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Sample records for food product sugar

  1. Enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin in food products

    Bergsøe, Merete Norsker; Jensen, Mette; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    Sugar beet pectin is a food ingredient with specific functional properties. It may form gels by an oxidative cross-linking of ferulic acid. In the present study, the gel forming properties of three oxidative enzymes were examined in different food relevant conditions. The enzymes chosen were two...... laccases and one peroxidase. The textural properties of the produced gels were measured on a texture analyser. The influence of sugar, salt and protein were analysed. Finally, the enzymatic gelation was studied in three food products with added sugar beet pectin. These were black currant juice, milk...... and chopped heat-treated meat emulsion. The addition of salt resulted in softer, less stiff and chewy, and less adhesive gels. Generally speaking, sugar addition increased the hardness but at high concentration the gels were very brittle. However, Young's modulus was lower in gels containing sugar than...

  2. Consumer understanding of sugars claims on food and drink products.

    Patterson, N J; Sadler, M J; Cooper, J M

    2012-06-01

    Consumer understanding of nutrition and health claims is a key aspect of current regulations in the European Union (EU). In view of this, qualitative and quantitative research techniques were used to investigate consumer awareness and understanding of product claims in the UK, focusing particularly on nutrition claims relating to sugars. Both research methods identified a good awareness of product claims. No added sugars claims were generally preferred to reduced sugars claims, and there was a general assumption that sweeteners and other ingredients would be added in place of sugars. However, there was little awareness of the level of sugar reduction and the associated calorie reduction in products when reduced sugars claims were made on pack. In focus groups, participants felt deceived if sugar reduction claims were being made without a significant reduction in calories. This was reinforced in the quantitative research which showed that respondents expected a similar and meaningful level of calorie reduction to the level of sugar reduction. The research also identified consumer confusion around the calorie content of different nutrients, including over-estimation of the calorie content of sugars. This is crucial to consumers' expectations as they clearly link sugar to calories and therefore expect a reduction in sugar content to deliver a reduction in calorie content.

  3. Consumer understanding of sugars claims on food and drink products

    Patterson, N J; Sadler, M J; Cooper, J M

    2012-01-01

    Consumer understanding of nutrition and health claims is a key aspect of current regulations in the European Union (EU). In view of this, qualitative and quantitative research techniques were used to investigate consumer awareness and understanding of product claims in the UK, focusing particularly on nutrition claims relating to sugars. Both research methods identified a good awareness of product claims. No added sugars claims were generally preferred to reduced sugars claims, and there was ...

  4. Spray Drying of High Sugar Content Foods: Improving of Product Yield and Powder Properties

    Mehmet Koç; Figen Kaymak-Ertekin

    2016-01-01

    Spray drying is the most preferred drying method to produce powdered food in the food industry and it is also widely used to convert sugar-rich liquid foods to a powder form. During and/or after spray drying process of sugar-rich products, undesirable situation was appeared such as stickiness, high moisture affinity (hygroscopicity) and low solubility due to low molecular weight monosaccharides that found naturally in the structure. The basis of these problems was formed by low glass transiti...

  5. Spray Drying of High Sugar Content Foods: Improving of Product Yield and Powder Properties

    Mehmet Koç

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying is the most preferred drying method to produce powdered food in the food industry and it is also widely used to convert sugar-rich liquid foods to a powder form. During and/or after spray drying process of sugar-rich products, undesirable situation was appeared such as stickiness, high moisture affinity (hygroscopicity and low solubility due to low molecular weight monosaccharides that found naturally in the structure. The basis of these problems was formed by low glass transition temperature of sugar-rich products. This review gives information about the difficulties in drying of sugar-rich products via spray dryer, actions need to be taken against these difficulties and drying of sugar-rich honey and fruit juices with spray drying method.

  6. A rapid method for simultaneous quantification of 13 sugars and sugar alcohols in food products by UPLC-ELSD.

    Koh, Dong-Wan; Park, Jae-Woong; Lim, Jung-Hoon; Yea, Myeong-Jai; Bang, Dae-Young

    2018-02-01

    A novel, rapid, simultaneous analysis method for five sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, and lactose) and eight sugar alcohols (erythritol, xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, inositol, maltitol, lactitol, and isomalt) was developed using UPLC-ELSD, without derivatization. The analysis conditions, including the gradient conditions, modifier concentration and column length, were optimized. Thirteen sugars and sugar alcohols were separated well and the resolution of their peaks was above 1.0. Their optimum analysis condition can be analyzed within 15min. Standard curves for sugars and sugar alcohols with concentrations of 5.0-0.1% and 2.0-0.05% are presented herein, and their correlation coefficients are found to be above 0.999 and the limit of detection (LOD) was around 0.006-0.018%. This novel analysis system can be used for foodstuffs such as candy, chewing gum, jelly, chocolate, processed chocolate products, and snacks containing 0.21-46.41% of sugars and sugar alcohols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of Beet Sugar Production in Ryazan Region in the Context of Ensuring Food Security

    Mansurov Ruslan Evgenyevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research on the current state of the beet sugar subcomplex of Ryazan region in the context of the need of improving its efficiency. The study let the author determine that currently the beet sugar subcomplex of Ryazan region does not ensure domestic demand in sand sugar. However, there are reserves of providing more efficient use of soil and climate capacity as well as the productivity potential of the region. When applying the technology of field beet piling, the period of sugar production at sugar factories may be extended up to 200 days. At this, up to 51 thousand tons of sand sugar can be produced. This amount will completely cover the annual demand for sugar in Ryazan region. In order to further study the feasibility of this approach, zoning was carried out and let allocate the zones of beet seeding. As a result, it was determined that a number of areas are far removed from the place of treatment, and in terms of transportation costs minimization the sugar beet cultivation in these areas is not rational. As an alternative, the author proposes to consider the possibility of building a new sugar factory in Ryazhsky district with the processing capacity of 1,000 tons of sugar beet per day. Taking this into account, the recommended acreage of sugar beet by districts and zones of raw material supply were obtained through corresponding calculations.

  8. Over production of fermentable sugar for bioethanol production from carbohydrate-rich Malaysian food waste via sequential acid-enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment.

    Hafid, Halimatun Saadiah; Nor 'Aini, Abdul Rahman; Mokhtar, Mohd Noriznan; Talib, Ahmad Tarmezee; Baharuddin, Azhari Samsu; Umi Kalsom, Md Shah

    2017-09-01

    In Malaysia, the amount of food waste produced is estimated at approximately 70% of total municipal solid waste generated and characterised by high amount of carbohydrate polymers such as starch, cellulose, and sugars. Considering the beneficial organic fraction contained, its utilization as an alternative substrate specifically for bioethanol production has receiving more attention. However, the sustainable production of bioethanol from food waste is linked to the efficient pretreatment needed for higher production of fermentable sugar prior to fermentation. In this work, a modified sequential acid-enzymatic hydrolysis process has been developed to produce high concentration of fermentable sugars; glucose, sucrose, fructose and maltose. The process started with hydrothermal and dilute acid pretreatment by hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulphuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) which aim to degrade larger molecules of polysaccharide before accessible for further steps of enzymatic hydrolysis by glucoamylase. A kinetic model is proposed to perform an optimal hydrolysis for obtaining high fermentable sugars. The results suggested that a significant increase in fermentable sugar production (2.04-folds) with conversion efficiency of 86.8% was observed via sequential acid-enzymatic pretreatment as compared to dilute acid pretreatment (∼42.4% conversion efficiency). The bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizing fermentable sugar obtained shows ethanol yield of 0.42g/g with conversion efficiency of 85.38% based on the theoretical yield was achieved. The finding indicates that food waste can be considered as a promising substrate for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Antioxidant and chelating capacity of Maillard reaction products in amino acid-sugar model systems: applications for food processing.

    Mondaca-Navarro, Blanca A; Ávila-Villa, Luz A; González-Córdova, Aarón F; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; Campas-Baypoli, Olga N; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    Maillard reaction products (MRP) have gained increasing interest owing to their both positive and negative effects on human health. Aqueous amino acid-sugar model systems were studied in order to evaluate the antioxidant and chelating activity of MRP under conditions similar to those of food processing. Amino acids (cysteine, glycine, isoleucine and lysine) combined with different sugars (fructose or glucose) were heated to 100 and 130 °C for 30, 60 and 90 min. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated via ABTS and DPPH free radical scavenging assays, in addition to Fe 2+ and Cu 2+ ion chelating capacity. In the ABTS assay, the cysteine-fructose model system presented the highest antioxidant activity at 7.05 µmol mL -1 (130 °C, 60 min), expressed in Trolox equivalents. In the DPPH assay, the cysteine-glucose system presented the highest antioxidant activity at 3.79 µmol mL -1 (100 °C, 90 min). The maximum rate of chelation of Fe 2+ and Cu 2+ was 96.31 and 59.44% respectively in the lysine-fructose and cysteine-glucose systems (100 °C, 30 min). The model systems presented antioxidant and chelating activity under the analyzed temperatures and heating times, which are similar to the processing conditions of some foods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. The false alarm hypothesis: Food allergy is associated with high dietary advanced glycation end-products and proglycating dietary sugars that mimic alarmins.

    Smith, Peter K; Masilamani, Madhan; Li, Xiu-Min; Sampson, Hugh A

    2017-02-01

    The incidence of food allergy has increased dramatically in the last few decades in westernized developed countries. We propose that the Western lifestyle and diet promote innate danger signals and immune responses through production of "alarmins." Alarmins are endogenous molecules secreted from cells undergoing nonprogrammed cell death that signal tissue and cell damage. High molecular group S (HMGB1) is a major alarmin that binds to the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE). Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are also present in foods. We propose the "false alarm" hypothesis, in which AGEs that are present in or formed from the food in our diet are predisposing to food allergy. The Western diet is high in AGEs, which are derived from cooked meat, oils, and cheese. AGEs are also formed in the presence of a high concentration of sugars. We propose that a diet high in AGEs and AGE-forming sugars results in misinterpretation of a threat from dietary allergens, promoting the development of food allergy. AGEs and other alarmins inadvertently prime innate signaling through multiple mechanisms, resulting in the development of allergic phenotypes. Current hypotheses and models of food allergy do not adequately explain the dramatic increase in food allergy in Western countries. Dietary AGEs and AGE-forming sugars might be the missing link, a hypothesis supported by a number of convincing epidemiologic and experimental observations, as discussed in this article. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Total and Free Sugar Content of Canadian Prepackaged Foods and Beverages

    Bernstein, Jodi T.; Schermel, Alyssa; Mills, Christine M.; L’Abbé, Mary R.

    2016-01-01

    A number of recommendations for policy and program interventions to limit excess free sugar consumption have emerged, however there are a lack of data describing the amounts and types of sugar in foods. This study presents an assessment of sugar in Canadian prepackaged foods including: (a) the first systematic calculation of free sugar contents; (b) a comprehensive assessment of total sugar and free sugar levels; and (c) sweetener and free sugar ingredient use, using the University of Toronto’s Food Label Information Program (FLIP) database 2013 (n = 15,342). Food groups with the highest proportion of foods containing free sugar ingredients also had the highest median total sugar and free sugar contents (per 100 g/mL): desserts (94%, 15 g, and 12 g), sugars and sweets (91%, 50 g, and 50 g), and bakery products (83%, 16 g, and 14 g, proportion with free sugar ingredients, median total sugar and free sugar content in Canadian foods, respectively). Free sugar accounted for 64% of total sugar content. Eight of 17 food groups had ≥75% of the total sugar derived from free sugar. Free sugar contributed 20% of calories overall in prepackaged foods and beverages, with the highest at 70% in beverages. These data can be used to inform interventions aimed at limiting free sugar consumption. PMID:27657125

  12. Total and Free Sugar Content of Canadian Prepackaged Foods and Beverages

    Jodi T. Bernstein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of recommendations for policy and program interventions to limit excess free sugar consumption have emerged, however there are a lack of data describing the amounts and types of sugar in foods. This study presents an assessment of sugar in Canadian prepackaged foods including: (a the first systematic calculation of free sugar contents; (b a comprehensive assessment of total sugar and free sugar levels; and (c sweetener and free sugar ingredient use, using the University of Toronto’s Food Label Information Program (FLIP database 2013 (n = 15,342. Food groups with the highest proportion of foods containing free sugar ingredients also had the highest median total sugar and free sugar contents (per 100 g/mL: desserts (94%, 15 g, and 12 g, sugars and sweets (91%, 50 g, and 50 g, and bakery products (83%, 16 g, and 14 g, proportion with free sugar ingredients, median total sugar and free sugar content in Canadian foods, respectively. Free sugar accounted for 64% of total sugar content. Eight of 17 food groups had ≥75% of the total sugar derived from free sugar. Free sugar contributed 20% of calories overall in prepackaged foods and beverages, with the highest at 70% in beverages. These data can be used to inform interventions aimed at limiting free sugar consumption.

  13. Case study: Preliminary assessment of integrated palm biomass biorefinery for bioethanol production utilizing non-food sugars from oil palm frond petiole

    Abdullah, Sharifah Soplah Syed; Shirai, Yoshihito; Ali, Ahmad Amiruddin Mohd; Mustapha, Mahfuzah; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fermentable sugars production from oil palm frond by integrated technology concept. • Bioethanol production from oil palm frond sugars in a biorefinery. • Palm oil mills have sufficient excess energy and steam to support biorefinery. • The net energy ratio of bioethanol from oil palm frond petiole is 7.48. - Abstract: In this case study, a preliminary assessment on the bioethanol production from oil palm frond (OPF) petiole sugars within an integrated palm biomass biorefinery was carried out. Based on the case study of 4 neighbouring palm oil mills, approximately 55,600 t/y of fermentable sugars could be obtained from OPF petiole. The integrated biorefinery will be located at one of the 4 mills. The mill has potential excess energy comprising 3.64 GW h/y of electricity and 177,000 t/y of steam which are sufficient to run the biorefinery. With 33.9 million litres/y of bioethanol production, the specific production cost of bioethanol is estimated at $ 0.52/l bioethanol, compared to $ 0.31–0.34/l bioethanol produced from sugarcane and $ 0.49–0.60/l bioethanol from other lignocellulosics. The net energy ratio of 7.48 for bioethanol production from OPF provides a promising alternative for OPF utilization as a non-food sugar feedstock.

  14. Sugar amount analysis in food from Lithuanian food market

    Gudauskaitė, Milda

    2015-01-01

    When taking too much simple sugar, especially sucrose, harmful health effects occur: more tooth decay occurs, the excess sugar coverts into fat, digestive system gets irritated, increase of weight, possibility in increasing of developing cancer cells, pancreatic and other misbalances in the endocrine organs. Thesis goal: to perform sugar amount analysis in Lithuanian food market Analysis methodology. Assessing the amount of sugar (g/100g) there was analyzed 147 major food la...

  15. Biomass by-product from crystal sugar production: A comparative study between Ngadirejo and Mauritius sugar mill

    Gunawan; Bantacut, T.; Romli, M.; Noor, E.

    2018-03-01

    Sugarcane has been used as raw material in crystal sugar industry. Sugar cane that contains high sugar will be utilized into crystals sugar. In addition, the productivity of sugarcane is large enough in 2016 approximately 360 713 tons/year. Crystal sugar itself is a daily necessity for its use in the food and beverage industry. Problem that occurs in Indonesia is the energy consumption. The sugar mills supposed to be an independent energy source which means it can produce its own energy by utilization the material that is available in the sugar mills such as by-product (bagasse, molasses, filter cake, etc.), the by product in every production stage are quite a lot in sugar industry especially in Indonesia. In this paper, a comparison between two sugar mills was examined between Ngedirejo sugar mill and Mauritius sugar mill which has the same geological state as Indonesia. The results of comparison between the two sugar factories demonstrated the difference in terms of productivity of the sugar that has been produced and the effectiveness of the production process in a sugar mill seen from the amount of waste and the by product.

  16. A free sugars daily value (DV) identifies more "less healthy" prepackaged foods and beverages than a total sugars DV.

    Bernstein, Jodi T; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Franco-Arellano, Beatriz; Schermel, Alyssa; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2018-04-01

    Regulatory changes in Canada will require food labels to have a benchmark [% Daily Value, %DV] for total sugars, based on 100 g/day, while US labels will require a %DV for added sugars, based on 50 g/day. The objective of this study was to compare two labelling policies, a total sugars DV (100 g/day) and a free sugars DV (50 g/day) on food labels. This cross-sectional analysis of the Food Label Information Program database focussed on top sources of total sugars intake in Canada (n = 6924 foods). Products were categorized as "less healthy" using two sets of criteria: a) free sugars levels exceeding the WHO guidelines (≥10% energy from free sugars); and b) exceeding healthfulness cut-offs of the Food Standards Australia New Zealand Nutrient Profiling Scoring Criterion (FSANZ-NPSC). The proportion of "less healthy" products with ≥15%DV (defined as "a lot" of sugars i.e. high in sugars, based on Health Canada's %DV labelling footnote and educational message for dietary guidance) were compared for each sugar labelling scenario. The free sugars DV showed better alignment with both methods for assessing "healthfulness" than the total sugars DV. The free sugars DV identified a greater proportion of "less healthy" foods with ≥15%DV, based on both the FSANZ-NPSC (70% vs. 45%, p chocolate bars, confectionery, and frozen desserts categories. Compared to total sugars DV labelling, using a free sugars DV identified more "less healthy" foods. Findings support the adoption of free sugars labelling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Added sugar in the packaged foods and beverages available at a major Canadian retailer in 2015: a descriptive analysis.

    Acton, Rachel B; Vanderlee, Lana; Hobin, Erin P; Hammond, David

    2017-01-01

    Excess consumption of added sugars has been associated with a variety of health problems, but there is little information available characterizing added sugar in the Canadian food supply. This study examined the presence and types of added sugars in the packaged food and beverage products available at a major Canadian grocery retailer. We searched the ingredients lists of over 40 000 packaged food products available for sale in March 2015 for a variety of added sugar terms. Proportions of food products containing added sugar were identified overall and within food product categories. Differences in total sugar content were identified between food products with and without added sugar. Overall, 66% of the packaged food products analyzed contained at least 1 added sugar. The added sugar term "sugar" (and its variations) appeared the most frequently, followed by "dextrose." Added sugar presence and total sugar content varied within many product categories but were consistently higher in expected categories such as "beverages." Mean total sugar content was significantly higher in products with added sugar than in those without, both overall ( p added sugar, similar to recent patterns estimated for the US food supply. The results provide an estimation of the baseline characterization of added sugar in the Canadian food supply, which can be used to assess outcomes of future changes to sugar labelling policies in Canada.

  18. Impacts of Sugar Import Policy on Sugar Production in Indonesia

    Suryantoro, Agustinus; Susilo, Albertus Magnus; Supriyono, Supriyono

    2013-01-01

    Production of sugar unful lled consumption of Indonesia society. The lack of consumption and productionhave ful lled by import. Assumption national consumption 2,7 million ton, Indonesia will import sugar in 2013predicted about 300.000 ton (Tempo.co, August, 21, 2012).The aims in general of this research are to understand the impact of sugar import policy on sugar production.Especially (1) to understand the factors that in uence sugar import price, (2) to understand impact of sugarimport pric...

  19. The Effect of Sugar Price Policy on U.S. Imports of Processed Sugar-containing foods

    Jabara, Cathy L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of sugar protection, as well as the effects of these other factors, on U.S. demand for imports of sugar-containing products. The paper also addresses two main issues: (1) whether substitution of alternative sweeteners has allowed U.S. food manufactures to reduce the competitive advantage provided to foreign manufactures by U.S. sugar policies, and (2) which countries -- developed or developing -- have been able to increase their exports of sugar-containing prod...

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of Sugar Production (VB)

    Teljigovic, Mehmed; Mengiardi, Jon; Factor, Gabriela

    1999-01-01

    The environmental organisation NOAH has proposed carrying out an environmental assessment of two different sugar productions (using sugar beet or sugar cane) in order to illustrate which of the systems has a higher environmental impact for sugar consumption in Denmark. Therefore a comparison...... will be made between sugar from sugar beet produced in Denmark versus sugar produces from sugar cane in a tropical country, Brazil, and transported afterwards to Denmark. To evaluate the environmental aspects of these two product systems a Life Cycle Assessement (LCA) will be carried out.From the results...... obtained in the present LCA of sugar produces from sugar canes or sugar beet it is difficult to make an immediate choice between the two possibilities. Indeed, Quantitative results from the EDIP (Environmental Design of Industrial Products) software are globally similar for both ways of producing sugar...

  1. Consumption of sugar-rich food products among Brazilian students:National School Health Survey (PeNSE 2012

    Nathália Luíza Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to analyze the consumption of high-sugar foods by Brazilian schoolchildren and to identify associated factors, based on data from the National School Health Survey (PeNSE 2012. Consumption of these foods was classified as: do not consume sweets and soft drinks regularly; consume sweets or soft drinks regularly; and consume sweets and soft drinks regularly. Its association with sociodemographic information, eating habits, and family contexts were investigated via multiple ordinal regressions. Regular consumption of sweets and/or soft drinks was reported by 19.2% and 36.1% of adolescents, respectively, and higher prevalence was associated with female gender, age 14-15 years, higher maternal education, not living with the mother and father, not eating meals with the parents, eating while watching TV, and longer TV time. Nearly one-fifth of adolescents regularly consumed sweets and soft drinks, which was associated with socio-demographic and behavioral factors that should be targeted in order to improve their food consumption.

  2. Enzymatic approaches to rare sugar production.

    Zhang, Wenli; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Wanmeng

    Rare sugars have recently attracted much attention because of their potential applications in the food, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. A systematic strategy for enzymatic production of rare sugars, named Izumoring, was developed >10years ago. The strategy consists of aldose-ketose isomerization, ketose C-3 epimerization, and monosaccharide oxidation-reduction. Recent development of the Izumoring strategy is reviewed herein, especially the genetic approaches to the improvement of rare sugar-producing enzymes and the applications of target-oriented bioconversion. In addition, novel non-Izumoring enzymatic approaches are also summarized, including enzymatic condensation, phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cascade reaction, aldose epimerization, ulosonic acid decarboxylation, and biosynthesis of rare disaccharides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Healthfulness and nutritional composition of Canadian prepackaged foods with and without sugar claims.

    Bernstein, Jodi T; Franco-Arellano, Beatriz; Schermel, Alyssa; Labonté, Marie-Ève; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in calories, nutrient content, overall healthfulness, and use of sweetener ingredients between products with and without sugar claims. Consumers assume products with sugar claims are healthier and lower in calories. It is therefore important claims be found on comparatively healthier items. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of the University of Toronto's 2013 Food Label Database. Subcategories where at least 5% of products (and n ≥ 5) carried a sugar claim were included (n = 3048). Differences in median calorie content, nutrient content, and overall healthfulness, using the Food Standards Australia/New Zealand Nutrient Profiling Scoring criterion, between products with and without sugar claims, were determined. Proportion of products with and without claims that had excess free sugar levels (≥10% of calories from free sugar) and that contained sweeteners was also determined. Almost half (48%) of products with sugar claims contained excess free sugar, and a greater proportion contained sweeteners than products without such claims (30% vs 5%, χ 2 = 338.6, p contents than products without claims. At the subcategory level, reductions in free sugar contents were not always met with similar reductions in calorie contents. This study highlights concerns with regards to the nutritional composition of products bearing sugar claims. Findings can support educational messaging to assist consumer interpretation of sugar claims and can inform changes in nutrition policies, for example, permitting sugar claims only on products with calorie reductions and without excess free sugar.

  4. Availability of added sugars in Brazil: distribution, food sources and time trends.

    Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique; Mondini, Lenise; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2012-03-01

    To describe the regional and socio-economic distribution of consumption of added sugar in Brazil in 2002/03, particularly products, sources of sugar and trends in the past 15 years. The study used data from Household Budget Surveys since the 1980s about the type and quantity of food and beverages bought by Brazilian families. Different indicators were analyzed: % of sugar calories over the total diet energy and caloric % of table sugar fractions and sugar added to processed food/ sugar calories of diet. In 2002/03, of the total energy available for consumption, 16.7% came from added sugar in all regional and socio-economic strata. The table sugar/ sugar added to processed food ratio was inversely proportional to increase in income. Although this proportion fell in the past 15 years, sugar added to processed food doubled, especially in terms of consumption of soft drinks and cookies. Brazilians consume more sugar than the recommended levels determined by the WHO and the sources of consumption of sugar have changed significantly.

  5. Total, Free, and Added Sugar Consumption and Adherence to Guidelines: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010

    Sluik, Diewertje; van Lee, Linde; Engelen, Anouk I.; Feskens, Edith J. M.

    2016-01-01

    A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars, adherence to sugar guidelines and overall diet quality in Dutch children and adults. In all, 3817 men and women (7–69 years) from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010 were studied. Added and free sugar content of products was assigned by food composition tables and using labelling and product information. Diet was assessed with two 24-h recalls. Diet quality was studied in adults with the Dutch Healthy Diet-index. Total sugar intake was 22% Total Energy (%TE), free sugars intake 14 %TE, and added sugar intake 12 %TE. Sugar consumption was higher in children than adults. Main food sources of sugars were sweets and candy, non-alcoholic beverages, dairy, and cake and cookies. Prevalence free sugar intake diet quality was similar comparing adults adherent and non-adherent to the sugar guidelines, although adherent adults had a higher intake of dietary fiber and vegetables. Adherence to the WHO free sugar guidelines of sugar guidelines was not strongly associated with higher diet quality in adults. PMID:26828518

  6. Total, Free, and Added Sugar Consumption and Adherence to Guidelines: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010.

    Sluik, Diewertje; van Lee, Linde; Engelen, Anouk I; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-01-28

    A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars, adherence to sugar guidelines and overall diet quality in Dutch children and adults. In all, 3817 men and women (7-69 years) from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010 were studied. Added and free sugar content of products was assigned by food composition tables and using labelling and product information. Diet was assessed with two 24-h recalls. Diet quality was studied in adults with the Dutch Healthy Diet-index. Total sugar intake was 22% Total Energy (%TE), free sugars intake 14 %TE, and added sugar intake 12 %TE. Sugar consumption was higher in children than adults. Main food sources of sugars were sweets and candy, non-alcoholic beverages, dairy, and cake and cookies. Prevalence free sugar intake diet quality was similar comparing adults adherent and non-adherent to the sugar guidelines, although adherent adults had a higher intake of dietary fiber and vegetables. Adherence to the WHO free sugar guidelines of sugar guidelines was not strongly associated with higher diet quality in adults.

  7. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  8. The major types of added sugars and non-nutritive sweeteners in a sample of Australian packaged foods.

    Probst, Yasmine C; Dengate, Alexis; Jacobs, Jenny; Louie, Jimmy Cy; Dunford, Elizabeth K

    2017-12-01

    Limiting the intake of added sugars in the diet remains a key focus of global dietary recommendations. To date there has been no systematic monitoring of the major types of added sugars used in the Australian food supply. The present study aimed to identify the most common added sugars and non-nutritive sweeteners in the Australian packaged food supply. Secondary analysis of data from the Australian FoodSwitch database was undertaken. Forty-six added sugars and eight non-nutritive sweetener types were extracted from the ingredient lists of 5744 foods across seventeen food categories. Australia. Not applicable. Added sugar ingredients were found in 61 % of the sample of foods examined and non-nutritive sweetener ingredients were found in 69 %. Only 31 % of foods contained no added sugar or non-nutritive sweetener. Sugar (as an ingredient), glucose syrup, maple syrup, maltodextrin and glucose/dextrose were the most common sugar ingredient types identified. Most Australian packaged food products had at least one added sugar ingredient, the most common being 'sugar'. The study provides insight into the most common types of added sugars and non-nutritive sweeteners used in the Australian food supply and is a useful baseline to monitor changes in how added sugars are used in Australian packaged foods over time.

  9. A rapid review examining purchasing changes resulting from fiscal measures targeted at high sugar foods and sugar-sweetened drinks.

    Roberts, Katharine E; Ells, Louisa J; McGowan, Victoria J; Machaira, Theodora; Targett, Victoria C; Allen, Rachel E; Tedstone, Alison E

    2017-12-15

    To aim of the review was to examine the most recent (2010 onwards) research evidence on the health and behavioural impacts, in adults and children, of fiscal strategies that target high sugar foods and sugar-sweetened drinks (SSDs). A pragmatic rapid review was undertaken using a systematic search strategy. The review was part of a programme of work to support policy development in relation to high sugar food and SSDs. A total of 11 primary research publications were included, describing evidence from France (n = 1), the Netherlands (n = 3), and the United States of America (n = 7), assessed through a variety of study designs, with the majority in adult populations (n = 10). The evidence reviewed focused on consumer behaviour outcomes and suggested that fiscal strategies can influence purchases of high sugar products. Although the majority of studies (n = 10), including three field studies, demonstrated that an increase in the price of high sugar foods and SSDs resulted in a decrease in purchases, eight studies were conducted in a laboratory or virtual setting which may not reflect real-life situations.Findings from this review support evidence from the broader literature that suggests that fiscal measures can be effective in influencing the purchasing of high sugar foods and SSDs.

  10. Amounts of artificial food dyes and added sugars in foods and sweets commonly consumed by children.

    Stevens, Laura J; Burgess, John R; Stochelski, Mateusz A; Kuczek, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Artificial food colors (AFCs) are used to color many beverages, foods, and sweets in the United States and throughout the world. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) limits the AFCs allowed in the diet to 9 different colors. The FDA certifies each batch of manufactured AFCs to guarantee purity and safety. The amount certified has risen from 12 mg/capita/d in 1950 to 62 mg/capita/d in 2010. Previously, we reported the amounts of AFCs in commonly consumed beverages. In this article, the amounts of AFCs in commonly consumed foods and sweets are reported. In addition, the amount of sugars in each product is included. Amounts of AFCs reported here along with the beverage data show that many children could be consuming far more dyes than previously thought. Clinical guidance is given to help caregivers avoid AFCs and reduce the amount of sugars in children's diets. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. MICROFLORA OF BEET SUGAR PRODUCTION: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    N. G. Kulneva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Sugar beet is one of the strategic crops for food safety of Russia. The lack of specialized warehouse for harvest does not provide storage of roots for a long time. In the case of a thaw roots that have been defrosted unsuitable for processing. Beet and products of its processing is a good object for the development of microorganisms. Permanent microflora of sugar production are: Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringes, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Torula alba, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Sarcina lutea and other kinds of microorganisms, leading to a problem processing of beet root and reduced quality of sugar. The most dangerous is the slimy bacteriosis is a bacterial disease beet caused by heterofermentative cocci of Leuconostoc (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, L. dextranicum. Product of the vital activity of microorganisms is dextran, which is synthesized from sucrose as a result of dextrany or mucous fermentation and leads to significant technological problems in processing of infected beet. Improving the efficiency of sugar production is connected with decrease in loss of quality of raw material preparation, storing and processing of sugar beet. At sugar plants use a variety of drugs that suppress the growth of pathogenic microflora, but there comes a rapid adaptation of microorganisms, therefore there is a need to implement new products to prevent damage to roots and improve the quality of produced sugar. To resolve this problem experimentally selected bactericidal drug, defined its rational concentration and conditions for the use in sugar beet production. The use of antibacterial drug in the process of extraction allows to increase the purity of diffusion juice 1.3 %, reduce the protein content in it (12.5 %; with the purity of the pure juice increases by 1.1 %, its color index is reduced by 44.7 %.

  12. Use of Added Sugars Instead of Total Sugars May Improve the Capacity of the Health Star Rating System to Discriminate between Core and Discretionary Foods.

    Menday, Hannah; Neal, Bruce; Wu, Jason H Y; Crino, Michelle; Baines, Surinder; Petersen, Kristina S

    2017-12-01

    The Australian Government has introduced a voluntary front-of-package labeling system that includes total sugar in the calculation. Our aim was to determine the effect of substituting added sugars for total sugars when calculating Health Star Ratings (HSR) and identify whether use of added sugars improves the capacity to distinguish between core and discretionary food products. This study included packaged food and beverage products available in Australian supermarkets (n=3,610). The product categories included in the analyses were breakfast cereals (n=513), fruit (n=571), milk (n=309), non-alcoholic beverages (n=1,040), vegetables (n=787), and yogurt (n=390). Added sugar values were estimated for each product using a validated method. HSRs were then estimated for every product according to the established method using total sugar, and then by substituting added sugar for total sugar. The scoring system was not modified when added sugar was used in place of total sugar in the HSR calculation. Products were classified as core or discretionary based on the Australian Dietary Guidelines. To investigate whether use of added sugar in the HSR algorithm improved the distinction between core and discretionary products as defined by the Australian Dietary Guidelines, the proportion of core products that received an HSR of ≥3.5 stars and the proportion of discretionary products that received an HSR of added sugars were determined. There were 2,263 core and 1,347 discretionary foods; 1,684 of 3,610 (47%) products contained added sugar (median 8.4 g/100 g, interquartile range=5.0 to 12.2 g). When the HSR was calculated with added sugar instead of total sugar, an additional 166 (7.3%) core products received an HSR of ≥3.5 stars and 103 (7.6%) discretionary products received a rating of ≥3.5 stars. The odds of correctly identifying a product as core vs discretionary were increased by 61% (odds ratio 1.61, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.06; Padded compared to total sugars. In the six

  13. Sugar ester surfactants: enzymatic synthesis and applications in food industry.

    Neta, Nair S; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2015-01-01

    Sugar esters are non-ionic surfactants that can be synthesized in a single enzymatic reaction step using lipases. The stability and efficiency of lipases under unusual conditions and using non-conventional media can be significantly improved through immobilization and protein engineering. Also, the development of de novo enzymes has seen a significant increase lately under the scope of the new field of synthetic biology. Depending on the esterification degree and the nature of fatty acid and/or sugar, a range of sugar esters can be synthesized. Due to their surface activity and emulsifying capacity, sugar esters are promising for applications in food industry.

  14. Enzymes for the biocatalytic production of rare sugars.

    Beerens, Koen; Desmet, Tom; Soetaert, Wim

    2012-06-01

    Carbohydrates are much more than just a source of energy as they also mediate a variety of recognition processes that are central to human health. As such, saccharides can be applied in the food and pharmaceutical industries to stimulate our immune system (e.g., prebiotics), to control diabetes (e.g., low-calorie sweeteners), or as building blocks for anticancer and antiviral drugs (e.g., L: -nucleosides). Unfortunately, only a small number of all possible monosaccharides are found in nature in sufficient amounts to allow their commercial exploitation. Consequently, so-called rare sugars have to be produced by (bio)chemical processes starting from cheap and widely available substrates. Three enzyme classes that can be used for rare sugar production are keto-aldol isomerases, epimerases, and oxidoreductases. In this review, the recent developments in rare sugar production with these biocatalysts are discussed.

  15. Total, Free, and Added Sugar Consumption and Adherence to Guidelines: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010

    Diewertje Sluik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars, adherence to sugar guidelines and overall diet quality in Dutch children and adults. In all, 3817 men and women (7–69 years from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010 were studied. Added and free sugar content of products was assigned by food composition tables and using labelling and product information. Diet was assessed with two 24-h recalls. Diet quality was studied in adults with the Dutch Healthy Diet-index. Total sugar intake was 22% Total Energy (%TE, free sugars intake 14 %TE, and added sugar intake 12 %TE. Sugar consumption was higher in children than adults. Main food sources of sugars were sweets and candy, non-alcoholic beverages, dairy, and cake and cookies. Prevalence free sugar intake <10 %TE was 5% in boys and girls (7–18 years, 29% in women, and 33% in men. Overall diet quality was similar comparing adults adherent and non-adherent to the sugar guidelines, although adherent adults had a higher intake of dietary fiber and vegetables. Adherence to the WHO free sugar guidelines of <5 %TE and <10 %TE was generally low in the Netherlands, particularly in children. Adherence to the added and free sugar guidelines was not strongly associated with higher diet quality in adults.

  16. Sugar beet genotype effect on potential of bioethanol production ...

    Variation on ethanol production were intensively related to the chemical composition of root, especially sugar content, potassium impurity, syrup purity and some characteristics such as root dry matter and root length. Bioethanol production was enhanced by increasing the sugar content and root yield in sugar beet. Sugar ...

  17. Supply optimization for the production of raw sugar

    Grunow, Martin; Günther, H.O.; Westinner, R.

    2007-01-01

    Based on a case study from Venezuela, the production of raw sugar is investigated. Ideally, sugar mills operate at a constant production rate. However, safety stocks of the raw material cannot be maintained as sugar cane quality deteriorates very rapidly. Sugar cane is therefore continuously...

  18. A systematic methodology to estimate added sugar content of foods.

    Louie, J C Y; Moshtaghian, H; Boylan, S; Flood, V M; Rangan, A M; Barclay, A W; Brand-Miller, J C; Gill, T P

    2015-02-01

    The effect of added sugar on health is a topical area of research. However, there is currently no analytical or other method to easily distinguish between added sugars and naturally occurring sugars in foods. This study aimed to develop a systematic methodology to estimate added sugar values on the basis of analytical data and ingredients of foods. A 10-step, stepwise protocol was developed, starting with objective measures (six steps) and followed by more subjective estimation (four steps) if insufficient objective data are available. The method developed was applied to an Australian food composition database (AUSNUT2007) as an example. Out of the 3874 foods available in AUSNUT2007, 2977 foods (77%) were assigned an estimated value on the basis of objective measures (steps 1-6), and 897 (23%) were assigned a subjectively estimated value (steps 7-10). Repeatability analysis showed good repeatability for estimated values in this method. We propose that this method can be considered as a standardised approach for the estimation of added sugar content of foods to improve cross-study comparison.

  19. Exopolysaccharides enriched in rare sugars: bacterial sources, production, and applications.

    Roca, Christophe; Alves, Vitor D; Freitas, Filomena; Reis, Maria A M

    2015-01-01

    Microbial extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), produced by a wide range of bacteria, are high molecular weight biopolymers, presenting an extreme diversity in terms of chemical structure and composition. They may be used in many applications, depending on their chemical and physical properties. A rather unexplored aspect is the presence of rare sugars in the composition of some EPS. Rare sugars, such as rhamnose or fucose, may provide EPS with additional biological properties compared to those composed of more common sugar monomers. This review gives a brief overview of these specific EPS and their producing bacteria. Cultivation conditions are summarized, demonstrating their impact on the EPS composition, together with downstream processing. Finally, their use in different areas, including cosmetics, food products, pharmaceuticals, and biomedical applications, are discussed.

  20. Polysaccharides enriched in rare sugars: bacterial sources, production and applications

    Christophe eRoca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial extracellular polysaccharides (EPS, produced by a wide range of bacteria, are high molecular weight biopolymers, presenting an extreme diversity in terms of chemical structure and composition. They may be used in many applications, depending on their chemical and physical properties. A rather unexplored aspect is the presence of rare sugars in the composition of some EPS. Rare sugars, such as rhamnose or fucose, may provide EPS with additional biological properties compared to those composed of more common sugar monomers.This review gives a brief overview of these specific EPS and their producing bacteria. Cultivation conditions are summarized, demonstrating their impact on the EPS composition, together with downstream processing. Finally, their use in different areas, including cosmetics, food products, pharmaceuticals and biomedical applications, are discussed.

  1. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm cultivation comes with risks. Small-scale cultivation of sugar palm perfectly fits into local farming systems. In order to make a proper assessment of the value palm sugar as bio-ethanol crop more informati...

  2. RESEARCH OF LIMY AND CARBONATE SYSTEM OF SUGAR PRODUCTION

    N. G. Kulneva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of рН and temperature on activity of suspension of lime and carbonate in sugar production is investigated. Possibility of decrease in a consumption of reagents on purification of production sugar solutions is established.

  3. Ethanol Production from Different Intermediates of Sugar Beet Processing

    Mladen Pavlečić; Ivna Vrana; Kristijan Vibovec; Mirela Ivančić Šantek; Predrag Horvat; Božidar Šantek

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, the production of ethanol from the raw sugar beet juice and raw sugar beet cossettes has been studied. For ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, batch and fed-batch cultivation techniques in the stirred tank bioreactor were used, while batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet cossettes was carried out in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB). In both cases, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a production microorganism. During batch ethanol ...

  4. What can the food and drink industry do to help achieve the 5% free sugars goal?

    Gibson, Sigrid; Ashwell, Margaret; Arthur, Jenny; Bagley, Lindsey; Lennox, Alison; Rogers, Peter J; Stanner, Sara

    2017-07-01

    To contribute evidence and make recommendations to assist in achieving free sugars reduction, with due consideration to the broader picture of weight management and dietary quality. An expert workshop in July 2016 addressed options outlined in the Public Health England report 'Sugar reduction: The evidence for action' that related directly to the food industry. Panel members contributed expertise in food technology, public heath nutrition, marketing, communications, psychology and behaviour. Recommendations were directed towards reformulation, reduced portion sizes, labelling and consumer education. These were evaluated based on their feasibility, likely consumer acceptability, efficacy and cost. The panel agreed that the 5% target for energy from free sugars is unlikely to be achievable by the UK population in the near future, but a gradual reduction from average current level of intake is feasible. Progress requires collaborations between government, food industry, non-government organisations, health professionals, educators and consumers. Reformulation should start with the main contributors of free sugars in the diet, prioritising those products high in free sugars and relatively low in micronutrients. There is most potential for replacing free sugars in beverages using high-potency sweeteners and possibly via gradual reduction in sweetness levels. However, reformulation alone, with its inherent practical difficulties, will not achieve the desired reduction in free sugars. Food manufacturers and the out-of-home sector can help consumers by providing smaller portions. Labelling of free sugars would extend choice and encourage reformulation; however, government needs to assist industry by addressing current analytical and regulatory problems. There are also opportunities for multi-agency collaboration to develop tools/communications based on the Eatwell Guide, to help consumers understand the principles of a varied, healthy, balanced diet. Multiple strategies

  5. Laboratory Determined Sugar Content and Composition of Commercial Infant Formulas, Baby Foods and Common Grocery Items Targeted to Children

    Walker, Ryan W.; Goran, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Excess added sugar consumption is tied to poor health outcomes in children. The sugar content of beverages and foods children are exposed to is mostly unknown, yet this information is imperative for understanding potential risks from overconsumption of sugars in early life. We determined actual sugar content by conducting a blinded laboratory analysis in infant formulas, breakfast cereals, packaged baked goods and yogurts. One hundred samples were sent to an independent laboratory for analysis via gas chromatography. Sugar content and composition was determined and total sugar was compared against nutrition labels. Of the 100 samples analyzed, 74% contained ≥20% of total calories per serving from added sugars. Nutrient label data underestimated or overestimated actual sugars and ~25% of all samples had actual total sugar values that were either 10% of labeled total sugar. Many products that are frequently marketed to and consumed by infants and young children contain sugars in amounts that differ from nutrition labels and often in excess of recommended daily levels. These findings provide further support for adding more comprehensive sugar labeling to food and beverage products, specifically those marketed to, or commonly consumed by, children. PMID:26193309

  6. Consumption of added sugars among US children and adults by food purchase location and food source.

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D

    2014-09-01

    The proposed changes to the Nutrition Facts Label by the US Food and Drug Administration will include information on added sugars for the first time. The objective was to evaluate the sources of added sugars in the diets of a representative sample of US children and adults by food purchase location and food source (eg, food group). This cross-sectional study among 31,035 children, adolescents, and adults aged ≥6 y from the 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010 NHANES used data from a 24-h dietary recall to evaluate consumption of added sugars. Food locations of origin were identified as stores (supermarket or grocery store), quick-service restaurants/pizza (QSRs), full-service restaurants (FSRs), schools, and others (eg, vending machines or gifts). Added sugars consumption by food purchase location was evaluated by age, family income-to-poverty ratio, and race-ethnicity. Food group sources of added sugars were identified by using the National Cancer Institute food categories. Added sugars accounted for ∼14.1% of total dietary energy. Between 65% and 76% of added sugars came from stores, 6% and 12% from QSRs, and 4% and 6% from FSRs, depending on age. Older adults (aged ≥51 y) obtained a significantly greater proportion of added sugars from stores than did younger adults. Lower-income adults obtained a significantly greater proportion of added sugars from stores than did higher-income adults. Intake of added sugars did not vary by family income among children/adolescents. Soda and energy and sports drinks were the largest food group sources of added sugars (34.4%), followed by grain desserts (12.7%), fruit drinks (8.0%), candy (6.7%), and dairy desserts (5.6%). Most added sugars came from foods obtained from stores. The proposed changes to the Nutrition Facts Label should capture the bulk of added sugars in the US food supply, which suggests that the recommended changes have the potential to reduce added sugars consumption. © 2014 American Society

  7. Added sugar and dietary sodium intake from purchased fast food ...

    In this study, males and females consumed on average three times the recommended daily intake of added sugar, and more than half of the recommended daily salt intake from these purchased foods alone. These dietary patterns during adolescence may exacerbate the risk of obesity and hypertension in later adult life.

  8. Total and Free Sugar Content of Pre-Packaged Foods and Non-Alcoholic Beverages in Slovenia

    Nina Zupanič

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific evidence of the association between free sugar consumption and several adverse health effects has led many public health institutions to take measures to limit the intake of added or free sugar. Monitoring the efficiency of such policies and the amount of free sugar consumed requires precise knowledge of free sugar content in different food products. To meet this need, our cross-sectional study aimed at assessing free sugar content for 10,674 pre-packaged food items available from major Slovenian food stores during data collection in 2015. Together, 52.6% of all analyzed products contained free sugar, which accounted for an average of 57.5% of the total sugar content. Food categories with the highest median free sugar content were: honey and syrups (78.0 g/100 g, jellies (62.9 g/100 g, chocolate and sweets (44.6 g/100 g, jam and spreads (35.9 g/100 g, and cereal bars (23.8 g/100 g. Using year-round sales data provided by the retailers, the data showed that chocolate, sweets, and soft drinks alone accounted for more than 50% of all free sugar sold on the Slovenian market. The results of this study can be used to prepare more targeted interventions and efficient dietary recommendations.

  9. Food acid content and erosive potential of sugar-free confections.

    Shen, P; Walker, G D; Yuan, Y; Reynolds, C; Stacey, M A; Reynolds, E C

    2017-06-01

    Dental erosion is an increasingly prevalent problem associated with frequent consumption of acidic foods and beverages. The aim of this study was to measure the food acid content and the erosive potential of a variety of sugar-free confections. Thirty sugar-free confections were selected and extracts analysed to determine pH, titratable acidity, chemical composition and apparent degree of saturation with respect to apatite. The effect of the sugar-free confections in artificial saliva on human enamel was determined in an in vitro dental erosion assay using change in surface microhardness. The change in surface microhardness was used to categorize the confections as high, moderate or low erosive potential. Seventeen of the 30 sugar-free confections were found to contain high concentrations of food acids, exhibit low pH and high titratable acidity and have high erosive potential. Significant correlations were found between the dental erosive potential (change in enamel surface microhardness) and pH and titratable acidity of the confections. Ten of these high erosive potential confections displayed dental messages on the packaging suggesting they were safe for teeth. Many sugar-free confections, even some with 'Toothfriendly' messages on the product label, contain high contents of food acids and have erosive potential. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  10. MANAGING PRODUCT SAFETY SYSTEM HACCP ON THE EXAMPLE OF BEET-SUGAR PRODUCTION

    V. A. Golybin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most effective safety management system of food production in all industrialized countries in the world recognized by the system based on the principles of HACCP. In Russia, the conformity assessment carried out by the HACCP system certification. The essence of the HACCP system is to identify and control the critical points. Critical Control Point – this is the stage of the process, which is subject to control for hazard identification and risk management in order to avoid the production of unsafe products. Implementation of HACCP system allows to tighten and coordinate the quality control system, which will improve the competitiveness of the products produced in the sugar market in Russia and abroad. In the early stages of food production HACCP system to prevent the occurrence of danger. It is based on the preventive approach to ensuring quality and safety in the production process, and can also be used in the development of new products. HACCP system is based on seven main principles to ensure the implementation and management of the system in production. 1. Creation of a working group of the coordinator and the technical secretary and various consultants. 2. Information on materials and products, in this case of sugar beet and sugar. 3. Information about the production. 4. Risk analysis of the available chemical, physical and microbiological factors. To determine the critical control points according to the results obtained for each factor is determined by a special chart the extent of its accounting. The need to consider the potential hazard is determined by the order in which area it has got. 5. The production program of mandatory preliminary activities in the production of sugar. 6. Determination of critical control points. 7. Making worksheets HACCP. It is shown that the use of HACCP in sugar beet production has several advantages.

