietary fibre. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Health claims in the labelling and marketing of food products:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asp, Nils-Georg; Bryngelsson, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Since 1990 certain health claims in the labelling and marketing of food products have been allowed in Sweden within the food sector's Code of Practice. The rules were developed in close dialogue with the authorities. The legal basis was a decision by the authorities not to apply the medicinal products’ legislation to “foods normally found on the dinner table” provided the rules defined in the Code were followed. The Code of Practice lists nine well-established diet–health relationships eligible for generic disease risk reduction claims in two steps and general rules regarding nutrient function claims. Since 2001, there has also been the possibility for using “product-specific physiological claims (PFP)”, subject to premarketing evaluation of the scientific dossier supporting the claim. The scientific documentation has been approved for 10 products with PFP, and another 15 products have been found to fulfil the Code's criteria for “low glycaemic index”. In the third edition of the Code, active since 2004, conditions in terms of nutritional composition were set, i.e. “nutrient profiles”, with a general reference to the Swedish National Food Administration's regulation on the use of a particular symbol, i.e. the keyhole symbol. Applying the Swedish Code of practice has provided experience useful in the implementation of the European Regulation on nutrition and health claims made on foods, effective from 2007.

  5. Diversifying Food Systems in the Pursuit of Sustainable Food Production and Healthy Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Dwivedi, Sangam L.; van Bueren, Edith T. Lammerts; Ceccarelli, Salvatore; Grando, Stefania; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Ortiz Rios, Rodomiro Octavio

    2017-01-01

    Increasing demand for nutritious, safe, and healthy food because of a growing population, and the pledge to maintain biodiversity and other resources, pose a major challenge to agriculture that is already threatened by a changing climate. Diverse and healthy diets, largely based on plant-derived food, may reduce diet-related illnesses. Investments in plant sciences will be necessary to design diverse cropping systems balancing productivity, sustainability, and nutritional quality. Cultivar di...

  6. Neighborhood and home food environment and children's diet and obesity: Evidence from military personnel's installation assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shier, Victoria; Nicosia, Nancy; Datar, Ashlesha

    2016-06-01

    Research and policy initiatives are increasingly focused on the role of neighborhood food environment in children's diet and obesity. However, existing evidence relies on observational data that is limited by neighborhood selection bias. The Military Teenagers' Environments, Exercise, and Nutrition Study (M-TEENS) leverages the quasi-random variation in neighborhood environment generated by military personnel's assignment to installations to examine whether neighborhood food environments are associated with children's dietary behaviors and BMI. Our results suggest that neither the actual nor the perceived availability of particular food outlets in the neighborhood is associated with children's diet or BMI. The availability of supermarkets and convenience stores in the neighborhood was not associated with where families shop for food or children's dietary behaviors. Further, the type of store that families shop at was not associated with the healthiness of food available at home. Similarly, availability of fast food and restaurants was unrelated to children's dietary behaviors or how often children eat fast food or restaurant meals. However, the healthiness of food available at home was associated with healthy dietary behaviors while eating at fast food outlets and restaurants were associated with unhealthy dietary behaviors in children. Further, parental supervision, including limits on snack foods and meals eaten as a family, was associated with dietary behaviors. These findings suggest that focusing only on the neighborhood food environment may ignore important factors that influence children's outcomes. Future research should also consider how families make decisions about what foods to purchase, where to shop for foods and eating out, how closely to monitor their children's food intake, and, ultimately how these decisions collectively impact children's outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Improving food and agricultural production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snitwongse, P.; Lamm, C.G.