  11. Types of fruits and vegetables used in commercial baby foods and their contribution to sugar content.

    Garcia, Ada Lizbeth; McLean, Kimberley; Wright, Charlotte M

    2016-10-01

    Fruits and vegetables (F&V) are often featured in names of commercial baby foods (CBFs). We aimed to survey all available CBFs in the UK market with F&V included in the food name in order to describe the amount and types of F&V used in CBF and their contribution to total sugar content. Food labels were used to identify F&V and total sugar content. Fruits were more common than vegetables in names of the 329 CBFs identified. The six most common F&V in the names were all relatively sweet: apple, banana, tomato, mango, carrot and sweet potato. The percentage of F&V in the foods ranged from a median of 94% for sweet-spoonable to 13% for dry-savoury products. Fruit content of sweet foods (n = 177) was higher than vegetable content of savoury foods (n = 152) with a median (IQR) of 64.0 g/100 g (33.0-100.0) vs. 46.0 g/100 g (33-56.7). Fruit juice was added to 18% of products. The proportion of F&V in CBF correlated significantly with sugar content for all the food types except dry-savoury food (sweet-spoonable r = 0.24, P = 0.006; savoury-spoonable r = 0.65, P vegetables which are unlikely to encourage preferences for bitter-tasting vegetables or other non-sweet foods. F&V contribute significantly to the total sugar content, particularly of savoury foods. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Biobutanol Production from Hexose and Pentose Sugars

    Raganati, F.; Procentese, A.; Olivieri, G.; Salatino, P.; Marzocchella, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation is receiving renewed interest as a way to upgrade renewable resources for the production of products with high added value as chemicals and fuels. Main pre-requisites of fermentation feedstocks are abundance and un-competitiveness with food sources and

  13. Ethanol production in fermentation of mixed sugars containing xylose

    Viitanen, Paul V [West Chester, PA; Mc Cutchen, Carol M [Wilmington, DE; Li,; Xu, [Newark, DE; Emptage, Mark [Wilmington, DE; Caimi, Perry G [Kennett Square, PA; Zhang, Min [Lakewood, CO; Chou, Yat-Chen [Lakewood, CO; Franden, Mary Ann [Centennial, CO

    2009-12-08

    Xylose-utilizing Z. mobilis strains were found to have improved ethanol production when grown in medium containing mixed sugars including xylose if sorbitol or mannitol was included in the medium. The effect was seen in concentrations of mixed sugars where no growth lag period occurs, as well as in higher sugars concentrations.

  14. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm

  15. IRREVERSIBILITY GENERATION IN SUGAR, ALCOHOL AND BIOGAS INTEGRATED PRODUCTIONS

    Meilyn González Cortés; Yenisleidy Martínez Martínez; Yailet Albernas Carvajal; Raúl A. Pérez Bermúdez

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the stages of losses and lower exergetic efficiency are determined when the sugar production process is integrated with others for the production of products such as biogas, torula yeast and electricity. The study is carried out in three scenarios of integrated processes for obtaining the indicated products. A sugar factory in which sugar and electricity are produced is considered as the base scenario and from this; a second scenario is inferred in which alcohol is produced from...

  16. Recent trends in bioethanol production from food processing byproducts.

    Akbas, Meltem Yesilcimen; Stark, Benjamin C

    2016-11-01

    The widespread use of corn starch and sugarcane as sources of sugar for the production of ethanol via fermentation may negatively impact the use of farmland for production of food. Thus, alternative sources of fermentable sugars, particularly from lignocellulosic sources, have been extensively investigated. Another source of fermentable sugars with substantial potential for ethanol production is the waste from the food growing and processing industry. Reviewed here is the use of waste from potato processing, molasses from processing of sugar beets into sugar, whey from cheese production, byproducts of rice and coffee bean processing, and other food processing wastes as sugar sources for fermentation to ethanol. Specific topics discussed include the organisms used for fermentation, strategies, such as co-culturing and cell immobilization, used to improve the fermentation process, and the use of genetic engineering to improve the performance of ethanol producing fermenters.

  17. WATER NETWORK INTEGRATION IN RAW SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Junior Lorenzo Llanes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main process industries in Cuba is that of the sugarcane. Among the characteristics of this industry is the high demand of water in its processes. In this work a study of water integration was carried out from the different operations of the production process of raw sugar, in order to reduce the fresh water consumption. The compound curves of sources and demands were built, which allowed the determination of the minimum water requirement of the network (1587,84 m3/d, as well as the amount of effluent generated (0,35 m3/tcane.The distribution scheme of fresh water and water reuse among different operations were obtained from the nearest neighbor algorithm. From considering new quality constrains was possible to eliminate the external water consumption, as well as to reduce the amount of effluent in a 37% in relation to the initial constrains.

  18. Anaerobic co-digestion of by-products from sugar production with cow manure

    Fang, Cheng; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    Sugar beet leaves (SBL), sugar beet top (SBT), sugar beet pulp (SBP) and desugared molasses (DM) are by-products from the sugar production. In the present study we investigated the potential of SBL, SBT and SBP as feedstock for biogas production. The maximum methane potential of SBL, SBT and SBP ......-digesting 50% of SBP with cow manure....

  19. 75 FR 23631 - Sugar Re-Export Program, the Sugar-Containing Products Re-Export Program, and the Polyhydric...

    2010-05-04

    ... Part 1530 Sugar Re-Export Program, the Sugar-Containing Products Re-Export Program, and the Polyhydric...), Additional U.S. Note 6, which authorizes entry of raw cane sugar under subheading 1701.11.20 of the HTS for the production of polyhydric alcohols, except polyhydric alcohols for use as a substitute for sugar in...

  20. Taxation of unprocessed sugar or sugar-added foods for reducing their consumption and preventing obesity or other adverse health outcomes: Protocol

    Pfinder, Manuela; Katikireddi, Srinivasa V.; Pega, Frank; Gartlehner, Gerald; Fenton, Candida; Griebler, Ursula; Sommer, Isolde; Heise, Thomas L.; Lhachimi, Stefan K.

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effects of taxation of unprocessed sugar or sugar-added foods in the general population on the:\\ud \\ud consumption of unprocessed sugar or sugar-added foods;\\ud prevalence and incidence of overweight and obesity; and\\ud prevalence and incidence of diet-related health conditions.

  1. Food Product Dating

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Food Product Dating "Best if Used By" is a ...

  2. Ethanol Production from Different Intermediates of Sugar Beet Processing

    Mladen Pavlečić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the production of ethanol from the raw sugar beet juice and raw sugar beet cossettes has been studied. For ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, batch and fed-batch cultivation techniques in the stirred tank bioreactor were used, while batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet cossettes was carried out in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB. In both cases, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a production microorganism. During batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, ethanol yield was 59.89 g/L and production efficiency 78.8 %, and in fed-batch process the yield was 92.78 g/L and efficiency 93.4 %. At the same time, ethanol production in HRTB from the raw sugar beet cossettes with inoculum of 16.7 % V/m (raw sugar beet cossettes resulted in the highest ethanol yield of 54.53 g/L and production efficiency of 79.5 %. The obtained results clearly show that both intermediates of sugar beet processing can be successfully used for ethanol production.

  3. School vending machine use and fast-food restaurant use are associated with sugar-sweetened beverage intake in youth.

    Wiecha, Jean L; Finkelstein, Daniel; Troped, Philip J; Fragala, Maren; Peterson, Karen E

    2006-10-01

    To examine associations between use of school vending machines and fast-food restaurants and youth intake of sugar-sweetened beverages. A cross-sectional observational study. From a group randomized obesity intervention, we analyzed baseline data from 1,474 students in 10 Massachusetts middle schools with vending machines that sold soda and/or other sweetened drinks. Daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (regular soda, fruit drinks, and iced tea), purchases from school vending machines, and visits to fast-food restaurants in the preceding 7 days were estimated by self-report. Chi(2) and nonparametric tests were performed on unadjusted data; multivariable models adjusted for sex, grade, body mass index, and race/ethnicity, and accounted for clustering within schools. Among 646 students who reported using school vending machines, 456 (71%) reported purchasing sugar-sweetened beverages. Overall, 977 students (66%) reported eating at a fast-food restaurant. Sugar-sweetened beverage intakes averaged 1.2 servings per day. In adjusted models, relative to no vending machine purchases, servings per day increased by 0.21 for one to three purchases per week (P=0.0057), and 0.71 with four or more purchases (Pvending machines, more report buying sugar-sweetened beverages than any other product category examined. Both school vending machine and fast-food restaurant use are associated with overall sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Reduction in added dietary sugars may be attainable by reducing use of these sources or changing product availability.

  4. The effect of sugar and processed food imports on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 172 countries.

    Lin, Tracy Kuo; Teymourian, Yasmin; Tursini, Maitri Shila

    2018-04-14

    Studies find that economic, political, and social globalization - as well as trade liberalization specifically - influence the prevalence of overweight and obesity in countries through increasing the availability and affordability of unhealthful food. However, what are the mechanisms that connect globalization, trade liberalization, and rising average body mass index (BMI)? We suggest that the various sub-components of globalization interact, leading individuals in countries that experience higher levels of globalization to prefer, import, and consume more imported sugar and processed food products than individuals in countries that experience lower levels of globalization. This study codes the amount of sugar and processed food imports in 172 countries from 1995 to 2010 using the United Nations Comtrade dataset. We employ country-specific fixed effects (FE) models, with robust standard errors, to examine the relationship between sugar and processed foods imports, globalization, and average BMI. To highlight further the relationship between the sugar and processed food import and average BMI, we employ a synthetic control method to calculate a counterfactual average BMI in Fiji. We find that sugar and processed food imports are part of the explanation to increasing average BMI in countries; after controlling for globalization and general imports and exports, sugar and processed food imports have a statistically and substantively significant effect in increasing average BMI. In the case of Fiji, the increased prevalence of obesity is associated with trade agreements and increased imports of sugar and processed food. The counterfactual estimates suggest that sugar and processed food imports are associated with a 0.5 increase in average BMI in Fiji.

  5. Ionization of food products

    Vasseur, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    After general remarks on foods preservation, on international works and on ionization future prospects, main irradiation sources are described. Recalls on radioactivity, on radiation-matter interaction, on toxicology of ionized foods and on ionized foods detection are given. Ionization applications to various products are reviewed, especially in: - Poultry meat - Fishing products - Fresh fruits and vegetables - Dry fruits and vegetables - spices, tea, infusion - prepacked products... An evaluation of economics and sociocultural impacts is presented in connection with recent experiments [fr

  6. Sugar and health: a food-based dietary guideline for South Africa

    2013-04-12

    Apr 12, 2013 ... Food-Based Dietary Guidelines for South Africa: Sugar and health: a ... of the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes, and probably cardiovascular disease too. ... that there is a strong association between sugar intake.

  7. COMPUTER SYSTEM FOR DETERMINATION OF COST DAILY SUGAR PRODUCTION AND INCIDENTS DECISIONS FOR COMPANIES SUGAR (SACODI

    Alejandro Álvarez-Navarro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of sugar production is complex; anything that affects this chain has direct repercussions in the sugar production’s costs, it’s synthetic and decisive indicator for the taking of decisions. Currently the Cuban sugar factory determine this cost weekly, for that, its process of taking of decisions is affected. Looking for solutions to this problem, the present work, being part of a territorial project approved by CITMA, intended to calculate the cost of production daily, weekly, monthly and accumulated until indicated date, according to an adaptation to the methodology used by the National Costs System of sugarcane created by the MINAZ, it’s supported by a computer system denominated SACODI. This adaptation registers the physical and economic indicators of all direct and indirect expenses of the  sugarcane and besides this information generates an economic-mathematical model of goal programming whose solution indicates the best balance in amount of sugar of the entities of the sugar factory, in short term. The implementation of the system in the sugar factory «Julio A. Mella» in Santiago de Cuba in the sugar-cane production 08-09 produced an estimate of decrease of the cost of until 3,5 % for the taking of better decisions. 

  8. A survey of nutrition labelling of sugar-containing foods in the north of England in 1989.

    Tyrrell, A; Rugg-Gunn, A

    1990-12-01

    A survey of the nutrition labelling of 880 varieties of foods on sale in three stores in Newcastle upon Tyne was undertaken in May-July 1989. The foods were chosen for investigation because they contained sugars, and they were categorised into 12 types of food. Some nutritional information was given for most foods but it seldom conformed to the format suggested by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. The sugars content of the foods was seldom given. Even when nutritional claims were made (e.g. 'low sugar', 'high fibre'), nutritional information was often incomplete. The three stores differed in the extent to which their own-brand products were labelled for nutrient content. Tesco products were comprehensibly labelled, while own-brand products for sale in the other two stores were not, although both stores stated their intention to introduce comprehensive nutrition labelling. Two of the three stores had, or intended to have, obligatory sugar labelling. Despite this, there were many examples of nutrition labelling which was misleading. It is concluded that nutrition labelling should be compulsory and should conform to a format which specifies sugars content.

  9. Ultra-processed foods and added sugars in the US diet: evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional study.

    Martínez Steele, Eurídice; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-03-09

    To investigate the contribution of ultra-processed foods to the intake of added sugars in the USA. Ultra-processed foods were defined as industrial formulations which, besides salt, sugar, oils and fats, include substances not used in culinary preparations, in particular additives used to imitate sensorial qualities of minimally processed foods and their culinary preparations. Cross-sectional study. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010. We evaluated 9317 participants aged 1+ years with at least one 24 h dietary recall. Average dietary content of added sugars and proportion of individuals consuming more than 10% of total energy from added sugars. Gaussian and Poisson regressions estimated the association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and intake of added sugars. All models incorporated survey sample weights and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, family income and educational attainment. Ultra-processed foods comprised 57.9% of energy intake, and contributed 89.7% of the energy intake from added sugars. The content of added sugars in ultra-processed foods (21.1% of calories) was eightfold higher than in processed foods (2.4%) and fivefold higher than in unprocessed or minimally processed foods and processed culinary ingredients grouped together (3.7%). Both in unadjusted and adjusted models, each increase of 5 percentage points in proportional energy intake from ultra-processed foods increased the proportional energy intake from added sugars by 1 percentage point. Consumption of added sugars increased linearly across quintiles of ultra-processed food consumption: from 7.5% of total energy in the lowest quintile to 19.5% in the highest. A total of 82.1% of Americans in the highest quintile exceeded the recommended limit of 10% energy from added sugars, compared with 26.4% in the lowest. Decreasing the consumption of ultra-processed foods could be an effective way of reducing the excessive intake of added sugars in the USA

  10. Catalytic production of sugar alcohols (polyols) and their application

    Albert, R; Straetz, A; Vollheim, G

    1980-07-01

    The article surveys the numerous applications of the principal sugar alcohols sorbitol and xylitol and their world production in 1978. Nowadays, the industrial production of sugar alcohols is almost exclusively by catalytic hydrogenation of the corresponding sugars; thus sorbitol is manufactured by hydrogenation of D-glucose, xylitol by hydrogenation of xylose, and mannitol by hydrogenation of invert sugar or fructose. Some 80% of the world production of sugar alcohols are manufactured in batch suspension processes using Raney nickel catalysts. Apart from the Atlas Powder continuous suspension process employing nickel-carrier catalysts, continuous processes have recently been developed which use Raney nickel and prove more economical owing to the lower catalyst costs. Trickling processes with fixed catalyst continue to play a minor role. Available production capacity based on batch suspension processes can be expanded by process optimization and new catalyst developments. A newly developed special Raney nickel catalyst reduces the specific catalyst consumption by about 50%.

  11. Combination of sugar analysis and stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry to detect the use of artificial sugars in royal jelly production.

    Wytrychowski, Marine; Daniele, Gaëlle; Casabianca, Hervé

    2012-05-01

    The effects of feeding bees artificial sugars and/or proteins on the sugar compositions and (13)C isotopic measurements of royal jellies (RJs) were evaluated. The sugars fed to the bees were two C4 sugars (cane sugar and maize hydrolysate), two C3 sugars (sugar beet, cereal starch hydrolysate), and honey. The proteins fed to them were pollen, soybean, and yeast powder proteins. To evaluate the influence of the sugar and/or protein feeding over time, samples were collected during six consecutive harvests. (13)C isotopic ratio measurements of natural RJs gave values of around -25 ‰, which were also seen for RJs obtained when the bees were fed honey or C3 sugars. However, the RJs obtained when the bees were fed cane sugar or corn hydrolysate (regardless of whether they were also fed proteins) gave values of up to -17 ‰. Sugar content analysis revealed that the composition of maltose, maltotriose, sucrose, and erlose varied significantly over time in accordance with the composition of the syrup fed to the bees. When corn and cereal starch hydrolysates were fed to the bees, the maltose and maltotriose contents of the RJs increased up to 5.0 and 1.3 %, respectively, compared to the levels seen in authentic samples (i.e., samples obtained when the bees were fed natural food: honey and pollen) that were inferior to 0.2% and not detected, respectively. The sucrose and erlose contents of natural RJs were around 0.2 %, whereas those in RJs obtained when the bees were fed cane or beet sugar were as much as 4.0 and 1.3 %, respectively. The combination of sugar analysis and (13)C isotopic ratio measurements represents a very efficient analytical methodology for detecting (from early harvests onward) the use of C4 and C3 artificial sugars in the production of RJ.

  12. Total, free, and added Sugar consumption and adherence to guidelines: the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010

    Sluik, D.; Lee, van L.; Engelen, A.I.P.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars,

  13. Sugar cane juice as a retarding admixture in concrete production ...

    Sugar cane juice (SCJ) was investigated as a retarding agent in concrete production. Slump values and compressive strength of concrete with partial replacement of water by sugar cane juice was also investigated. The concrete cubes were prepared by replacing water with SCJ in the following proportions 0, 3, 5, 10 and ...

  14. Food consumption and food exchange of caged honey bees using a radioactive labelled sugar solution.

    Robert Brodschneider

    Full Text Available We measured the distribution of sugar solution within groups of caged honey bees (Apis mellifera under standard in vitro laboratory conditions using 14C polyethylene glycol as a radioactive marker to analyze ingestion by individual bees after group feeding. We studied the impact of different experimental setups by varying the number of bees, age of bees, origin of bees, duration of experiment, the amount of available diet, and the influence of the neurotoxic pesticide imidacloprid in the diet on the feeding and food sharing behavior (trophallaxis. Sugar solution was non-uniformly distributed in bees in 36 out of 135 cages. As a measure of the extent to which the sugar diet was equally distributed between caged bees, we calculated the (inner 80% intake ratio by dividing the intake of the 90th percentile bee by the intake of the 10th percentile bee. This intake ratio ranged from 1.3 to 94.8 in 133 individual cages, further supporting a non-uniform distribution of food among caged bees. We can expect a cage with 10 or 30 bees containing one bee that ingests, on average, the 8.8-fold of the bee in the same cage ingesting the smallest quantity of food. Inner 80% intake ratios were lower in experiments with a permanent or chronic offering of labelled sugar solution compared to temporary or acute feedings. After pooling the data of replicates to achieve a higher statistical power we compared different experimental setups. We found that uniform food distribution is best approached with 10 newly emerged bees per cage, which originate from a brood comb from a single colony. We also investigated the trophallaxis between caged honey bees which originally consumed the diet and newly added bees. Color marked bees were starved and added to the cages in a ratio of 10:5 or 20:20 after the initial set of bees consumed all the labelled sugar solution. The distribution of the labelled sugar solution by trophallaxis within 48 hours to added bees was 25% (10:5 or 45

  15. Food consumption and food exchange of caged honey bees using a radioactive labelled sugar solution.

    Brodschneider, Robert; Libor, Anika; Kupelwieser, Vera; Crailsheim, Karl

    2017-01-01

    We measured the distribution of sugar solution within groups of caged honey bees (Apis mellifera) under standard in vitro laboratory conditions using 14C polyethylene glycol as a radioactive marker to analyze ingestion by individual bees after group feeding. We studied the impact of different experimental setups by varying the number of bees, age of bees, origin of bees, duration of experiment, the amount of available diet, and the influence of the neurotoxic pesticide imidacloprid in the diet on the feeding and food sharing behavior (trophallaxis). Sugar solution was non-uniformly distributed in bees in 36 out of 135 cages. As a measure of the extent to which the sugar diet was equally distributed between caged bees, we calculated the (inner 80%) intake ratio by dividing the intake of the 90th percentile bee by the intake of the 10th percentile bee. This intake ratio ranged from 1.3 to 94.8 in 133 individual cages, further supporting a non-uniform distribution of food among caged bees. We can expect a cage with 10 or 30 bees containing one bee that ingests, on average, the 8.8-fold of the bee in the same cage ingesting the smallest quantity of food. Inner 80% intake ratios were lower in experiments with a permanent or chronic offering of labelled sugar solution compared to temporary or acute feedings. After pooling the data of replicates to achieve a higher statistical power we compared different experimental setups. We found that uniform food distribution is best approached with 10 newly emerged bees per cage, which originate from a brood comb from a single colony. We also investigated the trophallaxis between caged honey bees which originally consumed the diet and newly added bees. Color marked bees were starved and added to the cages in a ratio of 10:5 or 20:20 after the initial set of bees consumed all the labelled sugar solution. The distribution of the labelled sugar solution by trophallaxis within 48 hours to added bees was 25% (10:5) or 45% (20:20) of the

  16. Effects of defoliation and drought on root food reserves in sugar maple seedlings

    Johnson Parker; Johnson Parker

    1970-01-01

    The artificial defoliation of sugar maple (Acer. saccharum Marsh.) can cause a marked decline in root food reserves, especially starch, and an increase in the levels of the reducing sugars, fructose and glucose. Defoliation can also bring on the dieback-decline syndrome in sugar maples (Parker and Houston 1968). Two experiments designed to examine this question were...

  17. IRREVERSIBILITY GENERATION IN SUGAR, ALCOHOL AND BIOGAS INTEGRATED PRODUCTIONS

    Meilyn González Cortés

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the stages of losses and lower exergetic efficiency are determined when the sugar production process is integrated with others for the production of products such as biogas, torula yeast and electricity. The study is carried out in three scenarios of integrated processes for obtaining the indicated products. A sugar factory in which sugar and electricity are produced is considered as the base scenario and from this; a second scenario is inferred in which alcohol is produced from the molasses of the sugar process and biogas from the vinasse of the alcohol distillation process. Finally, a third scenario is exergetically evaluated in which sugar, electricity, biogas and alcohol are produced, but this last one from juices and molasses of the sugar process. For the exergetic analysis the integrated scheme was divided into 8 subsystems. From the analysis of results, the major subsystems that generate irreversibilities are: cogeneration (64.36-65.98%, juice extraction (8.85-9.85%, crystallization and cooking, (8.48 -9.02%, fermentation (4.12-4.94% and distillation (2.74-3.2%. Improvements are proposed to minimize irreversibilities, including the thermal integration of processes, technological modifications in the fermentation process and the introduction of more efficient equipment for the generation of electricity. The exergetic efficiency is between 78.95-81.10%, obtaining greater exergetic efficiency in the scheme of joint operation to produce sugar, alcohol and biogas.

  18. Added sugars and ultra-processed foods in Spanish households (1990-2010).

    Latasa, P; Louzada, M L D C; Martinez Steele, E; Monteiro, C A

    2017-12-26

    To study the association between ultra-processed foods acquisitions and added sugar content of total food purchases in Spanish households in 2010. Changes over time (1990-2000-2010) in ultra-processed food purchases and added sugars content of total food purchases are also compared. We used data from three nationally representative Household Budget Surveys (HBS) conducted in 1990, 2000 and 2010. Number of studied households was 21,012, 33,730 and 22,116, respectively. Purchased foods and drinks were classified according to NOVA food groups as ultra-processed foods, processed foods, unprocessed or minimally processed foods, or processed culinary ingredients. Linear and Poisson regressions were used to estimate the association between quintiles of energy contribution of ultra-processed foods and added sugars contents of total food purchases in 2010. Changes over time were assessed using tests of linear trend and Student's t test. In 2010, ultra-processed foods represented 31.7% of daily energy acquisitions and 80.4% of all added sugars. Added sugars content of food purchases raised from 7.3% in the lowest to 18.2% in the highest quintiles of energy contribution of ultra-processed foods. The risk of exceeding 10% energy from added sugars quadrupled between the lowest and highest quintiles. The percentage of ultra-processed foods on all food purchases almost tripled between 1990 and 2010 (from 11.0 to 31.7%), paralleling the increase of added sugars content (from 8.4 to 13.0%). Cutting down exceeding added sugars availability in Spain may require a reduction in ultra-processed food purchasing.

  19. Effective production of fermentable sugars from brown macroalgae biomass.

    Wang, Damao; Kim, Do Hyoung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2016-11-01

    Brown macroalgae are renewable and sustainable biomass resources for the production of biofuels and chemicals, owing to their high levels of carbohydrates and low levels of lignin. To increase the biological usage of brown macroalgae, it is necessary to depolymerize the polysaccharides that generate macroalgal monomeric sugars or sugar derivatives and to convert them into fermentable sugars for the production of biofuels and chemicals. In this review, we discuss the chemical and enzymatic saccharification of the major carbohydrates found in brown macroalgae and the use of the resulting constituents in the production of biofuels and chemicals, as well as high-value health-benefiting functional oligosaccharides and sugars. We also discuss recently reported experimental results, novel enzymes, and technological breakthroughs that are related to polysaccharide depolymerization, fermentable sugar production, and the biological conversion of non-favorable sugars for fermentation using industrial microorganisms. This review provides a comprehensive perspective of the efficient utilization of brown macroalgae as renewable resources for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

  20. Sugar and health: a food-based dietary guideline for South Africa

    2013-04-12

    Apr 12, 2013 ... Food-Based Dietary Guidelines for South Africa: Sugar and health: a food-based dietary guidelines for South Africa ... preferable, especially in those at risk of the harmful effects of sugar, e.g. people who are overweight, have prediabetes, ..... regarded as being synonymous with “junk food” into one.

  1. Rapid determination of sugar level in snack products using infrared spectroscopy.

    Wang, Ting; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2012-08-01

    Real-time spectroscopic methods can provide a valuable window into food manufacturing to permit optimization of production rate, quality and safety. There is a need for cutting edge sensor technology directed at improving efficiency, throughput and reliability of critical processes. The aim of the research was to evaluate the feasibility of infrared systems combined with chemometric analysis to develop rapid methods for determination of sugars in cereal products. Samples were ground and spectra were collected using a mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometer equipped with a triple-bounce ZnSe MIRacle attenuated total reflectance accessory or Fourier transform near infrared (NIR) system equipped with a diffuse reflection-integrating sphere. Sugar contents were determined using a reference HPLC method. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to create cross-validated calibration models. The predictability of the models was evaluated on an independent set of samples and compared with reference techniques. MIR and NIR spectra showed characteristic absorption bands for sugars, and generated excellent PLSR models (sucrose: SEP 0.96). Multivariate models accurately and precisely predicted sugar level in snacks allowing for rapid analysis. This simple technique allows for reliable prediction of quality parameters, and automation enabling food manufacturers for early corrective actions that will ultimately save time and money while establishing a uniform quality. The U.S. snack food industry generates billions of dollars in revenue each year and vibrational spectroscopic methods combined with pattern recognition analysis could permit optimization of production rate, quality, and safety of many food products. This research showed that infrared spectroscopy is a powerful technique for near real-time (approximately 1 min) assessment of sugar content in various cereal products. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Consumption of added sugars among US children and adults by food purchase location and food source123

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D

    2014-01-01

    Background: The proposed changes to the Nutrition Facts Label by the US Food and Drug Administration will include information on added sugars for the first time. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the sources of added sugars in the diets of a representative sample of US children and adults by food purchase location and food source (eg, food group). Design: This cross-sectional study among 31,035 children, adolescents, and adults aged ≥6 y from the 2003–2004, 2005–2006, 2007–2008, and 2009–2010 NHANES used data from a 24-h dietary recall to evaluate consumption of added sugars. Food locations of origin were identified as stores (supermarket or grocery store), quick-service restaurants/pizza (QSRs), full-service restaurants (FSRs), schools, and others (eg, vending machines or gifts). Added sugars consumption by food purchase location was evaluated by age, family income-to-poverty ratio, and race-ethnicity. Food group sources of added sugars were identified by using the National Cancer Institute food categories. Results: Added sugars accounted for ∼14.1% of total dietary energy. Between 65% and 76% of added sugars came from stores, 6% and 12% from QSRs, and 4% and 6% from FSRs, depending on age. Older adults (aged ≥51 y) obtained a significantly greater proportion of added sugars from stores than did younger adults. Lower-income adults obtained a significantly greater proportion of added sugars from stores than did higher-income adults. Intake of added sugars did not vary by family income among children/adolescents. Soda and energy and sports drinks were the largest food group sources of added sugars (34.4%), followed by grain desserts (12.7%), fruit drinks (8.0%), candy (6.7%), and dairy desserts (5.6%). Conclusions: Most added sugars came from foods obtained from stores. The proposed changes to the Nutrition Facts Label should capture the bulk of added sugars in the US food supply, which suggests that the recommended changes have the potential to

  3. Electron irradiation of dry food products

    Gruenewald, Th.

    1983-01-01

    The interest of the industrial food producer is increasing in having the irradiation facility installed in the food processing chain. The throughput of the irradiator should be high and the residence time of the product in the facility should be short. These conditions can be accomplished by electron irradiators. To clarify the irradiation conditions spices taken out of the industrial process, food grade salt, sugar, and gums as models of dry food products were irradiated. With a radiation dose of 10 kGy microbial load can be reduced on 10**4 microorganisms/g. The sensory properties of the spices were not changed in an atypical way. For food grade salt and sugar changes of colour were observed which are due to lattice defects or initiated browning. The irradiation of several gums led only in some cases to an improvement of the thickness properties in the application below 50 deg C, in most cases the thickness effect was reduced. The products were packaged before irradiation. But it would be possible also to irradiate the products without packaging moving the product through the irradiation field in a closed conveyor system. (author)

  4. Electron irradiation of dry food products

    Gruenewald, Th [Bundesbahn-Zentralamt, Minden (Germany, F.R.)

    1983-01-01

    The interest of the industrial food producer is increasing in having the irradiation facility installed in the food processing chain. The throughput of the irradiator should be high and the residence time of the product in the facility should be short. These conditions can be accomplished by electron irradiators. To clarify the irradiation conditions spices taken out of the industrial process, food grade salt, sugar, and gums as models of dry food products were irradiated. With a radiation dose of 10 kGy microbial load can be reduced on 10**4 microorganisms/g. The sensory properties of the spices were not changed in an atypical way. For food grade salt and sugar changes of colour were observed which are due to lattice defects or initiated browning. The irradiation of several gums led only in some cases to an improvement of the thickness properties in the application below 50 deg C, in most cases the thickness effect was reduced. The products were packaged before irradiation. But it would be possible also to irradiate the products without packaging moving the product through the irradiation field in a closed conveyor system.

  5. Dietary Intake of Individual (Free and Intrinsic) Sugars and Food Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study

    Ruiz, Emma; Rodriguez, Paula; Valero, Teresa; Ávila, José M.; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of total and individual sugars is controversial and little is known about consumption and dietary sources in Spain. The purpose was to examine free and intrinsic sugar intake and food and beverage sources. The ANIBES Study (Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain), a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years old; n = 2009) carried out in 2013, was used. Food and beverage records were obtained by a three-day dietary record by using a tablet device. The median total sugar intake was 71.5 g/day (17% Total Energy, TE), the intrinsic sugar intake was 38.3 g/day (9.6% TE), and the free sugar was 28.8 g/day (7.3% TE). Total sugar intake (free and intrinsic) was higher in men than in women for all age groups, although in terms of the contribution to total energy intake, the opposite was observed. Differences were observed for free sugar consumption dependent on age and marked differences (up to two-fold) were observed when considering the percent TE, which was much higher in children and adolescents. For the intrinsic sugar, however, a higher contribution to TE was observed in the elderly. The major sources of intrinsic sugars were fruits (31.8%), milks (19.6%), juices and nectars (11.1%), vegetables (9.89%), yogurt and fermented milk (7.18%), low-alcohol-content beverages (4,94%), bread (2.91%), and sugar soft drinks (2.24%), greater than 90% from diet contribution. As for free sugars, sources were sugar soft drinks (25.5%), sugar (17.8%), bakery and pastry items (15.2%), chocolates (11.4%), yogurt and fermented milk (6.44%), other dairy products (5.99%), jams (3.58%), juices and nectars (2.91%), and breakfast cereals and cereal bars (2.78%), summing up to 90% of the contribution. The present study demonstrates that only a moderate percentage of the Spanish population adhered to the present recommendations for total sugar intake, and urgent efforts are needed to improve diet quality in the youngest

  6. Dietary Intake of Individual (Free and Intrinsic Sugars and Food Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study

    Emma Ruiz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of total and individual sugars is controversial and little is known about consumption and dietary sources in Spain. The purpose was to examine free and intrinsic sugar intake and food and beverage sources. The ANIBES Study (Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain, a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years old; n = 2009 carried out in 2013, was used. Food and beverage records were obtained by a three-day dietary record by using a tablet device. The median total sugar intake was 71.5 g/day (17% Total Energy, TE, the intrinsic sugar intake was 38.3 g/day (9.6% TE, and the free sugar was 28.8 g/day (7.3% TE. Total sugar intake (free and intrinsic was higher in men than in women for all age groups, although in terms of the contribution to total energy intake, the opposite was observed. Differences were observed for free sugar consumption dependent on age and marked differences (up to two-fold were observed when considering the percent TE, which was much higher in children and adolescents. For the intrinsic sugar, however, a higher contribution to TE was observed in the elderly. The major sources of intrinsic sugars were fruits (31.8%, milks (19.6%, juices and nectars (11.1%, vegetables (9.89%, yogurt and fermented milk (7.18%, low-alcohol-content beverages (4,94%, bread (2.91%, and sugar soft drinks (2.24%, greater than 90% from diet contribution. As for free sugars, sources were sugar soft drinks (25.5%, sugar (17.8%, bakery and pastry items (15.2%, chocolates (11.4%, yogurt and fermented milk (6.44%, other dairy products (5.99%, jams (3.58%, juices and nectars (2.91%, and breakfast cereals and cereal bars (2.78%, summing up to 90% of the contribution. The present study demonstrates that only a moderate percentage of the Spanish population adhered to the present recommendations for total sugar intake, and urgent efforts are needed to improve diet quality in the youngest

  7. Correlates of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Purchased for Children at Fast-Food Restaurants.

    Cantor, Jonathan; Breck, Andrew; Elbel, Brian

    2016-11-01

    To determine consumer and fast-food purchase characteristics associated with the purchase of a sugar-sweetened beverage, as well as calories and grams of sugar, for children at a fast-food restaurant. We completed cross-sectional analyses of fast-food restaurant receipts and point-of-purchase surveys (n = 483) collected during 2013 and 2014 in New York City and Newark and Jersey City, New Jersey. Caregivers purchased beverages for half of all children in our sample. Approximately 60% of these beverages were sugar-sweetened beverages. Fast-food meals with sugar-sweetened beverages had, on average, 179 more calories than meals with non-sugar-sweetened beverages. Being an adolescent or male, having a caregiver with a high school degree or less, having a caregiver who saw the posted calorie information, ordering a combination meal, and eating the meal in the restaurant were associated with ordering a sugar-sweetened beverage. Purchases that included a combination meal or were consumed in the restaurant included more beverage grams of sugar and calories. Characteristics of fast-food purchases appear to have the largest and most important association to beverage calories for children at fast-food restaurants. Targeting fast-food restaurants, particularly combination meals, may improve childhood obesity rates.

  8. The optimal conditions for nata production from sugar palm syrup by Acetobacter xylinum TISTR 107

    Laochareonsuk, T.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal conditions of nata production from the fermentation of sugar palm syrup by Acetobacter xylinum TISTR 107 was studied. The results showed that optimized production for a litre of sugar palm syrup medium should compose 15 ºBrix concentration, 7.0 g NH4H2PO4 and 0.7 g MgSO4. 7 H2O at pH 4.25 and incubation at room temperature. The thickness of nata production reached 1.15 cm in 9 days. Sensory evaluation showed that there were no significant difference in odor and acceptability between the nata from sugar palm syrup and the traditional nata production from coconut juice whereas there were significant differences in color and texture. However, the nata from sugar palm syrup gave a better texture. Chemical analysis of the nata produced under these optimal culture conditions revealed 0.13% protein, 0.012% fat, 2.74% fiber, 0.378% nitrogen-free extract, 0.11% ash and 96.63% moisture content. The results suggest that nata produced from sugar palm syrup can be used in food and confectionery.

  9. Valorisation of food and beverage waste via saccharification for sugars recovery.

    Kwan, Tsz Him; Ong, Khai Lun; Haque, Md Ariful; Kwan, Wing Hei; Kulkarni, Sandeep; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2018-05-01

    Valorisation of mixed food and beverage (F&B) waste was studied for the recovery of sugars via saccharification. Glucoamylase and sucrase were employed to hydrolyse the starch and sucrose present in the mixed F&B waste because of the high cost-effectiveness for such recovery. The Michaelis-Menten kinetics model suggests that preservatives and additives in beverages did not inhibit glucoamylase and sucrase during saccharification. High levels of glucose (228.1 g L -1 ) and fructose (55.7 g L -1 ) were efficiently produced within 12 h at a solid-to-liquid ratio of 37.5% (w/v) in 2.5 L bioreactors. An overall conversion yield of 0.17 g sugars per g of mixed F&B waste was obtained in mass balance analysis. Lastly, possible industrial applications of the sugar-rich hydrolysate and by-products are discussed. This study is believed to cast insights into F&B waste recycling via biotechnology to produce high-value added products to promote the establishment of a circular bio-economy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Production of Microbial Transglutaminase on Media Made from Sugar Cane Molasses and Glycerol

    Manuel Vázquez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Transglutaminase is an enzyme that catalyses an acyl transfer reaction between γ-carboxamide groups of glutaminyl residues and lysine residues in proteins. Due to this property, this enzyme is used for enhancing textural properties of protein-rich food. The transglutaminase used as food additive is obtained by microorganisms, mainly by Streptoverticillium ladakanum. On the other hand, sugar cane molasses is a viscous liquid rich in noncrystallized carbohydrates (saccharose, glucose and fructose. In this work, the feasibility of using sugar cane molasses as a carbon source for the production of microbial transglutaminase by Streptoverticillium ladakanum NRRL 3191 has been studied. Carbon sources including sugar cane molasses (60 g of total sugars per L, glycerol (60 g/L and their mixture in a ratio of 1:1 (30 g/L of each were evaluated. Time course of microbial growth, transglutaminase activity and carbon source consumption were determined every 24 h during 120 h of fermentations at three agitation speeds (200, 300 or 400 rpm. The results showed that with the increase in agitation speed, the biomass concentration increased up to 8.39 g/L in the medium containing sugar cane molasses alone or the mixture of molasses and glycerol. The highest transglutaminase activity was obtained at 400 rpm in the medium containing a mixture of molasses and glycerol, reaching 0.460 U/mL, while in the medium containing sugar cane molasses alone, the activity was 0.240 U/mL, and using glycerol alone it was 0.250 U/mL. These results show that sugar cane molasses is a suitable medium for transglutaminase production when it is combined with glycerol.

  11. Legal and Administrative Feasibility of a Federal Junk Food and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax to Improve Diet.

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Wilde, Parke; Huang, Yue; Micha, Renata; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate legal and administrative feasibility of a federal "junk" food (including sugar-sweetened beverages [SSBs]) tax to improve diet. To assess food definitions and administration models, we systematically searched (1) PubMed (through May 15, 2017) for articles defining foods subject to taxes, and legal and legislative databases as well as online for (2) US federal, state, and tribal junk food tax bills and laws (January 1, 2012-February 28, 2017); SSB taxes (January 1, 2014-February 28, 2017); and international junk food tax laws (as of February 28, 2017); and (3) federal taxing mechanisms and administrative methods (as of February 28, 2017). Articles recommend taxing foods by product category, broad nutrient criteria, specific nutrients or calories, or a combination. US junk food tax bills (n = 6) and laws (n = 3), international junk food laws (n = 2), and US SSB taxes (n = 10) support taxing foods using category-based (n = 8), nutrient-based (n = 1), or combination (n = 12) approaches. Federal taxing mechanisms (particularly manufacturer excise taxes on alcohol) and administrative methods provide informative models. From legal and administrative perspectives, a federal junk food tax appears feasible based on product categories or combination category-plus-nutrient approaches, using a manufacturer excise tax, with additional support for sugar and graduated tax strategies.

  12. Sweet Knowledge: How Declaring Added Sugars Will Help Consumers Make Informed Food Choices.

    McDonough, Sarah P

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the authority to require a declaration of "added sugars" on the nutrition label. FDA has relied on scientific evidence from well-respected sources that concluded that "added sugars" pose a public health concern for Americans; its rule is not arbitrary or capricious. At the same time, there are certain limits on the effectiveness of the "added sugars" rule, especially consumer comprehension. Therefore, FDA should consider more effective front-of-package labeling to clearly communicate the public health risks of "added sugars".

  13. Multifractal modeling of the production of concentrated sugar syrup crystal

    Bi Sheng; Gao Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    High quality, concentrated sugar syrup crystal is produced in a critical step in cane sugar production: the clarification process. It is characterized by two variables: the color of the produced sugar and its clarity degree. We show that the temporal variations of these variables follow power-law distributions and can be well modeled by multiplicative cascade multifractal processes. These interesting properties suggest that the degradation in color and clarity degree has a system-wide cause. In particular, the cascade multifractal model suggests that the degradation in color and clarity degree can be equivalently accounted for by the initial “impurities” in the sugarcane. Hence, more effective cleaning of the sugarcane before the clarification stage may lead to substantial improvement in the effect of clarification. (paper)

  14. Ethanol production from tropical sugar beet juice

    Sanette

    2012-07-05

    Jul 5, 2012 ... South Africa and transport costs constitute approximately. 20% of South Africa's gross domestic product (Singh,. 2006). Globally transportation accounts for 30% of the energy demand and is responsible ..... fermentation by wine yeasts in media containing structurally complex nitrogen sources. J. Inst. Brew.

  15. Ultra-processed foods and added sugars in the Chilean diet (2010).

    Cediel, Gustavo; Reyes, Marcela; da Costa Louzada, Maria Laura; Martinez Steele, Euridice; Monteiro, Carlos A; Corvalán, Camila; Uauy, Ricardo

    2018-01-01

    To assess the consumption of ultra-processed foods and analyse its association with the content of added sugars in the Chilean diet. Cross-sectional study of national dietary data obtained through 24 h recalls and classified into food groups according to the extent and purpose of food processing (NOVA classification). Chile. A probabilistic sample of 4920 individuals (aged 2 years or above) studied in 2010 by a national dietary survey (Encuesta Nacional de Consumo Alimentario). Ultra-processed foods represented 28·6 (se 0·5) % of total energy intake and 58·6 (se 0·9) % of added sugars intake. The mean percentage of energy from added sugars increased from 7·7 (se 0·3) to 19·7 (se 0·5) % across quintiles of the dietary share of ultra-processed foods. After adjusting for several potential sociodemographic confounders, a 5 percentage point increase in the dietary share of ultra-processed foods determined a 1 percentage point increase in the dietary content of added sugars. Individuals in the highest quintile were three times more likely (OR=2·9; 95 % CI 2·4, 3·4) to exceed the 10 % upper limit for added sugars recommended by the WHO compared with those in the lowest quintile, after adjusting for sociodemographic variables. This association was strongest among individuals aged 2-19 years (OR=3·9; 95 % CI 2·7, 5·9). In Chile, ultra-processed foods are important contributors to total energy intake and to the consumption of added sugars. Actions aimed at limiting consumption of ultra-processed foods are being implemented as effective ways to achieve WHO dietary recommendations to limit added sugars and processed foods, especially for children and adolescents.

  16. Production of sugar and alcohol: financial and operational strategies

    Celma de Oliveira Ribeiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes the construction of an optimization model to define the product portfolio of a sugarcane mill, taking into account operational and financial aspects. It is considered that the revenue earned by a producer comes from the sale of sugar and alcohol in the physical market and the results obtained through hedging in the derivatives market of sugar. Employing CVaR (Conditional Value-at-Risk, as the risk measure, the model allows the construction of an efficient frontier and, according to the producer's risk tolerance, defines the optimal strategy of production (production mix and activity in the derivatives market (hedge ratio. Through the model the article also seeks to analyze the advantage of using the options market in the construction of financial hedging strategies in agricultural commodities markets.

  17. Evidence to support a food-based dietary guideline on sugar consumption in South Africa.

    Steyn, Nelia P; Temple, Norman J

    2012-07-04

    To review studies undertaken in South Africa (SA) which included sugar intake associated with dental caries, non-communicable diseases, diabetes, obesity and/or micronutrient dilution, since the food-based dietary guideline: "Use foods and drinks that contain sugar sparingly and not between meals" was promulgated by the Department of Health (DOH) in 2002. Three databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, and ScienceDirect), and SA Journal of Clinical Nutrition (SAJCN), DOH and SA Medical Research Council (SAMRC) websites were searched for SA studies on sugar intake published between 2000 and January 2012. Studies were included in the review if they evaluated the following: sugar intake and dental caries; sugar intake and non-communicable diseases; sugar and diabetes; sugar and obesity and/or sugar and micronutrient dilution. The initial search led to 12 articles in PubMed, 0 in Cochrane, 35 in ScienceDirect, 5 in the SAJCN and 3 reports from DOH/SAMRC. However, after reading the abstracts only 7 articles from PubMed, 4 from SAJCN and 3 reports were retained for use as being relevant to the current review. Hand searching of reference lists of SAJCN articles produced two more articles. Intake of sugar appears to be increasing steadily across the South African (SA) population. Children typically consume about 50 g per day, rising to as much as 100 g per day in adolescents. This represents about 10% of dietary energy, possibly as much as 20%. It has been firmly established that sugar plays a major role in development of dental caries. Furthermore, a few studies have shown that sugar has a diluting effect on the micronutrient content of the diet which lowers the intake of micronutrients. Data from numerous systematic reviews have shown that dietary sugar increases the risk for development of both obesity and type 2 diabetes. Risk for development of these conditions appears to be especially strong when sugar is consumed as sugar-sweetened beverages. Based on the evidence

  18. Biocatalytic production of D-tagatose: A potential rare sugar with versatile applications.

    Jayamuthunagai, J; Gautam, P; Srisowmeya, G; Chakravarthy, M

    2017-11-02

    D-tagatose is a naturally existing rare monosaccharide having prebiotic properties. Minimal absorption, low metabolizing energy, and unique clinical properties are the characteristics of D-tagatose. D-tagatose gained international attention by matching the purpose of alternate sweeteners that is much needed for the control of diabetes among world population. Recent efforts in understanding tagatose bioconversion have generated essential information regarding its production and application. This article reviews the evolution of D-tagatose as an important rare sugar by appreciable improvements in production results and its significant applications resulted of its unique physical, chemical, biological, and clinical properties thus considering it an appropriate product for requisite improvements in technical viability. Based on current knowledge and technology projections, the commercialization of D-tagatose rare sugar as food additive is close to reality.

  19. Food sources of free sugars in children's diet and identification of lifestyle patterns associated with free sugars intake: the GRECO (Greek Childhood Obesity) study.

    Farajian, Paul; Risvas, Grigoris; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Zampelas, Antonis

    2016-09-01

    Excessive free sugars consumption has a possible role in health issues, diet quality and obesity development. The present cross-sectional study aimed to identify the major food sources of free sugars in Greek children's diet and investigate possible associations of dietary patterns with free sugars intake. Anthropometric measurements and information on dietary and physical activity habits were obtained. Energy and free sugars intake coming from foods were estimated and principal components analysis was applied to identify dietary patterns. The GRECO (Greek Childhood Obesity) study. Nationwide sample of 3089 children (aged 10-12 years). Adopting WHO criteria, 44·2 % of participants were categorized as having free sugars intake above 10 % of total energy intake. Mean contribution of free sugars to energy intake was 11·2 %, and the major food sources of free sugars differed from those of other childhood populations. Free sugars intake was not associated with overweight/obesity. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that two lifestyle and dietary patterns, characterized by higher consumption of sweets, fast foods, fries, sugared drinks, frequently ordering/eating outside home and having meals in front of a screen (pattern 1) and higher consumption of whole fruits, 100 % fruit juices, vegetables, legumes and honey/jam (pattern 2), were positively associated with free sugars intake. A large proportion of children exceeded the recommended cut-off and free sugars intake was associated with lifestyle patterns rather than single foods. Public health programmes aiming to reduce free sugars consumption should be tailored on promoting the correct dietary habits of specific childhood populations.

  20. [Sugar Chain Construction of Functional Natural Products Using Plant Glucosyltransferases].

    Mizukami, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Plant secondary product glycosyltransferases belong to family 1 of the glycosyltransferase superfamily and mediate the transfer of a glycosyl residue from activated nucleotide sugars to lipophilic small molecules, thus affecting the solubility, stability and pharmacological activities of the sugar-accepting compounds. The biotechnological application of plant glycosyltransferases in glycoside synthesis has attracted attention because enzymatic glycosylation offers several advantages over chemical methods, including (1) avoiding the use of harsh conditions and toxic catalysts, (2) providing strict control of regio-and stereo-selectivity and (3) high efficiency. This review describes the in vivo and in vitro glycosylation of natural organic compounds using glycosyltransferases, focusing on our investigation of enzymatic synthesis of curcumin glycosides. Our current efforts toward functional characterization of some glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of iridoids and crocin, as well as in the sugar chain elongation of quercetin glucosides, are described. Finally, I describe the relationship of the structure of sugar chains and the intestinal absorption which was investigated using chemoenzymatically synthesized quercetin glycosides.

  1. Selective ethanol production from reducing sugars in a saccharide mixture.

    Ohara, Satoshi; Kato, Taku; Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Sakoda, Akiyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Fermentation profiles of four different yeasts reportedly defective in sucrose utilization indicate that all strains tested removed particular sugar via selective conversion to ethanol in a saccharide mixture. At the temperature of pressed sugarcane juice, Saccharomyces dairenensis and Saccharomyces transvaalensis performed better in ethanol production rate and yield, respectively. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced fermentable sugar production from kitchen waste using various pretreatments.

    Hafid, Halimatun Saadiah; Rahman, Nor'Aini Abdul; Md Shah, Umi Kalsom; Baharudin, Azhari Samsu

    2015-06-01

    The kitchen waste fraction in municipal solid waste contains high organic matter particularly carbohydrate that can contribute to fermentable sugar production for subsequent conversion to bioethanol. This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of single and combination pretreatments of kitchen waste by liquid hot water, mild acid pretreatment of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and enzymatic hydrolysis (glucoamylase). The maximum total fermentable sugar produced after combination pretreatment by 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase consisted of 93.25 g/L glucose, 0.542 g/L sucrose, 0.348 g/L maltose, and 0.321 g/L fructose. The glucose released by the combination pretreatment method was 0.79 g glucose/g KW equivalent to 79% of glucose conversion. The effects of the pre-treatment on kitchen waste indicated that the highest solubilization was 40% by the combination method of 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase. The best combination pre-treatment gave concentrations of lactic acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid of 11.74 g/L, 6.77 g/L, and 1.02 g/L, respectively. The decrease of aliphatic absorbance bands of polysaccharides at 2851 and 2923 cm(-1) and the increase on structures of carbonyl absorbance bands at 1600 cm(-1) reflects the progress of the kitchen waste hydrolysis to fermentable sugars. Overall, 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase treatment was the most profitable process as the minimum selling price of glucose was USD 0.101/g kitchen waste. Therefore, the combination pretreatment method was proposed to enhance the production of fermentable sugar, particularly glucose from kitchen waste as the feedstock for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of

  4. Production of rare sugars from common sugars in subcritical aqueous ethanol.

    Gao, Da-Ming; Kobayashi, Takashi; Adachi, Shuji

    2015-05-15

    A new isomerization reaction was developed to synthesize rare ketoses. D-tagatose, D-xylulose, and D-ribulose were obtained in the maximum yields of 24%, 38%, and 40%, respectively, from the corresponding aldoses, D-galactose, D-xylose, and D-ribose, by treating the aldoses with 80% (v/v) subcritical aqueous ethanol at 180°C. The maximum productivity of D-tagatose was ca. 80 g/(Lh). Increasing the concentration of ethanol significantly increased the isomerization of D-galactose. Variation in the reaction temperature did not significantly affect the production of D-tagatose from D-galactose. Subcritical aqueous ethanol converted both 2,3-threo and 2,3-erythro aldoses to the corresponding C-2 ketoses in high yields. Thus, the treatment of common aldoses in subcritical aqueous ethanol can be regarded as a new method to synthesize the corresponding rare sugars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reducing Added Sugars in the Food Supply Through a Cap-and-Trade Approach

    Lewis, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the effect of a simulated cap-and-trade policy to reduce added sugar in the food supply. Methods. Using nationally representative data on added-sugar content and consumption, we constructed a mathematical model of a cap-and-trade policy and compared its health implications to those of proposals to tax sugar sweetened beverages or added sugars. Results. Capping added-sugar emissions into the food supply by food manufacturers at a rate of 1% per year would be expected to reduce the prevalence of obesity by 1.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.9, 2.4; a 4.6% decline) and the incidence of type 2 diabetes by 21.7 cases per 100 000 people (95% CI = 12.9, 30.6; a 4.2% decline) over 20 years, averting approximately $9.7 billion in health care spending. Racial and ethnic minorities would be expected to experience the largest declines. By comparison, equivalent price penalties through excise taxes would be expected to generate smaller health benefits. Conclusions. A cap-and-trade policy to reduce added-sugar intake may reduce obesity and type 2 diabetes to a greater extent than currently-proposed excise taxes. PMID:25365146

  6. Delicious Low GL space foods by using Low GI materials -Checked of blood sugar level-

    Katayama, Naomi; Kuwayama, Akemi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Enough life-support systems are necessary to stay in space for a long term. The management of the meal for astronauts is in particular very important. When an astronaut gets sick in outer space, it means death. To astronauts, the delicious good balance space foods are essential for their work. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating space foods menu for the healthy space-life by measuring blood sugar level. We made space foods menu to referred to Japanese nutrition standard in 2010. We made space foods menu which are using "brown rice, wheat, soy bean, sweet potato and green-vegetable" and " loach and insects which are silkworm pupa, snail, mud snail, turmait, fly, grasshopper, bee". We use ten health adults as subjects. Ten subjects performed the sensory test of the questionnaire method. There was the sensuality examination in the item of "taste, a fragrance, color, the quantity" and acquired a mark at ten points of perfect scores. The blood sugar level was measured with peripheral blood, before and after a meal for each 15 minutesduring 120 minutes. Statistical analysis was analysed by Excel statistics. As a result of having measured blood sugar level, the space foods menu understood that hyperglycosemia value after a meal was hard to happen. As a result of sensuality exam-ination of the subject, ten points of evaluation of the taste exceeded eight points in a perfect score. The healthy space foods which were hard to go up of the blood sugar level were made deliciously. We can evaluate space foods leading to good health maintenance of the balance by measuring blood sugar level. An astronaut must be healthy to stay in the space for a long term. Therefore the development of the delicious space foods which increase of the health is essential. I devise a combination and the cooking method of the cooking ingredient and want to make healthier space foods menu.

  7. Price and Availability of Sugar-Free, Sugar-Reduced and Low Glycemic Index Cereal Products in Northwestern México

    Jesús G. Arámburo-Gálvez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar-free (SF, sugar-reduced (SR, or low-glycemic-index (low GI cereal products could be helpful for the dietary treatment of disorders related to glucose homeostasis. However, access and economic aspects are barriers that could hamper their consumption. Thus, the availability and price of such cereal products were evaluated in Northwestern México. The products were categorized in 10 groups. The data were collected in five cities by store visitation (from November 2015 to April 2016. The availability in specialized stores and supermarkets was expressed as availability rates based on the total number of products. The price of the SF, SR, and low GI products were compared with their conventional counterparts. Availability rates were higher in supermarkets than in specialized stores by product numbers (14.29% versus 3.76%, respectively; p < 0.001 and by product categories (53.57% versus 26.92%, respectively; p < 0.001. Five categories of products labeled as SF, SR, and low GI (oats, cookies and crackers, flours, snacks, and tostadas/totopos had higher prices than their conventional counterparts (p < 0.05. In conclusion, in Northwestern Mexico, the availability of SF, SR, and low GI cereal-based foods is relatively low, and these foods are more expensive than their conventional counterparts.

  8. Association of maternal food choices with caries status and sugar consumption among preschool children in Vikarabad town

    Md Shakeel Anjum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children choose sweet, energy dense foods in preference to more nutritious options. Despite being aware about healthy food, mothers regularly purchase, prepare and allow their children to eat unhealthy food. Aims: To explore the association between the knowledge of mothers of preschool children about making food choices and oral health of their children and to assess the association with their children′s sugar consumption and caries status. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 358 mother and child pairs from preschools and Anganwadi centers in the Vikarabad town of Ranga Reddy district in Telangana using simple random sampling. Data were collected using a questionnaire filled by their mothers who gathered their views on choices about food; a 3-day diet chart and clinical assessment of the children′s caries status. Chi-square, t-test and ANOVA were used. Results: Majority of mothers were motivated by their child′s preferences (51%, availability and accessibility of food products (19% and affordability (15% when making food choices for their children. Though, mothers had a favorable knowledge regarding food choices for their children and about oral health, it was not found to be associated with caries status of their children. However, the association between the sweet scores of the children and their caries status was significant. Conclusion:Though the mothers had favorable knowledge about providing healthy foods to their children, it did not reflect in their behavior when choosing foods. Higher sugar consumption of the children was associated with more dental caries.

  9. High-performance thin-layer chromatography analysis of steviol glycosides in Stevia formulations and sugar-free food products, and benchmarking with (ultra) high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Morlock, Gertrud E; Meyer, Stephanie; Zimmermann, Benno F; Roussel, Jean-Marc

    2014-07-11

    A high-performance TLC (HPTLC) method was newly developed and validated for analysis of 7 steviol glycosides in 6 different types of food and Stevia formulations. After a minimized one-step sample preparation, 21 samples were developed in parallel, allowing an effective food screening. Depending on the sample application volume, the method was suited to analyze food sample concentrations in the mg/kg range. LOQs of stevioside in natural yoghurt matrix spiked at 0.02, 0.13 and 0.2% were determined by the calibration curve method to be 12ng/band (peak height). ANOVA was successfully passed to prove data homogeneity in the working range (30-600ng/band). The accuracy (recovery tolerance limit, 92-120%), repeatability (3.1-5.4%) and intermediate precision (4.0-8.4%) were determined for stevioside in milk-based matrix including sample preparation and recovery rates at 3 different concentration levels. For the first time, the recording of HPTLC-ESI-MS spectra via the TLC-MS Interface was demonstrated for rebaudioside A. HPTLC contents for rebaudioside A were compared with results of two (U)HPLC methods. The running costs and analysis time of the three different methods were discussed in detail with regard to screening of food products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Are sweet snacks more sensitive to price increases than sugar-sweetened beverages: analysis of British food purchase data

    Smith, Richard D; Quirmbach, Diana; Jebb, Susan A

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is now advocated, and implemented, in many countries as a measure to reduce the purchase and consumption of sugar to tackle obesity. To date, there has been little consideration of the potential impact that such a measure could have if extended to other sweet foods, such as confectionery, cakes and biscuits that contribute more sugar to the diet than SSBs. The objective of this study is to compare changes in the demand for sweet snacks and SSBs arising from potential price increases. Setting Secondary data on household itemised purchases of all foods and beverages from 2012 to 2013. Participants Representative sample of 32 249 households in Great Britain. Primary and secondary outcome measures Change in food and beverage purchases due to changes in their own price and the price of other foods or beverages measured as price elasticity of demand for the full sample and by income groups. Results Chocolate and confectionery, cakes and biscuits have similar price sensitivity as SSBs, across all income groups. Unlike the case of SSBs, price increases in these categories are also likely to prompt reductions in the purchase of other sweet snacks and SSBs, which magnify the overall impact. The effects of price increases are greatest in the low-income group. Conclusions Policies that lead to increases in the price of chocolate and confectionery, cakes and biscuits may lead to additional and greater health gains than similar increases in the price of SSBs through direct reductions in the purchases of these foods and possible positive multiplier effects that reduce demand for other products. Although some uncertainty remains, the associations found in this analysis are sufficiently robust to suggest that policies—and research—concerning the use of fiscal measures should consider a broader range of products than is currently the case. PMID:29700100

  11. Are sweet snacks more sensitive to price increases than sugar-sweetened beverages: analysis of British food purchase data.

    Smith, Richard D; Cornelsen, Laura; Quirmbach, Diana; Jebb, Susan A; Marteau, Theresa M

    2018-04-26

    Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is now advocated, and implemented, in many countries as a measure to reduce the purchase and consumption of sugar to tackle obesity. To date, there has been little consideration of the potential impact that such a measure could have if extended to other sweet foods, such as confectionery, cakes and biscuits that contribute more sugar to the diet than SSBs. The objective of this study is to compare changes in the demand for sweet snacks and SSBs arising from potential price increases. Secondary data on household itemised purchases of all foods and beverages from 2012 to 2013. Representative sample of 32 249 households in Great Britain. Change in food and beverage purchases due to changes in their own price and the price of other foods or beverages measured as price elasticity of demand for the full sample and by income groups. Chocolate and confectionery, cakes and biscuits have similar price sensitivity as SSBs, across all income groups. Unlike the case of SSBs, price increases in these categories are also likely to prompt reductions in the purchase of other sweet snacks and SSBs, which magnify the overall impact. The effects of price increases are greatest in the low-income group. Policies that lead to increases in the price of chocolate and confectionery, cakes and biscuits may lead to additional and greater health gains than similar increases in the price of SSBs through direct reductions in the purchases of these foods and possible positive multiplier effects that reduce demand for other products. Although some uncertainty remains, the associations found in this analysis are sufficiently robust to suggest that policies-and research-concerning the use of fiscal measures should consider a broader range of products than is currently the case. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  12. Bioreactors for lignocellulose conversion into fermentable sugars for production of high added value products.

    Liguori, Rossana; Ventorino, Valeria; Pepe, Olimpia; Faraco, Vincenza

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomasses derived from dedicated crops and agro-industrial residual materials are promising renewable resources for the production of fuels and other added value bioproducts. Due to the tolerance to a wide range of environments, the dedicated crops can be cultivated on marginal lands, avoiding conflict with food production and having beneficial effects on the environment. Besides, the agro-industrial residual materials represent an abundant, available, and cheap source of bioproducts that completely cut out the economical and environmental issues related to the cultivation of energy crops. Different processing steps like pretreatment, hydrolysis and microbial fermentation are needed to convert biomass into added value bioproducts. The reactor configuration, the operative conditions, and the operation mode of the conversion processes are crucial parameters for a high yield and productivity of the biomass bioconversion process. This review summarizes the last progresses in the bioreactor field, with main attention on the new configurations and the agitation systems, for conversion of dedicated energy crops (Arundo donax) and residual materials (corn stover, wheat straw, mesquite wood, agave bagasse, fruit and citrus peel wastes, sunflower seed hull, switchgrass, poplar sawdust, cogon grass, sugarcane bagasse, sunflower seed hull, and poplar wood) into sugars and ethanol. The main novelty of this review is its focus on reactor components and properties.

  13. Autonomous Food Production

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Growing food in space will not only allow us to extend the length of future missions in space, but also significantly increase the astronauts' well-being. The...

  14. Restaurant foods, sugar-sweetened soft drinks, and obesity risk among young African American women.

    Boggs, Deborah A; Rosenberg, Lynn; Coogan, Patricia F; Makambi, Kepher H; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Palmer, Julie R

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is disproportionately high in African American women, and consumption of fast foods and sugar-sweetened soft drinks is also especially high among African Americans. We investigated the relation of intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and specific types of restaurant foods to obesity in the Black Women's Health Study. In this prospective cohort study, 19,479 non-obese women aged 21-39 years at baseline were followed for 14 years (1995-2009). Dietary intake was assessed by validated food frequency questionnaire in 1995 and 2001. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of intakes of restaurant foods and sugar-sweetened soft drinks with incident obesity. Higher intakes of burgers from restaurants and sugar-sweetened soft drinks were associated with greater risk of becoming obese. The associations were present in models that included both factors and adjusted for overall dietary pattern. The HR of obesity in relation to restaurant burger consumption of > or = 2 times/week compared with or = 2 drinks/day compared with obesity among young African American women.

  15. Biodegradable composites from polyester and sugar beet pulp with antimicrobial coating for food packaging

    Totally biodegradable, double-layered antimicrobial composite Sheets were introduced for food packaging. The substrate layers of the sheets were prepared from poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and sugar beet pulp (SBP) or poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) and SBP by a twin-screw extruder. The ac...

  16. On polydispersity of plant biomass recalcitrance and its effects on pretreatment optimization for sugar production

    J.Y. Zhu; Steve P. Verrill; Hao Liu; Victoria L. Herian; Xuejun Pan; Donald L. Rockwood

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a property associated with plant biomass recalcitrance to enzyme and microbial deconstructions in sugar production from cellulose and hemicelluloses. The hemicelluloses are more readily hydrolyzed to sugars than is cellulose. As a result, optimization to maximize individual glucose and hemicellulose sugar recovery is not possible. This property is...

  17. Price and Availability of Sugar-Free, Sugar-Reduced and Low Glycemic Index Cereal Products in Northwestern México.

    Arámburo-Gálvez, Jesús G; Ontiveros, Noé; Vergara-Jiménez, Marcela J; Magaña-Ordorica, Dalia; Gracia-Valenzuela, Martina H; Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco

    2017-12-18

    Sugar-free (SF), sugar-reduced (SR), or low-glycemic-index (low GI) cereal products could be helpful for the dietary treatment of disorders related to glucose homeostasis. However, access and economic aspects are barriers that could hamper their consumption. Thus, the availability and price of such cereal products were evaluated in Northwestern México. The products were categorized in 10 groups. The data were collected in five cities by store visitation (from November 2015 to April 2016). The availability in specialized stores and supermarkets was expressed as availability rates based on the total number of products. The price of the SF, SR, and low GI products were compared with their conventional counterparts. Availability rates were higher in supermarkets than in specialized stores by product numbers (14.29% versus 3.76%, respectively; p snacks, and tostadas/totopos) had higher prices than their conventional counterparts ( p < 0.05). In conclusion, in Northwestern Mexico, the availability of SF, SR, and low GI cereal-based foods is relatively low, and these foods are more expensive than their conventional counterparts.

  18. Technical and economic assessments of storage techniques for long-term retention of industrial-beet sugar for non-food industrial fermentations

    Vargas-Ramirez, Juan Manuel

    Industrial beets may compete against corn grain as an important source of sugars for non-food industrial fermentations. However, dependable and energy-efficient systems for beet sugar storage and processing are necessary to help establish industrial beets as a viable sugar feedstock. Therefore, technical and economic aspects of beet sugar storage and processing were evaluated. First, sugar retention was evaluated in whole beets treated externally with either one of two antimicrobials or a senescence inhibitor and stored for 36 wk at different temperature and atmosphere combinations. Although surface treatment did not improve sugar retention, full retention was enabled by beet dehydration caused by ambient air at 25 °C and with a relative humidity of 37%. This insight led to the evaluation of sugar retention in ground-beet tissue ensiled for 8 wk at different combinations of acidic pH, moisture content (MC), and sugar:solids. Some combinations of pH ≤ 4.0 and MC ≤ 67.5% enabled retentions of at least 90%. Yeast fermentability was also evaluated in non-purified beet juice acidified to enable long-term storage and partially neutralized before fermentation. None of the salts synthesized through juice acidification and partial neutralization inhibited yeast fermentation at the levels evaluated in that work. Conversely, yeast fermentation rates significantly improved in the presence of ammonium salts, which appeared to compensate for nitrogen deficiencies. Capital and operating costs for production and storage of concentrated beet juice for an ethanol plant with a production capacity of 76 x 106 L y-1 were estimated on a dry-sugar basis as U.S. ¢34.0 kg-1 and ¢2.2 kg-1, respectively. Storage and processing techniques evaluated thus far prove that industrial beets are a technically-feasible sugar feedstock for ethanol production.

  19. Food legume production in China

    Ling Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Food legumes comprise all legumes grown for human food in China as either dry grains or vegetables, except for soybean and groundnut. China has a vast territory with complex ecological conditions. Rotation, intercropping, and mixed cropping involving pulses are normal cropping systems in China. Whether indigenous or introduced crops, pulses have played an important role in Chinese cropping systems and made an important contribution to food resources for humans since ancient times. The six major food legume species (pea, faba bean, common bean, mung bean, adzuki bean, and cowpea are the most well-known pulses in China, as well as those with more local distributions; runner bean, lima bean, chickpea, lentil, grass pea, lupine, rice bean, black gram, hyacinth bean, pigeon pea, velvet bean, winged bean, guar bean, sword bean, and jack bean. China has remained the world's leading producer of peas, faba beans, mung beans, and adzuki beans in recent decades, as documented by FAO statistics and China Agriculture Statistical Reports. The demand for food legumes as a healthy food will markedly increase with the improvement of living standards in China. Since China officially joined the World Trade Organization (WTO in 2001, imports of pea from Canada and Australia have rapidly increased, resulting in reduced prices for dry pea and other food legumes. With reduced profits for food legume crops, their sowing area and total production has decreased within China. At the same time, the rising consumer demand for vegetable food legumes as a healthy food has led to attractive market prices and sharp production increases in China. Vegetable food legumes have reduced growing duration and enable flexibility in cropping systems. In the future, production of dry food legumes will range from stable to slowly decreasing, while production of vegetable food legumes will continue to increase.

  20. INNOVATIVE RESERVES OF LABOR PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVE IN NATIONAL ENTERPRISES OF SUGAR INDUSTRY

    T. Kostenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming the innovative inertia and effective use of innovative reserves of labor productivity increase in domestic sugar factories is an important step towards the revival of strategically important sector for Ukraine’s economy and the key to its future development in the long run. The aim of the article is to search and study of innovative reserves of labor productivity increase in domestic enterprises of sugar industry. The international experience of innovation implementing in sugar industry enterprises is studied. The paper proves that management innovation is innovative reserves of labor productivity improve in the domestic sugar enterprises. The study analyzes overall trends of innovation development and dynamics of labor productivity in the sugar factories of Ukraine during the period of 2003-2013. The benefits and risks of laboratory tests of sugar beets and sugar are overviewed for the optimal technological mode of production installation on terms of outsourcing. The necessity and economic effectiveness of laboratory research outsourcing is proved to create the optimal technological mode of sugar production. It will improve labor productivity and quality of sugar, increase production and develop new profitable activities of sugar industry enterprises.

  1. Life cycle analysis for bioethanol production from sugar beet crops in Greece

    Foteinis, Spyros; Kouloumpis, Victor [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, GR 73100 Chania (Greece); Tsoutsos, Theocharis, E-mail: theocharis.tsoutsos@enveng.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, GR 73100 Chania (Greece)

    2011-09-15

    The main aim of this study is to evaluate whether the potential transformation of the existing sugar plants of Northern Greece to modern bioethanol plants, using the existing cultivations of sugar beet, would be an environmentally sustainable decision. Using Life Cycle Inventory and Impact Assessment, all processes for bioethanol production from sugar beets were analyzed, quantitative data were collected and the environmental loads of the final product (bioethanol) and of each process were estimated. The final results of the environmental impact assessment are encouraging since bioethanol production gives better results than sugar production for the use of the same quantity of sugar beets. If the old sugar plants were transformed into modern bioethanol plants, the total reduction of the environmental load would be, at least, 32.6% and a reduction of more than 2 tons of CO{sub 2}e/sugar beet of ha cultivation could be reached. Moreover bioethanol production was compared to conventional fuel (gasoline), as well as to other types of biofuels (biodiesel from Greek cultivations). - Highlights: > Bioethanol production gives better results than sugar production from sugar beets. > In most cases, sugar beets, as an already industrialized plant has organizational virtues. > Bioethanol could be a sustainable independent way of energy production, alternative to biodiesel.

  2. Is lowering reducing sugars concentration in French fries an effective measure to reduce acrylamide concentration in food service establishments?

    Sanny, M; Jinap, S; Bakker, E J; van Boekel, M A J S; Luning, P A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the actual effectiveness of lowering reducing sugars concentration in par-fried potato strips on the concentration and variation of acrylamide in French fries prepared in real-life situations in food service establishments. Acrylamide, frying time, frying temperature, and reducing sugars were measured and characteristics of fryers were recorded. Data showed that the use of par-fried potato strips with lower concentrations of reducing sugars than the commonly used potato strips was an effective measure to reduce acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared under standardised frying conditions. However, there was still large variation in the acrylamide concentrations in French fries, although the variation in reducing sugars concentrations in low and normal types of par-fried potato strips was very small and the frying conditions were similar. Factors that could affect the temperature-time profile of frying oil were discussed, such as setting a lower frying temperature at the end than at the start of frying, product/oil ratio and thawing practice. These need to be controlled in daily practice to reduce variation in acrylamide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of controlled thermonuclear reactor fusion energy for food production

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, M.

    1975-06-01

    Food and energy shortages in many parts of the world in the past two years raise an immediate need for the evaluation of energy input in food production. The present paper investigates systematically (1) the energy requirement for food production, and (2) the provision of controlled thermonuclear fusion energy for major energy intensive sectors of food manufacturing. Among all the items of energy input to the ''food industry,'' fertilizers, water for irrigation, food processing industries, such as beet sugar refinery and dough making and single cell protein manufacturing, have been chosen for study in detail. A controlled thermonuclear power reactor was used to provide electrical and thermal energy for all these processes. Conceptual design of the application of controlled thermonuclear power, water and air for methanol and ammonia synthesis and single cell protein production is presented. Economic analysis shows that these processes can be competitive. (auth)

  4. Effects of Perceived Sugar on Chocolate Intake on Self-Reported Food Cravings, Mood States, and Food Intake: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Schultz, Lara J.

    1999-01-01

    Many dieters and compulsive overeaters report that sugar and chocolate are the most commonly craved foods. Further, many individuals have proclaimed themselves to be "addicted" to sugar or chocolate. It remains unclear, however, what factors lead to report of specific food addictions. A number of researchers have suggested that highly repetitive consumption of sugar and chocolate may result from various physiological processes (e.g., neurochemical imbalances, glucose/insulin malfunctioning). ...

  5. Food Production & Service Curriculum Guide.

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This curriculum guide deals with planning and implementing a course in food production and service. Addressed in the course are the following topics: using basic food service processes; performing the tasks of a kitchen helper, stock clerk, baker's helper, pastry helper, cook's helper, pantry goods maker, short order cook, cook, dining room…

  6. Energy, added sugar, and saturated fat contributions of taxed beverages and foods in Mexico.

    Batis, Carolina; Pedraza, Lilia S; Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Aburto, Tania C; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the dietary contribution of taxed beverages and foods. Using 24-hour diet recall data from the Ensanut 2012 (n=10 096), we estimated the contribution of the items which were taxed in 2014 to the total energy, added sugar, and saturated fat intakes in the entire sample and by sociodemographic characteristics. The contributions for energy, added sugar, and saturated fat were found to be 5.5, 38.1, and 0.4%, respectively, for the taxed beverages, and 14.4, 23.8, and 21.4%, respectively, for the taxed foods. Children and adolescents (vs. adults), medium and high socioeconomic status (vs. low), urban area (vs. rural), and North and Center region (vs. South) had higher energy contribution of taxed beverages and foods. The energy contribution was similar between males and females. These taxes covered an important proportion of Mexicans' diet and therefore have the potential to improve it meaningfully.

  7. Fumaric acid production using renewable resources from biodiesel and cane sugar production processes.

    Papadaki, Aikaterini; Papapostolou, Harris; Alexandri, Maria; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; de Castro, Aline Machado; Freire, Denise M G; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2018-04-13

    The microbial production of fumaric acid by Rhizopus arrhizus NRRL 2582 has been evaluated using soybean cake from biodiesel production processes and very high polarity (VHP) sugar from sugarcane mills. Soybean cake was converted into a nutrient-rich hydrolysate via a two-stage bioprocess involving crude enzyme production via solid state fermentations (SSF) of either Aspergillus oryzae or R. arrhizus cultivated on soybean cake followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean cake. The soybean cake hydrolysate produced using crude enzymes derived via SSF of R. arrhizus was supplemented with VHP sugar and evaluated using different initial free amino nitrogen (FAN) concentrations (100, 200, and 400 mg/L) in fed-batch cultures for fumaric acid production. The highest fumaric acid concentration (27.3 g/L) and yield (0.7 g/g of total consumed sugars) were achieved when the initial FAN concentration was 200 mg/L. The combination of VHP sugar with soybean cake hydrolysate derived from crude enzymes produced by SSF of A. oryzae at 200 mg/L initial FAN concentration led to the production of 40 g/L fumaric acid with a yield of 0.86 g/g of total consumed sugars. The utilization of sugarcane molasses led to low fumaric acid production by R. arrhizus, probably due to the presence of various minerals and phenolic compounds. The promising results achieved through the valorization of VHP sugar and soybean cake suggest that a focused study on molasses pretreatment could lead to enhanced fumaric acid production.

  8. Farmers, cooperatives, new food products

    Søgaard, Villy

    Executive Summary 1. Innovation intensity varies by several orders of magnitude across economic sectors. According to the evidence presented in Chapter 1, this is mainly due to differences in the demand for innovation. Thus, the relatively low levels of product orientated R & D for the food sectors...... of most countries are consistent with the comparatively long penetration periods and low success rates experienced with many new food products. 2. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that the demand for innovation within the food sector is positively related to the degree of processing. 3. The constitutive...... of primary input in order to support capacity utilization at the primary level and thereby increase the earnings of the membership. 9. Input substitution serves to intensify the focus on the primary product supplied by the membership, which is liable to reduce incentives to produce combined food products. 10...

  9. Mechanism of Mg2+-Accompanied Product Release in Sugar Nucleotidyltransferases.

    Vithani, Neha; Ankush Jagtap, Pravin Kumar; Verma, Sunil Kumar; Tripathi, Ravi; Awasthi, Shalini; Nair, Nisanth N; Prakash, Balaji

    2018-03-06

    The nucleotidyl transfer reaction, catalyzed by sugar nucleotidyltransferases (SNTs), is assisted by two active site Mg 2+ ions. While studying this reaction using X-ray crystallography, we captured snapshots of the pyrophosphate (product) as it exits along a pocket. Surprisingly, one of the active site Mg 2+ ions remains coordinated to the exiting pyrophosphate. This hints at the participation of Mg 2+ in the process of product release, besides its role in catalyzing nucleotidyl transfer. These observations are further supported by enhanced sampling molecular dynamics simulations. Free energy computations suggest that the product release is likely to be rate limiting in SNTs, and the origin of the high free energy barrier for product release could be traced back to the "slow" conformational change of an Arg residue at the exit end of the pocket. These results establish a dual role for Mg 2+ , and propose a general mechanism of product release during the nucleotidyl transfer by SNTs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Product Origin and Food Marketing

    Delagneau, Bernard

    1987-01-01

    The consumer's knowledge and perception of a product's country of ongm play an important role m food marketing strategies. "Think-national" campaigns are used widelym some EC countries but are not, however, as effective as quantitative restnctions on imports. Surveys and leg1slat10n at both national and EC levels reflect the desire of European consumers for "origin markmg" to appear on food product labels. National stereotypes are frequently adopted by generic and brand advertisers to promote...

  11. Soil Erosion Threatens Food Production

    Michael Burgess

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Since humans worldwide obtain more than 99.7% of their food (calories from the land and less than 0.3% from the oceans and aquatic ecosystems, preserving cropland and maintaining soil fertility should be of the highest importance to human welfare. Soil erosion is one of the most serious threats facing world food production. Each year about 10 million ha of cropland are lost due to soil erosion, thus reducing the cropland available for world food production. The loss of cropland is a serious problem because the World Health Organization and the Food and Agricultural Organization report that two-thirds of the world population is malnourished. Overall, soil is being lost from agricultural areas 10 to 40 times faster than the rate of soil formation imperiling humanity’s food security.

  12. Effect of Sugar Concentration in Jerusalem Artichoke Extract on Kluyveromyces marxianus Growth and Ethanol Production

    Margaritis, Argyrios; Bajpai, Pratima

    1983-01-01

    The effect of inulin sugars concentration on the growth and ethanol production by Kluyveromyces marxianus UCD (FST) 55-82 was studied. A maximum ethanol concentration of 102 g/liter was obtained from 250 g of sugars per liter initial concentration. The maximum specific growth rate varied from 0.44 h−1 at 50 g of sugar per liter to 0.13 h−1 at 300 g of sugar per liter, whereas the ethanol yield remained almost constant at 0.45 g of ethanol per g of sugars utilized.

  13. Claiming health in food products

    Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    Health-related information is increasingly used on food products to convey their benefits. Health claims as a subcategory of these messages link the beneficial component, functions or health outcomes with specific products. For consumers, health claims seem to carry the message of increased...... healthiness, but not necessarily making the product more appealing. The wording of the claim seems to have little impact on claim perception, yet the health image of carrier products is important. From consumer-related factors the relevance and attitudes towards functional foods play a role, whereas socio......-demographic factors have only minor impact and the impact seems to be case-dependent. Familiarity with claims and functional foods increase perceived healthiness and acceptance of these products. Apparently consumers make rather rational interpretations of claims and their benefits when forced to assess...

  14. Production of Food Grade Yeasts

    Argyro Bekatorou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts have been known to humans for thousands of years as they have been used in traditional fermentation processes like wine, beer and bread making. Today, yeasts are also used as alternative sources of high nutritional value proteins, enzymes and vitamins, and have numerous applications in the health food industry as food additives, conditioners and flavouring agents, for the production of microbiology media and extracts, as well as livestock feeds. Modern scientific advances allow the isolation, construction and industrial production of new yeast strains to satisfy the specific demands of the food industry. Types of commercial food grade yeasts, industrial production processes and raw materials are highlighted. Aspects of yeast metabolism, with respect to carbohydrate utilization, nutritional aspects and recent research advances are also discussed.

  15. 77 FR 74726 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    2012-12-17

    ... tons according to data published by the Ministro de Agricultura de Chile. Based on this data, USTR... data published by the Ministro de Economia de El Salvador. Based on this data, USTR determines that El... and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of Chile, Morocco, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic...

  16. Enhancing ethanol production from cellulosic sugars using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis.

    Okonkwo, C C; Azam, M M; Ezeji, T C; Qureshi, N

    2016-07-01

    Studies were performed on the effect of CaCO3 and CaCl2 supplementation to fermentation medium for ethanol production from xylose, glucose, or their mixtures using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis. Both of these chemicals were found to improve maximum ethanol concentration and ethanol productivity. Use of xylose alone resulted in the production of 20.68 ± 0.44 g L(-1) ethanol with a productivity of 0.17 ± 0.00 g L(-1) h(-1), while xylose plus 3 g L(-1) CaCO3 resulted in the production of 24.68 ± 0.75 g L(-1) ethanol with a productivity of 0.21 ± 0.01 g L(-1) h(-1). Use of xylose plus glucose in combination with 3 g L(-1) CaCO3 resulted in the production of 47.37 ± 0.55 g L(-1) ethanol (aerobic culture), thus resulting in an ethanol productivity of 0.39 ± 0.00 g L(-1) h(-1). These values are 229 % of that achieved in xylose medium. Supplementation of xylose and glucose medium with 0.40 g L(-1) CaCl2 resulted in the production of 44.84 ± 0.28 g L(-1) ethanol with a productivity of 0.37 ± 0.02 g L(-1) h(-1). Use of glucose plus 3 g L(-1) CaCO3 resulted in the production of 57.39 ± 1.41 g L(-1) ethanol under micro-aerophilic conditions. These results indicate that supplementation of cellulosic sugars in the fermentation medium with CaCO3 and CaCl2 would improve economics of ethanol production from agricultural residues.

  17. COMPLEX PROCESSING OF CELLULOSE WASTE FROM POULTRY AND SUGAR PRODUCTION

    E. V. Sklyadnev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary.To solve the problem of disposing of huge volumes of cellulose waste from sugar production in the form of beet pulp and waste of poultry farms in the form of poultry manure is proposed to use the joint use of two methods of thermal processing of waste - pyrolysis and gasification. The possibility of using pyrolysis applied to the waste are confirmed by experimental results. Based on the results of laboratory studies of the properties of by-products resulting from the thermal processing of the feedstock, it is proposed complex processing to produce useful products, to be implemented in the form of marketable products, and the organization's own process energy utilization. Developed flow diagram of an integrated processing said waste comprises 3 sections, which successively carried out: pyrolytic decomposition of the feedstock to obtain a secondary product in the form of solid, liquid and gas fractions, the gasification of solids to obtain combustible gas and separating the liquid fraction by distillation to obtain valuable products. The main equipment in the first region is the pyrolysis reactor cascade condensers; the second section - gasifiers layers and stream type; the third - one or more distillation columns with the necessary strapping. Proper power supply installation is organized by the use of the heat produced during combustion of the synthesis gas for heating and gasification reactor. For the developed scheme presents calculations of the heat balance of the installation, supporting the energy efficiency of the proposed disposal process. Developments carried out in the framework of the project the winner of the Youth Prize Competition Government of Voronezh region to support youth programs in the 2014-2015.

  18. Food Environment, Policy and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Consumption in U.S. Adolescents

    Chen, Liwei

    2017-01-01

    Increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is a critical nutrition problem in the U.S. and has been identified as a key contributor to the current epidemic of obesity among adolescents. Up to date, little is known on how this high level of SSBs consumption can be reduced. Recently, environmental and policy interventions have been advocated as powerful strategies to address the epidemic. While there is a growing consensus that food environments and policies play important roles ...

  19. Ethanol production from tropical sugar beet juice | Marx | African ...

    Starch and sugar resources have been extensively researched to find a suitable renewable source of energy to supplement the world's ever increasing demand for energy while also abating global warming by stemming the addition of earthbound carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Sugar beet has been used as a source ...

  20. Relationship between Food Security with Sugar Level and Blood Pressure in Diabetes Type 2 in Tehran.

    Moghadam, Seyed Amir Hossein Zehni; Javadi, Maryam; Mohammadpooral, Asghar

    2016-12-01

    Food security has been defined as the "availability, stability, access and utilization of safe foods". Diabetes has been known as one of the biggest health and medical problems throughout the world and is clearly related to lifestyle, and particularly, improper food consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between food security with sugar and blood pressure in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes who refer to diabetes centers in Tehran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 on type 2 diabetes patients in Tehran, Iran. From two diabetes centers in the eastern and southern parts of Tehran, 243 type 2 diabetes patients were selected. Necessary information (demographic and food security information) about all the studied persons was collected using the standard questionnaire verified by US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The data was analyzed by SPSS version 16, statistical comparisons were made using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-square and Tukey tests and a significant level of food security (p=0.372). No significant relation was observed between food security and fasting blood pressure, HbA1C, and systolic blood pressure (p>0.05), but there was a significant relationship between food security and diastolic blood pressure (p= 0.030). According to the relationship between diastolic blood pressure and food security and the role of blood pressure in the irreparable diabetic complications, it is recommended to perform appropriate food advice.

  1. L-Arabinose isomerase and its use for biotechnological production of rare sugars.

    Xu, Zheng; Li, Sha; Feng, Xiaohai; Liang, Jinfeng; Xu, Hong

    2014-11-01

    L-Arabinose isomerase (AI), a key enzyme in the microbial pentose phosphate pathway, has been regarded as an important biological catalyst in rare sugar production. This enzyme could isomerize L-arabinose into L-ribulose, as well as D-galactose into D-tagatose. Both the two monosaccharides show excellent commercial values in food and pharmaceutical industries. With the identification of novel AI family members, some of them have exhibited remarkable potential in industrial applications. The biological production processes for D-tagatose and L-ribose (or L-ribulose) using AI have been developed and improved in recent years. Meanwhile, protein engineering techniques involving rational design has effectively enhanced the catalytic properties of various AIs. Moreover, the crystal structure of AI has been disclosed, which sheds light on the understanding of AI structure and catalytic mechanism at molecular levels. This article reports recent developments in (i) novel AI screening, (ii) AI-mediated rare sugar production processes, (iii) molecular modification of AI, and (iv) structural biology study of AI. Based on previous reports, an analysis of the future development has also been initiated.

  2. Sodium, Sugar and Fat Content of Complimentary Infant and Toddler Foods Sold in the United States, 2015

    In 2012, 72% of commercial toddler meals contained >210 mg/serving of sodium and >70% of infant and toddler snacks, desserts, and juice drinks contained one or more added sugars. The objective is to update the sodium, sugar and fat values of commercial infant and toddler foods sold in the U.S. in 20...

  3. Technical and Economical Feasibility of Production of Ethanol from Sugar Cane and Sugar Cane Bagasse

    Efe, C.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The primary aim of this study is to investigate and analyze the sugar-ethanol plants operating in Brazil to construct a raw model to gain better understanding and insight about the technical and economical aspects of the currently operating plants. And, the secondary aim is to combine the knowledge

  4. Production of hydrogen from by-products of food industries by rhodospirillaceae

    Reh, U.

    1983-11-01

    The decomposition of organic substances from food-by-products as whey, beet sugar molasses, cane-sugar-molasses and potato-water by the Rhodospirillaceae Rp. capsulata, Rp. acidophila, Rm. vannielii, Rs. rubrum, and Rs. tenue to hydrogen and carbon dioxide were tested. In a pre-cultivation Lactobacillus bulgaricus converted the sugars of the by-products into lactic acid, which is easier in handling. Rs. rubrum was superior in producing hydrogen from this nutrient. It released from whey up to 56% of the substrate hydrogen, from beet sugar molasses 42%, from cane-sugar-molasses 89% and from potato-water 19%. Out-door-researches were made to evaluate the decrease of hydrogen yield under the influence of weather as well as day and night periods compared to the homogeneous conditions of the laboratory. From 200 m/sup 3/ whey, the daily output of a dairy, 4000 m/sup 3/ hydrogen corresponding to an energy equivalent of 1000 l fuel oil could be produced. To achieve this, 130 000 m/sup 2/ have to be covered with batch fermenters. These results show, that there is nearly no hope to decompose food by-products by Rhodospirillaceae in large scale technology, unless a new processing technology using a flow-fermenter and raising the hydrogen production significantly will be found.

  5. Sustainability labels on food products

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    of sustainability was limited, but understanding of four selected labels (Fair Trade, Rainforest Alliance, Carbon Footprint, and Animal Welfare) was better, as some of them seem to be self-explanatory. The results indicated a low level of use, no matter whether use was measured as self-reported use of different......This study investigates the relationship between consumer motivation, understanding and use of sustainability labels on food products (both environmental and ethical labels), which are increasingly appearing on food products. Data was collected by means of an online survey implemented in the UK......, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, and Poland, with a total sample size of 4408 respondents. Respondents expressed medium high to high levels of concern with sustainability issues at the general level, but lower levels of concern in the context of concrete food product choices. Understanding of the concept...

  6. Towards sustainable food production

    Aramyan, Lusine H; Hoste, Robert; van den Broek, Willie

    2011-01-01

    continuous innovation of supply chain network structures, reconsideration of business processes, relocation of logistics infrastructures and renewed allocation of chain activities to these infrastructures in order to achieve sustainable performances. This paper presents a scenario analysis of the spatial...... of pigs, processing of pork and pork consumption, is used to analyse the scenarios. The results reveal major opportunities for reductions in cost as well as in CO2 equivalent emissions if a European sector perspective is taken and some chain activities are relocated to other countries. However......, as minimizing costs will not always lead to an optimal reduction in CO2 equivalent emissions, a differentiated strategy is needed for the European pork sector to move towards more sustainable production...

  7. Impact of foods with health logo on ssaturated fat, sodium and sugar intake of young Dutch adults

    Temme, E.H.M.; Voet, van der H.; Roodenburg, A.; Bulder, A.; Donkersgoed, van A.; Klaveren, van J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Health logos are introduced to distinguish foods with ‘healthier’ nutrient composition from regular foods. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of changed food compositions according to health logo criteria on the intake of saturated fat, sugar and sodium in a Dutch population of

  8. New findings on the biogas production from sugar beets; Neue Erkenntnisse zur Biogasproduktion aus Zuckerrueben

    Bormann, Hinnerk; Schlaefer, Ottmar; Sievers, Michael [CUTEC-Institut GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Trommler, Marcus; Postel, Jan [Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum (DBFZ) gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Felde, Andreas von; Harling, Hinrich; Rother, Beate [KWS Saat AG, Einbeck (Germany); Franke, Henning; Tkocz, Lisa [INPUT Ingenieure GmbH, Sehnde (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Main purpose of the project is the process improvement to acquire the full potential of sugar beet based biomethane production. This covers the optimization of breeding and cultivation, as well as improvements of the overall logistic and production process. The project results show that breeding of regional adapted sugar beets can lead to higher yields in cultivation as well as technical enhancements within the biogas production chain can lower the production costs. Both approaches are part of an overall optimization of sugar beets for biomethane production. Project findings indicate a competitive position in comparison to biomethane based on different agricultural feedstock. (orig.)

  9. Predicting the Effects of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes on Food and Beverage Demand in a Large Demand System

    Zhen, Chen; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Nonnemaker, James; Karns, Shawn; Todd, Jessica E.

    2013-01-01

    A censored Exact Affine Stone Index incomplete demand system is estimated for 23 packaged foods and beverages and a numéraire good. Instrumental variables are used to control for endogenous prices. A half-cent per ounce increase in sugar-sweetened beverage prices is predicted to reduce total calories from the 23 foods and beverages but increase sodium and fat intakes as a result of product substitution. The predicted decline in calories is larger for low-income households than for high-income households, although welfare loss is also higher for low-income households. Neglecting price endogeneity or estimating a conditional demand model significantly overestimates the calorie reduction. PMID:24839299

  10. Ultra-processed foods and added sugars in the US diet: evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional study

    Martínez Steele, Eurídice; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the contribution of ultra-processed foods to the intake of added sugars in the USA. Ultra-processed foods were defined as industrial formulations which, besides salt, sugar, oils and fats, include substances not used in culinary preparations, in particular additives used to imitate sensorial qualities of minimally processed foods and their culinary preparations. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2010. Participants We evaluated 9317 participants aged 1+ years with at least one 24 h dietary recall. Main outcome measures Average dietary content of added sugars and proportion of individuals consuming more than 10% of total energy from added sugars. Data analysis Gaussian and Poisson regressions estimated the association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and intake of added sugars. All models incorporated survey sample weights and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, family income and educational attainment. Results Ultra-processed foods comprised 57.9% of energy intake, and contributed 89.7% of the energy intake from added sugars. The content of added sugars in ultra-processed foods (21.1% of calories) was eightfold higher than in processed foods (2.4%) and fivefold higher than in unprocessed or minimally processed foods and processed culinary ingredients grouped together (3.7%). Both in unadjusted and adjusted models, each increase of 5 percentage points in proportional energy intake from ultra-processed foods increased the proportional energy intake from added sugars by 1 percentage point. Consumption of added sugars increased linearly across quintiles of ultra-processed food consumption: from 7.5% of total energy in the lowest quintile to 19.5% in the highest. A total of 82.1% of Americans in the highest quintile exceeded the recommended limit of 10% energy from added sugars, compared with 26.4% in the lowest. Conclusions Decreasing the consumption of ultra

  11. Product quality driven food process design

    Hadiyanto, M.

    2007-01-01

    Consumers evaluate food products on their quality, and thus the product quality is a main target in industrial food production. In the last decade there has been a remarkable increase of interest of the food industry to put food product quality central in innovation. However, quality itself is

  12. Galactooligosaccharides: production, health benefits, application to foods and perspectives

    Ana Elizabeth Cavalcante Fai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthesized from lactose transgalactosylation, galactooligosaccharides are non-digestible carbohydrates classified as prebiotic ingredients of high added value. Recently studies associate potential health benefits and disease prevention properties to these oligosaccharides. This review involves production aspects and physicochemical properties of these compounds, correlated to their physiological effects and application in food industry. It was also presented some of the physiological effect and the perspectives for these non-conventional sugars from current viewpoint.

  13. Biofuels versus food production: Does biofuels production increase food prices?

    Ajanovic, Amela

    2011-01-01

    Rapidly growing fossil energy consumption in the transport sector in the last two centuries caused problems such as increasing greenhouse gas emissions, growing energy dependency and supply insecurity. One approach to solve these problems could be to increase the use of biofuels. Preferred feedstocks for current 1st generation biofuels production are corn, wheat, sugarcane, soybean, rapeseed and sunflowers. The major problem is that these feedstocks are also used for food and feed production. The core objective of this paper is to investigate whether the recent increase of biofuels production had a significant impact on the development of agricultural commodity (feedstock) prices. The most important impact factors like biofuels production, land use, yields, feedstock and crude oil prices are analysed. The major conclusions of this analysis are: In recent years the share of bioenergy-based fuels has increased moderately, but continuously, and so did feedstock production, as well as yields. So far, no significant impact of biofuels production on feedstock prices can be observed. Hence, a co-existence of biofuel and food production seems possible especially for 2nd generation biofuels. However, sustainability criteria should be seriously considered. But even if all crops, forests and grasslands currently not used were used for biofuels production it would be impossible to substitute all fossil fuels used today in transport.