    1987-01-01

    In the early 1960s, the IAEA and FAO jointly initiated the first in a series of large-scale multi-faceted agricultural field projects using nuclear techniques in agricultural sciences. The first project, in Yugoslavia, served as a model for future ones in India, Brazil, Bangladesh, Republic of Korea, Venezuela, and Thailand. The Thailand project - for the time being the last one of this series - started in January 1986 for a 5-year period, the project carries major objectives centering on the use of isotopes, radiation, and related technologies in three particular areas: Mutation breeding. Scientists are aiming to generate new genetic sources of disease-resistant varieties of crops that are economically important; Soil Science. Aims are to help farmers make the best use of fertilizers, biofertilizers, and water, and to maximize biological nitrogen fixation and the use of local rock phosphates as sources of crop nutrients; Animal science. Project scientists are aiming to improve livestock productivity on small farms

  8. Food and agriculture in relation to energy, environment and resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winteringham, F P.W. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture

    1980-03-01

    Current trends in cultivated land, world population, agricultural practices food and energy are briefly reviewed. The rise in energy input/food energy output ratios with modernization is indicated. Nutritional needs, and trends in food and energy demand per capita are also indicated. Some emerging constraints in relation to soil fertility and agrochemical usage are identified. A growing pressure on land for ''energy and chemical farming'' is foreseen. Losses of native and added soil nitrogen, comparable with total industrial fertilizer nitrogen fixation, seem unavoidable for two decades at least. This consideration of trends and their interactions suggests the need for more effective interdisciplinary study, longer-term planning and international cooperation.

  9. Food and agriculture in relation to energy, environment and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winteringham, F.P.W.

    1980-01-01

    Current trends in cultivated land, world population, agricultural practices food and energy are briefly reviewed. The rise in energy input/food energy output ratios with modernization is indicated. Nutritional needs, and trends in food and energy demand per capita are also indicated. Some emerging constraints in relation to soil fertility and agrochemical usage are identified. A growing pressure on land for ''energy and chemical farming'' is foreseen. Losses of native and added soil nitrogen, comparable with total industrial fertilizer nitrogen fixation, seem unavoidable for two decades at least. This consideration of trends and their interactions suggests the need for more effective interdisciplinary study, longer-term planning and international cooperation. (author)

  10. The community and consumer food environment and children’s diet: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Le, Ha; Gerrard, Angela; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2014-01-01

    Background While there is a growing body of research on food environments for children, there has not been a published comprehensive review to date evaluating food environments outside the home and school and their relationship with diet in children. The purpose of this paper is to review evidence on the influence of the community and consumer nutrition environments on the diet of children under the age of 18 years. Methods Our search strategy included a combination of both subject heading se...

  11. Consumers’ willingness to pay for health benefits in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolgopolova, Irina; Teuber, Ramona

    2018-01-01

    . Hypothetical methods significantly positively affect MWTP. The most popular product category “dairy” negatively influences MWTP. The popular health claim of “lowering cholesterol” has a significantly positive influence on MWTP. In addition, our review highlights that existing studies significantly differ......This article analyzes the existing literature on consumers’ marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for health benefits in food products. Results indicate that the presence of a health claim does not only increase MWTP for health benefits in foods but also reduces heterogeneity among MWTP estimates...

  12. Production loss among employees perceiving work environment problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohela-Karlsson, Malin; Hagberg, Jan; Bergström, Gunnar

    2015-08-01

    The overall aim of this explorative study was to investigate the relationship between factors in the psychosocial work environment and work environment-related production loss. Employees at a Swedish university were invited to answer a workplace questionnaire and were selected for this study if they reported having experienced work environment-related problems in the past 7 days (n = 302). A stepwise logistic regression and a modified Poisson regression were used to identify psychosocial work factors associated with work environment-related production loss as well as to identify at what level those factors are associated with production loss. Employees who reported having experienced work environment problems but also fair leadership, good social climate, role clarity and control of decision had significantly lower levels of production loss, whereas employees who reported inequality and high decision demands reported significantly higher levels of production loss. Never or seldom experiencing fair leadership, role clarity, equality, decision demands and good social climate increase the risk of production loss due to work environment problems, compared to those who experience these circumstances frequently, always or most of the time. Several psychosocial work factors are identified as factors associated with a reduced risk of production losses among employees despite the nature of the work environment problem. Knowledge of these factors may be important not only to reduce employee ill-health and the corresponding health-related production loss, but also reduce immediate production loss due to work environment-related problems.

  13. Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PC USER

    histidine and lysine were significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by interaction effects of location and ... Component Analysis (PCA) explained close to 50% of the total variability in amino acid ... Protein as a class of food is indispensable for healthy.