  14. Efficient ethanol production from brown macroalgae sugars by a synthetic yeast platform.

    Enquist-Newman, Maria; Faust, Ann Marie E; Bravo, Daniel D; Santos, Christine Nicole S; Raisner, Ryan M; Hanel, Arthur; Sarvabhowman, Preethi; Le, Chi; Regitsky, Drew D; Cooper, Susan R; Peereboom, Lars; Clark, Alana; Martinez, Yessica; Goldsmith, Joshua; Cho, Min Y; Donohoue, Paul D; Luo, Lily; Lamberson, Brigit; Tamrakar, Pramila; Kim, Edward J; Villari, Jeffrey L; Gill, Avinash; Tripathi, Shital A; Karamchedu, Padma; Paredes, Carlos J; Rajgarhia, Vineet; Kotlar, Hans Kristian; Bailey, Richard B; Miller, Dennis J; Ohler, Nicholas L; Swimmer, Candace; Yoshikuni, Yasuo

    2014-01-09

    The increasing demands placed on natural resources for fuel and food production require that we explore the use of efficient, sustainable feedstocks such as brown macroalgae. The full potential of brown macroalgae as feedstocks for commercial-scale fuel ethanol production, however, requires extensive re-engineering of the alginate and mannitol catabolic pathways in the standard industrial microbe Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we present the discovery of an alginate monomer (4-deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronate, or DEHU) transporter from the alginolytic eukaryote Asteromyces cruciatus. The genomic integration and overexpression of the gene encoding this transporter, together with the necessary bacterial alginate and deregulated native mannitol catabolism genes, conferred the ability of an S. cerevisiae strain to efficiently metabolize DEHU and mannitol. When this platform was further adapted to grow on mannitol and DEHU under anaerobic conditions, it was capable of ethanol fermentation from mannitol and DEHU, achieving titres of 4.6% (v/v) (36.2 g l(-1)) and yields up to 83% of the maximum theoretical yield from consumed sugars. These results show that all major sugars in brown macroalgae can be used as feedstocks for biofuels and value-added renewable chemicals in a manner that is comparable to traditional arable-land-based feedstocks.

  15. Practices and preferences: Exploring the relationships between food-related parenting practices and child food preferences for high fat and/or sugar foods, fruits, and vegetables.

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Baietto, Jamey

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between food-related parenting practices and child fruit, vegetable, and high fat/sugar food preferences. Parents (n = 148) of children (3-7 years old) completed the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ), the Preschool Adapted Food Liking Scale (PALS), and answered demographic questions. Separate linear regressions were conducted to test relationships between the different food categories on PALS (fruits, vegetables, and high fat/sugar foods) and each food-related parenting practice using race, ethnicity, and income level, and child age and gender as covariates. It was found that when a parent allows a child to control eating, it was negatively associated with a child's preference for fruit (β = -0.15, p = 0.032) and parent encouragement of child involvement in meal preparation was positively related to child preference for vegetables (β = 0.14, p = 0.048). Children preferred high fat and sugar foods more if parents used food to regulate child emotions (β = 0.24, p = 0.007), used food as a reward (β = 0.32, p food (β = 0.16, p = 0.045), and restricted unhealthy food (β = 0.20, p = 0.024). Conversely, children preferred high fat and sugar foods less if parents made healthy food available in the home (β = -0.13, p = 0.05), modeled healthy eating in front of the child (β = -0.21, p = 0.021), and if parents explained why healthy foods should be consumed (β = -0.24, p = 0.011). Although it cannot be determined if the parent is influencing the child or vice versa, this study provides some evidence that coercive feeding practices are detrimental to a child's food preferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nuclear techniques in food production

    Merlin, J.P.C.

    1975-01-01

    This study is divided into three parts. The first, devoted to the use of radiations in food production, deals especially with artificial mutagenesis, selectors taking advantage of altered hereditary features in plants from irradiated seed; sterilization of animals to eliminate harmful insects (male sterilization technique); the lethal power of radiations used for the production of animal vaccins, attenuated by irradiation, against organisms which infest or degrade food products. Part two shows that radioactive atoms used as tracers to reveal migrations and chemical transformations of products such as fertilizers and pesticides can speed up all kinds of agronomical research. Their possibilities in research on animal feeding and to detect poisonous substances in foodstuffs are also mentioned. The last part is devoted to the use of nuclear techniques in irrigation and more precisely in the study of underground water flows soil moisture and lastly the future of nuclear desalination [fr

  17. [Production of sugar syrup containing rare sugar using dual-enzyme coupled reaction system].

    Han, Wenjia; Zhu, Yueming; Bai, Wei; Izumori, Ken; Zhang, Tongcun; Sun, Yuanxia

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic conversion is very important to produce functional rare sugars, but the conversion rate of single enzymes is generally low. To increase the conversion rate, a dual-enzyme coupled reaction system was developed. Dual-enzyme coupled reaction system was constructed using D-psicose-3-epimerase (DPE) and L-rhamnose isomerase (L-RhI), and used to convert D-fructose to D-psicose and D-allose. The ratio of DPE and L-RhI was 1:10 (W/W), and the concentration of DPE was 0.05 mg/mL. The optimum temperature was 60 degrees C and pH was 9.0. When the concentration of D-fructose was 2%, the reaction reached its equilibrium after 10 h, and the yield of D-psicose and D-allose was 5.12 and 2.04 g/L, respectively. Using the dual-enzymes coupled system developed in the current study, we could obtain sugar syrup containing functional rare sugar from fructose-rich raw material, such as high fructose corn syrup.

  18. Nutrition recommendations and the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative's 2014 approved food and beverage product list.

    Schermbeck, Rebecca M; Powell, Lisa M

    2015-04-23

    We compare the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative's (CFBAI's) April 2014 list of food and beverage products approved to be advertised on children's television programs with the federal Interagency Working Group's nutrition recommendations for such advertised products. Products were assessed by using the nutrients to limit (saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and sodium) component of the Interagency Working Group's recommendations. Fifty-three percent of the listed products did not meet the nutrition recommendations and, therefore, were ineligible to be advertised. We recommend continued monitoring of food and beverage products marketed to children.

  19. Problems of Development and Increase of Economic Efficiency of Sugar Beet Production

    Tomashevska Olga A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is the studying of the trends of development and economic efficiency of sugar beet production (using the example of agricultural enterprises of Rokytne district of Kyiv region and an attempt to outline the directions for improvement of the situation in the sugar beet industry. As a result of the research, the dynamics of development and economic efficiency of sugar beet production at farms of Rokytne district of Kyiv region is analyzed, and the break-even volume of sugar beet production by agrarian enterprises of Kiev region and an individual enterprise of Rokytne district is determined. Particular attention is paid to the dynamics of profitability of sugar beet production in the period from 2011 to 2015. The main problems hindering the development of sugar beet production are identified, namely, the lack of sales channels and high production costs. Prospects for further research in this area are to increase the economic efficiency of sugar beet production and find ways to develop this sector, provided that the production is properly organized, the manufacturing process is followed, the fertilizers are properly used, the seeds are chosen correctly, advanced technologies and high-performance equipment are applied, etc.

  20. Food Products Procurement, Receiving and Storage Guide.

    Kansas Association of School Business Officials, Haysville.

    This guide is intended as a resource document for the beginner in food services and food purchasing. The publication is divided topically by (1) purchasing procedures, (2) specifications and evaluation, (3) sources for purchasing food products, (4) storage of food products and inventory procedures, (5) type of food service management, and (6)…

  1. Food production & availability--essential prerequisites for sustainable food security.

    Swaminathan, M S; Bhavani, R V

    2013-09-01

    Food and nutrition security are intimately interconnected, since only a food based approach can help in overcoming malnutrition in an economically and socially sustainable manner. Food production provides the base for food security as it is a key determinant of food availability. This paper deals with different aspects of ensuring high productivity and production without associated ecological harm for ensuring adequate food availability. By mainstreaming ecological considerations in technology development and dissemination, we can enter an era of evergreen revolution and sustainable food and nutrition security. Public policy support is crucial for enabling this.

  2. Exopolysaccharides enriched in rare sugars: bacterial sources, production, and applications

    Roca, Christophe; Alves, Vitor D.; Freitas, Filomena; Reis, Maria A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The authors acknowledge Fundacao para a Ciencia e Tecnologia (FC&T), Portugal, through projects PEst-C/EQB/LA0006/2013 and PTDC/AGR-ALI/114706/2009 - "New edible bioactive coatings for the improvement of food products quality." FF acknowledges FCT&T for Post-Doctoral fellowship SFRH/BPD/72280/2010. Microbial extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), produced by a wide range of bacteria, are high molecular weight biopolymers, presenting an extreme diversity in terms of chemical structure and com...

  3. Effect of Azotobacter croococcum on productive traits and microorganisms in sugar beet rhizosphere

    Kuzevski Janja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of three different inoculation methods with selected Azotobacter chroococcum strains on productive and technological traits of sugar beet, as well as on the total number of microorganisms and azotobacter in rhizosphere. The results of this two-year study showed that effectiveness of the tested inoculation methods in increasing root yield and sugar content varies greatly, depending on year and azotobacter strains. Effectiveness of inoculation methods was not largely impacted by year on granulated sugar. Achieved granulated sugar yield was significantly higher by using pre-sowing azotobacter application, than by using seed inoculation. A significantly increased number of microorganisms in sugar beet rhizosphere was determined, not only by using pre-sowing azotobacter application but also by using sugar beet seed inoculation. Pre-sowing azotobacter application and inter-row cultivation both caused an equal increase in the number of these bacteria in sugar beet rhizosphere (42.2% and 46.9%. Use of sugar beet seed inoculation caused an increase of 33.7% in the number of azotobacter. In order to achieve higher effectiveness in applying azotobacter on productive and technological traits of sugar beet, and considering determined interaction between a certain year, an inoculation method and a strain, it is necessary for future research to focus on determining efficiency of these strains when they are in a mixture.

  4. Feasibility of converting a sugar beet plant to fuel ethanol production

    Hammaker, G S; Pfost, H B; David, M L; Marino, M L

    1981-04-01

    This study was performed to assess the feasibility of producing fuel ethanol from sugar beets. Sugar beets are a major agricultural crop in the area and the beet sugar industry is a major employer. There have been some indications that increasing competition from imported sugar and fructose sugar produced from corn may lead to lower average sugar prices than have prevailed in the past. Fuel ethanol might provide an attractive alternative market for beets and ethanol production would continue to provide an industrial base for labor. Ethanol production from beets would utilize much of the same field and plant equipment as is now used for sugar. It is logical to examine the modification of an existing sugar plant from producing sugar to ethanol. The decision was made to use Great Western Sugar Company's plant at Mitchell as the example plant. This plant was selected primarily on the basis of its independence from other plants and the availability of relatively nearby beet acreage. The potential feedstocks assessed included sugar beets, corn, hybrid beets, and potatoes. Markets were assessed for ethanol and fermentation by-products saleability. Investment and operating costs were determined for each prospective plant. Plants were evaluated using a discounted cash flow technique to obtain data on full production costs. Environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic aspects of potential facilities were examined. Three consulting engineering firms and 3 engineering-construction firms are considered capable of providing the desired turn-key engineering design and construction services. It was concluded that the project is technically feasible. (DMC)

  5. Case studies on sugar production from underutilized woody biomass using sulfite chemistry

    J.Y. Zhu; M. Subhosh Chandra; Roland Gleisner; William Gilles; Johnway Gao; Gevan Marrs; Dwight Anderson; John Sessions

    2015-01-01

    We examined two case studies to demonstrate the advantages of sulfite chemistry for pretreating underutilized woody biomass to produce sugars through enzymatic saccharification. In the first case study, we evaluated knot rejects from a magnesium-basedsulfite mill for direct enzymatic sugar production.We found that the sulfite mill rejects are an excellent feedstock for...

  6. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Are the Main Sources of Added Sugar Intake in the Mexican Population.

    Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Batis, Carolina; Lutter, Chessa K; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    Sugar intake has been associated with an increased prevalence of obesity, other noncommunicable diseases, and dental caries. The WHO recommends that free sugars should be ENSANUT (National Health and Nutrition Survey) 2012], which represents 3 geographic regions and urban and rural areas. Dietary information was obtained by administering a 24-h recall questionnaire to 10,096 participants. Total sugar intake was estimated by using the National Institute of Public Health (INSP) food-composition table and an established method to estimate added sugars. The mean intakes of total, intrinsic, and added sugars were 365, 127, and 238 kcal/d, respectively. Added sugars contributed 13% of TEI. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) were the main source of sugars, contributing 69% of added sugars. Food products high in saturated fat and/or added sugar (HSFAS) were the second main sources of added sugars, contributing 25% of added sugars. The average intake of added sugars in the Mexican diet is higher than WHO recommendations, which may partly explain the high prevalence of obesity and diabetes in Mexico. Because SSBs and HSFAS contribute >94% of total added sugars, strategies to reduce their intake should be strengthened. This includes stronger food labels to warn the consumer about the content of added sugars in foods and beverages. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Bioethanol production from Scenedesmus obliquus sugars. The influence of photobioreactors and culture conditions on biomass production

    Miranda, J.R.; Passarinho, P.C.; Gouveia, L. [Laboratorio Nacional de Energia e Geologia (LNEG), Lisbon (Portugal). Unidade de Bioenergia

    2012-10-15

    A closed-loop vertical tubular photobioreactor (PBR), specially designed to operate under conditions of scarce flat land availability and irregular solar irradiance conditions, was used to study the potential of Scenedesmus obliquus biomass/sugar production. The results obtained were compared to those from an open-raceway pond and a closed-bubble column. The influence of the type of light source and the regime (natural vs artificial and continuous vs light/dark cycles) on the growth of the microalga and the extent of the sugar accumulation was studied in both PBRs. The best type of reactor studied was a closed-loop PBR illuminated with natural light/dark cycles. In all the cases, the relationship between the nitrate depletion and the sugar accumulation was observed. The microalga Scenedesmus was cultivated for 53 days in a raceway pond (4,500 L) and accumulated a maximum sugar content of 29 % g/g. It was pre-treated for carrying out ethanol fermentation assays, and the highest ethanol concentration obtained in the hydrolysate fermented by Kluyveromyces marxianus was 11.7 g/L. (orig.)

  8. Bioethanol production from Scenedesmus obliquus sugars: the influence of photobioreactors and culture conditions on biomass production.

    Miranda, J R; Passarinho, P C; Gouveia, L

    2012-10-01

    A closed-loop vertical tubular photobioreactor (PBR), specially designed to operate under conditions of scarce flat land availability and irregular solar irradiance conditions, was used to study the potential of Scenedesmus obliquus biomass/sugar production. The results obtained were compared to those from an open-raceway pond and a closed-bubble column. The influence of the type of light source and the regime (natural vs artificial and continuous vs light/dark cycles) on the growth of the microalga and the extent of the sugar accumulation was studied in both PBRs. The best type of reactor studied was a closed-loop PBR illuminated with natural light/dark cycles. In all the cases, the relationship between the nitrate depletion and the sugar accumulation was observed. The microalga Scenedesmus was cultivated for 53 days in a raceway pond (4,500 L) and accumulated a maximum sugar content of 29 % g/g. It was pre-treated for carrying out ethanol fermentation assays, and the highest ethanol concentration obtained in the hydrolysate fermented by Kluyveromyces marxianus was 11.7 g/L.

  9. A rare sugar xylitol. Part II: biotechnological production and future applications of xylitol.

    Granström, Tom Birger; Izumori, Ken; Leisola, Matti

    2007-02-01

    Xylitol is the first rare sugar that has global markets. It has beneficial health properties and represents an alternative to current conventional sweeteners. Industrially, xylitol is produced by chemical hydrogenation of D-xylose into xylitol. The biotechnological method of producing xylitol by metabolically engineered yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Candida, has been studied as an alternative to the chemical method. Due to the industrial scale of production, xylitol serves as an inexpensive starting material for the production of other rare sugars. The second part of this mini-review on xylitol will look more closely at the biotechnological production and future applications of the rare sugar, xylitol.

  10. Environmental assessment of mild bisulfite pretreatment of forest residues into fermentable sugars for biofuel production.

    Nwaneshiudu, Ikechukwu C; Ganguly, Indroneil; Pierobon, Francesca; Bowers, Tait; Eastin, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Sugar production via pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic feedstock, in this case softwood harvest residues, is a critical step in the biochemical conversion pathway towards drop-in biofuels. Mild bisulfite (MBS) pretreatment is an emerging option for the breakdown and subsequent processing of biomass towards fermentable sugars. An environmental assessment of this process is critical to discern its future sustainability in the ever-changing biofuels landscape. The subsequent cradle-to-gate assessment of a proposed sugar production facility analyzes sugar made from woody biomass using MBS pretreatment across all seven impact categories (functional unit 1 kg dry mass sugar), with a specific focus on potential global warming and eutrophication impacts. The study found that the eutrophication impact (0.000201 kg N equivalent) is less than the impacts from conventional beet and cane sugars, while the global warming impact (0.353 kg CO2 equivalent) falls within the range of conventional processes. This work discusses some of the environmental impacts of designing and operating a sugar production facility that uses MBS as a method of treating cellulosic forest residuals. The impacts of each unit process in the proposed facility are highlighted. A comparison to other sugar-making process is detailed and will inform the growing biofuels literature.

  11. Nectar production dynamics and sugar composition in two Mucuna species (Leguminosae, Faboideae) with different specialized pollinators

    Agostini, Kayna; Sazima, Marlies; Galetto, Leonardo

    2011-11-01

    Nectar is secreted in particular rhythms throughout the lifespan of a flower, which allows determining the nectar production dynamics. This paper compares nectar features in Mucuna japira and Mucuna urens describing: dynamics of nectar production, floral response to nectar removal, resorption, nectar sugar composition, and variation in nectar sugar composition. M. japira inflorescence bears 12-21 yellow flowers, which are in anthesis for 7 days, whereas M. urens inflorescence bears 36-54 greenish flowers, but only 1-3 flowers are in anthesis simultaneously that last one night. Nectar volume and sugar concentration were measured, and the amount of sugar was estimated. Qualitative and quantitative nectar sugar composition was determined. Both species had a constant nectar sugar concentration (ca. 10% for M. japira and ca. 16% for M. urens) and secreted high volumes of nectar (ca. 340 μl per flower for M. japira and 310 μl per flower for M. urens), during 5 days for M. japira and 6 h for M. urens, but after the first removal, i.e., when flower opening mechanism is triggered, nectar production stops immediately. Nectar resorption occurred in both species. Nectar sugar composition showed some similarities between the species. Variation in nectar sugar composition occurred in both species. The Mucuna species are dependent on their pollinators to produce fruits and seeds, and they have different strategies to promote the necessary interaction with birds or bats, especially related to nectar and flower characteristics.

  12. Energy, added sugar, and saturated fat contributions of taxed beverages and foods in Mexico

    Carolina Batis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the dietary contribution of taxed beverages and foods. Materials and methods. Using 24-hour diet recall data from the Ensanut 2012 (n=10 096, we estimated the contribution of the items which were taxed in 2014 to the total energy, added sugar, and saturated fat intakes in the entire sample and by sociodemographic characteristics. Results. The contributions for energy, added sugar, and saturated fat were found to be 5.5, 38.1, and 0.4%, respectively, for the taxed beverages, and 14.4, 23.8, and 21.4%, respectively, for the taxed foods. Children and adolescents (vs. adults, medium and high socioeconomic status (vs. low, urban area (vs. rural, and North and Center region (vs. South had higher energy contribution of taxed beverages and foods. The energy contribution was similar between males and females. Conclusions. These taxes covered an important proportion of Mexicans’ diet and therefore have the potential to improve it meaningfully.

  13. Enzymatic saccharification of brown seaweed for production of fermentable sugars.

    Sharma, Sandeep; Horn, Svein Jarle

    2016-08-01

    This study shows that high drying temperatures negatively affect the enzymatic saccharification yield of the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima. The optimal drying temperature of the seaweed in terms of enzymatic sugar release was found to be 30°C. The enzymatic saccharification process was optimized by investigating factors such as kinetics of sugar release, enzyme dose, solid loading and different blend ratios of cellulases and an alginate lyase. It was found that the seaweed biomass could be efficiently hydrolysed to fermentable sugars using a commercial cellulase cocktail. The inclusion of a mono-component alginate lyase was shown to improve the performance of the enzyme blend, in particular at high solid loadings. At 25% dry matter loading a combined glucose and mannitol concentration of 74g/L was achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Local food environments are associated with girls' energy, sugar-sweetened beverage and snack-food intakes.

    Deierlein, Andrea L; Galvez, Maida P; Yen, Irene H; Pinney, Susan M; Biro, Frank M; Kushi, Lawrence H; Teitelbaum, Susan; Wolff, Mary S

    2014-10-01

    To describe availability and frequency of use of local snack-food outlets and determine whether reported use of these outlets was associated with dietary intakes. Data were cross-sectional. Availability and frequency of use of three types of local snack-food outlets were reported. Daily dietary intakes were based on the average of up to four 24 h dietary recalls. Multivariable linear regression models estimated average daily intakes of energy, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and snack foods/sweets associated with use of outlets. Multi-site, observational cohort study in the USA, 2004-2006. Girls aged 6-8 years (n 1010). Weekly frequency of use of local snack-food outlets increased with number of available types of outlets. Girls with access to only one type of outlet reported consuming food/beverage items less frequently than girls with access to two or three types of outlets (P snack foods/sweets intakes increased with greater use of outlets. Girls who reported using outlets>1 to 3 times/week consumed 0·27 (95 % CI 0·13, 0·40) servings of SSB more daily than girls who reported no use. Girls who reported using outlets>3 times/week consumed 449·61 (95 % CI 134·93, 764·29) kJ, 0·43 (95 % CI 0·29, 0·58) servings of SSB and 0·38 (95 % CI 0·12, 0·65) servings of snack foods/sweets more daily than those who reported no use. Girls' frequency of use of local snack-food outlets increases with the number of available types of outlets and is associated with greater daily intakes of energy and servings of SSB and snack foods/sweets.

  15. Improving the process of progressive preliming in sugar production

    V. A. Golybin; V. A. Fedoruk; N. A. Voronkova; I. S. Bushmin

    2016-01-01

    Tasks progressive preliming are to conduct neutralization, coagulation, deposition of non-sugars, the formation of a precipitate structure. This is the first operation of physical and chemical cleaning of the raw juice in the case of it in optimum conditions enables the coagulation and transferred to precipitate a substantial portion of high-molecular non-sugars, poorly soluble calcium salts that provides the cleaning effect of 14–18%, that is, up to half of the total effect on the whole stat...

  16. Comparison of organic and conventional food and food production

    Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety

    2014-01-01

    The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety has performed an assessment of the differences between organic and conventional foods and food production on plant health, animal health and welfare and human health at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority.

  17. Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment?

    Verain, M.C.D.; Dagevos, H.; Antonides, G.

    2015-01-01

    Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors

  18. Influences of Dietary Added Sugar Consumption on Striatal Food-Cue Reactivity and Postprandial GLP-1 Response

    Hilary M. Dorton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar consumption in the United States exceeds recommendations from the American Heart Association. Overconsumption of sugar is linked to risk for obesity and metabolic disease. Animal studies suggest that high-sugar diets alter functions in brain regions associated with reward processing, including the dorsal and ventral striatum. Human neuroimaging studies have shown that these regions are responsive to food cues, and that the gut-derived satiety hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, and peptide YY (PYY, suppress striatal food-cue responsivity. We aimed to determine the associations between dietary added sugar intake, striatal responsivity to food cues, and postprandial GLP-1 and PYY levels. Twenty-two lean volunteers underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI scan during which they viewed pictures of food and non-food items after a 12-h fast. Before scanning, participants consumed a glucose drink. A subset of 19 participants underwent an additional fMRI session in which they consumed water as a control condition. Blood was sampled for GLP-1, and PYY levels and hunger ratings were assessed before and ~75 min after drink consumption. In-person 24-h dietary recalls were collected from each participant on three to six separate occasions over a 2-month period. Average percent calories from added sugar were calculated using information from 24-h dietary recalls. A region-of-interest analysis was performed to compare the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD response to food vs. non-food cues in the bilateral dorsal striatum (caudate/putamen and ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens. The relationships between added sugar, striatal responses, and hormone changes after drink consumption were assessed using Spearman’s correlations. We observed a positive correlation between added sugar intake and BOLD response to food cues in the dorsal striatum and a similar trend in the nucleus accumbens after glucose, but not water, consumption

  19. Production of mono sugar from acid hydrolysis of seaweed | Jang ...

    ... the process conditions for the saccharification of macroalgae (seaweed) into mono sugar using the following parameters such as: Amount of biomass, catalyst concentration, temperature and reaction time. The major component of Ulva pertusa (green seaweed), Laminaria japonica (brown seaweed) and Gelidium amansii ...

  20. Effects of a healthy food supply intervention in a military setting: positive changes in cereal, fat and sugar containing foods

    Bingham Clarissa ML

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Finland, all men are liable to military service and a clear majority completes service. The increasing prevalence of obesity also among soldiers concerns conscripts’ food choices. Conscripts are served nutritionally planned regular main meals but individual choices take place in free-time eating. This study assesses the effects in conscripts’ eating habits in an intervention targeting the supply of healthy foods available in the military setting. Methods Participants were 604 18-21-year old male conscripts of whom 242 belonged to Control Group and 362 to Intervention Group. Participants of Control Group were historical controls performing military service one year before Intervention Group. The intervention targeted selection, placement, and attractiveness of healthy foods in garrison refectories and soldier’s home cafeterias, the two main food providers in the military. Dietary intake data was collected by self-administered questionnaire at three time points: before/beginning of military service (T0, 8 weeks (T1 and 6 months (T2 of military service. Outcome measures were food consumption frequencies and four dietary indexes (Cereal Index, Fruit and Vegetable Index, Fat Index and Sugar Index developed to characterize the diet. Changes between study groups in outcome variables and in time were analysed by repeated-measures analysis of covariance. Results Significant (p  Conclusions In the military setting, healthier food choices can be promoted by intervening on the main food environments by improving the supply of healthy foods. However, impacting on conscripts’ individual selection as fruit and vegetable consumption is more challenging.

  1. Primary Food Processing : Cornerstone of plant-based food production and the bio-economy in Europe

    Logatcheva, K.; Galen, van M.A.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the supply chains and special characteristics of plant-based primary food processors; producers of (wheat) flour, starches, vegetable oils and fats, sugar, and cocoa. The production value, direct employment in the industry, and indirect employment in farming were calculated.

  2. Production of amino acids by mucor geophillus using sugar cane waste as a substrate

    Almani, F.; Dahot, U.

    2006-01-01

    In this study Mucor geophillus was used for amino acid production from acid/base hydrolysates of sugar cane bagasse. The Effects of substrate as well as influence of hydrolyzing agent on amino acid production by Mucor geophillus were investigated. Result reveals that higher amount of amino acids were accumulated when acid hydrolysates of sugar cane bagasse were used as substrate in comparison to NH/sub 4/OH and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ hydrolysates. (author)

  3. Foods and Beverages Associated with Higher Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

    Mathias, Kevin C.; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with higher caloric intakes, the amount SSBs contribute to higher intakes has not been addressed. Purpose To estimate the amount SSB contribute to higher caloric intakes and determine how the diets of SSB consumers and nonconsumers differ. Methods The WWEI America (What We Eat in America), NHANES 2003–2010 surveys were combined into a sample of 13,421 children; analyses were conducted in December 2012. To determine the contribution of SSB to higher caloric intakes, total non-SSB, food, and non-SSB beverage intakes of SSB consumers and nonconsumers were compared using linear regression models controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors. Analyses also compared intakes between nonconsumers and SSB consumers with different amounts of SSB consumption. Results For children aged 2–5 years and 6–11 years, non-SSB intakes did not differ between nonconsumers and SSB consumers at any level of SSB consumption, indicating that SSBs were primarily responsible for the higher caloric intakes among SSB consumers. A similar finding was observed among children aged 12–18 years; however, both food and SSB contribute to higher caloric intakes of adolescents consuming ≥500 kcal of SSBs. Among those aged 12–18 years, higher intakes of foods (e.g., pizza, burgers, fried potatoes, and savory snacks) and lower intakes of non-SSB beverages (e.g., fluid milk and fruit juice) were associated with increased SSB intake. Conclusions Sugar-sweetened beverages are primarily responsible for the higher caloric intakes of SSB consumers, and SSB consumption is associated with intake of a select number of food and beverage groups, some of which are often unhealthy (e.g., pizza and grain-based desserts). PMID:23498100

  4. Food production and service in UK hospitals.

    Ahmed, Mohamed; Jones, Eleri; Redmond, Elizabeth; Hewedi, Mahmoud; Wingert, Andreas; Gad El Rab, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to apply value stream mapping holistically to hospital food production/service systems focused on high-quality food. Multiple embedded case study of three (two private-sector and one public-sector) hospitals in the UK. The results indicated various issues affecting hospital food production including: the menu and nutritional considerations; food procurement; food production; foodservice; patient perceptions/expectations. Value stream mapping is a new approach for food production systems in UK hospitals whether private or public hospitals. The paper identifies opportunities for enhancing hospital food production systems. The paper provides a theoretical basis for process enhancement of hospital food production and the provision of high-quality hospital food.

  5. Sugar beet for bioethanol production: An approach based on environmental agricultural outputs

    Salazar-Ordóñez, Melania; Pérez-Hernández, Pedro P.; Martín-Lozano, José M.

    2013-01-01

    The EU imports both bioethanol and the raw material needed to produce it. Thirty percent of bioethanol is produced from sugar beets in the EU. However, sugar beet cultivated area and yields have fallen due to the 2006 sugar regime reform. Given the potential uncertainty about the future for sugar beet farmers, biofuels may represent an alternative market. This paper analyses potential contribution to the efficiency, in terms of environmental output, of the sugar beet crop both when production is oriented toward bioethanol and regarding the use of input. An empirical application is performed in Spain by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The results show that 4% of farms have full technical efficiency, while the rest have an average efficiency of 55.9%. The figures show that inputs can be reduced over 40%, and also show the low average level of input-use efficiency. In addition, it cannot be said that there is a relationship between efficiency and farm scale. The consideration of aspects such as the environmental advantages of using sugar beet production for bioethanol can open new lines of action to support this crop in the EU. In addition, boosting sugar beet production may reduce potential dependency on importation. - Highlights: ► Analysing environmental outputs from agricultural input use and production orientation to bioethanol. ► DEA is applied to model farms’ efficiency in GHG emission and nitrous oxides emissions. ► A very low level of efficiency is found in sugar beet farms. ► Efficiency increase should be supported to reduce fertilizers and pesticides. ► Environmental advantages of addressing sugar beet to bioethanol open new lines to support crops

  6. Filtered molasses concentrate from sugar cane: natural functional ingredient effective in lowering the glycaemic index and insulin response of high carbohydrate foods.

    Wright, Alison G; Ellis, Timothy P; Ilag, Leodevico L

    2014-12-01

    An aqueous filtered molasses concentrate (FMC) sourced from sugar cane was used as a functional ingredient in a range of carbohydrate-containing foods to reduce glycaemic response. When compared to untreated controls, postprandial glucose responses in the test products were reduced 5-20%, assessed by accredited glycaemic index (GI) testing. The reduction in glucose response in the test foods was dose-dependent and directly proportional to the ratio of FMC added to the amount of available carbohydrate in the test products. The insulin response to the foods was also reduced with FMC addition as compared to untreated controls. Inclusion of FMC in test foods did not replace any formulation ingredients; it was incorporated as an additional ingredient to existing formulations. Filtered molasses concentrate, made by a proprietary and patented process, contains many naturally occurring compounds. Some of the identified compounds are known to influence carbohydrate metabolism, and include phenolic compounds, minerals and organic acids. FMC, sourced from a by-product of sugar cane processing, shows potential as a natural functional ingredient capable of modifying carbohydrate metabolism and contributing to GI reduction of processed foods and beverages.

  7. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates fat, sugar, and umami taste preference and food intake and body weight regulation.

    Camandola, Simonetta; Mattson, Mark P

    2017-07-01

    Immune and inflammatory pathways play important roles in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders. This study investigated the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in orosensory detection of dietary lipids and sugars. Taste preferences of TLR4 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) male mice under a standard and a high-fat, high-sugar diet were assessed with two-bottle tests. Gene expression of taste signaling molecules was analyzed in the tongue epithelium. The role of TLR4 in food intake and weight gain was investigated in TLR4 KO and WT mice fed a high-fat and high-sugar diet for 12 weeks. Compared to WT mice, TLR4 KO mice showed reduced preference for lipids, sugars, and umami in a two-bottle preference test. The altered taste perception was associated with decreased levels of key taste regulatory molecules in the tongue epithelium. TLR4 KO mice on a high-fat and high-sugar diet consumed less food and drink, resulting in diminished weight gain. TLR4 signaling promotes ingestion of sugar and fat by a mechanism involving increased preference for such obesogenic foods. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  8. Food product design. An integrated approach

    Linnemann, A.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2007-01-01

    This book explains how to apply barrier technology in food production to improve product stability and the possibilities of modelling and statistics in food product design are elaborated. Attention is given to Life Cycle Assessment as a method to determine the environmental impact of a food from

  9. Improving the process of progressive preliming in sugar production

    V. A. Golybin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tasks progressive preliming are to conduct neutralization, coagulation, deposition of non-sugars, the formation of a precipitate structure. This is the first operation of physical and chemical cleaning of the raw juice in the case of it in optimum conditions enables the coagulation and transferred to precipitate a substantial portion of high-molecular non-sugars, poorly soluble calcium salts that provides the cleaning effect of 14–18%, that is, up to half of the total effect on the whole station lime-carbon dioxide purification. The results preliming felt not only on the properties of the filtration of the carbonated juices, but a lso on the quality of performance of all intermediates and produced of sugar, in particular the color and turbidity of an aqueous solution, the content of the ash. In our investigations using the raw juice from sugar beet low quality found that when a uniform progressi ve change in pH of the juice during warm preliming best results for deposition rate and volume solids of the resulting precipitate are achieved when the length of 7 to 10 minutes. If it increases to 15 minutes and further reduced the deposition rate of the solid phase with a significant increase in turbidity decantate. It found that as a result of excess visit a large part of the raw juice in a progressive preliming at 60 °C increase in color prelimed juice was 30–55%, which is in agreement with the calculated values decay reducing agents in alkaline solution and formation of any additional colorants. The results confirming the feasibility of the use preddefekatsionnoy for processing the raw juice of condensed carbonate refunds.

  10. Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and discretionary foods among US adults by purchase location.

    An, R; Maurer, G

    2016-12-01

    Excess calorie intake from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods occupies a significant proportion of Western diet. The aim of this study was to examine consumption of SSBs and discretionary foods in US adults by purchase location. Nationally representative 24-h dietary recall data came from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The discretionary food category identifies energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods that do not necessarily contain essential nutrients but may add variety and enjoyment. Linear regressions were performed to estimate daily calorie intake from SSBs and discretionary foods by purchase location (supermarket/grocery store, convenience store, vending machine, fast-food restaurant, full-service restaurant and other source), adjusting for individual characteristics and sampling design. During 2011-2012, 46.3% and 88.8% of US adults consumed SSBs and discretionary foods on any given day, respectively. SSB consumers on average consumed 213.0 kcal from SSBs daily, of which 111.6 kcal (52.4%) were purchased from supermarkets/grocery stores, 33.0 kcal (15.5%) from fast-food restaurants, 23.9 kcal (11.2%) from convenience stores, 17.1 kcal (8.0%) from full-service restaurants, 8.5 kcal (4.0%) from vending machines and 19.0 kcal (8.9%) from other sources. Discretionary food consumers on average consumed 439.0 kcal from discretionary foods daily, of which 280.1 kcal (63.8%) were purchased from supermarkets/grocery stores, 45.8 kcal (10.4%) from fast-food restaurants, 30.0 kcal (6.8%) from full-service restaurants, 21.1 kcal (4.8%) from convenience stores, 4.1 kcal (0.9%) from vending machines and 58.0 kcal (13.2%) from other sources. Supermarkets/grocery stores were by far the single largest source for SSB and discretionary food purchases in US adults.

  11. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003–2010

    Colin D. Rehm; Adam Drewnowski

    2016-01-01

    Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs) have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4–19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003–2010 a custom algorithm se...

  12. Free sugar contents in onion bulbs on different cultivars and different production areas, and their changes by storage and gamma-irradiation. Free sugars in onion bulbs, 1

    Nishibori, Sukie [Tokaigakuen Women' s Coll., Nagoya (Japan); Namiki, Kazuko

    1982-05-01

    Changes in the contents of free sugar in onion bulbs of different cultivars and different production areas were investigated during storage and processing by using gas-chromatography. No significant difference was observed in the total free sugar contents among the onions of different cultivars and different production areas except early season's cultivars which showed a slightly lower content of sugar. The free sugar was mainly composed with glucose (1.7 - 3.2%), fructose (1.1 - 2.5%) and sucrose (0.7 - 2.6%), and the composition was somewhat different among the onions of different cultivars and different production areas. During the storage at 4 - 5/sup 0/C, the total free suger contents gradually decreased during the first few months but more markedly to about 30% after sprouting. The middle part of onion bulbs contained more total free sugar than the other parts (middle part, 5.6 ..-->.. 3.5%, inner part, 5.2 ..-->.. 3.2%, outer part, 4.8 ..-->.. 1.5%), and the total free sugar contents in the outer part decreased markedly during the storage. The changes of the sugar contents after the freeze-drying were almost negligible, but showed significant decrease after the hot-air drying, especially for sucrose. The gamma irradiation with 5 - 50 krad gave no appreciable effects on the total free sugar contents though it seemed to make a slight increase in the sucrose content.

  13. A proposal of a Planning Strategy in Order to Improve in the Production Process at the UEB Sugar Mill “Paquito Rosales”

    Rubén Guillermo Pellicer-Durán

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This scientific research constitutes a part of the universitary project entitled “An attempt to improve the food production processes at some Unidades Empresariales de Base (UEB in the Santiago de Cuba´s province. This study is carried out inside the process that is taking place in order to redesign the Cuban sugar industry.This research work aims to suggest a strategy to increase the sugar of cane production levels taking into account some problems that are related to planning in the sugar production process. This is well represented through an strategic analysis that leads to the collection , processing and analysis of the primary information.These actions have an influence on the increase of the output base 96 in a 12 % and the growing of the recovery levels in 89,14 %. It is also estimated that the production rises on a 16,6 %.

  14. Production of xylose, furfural, fermentable sugars and ethanol from agricultural residues

    Singh, A.; Das, K.; Sharma, D.K.

    1984-02-01

    With the developing shortage of petroleum, reliance on biomass as a source of chemicals and fuels will increase. In the present work, bagasse and rice husk were subjected to dilute acid (H2SO4) hydrolysis using pressurised water to obtain furfural and fermentable sugars. Various process conditions such as particle size, solid-liquid ratio, acid concentration, reaction time and temperature have been studied to optimise yields of furfural, xylose and other fermentable sugars. The use of particle sizes smaller than 495 mu m did not further increase the yield of reducing sugars. A solid-liquid ratio of 1:15 was found to be the most suitable for production of reducing sugars. Hydrolysis using 0.4% H2SO4 at 453 K resulted in selective yields (g per 100 g of dried agricultural residues) of xylose from bagasse (22.5%) and rice husk (21.5%). A maximum yield of furfural was obtained using 0.4% H2SO4 at 473 K from bagasse (11.5%) and rice husk (10.9%). It was also found that hydrolysis using 1% H2SO4 at 493 K resulted in maximum yields of total reducing sugar from bagasse (53.5%) and rice husk (50%). The reducing sugars obtained were fermented to ethanol after removal of furfural. The effect of furfural on the fermentation of sugars to ethanol was also studied. Based on these studies, an integrated two-step process for the production of furfural and fermentable sugars could be envisaged. In the first step, using 0.4% H2SO4 at 473 K, furfural could be obtained, while in the second step, the use of 1% H2SO4 at 493 K should result in the production of fermentable sugars. (Refs. 22).

  15. Food intake regulation in children. Fat and sugar substitutes and intake.

    Birch, L L; Fisher, J O

    1997-05-23

    intake, but because these adjustments in energy intake are not macronutrient specific, changes in the overall macronutrient composition of children's diets can be obtained. There does not appear to be anything unique or special about the effects of macronutrient substitutes on children's intake; their effects are similar to those produced by other manipulations of macronutrient and energy content accomplished without macronutrient substitutes (e.g., augmenting foods with fat or carbohydrate to produce macronutrient differences). The research also indicates that under conditions that minimize adult attempts to control how much and what children eat, children can adjust their food and energy intake in response to the alterations of macronutrient and energy content of foods. Whether or not young children adjust food intake to compensate for energy-density changes depends upon their opportunity to control their own food intake as opposed to having their intake controlled by others. Young children's ability to adjust intake in response to alterations in the energy density of foods can be readily disrupted by the imposition of controlling child-feeding practices that attempt to regulate what and how much children eat. We believe that early experiences, including child-feeding practices imposed by parents, are major factors contributing to the etiology of individual differences and gender differences in the behavioral controls of food intake that can occur in response to the energy content of foods. The extent to which children respond to energy density of the diet has major implications for the effects of fat and sugar substitutes on children's intake. If children who are responsive to energy density consume substantial amounts of foods containing macronutrient substitutes, they should show some adjustments in intake to compensate for reduced energy, so that the impact of macronutrient substitutes on energy intake may be relatively small. However, changes in macronutrient com

  16. Several varieties of sugar sorghum and their possibilities for alcohol production

    Bergeret, P W; Fernandez, P W

    1956-01-01

    To study the possibility of using sugar sorghum as a raw material for the production of industrial alcohol, 17 sugar-sorghum varieties from the USA were grown experimentally under field conditions in Uruguay. The best were White African, Honey (Texas) T.S. 21001, and Axtell, which yielded 35,300, 34,200, and 32,450 kg. of stems (1271), 1539, and 14211.100% alcohol)/ha., respectively. The quantity of alcohol/ha obtained from sugar sorghum is almost 3 times that obtained from corn.

  17. FORECAST PRODUCTION COSTS SUGAR IN THE PROVINCE OF SANTIAGO DE CUBA THROUGH ECONOMETRIC TECHNIQUES

    Ramón Rodríguez-Betancourt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The conformation at the present time, of an economic model renovated in Cuba, it should be based in the efficient use of the productive factors which it counts the country, with emphasis in the substitution of imports. In the chapter VII, article 184 of the Limits of the Economic and Social Politics of the Party and the Revolution it can be read: "To prioritize, in short term, the substitution of imports of those foods that can be produced efficiently in the country; also it will owe to multiply the application of the results of the science and the technique."1 In fact the objective of the present investigation, using econometrics technical to carry out presage of the cost of sugar production, using factors in the productive process: days of harvest, use of the potential, recovered capacity and industrial yield. The results indicate  that the factor with more influences in the decrease of the costs is the industrial yield. It is also obtained a cost presage for the county Santiago de Cuba in different harvest stages that oscillates between $372,45 and 517,52 and it stops extreme values of $ 303,21 and $ 777,6. 

  18. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003–2010

    Colin D. Rehm

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs. Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4–19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2003–2010 a custom algorithm segmented FFRs into burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican cuisine, chicken, Asian cuisine, fish restaurants, and coffee shops. There was a significant population-wide decline in FFR-sourced solid fats (−32 kcal/day, p-trend < 0.001, added sugars (−16 kcal/day; p-trend < 0.001, SSBs (−0.12 servings (12 fluid ounces or 355 mL/day; p-trend < 0.001, and sodium (−166 mg/day; p-trend < 0.001. Declines were observed when restricted to fast food consumers alone. Sharp declines were observed for pizza restaurants; added sugars, solid fats, and SSBs declined significantly from burger restaurants. Fruit did not change for fast food restaurants overall. Temporal analyses of fast food consumption trends by restaurant type allow for more precise monitoring of the quality of children’s diets than can be obtained from analyses of menu offerings. Such analyses can inform public health interventions and policy measures.

  19. Application of multi-element clustering techniques of five Egyptian industrial sugar products

    Awadallah, R.M.; Mohamed, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    The concentration of 18 elements in different cane sugar products, i.e., cane sugar plants, crude and syrup juices, molasses, and the end products of the consumer sugar, were analyzed and processed. The samples were collected from five cities, i.e., Kom Ombo, Edfu, Armant, Deshna and Naga Hammady in Upper Egypt where the main Egyptian sugar industry factories are located. INAA was applied for the determination of Al, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, and Sc, while Cu, Li, P, Sn, V and Zn were determined by ICP-AES and Pb and As were determined by AAS. These three analytical methods were applied to optimize the sensitivity and the accuracy of the measurements in order to provide a sound basis for the obtention of reliable clustering results. (author). 5 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Marketing foods to children: a comparison of nutrient content between children's and non-children's products.

    Lythgoe, Amelia; Roberts, Caireen; Madden, Angela M; Rennie, Kirsten L

    2013-12-01

    The predominance of marketing of products high in fat, sugar and/or salt to children has been well documented and implicated in the incidence of obesity. The present study aimed to determine whether foods marketed to children in UK supermarkets are nutritionally similar to the non-children's equivalent, focusing on food categories that may be viewed as healthier options. Nutritional data were collected on yoghurts (n 147), cereal bars (n 145) and ready meals (n 144) from seven major UK supermarkets and categorised as children's or non-children's products based on the characteristics, promotional nature or information on the product packaging. Fat, sugar and salt content was compared per 100 g and per recommended portion size. UK. Per 100 g, children's yoghurts and cereal bars were higher in total sugars, fat and saturated fat than the non-children's; this was significant for all except sugar and total fat in cereal bars. Per portion these differences remained, except for sugars in yoghurts. Conversely children's ready meals were significantly lower in these nutrients per portion than non-children's, but not when expressed per 100 g. Children's yoghurts and ready meals had significantly lower sodium content than non-children's both per portion and per 100 g. Significant differences between the nutritional composition of children's and non-children's products were observed but varied depending on the unit reference. A significant number of products marketed towards children were higher in fat, sugar and salt than those marketed to the general population.

  1. The economics of sugar beets in biogas production; Vergaerung von Zuckerrueben in Biogasanlagen. Lohnt sich das?

    Hartmann, Stefan; Doehler, Helmut [Kuratorium fuer Technik und Bauwesen in der Landwirtschaft e.V. (KTBL), Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The economics of employing sugar beets for biogas production were investigated using a calculation model based on the currently available data. Taken into account were all steps of the chain from cultivation, conditioning and conservation to the influences in the biogas plant. Only by calculating with very good assumptions for the fermentation of sugar beets, they can constitute an economical alternative to the use of silo maize as a fermentation substrate. (orig.)

  2. teaching food production and preservation using constructivist

    Global Journal

    teaching methods where students are actively involved in thinking and creating ... KEYWORDS: food production, food preservation Biology, 5Es constructivist model, self-reliance ... shelf live. The world's population is growing every day but food production which is the basic ... life matters so as to be self-reliant citizens of this.

  3. Strategies in marketing new food products

    Urbain, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    It is critical to the successful commercialization of the irradiated food process to secure either a full-time marketing person or a consulting organization to aid food industries in the successful world-wide commercialization of new irradiated food products. Expert advice/guidance is needed to help attain the goals on commercialization of this new product

  4. Evaluating equity critiques in food policy: the case of sugar-sweetened beverages.

    Barnhill, Anne; King, Katherine F

    2013-01-01

    Many anti-obesity policies face a variety of ethical objections. We consider one kind of anti-obesity policy - modifications to food assistance programs meant to improve participants' diet - and one kind of criticism of these policies, that they are inequitable. We take as our example the recent, unsuccessful effort by New York State to exclude sweetened beverages from the items eligible for purchase in New York City with Supplemental Nutrition Support Program (SNAP) assistance (i.e., food stamps). We distinguish two equity-based ethical objections that were made to the sweetened beverage exclusion, and analyze these objections in terms of the theoretical notions of distributive equality and social equality. First, the sweetened beverage exclusion is unfair or violates distributive equality because it restricts the consumer choice of SNAP participants relative to non-participants. Second, it is disrespectful or violates social equality to prohibit SNAP participants from purchasing sweetened beverages with food stamps. We conclude that neither equity-based ethical objection is decisive, and that the proposed exclusion of sugar-sweetened beverages is not a violation of either distributive or social equality. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  5. Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment?

    Verain, Muriel C D; Dagevos, Hans; Antonides, Gerrit

    2015-08-01

    Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors of the two types of behavior have been identified. Respondents were classified into four segments based on their sustainable food behaviors: unsustainers, curtailers, product-oriented consumers, and sustainers. Significant differences between the segments were found with regard to food choice motives, personal and social norms, food involvement, subjective knowledge on sustainable food, ability to judge how sustainably a product has been produced and socio-demographics. It is concluded that distinguishing between behavioral strategies toward sustainable food consumption is important as consumer segments can be identified that differ both in their level of sustainable food consumption and in the type of behavior they employ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Production and transformation of dissolved neutral sugars and amino acids by bacteria in seawater

    Jørgensen, Linda; Lechtenfeld, O.J.; Benner, R.

    2014-01-01

    production and degradation processes. This study provides insight into the bioavailability of biomolecules as well as the chemical composition of DOM produced by bacteria. The molecular compositions of combined neutral sugars and amino acids were investigated in DOM produced by bacteria and in DOM remaining...... degradation are not strongly influenced by the initial substrate or bacterial community. The molecular composition of neutral sugars released by bacteria was characterized by a high glucose content (47 mol %) and heterogeneous contributions from other neutral sugars (3–14 mol %). DOM remaining after bacterial...... degradation was characterized by a high galactose content (33 mol %), followed by glucose (22 mol %) and the remaining neutral sugars (7–11 mol %). The ratio of D-amino acids to L-amino acids increased during the experiments as a response to bacterial degradation, and after 32 days, the D/L ratios of aspartic...

  7. Detoxification and fermentation of pyrolytic sugar for ethanol production.

    Wang, Hui; Livingston, Darrell; Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; Li, Qi; Steele, Philip; Yu, Fei

    2012-11-01

    The sugars present in bio-oil produced by fast pyrolysis can potentially be fermented by microbial organisms to produce cellulosic ethanol. This study shows the potential for microbial digestion of the aqueous fraction of bio-oil in an enrichment medium to consume glucose and produce ethanol. In addition to glucose, inhibitors such as furans and phenols are present in the bio-oil. A pure glucose enrichment medium of 20 g/l was used as a standard to compare with glucose and aqueous fraction mixtures for digestion. Thirty percent by volume of aqueous fraction in media was the maximum additive amount that could be consumed and converted to ethanol. Inhibitors were removed by extraction, activated carbon, air stripping, and microbial methods. After economic analysis, the cost of ethanol using an inexpensive fermentation medium in a large scale plant is approximately $14 per gallon.

  8. Production of bacterial protein from sugar cane bagasse pith

    Molina, O E; Callieri, D A.S.; Perotti de Galvez, N

    1980-01-01

    Bacterial protein was produced during the fermentation of sugar cane bagasse pith (BP) by a mixture of cellulolytic bacteria, one of them being a species of Cellulomonas. If the BP were treated with 1% NaOH prior to fermentation, the liquor could be used twice more without affecting the yield of bacterial protein. After that, the liquor became too dark and impaired the subsequent washing of BP. If the concentration of N (as NaN0/sub 3/) in the fermentation medium were raised, the conversion factor to protein was lowered, but the amount of protein formed per L per h and the ratio of protein to BP became higher. The evolution of pH, the dry matter content, cellulolytic activity, and protein yield were all affected by the type of N source used. The yield of bacterial protein can probably be increased by automatically controlling the pH and dissolved O levels of the culture.

  9. Effect of the presence of initial ethanol on ethanol production in sugar cane juice fermented by Zymomonas mobilis

    Tano,Marcia Sadae; Buzato,João Batista

    2003-01-01

    Ethanol production in sugar cane juice in high initial sugar concentration, fermented by Z. mobilis in the presence and absence of ethanol, was evaluated. Ethanol production was low in both media. The presence of initial ethanol in the sugar cane juice reduced ethanol production by 48.8%, biomass production by 25.0% and the total sugar consumption by 28.3%. The presence of initial ethanol in the medium did not affect significantly levan production and biomass yield coefficient (g biomass/g su...

  10. Process evaluation of enzymatic hydrolysis with filtrate recycle for the production of high concentration sugars.

    Xue, Ying; Rusli, Jannov; Chang, Hou-Min; Phillips, Richard; Jameel, Hasan

    2012-02-01

    Process simulation and lab trials were carried out to demonstrate and confirm the efficiency of the concept that recycling hydrolysate at low total solid enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the options to increase the sugar concentration without mixing problems. Higher sugar concentration can reduce the capital cost for fermentation and distillation because of smaller retention volume. Meanwhile, operation cost will also decrease for less operating volume and less energy required for distillation. With the computer simulation, time and efforts can be saved to achieve the steady state of recycling process, which is the scenario for industrial production. This paper, to the best of our knowledge, is the first paper discussing steady-state saccharification with recycling of the filtrate form enzymatic hydrolysis to increase sugar concentration. Recycled enzymes in the filtrate (15-30% of the original enzyme loading) resulted in 5-10% higher carbohydrate conversion compared to the case in which recycled enzymes were denatured. The recycled hydrolysate yielded 10% higher carbohydrate conversion compared to pure sugar simulated hydrolysate at the same enzyme loading, which indicated hydrolysis by-products could boost enzymatic hydrolysis. The high sugar concentration (pure sugar simulated) showed inhibition effect, since about 15% decrease in carbohydrate conversion was observed compared with the case with no sugar added. The overall effect of hydrolysate recycling at WinGEMS simulated steady-state conditions with 5% total solids was increasing the sugar concentration from 35 to 141 g/l, while the carbohydrate conversion was 2% higher for recycling at steady state (87%) compared with no recycling strategy (85%). Ten percent and 15% total solid processes were also evaluated in this study.

  11. Increase The Sugar Concentration of The Solution Sugar by Reverse Osmotic Membrane

    Redjeki, S.; Hapsari, N.; Iriani

    2018-01-01

    Sugar is one of the basic needs of people and food and drink industry. As technology advances and the demand for efficient usage of sugar rises, crystal sugar is seen as less advantageous than liquid sugar. If sugar is always dissolved in water before use, then it will be more efficient and practical for consumers to use sugar in liquid form than in crystal form. Other than that, liquid sugar is also attractive to consumers because it is economical, hygienic, instantly soluble in hot and cold water, fresher and longer-lasting, able to thicken and enrich the texture of foods and drinks, and functions as sweetener, syrup, and flavor enhancer. Liquid sugar is also more beneficial for sugar producers because of simpler production process, cheaper production cost, and similar yield with no extra cost. In sugar production, separation process is found in most of its stages and therefore the use of membrane technology for separating solute and water content has a good potential. In this research, water content reduction of sugar solution was done in order to increase the sugar concentration of the solution. The parameters of this research were 4%, 5%, and 6% starting concentration of sugar solution; 20, 40, and 60 minutes of process time; and 85 and 60 PSI ΔP. The best result was acquired on 4% starting concentration, 60 PSI ΔP, and 60 minutes process time.

  12. Ethanol from sugar beet in The Netherlands: energy production and efficiency

    Langeveld, J.W.A.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Vries, de S.C.; Brink, van den L.; Visser, de C.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Prospects for ethanol production from sugar beet in The Netherlands have been analysed using measured production data from two experimental farms and literature on beet to ethanol conversion. The analyses include beet cultivation and harvesting, transport to the factory, conversion into ethanol and

  13. Effect of steam pretreatment on oil palm empty fruit bunch for the production of sugars

    Shamsudin, Saleha; Md Shah, Umi Kalsom; Zainudin, Huzairi; Abd-Aziz, Suraini; Mustapa Kamal, Siti Mazlina; Shirai, Yoshihito; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2012-01-01

    Lignocellulose into fuel ethanol is the most feasible conversion route strategy in terms of sustainability. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) generated from palm oil production is a huge source of cellulosic material and represents a cheap renewable feedstock which awaits further commercial exploitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using steam at 0.28 MPa and 140 °C generated from the palm oil mill boiler as a pretreatment to enhance the digestibility of EFB for sugars production. The effects of steam pretreatment or autohydrolysis on chemical composition changes, polysaccharide conversion, sugar production and morphology alterations of four different types of EFB namely fresh EFB (EFB1), sterilized EFB (EFB2), shredded EFB (EFB3) and ground EFB (EFB4) were evaluated. In this study, the effects of steam pretreatment showed major alterations in the morphology of EFB as observed under the scanning electron microscope. Steam pretreated EFB2 was found to have the highest total conversion of 30% to sugars with 209 g kg −1 EFB. This production was 10.5 fold higher than for EFB1 and 1.6 fold and 1.7 fold higher than EFB3 and EFB4, respectively. The results suggested that pretreatment of EFB by autohydrolysis using steam from the mill boiler could be considered as being a suitable pretreatment process for the production of sugars. These sugars can be utilized as potential substrates for the production of various products such as fuel ethanol. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the feasibility of steam pretreatment to enhance digestibility of EFB. ► Steam pretreatment increased sugars to 3.4 fold and caused major alteration in EFB morphology under SEM. ► Autohydrolysis which does not require the addition of chemicals is an attractive pretreatment approach to EFB.

  14. Is lowering reducing sugars concentration in French fries an effective measure to reduce acrylamide concentration in food service establishments?

    Sanny, M.A.I.; Jinap, S.; Bakker, E.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the actual effectiveness of lowering reducing sugars concentration in par-fried potato strips on the concentration and variation of acrylamide in French fries prepared in real-life situations in food service establishments. Acrylamide, frying

  15. THE TECHNOLOGY OF PASTE FROM SUGAR BEET OBTAINING

    M. G. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We considered a new technology for processing sugar beet into intermediate product for the food industry. Nowadays sugar beet is mainly used for processing into granulated sugar. In the granulated sugar obtaining sugar beet undergoes deep extraction of all nutrients: proteins, minerals, pectin, organic acids, preventing the crystallization process, and then the refined product (granulated sugar with a mass fraction of sucrose not less than 99.75% is obtained. We developed a technology for producing a sugar beet paste, which allows to preserve both sucrose, and almost all useful for human food substances containing in beet. A sugar beet paste is a valuable food product. Carbohydrates, organic acids, minerals, proteins, dietary fibers and vitamins are found in it. The block diagram of a sugar beet paste is given in the article. Technology of obtaining a sugar beet paste was tested under production conditions at the cannery (Joint Stock Company "Sadovoye" Liskinsky district,. Storozhevoe village, Voronezh region. The chemical composition of the paste (Dry Substances = 40% was determined, the degree of meeting of daily requirement for nutrients was calculated. 100 g of the product satisfy the daily requirement for dietary fiber by 42.5%, organic acids by 27.5% potassium by 24.0%, magnesium by 40.0%, iron by 26.7%. The sugar beet paste can be used as a semi-finished product in the confectionery, bakery, food concentrates industry, for products with increased nutritional value, as well as the finished product instead of marmalade and jam.

  16. Simulating the impact on health of internalising the cost of carbon in food prices combined with a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages.

    Briggs, Adam D M; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Tiffin, Richard; Scarborough, Peter

    2016-02-03

    Rising greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) have implications for health and up to 30 % of emissions globally are thought to arise from agriculture. Synergies exist between diets low in GHGEs and health however some foods have the opposite relationship, such as sugar production being a relatively low source of GHGEs. In order to address this and to further characterise a healthy sustainable diet, we model the effect on UK non-communicable disease mortality and GHGEs of internalising the social cost of carbon into the price of food alongside a 20 % tax on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs). Developing previously published work, we simulate four tax scenarios: (A) a GHGEs tax of £2.86/tonne of CO2 equivalents (tCO2e)/100 g product on all products with emissions greater than the mean across all food groups (0.36 kgCO2e/100 g); (B) scenario A but with subsidies on foods with emissions lower than 0.36 kgCO2e/100 g such that the effect is revenue neutral; (C) scenario A but with a 20 % sales tax on SSBs; (D) scenario B but with a 20 % sales tax on SSBs. An almost ideal demand system is used to estimate price elasticities and a comparative risk assessment model is used to estimate changes to non-communicable disease mortality. We estimate that scenario A would lead to 300 deaths delayed or averted, 18,900 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs, and £3.0 billion tax revenue; scenario B, 90 deaths delayed or averted and 17,100 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs; scenario C, 1,200 deaths delayed or averted, 18,500 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs, and £3.4 billion revenue; and scenario D, 2,000 deaths delayed or averted and 16,500 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs. Deaths averted are mainly due to increased fibre and reduced fat consumption; a SSB tax reduces SSB and sugar consumption. Incorporating the social cost of carbon into the price of food has the potential to improve health, reduce GHGEs, and raise revenue. The simple addition of a tax on SSBs can mitigate negative health consequences arising from sugar being low in GHGEs. Further

  17. Radiation processing of food and allied products

    Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while reducing post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy has played a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

  18. Regional characteristics of market production of sugar beet and sunflower in Serbia

    Stevanović Simo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the trends in the development of industrial crop production in the case of sugar beet and sunflower in Serbia from 1976 to 2013. Grouping of regions (4 regions without Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija and districts (25 districts in Serbia in 2013, according to the characteristics of land capacity, production of sugar beet and sunflower and level of development, was carried out by cluster analysis. Based on the median value of the important characteristics of available land capacity, production volume and economic development in municipalities, I-distance method were ranked districts in Serbia from 1 to 25. Similarities between the sugar beet and sunflower production regions in Serbia were determined by the method of complete-linkage clustering, and the results were presented in the dendrogram. According to data for 2013 it was found that 99.8% of sugar beet production and 93.9% of sunflower production in Serbia comes from the Vojvodina region. The average yields per hectare for analyzed crops in the areas of the Vojvodina region, on average, were by up to 10% higher compared to the yields in Serbia. According to the characteristics of land capacity and production, areas of the Vojvodina region belong to the highest rank 1-7, while according to the characteristics of the development level, these areas belong to rank 2-13.

  19. Encapsulates for Food Bioconversions and Metabolite Production

    Breguet, Véronique; Vojinovic, Vojislav; Marison, Ian W.

    The control of production costs in the food industry must be very strict as a result of the relatively low added value of food products. Since a wide variety of enzymes and/or cells are employed in the food industry for starch processing, cheese making, food preservation, lipid hydrolysis and other applications, immobilization of the cells and/or enzymes has been recognized as an attractive approach to improving food processes while minimizing costs. This is due to the fact that biocatalyst immobilization allows for easier separation/purification of the product and reutilization of the biocatalyst. The advantages of the use of immobilized systems are many, and they have a special relevance in the area of food technology, especially because industrial processes using immobilized biosystems are usually characterized by lower capital/energy costs and better logistics. The main applications of immobilization, related to the major processes of food bioconversions and metabolite production, will be described and discussed in this chapter.

  20. Price promotions for food and beverage products in a nationwide sample of food stores.

    Powell, Lisa M; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Isgor, Zeynep; Rimkus, Leah; Zenk, Shannon N; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-05-01

    Food and beverage price promotions may be potential targets for public health initiatives but have not been well documented. We assessed prevalence and patterns of price promotions for food and beverage products in a nationwide sample of food stores by store type, product package size, and product healthfulness. We also assessed associations of price promotions with community characteristics and product prices. In-store data collected in 2010-2012 from 8959 food stores in 468 communities spanning 46 U.S. states were used. Differences in the prevalence of price promotions were tested across stores types, product varieties, and product package sizes. Multivariable regression analyses examined associations of presence of price promotions with community racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics and with product prices. The prevalence of price promotions across all 44 products sampled was, on average, 13.4% in supermarkets (ranging from 9.1% for fresh fruits and vegetables to 18.2% for sugar-sweetened beverages), 4.5% in grocery stores (ranging from 2.5% for milk to 6.6% for breads and cereals), and 2.6% in limited service stores (ranging from 1.2% for fresh fruits and vegetables to 4.1% for breads and cereals). No differences were observed by community characteristics. Less-healthy versus more-healthy product varieties and larger versus smaller product package sizes generally had a higher prevalence of price promotion, particularly in supermarkets. On average, in supermarkets, price promotions were associated with 15.2% lower prices. The observed patterns of price promotions warrant more attention in public health food environment research and intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Sugar Beet Pulp for Efficient Bioethanol Production

    Berłowska, Joanna; Balcerek, Maria; Dziekońska-Kubczak, Urszula; Patelski, Piotr; Dziugan, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp, a byproduct of sugar beet processing, can be used as a feedstock in second-generation ethanol production. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment, of the dosage of cellulase and hemicellulase enzyme preparations used, and of aeration on the release of fermentable sugars and ethanol yield during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar beet pulp-based worts. Pressure-thermal pretreatment was applied to sugar beet pulp suspended in 2% w/w sulphuric acid solution at a ratio providing 12% dry matter. Enzymatic hydrolysis was conducted using Viscozyme and Ultraflo Max (Novozymes) enzyme preparations (0.015–0.02 mL/g dry matter). Two yeast strains were used for fermentation: Ethanol Red (S. cerevisiae) (1 g/L) and Pichia stipitis (0.5 g/L), applied sequentially. The results show that efficient simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sugar beet pulp was achieved. A 6 h interval for enzymatic activation between the application of enzyme preparations and inoculation with Ethanol Red further improved the fermentation performance, with the highest ethanol concentration reaching 26.9 ± 1.2 g/L and 86.5 ± 2.1% fermentation efficiency relative to the theoretical yield. PMID:27722169

  2. Ethanol Production from Various Sugars and Cellulosic Biomass by White Rot Fungus Lenzites betulinus.

    Im, Kyung Hoan; Nguyen, Trung Kien; Choi, Jaehyuk; Lee, Tae Soo

    2016-03-01

    Lenzites betulinus, known as gilled polypore belongs to Basidiomycota was isolated from fruiting body on broadleaf dead trees. It was found that the mycelia of white rot fungus Lenzites betulinus IUM 5468 produced ethanol from various sugars, including glucose, mannose, galactose, and cellobiose with a yield of 0.38, 0.26, 0.07, and 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed, respectively. This fungus relatively exhibited a good ethanol production from xylose at 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed. However, the ethanol conversion rate of arabinose was relatively low (at 0.07 g of ethanol per gram sugar). L. betulinus was capable of producing ethanol directly from rice straw and corn stalks at 0.22 g and 0.16 g of ethanol per gram of substrates, respectively, when this fungus was cultured in a basal medium containing 20 g/L rice straw or corn stalks. These results indicate that L. betulinus can produce ethanol efficiently from glucose, mannose, and cellobiose and produce ethanol very poorly from galactose and arabinose. Therefore, it is suggested that this fungus can ferment ethanol from various sugars and hydrolyze cellulosic materials to sugars and convert them to ethanol simultaneously.

  3. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Sugar Beet Pulp for Efficient Bioethanol Production.

    Berłowska, Joanna; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Balcerek, Maria; Dziekońska-Kubczak, Urszula; Patelski, Piotr; Dziugan, Piotr; Kręgiel, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp, a byproduct of sugar beet processing, can be used as a feedstock in second-generation ethanol production. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment, of the dosage of cellulase and hemicellulase enzyme preparations used, and of aeration on the release of fermentable sugars and ethanol yield during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar beet pulp-based worts. Pressure-thermal pretreatment was applied to sugar beet pulp suspended in 2% w/w sulphuric acid solution at a ratio providing 12% dry matter. Enzymatic hydrolysis was conducted using Viscozyme and Ultraflo Max (Novozymes) enzyme preparations (0.015-0.02 mL/g dry matter). Two yeast strains were used for fermentation: Ethanol Red ( S. cerevisiae ) (1 g/L) and Pichia stipitis (0.5 g/L), applied sequentially. The results show that efficient simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sugar beet pulp was achieved. A 6 h interval for enzymatic activation between the application of enzyme preparations and inoculation with Ethanol Red further improved the fermentation performance, with the highest ethanol concentration reaching 26.9 ± 1.2 g/L and 86.5 ± 2.1% fermentation efficiency relative to the theoretical yield.

  4. Prebiotic Synthesis of Autocatalytic Products From Formaldehyde-Derived Sugars as the Carbon and Energy Source

    Weber, Arthur L.

    2003-01-01

    Our research objective is to understand and model the chemical processes on the primitive Earth that generated the first autocatalytic molecules and microstructures involved in the origin of life. Our approach involves: (a) investigation of a model origin-of-life process named the Sugar Model that is based on the reaction of formaldehyde- derived sugars (trioses and tetroses) with ammonia, and (b) elucidation of the constraints imposed on the chemistry of the origin of life by the fixed energies and rates of C,H,O-organic reactions under mild aqueous conditions. Recently, we demonstrated that under mild aqueous conditions the Sugar Model process yields autocatalytic products, and generates organic micropherules (2-20 micron dia.) that exhibit budding, size uniformity, and chain formation. We also discovered that the sugar substrates of the Sugar Model are capable of reducing nitrite to ammonia under mild aqueous conditions. In addition studies done in collaboration with Sandra Pizzarrello (Arizona State University) revealed that chiral amino acids (including meteoritic isovaline) catalyze both the synthesis and specific handedness of chiral sugars. Our systematic survey of the energies and rates of reactions of C,H,O-organic substrates under mild aqueous conditions revealed several general principles (rules) that govern the direction and rate of organic reactions. These reactivity principles constrain the structure of chemical pathways used in the origin of life, and in modern and primitive metabolism.

  5. Contribution of Discretionary Foods and Drinks to Australian Children’s Intake of Energy, Saturated Fat, Added Sugars and Salt

    Brittany J. Johnson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Interventions are required to reduce children’s consumption of discretionary foods and drinks. To intervene we need to identify appropriate discretionary choice targets. This study aimed to determine the main discretionary choice contributors to energy and key nutrient intakes in children aged 2–18 years. Secondary analyses were performed with population weighted, single 24 h dietary recall data from the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Cakes, muffins, and slices; sweet biscuits; potato crisps and similar snacks; and, processed meats and sugar-sweetened drinks were relatively commonly consumed and were within the top three to five contributors to per capita energy, saturated fat, sodium, and/or added sugars. Per consumer intake identified cereal-based takeaway foods; cakes, muffins and slices; meat pies and other savoury pastries; and, processed meats as top contributors to energy, saturated fat, and sodium across most age groups. Subgroups of sugar-sweetened drinks and cakes, muffins and slices were consistently key contributors to added sugars intake. This study identified optimal targets for interventions to reduce discretionary choices intake, likely to have the biggest impact on moderating energy intake while also reducing intakes of saturated fat, sodium and/or added sugars.

  6. Contribution of Discretionary Foods and Drinks to Australian Children's Intake of Energy, Saturated Fat, Added Sugars and Salt.

    Johnson, Brittany J; Bell, Lucinda K; Zarnowiecki, Dorota; Rangan, Anna M; Golley, Rebecca K

    2017-12-01

    Interventions are required to reduce children's consumption of discretionary foods and drinks. To intervene we need to identify appropriate discretionary choice targets. This study aimed to determine the main discretionary choice contributors to energy and key nutrient intakes in children aged 2-18 years. Secondary analyses were performed with population weighted, single 24 h dietary recall data from the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Cakes, muffins, and slices; sweet biscuits; potato crisps and similar snacks; and, processed meats and sugar-sweetened drinks were relatively commonly consumed and were within the top three to five contributors to per capita energy, saturated fat, sodium, and/or added sugars. Per consumer intake identified cereal-based takeaway foods; cakes, muffins and slices; meat pies and other savoury pastries; and, processed meats as top contributors to energy, saturated fat, and sodium across most age groups. Subgroups of sugar-sweetened drinks and cakes, muffins and slices were consistently key contributors to added sugars intake. This study identified optimal targets for interventions to reduce discretionary choices intake, likely to have the biggest impact on moderating energy intake while also reducing intakes of saturated fat, sodium and/or added sugars.

  7. Contribution of Discretionary Foods and Drinks to Australian Children’s Intake of Energy, Saturated Fat, Added Sugars and Salt

    Zarnowiecki, Dorota; Golley, Rebecca K.

    2017-01-01

    Interventions are required to reduce children’s consumption of discretionary foods and drinks. To intervene we need to identify appropriate discretionary choice targets. This study aimed to determine the main discretionary choice contributors to energy and key nutrient intakes in children aged 2–18 years. Secondary analyses were performed with population weighted, single 24 h dietary recall data from the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Cakes, muffins, and slices; sweet biscuits; potato crisps and similar snacks; and, processed meats and sugar-sweetened drinks were relatively commonly consumed and were within the top three to five contributors to per capita energy, saturated fat, sodium, and/or added sugars. Per consumer intake identified cereal-based takeaway foods; cakes, muffins and slices; meat pies and other savoury pastries; and, processed meats as top contributors to energy, saturated fat, and sodium across most age groups. Subgroups of sugar-sweetened drinks and cakes, muffins and slices were consistently key contributors to added sugars intake. This study identified optimal targets for interventions to reduce discretionary choices intake, likely to have the biggest impact on moderating energy intake while also reducing intakes of saturated fat, sodium and/or added sugars. PMID:29194425

  8. Nonnutritive, Low Caloric Substitutes for Food Sugars: Clinical Implications for Addressing the Incidence of Dental Caries and Overweight/Obesity

    Michael W. Roberts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caries and obesity are two common conditions affecting children in the United States and other developed countries. Caries in the teeth of susceptible children have often been associated with frequent ingestion of fermentable sugars such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, and maltose. Increased calorie intake associated with sugars and carbohydrates, especially when associated with physical inactivity, has been implicated in childhood obesity. Fortunately, nonnutritive artificial alternatives and non-/low-caloric natural sugars have been developed as alternatives to fermentable sugars and have shown promise in partially addressing these health issues. Diet counseling is an important adjunct to oral health instruction. Although there are only five artificial sweeteners that have been approved as food additives by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA, there are additional five non-/low caloric sweeteners that have FDA GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe designation. Given the health impact of sugars and other carbohydrates, dental professionals should be aware of the nonnutritive non-/low caloric sweeteners available on the market and both their benefits and potential risks. Dental health professionals should also be proactive in helping identify patients at risk for obesity and provide counseling and referral when appropriate.

  9. Study On Ethanol Production From Sugar Cane Molasses By Using Irradiated Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    Botros, H.W.; Armed, A.S.; Farag, S.S.; Hassan, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    In commercial ethanol production procedures often use sugar cane molasses as a raw material due to- their abundance and low costs. The most employed microorganisms used for fermentation is Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts due to their ability to hydrolyze sucrose from sugar cane molasses into glucose and fructose; two easily assimilable hexoses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the activity of S. cerevisiae in the ethanol production yeast cells exposed to different doses of gamma rays (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 KGy. The sugar cane substrate was optimized after maintaining deferent levels of sugar concentrations (12-21%), medium ph (4.0-5.5), incubation temperature (25-40 degree C) and rate of fermentation (24-168 h). The data showed that the rate of ethanol production reached its maximum by using the irradiated S. cerevisiae cells at 0.1 kGy dose at fermentation conditions as 15% sugar concentration, ph 4.5, incubation temperature 30 degree C, fermentation time 96 h at a fermentation medium volume 250 ml found in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flasks.

  10. Study on Ethanol Production from Sugar Cane Molasses by Using Irradiated Saccharomyces cervisiae

    Botros, H.W.; Ahmed, A.S.; Farag, S.S.; Hassan, I.A.

    2012-01-01

    In commercial ethanol production procedures often use sugar cane molasses as a raw material due to their abundance and low costs. The most employed microorganisms used for fermentation is Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts due to its ability to hydrolyze sucrose from sugar cane molasses into glucose and fructose, two easily assimilable hexoses.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the activity of S. cerevisiae in the ethanol production yeast cells exposed to different doses of gamma rays (0.05, 0.10, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 kGy. The sugar cane substrate was optimized after maintaining deferent levels of sugar concentrations (12-21%), medium ph (4.0-5.5), incubation temperature (25-40 degree C) and rate of fermentation (24-168) h. Data showed that rate of ethanol production was maximum by using the irradiated S. cerevisiae cells at 0.1 kGy. dose at fermentation conditions as 15% sugar concentration, initial ph 4.5, incubation temperature 30 degree C, fermentation time 96 h at a fermentation medium volume 250 ml found in 500 ml erlenmyer flasks.

  11. Genetic determination of high productivity in experimental hybrid combinations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.

    М. О. Корнєєва

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Creation of experimental sugar beet hybrid combinations of high sugar yield values and defining gene­tic determination of their heterotic effect. Methods. Diallel crossing and topcrossing, genetic analysis of quantitative traits. Results. The authors have studied the frequency of occurrence of sugar beet heterotic hybrid combinations for «sugar yield» trait created on the basis of two pollinator lines to be genetically valuable for productivity elements, CMS lines and single-cross sterile hybrids with the use of diallel and topcrossing system of controlled hybridization. The share of parental components’ effect and their interaction in CMS hybrids variability for productivity was determined. Expediency of heterotic forecasting based on high combining ability lines was substabtiated. Promising high-yielding sugar beet combinations were selected that exceeded the group standard by 4.1–16.3%. Conclusions. The theory of genetic balance by M. V. Turbin was confirmed. Such hybrids as [CMS 5OT 4]MGP 1 (116.3%, [CMS 1OT 2]MGP 1 (112.5% and [CMS 3OT 5]MGP 1 (113.2% were recognized as the best for their productivity, MGP 1 and MGP 2 lines – as the best for their combining ability.

  12. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  13. Social impact assessment of sugar production operations in South Africa : a social life cycle assessment perspective

    2013-01-01

    M.Tech. (Quality and Operations Management) This paper focuses on the social impact of the sugar industry in South Africa. A social impact assessment is a method that aims to assess social features of the product and their positive and negative aspects in terms of its processing of raw material to the final stages of its disposal. The objectives of the study were guided by the guidelines on social life cycle assessment of products of the South African Sugar Industry developed by the United...

  14. Perspectives on the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates in biorefineries associated with the production of sugar and ethanol.

    Silva, Luiziana Ferreira; Taciro, Marilda Keico; Raicher, Gil; Piccoli, Rosane Aparecida Moniz; Mendonça, Thatiane Teixeira; Lopes, Mateus Schreiner Garcez; Gomez, José Gregório Cabrera

    2014-11-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are biodegradable and biocompatible bacterial thermoplastic polymers that can be obtained from renewable resources. The high impact of the carbon source in the final cost of this polymer has been one of the major limiting factors for PHA production and agricultural residues, mainly lignocellulosic materials, have gained attention to overcome this problem. In Brazil, production of 2nd generation ethanol from the glucose fraction, derived from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate has been studied. The huge amounts of remaining xylose will create an opportunity for the development of other bioprocesses, generating new products to be introduced into a biorefinery model. Although PHA production from sucrose integrated to a 1G ethanol and sugar mill has been proposed in the past, the integration of the process of 2G ethanol in the context of a biorefinery will provide enormous amounts of xylose, which could be applied to produce PHA, establishing a second-generation of PHA production process. Those aspects and perspectives are presented in this article. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sodium, sugar, and fat content of complementary infant and toddler foods sold in the United States, 2015.

    Maalouf, Joyce; Cogswell, Mary E; Bates, Marlana; Yuan, Keming; Scanlon, Kelley S; Pehrsson, Pamela; Gunn, Janelle P; Merritt, Robert K

    2017-06-01

    Background: As part of a healthy diet, limiting intakes of excess sodium, added sugars, saturated fat, and trans fat has been recommended. The American Heart Association recommends that children aged sugars. Objective: We sought to determine commercial complementary infant-toddler food categories that were of potential concern because of the sodium, added sugar, saturated fat, or trans fat content. Design: Nutrition label information (e.g., serving size, sodium, saturated fat, trans fat) for 1032 infant and toddler foods was collected from manufacturers' websites and stores from May to July 2015 for 24 brands, which accounted for >95% of infant-toddler food sales. The presence of added sugars was determined from the ingredient list. Reference amount customarily consumed (RACC) categories were used to group foods and standardize serving sizes. A high sodium content was evaluated on the basis of the Upper Intake Level for children aged 1-3 y and the number of potential servings per day ([i.e., 1500 mg/7 servings (>210 mg/RACC)], a sodium amount >200 mg/100 g, or a mean sodium density >1000 mg/1000 kcal. Results: In 2015, most commercial infant-only vegetables, fruit, dinners, and cereals were low in sodium, contained no saturated fat, and did not contain added sugars. On average, toddler meals contained 2233 mg Na/1000 kcal, and 84% of the meals had >210 mg Na/RACC (170 g), whereas 69% of infant-toddler savory snacks had >200 mg Na/100 g. More than 70% of toddler meals, cereal bars and breakfast pastries, and infant-toddler grain- or dairy-based desserts contained ≥1 sources of added sugar. Approximately 70% of toddler meals contained saturated fat (mean: 1.9 g/RACC), and no commercial infant-toddler foods contained trans fats. Conclusion: Most commercial toddler meals, cereal bars and breakfast pastries, and infant-toddler snacks and desserts have high sodium contents or contain added sugars, suggesting a need for continued public health efforts to support parents

  16. Ultra-processed foods and the limits of product reformulation.

    Scrinis, Gyorgy; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2018-01-01

    The nutritional reformulation of processed food and beverage products has been promoted as an important means of addressing the nutritional imbalances in contemporary dietary patterns. The focus of most reformulation policies is the reduction in quantities of nutrients-to-limit - Na, free sugars, SFA, trans-fatty acids and total energy. The present commentary examines the limitations of what we refer to as 'nutrients-to-limit reformulation' policies and practices, particularly when applied to ultra-processed foods and drink products. Beyond these nutrients-to-limit, there are a range of other potentially harmful processed and industrially produced ingredients used in the production of ultra-processed products that are not usually removed during reformulation. The sources of nutrients-to-limit in these products may be replaced with other highly processed ingredients and additives, rather than with whole or minimally processed foods. Reformulation policies may also legitimise current levels of consumption of ultra-processed products in high-income countries and increased levels of consumption in emerging markets in the global South.

  17. Bioreactors for lignocellulose conversion into fermentable sugars for production of high added value products

    Liguori, Rossana; Ventorino, Valeria; Pepe, Olimpia; Faraco, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomasses derived from dedicated crops and agro-industrial residual materials are promising renewable resources for the production of fuels and other added value bioproducts. Due to the tolerance to a wide range of environments, the dedicated crops can be cultivated on marginal lands, avoiding conflict with food production and having beneficial effects on the environment. Besides, the agro-industrial residual materials represent an abundant, available, and cheap source of biop...

  18. A lignocellulosic ethanol strategy via nonenzymatic sugar production: process synthesis and analysis.

    Han, Jeehoon; Luterbacher, Jeremy S; Alonso, David Martin; Dumesic, James A; Maravelias, Christos T

    2015-04-01

    The work develops a strategy for the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. In this strategy, the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions are simultaneously converted to sugars using a γ-valerolactone (GVL) solvent containing a dilute acid catalyst. To effectively recover GVL for reuse as solvent and biomass-derived lignin for heat and power generation, separation subsystems, including a novel CO2-based extraction for the separation of sugars from GVL, lignin and humins have been designed. The sugars are co-fermented by yeast to produce ethanol. Furthermore, heat integration to reduce utility requirements is performed. It is shown that this strategy leads to high ethanol yields and the total energy requirements could be satisfied by burning the lignin. The integrated strategy using corn stover feedstock leads to a minimum selling price of $5 per gallon of gasoline equivalent, which suggests that it is a promising alternative to current biofuels production approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bioethanol Production from Raw Juice as Intermediate of Sugar Beet Processing: A Response Surface Methodology Approach

    Stevan Popov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM was used for selecting optimal fermentation time and initial sugar mass fraction in cultivation media based on raw juice from sugar beet in order to produce ethanol. Optimal fermentation time and initial sugar mass fraction for ethanol production in batch fermentation by free Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells under anaerobic conditions at the temperature of 30 °C and agitation rate of 200 rpm were estimated to be 38 h and 12.30 % by mass, respectively. For selecting optimal conditions for industrial application, further techno-economic analysis should be performed by using the obtained mathematical representation of the process (second degree polynomial model. The overall fermentation productivity of five different types of yeast was examined and there is no significant statistical difference between them.

  20. Adults Who Order Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Sociodemographics and Meal Patterns at Fast Food Chains.

    Taksler, Glen B; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Elbel, Brian

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 30% of adults consume sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) daily, many at fast food restaurants. Researchers examined fast food purchases to better understand which consumers order SSBs, particularly large SSBs. Fast food customers in New York City and New Jersey provided receipts and participated in a survey during 2013-2014 (N=11,614). Logistic regression analyses predicted three outcomes: ordering no beverage or a non-SSB, a small/medium SSB, or a large SSB. Among respondents who ordered a beverage (n=3,775), additional analyses predicted number of beverage calories and odds of ordering an SSB. Covariates included demographic and behavioral factors. Respondents aged 18-29 years were 88% more likely to order a large SSB than a non-SSB or no beverage, as compared with respondents aged ≥50 years (pbeverage, respondents ordered more beverage calories with a large combination meal (+85.13 kcal, p=0.001) or if the restaurant had a large cup size >30 ounces (+36.07 kcal, p=0.001). Hispanic and Asian respondents were less likely to order a large SSB (AOR=0.49 and 0.52, respectively, both p≤0.026) than non-Hispanic white respondents. Odds of ordering a large SSB were higher for respondents who ate in the restaurant (AOR=1.66, pbeverage based on price (AOR=2.02, pbeverage calories increased with meal size. Increased understanding of these factors is an important step toward limiting unhealthy SSB consumption. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES OF CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION BY FERMENTATION FROM SUGAR SUBSTRATES IN CUBA

    Omar Pérez Navarro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A proposal for opportunities of citric acid production in Cuba, using sources of sugar substrates such as refined sugar, molasses and whey, by submerged fermentation with Aspergillus niger, where a technology is established from the selected substrate which is provided and the microorganism used. This is a demanding process in terms of investment costs and operation where the best combinations of productivity and cost are achieved with molasses followed by refined sugar and whey. For the selected substrate, the mass and energy balance in each of the steps in the process of obtaining citric acid for different productive capacities of citric acid was made and the minimum economic size of 2.5 t / day was determined. A production capacity of 8 t / day of granulated acid (2 640 t / a, with estimated total investment of $ 9,068,713, NPV = $ 1,401,561, IRR = 27% and DPP = 3 years was selected. The project is resistant to the rising price of raw materials and the cost of electricity and is favored when the process is integrated into a sugar mill cogeneration, while it is sensitive to a reduction in the selling price of the product.

  2. Nectar sugar production across floral phases in the Gynodioecious Protandrous Plant Geranium sylvaticum [corrected].

    Varga, Sandra; Nuortila, Carolin; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2013-01-01

    Many zoophilous plants attract their pollinators by offering nectar as a reward. In gynodioecious plants (i.e. populations are composed of female and hermaphrodite individuals) nectar production has been repeatedly reported to be larger in hermaphrodite compared to female flowers even though nectar production across the different floral phases in dichogamous plants (i.e. plants with time separation of pollen dispersal and stigma receptivity) has rarely been examined. In this study, sugar production in nectar standing crop and secretion rate were investigated in Geranium sylvaticum, a gynodioecious plant species with protandry (i.e. with hermaphrodite flowers releasing their pollen before the stigma is receptive). We found that flowers from hermaphrodites produced more nectar than female flowers in terms of total nectar sugar content. In addition, differences in nectar production among floral phases were found in hermaphrodite flowers but not in female flowers. In hermaphrodite flowers, maximum sugar content coincided with pollen presentation and declined slightly towards the female phase, indicating nectar reabsorption, whereas in female flowers sugar content did not differ between the floral phases. These differences in floral reward are discussed in relation to visitation patterns by pollinators and seed production in this species.

  3. Nectar Sugar Production across Floral Phases in the Gynodioecious Protandrous Plant Geranium sylvaticum

    Varga, Sandra; Nuortila, Carolin; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2013-01-01

    Many zoophilous plants attract their pollinators by offering nectar as a reward. In gynodioecious plants (i.e. populations are composed of female and hermaphrodite individuals) nectar production has been repeatedly reported to be larger in hermaphrodite compared to female flowers even though nectar production across the different floral phases in dichogamous plants (i.e. plants with time separation of pollen dispersal and stigma receptivity) has rarely been examined. In this study, sugar production in nectar standing crop and secretion rate were investigated in Geranium sylvaticum, a gynodioecious plant species with protandry (i.e. with hermaphrodite flowers releasing their pollen before the stigma is receptive). We found that flowers from hermaphrodites produced more nectar than female flowers in terms of total nectar sugar content. In addition, differences in nectar production among floral phases were found in hermaphrodite flowers but not in female flowers. In hermaphrodite flowers, maximum sugar content coincided with pollen presentation and declined slightly towards the female phase, indicating nectar reabsorption, whereas in female flowers sugar content did not differ between the floral phases. These differences in floral reward are discussed in relation to visitation patterns by pollinators and seed production in this species. PMID:23614053

  4. High Activity catalysts for Polyols Production From C-6 Sugars

    Todd Werpy; Alan Zacher; John Frye; Keith Peterson; Gary Neuenschwander; Eric Alderson; Daniel Muzatko; Jim White

    2003-05-06

    Over the course of this project, many significant discoveries have been made in the process for the conversion of sorbitol to value added products. The object was developing a process for the production of propylene glycol (PG), ethylene glycol (EG), and glycerol from sorbitol.

  5. Effects of rare sugar D-allulose on acid production and probiotic activities of dairy lactic acid bacteria.

    Kimoto-Nira, H; Moriya, N; Hayakawa, S; Kuramasu, K; Ohmori, H; Yamasaki, S; Ogawa, M

    2017-07-01

    It has recently been reported that the rare sugar d-allulose has beneficial effects, including the suppression of postprandial blood glucose elevation in humans, and can be substituted for sucrose as a low-calorie food ingredient. To examine the applications of d-allulose in the dairy industry, we investigated the effects of d-allulose on the acid production of 8 strains of yogurt starter (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) and 4 strains of lactococci, including potential probiotic candidates derived from dairy products. Acid production by 2 L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus yogurt starter strains in milk was suppressed by d-allulose, but this phenomenon was also observed in some strains with another sugar (xylose), a sugar alcohol (sorbitol), or both. In contrast, among the dairy probiotic candidates, Lactococcus lactis H61, which has beneficial effects for human skin when drunk as part of fermented milk, was the only strain that showed suppression of acid production in the presence of d-allulose. Strain H61 did not metabolize d-allulose. We did not observe suppression of acid production by strain H61 with the addition of xylose or sorbitol, and xylose and sorbitol were not metabolized by strain H61. The acid production of strain H61 after culture in a constituted medium (tryptone-yeast extract-glucose broth) was also suppressed with the addition of d-allulose, but growth efficiency and sugar fermentation style were not altered. Probiotic activities-such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of H61-fermented milk and the superoxide dismutase activity of H61 cells grown in tryptone-yeast extract-glucose broth-were not affected by d-allulose. d-Allulose may suppress acid production in certain lactic acid bacteria without altering their probiotic activity. It may be useful for developing new probiotic dairy products from probiotic strains such as Lactococcus lactis H61. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science

  6. Consumer attitudes to enzymes in food production

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    The use of enzymes in food production has potential benefits for both food manufacturers and consumers. A central question is how consumers react to new ways of producing foods with enzymes. This study investigates the formation of consumer attitudes to different enzyme production methods in three...... European countries. Results show that consumers are most positive towards non-GM enzyme production methods. The enzyme production method is by far the most important factor for the formation of buying intentions compared to price and benefits. Results also show that environmental concern and attitudes...... to technological progress are the socio-political attitudes that have the highest predictive value regarding attitudes to enzyme production methods....

  7. Preservation of food products by irradiation

    McGivney, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    The use of irradiation to preserve food has the potential to significantly enhance our capacity to maximize the quality and quantity of the food we consume. In a world in which distribution of food occurs across continents and in which malnourished populations are in dire need of basic food products, any safe, effective, and efficient means of preserving food is more than welcome. Irradiation, as a method for food preservation, has been studied for more than 30 years. This discussion focuses on this most recent method for the preservation of food with particular emphasis on its effects on the safety, nutritive, and aesthetic values of the food preserved by irradiation. The use of ionizing radiation as a method to preserve foods is one that has been demonstrated to be effective for a variety of food classes. Irradiation offers a means to decontaminate, disinfest, and retard the spoilage of the food supply. At the same time, it appears that the wholesomeness of these food products is maintained. Nutritive value can be sustained by use of effective doses of radiation. Concerns over the safety of irradiated food are rooted in questions regarding the potential induction of radioactivity, harmful radiolytic products, and pathogenic radiation-resistant or mutant strains of microorganisms. Research findings have allayed concerns over safety. However, more research is necessary to conclusively resolve these safety issues. Food irradiation is a promising technology that has and will contribute to our ability to feed the people of this world. This technology is but one of many available ways to preserve our greatest natural resource, the food supply. Enhancement of the ability to preserve food by irradiation will facilitate the distribution of food from fertile developed regions to the malnourished peoples of underdeveloped countries. 21 references

  8. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003-2010.

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-12-13

    Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs) have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4-19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2010 a custom algorithm segmented FFRs into burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican cuisine, chicken, Asian cuisine, fish restaurants, and coffee shops. There was a significant population-wide decline in FFR-sourced solid fats (-32 kcal/day, p -trend restaurants; added sugars, solid fats, and SSBs declined significantly from burger restaurants. Fruit did not change for fast food restaurants overall. Temporal analyses of fast food consumption trends by restaurant type allow for more precise monitoring of the quality of children's diets than can be obtained from analyses of menu offerings. Such analyses can inform public health interventions and policy measures.

  9. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003–2010

    Rehm, Colin D.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs) have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4–19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003–2010 a custom algorithm segmented FFRs into burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican cuisine, chicken, Asian cuisine, fish restaurants, and coffee shops. There was a significant population-wide decline in FFR-sourced solid fats (−32 kcal/day, p-trend restaurants; added sugars, solid fats, and SSBs declined significantly from burger restaurants. Fruit did not change for fast food restaurants overall. Temporal analyses of fast food consumption trends by restaurant type allow for more precise monitoring of the quality of children’s diets than can be obtained from analyses of menu offerings. Such analyses can inform public health interventions and policy measures. PMID:27983573

  10. Sustainable Livestock Production in The Perspective of National Food Security Policy

    Tjeppy D Soedjana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the role that livestock play in various dimensions of food security. Food security is defined as a state of affairs where all people at all times have access to safe and nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life. Availability, accessibility, and affordability of individuals to consume food according to their respective socio-economic conditions are important dimensions. It describes the place of livestock products in human nutrition, the contribution of livestock to the national food supply and the way that livestock can affect food access, as a direct source of food and a source of income. Access to food is the most basic human right, especially for Indonesia with more than 240 million people with annual growth of 1.3%. To secure food availability, a sustainable food production growth more than 2% per year, including animal protein sources, is needed. It is necessary to strengthen food supply by maximizing available resources; improve food distribution system to guarantee a stable food supply and public access; encourage diversified food consumption; and prevent as well as resolve food scarcity. Furthermore, within the national objectives for self-sufficiency in rice, corn, soybean, and white sugar, the current annual percapita consumption of livestock products has reached 6.96 kg (meat, 7.3 kg (eggs and 16.5 kg (milk, which indicates good progress to stimulate sustainable domestic livestock production.

  11. Association between overweight and consumption of ultra-processed food and sugar-sweetened beverages among vegetarians

    Jonas Augusto Cardoso da SILVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the consumption of ultra-processed food and sugar-sweetened beverages and to identify the association of this consumption with overweight among vegetarians. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a convenience sampling method was conducted. Data were collected using an online questionnaire from 8/24/2015 to 10/8/2015. Subjects were male and female vegetarians aged >16 years. Using a food frequency questionnaire, we assessed the weekly consumption of ultra-processed food and sugar-sweetened beverages and described the frequency of daily consumption overall and according to type of vegetarianism. The association between overweight and excessive daily intake of ultra-processed food was analyzed by multiple logistic regression (OR [95CI%]. Results: Information was retrieved from 503 individuals (29.8±8.5 years old; 83.7% were women. The most frequent types of vegetarianism in our sample were ovo-lacto (45.5% and vegan (41.7%, and the median time of vegetarianism was 5.3 years. The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (≥2x/day and ultra-processed food (≥3x/day was 21.0% and 16.0%, respectively, and regarding the different vegetarianism types, vegans showed the lowest frequency of excessive daily sugar-sweetened beverages and ultra-processed food consumption. In the multivariable analysis, consumption of ultra-processed food ≥3x/day (2.33 [1.36-4.03], male sex (1.73 [1.01-2.96], age ≥35 years (2.03 [1.23-3.36] and not preparing one’s food (1.67 [0.95-2.94] were independently associated with overweight. Conclusion: Although vegetarianism is frequently associated with a healthier diet and, consequently, prevention of poor health outcomes, this study found that the excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and ultra-processed food was associated with overweight.