  14. Research Award: Food, Environment, and Health 2019 | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-09-05

    Deadline: September 5, 2018 Please note that all applications must be submitted ... and mentorship allow award holders to pursue their research goals and work in ... and/or individual behaviour change;; projects solely focused on food safety.

  15. Optimizing Productivity of Food Crop Genotypes in Low Nutrient Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-11-01

    Global climate change is likely to exacerbate plant abiotic stress in the coming decades by increasing water stress and by accelerating soil fertility degradation. To respond to this set of challenges, there is a need to develop agricultural systems with significantly greater productivity and resilience that at the same time use limited natural resources more efficiently. Low phosphorus (N) and nitrogen (P) availabilities are primary limitations to productivity in low input agriculture, and fertilizers are primary resource inputs in intensive agriculture. A critical feature of future agricultural systems will be new crop varieties with improved conversion of soil resources to yields. These new cultivars would have improved productivity in low input systems and decreased input requirements in high input systems. Many scientists are currently turning their attention to roots, the hidden half of the plant, as central to their efforts to produce crops with better yields without causing environmental damage. Several root traits are known to be associated with P and N acquisition efficiency in low N and P soils. These root traits include root hairs, root length, root branching and root density. The identification of root traits for enhanced P and N acquisition is enabling crop breeders to develop new genotypes with better yields in low fertility soils of Africa, Asia and Latin America. However, in order to use a trait as a selection criterion for crop improvement, either direct phenotypic selection or through marker assisted selection, it is necessary to develop protocols to measure accurately the root traits that enhance N and P acquisition in the glasshouse and in the field, which can provide robust and rapid evaluation of many root systems' architectural traits in targeted production environments using different crops. The objective of the Coordinated Research Project on Optimizing Productivity of Food Crop Genotypes in Low Nutrient Soils was to develop integrated

  16. Optimizing Productivity of Food Crop Genotypes in Low Nutrient Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    Global climate change is likely to exacerbate plant abiotic stress in the coming decades by increasing water stress and by accelerating soil fertility degradation. To respond to this set of challenges, there is a need to develop agricultural systems with significantly greater productivity and resilience that at the same time use limited natural resources more efficiently. Low phosphorus (N) and nitrogen (P) availabilities are primary limitations to productivity in low input agriculture, and fertilizers are primary resource inputs in intensive agriculture. A critical feature of future agricultural systems will be new crop varieties with improved conversion of soil resources to yields. These new cultivars would have improved productivity in low input systems and decreased input requirements in high input systems. Many scientists are currently turning their attention to roots, the hidden half of the plant, as central to their efforts to produce crops with better yields without causing environmental damage. Several root traits are known to be associated with P and N acquisition efficiency in low N and P soils. These root traits include root hairs, root length, root branching and root density. The identification of root traits for enhanced P and N acquisition is enabling crop breeders to develop new genotypes with better yields in low fertility soils of Africa, Asia and Latin America. However, in order to use a trait as a selection criterion for crop improvement, either direct phenotypic selection or through marker assisted selection, it is necessary to develop protocols to measure accurately the root traits that enhance N and P acquisition in the glasshouse and in the field, which can provide robust and rapid evaluation of many root systems' architectural traits in targeted production environments using different crops. The objective of the Coordinated Research Project on Optimizing Productivity of Food Crop Genotypes in Low Nutrient Soils was to develop integrated

  17. Architecture of the Product State Model Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Larsen, Michael; Lynggaard, Hans Jørgen B.

    2003-01-01

    on thedevelopment activities of the PSM architecture. An example discusses how to handle product relatedinformation on the shop floor in a manufacturing company and focuses on how dynamically updatedproduct data can improve control of production activities. This prototype example of welding a jointbetween two steel...... plates serves as proof of concept for the PSM architecture....

  18. The Food Environment in an Urban Mexican American Community

    OpenAIRE

    Lisabeth, Lynda D; Sánchez, Brisa N; Escobar, James; Hughes, Rebecca; Meurer, William J; Zuniga, Belinda; Garcia, Nelda; Brown, Devin L; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to determine whether ethnic composition of neighborhoods is associated with number and type of food stores in an urban, Mexican American US community. Data were from a commercial food store data source and the US Census. Multivariate count models were used to test associations with adjustment for neighborhood demographics, income, and commercialization. Neighborhoods at the 75th percentile of percent Mexican American (76%) had nearly four times the number of convenience stor...

  19. Radioactive contamination of environment and food in Poland in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of the level of radioactive contamination in environmental and food samples was carried out in Poland in 1998. The results were compared to the data from the period 1985-1997. Since the Chernobyl accident gradual decrease of contamination level has been observed. The gamma dose rate and the contamination of air, fallout, tape and surface water were at the level of 1985. The only contamination enhanced in relation to pre-Chernobyl period was the content of cesium isotopes in soil and as a consequence food contamination was higher particularly milk and meat. At present, the source of additional dose is ingestion of artificial isotopes with food as a result of food contamination. No significant regional differences in the distribution of the level of cesium in food over the territory of Poland has been registered. Milk can be assumed as the main contributor of cesium to the diet, its share is about 33% of annual intake of cesium. The average effective dose, resulting from the contaminated food consumption, was estimated to be at the level of 13 μSv per capita of the Polish population in 1998. (author)

  20. Radioactive contamination of environment and food in Poland in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.; Wilgos, J.

    1998-01-01

    The analysis of the level of radioactive contamination in environmental and food samples was carried out in Poland in 1997. The results were compared to the data from the period 1985-1996. Since the Chernobyl accident gradual decrease of contamination level has been observed. The gamma dose rate and the contamination of air, fallout, tape and surface water were at the level of 1985. The only contamination enhanced in relation to pre-Chernobyl period was the content of cesium isotopes in soil and as a consequence food contamination was higher particularly milk and meat. At present, the source of additional dose is ingestion of artificial isotopes with food as a result of food contamination. No significant regional differences in the distribution of the level of cesium in food over the territory of Poland has been registered. Milk can be assumed as the main contributor of cesium to the diet, its share is about 35% of annual intake of cesium. The average effective dose equivalent, resulting from the contaminated food consumption, was estimated to be at the level of 13 μSv per capita of the Polish population in 1997. (author)

  1. Radioactive contamination of environment and food in Poland in 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.; Wilgos, J.

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of the level of radioactive contamination in environmental and food samples was carried out in Poland in 1996. The results were compared to the data from the period 1985-1995. Since the Chernobyl accident gradual decrease of contamination level has been observed. The gamma dose rate and the contamination of air, fallout, tape and surface water were at the level of 1985. The only contamination enhanced in relation to pre-Chernobyl period was the content of cesium isotopes in soil and as a consequence food contamination was higher particularly milk and meat. At present, the source of additional dose is ingestion of artificial isotopes with food as a result of food contamination. No significant regional differences in the distribution of the level of cesium in food over the territory of Poland has been registered. Milk can be assumed as the main contributor of cesium to the diet, its share is about 40% of annual intake of cesium. The average effective dose equivalent, resulting from the contaminated food consumption, was estimated to be at the level of 14 μSv per capita of the Polish population in 1996. (author)

  2. Persistence and survival of pathogens in dry foods and dry food processing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuchat, L.; Komitopoulou, E.; Betts, R.; Beckers, H.; Bourdichon, F.; Joosten, H.; Fanning, S.; ter Kuile, B.

    2011-01-01

    Low-moisture foods and food ingredients, i.e., those appearing to be dry or that have been subjected to a drying process, represent important nutritional constituents of human diets. Some of these foods are naturally low in moisture, such as cereals, honey and nuts, whereas others are produced from

  3. Review of health safety aspects of nanotechnologies in food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmeester, Hans; Dekkers, Susan; Noordam, Maryvon Y; Hagens, Werner I; Bulder, Astrid S; de Heer, Cees; ten Voorde, Sandra E C G; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Marvin, Hans J P; Sips, Adriënne J A M