  12. Immobilization Technologies in Probiotic Food Production

    Gregoria Mitropoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various supports and immobilization/encapsulation techniques have been proposed and tested for application in functional food production. In the present review, the use of probiotic microorganisms for the production of novel foods is discussed, while the benefits and criteria of using probiotic cultures are analyzed. Subsequently, immobilization/encapsulation applications in the food industry aiming at the prolongation of cell viability are described together with an evaluation of their potential future impact, which is also highlighted and assessed.

  13. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops......, and gives examples of the unique challenges faced by the SME food industry....

  14. Consumer attitudes towards nanotechnology in food products

    Steenis, Nigel D.; Fischer, Arnout R.H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Nanotechnology is a technology that holds much promise for food production. It is, however not clear to what extent consumers will accept different types of nanotechnologies in food products. The purpose of this paper is to research consumer attitudes towards differing applications of

  15. Food and farm products surveillance

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the radiological analyses performed on food and farm samples collected during 1994. The food and farm sampling design addresses the potential influence of Hanford Site releases. Details of the sampling design and radionuclides analyzed are included in this section

  16. Food and farm products surveillance

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the radiological analyses performed on food and farm samples collected during 1994. The food and farm sampling design addresses the potential influence of Hanford Site releases. Details of the sampling design and radionuclides analyzed are included in this section.

  17. APPLICATION OF FTA AND FMEA METHOD TO IMPROVE SUGAR PRODUCTION PROCESS QUALITY

    JojoAndriana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Defective product is a product that has poor quality and do not meet the standart. This defective products can give a bad impact to company, such as high production costs and decreased image company. Several methods that can be used to improve the quality is Six Sigma DMAIC methodology, FTA, and FMEA method. This study is conducted for several purpose, they are to determine the value of sigma level on the process of sugar production in PT.PG. Krebet Baru, to determine the factors that cause defective products in the process of sugar production by the FTA method, and to make a suitable solution based on the FMEA defective causes. The process sigma level in PT.PG.Krebet Baru is 3.58. That value sigma level indicates PT. PG. Krebet Baru is a company that are still growing and need improvement. The primary cause of the defects in the production process is a factor of operator and machine. Mode of failure with the highest RPN at 210 is time for steam process is too long, so they need to install the equipment that can detect the water level on sugar. When this equipment is installed, the exact time for drying will be known and the amount of defective product will be decreased.

  18. Improvement of Escherichia coli production strains by modification of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system

    Gosset Guillermo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The application of metabolic engineering in Escherichia coli has resulted in the generation of strains with the capacity to produce metabolites of commercial interest. Biotechnological processes with these engineered strains frequently employ culture media containing glucose as the carbon and energy source. In E. coli, the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS transports glucose when this sugar is present at concentrations like those used in production fermentations. This protein system is involved in phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar transport, therefore, its activity has an important impact on carbon flux distribution in the phosphoenolpyruvate and pyruvate nodes. Furthermore, PTS has a very important role in carbon catabolite repression. The properties of PTS impose metabolic and regulatory constraints that can hinder strain productivity. For this reason, PTS has been a target for modification with the purpose of strain improvement. In this review, PTS characteristics most relevant to strain performance and the different strategies of PTS modification for strain improvement are discussed. Functional replacement of PTS by alternative phosphoenolpyruvate-independent uptake and phosphorylation activities has resulted in significant improvements in product yield from glucose and productivity for several classes of metabolites. In addition, inactivation of PTS components has been applied successfully as a strategy to abolish carbon catabolite repression, resulting in E. coli strains that use more efficiently sugar mixtures, such as those obtained from lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

  19. Prospects of utilization of sugar beet carbohydrates for biological hydrogen production in the EU

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.; Vrije, de G.J.; Urbaniec, K.; Koukios, E.G.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen can be produced through dark anaerobic fermentation using carbohydrate-rich biomass, and through photofermentation using the organic acids produced from dark fermentation. Sugar beet is an ideal energy crop for fermentative production of hydrogen in the EU due to its environmental profile

  20. Product Category Layout and Organization: Retail Placement of Food Products

    Herpen, van E.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the placement of food products in retail stores, in particular how the placement of food products can influence how consumers perceive the store in general and these products in particular. It reviews the overall layout of the store, assortment organization, and shelf

  1. Bioactive Properties of Maillard Reaction Products Generated From Food Protein-derived Peptides.

    Arihara, K; Zhou, L; Ohata, M

    Food protein-derived peptides are promising food ingredients for developing functional foods, since various bioactive peptides are released from food proteins. The Maillard reaction, which plays an important role in most processed foods, generates various chemical components during processing. Although changes of amino acids or proteins and reduced sugars by the Maillard reaction have been studied extensively, such changes of peptides by the Maillard reaction are still not resolved enough. Since food protein-derived peptides are widely utilized in many processed foods, it deserves concern and research on the changes of peptides by the Maillard reaction in foods during processing or storage. This chapter initially overviewed food protein-derived bioactive peptides. Then, Maillard reaction products generated from peptides are discussed. We focused particularly on their bioactivities. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A comparative study of the sodium content and calories from sugar in toddler foods sold in low- and high-income New York City supermarkets.

    Samuel, Lalitha; Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey Hannah; Samuel, Benny

    2014-05-07

    Information from the nutrition facts labels of toddler foods marketed in low- and high-income New York City zip codes were analyzed for sodium content, the proportion of sugar-derived calories, and presence of sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup as an added sweetener in the list of ingredients. Among the 272 toddler foods analyzed, more than a quarter were high in sodium, over one-third derived at least 20% their calories from sugar, and more than 41% of the foods had sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup listed among the first five ingredients. The proportion of foods with such nutritional characteristics did not significantly differ between the low- and high-income neighborhood supermarkets. Median sodium content was highest among "side dishes" and "meals." The proportion of calories derived from sugar was found to be highest among "snacks and yogurt blends" in both low- and high-income neighborhoods and "breakfast foods and cereals" in low-income neighborhoods. When compared to high-income neighborhoods, more than three times the proportion of total calories in "breakfast foods and cereals" sold in low-income neighborhoods were derived from sugar. Since taste preferences established during childhood can have long-lasting influence on dietary habits, it is imperative to limit the promotion of toddler foods that are high in sodium and sugar as well as educate parents to make nutritionally sound decisions at the point of purchase.

  3. Old oil palm trunk: A promising source of sugars for bioethanol production

    Yamada, H.; Ohara, S. [Department of Global Agricultural Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo 113-8657 (Japan); Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 (Japan); Tanaka, R.; Yamamoto, K. [Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 (Japan); Sulaiman, O.; Hashim, R.; Hamid, Z.A.A.; Yahya, M.K.A. [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang (Malaysia); Kosugi, A.; Arai, T.; Murata, Y.; Nirasawa, S. [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, 1-1, Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Mohd Yusof, Mohd Nor; Ibrahim, Wan Asma [Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Kepong, 52109 Selangor (Malaysia); Mori, Y. [Department of Global Agricultural Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo 113-8657 (Japan); Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, 1-1, Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Oil palm trees are replanted at an interval of approximately 25 years because of decreased oil productivity of old trees. Consequently the felled trunks are the enormous amount of biomass resources in the palm oil producing countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia. In this report, we found that the felled oil palm trunk contains large quantity of sap, which accounts for approximately 70% of the whole trunk weight, and that sugars existing in the sap increased remarkably during storage after logging. Total sugar in the sap increased from 83 mg ml{sup -1} to 153 mg ml{sup -1}, the concentration comparable to that of sugar cane juice, after 30 days of storage, followed by the gradual decrease. The sugars contained in the sap were glucose, sucrose, fructose and galactose, all of which are fermentable by ordinary industrial yeast strains. The results indicate that old oil palm trunk becomes a promising source of sugars by proper aging after logging and, thus, its sap can be a good feedstock for bioethanol. (author)

  4. Citric acid production from whey with sugars and additives by ...

    Citric acid (CA) production by Aspergillus niger ATCC9642 from whey with different concentrations of sucrose, glucose, fructose, galactose riboflavin, tricalcium phosphate and methanol in surface culture process was studied. It was found that whey with 15% (w/v) sucrose with or without 1% methanol was the most ...

  5. An enzymatic method for the determination of fructans in foods and food products - Comparison of the results by high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperemetric detection

    Andersen, Rikke; Sørensen, A.

    1999-01-01

    We report a new and non-equipment demanding method of measuring the content of fructans as well as the contents of free glucose, free fructose and sucrose in foods and food products enzymatically. This method comprises hydrolysis of fructans into D-glucose and D-fructose enzymatically...... effects than the fructanase reported as normally used. The method is tested on ten standard substances and five fructan products, and nine foods and food products are also analysed. The enzymatic measurement of the released sugars is confirmed by measurements done by high performance anion exchange...

  6. Reducing human nitrogen use for food production.

    Liu, Junguo; Ma, Kun; Ciais, Philippe; Polasky, Stephen

    2016-07-22

    Reactive nitrogen (N) is created in order to sustain food production, but only a small fraction of this N ends up being consumed as food, the rest being lost to the environment. We calculated that the total N input (TN) of global food production was 171 Tg N yr(-1) in 2000. The production of animal products accounted for over 50% of the TN, against 17% for global calories production. Under current TN per unit of food production and assuming no change in agricultural practices and waste-to-food ratios, we estimate that an additional TN of 100 Tg N yr(-1) will be needed by 2030 for a baseline scenario that would meet hunger alleviation targets for over 9 billion people. Increased animal production will have the largest impact on increasing TN, which calls for new food production systems with better N-recycling, such as cooperation between crop and livestock producing farms. Increased N-use efficiency, healthier diet and decreased food waste could mitigate this increase and even reduce TN in 2030 by 8% relative to the 2000 level. Achieving a worldwide reduction of TN is a major challenge that requires sustained actions to improve nitrogen management practices and reduce nitrogen losses into the environment.

  7. Urban consumers’ attitudes and willingness to pay for functional foods in Iran: A case of dietary sugar

    Mohammad Kavoosi-Kalashami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing concerns for the incidence of incurable diseases and high costs of health care have attracted consumers to functional foods in the world. These foods are characterized with health improvement, lower risk of disease incidence and less health hazards. The present work examined consumers’ attitude and willingness to pay for dietary sugar in Rasht city, Iran. The studied sample included 125 citizens of Rasht in spring and summer of 2016 whose size was determined by Mitchell and Carson approach. Results of contingent valuation method on the basis of one-and-one-half-bound choice model revealed that the descriptive variable of bid had negative, statistically significant impact on the acceptance of bid by participants. In addition, the descriptive variables of respondent’s age, educational level, family size, monthly income of the family, record of diabetes in family, healthy purchase attitude, and attitude towards the benefits of dietary sugar had positive, significant influence on bid acceptance. Participants expressed their willingness to pay 35.59% extra for dietary sugar as compared to conventional sugar.

  8. Production of sugars and levulinic acid from marine biomass Gelidium amansii.

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

    2010-05-01

    This study focused on optimization of reaction conditions for formation of sugars and levulinic acid from marine algal biomass Gelidium amansii using acid catalyst and by using statistical approach. By this approach, optimal conditions for production of sugars and levulinic acid were found as follows: glucose (reaction temperature of 139.4 degrees C, reaction time of 15.0 min, and catalyst concentration of 3.0%), galactose (108.2 degrees C, 45.0 min, and 3.0%), and levulinic acid (160.0 degrees C, 43.1 min, and 3.0%). While trying to optimize the conditions for the production of glucose and galactose, levulinic acid production was found to be minimum. Similarly, the production of glucose and galactose were found to be minimum while optimizing the conditions for the production of levulinic acid. In addition, optimized production of glucose required a higher reaction temperature and shorter reaction time than that of galactose. Levulinic acid was formed at a high reaction temperature, long reaction time, and high catalyst concentration. The combined results of this study may provide useful information to develop more economical and efficient systems for production of sugars and chemicals from marine biomass.

  9. The role of water in food products

    Neacşu, A. N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Food is an indispensable factor for humans and animals, because it provides the energy and substances necessary for developing the metabolic processes, which generate the body’s growth. It is the source and regulator of exchange processes between the body and the environment. Since ancient times man has received the necessary nutrients from the environment but the operation and maintenance of the body physiology constantly needs energy. In this work we focus on the chemical composition of food, and more specifically, on the amount of water contained in food products (humidity, as a factor influencing the stability and quality of food products.

  10. Production of Dextran from Sugar Cane Molasses by Leuconostoc mesenteroides

    M Faramarzi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Dextran is a polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that are widely used in medicine as a blood volume extender. The aim of this study was to produce dextran from cane molasses using Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria. Methods: In this experimental study, for bacterial growth and dextran production, sugarcane molasses was added to the culture medium at different concentrations. Dextran sedimentation was obtained by shaking and centrifugation by adding ethanol after 48 hours. Response surface design was used for qualitative identification of the polarization of dextran and statistical analysis methods. Results: After assessing the separation and interactive effects of the parameters on the optimum amount of dextran produced from sugarcane molasses as 50 g, 35 º C and 5/8 = pH , the Dextran produced was more than 82 g/l. The correlation of the computational model for the dextran produced was 99.5%, which indicated excellent agreement with the experimental and computational models of high accuracy. Conclusion: Dextran produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria and sugarcane molasses as substrate, is a cheap and affordable compared to current methods of dextran production. In addition to producing a clinical product, the molasses pollution could be dramatically decreased. Key words: Dextran, Molasses, Leuconostoc Mesenteroides

  11. Preliminary Economics for Hydrocarbon Fuel Production from Cellulosic Sugars

    Collett, James R.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2014-05-18

    Biorefinery process and economic models built in CHEMCAD and a preliminary, genome-scale metabolic model for the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi were used to simulate the bioconversion of corn stover to lipids, and the upgrading of these hydrocarbon precursors to diesel and jet fuel. The metabolic model was based on the recently released genome sequence for L. starkeyi and on metabolic pathway information from the literature. The process model was based on bioconversion, lipid extraction, and lipid oil upgrading data found in literature, on new laboratory experimental data, and on yield predictions from the preliminary L. starkeyi metabolic model. The current plant gate production cost for a distillate-range hydrocarbon fuel was estimated by the process model Base Case to be $9.5/gallon ($9.0 /gallon of gasoline equivalent) with assumptions of 2011$, 10% internal return on investment, and 2205 ton/day dry feed rate. Opportunities for reducing the cost to below $5.0/gallon, such as improving bioconversion lipid yield and hydrogenation catalyst selectivity, are presented in a Target Case. The process and economic models developed for this work will be updated in 2014 with new experimental data and predictions from a refined metabolic network model for L. starkeyi. Attaining a production cost of $3.0/gallon will require finding higher value uses for lignin other than power generation, such as conversion to additional fuel or to a co-product.

  12. The economic feasibility of sugar beet biofuel production in central North Dakota

    Maung, Thein A.; Gustafson, Cole R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the financial feasibility of producing ethanol biofuel from sugar beets in central North Dakota. Under the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, biofuel from sugar beets uniquely qualifies as an 'advanced biofuel'. EISA mandates production of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels annually by 2022. A stochastic simulation financial model was calibrated with irrigated sugar beet data from central North Dakota to determine economic feasibility and risks of production for 0.038 hm 3 y -1 (or 10 MGY (Million Gallon per Year) and 0.076 hm 3 y -1 (or 20 MGY) ethanol plants. Study results indicate that feedstock costs, which include sugar beets and beet molasses, account for more than 70 percent of total production expenses. The estimated breakeven ethanol price for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant is $400 m -3 ($1.52 per gallon) and $450 m -3 ($1.71 per gallon) for the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant. Breakeven prices for feedstocks are also estimated and show that the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant can tolerate greater ethanol and feedstock price risks than the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant. Our results also show that one of the most important factors that affect investment success is the price of ethanol. At an ethanol price of $484.21 m -3 ($1.84 per gallon), and assuming other factors remain unchanged, the estimated net present value (NPV) for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant is $41.54 million. By comparison, the estimated NPV for the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant is only $8.30 million. Other factors such as changes in prices of co-products and utilities have a relatively minor effect on investment viability. -- Highlights: → Sugar beets and beet molasses costs account for more than 70 percent of total production expenses. → The estimated breakeven ethanol prices for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 and 0.038 hm 3 y -1 ethanol plants are $400 m -3 and $450 m -3 respectively. → The price of ethanol will be one of the most important factors for determining the future feasibility of a

  13. Optimization of sugar and blood feeding regimen in Anopheles gambiae mass production system

    Sedofia, B. K

    2013-07-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is being developed for the control of malaria transmitting mosquitoes. Critical to the success of applying the SIT is the establishment of standardized mass production systems for the target species. As part of efforts to develop standardised mass production systems for malaria vectors, this project sought to optimize adult blood and sugar feeding in a mass production system. Different sugar types (glucose, sucrose and honey) were evaluated at 6% and 10% concentrations in water to determine the best sugar diet and concentration for feeding adult An. gambiae. Different blood feeding methods, restrained Guinea pig, anaesthetised Guinea pig and human arm feeding were evaluated. Adult survival, female insemination and egg production were used as criteria to determine optimum sugar and blood feeding. The effect of anaesthetics on blood feeding response and egg production of female An. gambiae was determined by comparing feeding response and egg production of females fed with anaesthetised Guinea pigs as against physically restrained Guinea pigs (Control). The specific effect of different anaesthetic agents on blood feeding response and egg production of female mosquitoes were was also determined by comparing the feeding response and egg production of females fed with either Ketamine/Xylazine anaesthetised Guinea pigs or Ketamine/Diazepam anaesthetised Guinea pigs. Effects due to sugar types and concentrations on percentage survival of male and female mosquitoes were observed to be significant at (p 0.05). However, human ann feeding (HAP) method and Ketamine/Xylazine (KX) anaesthetics fed for 25 minutes recorded higher percentage feeding (76.0% and 68.0% respectively) and egg production of 19.0% and 20.8% respectively. Anaesthetised Guinea pig feeding (AGF) of adults for 15 minutes followed closely with 60.0% and 15.1% blood feeding and egg production respectively whilst restrained Guinea pig feeding (RGF) method and Ketamine

  14. The Truth about Sugar.

    Yeung, C Albert; Goodfellow, Ashley; Flanagan, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Sugars are used by the industry to enhance the attractiveness of foods and drinks. These added sugars, or 'free sugars', are not easily identified in food or drink labels. Certain manufactured foods and drinks with 'safe' names, such as dried fruit and fruit juice, still contain free sugars and can be confusing. Guidance states that daily consumption of free sugars should be less than 10% of total energy intake (no more than 5% in the UK). However, it is found that both tooth decay and obesity are associated with consumption of free sugars in large quantities and at inappropriate times.

  15. Convenience food products. Drivers for consumption.

    Brunner, Thomas A; van der Horst, Klazine; Siegrist, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Convenience is one of the big trends in the food business. The demand for convenience food products is steadily increasing; therefore, understanding convenience food consumption is an important issue. Despite being vital properties of convenience food, saving time and effort have not been very successful constructs for predicting convenience food consumption. To examine a wide range of possible drivers for convenience food consumption, the present study uses a convenience food frequency questionnaire that asks about consumption behavior. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was sent out to a representative sample of people in German-speaking Switzerland and yielded N = 918 complete datasets from persons mainly responsible for buying and preparing food in the household. The various convenience food products could be categorized into four groups, which we labeled as highly processed food items, moderately processed food items, single components, and salads. Fifteen drivers were found to have a significant impact either on total convenience consumption or on one of the identified categories. Strong predictors were age, concern about naturalness, nutrition knowledge, and cooking skills. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Food choices and health during military service: increases in sugar- and fibre-containing foods and changes in anthropometric and clinical risk factors.

    Bingham, Clarissa M L; Lahti-Koski, Marjaana; Absetz, Pilvikki; Puukka, Pauli; Kinnunen, Marja; Pihlajamäki, Harri; Sahi, Timo; Uutela, Antti; Jallinoja, Piia

    2012-07-01

    To analyse changes in food choices, diet-related risk factors and their association during 6 months of military service. Longitudinal cohort study in Finland, where all men are liable to military service and a clear majority of each age group completes service. Dietary intake data were collected by self-administered questionnaire before and at 6 months of service. Three dietary indices based on food frequencies were developed to characterize the diet: Sugar Index, Fibre Index and Fat Index. Thirteen diet-related risk factors were measured at the beginning and at 6 months of service. Military environment, two geographically distinct garrisons. Male conscripts aged 18-21 years (n 256) performing military service. During 6 months of service, positive changes concerned more frequent use of fibre-rich foods (P = 0·011), improved body composition (BMI, waist circumference, muscle mass, fat mass and percentage body fat, P ≤ 0·003 for all), decreased systolic blood pressure and increased HDL cholesterol (P foods and increased total cholesterol, TAG and blood glucose (P foods was inversely associated with anthropometric risk factors at baseline and with sugar-rich foods at both time points. Despite more frequent consumption of sweet foods, military service with a unified, nutritionally planned diet, a controlled environment and high physical load has a positive effect on conscripts' health risk factors. The negative changes in blood lipids and glucose may reflect more varied free-time eating.

  17. Added sugars: Definition and estimation in the USDA Food Patterns Equivalents Databases

    For the very first time, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2015-2020 made a quantitative recommendation that added sugars intake of individuals to not exceed 10 percent of total energy intake. The objective of this article is to define added sugars and to describe the methodology used to estima...

  18. Convenience stores and the marketing of foods and beverages through product assortment.

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Nalty, Courtney

    2012-09-01

    Product assortment (presence and variety) is a key in-store marketing strategy to influence consumer choice. Quantifying the product assortment of healthier and less-healthy foods and beverages in convenience stores can inform changes in the food environment. To document product assortment (i.e., presence and variety of specific foods and beverages) in convenience stores. Observational survey data were collected onsite in 2011 by trained promotora-researchers in 192 convenience stores. Frequencies of presence and distributions of variety were calculated in 2012. Paired differences were examined using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test. Convenience stores displayed a large product assortment of sugar-sweetened beverages (median 86.5 unique varieties); candy (76 varieties); salty snacks (77 varieties); fried chips (44 varieties); cookies and pastries (19 varieties); and frozen sweets (21 varieties). This compared with 17 varieties of non-sugar sweetened beverages and three varieties of baked chips. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test confirmed a (p<0.001) greater variety of sugar-sweetened than non-sugar-sweetened beverages, and of fried chips compared with baked chips. Basic food items provided by convenience stores included milk (84% of stores); fresh fruit (33%); fresh vegetables (35%); canned vegetables (78%); white bread (71%); and deli-style packaged meat (57%). Healthier versions of milk, canned fruit, canned tuna, bread, and deli-style packaged meat were displayed in 17%-71% of convenience stores. Convenience stores in this area provide a greater assortment of less-healthy compared with healthier foods and beverages. There are opportunities to influence consumer food choice through programs that alter the balance between healthier and less-healthy foods and beverages in existing convenience stores that serve rural and underserved neighborhoods and communities. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. Utilization of concentrate after membrane filtration of sugar beet thin juice for ethanol production.

    Kawa-Rygielska, Joanna; Pietrzak, Witold; Regiec, Piotr; Stencel, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    The subject of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the concentrate obtained after membrane ultrafiltration of sugar beet thin juice for ethanol production and selection of fermentation conditions (yeast strain and media supplementation). Resulting concentrate was subjected to batch ethanol fermentation using two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Ethanol Red and Safdistill C-70). The effect of different forms of media supplementation (mineral salts: (NH4)2SO4, K2HPO4, MgCl2; urea+Mg3(PO4)2 and yeast extract) on the fermentation course was also studied. It was stated that sugar beet juice concentrate is suitable for ethanol production yielding, depending on the yeast strain, ca. 85-87 g L(-1) ethanol with ca. 82% practical yield and more than 95% of sugars consumption after 72 h of fermentation. Nutrients enrichment further increased ethanol yield. The best results were obtained for media supplemented with urea+Mg3(PO4)2 yielding 91.16-92.06 g L(-1) ethanol with practical yield ranging 84.78-85.62% and full sugars consumption. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Production of bio-sugar and bioethanol from coffee residue (CR) by acid-chlorite pretreatment.

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Choi, Yong-Soo; Lee, Dae-Seok; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, coffee residue (CR) after roasting is recognized as one of the most useful resources in the world for producing the biofuel and bio-materials. In this study, we evaluated the potential of bio-sugar and bioethanol production from acid-chlorite treated CR. Notably, CR treated three times with acid-chlorite after organic solvent extraction (OSE-3), showed the high monosaccharide content, and the efficient sugar conversion yield compared to the other pretreatment conditions. The OSE-3 (6% substrate loading, w/v) can produce bio-sugar (0.568g/g OSE-3). Also, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) produced ethanol (0.266g/g OSE-3), and showed an ethanol conversion yield of 73.8% after a 72-h reaction period. These results suggest that acid-chlorite pretreatment can improve the bio-sugar and bioethanol production of CR by removing the phenolic and brown compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Continuous ethanol production using yeast immobilized on sugar-cane stalks

    Vasconcelos, J.N. de [Alagoas Univ., Maceio, AL (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: jnunes@ctec.ufal.br; Lopes, C.E. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos; Franca, F.P. de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica. Dept. de Engenharia Bioquimica

    2004-09-01

    Sugar-cane stalks, 2.0 cm long, were used as a support for yeast immobilization envisaging ethanol production. The assays were conducted in 38.5 L fermenters containing a bed of stalks with 50% porosity. The operational stability of the immobilized yeast, the efficiency and stability of the process, as well as the best dilution rate were evaluated. Molasses from demerara sugar production was used in the medium formulation. It was diluted to obtain 111.75 {+-} 1.51 g/L without any further treatment. Sulfuric acid was used to adjust the pH value to around 4.2. Every two days Kamoran HJ (10 ppm) or with a mixture containing penicillin (10 ppm) and tetracycline (10 ppm), was added to the medium. Ethanol yield and efficiency were 29.64 g/L.h and 86.40%, respectively, and the total reducing sugars conversion was 74.61% at a dilution rate of 0.83 h{sup -1}. The yeast-stalk system was shown to be stable for over a 60 day period at extremely variable dilution rates ranging from 0.05 h{sup -1} to 3.00 h{sup -1}. The concentration of immobilized cell reached around 109 cells/gram of dry sugar-cane stalk when the fermenter was operating at the highest dilution rate (3.00 h{sup -1}). (author)

  2. Development and validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) for assessing sugar consumption among adults in Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    Shanita, Nik S; Norimah, A K; Abu Hanifah, S

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for assessing habitual added sugar consumption of adults in the Klang Valley. In the development phase, a 24-hour dietary recall (24-hr DR) was used to determine food items to be included into the FFQ among adults from three major ethnicities (n = 51). In the validation phase, the FFQ was further validated against a reference method which was a multiple-pass 24-hr DR among 125 adults in Klang Valley. The response rate for the latter phase was 96.1%. The semi-quantitative FFQ consisting of 64 food items was categorised into 10 food groups. The mean added sugar intake determined by the reference method was 44.2 +/- 20.2 g/day while that from the FFQ was 49.4 +/- 21.4 g/day. The difference in mean intake between the two methods was 5.2 g (95% CI = 2.6-7.9; SD = 14.9, p food groups ranged between 0.11 (cake and related foods) to 0.61 (self-prepared drinks), with most groups correlating significantly (p < 0.05). Cross-classification of subjects into quintiles of intake showed 47.2% of the subjects correctly classifying into the same quintile, 34.4% into adjacent quintiles while none were grossly misclassified. The Bland-Altman plot was concentrated in the y-axis range (-24.14 g to 34.8 g) with a mean of 5.22 g. This semi-quantitative FFQ provides a validated tool for estimating habitual intake of added sugar in the adult population of the Klang Valley.

  3. Product samples stimulate choice of unfamiliar healthful food products.

    Schickenberg, B; van Assema, P; Brug, J; de Vries, N K

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the availability of a product sample of an unfamiliar low-fat or fruit and vegetable products stimulates choice for this product among food neophobic young adults. The study had a 2 (experimental vs. control group) by 4 (low-fat bread spread, low-fat cheese, fruit juice, fruit and vegetable juice) between subjects design with a pre-and post-experiment questionnaire. The study was conducted in restaurant rooms of several educational institutions in the Netherlands among a convenience sample of 197 food neophobic young adults aged 17-25 years. A small bite or sip-sized sample of the target product was provided as an intervention. The effect measure was choice of either an unfamiliar healthful food product or a traditional food product. Offering a sample of an unfamiliar healthful food product resulted in 51% of the participants in the experimental group choosing this product vs. 36.4% in the control group. Providing food product samples seems to be a promising strategy in healthy diet promotion programs for food neophobic young adults to increase first-time trial of unfamiliar low-fat and fruit and vegetable products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Productivity growth in food crop production in Imo State, Nigeria ...

    Agriculture plays pivotal roles in Nigeria including food security, employment, foreign exchange earnings and poverty reduction. This study examined the growth in food crop productivity in Imo State in Nigeria with emphasis on the decomposition of total factor productivity (TFP) into technical progress, changes in technical ...

  5. Ergonomics productivity enhancement at government-owned sugar cane factories in east Java, Indonesia.

    Manuaba, A

    1995-06-01

    To cope, both with the increasing demand for sugar and to win the global competition as well, government-owned sugar cane limited number xxi-xxii, has decided to enhance its productivity, among other things, by implementing ergonomics principles within their factories. In the execution, ergonomics application have been carried out since 1992, which resulted in safer, healthier, and more efficient working conditions and environment. Some of the improvements yielded economic gains through higher productivity via increased output, lower cost, faster processing, etc. Improvements related to cane transloading and unloading processes resulted in a higher amount of cane being transferred from the trucks to the lorries as well as from the lorries to the cane table. Fewer clinical visits, lower health care costs, more efficient inspection, and fewer fatigue complaints are also achieved by improvement steps, which increase the productivity as end results. With all those economic gains, full and long lasting management's concern and commitment could be created without a doubt.

  6. Careers in Organic Food Production

    Bibler, Adam

    2010-01-01

    New technology developed over the past several decades have allowed farmers to grow more food using fewer resources. Compared with 60 years ago, today's farm can supply more than three times more corn per acre, and the average dairy cow produces almost four times more milk. Even as technology improves farm yields, however, many consumers are…

  7. Processing Contaminants in Food Production

    Granby, Kit; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Fromberg, Arvid

    Contaminants like acrylamide, furan or PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) as e.g. Benz(a)pyrene may be formed during food processing. All of the substances are genotoxic carcinogens, and for that reason mitigation strategies to reduce the levels are needed. Examples of the formation of the processing...... contaminants and factors that influence the occurrence are given as well as suggestions for mitigation....

  8. Food production and nature conservation

    Gordon, Iain J.; Squire, Geoff R.; Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2016-01-01

    Feeding the world's growing human population is increasingly challenging, especially as more people adopt a western diet and lifestyle. Doing so without causing damage to nature poses an even greater challenge. This book argues that in order to create a sustainable food supply whilst conserving

  9. Processing Contaminants in Food Production

    Granby, Kit; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Fromberg, Arvid; Pedreschi, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Contaminants like acrylamide, furan or PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) as e.g. Benz(a)pyrene may be formed during food processing. All of the substances are genotoxic carcinogens, and for that reason mitigation strategies to reduce the levels are needed. Examples of the formation of the processing contaminants and factors that influence the occurrence are given as well as suggestions for mitigation.

  10. Different blood and sugar feeding regimes affect the productivity of Anopheles arabiensis colonies (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Damiens, D; Soliban, S M; Balestrino, F; Alsir, R; Vreysen, M J B; Gilles, J R L

    2013-03-01

    The success of the sterile insect technique for the management of mosquito populations depends on the release of large numbers of competitive sterile male insects. Sustainable mosquito production can only be obtained when proper mass-rearing equipment and adequate methods are available, including those to feed blood to the female mosquitoes. The blood feeding apparatus Hemotek consists of a small aluminum plate to which a collagen membrane is fixed and filled with blood kept warm by an electric heating element. A larger aluminum plate was developed to feed a larger number of female mosquitoes with blood that is kept at a constant temperature. The effect of different blood feeding regimes (feeding frequency and time the blood is kept in the Hemotek) and sugar deprivation before blood feeding on egg production of female Anopheles arabiensis Patton was tested. Egg production was higher when blood was offered to the mosquitoes every day as compared with every 2 or 4 d. Sugar deprivation for 7 h before blood feeding enhanced egg production by 50% compared with female mosquitoes that had continuous access to sugar. Neither male nor female survival was impaired. Finally, we showed that the same blood could be kept warm and used over several hours to feed mosquitoes in multiple cages without any impact on egg production or hatch rate. Being able to use the same blood over extended periods would save considerable time, handling, and funds.

  11. The government policy related to sugar-sweetened beverages In Indonesia

    Arundhana, Andi Imam

    2016-01-01

    - There are several options that can be done to enforce lowering level of sugary drinks such as strengthening the regulation, taxation of the product and food labeling. Aims & Objectives: identify the policy in Indonesia that regulates the quantity and the use of sugar in a beverage product; 2) describe sugar content in a sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) product and its impact on human health. Material & Methods: Literature search of sugar use and the tax policies of SSB products has been c...

  12. Consumer-driven food product development

    Linnemann, A.R.; Benner, M.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2006-01-01

    Food product development needs to be based on consumers' needs and wishes to be successful. Factors that have become relevant in this respect are presented and their impact discussed, like mass-individualization, globalization and an altered interpretation of the food quality concept by consumers.

  13. From Tobacco to Food Production : Consolidation, Dissemination ...

    An earlier IDRC-supported project, 103435 From Tobacco to Food Production : Constraints and Transition Strategies (Bangladesh), provided a detailed understanding of the constraints tobacco farmers face and ... How are public health actors working with the food and drinks industry to prevent diet-related disease? A new ...

  14. Bioenergy production and food security in Africa

    Ezedom Theresa

    This will in turn, facilitate industrialization in other sectors of economy through provision of affordable ... bioenergy production on food security, land allocation for energy crop production can be regulated. ... bility determines the type of industries, and the cost of ...... African countries, yeast and crude enzyme production.

  15. Feeding of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp as sole supplements in high-forage diets emphasizes the potential of dairy cattle for human food supply.

    Ertl, P; Zebeli, Q; Zollitsch, W; Knaus, W

    2016-02-01

    Besides the widely discussed negative environmental effects of dairy production, such as greenhouse gas emissions, the feeding of large amounts of potentially human-edible feedstuffs to dairy cows is another important sustainability concern. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of a complete substitution of common cereal grains and pulses with a mixture of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp in a high-forage diet on cow performance, production efficiency, feed intake, and ruminating behavior, as well as on net food production potential. Thirteen multiparous and 7 primiparous mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in a change-over design with 7-wk periods. Cows were fed a high-forage diet (grass silage and hay accounted for 75% of the dry matter intake), supplemented with either a cereal grain-based concentrate mixture (CON), or a mixture of wheat bran and dried sugar beet pulp (WBBP). Human-edible inputs were calculated for 2 different scenarios based on minimum and maximum potential recovery rates of human-edible energy and protein from the respective feedstuffs. Dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents were 3.0 and 44.1% for WBBP, compared with 10.8 and 38.2% in CON, respectively. Dietary treatment did not affect milk production, milk composition, feed intake, or total chewing activity. However, chewing index expressed in minutes per kilogram of neutral detergent fiber ingested was 12% lower in WBBP compared with CON. In comparison to CON, the human-edible feed conversion efficiencies for energy and protein, defined as human-edible output per human-edible input, were 6.8 and 5.3 times higher, respectively, in WBBP under the maximum scenario. For the maximum scenario, the daily net food production (human-edible output minus human-edible input) increased from 5.4 MJ and 250 g of crude protein per cow in CON to 61.5 MJ and 630 g of crude protein in the WBBP diet. In conclusion, our data suggest

  16. Composition of sugar cane, energy cane, and sweet sorghum suitable for ethanol production at Louisiana sugar mills.

    Kim, Misook; Day, Donal F

    2011-07-01

    A challenge facing the biofuel industry is to develop an economically viable and sustainable biorefinery. The existing potential biorefineries in Louisiana, raw sugar mills, operate only 3 months of the year. For year-round operation, they must adopt other feedstocks, besides sugar cane, as supplemental feedstocks. Energy cane and sweet sorghum have different harvest times, but can be processed for bio-ethanol using the same equipment. Juice of energy cane contains 9.8% fermentable sugars and that of sweet sorghum, 11.8%. Chemical composition of sugar cane bagasse was determined to be 42% cellulose, 25% hemicellulose, and 20% lignin, and that of energy cane was 43% cellulose, 24% hemicellulose, and 22% lignin. Sweet sorghum was 45% cellulose, 27% hemicellulose, and 21% lignin. Theoretical ethanol yields would be 3,609 kg per ha from sugar cane, 12,938 kg per ha from energy cane, and 5,804 kg per ha from sweet sorghum.

  17. Healthier meat products as functional foods.

    Decker, Eric A; Park, Yeonhwa

    2010-09-01

    A promising approach to improving health care would be to produce a healthier food supply as a preventive health care strategy. The food supply could be improved by producing functional foods that have nutritional profiles that are healthier than conventional products. However, production of functional foods is not always easily accomplished since they must also taste good, be convenient and reasonably priced so that consumers will regularly purchase and use the products. Meats have great potential for delivering important nutrients such as fatty acids, minerals, dietary fiber, antioxidants and bioactive peptides into the diet. However, to produce successful products with these ingredients, technologies must be developed to increase their stability and decrease their flavor impact on muscle foods. In addition, many regulatory hurdles must be overcome for the commercial production of meats with added nutrients. These include redefinition of standard of identities and policies that allow front of the package nutritional claims. Without these regulatory changes, production of healthier meat products won't become a reality since these products would not have a competitive advantage over unfortified meats.

  18. Potential of potassium hydroxide pretreatment of switchgrass for fermentable sugar production.

    Sharma, Rajat; Palled, Vijaykumar; Sharma-Shivappa, Ratna R; Osborne, Jason

    2013-02-01

    Chemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass has been extensively investigated for sugar generation and subsequent fuel production. Alkaline pretreatment has emerged as one of the popular chemical pretreatment methods, but most attempts thus far have utilized NaOH for the pretreatment process. This study aimed at investigating the potential of potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a viable alternative alkaline reagent for lignocellulosic pretreatment based on its different reactivity patterns compared to NaOH. Performer switchgrass was pretreated at KOH concentrations of 0.5-2% for varying treatment times of 6-48 h, 6-24 h, and 0.25-1 h at 21, 50, and 121 °C, respectively. The pretreatments resulted in the highest percent sugar retention of 99.26% at 0.5%, 21 °C, 12 h while delignification up to 55.4% was observed with 2% KOH, 121 °C, 1 h. Six pretreatment conditions were selected for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis with Cellic CTec2® for sugar generation. The pretreatment condition of 0.5% KOH, 24 h, 21 °C was determined to be the most effective as it utilized the least amount of KOH while generating 582.4 mg sugar/g raw biomass for a corresponding percent carbohydrate conversion of 91.8%.

  19. TECHNOLGIES AND SYSTEMS FOR WATER MANAGEMENT AND CONDENSATES IN THE SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Meilyn González Cortés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar factories do achieve an efficient use of process water, but this process should be self-sufficient for consumption because these sugar factories have the special characteristic of having as its main raw material, sugar cane, which consists in approximately 70% of water Those condensed recovered will be the first option to recover process water and are aimed to the feeding of boilers. The quantities of the condensate types are dependent of the evaporator’s configuration, also the grade in that show up the vapor extractions. In this paper the fundamental aspects are described as for the use and handling of water in the process of sugar production. Also, important considerations are shown on the treatment systems of residual that are generated in these factories. The evaporation system is shown as the most important area for the handling of water in the process, in it, vegetable vapor takes place and it is used in other technological equipment. A major surplus of steam will be produced in this area if the process is more energetically efficient. It is shown through a balance of water that the process is self-sufficient for water consumption.

  20. L-Rhamnose isomerase and its use for biotechnological production of rare sugars.

    Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenli; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Wanmeng

    2016-04-01

    L-Rhamnose isomerase (L-RI, EC 5.3.1.14), catalyzing the isomerization between L-rhamnose and L-rhamnulose, plays an important role in microbial L-rhamnose metabolism and thus occurs in a wide range of microorganisms. It attracts more and more attention because of its broad substrate specificity and its great potential in enzymatic production of various rare sugars. In this article, the enzymatic properties of various reported L-RIs were compared in detail, and their applications in the production of L-rhamnulose and various rare sugars including D-allose, D-gulose, L-lyxose, L-mannose, L-talose, and L-galactose were also reviewed.

  1. System expansion for handling co-products in LCA of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to establish a procedure for handling co-products in life cycle assessment (LCA) of a typical sugar cane system. The procedure is essential for environmental assessment of ethanol from molasses, a co-product of sugar which has long been used mainly for feed. We compare system...... expansion and two allocation procedures for estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of molasses ethanol. As seen from our results, system expansion yields the highest estimate among the three. However, no matter which procedure is used, a significant reduction of emissions from the fuel stage...... in the abatement scenario, which assumes implementation of substituting bioenergy for fossil-based energy to reduce GHG emissions, combined with a negligible level of emissions from the use stage, keeps the estimate of ethanol life cycle GHG emissions below that of gasoline. Pointing out that indirect land use...

  2. Anaerobic acidification of sugar-containing wastewater for biotechnological production of organic acids and ethanol.

    Darwin; Charles, Wipa; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2018-05-03

    Anaerobic acidification of sugars can produce some useful end-products such as alcohol, volatile fatty acids (e.g. acetate, propionate, and butyrate) and lactic acid. The production of end-products is highly dependent on factors including pH, temperature, hydraulic retention time and the types of sugar being fermented. Results of this current study indicate that the pH and hydraulic retention time played significant roles in determining the end products from the anaerobic acidification of maltose and glucose. Under uncontrolled pH, the anaerobic acidification of maltose ceased when pH in the reactor dropped below 5 while anaerobic acidification of glucose continued and produced ethanol as the main end-product. Under controlled pH, lactic acid was found to be the dominant end-product produced from both maltose and glucose at pH 5. Acetate was the main end-product from both maltose and glucose fermented at neutral pH (6 and 7). Short hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 days could induce the production of ethanol from the anaerobic acidification of glucose. However, the anaerobic acidification of maltose could stop when short HRT of 2 days was applied in the reactor. This finding is significant for industrial fermentation and waste management systems, and selective production of different types of organic acids could be achieved by managing pH and HRT in the reactor.

  3. Enzymes and microorganisms in food industry waste processing and conversion to useful products: literature review

    Carroad, P A [Univ. of California, Davis; Wilke, C R

    1978-01-01

    Bioconversion of food processing wastes is receiving increased attention with the realization that waste components represent an available and utilizable resource for conversion to useful products. Liquid wastes are characterized as dilute streams containing sugars, starches, proteins and fats. Solid wastes are generally cellulosic, but may contain other polymers. The greatest potential for economic bioconversion is represented by processes to convert cellulose to glucose, glucose to alcohol and protein, starch to invert sugar, and dilute waste streams to methane by anaerobic digestion. Microbial or enzymatic processes to accomplish these conversions are described.

  4. Production of DagA and ethanol by sequential utilization of sugars in a mixed-sugar medium simulating microalgal hydrolysate.

    Park, Juyi; Hong, Soon-Kwang; Chang, Yong Keun

    2015-09-01

    A novel two-step fermentation process using a mixed-sugar medium mimicking microalgal hydrolysate has been proposed to avoid glucose repression and thus to maximize substrate utilization efficiency. When DagA, a β-agarase was produced in one step in the mixed-sugar medium by using a recombinant Streptomyces lividans, glucose was found to have negative effects on the consumption of the other sugars and DagA biosynthesis causing low substrate utilization efficiency and low DagA productivity. To overcome such difficulties, a new strategy of sequential substrate utilization was developed. In the first step, glucose was consumed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae together with galactose and mannose producing ethanol, after which DagA was produced from the remaining sugars of xylose, rhamnose and ribose. Fucose was not consumed. By adopting this two-step process, the overall substrate utilization efficiency was increased approximately 3-fold with a nearly 2-fold improvement of DagA production, let alone the additional benefit of ethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Marketing foods to children through product packaging: prolific, unhealthy and misleading.

    Mehta, Kaye; Phillips, Clare; Ward, Paul; Coveney, John; Handsley, Elizabeth; Carter, Patricia

    2012-09-01

    To investigate marketing techniques used on the packaging of child-oriented products sold through supermarkets. Food and beverage products which met criteria for 'marketed to children' were recorded as child-oriented. The products were analysed for food categories, nutritional value, and type and extent of marketing techniques used. A major supermarket chain in Adelaide, South Australia. Child-oriented food and beverage products. One hundred and fifty-seven discrete products were marketed to children via product packaging; most (75·2 %) represented non-core foods, being high in fat or sugar. Many marketing techniques (more than sixteen unique marketing techniques) were used to promote child-oriented food products. Claims about health and nutrition were found on 55·5 % of non-core foods. A median of 6·43 marketing techniques per product was found. The high volume and power of marketing non-core foods to children via product packaging in supermarkets should be of concern to policy makers wanting to improve children's diet for their health and to tackle childhood obesity. Claims about health or nutrition on non-core foods deserve urgent attention owing to their potential to mislead and confuse child and adult consumers.

  6. Reducing calorie sales from supermarkets - "silent" reformulation of retailer-brand food products

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Sommer, Iben

    2017-01-01

    Background Food product reformulation is seen as one among several tools to promote healthier eating. Reformulating the recipe for a processed food, e.g. reducing the fat, sugar or salt content of the foods, or increasing the content of whole-grains, can help the consumers to pursue a healthier......’ sales data – enriched with data on products’ energy density - from a Danish retail chain. Sales of eight product categories were studied. Within each of these categories, specific products had been reformulated during the 52 weeks data period. Using econometric methods, we decompose the changes...... in calorie turnover and sales value into direct and indirect effects of product reformulation. Results For all considered products, the direct effect of product reformulation was a reduction in the sale of calories from the respective product categories - between 0.5 and 8.2%. In several cases...

  7. INAA and AAS of different products from sugar cane industry in Pakistan. Toxic trace elements for nutritional safety

    Waheed, S.; Rahman, S.; Gill, K.P.

    2009-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) have been used to determine As, Br, Hg, Sb and Se in combination with atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) as a complementary technique for the quantification of Cd and Pb in jaggery, brown sugar, white sugar and molasses. All sugar cane products were collected from the local sugar cane industry of Pakistan. The highest concentration of these potentially toxic elements was quantified in molasses; however, molasses together with jaggery, brown sugar and white sugar contains trace amounts of all of these elements. Due to very low concentration of Cd it could only be detected in molasses. To evaluate the percentage contribution of these elements in the sugar cane products to the weekly recommended values, intakes on weekly consumption of 100 g of each item have also been calculated which follow the pattern Br>Se>Pb>Hg>As>Sb. The elevated Br contents may be attributed to the use of Br-containing chemicals for fumigation; however, these contents are well within the tolerance levels. The estimated weekly intake of all toxic elements is very low indicating that sugar cane products can be safely ingested as part of the diets. (author)

  8. Effect of dietary inclusion of sugar syrup on production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical parameters in laying hens

    Ahmed S. Hussein

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary inclusion of sugar syrup on quality of egg, cholesterol level, production performance, serum total protein and blood biochemical parameters were evaluated in laying hens. A total of 300 commercial Lohmann LSL hens (30 weeks of age were randomly distributed into 3 dietary treatments which consisted of a normal corn diet containing corn–soy and 2 diets containing 5% and 10% sugar syrup. Each treatment was replicated 5 times (n = 20. Egg production, feed intake, body weight and egg weight of laying hens fed different diets were recorded. The experiment lasted for 20 weeks. The Haugh unit scores of hens fed diets with sugar syrup were significantly increased (P < 0.05 compared with the control treatment. The sugar syrup had no significant effect on liver enzymes, total protein, blood glucose and creatinine in all treatments. The eggs laid by hens fed sugar syrup diets had lower cholesterol level (P < 0.05 compared with those laid by hens fed the control diet. Electrophoresis analysis showed that comparable electrophoretic patterns were noticed between serum proteins of treatment groups. From the results, it can be concluded that sugar syrup diets and corn diets have similar effects on feed intake, body weight, production of eggs and blood biochemical parameters in layer hens, which suggests sugar syrup can be used as an energy source for replacing part of corn in poultry layer diets. Keywords: Cholesterol, Sugar syrup diet, Egg, Egg quality, Protein

  9. Associations between Sugar Intake from Different Food Sources and Adiposity or Cardio-Metabolic Risk in Childhood and Adolescence: The Korean Child-Adolescent Cohort Study.

    Hur, Yang-Im; Park, Hyesook; Kang, Jae-Heon; Lee, Hye-Ah; Song, Hong Ji; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Kim, Ok-Hyun

    2015-12-31

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is a serious public health problem associated with co-morbidities in adulthood, as well as childhood. This study was conducted to identify associations between total sugar intake and sugar intake from different foods (fruit, milk, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)), and adiposity and continuous metabolic syndrome scores (cMetS) among Korean children and adolescents using cohort data. The study subjects were children (n = 770) who participated in the 4th year (2008) of the Korean Child-Adolescent Cohort Study (KoCAS). Dietary intake data were collected via three-day 24-h food records, and sugar intake was calculated for the total sugar content of foods using our database compiled from various sources. Anthropometric measurements, assessments of body composition, and blood sample analysis were performed at baseline and at follow-up four years later. The cMetS was calculated based on waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and mean arterial blood pressure. According to multiple linear regression analysis, there were no significant associations between total sugar intake and adiposity and cMetS. However, higher intake of fruit sugar at baseline was significantly associated with lower body mass index (BMI) z-scores and body fat percentages at baseline (β = -0.10, p = 0.02 and β = -0.78, p target particular food groups. Consequently, this information could be of value to obesity- and metabolic disease-prevention strategies.

  10. Development and Relative Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Intakes of Total and Free Sugars in Australian Toddlers.

    Devenish, Gemma; Mukhtar, Aqif; Begley, Andrea; Do, Loc; Scott, Jane

    2017-11-08

    Background : Dental research into early childhood caries is hindered by a lack of suitable dietary assessment tools that have been developed and validated for the population and outcomes of interest. The aim of this study was to develop and investigate the relative validity and reproducibility of the Study of Mothers' and Infants' Life Events Food Frequency Questionnaire (SMILE-FFQ), to assess the total and free sugars intakes of Australian toddlers. Methods : The SMILE-FFQ was designed to capture the leading dietary contributors to dental caries risk in toddlers aged 18-30 months via a proxy report. Ninety-five parents of Australian toddlers completed the questionnaire online before and after providing three 24-h recalls (24HR), collected on non-consecutive days using the multipass method. Total and free sugars were compared between the two SMILE-FFQ administrations and between each SMILE-FFQ and the 24HR using multiple statistical tests and standardised validity criteria. Correlation (Pearson), mean difference (Wilcoxon rank test) and Bland Altman analyses were conducted to compare absolute values, with cross-classification (Chi-Square and Weighted Kappa) used to compare agreement across tertiles. Results : All reproducibility tests showed good agreement except weighted kappa, which showed acceptable agreement. Relative validity tests revealed a mix of good and acceptable agreement, with total sugars performing better at the individual level than free sugars. Compared to the 24HR, the SMILE-FFQ tended to underestimate absolute values at lower levels and overestimate them at higher levels. Conclusions : The combined findings of the various tests indicate that the SMILE-FFQ performs comparably to the 24HR for assessing both total and free sugars among individuals, is most effective for ranking participants rather than determining absolute intakes, and is therefore suitable for use in observational studies of Australian toddlers.

  11. The Creation Of Furniture Products Design From Stem Waste Of Sugar Palm Tree (Arenga Pinnata

    I Wayan Seriyoga Parta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sugar Palm tree (Arenga Pinnata is one of potential natural resources that can be used as a based material of furniture products. But, this sugar palm tree potential hasn’t exploited maximally and only throws away as a waste that contaminates the environment. On the other side, woods that have been used as based material of furniture products are getting rare and expensive. Based on that problem, this research is aimed to design new furniture products models that exploite the stem waste as a prominent based material.  This research uses experiment method with steps: 1 finding and formulating concepts of furniture products design creation based on analysis towards the stem waste of sugar palm tree characteristics; 2 implementing of finding concepts to become furniture products models from stem waste of sugar palm tree. As a result of the research, it is found “tube” concept and tatah carved concept as a right concept to be applied in creation of furniture products from stem waste of sugar palm tree. Implementing of “tube” concept and tatah carved concept is made successfully in shape of some furniture products design such as:  table model, chair model and wardrobe model. Realization of these designs has concerned with the use of sugar palm tree as a prominent based material. According to the result of evaluation, all of these designs are deserved to be made. So, it is concluded that to anticipate the qualified wood as a based material of furniture products, we can use stem waste of sugar palm tree as alternative based material. Pohon aren (Arenga Pinnata merupakan salah satu sumber daya alam yang potensial digunakan sebagai bahan baku produk mebel. Akan tetapi, potensi batang pohon aren itu belum dimanfaatkan secara maksimal dan hanya terbuang menjadi limbah yang mengotori lingkungan. Di sisi lain, kayu yang selama ini dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan baku produk mebel keberadaannya makin langka dan mahal. Bertolak dari permasalahan itu

  12. Enzymatically-Mediated Co-Production of Cellulose Nanocrystals and Fermentable Sugars

    Dawit Beyene

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs can be extracted from cellulosic materials through the degradation of non-crystalline cellulose domains in the feedstock via acid hydrolysis. However, the sugars released from the hydrolysis process cannot be easily recovered from the acid waste stream. In this study, cellulases were used to preferentially degrade non-crystalline domains with the objectives of recovering sugars and generating a feedstock with concentrated CNC precursors for a more efficient acid hydrolysis process. Filter paper and wood pulp substrates were enzyme-treated for 2–10 h to recover 20–40 wt % glucose. Substantial xylose yield (6–12 wt % was generated from wood pulp. CNC yields from acid hydrolysis of cellulases-treated filter paper, and wood pulp improved by 8–18% and 58–86%, respectively, when compared with the original substrate. It was thought that CNC precursors accumulated in the cellulases-treated feedstock due to enzymatic digestion of the more accessible non-crystalline celluloses. Therefore, acid hydrolysis from enzyme-treated feedstock will require proportionally less water and reagents resulting in increased efficiency and productivity in downstream processes. This study demonstrates that an enzymatically-mediated process allows recovery of fermentable sugars and improves acid hydrolysis efficiency for CNC production.

  13. Biotechnological and in situ food production of polyols by lactic acid bacteria.

    Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Bleckwedel, Juliana; Raya, Raúl R; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2013-06-01

    Polyols such as mannitol, erythritol, sorbitol, and xylitol are naturally found in fruits and vegetables and are produced by certain bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and algae. These sugar alcohols are widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries and in medicine because of their interesting physicochemical properties. In the food industry, polyols are employed as natural sweeteners applicable in light and diabetic food products. In the last decade, biotechnological production of polyols by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been investigated as an alternative to their current industrial production. While heterofermentative LAB may naturally produce mannitol and erythritol under certain culture conditions, sorbitol and xylitol have been only synthesized through metabolic engineering processes. This review deals with the spontaneous formation of mannitol and erythritol in fermented foods and their biotechnological production by heterofermentative LAB and briefly presented the metabolic engineering processes applied for polyol formation.

  14. THE ANALYSIS OF COUNTERFEITING FOOD PRODUCTS

    Paula - Angela VIDRASCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue addressed in this paper makes a significant contribution to research on the effects that food tampering has at the expense of consumer health. Nowadays quality and food safety that consumers are entitled directly reflects the quality of life. In other words the present subject is of particular importance to the work of the bodies created for the purpose of protecting the health and quality of life of consumers. This study has an important role both in the short and long term through proper understanding of the terms of quality, adulteration and food safety. The essential aim of this article is played understanding and easy identification of counterfeit food. Thus the awareness of counterfeit food products consumers are becoming more aware and responsible on quality of life. Quality will always be one of the most important competitive factors of ensuring health and environmental protection.

  15. Production of ethanol in batch and fed-batch fermentation of soluble sugar

    Chaudhary, M.Y.; Shah, M.A.; Shah, F.H.

    1991-01-01

    Keeping in view of the demand and need for alternate energy source, especially liquid fuels and the availability of raw materials in Pakistan, we have carried out biochemical and technological studies for ethanol through fermentation of renewable substrates. Molasses and sugar cane have been used as substrate for yeast fermentation. Selected yeast were used in both batch and semi continuous fermentation of molasses. Clarified dilute molasses were fermented with different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ethanol concentration after 64 hours batch fermentation reached 9.4% with 90% yield based on sugar content. During feed batch system similar results were obtained after a fermentation cycle of 48 hours resulting in higher productivity. Similarly carbohydrates in fruit juices and hydro lysates of biomass can be economically fermented to ethanol to be used as feed stock for other chemicals. (author)

  16. productivity growth in food crop production in imo state, nigeria

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Agriculture plays pivotal roles in Nigeria including food security, employment, foreign exchange earnings and ... Key Words: Productivity decomposition, scale effect, allocative efficiency ... and subsidies in the form of cheap credit was.

  17. LABELLING OF FOOD PRODUCTS AND SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION

    Renata Nestorowicz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available  The manifestation of sustainable consumption on the food market is the consumer is choice of products originating from fair trade and/or organic farming. This paper presents the level of knowledge of Fairtrade signs and organic food logo of the EU. The author describes the importance of these signs by purchasing decisions and the relationship between these factors and the declared level ofknowledge about fair trade. In November 2013 research was conducted by the Department of Marketing Strategies at the Poznań University of Economics and Polish Scientifi c Association of Marketing (PNTM. We interviewed 444 people responsible for food shopping in their households. There were structured interviews in 3 Polish cities: Poznań, Szczecin and Lublin. The results confi rm low awareness of Polish consumers in respect of Fairtrade determinations and slightly higher in the case of organic products. Information regarding the origin of the product (fair trade or organic is not important to consumers when choosing food products. With increasing knowledge on products originating from fair trade derives knowledge of both organic foods and Fairtrade signs, but not the impact of these markings on consumers’ purchasing decisions. Still, people who attach importance to this type of information are niche on the Polish market.

  18. Evaluation of the fermentation of high gravity thick sugar beet juice worts for efficient bioethanol production

    2013-01-01

    Background Sugar beet and intermediates of sugar beet processing are considered to be very attractive feedstock for ethanol production due to their content of fermentable sugars. In particular, the processing of the intermediates into ethanol is considerably facilitated because it does not require pretreatment or enzymatic treatment in contrast to production from starch raw materials. Moreover, the advantage of thick juice is high solid substance and saccharose content which eliminates problems with the storability of this feedstock. Results The objective of this study were to investigate bioethanol production from thick juice worts and the effects of their concentration, the type of mineral supplement, as well as the dose of yeast inoculum on fermentation dynamics and ethanol yield. The obtained results show that to ensure efficient ethanolic fermentation of high gravity thick juice worts, one needs to use a yeast strain with high ethanol tolerance and a large amount of inoculum. The highest ethanol yield (94.9 ± 2.8% of the theoretical yield) and sugars intake of 96.5 ± 2.9% were obtained after the fermentation of wort with an extract content of 250 g/kg supplemented with diammonium hydrogen phosphate (0.3 g/L of wort) and inoculated with 2 g of Ethanol Red dry yeast per L of wort. An increase in extract content in the fermentation medium from 250 g/L to 280 g/kg resulted in decreased efficiency of the process. Also the distillates originating from worts with an extract content of 250 g/kg were characterized by lower acetaldehyde concentration than those obtained from worts with an extract content of 280 g/kg. Conclusions Under the favorable conditions determined in our experiments, 38.9 ± 1.2 L of 100% (v/v) ethyl alcohol can be produced from 100 kg of thick juice. The obtained results show that the selection of process conditions and the yeast for the fermentation of worts with a higher sugar content can improve the economic performance of the

  19. Radiation disinfestation of food and agricultural products

    Moy, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on the radiodisinfestation of food and crops. Topics considered at the conference included food irradiation's impact of the US Agency for International Development, FDA regulations, irradiation as a quarantine treatment, quality attributes of irradiated fruits, low-dose irradiation, cesium 137 as a radiation source, radiosterilization, economic feasibility, marketing, consumer acceptance, and the packaging of irradiated products

  20. [Academic production on food labeling in Brazil].

    Câmara, Maria Clara Coelho; Marinho, Carmem Luisa Cabral; Guilam, Maria Cristina; Braga, Ana Maria Cheble Bahia

    2008-01-01

    To review and discuss academic production (theses and dissertations) on the topic of labeling of prepackaged foods in Brazil. A search of the database maintained by the Coordination for the Development of Higher Education Professionals (CAPES), one of the two Brazilian government research funding and support agencies, was conducted on the following keywords: "rotulagem" (labeling), "rotulagem nutricional" (food labeling) and "rótulo de alimentos" (food labels). The search covered the years 1987 (earliest year available) to 2004. We identified 49 studies on this topic. Content analysis identified three major themes: the extent to which food labels meet specific legal requirements (57.2%); the degree to which consumers understand the information on labels (22.4%); and the labeling of transgenic or genetically-modified foods (20.4%). Food labeling is a frequent topic and is adequately covered by the Brazilian academic production. In most of the studies, ineffective law enforcement appears to be the main factor in the lack of compliance with and disrespect for the food labeling rules and regulations in Brazil.

  1. Application of fats in some food products

    Raquel Vallerio Rios

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils are very important raw materials and functional ingredients for several food products such as confectionery, bakery, ice creams, emulsions, and sauces, shortenings, margarines, and other specially tailored products. Formulated products are made with just about every part of chemistry, but they are not simple chemicals. In general, they consist of several, and often many, components. Each of these components has a purpose. Most formulated products have a micro- or nano-structure that is important for their function, but obtaining this structure is often the big challenge. Due to a rise in overweight or obesity, health concerns have increased. This fact has led to the need to the develop products with low fat content, which have become a market trend. In addition, the development of new products using fat substitutes can be a good option for companies that are always trying to reduce costs or substitute trans fat or saturated fat. However, the successful development of these products is still a challenge because fat plays multiple roles in determining the desirable physicochemical and sensory attributes, and because the consumers who want or need to replace these ingredients, seek products with similar characteristics to those of the original product. Important attributes such as smooth, creamy and rich texture; milky and creamy appearance; desirable flavor; and satiating effects are influenced by the droplets of fat, and these characteristics are paramount to the consumer and consequently crucial to the success of the product in the market. Therefore, it is important to identify commercially viable strategies that are capable of removing or reducing fat content of food products without altering their sensory and nutritional characteristics. This paper intended to provide an overview about the role of fat in different food systems such as chocolate, ice cream, bakery products like biscuits, breads, and cakes considering the major

  2. QFood - Optimal design of food products

    Bech, Anne C.; Engelund, Erling; Juhl, Hans Jørn

    1994-01-01

    of Quality is described with special reference to the development of food products. 5. An MDS-based model for use in the evaluation of an optimal product is developed. The model is based on the profit function from classical micro-economic theory. The imputed price is defined as a function of a Customer...... Satisfaction Index which is inversely proportional to how ""close"" the product is to the consumer's ideal....

  3. Process model and economic analysis of ethanol production from sugar beet raw juice as part of the cleaner production concept.

    Vučurović, Damjan G; Dodić, Siniša N; Popov, Stevan D; Dodić, Jelena M; Grahovac, Jovana A

    2012-01-01

    The batch fermentation process of sugar beet processing intermediates by free yeast cells is the most widely used method in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina for producing ethanol as fuel. In this study a process and cost model was developed for producing ethanol from raw juice. The model can be used to calculate capital investment costs, unit production costs and operating costs for a plant producing 44 million l of 99.6% pure ethanol annually. In the sensitivity analysis the influence of sugar beet and yeast price, as well as the influence of recycled biomass on process economics, ethanol production costs and project feasibility was examined. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that the raw material costs have a significant influence on the expenses for producing ethanol. Also, the optimal percentage of recycled biomass turned out to be in the range from 50% to 70%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 3D food printing: a new dimension in food production processes

    3D food printing, also known as food layered manufacture (FLM), is an exciting new method of digital food production that applies the process of additive manufacturing to food fabrication. In the 3D food printing process, a food product is first scanned or designed with computer-aided design softwa...

  5. Production of fermentable sugars by combined chemo-enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic material for bioethanol production

    M. Idrees

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To change the recalcitrant nature of the lignocellulosic material for maximum hydrolysis yield, a comprehensive study was done by using sulphuric acid as an exclusive catalyst for the pretreatment process. The enzymatic digestibility of the biomass [Water Hyacinth: Eichhornia crassipes] after pretreatment was determined by measuring the hydrolysis yield of the pretreated material obtained from twenty four different pretreatment conditions. These included different concentrations of sulphuric acid (0.0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0%, at two different temperatures (108 and 121 ºC for different residence times (1.0, 2.0 and 3.0h.The highest reducing sugar yield (36.65 g/L from enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained when plant material was pretreated at 121 ºC for 1.0 h residence time using 3.0% (v/v sulphuric acid and at 1:10 (w/v solid to liquid ratio. The total reducing sugars obtained from the two-stage process (pretreatment + enzymatic hydrolysis was 69.6g/L. The resulting sugars were fermented into ethanol by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ethanol yield from the enzymatic hydrolyzate was 95.2% of the theoretical yield (0.51g/g glucose, as determined by GS-MS, and nearly 100% since no reducing sugars were detected in the fermenting media by TLC and DNS analysis.

  6. SOURCES OF GROWTH OF SUGAR CANE PRODUCTION IN WEST CENTRAL AND SOUTHEAST OF BRAZIL

    Geraldo Moreira Bittencourt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing the determinants of variations in the production of sugar cane in Southeast and Midwest of the Brazil, between 1990 and 2009, measuring the effects area, productivity and composition. The theoretical framework consists of the conceptualization of the modernization of agriculture and the description of the theory of induced innovation. The empirical analysis is based on the work of the Shift-Share model, also known as a differential structure. In the results from 1990 to 2009 (total period, there is the hypothesis of the higher average yield of sugarcane in the Southeast and of the pattern of growth production by area in the Midwest. On the other hand, in the period 2005 to 2009, where the two regions in question had the highest growth rates of production of sugar cane, the composition effect revealed the most significant values, showing that the expansion of sugarcane production has occurred in these regions, mainly by substituting other crops by land less profitable.

  7. A site-specific and multi-element isotopic approach to origin inference of sugars in foods and beverages

    Martin, M.L.; Martin, G.J.; Guillou, C.

    1991-01-01

    A strategy is presented for the characterization of sugars according to their botanical origin. The samples fermented in standardized conditions can be described in the multi-dimensional space of the overall carbon isotope ratio of ethanol measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and of the specific hydrogen isotope parameters of the methyl and methylene sites derived from nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of site-specific natural isotope fractionation (SNIF-NMR method). In the comparison of natural juices, the deuterium and oxygen-18 parameters of water extracted from the juice and from the end fermentation medium also contain information on the origin of the product. The isotopic effects of the concentration processes leading to concentrated juices, musts and syrups can be estimated and taken into account in interpreting the data. The classification power of this multi-element and multi-site approach is illustrated by discriminant analyses involving selected isotopic variables associated with pineapple, apple and barley sugars, compared to beet and cane sugars which are common sources of enrichment. The ability of the method to detect adulteration by exogenous sugars is improved when environmental conditions can be taken into account. (authors)

  8. Microstructure, texture and oral processing: New ways to reduce sugar and salt in foods

    Stieger, M.A.; Velde, van de F.

    2013-01-01

    Food oral processing as the bridge between food texture, microstructure and sensory perception has gained enormous interest in the last decade. This review provides an overview of the role of the microstructure of soft- and semi-solid foods in food oral processing and sensory perception. Phase

  9. Demographic and psychographic associations of consumer intentions to purchase healthier food products

    Burton, Melissa; Wang, Wei Chun; Worsley, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the associations of nutrition concerns, demographics, universalism (community oriented) values, perceived control over personal health and food buying, and perceived influence over the food system with intentions to purchase low fat, sugar and salt (LFSS) food products. Methods A national online survey of 2204 Australian consumers administered in November 2011. Structural equation modeling was used to examine associations of LFSS purchasing intentions with demographic, values, perceived control, and influence factors. Results Nutrition concern, perceived influence over the food system, and universalism values were key predictors of LFSS purchasing intentions. Almost two thirds (64.6%) of the variance associated with LFSS purchasing was explained by the structural equation model. Conclusion Communication programs which focus on universalism values, nutrition concern and perceived influence over the food system are likely to increase LFSS purchasing and perhaps reduce the demand for energy dense, nutrient poor foods. PMID:26844047

  10. Demographic and psychographic associations of consumer intentions to purchase healthier food products.

    Burton, Melissa; Wang, Wei Chun; Worsley, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the associations of nutrition concerns, demographics, universalism (community oriented) values, perceived control over personal health and food buying, and perceived influence over the food system with intentions to purchase low fat, sugar and salt (LFSS) food products. A national online survey of 2204 Australian consumers administered in November 2011. Structural equation modeling was used to examine associations of LFSS purchasing intentions with demographic, values, perceived control, and influence factors. Nutrition concern, perceived influence over the food system, and universalism values were key predictors of LFSS purchasing intentions. Almost two thirds (64.6%) of the variance associated with LFSS purchasing was explained by the structural equation model. Communication programs which focus on universalism values, nutrition concern and perceived influence over the food system are likely to increase LFSS purchasing and perhaps reduce the demand for energy dense, nutrient poor foods.

  11. The role of the local retail food environment in fruit, vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in Brazil.

    Duran, Ana Clara; de Almeida, Samuel Luna; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2016-04-01

    To examine the relationship between the local retail food environment and consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in São Paulo, Brazil, as well as the moderation effects of income in the studied relationships. Cross-sectional study design that drew upon neighbourhood- and individual-level data. For each participant, community (density and proximity) and community food environment (availability, variety, quality and price) measures of FV and SSB were assessed in retail food stores and specialized fresh produce markets within 1·6 km of their homes. Poisson generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to model the associations of food consumption with food environment measures, adjusted by individual-level characteristics. São Paulo, Brazil. Adults (n 1842) residing in the same census tracts (n 52) in São Paulo, Brazil as those where the neighbourhood-level measures were taken. FV availability in neighbourhoods was associated with regular FV consumption (≥5 times/week; prevalence ratio=1·41; 95 % CI 1·19, 1·67). Regular FV consumption prevalence was significantly lower among lower-income individuals living in neighbourhoods with fewer supermarkets and fresh produce markets (P-interaction food environment is associated with FV and SSB consumption in a Brazilian urban sample.

  12. Combined subcritical water and enzymatic hydrolysis for reducing sugar production from coconut husk

    Muharja, Maktum; Junianti, Fitri; Nurtono, Tantular; Widjaja, Arief

    2017-05-01

    Coconut husk wastes are abundantly available in Indonesia. It has a potential to be used into alternative renewable energy sources such as hydrogen using enzymatic hydrolysis followed by a fermentation process. Unfortunately, enzymatic hydrolysis is hampered by the complex structure of lignocellulose, so the cellulose component is hard to degrade. In this study, Combined Subcritical Water (SCW) and enzymatic hydrolysis are applied to enhance fermentable, thereby reducing production of sugar from coconut husk. There were two steps in this study, the first step was coconut husk pretreated by SCW in batch reactor at 80 bar and 150-200°C for 60 minutes reaction time. Secondly, solid fraction from the results of SCW was hydrolyzed using the mixture of pure cellulose and xylanase enzymes. Analysis was conducted on untreated and SCW-treated by gravimetric assay, liquid fraction after SCW and solid fraction after enzymatic hydrolysis using DNS assay. The maximum yield of reducing sugar (including xylose, arabinose glucose, galactose, mannose) was 1.254 gr per 6 gr raw material, representing 53.95% of total sugar in coconut husk biomass which was obtained at 150°C 80 bar for 60 minutes reaction time of SCW-treated and 6 hour of enzymatic hydrolysis using mixture of pure cellulose and xylanase enzymes (18.6 U /gram of coconut husk).

  13. PRODUCTIVITY OF SUGAR BEET LINES AND THEIR CROSSES DEPENDING ON PLOIDITY

    Andrija Kristek

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Five diploid (2n=2x=18 cms lines, 2 tetraploid (2n=4x=36 and 2 diploid pollinators, as well as 10 diploid and 10 triploid (2n=3x=27 sugar beet hybrids, given by the crossing of investigated cms lines and pollinators were investigated in the field trials. Two triploid hybrids, widespread in sugarbeet production, were sown as standards – Os Sana and Iva. The trials were conducted on two localities (Osijek and Đakovo during the two years (2002 and 2003. There was a difference between years in weather conditions and between localities in terms of type and features of soil. First year of the investigation was humid and warm and the second was dry and hot. Osijek locality was characterized by chernozem-meadow type soil and Đakovo by loessial pseudoglei. The best average root yield was achieved between the investigated genotypes by the triploid hybrid 15 (58.09 t/ha and the hybrids 11, 13 and standard 31. As for the content and utilization of sugar, the standard 31 achieved best results (15.15% followed by the standard hybrids 15, 18, 17 and 11. The best sugar yield was achieved by hybrid 15 (7.08 t/ha, followed by hybrids 13, 11, 10 and 18.

  14. Alkali-aided enzymatic viscosity reduction of sugar beet mash for novel bioethanol production process

    Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Arakane, Mitsuhiro; Fujiwara, Maki; Zhang, Zilian; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tokuyasu, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol fermentation of fresh sugar beet mash (SBM) could give a benefit on reducing energy input for sugar diffusion, juice separation, and water evaporation as used in conventional practices, thus offering promise as a low energy process. Actions of cell-wall degrading enzymes provide a mash with low viscosity, which can be easily fermented to ethanol. However, a several-fold higher enzyme loading was required for viscosity reduction of SBM compared with that of potato mash. In this study, the use of dilute alkali treatment (0.025-0.15 N NaOH, 25 o C, 1 h) in enhancing enzymatic viscosity reduction of SBM was evaluated. The results showed that higher NaOH concentration enhanced demethylation and deacetylation of SBM, resulting in greater performances of the enzymes on reducing viscosity. Efficient enzymatic viscosity reduction of SBM was observed with the 0.1 N NaOH treatment. On the other hand, untreated SBM was highly resistant to viscosity reduction, even though a 20-fold more enzyme loading was used. The resulting mash containing 12-13% (w/v) sucrose yielded 7-8% (v/v) ethanol after 24 h of fermentation (90% efficiency). Accordingly, alkali treatment can be applied for facilitating the use of fresh sugar beet for ethanol production.

  15. Efficient acetone-butanol-ethanol production by Clostridium beijerinckii from sugar beet pulp.

    Bellido, Carolina; Infante, Celia; Coca, Mónica; González-Benito, Gerardo; Lucas, Susana; García-Cubero, María Teresa

    2015-08-01

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) has been investigated as a promising feedstock for ABE fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii. Although lignin content in SBP is low, a pretreatment is needed to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation yields. Autohydrolysis at pH 4 has been selected as the best pretreatment for SBP in terms of sugars release and acetone and butanol production. The best overall sugars release yields from raw SBP ranged from 66.2% to 70.6% for this pretreatment. The highest ABE yield achieved was 0.4g/g (5.1g/L of acetone and 6.6g/L butanol) and 143.2g ABE/kg SBP (62.3g acetone and 80.9g butanol) were obtained when pretreated SBP was enzymatically hydrolyzed at 7.5% (w/w) solid loading. Higher solid loadings (10%) offered higher acetone and butanol titers (5.8g/L of acetone and 7.8g/L butanol). All the experiments were carried out under not-controlling pH conditions reaching about 5.3 in the final samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characteristics of on-demand biogas production by using sugar beet silage.

    Ahmed, Sharif; Kazda, Marian

    2017-08-01

    On-demand electricity generation can be achieved by just-in-time biogas production instantly utilized in co-generation units. For this goal, easily degradable substrates like sugar beet silage have a high potential. Potential for on-demand biogas production from co-digestion of sugar beet silage (SS) with grass silage (GS) was evaluated in two experiments at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 1.5 kgVS m -3 day -1 and 2.5 kgVS m -3 day -1 , respectively. Each experiment was fed with intermittent feeding system at 8 hrs interval at the same feedstock ratios (volatile solids based) of GS:SS-1:0, 3:1 and 1:3, respectively. Modelling by Gaussian equation was performed in order to understand the effects of SS on biogas production. Addition of sugar beet silage led to maximum biogas production within a short time, but it differed significantly depending on feedstock ratios and OLRs, respectively. At OLR 1.5 kgVS m -3 day -1 , during mono fermentation of grass silage maximum biogas production rate of 0.27 l N hr -1 was reached at 2.74 hrs. Production rate did not change at feedstock ratio of GS:SS-3:1 but increased to 0.64 l N hr -1 at GS:SS-1:3 within a shorter time span (1.58 hrs). On the contrary, at OLR of 2.5 kgVS m -3 day -1 time span between feedstock input and maximum biogas production did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) among the reactors. Biogas production rates were 0.60 l N hr -1 within 2.27 hrs and 0.82 l N hr -1 within 2.30 hrs at GS:SS-3:1 and GS:SS-1:3, respectively. Surprisingly, there was no time lag between maximum biogas and methane production rates, irrespectively of OLR. This implies that once the whole microbial community is adapted to intermittent substrate input, the metabolic products are instantly utilized through the all steps of anaerobic substrate degradation. Applying this finding opens new perspectives for on-demand biogas energy production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-Term Analysis for Harvest Erosion Caused by Sugar Beet Production in Turkey

    Selen DEVİREN SAYGIN

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of soil resources is under significant threat due to the accelerated anthropogenic pressures at the historical expansion of human population. In this context, soil erosion is defined as a limiting factor for human interests in terms of ecosystem services. As an erosion type, harvest erosion occurs by harvesting of the taproot and tuberous root plants such as sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L., potato (Solanum tuberosum L., carrot (Daucus carota L. and chicory (Cichorium intybus L., has begun to take attention in recent years. The objective of this study was to estimate soil loss due to harvest erosion and to economically analyze the transport of plant nutrients between 1999 and 2016 from sugar beet growing areas in Turkey. For this aim, the compiled data of 25 different sugar factories throughout Turkey were obtained from Türkşeker and soil loss estimations were performed and economically analyzed. According to the results, average soil loss rate was calculated as 3.41 Mg ha-1y-1 for the studied period (1999-2016. That means annually an average of 716983 Mg soil removed from the Türkşeker sugar beet production areas. This result indicated that harvest erosion represents only 0.9% of soil lost by water erosion in Turkey. But, if tolerable soil loss value considered as “1 Mg ha-1 y-1”, calculated soil loss values are above this critical value for all the factories. In addition, economic assessments of soil losses showed that costs are to be more than US $10 000 annually on the 60% of the factories due to removal of plant nutrients with harvest process. And, annually US $419 433 investment must be made to recover all these losses. Conclusively, harvest erosion as an ignored erosion type must be emphasized to the economic sustainability of natural resources in fragile ecosystems such as our country.

  18. ROMANIAN BRANDS AWARENESS AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE. THE CASE OF COMMON FOOD PRODUCTS

    Laura Catalina Timiras

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Awareness is a prerequisite in the development of successful brands; in this paper are highlighted, for certain categories of common food products, brands enjoying the highest spontaneous awareness among young people. On the basis of this work are some of the results of a direct research conducted on a sample of 100 students, aged between 18 and 30 years. Common foods are intended for current consumption, serving to meet the dietary needs of consumers. Thus, we studied certain categories of food products with characteristics which make them fall within the common products category: milk and dairy products, meat and cooked meat (except fish, fish and eggs, canned meat (including pate, canned vegetables, bakery, milling products, pasta, breakfast cereals, sugar, eggs, nuts and seeds, oil, margarine. The conducted research has an exploratory character.

  19. PICKLED PUMPKIN IS VALUABLE FOOD PRODUCT

    T. A. Sannikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main directions of the food industry development is the production of functional food products. Changes in the human’s diet structure cause that none of population group does receive necessary amount of vitamins, macro and microelements in healthy routine diet. To solve this problem, food stuffs enhanced by different ingredients enable to improve the biological and food value. The pumpkin is a valuable source of such important substances as carotene and pectin. Addition of garlic and hot pepper ingredients to process of pumpkin pickling enables to enrich the products with carbohydrates, proteins, microelements, which have low or no content in the pumpkin fruit. Therefore, the study of the influence of the different quantities of garlic and hot pepper additions on chemical composition of finished product is very important. The influence of plant additions used on chemical composition of finished product had been well determined. It was shown that through increased doses of garlic and hot pepper ingredients as compared with control, the carotene and dry matter content then decreased by 1.16%-3.43% in pickled pumpkin, while the pectin content depended on added component. The highest pectin content, 0.71% was observed at addition of 10 g. garlic ingredient per 1 kg. of raw matter, that was 4.1 times higher than control. With increased addition of hot pepper ingredient the pectin accumulation was decreasing from 0.58% in control to 0.36% in variant 10g. per 1kg. of raw matter.

  20. Bio-ethanol production from non-food parts of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Nuwamanya, Ephraim; Kawuki, Robert S.; Baguma, Yona [National Agricultural Research organization, National Crops Resources Research Inst. (NaCRRI), Kampala (Uganda); Chiwona-Karltun, Linley [Dept. of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)], email: Linley.karltun@slu.se

    2012-03-15

    Global climate issues and a looming energy crisis put agriculture under pressure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate adaptation measures must entail sustainable development benefits, and growing crops for food as well as energy may be a solution, removing people from hunger and poverty without compromising the environment. The present study investigated the feasibility of using non-food parts of cassava for energy production and the promising results revealed that at least 28% of peels and stems comprise dry matter, and 10 g feedstock yields >8.5 g sugar, which in turn produced >60% ethanol, with pH {approx} 2.85, 74-84% light transmittance and a conductivity of 368 mV, indicating a potential use of cassava feedstock for ethanol production. Thus, harnessing cassava for food as well as ethanol production is deemed feasible. Such a system would, however, require supportive policies to acquire a balance between food security and fuel.

  1. Optimization of ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis in sugar cane molasses fermentation

    Marcos Roberto Oliveira

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at the optimization of the ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis CP4, during the fermentation of sugar cane molasses. As for the optimization process, the response surface methodology was applied, using a 33 incomplete factorial design, being the independent variables: total reducing sugar (TRS concentration in the molasses from 10, 55 and 100 g/L (x1; yeast extract concentration from 2, 11 and 20 g/L (x2, and fermentation time from 6, 15 and 24 hours (x3. The dependant variables or answers were the production and productivity of ethanol. By the analysis of the results, a good adjustment of the model to the experimental data was obtained. In the levels studied, the best condition for the production of ethanol was with 100 g/L TRS in the syrup, 2.0 g/L of yeast extract and the fermentation time between 20 and 24 hours, producing 30 g/L of ethanol.

  2. Water for wood products versus nature, food or feed

    Schyns, Joep; Booij, Martijn; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2017-04-01

    Forests play a central interlinked role in the 2030 Agenda on Sustainable Development. The Agenda aims at an increased share of renewable energy in the global energy mix (target 7.2) and restoration and sustainable management of forests (targets 6.6, 15.1 & 15.2). Forests also play a key role in the hydrological cycle accounting for the largest water flux from land to atmosphere. However, we do not know which part of this is used for the production of wood products such as lumber, pulp and paper, firewood or biofuel. SDG target 6.4 calls for increased water-use efficiency across all sectors and requires understanding the competing demands for water and the potential conflicts between wood production and other purposes like food (SDG 2). To reach the SDGs we need to understand the interlinkages between the SDGs and know how much water is used in the forestry sector. We provide the first estimate of global water use in the forestry sector, using the water footprint (WF) as indicator and distinguishing between consumption of green water (precipitation) and blue water (groundwater through capillary rise). We estimate forest evaporation at a high spatial resolution level and attribute total water consumption to the various forest products, including ecosystem services. Global water consumption for wood production increased by 34% over 50 years to 290x109 m3/y in 2001-2010. Wood has a higher economic water productivity (EWP, US/m3) than common food or feed crops like wheat, maize and sugar beet, and bio-ethanol from wood has a small WF per unit of energy compared to first-generation bio-ethanol from these three crops. Counterintuitively, extensive wood production has a smaller WF and hence a higher EWP than intensive wood production. The reason is that extensively exploited forests host relatively more value next to wood production in the form of other ecosystem services. Recycling of wood products could effectively reduce the WF of the forestry sector, thereby leaving

  3. Food processing

    Teodorowicz, Malgorzata; Neerven, Van Joost; Savelkoul, Huub

    2017-01-01

    The majority of foods that are consumed in our developed society have been processed. Processing promotes a non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and sugars, the Maillard reaction (MR). Maillard reaction products (MRPs) contribute to the taste, smell and color of many food products, and thus

  4. Hydrogen production from the monomeric sugars hydrolyzed from hemicellulose by Enterobacter aerogenes

    Ren, Yunli; Wang, Jianji; Liu, Zhen; Ren, Yunlai; Li, Guozhi [School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmaceutics, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471039, Henan (China)

    2009-12-15

    Relatively large percentages of xylose with glucose, arabinose, mannose, galactose and rhamnose constitute the hydrolysis products of hemicellulose. In this paper, hydrogen production performance of facultative anaerobe (Enterobacter aerogenes) has been investigated from these different monomeric sugars except glucose. It was shown that the stereoisomers of mannose and galactose were more effective for hydrogen production than those of xylose and arabinose. The substrate of 5 g/l xylose resulted in a relative high level of hydrogen yield (73.8 mmol/l), hydrogen production efficiency (2.2 mol/mol) and a maximum hydrogen production rate (249 ml/l/h). The hydrogen yield, hydrogen production efficiency and the maximum hydrogen production rate reached 104 mmol/l, 2.35 mol/mol and 290 ml/l/h, respectively, on a substrate of 10 g/l galactose. The hydrogen yields and the maximum hydrogen production rates increased with an increase of mannose concentrations and reached 119 mmol/l and 518 ml/l/h on the culture of 25 g/l mannose. However, rhamnose was a relative poor carbon resource for E. aerogenes to produce hydrogen, from which the hydrogen yield and hydrogen production efficiency were about one half of that from the mannose substrate. E. aerogenes was found to be a promising strain for hydrogen production from hydrolysis products of hemicellulose. (author)

  5. Effect of Substitution of Sugar by High Fructose Corn Syrup on the Physicochemical Properties of Bakery and Dairy Products: A Review

    Azizollaah Zargaraan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High fructose corn syrup (HFCS is commonly found in soft drinks and juice beverages, as well as in many pre-packaged foods such as breakfast cereals, baked goods and dairy desserts. Historically, sucrose (table sugar was primarily added to processed foods and beverages as the sweetening agent. In recent years, the use of HFCS has significantly increased in popularity due to its sweetness, ability to enhance flavor and shelf life, and its low cost. HFCF made by enzymatic isomerization of glucose to fructose was introduced as HFCS-42 (42% fructose and HFCS-55 (55% fructose and opened a new frontier for the sweetener and soft drink industries. Using a glucose isomerase, the starch in corn can be efficiently converted into glucose and then to various amounts of fructose. Hydrolysis of sucrose produces a 50:50 molar mixture of fructose and glucose. The primary difference is that these monosaccharides exist free in solution in HFCS, but in sucrose bonded together. The disaccharide sucrose is easily cleaved in the small intestine, so free fructose and glucose are absorbed from both sucrose and HFCS. The advantage to food manufacturers is that the free monosaccharide in HFCS provides better flavor enhancement, stability, freshness, texture, color, pourability, and consistency in foods in comparison to sucrose. The development of these inexpensive, sweet corn-based syrups made it profitable to replace sucrose (sugar and simple sugars with HFCS in our diet. In the present study, the replacement of sucrose with HFCS and its effect on the functionality and organoleptic properties of different food products were reviewed.

  6. Virtual Nitrogen Losses from Organic Food Production

    Cattell Noll, L.; Galloway, J. N.; Leach, A. M.; Seufert, V.; Atwell, B.; Shade, J.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is necessary for crop and animal production, but when it is lost to the environment, it creates a cascade of detrimental environmental impacts. The nitrogen challenge is to maximize the food production benefits of Nr, while minimizing losses to the environment. The first nitrogen footprint tool was created in 2012 to help consumers learn about the Nr losses to the environment that result from an individual's lifestyle choices. The nitrogen lost during food production was estimated with virtual nitrogen factors (VNFs) that quantify the amount of nitrogen lost to the environment per unit nitrogen consumed. Alternative agricultural systems, such as USDA certified organic farms, utilize practices that diverge from conventional production. In order to evaluate the potential sustainability of these alternative agricultural systems, our team calculated VNFs that reflect organic production. Initial data indicate that VNFs for organic grains and organic starchy roots are comparable to, but slightly higher than conventional (+10% and +20% respectively). In contrast, the VNF for organic vegetables is significantly higher (+90%) and the VNF for organic legumes is significantly lower (-90%). Initial data on organic meat production shows that organic poultry and organic pigmeat are comparable to conventional production (both <5% difference), but that the organic beef VNF is significantly higher (+30%). These data show that in some cases organic and conventional production are comparable in terms of nitrogen efficiency. However, since conventional production relies heavily on the creation of new reactive nitrogen (Haber-Bosch, biological nitrogen fixation) and organic production primarily utilizes already existing reactive nitrogen (manure, crop residue, compost), the data also show that organic production contributes less new reactive nitrogen to the environment than conventional production (approximately 70% less). Therefore, we conclude that on a local

  7. Substituting sugar confectionery with fruit and healthy snacks at checkout - a win-win strategy for consumers and food stores?

    Winkler, Lise L; Christensen, Ulla; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The widespread use of in-store marketing strategies to induce unhealthy impulsive purchases has implications for shopping experience, food choice and possibly adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine consumer attitudes and evaluate sales effects of a healthy...... short in-store interviews, 11 semi-structured interviews and three focus group interviews). Findings were presented to food retailers and informed the decision to test a healthy checkout intervention. Sugar confectionery at one checkout counter was substituted with fruit and healthy snacking items...... intervention awareness was modest. Most participants believed that the intervention could help other consumers make healthier choices, while fewer expected to be influenced by the intervention themselves. Statistical analyses suggested an intervention effect on sales of carrot snack packs when compared...

  8. Food Production, Management, and Services: Curriculum Guide.

    Mumme, Debbie; Koukel, Sonja

    This curriculum guide provides occupationally specific training designed to develop knowledge and skills for employment in the area of food production, management, and services. Contents include the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEAKS); sample course outlines; instructional strategies organized topically by chapters, each containing a…

  9. Electrostatic separation for functional food ingredient production

    Wang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary

    Dry fractionation is a promising alternative to wet extraction processes for production of food ingredients, since it uses hardly any water, consumes less energy and retains the native functionality of the ingredients. It combines milling and dry separation to

  10. Water constraints on future food production

    Biemans, H.

    2012-01-01

    To meet the food demand of a growing global population, agricultural production will have to more than double in this century. Agricultural land expansion combined with yield increases will therefore be required. This thesis investigates whether enough water resources will be available to

  11. The government policy related to sugar-sweetened beverages in Indonesia

    Mohamad Thahir Haning; Andi Imam Arundhana; Asry Dwi Muqni

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are several options to enforce reduction in the use of sugary drinks such as strengthening regulations, taxation on the products and food labeling.  Aims & Objectives: 1) Identify the policy in Indonesia that regulates the quantity and the use of sugar in a beverage product; 2) Describe the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and its impact on human health. Material & Methods: Literature search on sugar use and tax policies on SSB was conducted and 6 rel...

  12. Food Purchasing Behaviors and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption among Canadian Secondary School Students in the COMPASS Study.

    Godin, Katelyn M; Chaurasia, Ashok; Hammond, David; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2018-02-23

    To examine whether several food purchasing behaviors (ie, sources of meals or snacks) are associated with adolescents' sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and whether these associations vary by province. Cross-sectional observational study. Alberta and Ontario, Canada. Secondary school students from Alberta (n = 3,300) and Ontario (n = 37,999) participating in year 2 (2013-2014) of the Cannabis Use, Obesity, Mental Health, Physical Activity, Alcohol Use, Smoking, Sedentary Behavior (COMPASS) study. Participants' self-reported frequency of consuming 3 SSB types (soft drinks, sweetened coffees/teas, and energy drinks) in a typical week. Hierarchical Poisson regression analyses. Participants from Alberta had a significantly (P purchasing meals or snacks from school food outlets compared with their Ontario counterparts. Most of the food purchasing behaviors were significantly (P purchases on weekends (vs weekdays) and from food outlets off school property (vs on school property) had a greater association with SSB consumption. Eating a home-packed lunch was protective against SSB consumption across models. Adolescents' food purchasing behaviors have a significant impact on their propensity for SSB consumption. These data demonstrate potentially important contexts for SSB consumption and have implications for possible settings and strategies for future interventions to reduce adolescents' SSB intake. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The relative reinforcing value of sweet versus savory snack foods after consumption of sugar- or non-nutritive sweetened beverages.

    Casperson, Shanon L; Johnson, LuAnn; Roemmich, James N

    2017-05-01

    The effects of sugar-sweetened (SSB) and non-nutritive sweetened (NSB) beverages on the regulation of appetite, energy intake and body weight regulation remain controversial. Using a behavioral choice paradigm, we sought to determine the effects of consuming a SSB or NSB on appetite and the reinforcing value of sweet relative to salty/savory snack foods. In a randomized crossover study, 21 healthy weight adults consumed 360 ml of SSB (sucrose; 31 g) or NSB (sucralose; 4 g) with a standardized meal. Hedonic ratings for the sweet and salty/savory snack foods used for the reinforcement task were assessed prior to the start of the study. Satiety and the desire to eat foods with a specific taste profile were assessed before and every 30 min post-meal for 4 h. The relative reinforcing value of the snack foods was assessed using a computer-based choice task (operant responding with concurrent schedules of reinforcement) 4 h post-meal. Hedonic ratings did not differ between the most highly liked sweet and salty/savory snack foods. Beverage type did not influence measures of satiety or the desire to eat foods with a specific taste. However, sweet snacks were more (p snack foods after consuming a NSB than after a SSB. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that NSB can increase the motivation to gain access to sweet snacks relative to salty/savory snack foods later in the day. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Food preference for milk and dairy products

    Zuzana Derflerová Brázdová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products constitute an important source of energy and nutrients for humans. Food preferences may significantly influence the actual consumption (and thus nutrition of people at the population level. The objective of the present large-scale survey was to specify current preferences for milk and dairy products with regard to age and sex. The study was conducted across the Moravia region, Czech Republic, on a sample of 451 individuals divided into 4 age groups: children, adolescents, young adults, and elderly people. A graphic scale questionnaire was administered, with respondents rating their degree of preference for each food item by drawing a mark on a 35 mm line. Out of the 115 items in the questionnaire, 11 items represented dairy products. Data was analysed by means of a general linear model using IBM SPSS Statistics software. Preference for milk was lower in the elderly group than the other groups (P P < 0.01. The overall preference for dairy products (21.6 was lower than the average preference for all foods on the list (22.5. The cross-sectional study revealed intergenerational differences in preferences for specific dairy products, which were most marked in case of cream, processed cheese, blue cheese, and buttermilk. The knowledge of these differences might help promote more focused action at the community level directed at increasing the overall consumption of dairy products in the population.

  15. Continuous ethanol production from sugar beet molasses using an osmotolerant mutant strain of zymomonas mobilis

    Park, S.C.; Baratti, J.C. (Univ. de Provence, Marseille (France). Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

    1992-01-25

    In conventional alcohol fermentation processes using yeast species, the substrate cost represents a major fraction of the total production cost. Therefore, it may be very attractive to use the bacterium Zymomonas mobilis, since it has shown higher ethanol yields than yeasts when grown on a glucose-based medium. A report is made on the use of mutant strain of Zymomonas mobilis for ethanol production from hydrolyzed sugar beet molasses in a two-stage continuous culture which showed high ethanol yield and an ethanol concentration sufficiently high for economical recovery. A single stage continuous culture was first operated in an attempt to reduce the formation of sorbitol. Further on, a second fermentor was added with additional substrate feeding to increase the effluent ethanol concentration. An ethanol concentration of 59.9g/l was obtained at 97% sugar conversion and at high ethanol yield. The volumetric ethanol productivity was superior to that of batch fermentation but inferior to that of a single-stage continuous system with the same medium. However, the ethanol concentration was increased to a level acceptable for economical recovery. 18 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Product reformulation and nutritional improvements after new competitive food standards in schools.