    2009-02-01

    Due to new, previously unknown, properties attributed to engineered nanoparticles many new products are introduced in the agro-food area. Nanotechnologies cover many aspects, such as disease treatment, food security, new materials for pathogen detection, packaging materials and delivery systems. As with most new and evolving technologies, potential benefits are emphasized, while little is known on safety of the application of nanotechnologies in the agro-food sector. This review gives an overview of scientific issues that need to be addressed with priority in order to improve the risk assessment for nanoparticles in food. The following research topics are considered to contribute pivotally to risk assessment of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles in food products. Set a definition for NPs to facilitate regulatory discussions, prioritization of research and exchange of study results. Develop analytical tools for the characterization of nanoparticles in complex biological matrices like food. Establish relevant dose metrics for nanoparticles used for both interpretation of scientific studies as well as regulatory frameworks. Search for deviant behavior (kinetics) and novel effects (toxicity) of nanoparticles and assess the validity of currently used test systems following oral exposure. Estimate the consumer exposure to nanoparticles.

  4. Occurrence of transformation products in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpin, Dana W.; Battaglin, William A.; Conn, Kathleen E.; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Meyer, Michael T.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Boxall, Alistair B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, most environmental occurrence research has focused on the parent compounds of organic contaminants. Research, however, has documented that the environmental transport of chemicals, such as pesticides and emerging contaminants, are substantially underestimated if transformation products are not considered. Although most examples described herein were drawn from research conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, such results are generally reflective of those found in other parts of the world. Results from a study of 51 streams in the Midwestern United States found that transformation products were seven of the ten most frequently detected pesticide compounds in late spring runoff (after application of pre-emergent herbicides), and nine of the ten most frequently detected compounds in fall season runoff (during and after harvest). In fact, 70% of the total herbicide concentration in water from the Mississippi River Basin was from transformation products. Results from a study of 86 municipal wells in Iowa found the frequency of detection increased from 17%, when pesticide parent compounds were considered, to 53%, when both parents and transformation products were considered. Transformation products were 12 of the 15 most frequently detected compounds for this groundwater study. Although studies on transformation products of synthetic organic compounds other than pesticides are not as common, wastewater treatment plant discharges have repeatedly been shown to contribute such transformation products to streams. In addition, select detergent transformation products have been commonly found in solid waste in the 1000's mg/kg. These findings and many others document that transformation products must be considered to fully assess the potential environmental occurrence of chemical contaminants and their transport and fate in various compartments of the hydrologic system. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  5. Food effects in paediatric medicines development for products Co-administered with food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Hannah; Kaukonen, Ann Marie; Klein, Sandra; Davit, Barbara; Ju, Rob; Ternik, Robert; Heimbach, Tycho; Lin, Wen; Wang, Jian; Storey, David

    2018-02-05

    A small amount of food is commonly used to aid administration of medicines to children to improve palatability and/or swallowability. However the impact of this co-administered food on the absorption and subsequent pharmacokinetic profile of the drug is unknown. Existing information on food effects is limited to standard protocols used to evaluate the impact of a high fat meal in an adult population using the adult medication. In the absence of a substantial body of data, there are no specific guidelines available during development of paediatric products relating to low volumes of potentially low calorie food. This paper brings together expertise to consider how the impact of co-administered food can be risk assessed during the development of a paediatric medicine. Two case studies were used to facilitate discussions and seek out commonalities in risk assessing paediatric products; these case studies used model drugs that differed in their solubility, a poorly soluble drug that demonstrated a positive food effect in adults and a highly soluble drug where a negative food effect was observed. For poorly soluble drugs risk assessments are centred upon understanding the impact of food on the in vivo solubility of the drug which requires knowledge of the composition of the food and the volumes present within the paediatric gastrointestinal tract. Further work is required to develop age appropriate in vitro and in silico models that are representative of paediatric populations. For soluble drugs it is more important to understand the mechanisms that may lead to a food effect, this may include interactions with transporters or the impact of the food composition on gastro-intestinal transit or even altered gastric motility. In silico models have the most promise for highly soluble drug products although it is essential that these models reflect the relevant mechanisms involved in potential food effects. The development of appropriate in vitro and in silico tools is

  6. Energy security for India: Biofuels, energy efficiency and food productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunatilake, Herath; Roland-Holst, David; Sugiyarto, Guntur

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of biofuel as a renewable energy source offers opportunities for significant climate change mitigation and greater energy independence to many countries. At the same time, biofuel represents the possibility of substitution between energy and food. For developing countries like India, which imports over 75% of its crude oil, fossil fuels pose two risks—global warming pollution and long-term risk that oil prices will undermine real living standards. This paper examines India's options for managing energy price risk in three ways: biofuel development, energy efficiency promotion, and food productivity improvements. Our salient results suggest that biodiesel shows promise as a transport fuel substitute that can be produced in ways that fully utilize marginal agricultural resources and hence promote rural livelihoods. First-generation bioethanol, by contrast, appears to have a limited ability to offset the impacts of oil price hikes. Combining the biodiesel expansion policy with energy efficiency improvements and food productivity increases proved to be a more effective strategy to enhance both energy and food security, help mitigate climate change, and cushion the economy against oil price shocks. - Highlights: • We investigate the role of biofuels in India applying a CGE model. • Biodiesel enhances energy security and improve rural livelihoods. • Sugarcane ethanol does not show positive impact on the economy. • Biodiesel and energy efficiency improvements together provide better results. • Food productivity further enhances biodiesel, and energy efficiency impacts

  7. The application of GMOs in agriculture and in food production for a better nutrition: two different scientific points of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buiatti, M; Christou, P; Pastore, G

    2013-05-01

    This commentary is a face-to-face debate between two almost opposite positions regarding the application of genetic engineering in agriculture and food production. Seven questions on the potential benefits of the application of genetic engineering in agriculture and on the potentially adverse impacts on the environment and human health were posed to two scientists: one who is sceptical about the use of GMOs in Agriculture, and one who views GMOs as an important tool for quantitatively and qualitatively improving food production.

  8. Electronic Nose for Microbiological Quality Control of Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Falasconi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic noses (ENs have recently emerged as valuable candidates in various areas of food quality control and traceability, including microbial contamination diagnosis. In this paper, the EN technology for microbiological screening of food products is reviewed. Four paradigmatic and diverse case studies are presented: (a Alicyclobacillus spp. spoilage of fruit juices, (b early detection of microbial contamination in processed tomatoes, (c screening of fungal and fumonisin contamination of maize grains, and (d fungal contamination on green coffee beans. Despite many successful results, the high intrinsic variability of food samples together with persisting limits of the sensor technology still impairs ENs trustful applications at the industrial scale. Both advantages and drawbacks of sensor technology in food quality control are discussed. Finally, recent trends and future directions are illustrated.

  9. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores), convenience (convenience stores and food marts), and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores) retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant’s residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI) of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R) was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE), based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Results Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated fat. Participation in

  10. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Nalty, Courtney C; Xu, Jin

    2013-01-17

    Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores), convenience (convenience stores and food marts), and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores) retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant's residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI) of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R) was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE), based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated fat. Participation in the National School Lunch

  11. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharkey Joseph R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores, convenience (convenience stores and food marts, and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant’s residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE, based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Results Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated

  12. Energy-dense fast food products cost less: an observational study of the energy density and energy cost of Australian fast foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard, Lyndal; Havill, Michelle; Hughes, Clare; Watson, Wendy L; Chapman, Kathy

    2015-12-01

    To examine the association between energy cost and energy density of fast food products. Twenty Sydney outlets of the five largest fast food chains were surveyed four times. Price and kilojoule data were collected for all limited-time-only menu items (n=54) and a sample of standard items (n=67). Energy cost ($/kilojoule) and energy density (kilojoules/gram) of menu items were calculated. There was a significant inverse relationship between menu item energy density and energy cost (pFast food chains could provide a wider range of affordable, lower-energy foods, use proportional pricing of larger serve sizes, or change defaults in meals to healthier options. More research is required to determine the most effective strategy to reduce the negative impact of fast food on the population's diet. Current pricing in the fast food environment may encourage unhealthier purchases. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C.

    1999-01-01

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  14. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-10-01

    `Wood for Energy Production`, 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named `Wood Chips for Energy Production`. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. `Wood for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  15. Reduced metabolites of nitroaromatics are distributed in the environment via the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Numrah; Cheema, Kausar J; Powell, Glen; Bennett, Mark; Chaudhary, Safee Ullah; Qadri, Rashad; Yang, Yaodong; Azam, Muhammad; Rossiter, John T

    2018-05-15

    Increased industrial processes have introduced emerging toxic pollutants into the environment. Phytoremediation is considered to be a very useful, economical and ecofriendly way of controlling these pollutants, however, certain pollutants can potentially travel through the food chain and accumulate at hazardous levels. Four isomers of dinitrotoluenes (DNT) were investigated and observed their potential toxicity towards A. thaliana. Two different aphid species (generalist and specialist) were allowed to feed on plants treated with DNTs and toxicity to aphids determined. Reduced metabolites of DNT (in both plant and aphids) were recovered and quantified through GC-MS analyses. 2,6-DNT was observed to be the toxic of the DNTs tested. Complete metabolism of DNTs to their reduced products was never achieved for higher concentrations. Regioselectivity was observed in the case of 2,4-DNT, with 4A2NT as the dominant isomer. Feeding aphids showed a similar toxicity pattern for DNT isomers as host plants. Metabolites were recovered from the body of aphids, demonstrating the potential transport of metabolites through the food chain. Plants show varied toxicity responses towards the DNT isomers. Aphids fed on A. thaliana plants treated with DNTs were shown to have ANTs present, which reflects the propagation of DNT metabolites through the food chain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Consumer preferences for food product quality attributes from Swedish agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Frykblom, Peter; Lagerkvist, Carl Johan

    2005-06-01

    This paper employs a choice experiment to obtain consumer preferences and willingness to pay for food product quality attributes currently not available in Sweden. Data were obtained from a large mail survey and estimated with a random parameter logit model. We found evidence for intraproduct differences in consumer preferences for identical attributes, as well as interproduct discrepancies in ranking of attributes. Furthermore, we found evidence of a market failure relating to the potential use of genetically modified animal fodder. Finally, we found support for the idea that a cheap-talk script can alleviate problems of external validity of choice experiments. Our results are useful in forming product differentiation strategies within the food industry, as well as for the formation of food policy.

  17. Food and beverage product reformulation as a corporate political strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C; Hawkins, B; Knai, C

    2017-01-01

    Product reformulation- the process of altering a food or beverage product's recipe or composition to improve the product's health profile - is a prominent response to the obesity and noncommunicable disease epidemics in the U.S. To date, reformulation in the U.S. has been largely voluntary and initiated by actors within the food and beverage industry. Similar voluntary efforts by the tobacco and alcohol industry have been considered to be a mechanism of corporate political strategy to shape public health policies and decisions to suit commercial needs. We propose a taxonomy of food and beverage industry corporate political strategies that builds on the existing literature. We then analyzed the industry's responses to a 2014 U.S. government consultation on product reformulation, run as part of the process to define the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. We qualitatively coded the industry's responses for predominant narratives and framings around reformulation using a purposely-designed coding framework, and compared the results to the taxonomy. The food and beverage industry in the United States used a highly similar narrative around voluntary product reformulation in their consultation responses: that reformulation is "part of the solution" to obesity and NCDs, even though their products or industry are not large contributors to the problem, and that progress has been made despite reformulation posing significant technical challenges. This narrative and the frames used in the submissions illustrate the four categories of the taxonomy: participation in the policy process, influencing the framing of the nutrition policy debate, creating partnerships, and influencing the interpretation of evidence. These strategic uses of reformulation align with previous research on food and beverage corporate political strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Demand for food products in Finland: A demand system approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka P. Laurila

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was concerned with the estimation of food-demand parameters in a system context. The patterns of food consumption in Finland were presented over the period 1950-1991, and a complete demand system of food expenditures was estimated. Price and expenditure elasticities of demand were derived, and the results were used to obtain projections on future consumption. While the real expenditure on food has increased, the budget share of food has decreased. In the early 19505, combined Food-at-Home and Food-away-from-Home corresponded to about 40% of consumers’ total expenditure. In 1991 the share was 28%. There was a shift to meals eaten outside the home. While the budget share of Food-away-from-Home increased from 3% to 7% over the observation period, Food-at-Home fell from 37% to 21%, and Food-at-Home excluding Alcoholic Drinks fell from 34% to 16%. Within Food-at-Home, the budget shares of the broad aggregate groups, Animalia (food from animal sources, Beverages, and Vegetablia (food from vegetable sources, remained about the same over the four decades, while structural change took place within the aggregates. Within Animalia, consumption shifted from Dairy Products (other than Fresh Milk to Meat and Fish. Within Beverages, consumption shifted from Fresh Milk and Hot Drinks to Alcoholic Drinks and Soft Drinks. Within Vegetablia, consumption shifted from Flour to Fruits, while the shares of Bread and Cake and Vegetables remained about the same. As the complete demand system, the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS was employed. The conventional AIDS was extended by developing a dynamic generalisation of the model and allowing for systematic shifts in structural relationships over time. A four-stage budgeting system was specified, consisting of seven sub-systems (groups, and covering 18 food categories. Tests on parameter restrictions and misspecification tests were used to choose the most preferred model specification for each group. Generally

  19. The global potential of local peri-urban food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriewald, Steffen; Garcia Cantu Ros, Anselmo; Sterzel, Till; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    One big challenge for the rest of the 21st century will be the massive urbanisation. It is expected that more than 7 out of 10 persons will live in a city by the year 2050. Crucial developments towards a sustainable future will therefore take place in cities. One important approach for a sustainable city development is to re-localize food production and to close urban nutrient cycles through better waste management. The re-location of food production avoids CO2 emissions from transportation of food to cities and can also generate income for inhabitants. Cities are by definition locations where fertility accumulates. As cities are often built along rivers, their soils are often fertile. Furthermore, labour force and the possibility of producing fertilizer from human fecal matter within the city promises sustainable nutrients cycles. Although urban and peri-urban agriculture can be found in many cities worldwide and already have a substantial contribution to food supply, it has not jet been comprehensibly structured by research. We combine several worldwide data sets to determine the supply of cities with regional food production, where regional is defined as a production that occurs very close to the consumption within the peri-urban area. Therefore, urban areas are not defined by administrative boundaries but by connected built-up urban areas, and peri-urban area by the surrounding area with the same size multiplied with a scaling parameter. Both together accumulate to an urban-bio-region (UBR). With regard to national food consumption, a linear program achieves the best possible yield on agricultural areas and allows the computation of the fraction of population, which can be nourished. Additionally, several climate scenarios and different dietary patterns were considered. To close the gap between single case studies and to provide a quantitative overview of the global potential of peri-urban food production we used high resolution land-use data Global Land Cover

  20. Preferred Healthy Food Nudges, Food Store Environments, and Customer Dietary Practices in 2 Low-Income Southern Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Wu, Qiang; Sharpe, Patricia A; Rafferty, Ann P; Elbel, Brian; Ammerman, Alice S; Payne, Collin R; Hopping, Beth N; McGuirt, Jared T; Wall-Bassett, Elizabeth D

    To examine how food store environments can promote healthful eating, including (1) preferences for a variety of behavioral economics strategies to promote healthful food purchases, and (2) the cross-sectional association between the primary food store where participants reported shopping, dietary behaviors, and body mass index. Intercept survey participants (n = 342) from 2 midsized eastern North Carolina communities completed questionnaires regarding preferred behavioral economics strategies, the primary food store at which they shopped, and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and sugary beverages. Frequently selected behavioral economic strategies included: (1) a token and reward system for fruit and vegetable purchases; and (2) price discounts on healthful foods and beverages. There was a significant association between the primary food store and consumption of fruits and vegetables (P = .005) and sugary beverages (P = .02). Future studies should examine associations between elements of the in-store food environment, purchases, and consumption. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.