    Jahn, Jaquelyn L; Cohen, Juliana Fw; Gorski-Findling, Mary T; Hoffman, Jessica A; Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Chaffee, Ruth; Smith, Lauren; Rimm, Eric B

    2018-04-01

    In 2012, Massachusetts enacted school competitive food and beverage standards similar to national Smart Snacks. These standards aim to improve the nutritional quality of competitive snacks. It was previously demonstrated that a majority of foods and beverages were compliant with the standards, but it was unknown whether food manufacturers reformulated products in response to the standards. The present study assessed whether products were reformulated after standards were implemented; the availability of reformulated products outside schools; and whether compliance with the standards improved the nutrient composition of competitive snacks. An observational cohort study documenting all competitive snacks sold before (2012) and after (2013 and 2014) the standards were implemented. The sample included thirty-six school districts with both a middle and high school. After 2012, energy, saturated fat, Na and sugar decreased and fibre increased among all competitive foods. By 2013, 8 % of foods were reformulated, as were an additional 9 % by 2014. Nearly 15 % of reformulated foods were look-alike products that could not be purchased at supermarkets. Energy and Na in beverages decreased after 2012, in part facilitated by smaller package sizes. Massachusetts' law was effective in improving the nutritional content of snacks and product reformulation helped schools adhere to the law. This suggests fully implementing Smart Snacks standards may similarly improve the foods available in schools nationally. However, only some healthier reformulated foods were available outside schools.

  17. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate

  18. Microbial Production of Food Grade Pigments

    Laurent Dufossé

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The controversial topic of synthetic dyes in food has been discussed for many years. The scrutiny and negative assessment of synthetic food dyes by the modern consumer have raised a strong interest in natural colouring alternatives. Nature is rich in colours (minerals, plants, microalgae, etc., and pigment-producing microorganisms (fungi, yeasts, bacteria are quite common. Among the molecules produced by microorganisms are carotenoids, melanins, flavins, quinones, and more specifically monascins, violacein or indigo. The success of any pigment produced by fermentation depends upon its acceptability on the market, regulatory approval, and the size of the capital investment required to bring the product to market. A few years ago, some expressed doubts about the successful commercialization of fermentation-derived food grade pigments because of the high capital investment requirements for fermentation facilities and the extensive and lengthy toxicity studies required by regulatory agencies. Public perception of biotechnology-derived products also had to be taken into account. Nowadays some fermentative food grade pigments are on the market: Monascus pigments, astaxanthin from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, Arpink Red from Penicillium oxalicum, riboflavin from Ashbya gossypii, b-carotene from Blakeslea trispora. The successful marketing of pigments derived from algae or extracted from plants, both as a food colour and a nutritional supplement, reflects the presence and importance of niche markets in which consumers are willing to pay a premium for »all natural ingredients«.

  19. Bioactive Peptides in Animal Food Products

    Marzia Albenzio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of animal origin represent physiologically active components in the human diet; they exert a direct action or constitute a substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis upon food processing and consumption. Bioactive peptides may descend from the hydrolysis by digestive enzymes, enzymes endogenous to raw food materials, and enzymes from microorganisms added during food processing. Milk proteins have different polymorphisms for each dairy species that influence the amount and the biochemical characteristics (e.g., amino acid chain, phosphorylation, and glycosylation of the protein. Milk from other species alternative to cow has been exploited for their role in children with cow milk allergy and in some infant pathologies, such as epilepsy, by monitoring the immune status. Different mechanisms concur for bioactive peptides generation from meat and meat products, and their functionality and application as functional ingredients have proven effects on consumer health. Animal food proteins are currently the main source of a range of biologically-active peptides which have gained special interest because they may also influence numerous physiological responses in the organism. The addition of probiotics to animal food products represent a strategy for the increase of molecules with health and functional properties.

  20. Food production - Present and future development

    Lamm, C.G.

    1974-01-01

    This year the joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture celebrates its 10th anniversary. The aim of these two United Nations organizations is to ensure that the technical services of both FAO and IAEA are fully co-ordinated and their programmes are designed to assist developing Member States to apply isotopes and radiation techniques to the solution of food and agricultural problems. More precisely, the medium-term objectives of the Joint Division are to exploit the potential of nuclear techniques in research and development for increasing and stabilizing agricultural production, improving food quality, protecting agricultural products from spoilage and losses and minimizing pollution of food and the agricultural environment. This account of what radioisotopes can do for man in the agricultural field is therefore to a great extent a review of the activities of the Joint Division and a prediction of its future fields of emphasis, especially in the light of the present long-range and world-wide food crisis. (author)

  1. Engineering Synechocystis PCC6803 for hydrogen production: influence on the tolerance to oxidative and sugar stresses.

    Marcia Ortega-Ramos

    Full Text Available In the prospect of engineering cyanobacteria for the biological photoproduction of hydrogen, we have studied the hydrogen production machine in the model unicellular strain Synechocystis PCC6803 through gene deletion, and overexpression (constitutive or controlled by the growth temperature. We demonstrate that the hydrogenase-encoding hoxEFUYH operon is dispensable to standard photoautotrophic growth in absence of stress, and it operates in cell defense against oxidative (H₂O₂ and sugar (glucose and glycerol stresses. Furthermore, we showed that the simultaneous over-production of the proteins HoxEFUYH and HypABCDE (assembly of hydrogenase, combined to an increase in nickel availability, led to an approximately 20-fold increase in the level of active hydrogenase. These novel results and mutants have major implications for those interested in hydrogenase, hydrogen production and redox metabolism, and their connections with environmental conditions.

  2. High production of D-tagatose, a potential sugar substitute, using immobilized L-arabinose isomerase.

    Kim, P; Yoon, S H; Roh, H J; Choi, J H

    2001-01-01

    An L-arabinose isomerase of Escherichia coli was immobilized using covalent binding to agarose to produce D-tagatose, a bulking sweetener that can be economically used as a sugar substitute. The immobilized L-arabinose isomerase stably produced an average of 7.5 g-tagatose/L.day for 7 days with a productivity exceeding that of the free enzyme (0.47 vs 0.30 mg/U.day). Using a scaled-up immobilized enzyme system, 99.9 g-tagatose/L was produced from galactose with 20% equilibrium in 48 h. The process was repeated two more times with production of 104.1 and 103.5 g-tagatose/L. D-Tagatose production using an immobilized L-arabinose isomerase has a high potential for commercial application.

  3. The use of sports references in marketing of food and beverage products in supermarkets.

    Bragg, Marie A; Liu, Peggy J; Roberto, Christina A; Sarda, Vishnu; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2013-04-01

    Food marketing has been identified as a significant driver of the childhood obesity epidemic. The purpose of the present study was to (i) conduct a content analysis of the types of sports references that appear on supermarket food and beverage products and (ii) assess each product's nutritional and marketing profile. This was a descriptive study. Every product featuring sports references on the packaging was purchased in two major supermarkets during 2010. A content analysis was conducted and nutritional evaluations were made based on the Nutrient Profile Model, a validated nutrition model. Marketing data were obtained from The Nielsen Company. Two major supermarkets in Connecticut, USA. Food and beverage products (n 102) were selected from two supermarkets. The 102 products (fifty-three foods and forty-nine beverages) had sports references as part of their packaging: 72·5 % featured a character exercising, 42·2 % were endorsed by a professional sports entity and 34·0 % were child-targeted. The median nutrition score for food products was 36 (1 = unhealthiest and 100 = healthiest; scores of ≥63 are considered healthy according to this model). More than two-thirds of beverages (69·4 %) were 100 % sugar-sweetened. Children saw significantly more commercials for these products than adults. Companies place sports figures on food and beverage products that are child-targeted and unhealthy.

  4. A Comparison of Concentrations of Sodium and Related Nutrients (Potassium, Total Dietary Fiber, Total and Saturated Fat, and Total Sugar) in Private-Label and National Brands of Popular, Sodium-Contributing, Commercially Packaged Foods in the United States.

    Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Cogswell, Mary

    2017-05-01

    Private-label brands account for about one in four foods sold in US supermarkets. They provide value to consumers due to their low cost. We know of no US studies comparing the nutrition content of private-label products with corresponding national brand products. The objective was to compare concentrations of sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar) in popular sodium-contributing, commercially packaged foods by brand type (national or private-label brand). During 2010 to 2014, the Nutrient Data Laboratory of the US Department of Agriculture obtained 1,706 samples of private-label and national brand products from up to 12 locations nationwide and chemically analyzed 937 composites for sodium and related nutrients. The samples came from 61 sodium-contributing, commercially packaged food products for which both private-label and national brands were among the top 75% to 80% of brands for US unit sales. In this post hoc comparative analysis, the authors assigned a variable brand type (national or private label) to each composite and determined mean nutrient contents by brand type overall and by food product and type. The authors tested for significant differences (Pfoods sampled, differences between brand types were not statistically significant for any of the nutrients studied. However, differences in both directions exist for a few individual food products and food categories. Concentrations of sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar) do not differ systematically between private-label and national brands, suggesting that brand type is not a consideration for nutritional quality of foods in the United States. The study data provide public health officials with baseline nutrient content by brand type to help focus US sodium-reduction efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Formulation of morning product using food residues

    Maria do Rosário de Fátima Padilha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, there is resistance of the population to the use of stalks, leaves, peels and seeds of vegetables and fruits, leading to trash important parts of the food in good physiological conditions and with the presence of potential nutrients. In this research, a morning product was elaborated using green and dry coconut residue, jerimum and melon seed, crystallized sicilian lemon peel, cashew nut, common rapadura sweet and ginger. The bacteriological tests proved the hygienic-sanitary quality of the product, therefore suitable for consumption, that is, according to RDC 12/2001. It was also observed that the dehydration of all the residues reached the legal levels and accepted by ANVISA that limits in 25% the water content in the dehydrated foods. As for the centesimal composition, it was observed that the elaborated product with residues and other ingredients had a good content of macro nutrients. A use of the type of waste as a new food proposal constitutes an alternative to avoid and reduce: the serious environmental problem caused by the large residual volume generated, and the inadequate places in which they are stored or deposited, aggravating the scenario of food-borne pollutants.

  6. The future of sustainable food production.

    Ronald, Pamela; Adamchak, Raoul

    2010-03-01

    By the year 2050, the number of people on Earth is expected to increase from the current 6.7 to 9.2 billion. What is the best way to produce enough food to feed all these people? If we continue with current farming practices, vast amounts of wilderness will be lost, millions of birds and billions of insects will die, farm workers will be at increased risk for disease, and the public will lose billions of dollars as a consequence of environmental degradation. Clearly, there must be a better way to resolve the need for increased food production with the desire to minimize its impact.

  7. Radiological control of food importation products

    Aguirre G, J.

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays exists the possibility of marketing products possibly polluted with radioactive isotopes, by that some countries like Mexico, they have been given to the task of creating legal bases and the necessary infrastructure with the end of carrying out the radiological surveillance of nutritious import products. In this work the legal bases that our country has established for the radiological control are presented besides the results of this radiological control carried out through the gamma spectroscopy analysis of nutritious import products sent to our country through diverse companies that import foods produced mainly in European countries. (Author)

  8. Food Processing and Maillard Reaction Products: Effect on Human Health and Nutrition

    Nahid Tamanna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maillard reaction produces flavour and aroma during cooking process; and it is used almost everywhere from the baking industry to our day to day life to make food tasty. It is often called nonenzymatic browning reaction since it takes place in the absence of enzyme. When foods are being processed or cooked at high temperature, chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars leads to the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs. Depending on the way the food is being processed, both beneficial and toxic MRPs can be produced. Therefore, there is a need to understand the different types of MRPs and their positive or negative health effects. In this review we have summarized how food processing effects MRP formation in some of the very common foods.

  9. Food Processing and Maillard Reaction Products: Effect on Human Health and Nutrition

    Tamanna, Nahid; Mahmood, Niaz

    2015-01-01

    Maillard reaction produces flavour and aroma during cooking process; and it is used almost everywhere from the baking industry to our day to day life to make food tasty. It is often called nonenzymatic browning reaction since it takes place in the absence of enzyme. When foods are being processed or cooked at high temperature, chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars leads to the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs). Depending on the way the food is being processed, both beneficial and toxic MRPs can be produced. Therefore, there is a need to understand the different types of MRPs and their positive or negative health effects. In this review we have summarized how food processing effects MRP formation in some of the very common foods. PMID:26904661

  10. Use of spent coffee grounds as food ingredient in bakery products.

    Martinez-Saez, Nuria; García, Alba Tamargo; Pérez, Inés Domínguez; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Mesías, Marta; Morales, Francisco J; Martín-Cabrejas, María A; Del Castillo, Maria Dolores

    2017-02-01

    The present research aimed to evaluate the use of spent coffee grounds (SCG) from instant coffee as a food ingredient and its application in bakery products. Data on physicochemical characterization, thermal stability and food safety of SCG were acquired. Evaluation of feasibility as dietary fibre was also determined. Results showed SCG are natural source of antioxidant insoluble fibre, essential amino acids, low glycaemic sugars, resistant to thermal food processing and digestion process, and totally safe. In the present work, SCG were incorporated in biscuit formulations for the first time. Low-calorie sweeteners and oligofructose were also included in the food formulations. Nutritional quality, chemical (acrylamide, hydroxymethylfurfural and advanced glycation end products) and microbiological safety and sensory tests of the biscuits were carried out. Innovative biscuits were obtained according to consumers' preferences with high nutritional and sensorial quality and potential to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Utilization of residue from cassava starch processing for production of fermentable sugar by enzymatic hydrolysis

    Luciana Reis Fontinelle SOUTO

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to characterize and perform enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava peeling residue (peel and inner peel, mainly composed of peels and small pieces. Residue was sanitized, dried at 55 °C for 24 hours and ground. The obtained flour showed pH of 4.85; 72.53 g 100 g–1 moisture; 5.18 mL 1M NaOH 100 g–1 acidity; 60.68 g 100 g–1 starch; 1.08 g 100 g–1 reducing sugar; 1.63 g 100g–1 ash; 0.86 g 100 g–1 lipid and 3.97 g 100 g–1 protein. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out by means of rotational central composite design, analyzing the effects of concentrations of α-amylase enzyme (10 to 50 U g starch–1, and the amyloglucosidase enzyme (80 to 400 U g starch–1 on variable responses: percent conversion of starch into reducing sugars (RSC and soluble solid content (SS. Highest values of RSC (110% and SS (12 °Brix were observed when using the maximum concentration of amyloglucosidase and throughout the concentration range of α-amylase. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava peel is feasible and allows the use of hydrolysate in fermentation processes for the production of various products, such as alcoholic drinks, vinegar, among others.

  12. Utilization of residue from cassava starch processing for production of fermentable sugar by enzymatic hydrolysis

    Luciana Reis Fontinelle SOUTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to characterize and perform enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava peeling residue (peel and inner peel, mainly composed of peels and small pieces. Residue was sanitized, dried at 55 °C for 24 hours and ground. The obtained flour showed pH of 4.85; 72.53 g 100 g–1 moisture; 5.18 mL 1M NaOH 100 g–1 acidity; 60.68 g 100 g–1 starch; 1.08 g 100 g–1 reducing sugar; 1.63 g 100g–1 ash; 0.86 g 100 g–1 lipid and 3.97 g 100 g–1 protein. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out by means of rotational central composite design, analyzing the effects of concentrations of α-amylase enzyme (10 to 50 U g starch–1, and the amyloglucosidase enzyme (80 to 400 U g starch–1 on variable responses: percent conversion of starch into reducing sugars (RSC and soluble solid content (SS. Highest values of RSC (110% and SS (12 °Brix were observed when using the maximum concentration of amyloglucosidase and throughout the concentration range of α-amylase. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava peel is feasible and allows the use of hydrolysate in fermentation processes for the production of various products, such as alcoholic drinks, vinegar, among others.

  13. Economic and environmental assessment of cellulosic ethanol production scenarios annexed to a typical sugar mill.

    Ali Mandegari, Mohsen; Farzad, Somayeh; Görgens, Johann F

    2017-01-01

    In this work different biorefinery scenarios were investigated, concerning the co-production of bioethanol and electricity from available lignocellulose at a typical sugar mill, as possible extensions to the current combustion of bagasse for steam and electricity production and burning trash on-filed. In scenario 1, the whole bagasse and brown leaves is utilized in a biorefinery and coal is burnt in the existing inefficient sugar mill boiler. Scenario 2 & 3 are assumed with a new centralized CHP unit without/with coal co-combustion, respectively. Also, through scenarios 4 & 5, the effect of water insoluble loading were studied. All scenarios provided energy for the sugarmill and the ethanol plant, with the export of surplus electricity. Economic analysis determined that scenario 1 was the most viable scenario due to less capital cost and economies-of scale. Based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) results, scenario 2 outperformed the other scenarios, while three scenarios showed lower contribution to environmental burdens than the current situation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Poly β-Hydroxybutyrate Production by Bacillus subtilis NG220 Using Sugar Industry Waste Water

    Singh, Gulab; Kumari, Anish; Mittal, Arpana; Yadav, Anita; Aggarwal, Neeraj K.

    2013-01-01

    The production of poly β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Bacillus subtilis NG220 was observed utilizing the sugar industry waste water supplemented with various carbon and nitrogen sources. At a growth rate of 0.14 g h−1 L−1, using sugar industry waste water was supplemented with maltose (1% w/v) and ammonium sulphate (1% w/v); the isolate produced 5.297 g/L of poly β-hydroxybutyrate accumulating 51.8% (w/w) of biomass. The chemical nature of the polymer was confirmed with nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and GC-MS spectroscopy whereas thermal properties were monitored with differential scanning calorimetry. In biodegradability study, when PHB film of the polymer (made by traditional solvent casting technique) was subjected to degradation in various natural habitats like soil, compost, and industrial sludge, it was completely degraded after 30 days in the compost having 25% (w/w) moisture. So, the present study gives insight into dual benefits of conversion of a waste material into value added product, PHB, and waste management. PMID:24027767

  15. Multi-product biorefineries from lignocelluloses: a pathway to revitalisation of the sugar industry?

    Farzad, Somayeh; Mandegari, Mohsen Ali; Guo, Miao; Haigh, Kathleen F; Shah, Nilay; Görgens, Johann F

    2017-01-01

    Driven by a range of sustainability challenges, e.g. climate change, resource depletion and expanding populations, a circular bioeconomy is emerging and expected to evolve progressively in the coming decades. South Africa along with other BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) represents the emerging bioeconomy and contributes significantly to global sugar market. In our research, South Africa is used as a case study to demonstrate the sustainable design for the future biorefineries annexed to existing sugar industry. Detailed techno-economic evaluation and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) were applied to model alternative routes for converting sugarcane residues (bagasse and trash) to selected biofuel and/or biochemicals (ethanol, ethanol and lactic acid, ethanol and furfural, butanol, methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, with co-production of surplus electricity) in an energy self-sufficient biorefinery system. Economic assessment indicated that methanol synthesis with an internal rate of return (IRR) of 16.7% and ethanol-lactic acid co-production (20.5%) met the minimum investment criteria of 15%, while the latter had the lowest sensitivity to market price amongst all the scenarios. LCA results demonstrated that sugarcane cultivation was the most significant contributor to environmental impacts in all of the scenarios, other than the furfural production scenario in which a key step, a biphasic process with tetrahydrofuran solvent, had the most significant contribution. Overall, the thermochemical routes presented environmental advantages over biochemical pathways on most of the impact categories, except for acidification and eutrophication. Of the investigated scenarios, furfural production delivered the inferior environmental performance, while methanol production performed best due to its low reagent consumption. The combined techno-economic and environmental assessments identified the performance-limiting steps in the 2G biorefinery design for

  16. FOOD HYPERSENSITIVITY AND PRODUCTS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN RESOURCES

    A. B. Lisitsyn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of people with food hypersensitivity, namely food intolerance and food allergies, grows every year. Food intolerance is classified into following types: enzymopathy; leaky gut syndrome; psychogenic food intolerance; detoxification insufficiency and true food intolerance. Food allergens mainly are glycoproteins, haptensor polypeptides. Most cases of food allergy are IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Recent discoveries in medicine, detailing and classification of food hypersensitivity require further researches to develop modern techniques and product recipes with specified propertiesfor consumers with food hypersensitivity. Existing technologies are based on the elimination and or reduction of the content of the allergenic substance in food. The article provides an overview of causes of food intolerance and food allergy, legislative background, a list of food allergens and methods of control, market profile of hypoallergenic produce and scientific approaches to creating hypoallergenic food products based on raw materials of animal origin.

  17. Associations between Sugar Intake from Different Food Sources and Adiposity or Cardio-Metabolic Risk in Childhood and Adolescence: The Korean Child–Adolescent Cohort Study

    Yang-Im Hur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is a serious public health problem associated with co-morbidities in adulthood, as well as childhood. This study was conducted to identify associations between total sugar intake and sugar intake from different foods (fruit, milk, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs, and adiposity and continuous metabolic syndrome scores (cMetS among Korean children and adolescents using cohort data. The study subjects were children (n = 770 who participated in the 4th year (2008 of the Korean Child–Adolescent Cohort Study (KoCAS. Dietary intake data were collected via three-day 24-h food records, and sugar intake was calculated for the total sugar content of foods using our database compiled from various sources. Anthropometric measurements, assessments of body composition, and blood sample analysis were performed at baseline and at follow-up four years later. The cMetS was calculated based on waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and mean arterial blood pressure. According to multiple linear regression analysis, there were no significant associations between total sugar intake and adiposity and cMetS. However, higher intake of fruit sugar at baseline was significantly associated with lower body mass index (BMI z-scores and body fat percentages at baseline (β = −0.10, p = 0.02 and β = −0.78, p < 0.01, respectively. At follow-up, sugar intake from fruit at baseline was still negatively associated with the above outcomes, but only the relationship with BMI z-scores retained statistical significance (β = −0.08, p < 0.05. There was a significant positive relationship between consumption of sugar from SSBs and cMetS at baseline (β = 0.04, p = 0.02, but that relationship was not observed at follow-up (p = 0.83. Differences in consumption sugars from fruit and SSBs might play an important role in the risk of adiposity and metabolic disease in children and

  18. Price elasticity of the demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and energy dense food in Chile.

    Guerrero-López, Carlos M; Unar-Munguía, Mishel; Colchero, M Arantxa

    2017-02-10

    Chile is the second world's largest per capita consumer of caloric beverages. Caloric beverages are associated with overweight, obesity and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and high-energy dense foods in urban areas in Chile in order to evaluate the potential response of households' consumption to changes in prices. We used microdata from the VII Family Budget Survey 2012-2013, which collects information on expenditures made by Chilean urban households on items such as beverages and foods. We estimated a Linear Approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System Model to derive own and cross price elasticities of milk, coffee, tea and other infusions, plain water, soft drinks, other flavored beverages, sweet snacks, sugar and honey, and desserts. We considered the censored nature of the data and included the Inverse Mills Ratio in each equation of the demand system. We estimated a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System and a two-part model as sensitivity analysis. We found an own price-elasticity of -1.37 for soft drinks. This implies that a price increase of 10% is associated with a reduction in consumption of 13.7%. We found that the rest of food and beverages included in the demand system behave as substitutes for soft drinks. For instance, plain water showed a cross-price elasticity of 0.63: a 10% increase in price of soft drinks could lead to an increase of 6.3% of plain water. Own and cross price elasticities were similar between models. The demand of soft drinks is price sensitive among Chilean households. An incentive system such as subsidies to non-sweetened beverages and tax to soft drinks could lead to increases in the substitutions for other healthier beverages.

  19. Price elasticity of the demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and energy dense food in Chile

    Carlos M. Guerrero-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chile is the second world’s largest per capita consumer of caloric beverages. Caloric beverages are associated with overweight, obesity and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and high-energy dense foods in urban areas in Chile in order to evaluate the potential response of households’ consumption to changes in prices. Methods We used microdata from the VII Family Budget Survey 2012–2013, which collects information on expenditures made by Chilean urban households on items such as beverages and foods. We estimated a Linear Approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System Model to derive own and cross price elasticities of milk, coffee, tea and other infusions, plain water, soft drinks, other flavored beverages, sweet snacks, sugar and honey, and desserts. We considered the censored nature of the data and included the Inverse Mills Ratio in each equation of the demand system. We estimated a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System and a two-part model as sensitivity analysis. Results We found an own price-elasticity of −1.37 for soft drinks. This implies that a price increase of 10% is associated with a reduction in consumption of 13.7%. We found that the rest of food and beverages included in the demand system behave as substitutes for soft drinks. For instance, plain water showed a cross-price elasticity of 0.63: a 10% increase in price of soft drinks could lead to an increase of 6.3% of plain water. Own and cross price elasticities were similar between models. Conclusions The demand of soft drinks is price sensitive among Chilean households. An incentive system such as subsidies to non-sweetened beverages and tax to soft drinks could lead to increases in the substitutions for other healthier beverages.

  20. Analysis of reaction products of food contaminants and ingredients: bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) in canned foods.

    Coulier, Leon; Bradley, Emma L; Bas, Richard C; Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Driffield, Malcolm; Harmer, Nick; Castle, Laurence

    2010-04-28

    Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) is an epoxide that is used as a starting substance in the manufacture of can coatings for food-contact applications. Following migration from the can coating into food, BADGE levels decay and new reaction products are formed by reaction with food ingredients. The significant decay of BADGE was demonstrated by liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis of foodstuffs, that is, tuna, apple puree, and beer, spiked with BADGE before processing and storage. Life-science inspired analytical approaches were successfully applied to study the reactions of BADGE with food ingredients, for example, amino acids and sugars. An improved mass balance of BADGE was achieved by selective detection of reaction products of BADGE with low molecular weight food components, using a successful combination of stable isotopes of BADGE and analysis by LC coupled to fluorescence detection (FLD) and high-resolution mass spectrometric (MS) detection. Furthermore, proteomics approaches showed that BADGE also reacts with peptides (from protein digests in model systems) and with proteins in foods. The predominant reaction center for amino acids, peptides, and proteins was cysteine.

  1. Are restrictive guidelines for added sugars science based?

    Erickson, Jennifer; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-12-12

    Added sugar regulations and recommendations have been proposed by policy makers around the world. With no universal definition, limited access to added sugar values in food products and no analytical difference from intrinsic sugars, added sugar recommendations present a unique challenge. Average added sugar intake by American adults is approximately 13% of total energy intake, and recommendations have been made as low 5% of total energy intake. In addition to public health recommendations, the Food and Drug Administration has proposed the inclusion of added sugar data to the Nutrition and Supplemental Facts Panel. The adoption of such regulations would have implications for both consumers as well as the food industry. There are certainly advantages to including added sugar data to the Nutrition Facts Panel; however, consumer research does not consistently show the addition of this information to improve consumer knowledge. With excess calorie consumption resulting in weight gain and increased risk of obesity and obesity related co-morbidities, added sugar consumption should be minimized. However, there is currently no evidence stating that added sugar is more harmful than excess calories from any other food source. The addition of restrictive added sugar recommendations may not be the most effective intervention in the treatment and prevention of obesity and other health concerns.

  2. Disponibilidade de "açúcares de adição" no Brasil: distribuição, fontes alimentares e tendência temporal Availability of added sugars in Brazil: distribution, food sources and time trends

    Renata Bertazzi Levy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Estimar o consumo de "açúcar de adição" pela população brasileira, nos estratos regionais e socioeconômicos, destacando suas principais fontes alimentares e verificar a tendência do seu consumo nas últimas décadas. MÉTODOS: Contou-se com informações das Pesquisas de Orçamentos Familiares a partir da década de 80 sobre o tipo e a quantidade de alimentos e bebidas adquiridos pelas famílias brasileiras. Os indicadores analisados foram: % das calorias de açúcar no total calórico da dieta e % calórico das frações de açúcar de mesa e de açúcar adicionado aos alimentos pela indústria/kcal açúcar da dieta. RESULTADOS: Em 2002/03, 16,7% das calorias totais eram provenientes de "açúcar de adição" e sua participação mostrou-se elevada em todos os estratos regionais e de renda. A razão açúcar de mesa/açúcar adicionado pela indústria se inverte com o aumento da renda. A participação do açúcar de mesa nos últimos 15 anos foi reduzida, enquanto a contribuição do açúcar adicionado aos alimentos dobrou, especialmente por meio do consumo de refrigerantes e biscoitos. CONCLUSÕES: O consumo de açúcar no Brasil excede largamente a recomendação da OMS e verificou-se importante alteração nas fontes de consumo.OBJECTIVE: To describe the regional and socio-economic distribution of consumption of added sugar in Brazil in 2002/03, particularly products, sources of sugar and trends in the past 15 years. METHODS: The study used data from Household Budget Surveys since the 1980s about the type and quantity of food and beverages bought by Brazilian families. Different indicators were analyzed: % of sugar calories over the total diet energy and caloric % of table sugar fractions and sugar added to processed food/ sugar calories of diet. RESULTS: In 2002/03, of the total energy available for consumption, 16.7% came from added sugar in all regional and socio-economic strata. The table sugar/ sugar added to

  3. Food product tracing technology capabilities and interoperability.

    Bhatt, Tejas; Zhang, Jianrong Janet

    2013-12-01

    Despite the best efforts of food safety and food defense professionals, contaminated food continues to enter the food supply. It is imperative that contaminated food be removed from the supply chain as quickly as possible to protect public health and stabilize markets. To solve this problem, scores of technology companies purport to have the most effective, economical product tracing system. This study sought to compare and contrast the effectiveness of these systems at analyzing product tracing information to identify the contaminated ingredient and likely source, as well as distribution of the product. It also determined if these systems can work together to better secure the food supply (their interoperability). Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) hypothesized that when technology providers are given a full set of supply-chain data, even for a multi-ingredient product, their systems will generally be able to trace a contaminated product forward and backward through the supply chain. However, when provided with only a portion of supply-chain data, even for a product with a straightforward supply chain, it was expected that interoperability of the systems will be lacking and that there will be difficulty collaborating to identify sources and/or recipients of potentially contaminated product. IFT provided supply-chain data for one complex product to 9 product tracing technology providers, and then compared and contrasted their effectiveness at analyzing product tracing information to identify the contaminated ingredient and likely source, as well as distribution of the product. A vertically integrated foodservice restaurant agreed to work with IFT to secure data from its supply chain for both a multi-ingredient and a simpler product. Potential multi-ingredient products considered included canned tuna, supreme pizza, and beef tacos. IFT ensured that all supply-chain data collected did not include any proprietary information or information that would otherwise

  4. Improving conversion yield of fermentable sugars into fuel ethanol in 1st generation yeast-based production processes.

    Gombert, Andreas K; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2015-06-01

    Current fuel ethanol production using yeasts and starch or sucrose-based feedstocks is referred to as 1st generation (1G) ethanol production. These processes are characterized by the high contribution of sugar prices to the final production costs, by high production volumes, and by low profit margins. In this context, small improvements in the ethanol yield on sugars have a large impact on process economy. Three types of strategies used to achieve this goal are discussed: engineering free-energy conservation, engineering redox-metabolism, and decreasing sugar losses in the process. Whereas the two former strategies lead to decreased biomass and/or glycerol formation, the latter requires increased process and/or yeast robustness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of physiological state of inoculum on volatile acidity production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during high sugar fermentation

    Marina Bely

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An approach consisting of controlling yeast inoculum to minimize volatile acidity production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the alcoholic fermentation of botrytized must was investigated. Direct inoculation of rehydrated active dry yeasts produced the most volatile acidity, while a yeast preparation pre-cultured for 24 hours reduced the final production by up to 23 %. Using yeasts collected from a fermenting wine as a starter must also reduced volatile acidity production. The conditions for preparing the inoculum affected the fermentation capacity of the first generation yeasts: fermentation duration, sugar to ethanol ratio, and wine composition. A pre-culture medium with a low sugar concentration (< 220 g/L is essential to limit volatile acidity production in high sugar fermentations.

  6. Sugar Price Supports and Taxation

    Dilk, Abby; Savaiano, Dennis A.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic US sugar production has been protected by government policy for the past 82 years, resulting in elevated domestic prices and an estimated annual (2013) $1.4 billion dollar “tax” on consumers. These elevated prices and the simultaneous federal support for domestic corn production have ensured a strong market for high-fructose corn syrup. Americans have dramatically increased their consumption of caloric sweeteners during the same period. Consumption of “empty” calories (ie, foods with low-nutrient/high-caloric density)—sugar and high-fructose corn syrup being the primary sources—is considered by most public health experts to be a key contributing factor to the rise in obesity. There have been substantial efforts to tax sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) to both reduce consumption and provide a source of funds for nutrition education, thereby emulating the tobacco tax model. Volume-based SSB taxes levy the tax rate per ounce of liquid, where some are only imposed on beverages with added sugar content exceeding a set threshold. Nonetheless, volume-based taxes have significant limitations in encouraging consumers to reduce their caloric intake due to a lack of transparency at the point of purchase. Thus, it is hypothesized that point-of-purchase, nutrient-specific excise taxes on SSBs would be more effective at reducing sugar consumption. However, all SSB taxes are limited by the possibility that consumers may compensate their decreased intake from SSBs with other high-calorie junk foods. Furthermore, there are no existing studies to provide evidence on how SSB taxes will impact obesity rates in the long term. The paradox of sugar prices is that Americans have paid higher prices for sugar to protect domestic production for more than 80 years, and now, Americans are being asked to pay even more to promote public health. The effective use of sugar taxes should be considered based on their merits in reducing sugar consumption and making available a new

  7. Influence of sugarcane bagasse variability on sugar recovery for cellulosic ethanol production.

    Andrade, Liliane Pires; Crespim, Elaine; de Oliveira, Nilton; de Campos, Rafael Carinha; Teodoro, Juliana Conceição; Galvão, Célia Maria Araújo; Maciel Filho, Rubens

    2017-10-01

    In the context of cellulosic ethanol production, special attention must be given to the raw material, as it affects final product yield. As observed for sugarcane, bagasse variations may derive from several elements, for instance edaphoclimatic factors, seasonality, maturation stage and harvesting techniques. Therefore, in the present work, to investigate the impact of raw material characteristics on process performance, sugarcane bagasse from four harvests from October/2010 to October/2011 was pretreated by steam explosion and had its soluble and insoluble solids contents measured, following enzymatic hydrolysis to assess glucan conversion. As confirmed by ANOVA, glucose concentration was related to the solids content in the reactor, whereas glucan conversion was related to the enzymatic load. Variations in raw material composition were indeed observed to significantly interfere in the final sugar recovery, probably due to the increase in the impurities observed as a result of the type of harvest performed in 2011. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Spectroscopy analysis of phenolic and sugar patterns in a food grade chestnut tannin.

    Ricci, A; Lagel, M-C; Parpinello, G P; Pizzi, A; Kilmartin, P A; Versari, A

    2016-07-15

    Tannin of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood, commonly used in winemaking was characterised with a spectroscopy qualitative approach that revealed its phenolic composition: several vibrational diagnostic bands assigned using the Attenuated Total Reflectance-Infrared Spectroscopy, and fragmentation patterns obtained using the Laser-Desorption-Ionization Time-of-Flight technique evidenced polygalloylglucose, e.g. castalagin/vescalagin-like structures as the most representative molecules, together with sugar moieties. The implication of these findings on winemaking application and the potential influence of the chemical structure on the sensory properties of wine are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Recent developments in drying of food products

    Valarmathi, T. N.; Sekar, S.; Purushothaman, M.; Sekar, S. D.; Rama Sharath Reddy, Maddela; Reddy, Kancham Reddy Naveen Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Drying is a dehydration process to preserve agricultural products for long period usage. The most common and cheapest method is open sun drying in which the products are simply laid on ground, road, mats, roof, etc. But the open sun drying has some disadvantages like dependent on good weather, contamination by dust, birds and animals consume a considerable quantity, slow drying rate and damages due to strong winds and rain. To overcome these difficulties solar dryers are developed with closed environment for drying agricultural products effectively. To obtain good quality food with reduced energy consumption, selection of appropriate drying process and proper input parameters is essential. In recent years several researchers across the world have developed new drying systems for improving the product quality, increasing the drying rate, decreasing the energy consumption, etc. Some of the new systems are fluidized bed, vibrated fluidized bed, desiccant, microwave, vacuum, freeze, infrared, intermittent, electro hydrodynamic and hybrid dryers. In this review the most recent progress in the field of drying of agricultural food products such as new methods, new products and modeling and optimization techniques has been presented. Challenges and future directions are also highlighted. The review will be useful for new researchers entering into this ever needed and ever growing field of engineering.

  10. Emotions in consumer research : An application to novel food products

    Laros, F.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    During the last decades the general public has been confronted with a continuous stream of radically new food products as well as technologies that can be used to improve food production and food products. It is rather difficult, however, to convince consumers to accept these new products. For

  11. Trends in sugar supply and consumption in Australia: is there an Australian Paradox?

    Rikkers, Wavne; Lawrence, David; Hafekost, Katherine; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2013-07-18

    High consumption of refined carbohydrate, in particular sugar, has been identified as a possible contributory factor in greater risk of excess weight gain. In spite of data limitations, one recent paper suggests that Australian sugar consumption has decreased over the same time period that obesity has increased, a so called 'Australian Paradox'. Given the significant public health focus on nutrition, we aimed to estimate Australian sugar supply and consumption over recent decades, to determine whether these data could be used to make any conclusions about sugar's role in obesity. Foods high in sugar were identified. Data relating to sugar supply and consumption from 1988 to 2010 were obtained from multiple sources. Using these data we attempted to generate a time series estimate of sugar in Australia's food supply. Australia produces and exports sugar from sugar cane and the sugar in imported foods has received little attention. We were unable to produce a reliable and robust estimate of total sugars in the Australian diet due to data limitations and a lack of current data sources. However, available Import data showed large increases in the volume and value of imported sweetened products between 1988 and 2010 to over 30 grams of sugar per person per day. Value estimates of local production of sweetened products also show substantial increases in this period. The Australian Paradox assertion is based on incomplete data, as it excludes sugar contained in imported processed foods, which have increased markedly. A major Australian public health target is to improve the quality of the food supply, and actions have been set in terms of achieving broader environmental changes. However, evaluation of progress is hampered by lack of high quality data relating to supply and consumption. We recommend the regular collection of comprehensive food supply statistics, which include both local production and imports. This would provide an inexpensive addition to survey data and

  12. Accounting for all sugars produced during integrated production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Schell, Daniel J; Dowe, Nancy; Chapeaux, Alexandre; Nelson, Robert S; Jennings, Edward W

    2016-04-01

    Accurate mass balance and conversion data from integrated operation is needed to fully elucidate the economics of biofuel production processes. This study explored integrated conversion of corn stover to ethanol and highlights techniques for accurate yield calculations. Acid pretreated corn stover (PCS) produced in a pilot-scale reactor was enzymatically hydrolyzed and the resulting sugars were fermented to ethanol by the glucose-xylose fermenting bacteria, Zymomonas mobilis 8b. The calculations presented here account for high solids operation and oligomeric sugars produced during pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation, which, if not accounted for, leads to overestimating ethanol yields. The calculations are illustrated for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of PCS at 17.5% and 20.0% total solids achieving 80.1% and 77.9% conversion of cellulose and xylan to ethanol and ethanol titers of 63g/L and 69g/L, respectively. These procedures will be employed in the future and the resulting information used for techno-economic analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Survival of Glycolaldehyde and Production of Sugar Compounds via Comet Impact Delivery

    Zellner, N.; McCaffrey, V.; Crake, C.; Butler, J.; Robbins, J.; Fodor, A.

    2017-12-01

    Impact experiments using glycolaldehyde (GLA), a two-carbon sugar precursor that has been detected in regions of the interstellar medium and on comets, have been conducted at the Experimental Impact Laboratory at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Samples of GLA and GLA mixed with montmorillonite clays were subjected to the pressure conditions that are found during impact delivery of biomolecules by comets, asteroids, or meteors; pressures ranged from 4.5 GPa to 25 GPa. Results show that large amounts of GLA survived the impacts and moderate amounts of threose, erythrose, and glycolic acid were produced in these impacts. Total amounts are dependent on impact pressure. Ethylene glycol, a reduced variant of GLA that has also been detected in the interstellar medium and on comets, was also produced. The results of these experimental impacts provide evidence that large amounts of GLA, EG, and other biomolecules were available on habitable moons or planets, especially during the era of late heavy bombardment ( 4.2 to 3.7 billion years ago) when life may have been developing on Earth. The presence and availability of these biomolecules, under appropriate conditions, may be important for understanding the origin of life as we know it. Glycolaldehyde in particular, may be an important molecule in the production of ribose, the five-carbon sugar in RNA.

  14. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (Phb) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar

    Wang, Wei; Mohagheghi, Ali; Mittal, Ashutosh; Pilath, Heidi; Johnson, David K.

    2015-03-22

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. In recent years a great effort has been made in bacterial production of PHB, yet the production cost of the polymer is still much higher than conventional petrochemical plastics. The high cost of PHB is because the cost of the substrates can account for as much as half of the total product cost in large scale fermentation. Thus searching for cheaper and better substrates is very necessary for PHB production. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB by Cupriavidus necator from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified hydrolysate slurry from pretreated corn stover. Good cell growth was observed on slurry saccharified with advanced enzymes and 40~60% of PHB was accumulated in the cells. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by pretreatment and saccharification of biomass, will be discussed.

  15. The impact on productivity of a hypothetical tax on sugar-sweetened beverages.

    Nomaguchi, Takeshi; Cunich, Michelle; Zapata-Diomedi, Belen; Veerman, J Lennert

    2017-06-01

    To quantify the potential impact of an additional 20% tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on productivity in Australia. We used a multi-state lifetable Markov model to examine the potential impact of an additional 20% tax on SSBs on total lifetime productivity in the paid and unpaid sectors of the economy. The study population consisted of Australians aged 20 years or older in 2010, whose health and other relevant outcomes were modelled over their remaining lifetime. The SSBs tax was estimated to reduce the number of people with obesity by 1.96% of the entire population (437,000 fewer persons with obesity), and reduce the number of employees with obesity by 317,000 persons. These effects translated into productivity gains in the paid sector of AU$751 million for the working-age population (95% confidence interval: AU$565 million to AU$954 million), using the human capital approach. In the unpaid sector, the potential productivity gains amounted to AU$1172 million (AU$929 million to AU$1435 million) using the replacement cost method. These productivity benefits are in addition to the health benefits of 35,000 life years gained and a reduction in healthcare costs of AU$425 million. An additional 20% tax on SSBs not only improves health outcomes and reduces healthcare costs, but provides productivity gains in both the paid and unpaid sectors of the economy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship to reducing sugar production and scanning electron microscope structure to pretreated hemp hurd biomass (Cannabis sativa)

    Abraham, Reinu E.; Barrow, Colin J.; Puri, Munish

    2013-11-15

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a highly rigid and recalcitrant structure which requires pretreatment to loosen chemical bonds to make accessible monomeric sugars for biofuel production. In this study, locally available biomass, that is hemp (Cannabis sativa), a low cost feedstock for ethanol production, has been used for the production of fermentable sugars. Hemp hurd biomass (HHB) was exposed to five different pretreatments which included dilute acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), alkaline (NaOH), alkaline peroxide, hot water and one stage dilute acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). Different pretreatments resulted in loosening and degradation of HHB structure thus facilitating enzymatic saccharification at optimized parameters (pH–4.8 and 50 °C). The changes in the reactive groups (hydroxyl or acetyl) of the HHB were confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to characterize the surface morphology of untreated and treated HHB. Finally, enzymatic saccharification demonstrated maximum yield of total sugars (743 mg g{sup −1}) that are suitable for biofuel production. -- Highlights: • Hemp hurd biomass (HHB) was used for producing fermentable sugars. • Alkaline pretreatment resulted in loosening and degradation of hemp structure. • Pretreated HHB was characterized using FTIR studies. • SEM studies evaluated the opening of fiber bundles in pretreatment, thereby increasing cellulose access to enzymes. • Enzymatic saccharification of pretreated HHB demonstrated maximum yield of reducing sugars.

  17. Relationship to reducing sugar production and scanning electron microscope structure to pretreated hemp hurd biomass (Cannabis sativa)

    Abraham, Reinu E.; Barrow, Colin J.; Puri, Munish

    2013-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a highly rigid and recalcitrant structure which requires pretreatment to loosen chemical bonds to make accessible monomeric sugars for biofuel production. In this study, locally available biomass, that is hemp (Cannabis sativa), a low cost feedstock for ethanol production, has been used for the production of fermentable sugars. Hemp hurd biomass (HHB) was exposed to five different pretreatments which included dilute acid (H 2 SO 4 ), alkaline (NaOH), alkaline peroxide, hot water and one stage dilute acid (H 2 SO 4 ). Different pretreatments resulted in loosening and degradation of HHB structure thus facilitating enzymatic saccharification at optimized parameters (pH–4.8 and 50 °C). The changes in the reactive groups (hydroxyl or acetyl) of the HHB were confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to characterize the surface morphology of untreated and treated HHB. Finally, enzymatic saccharification demonstrated maximum yield of total sugars (743 mg g −1 ) that are suitable for biofuel production. -- Highlights: • Hemp hurd biomass (HHB) was used for producing fermentable sugars. • Alkaline pretreatment resulted in loosening and degradation of hemp structure. • Pretreated HHB was characterized using FTIR studies. • SEM studies evaluated the opening of fiber bundles in pretreatment, thereby increasing cellulose access to enzymes. • Enzymatic saccharification of pretreated HHB demonstrated maximum yield of reducing sugars

  18. Fermentable sugar in ammonium and calcium bisulfite pulping and ethanol production therefrom

    Samuelson, O; Schoon, N H; Ingvar, E

    1955-01-01

    The yields of fermentable sugar and EtOH were determined on spruce chips pulped with NH/sub 4/HSO/sub 3/ and Ca(HSO/sub 3/)/sub 2/. The yield of fermentable sugar is plotted vs the yield of pulp; the curve shows a difference in sugar content for the two bases during the first part of the process. With yields of pulp below 44%, this difference disappears. Univalent ions (other than NH/sub 4//sup +/) have a beneficial effect on the sugar yield. Consequently, the destruction of the sugar is more rapid when NH/sub 4//sup +/ is used.

  19. Techno-economic evaluation of 2nd generation bioethanol production from sugar cane bagasse and leaves integrated with the sugar-based ethanol process

    2012-01-01

    Background Bioethanol produced from the lignocellulosic fractions of sugar cane (bagasse and leaves), i.e. second generation (2G) bioethanol, has a promising market potential as an automotive fuel; however, the process is still under investigation on pilot/demonstration scale. From a process perspective, improvements in plant design can lower the production cost, providing better profitability and competitiveness if the conversion of the whole sugar cane is considered. Simulations have been performed with AspenPlus to investigate how process integration can affect the minimum ethanol selling price of this 2G process (MESP-2G), as well as improve the plant energy efficiency. This is achieved by integrating the well-established sucrose-to-bioethanol process with the enzymatic process for lignocellulosic materials. Bagasse and leaves were steam pretreated using H3PO4 as catalyst and separately hydrolysed and fermented. Results The addition of a steam dryer, doubling of the enzyme dosage in enzymatic hydrolysis, including leaves as raw material in the 2G process, heat integration and the use of more energy-efficient equipment led to a 37 % reduction in MESP-2G compared to the Base case. Modelling showed that the MESP for 2G ethanol was 0.97 US$/L, while in the future it could be reduced to 0.78 US$/L. In this case the overall production cost of 1G + 2G ethanol would be about 0.40 US$/L with an output of 102 L/ton dry sugar cane including 50 % leaves. Sensitivity analysis of the future scenario showed that a 50 % decrease in the cost of enzymes, electricity or leaves would lower the MESP-2G by about 20%, 10% and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusions According to the simulations, the production of 2G bioethanol from sugar cane bagasse and leaves in Brazil is already competitive (without subsidies) with 1G starch-based bioethanol production in Europe. Moreover 2G bioethanol could be produced at a lower cost if subsidies were used to compensate for the opportunity cost from the

  20. Techno-economic evaluation of 2nd generation bioethanol production from sugar cane bagasse and leaves integrated with the sugar-based ethanol process

    Macrelli Stefano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioethanol produced from the lignocellulosic fractions of sugar cane (bagasse and leaves, i.e. second generation (2G bioethanol, has a promising market potential as an automotive fuel; however, the process is still under investigation on pilot/demonstration scale. From a process perspective, improvements in plant design can lower the production cost, providing better profitability and competitiveness if the conversion of the whole sugar cane is considered. Simulations have been performed with AspenPlus to investigate how process integration can affect the minimum ethanol selling price of this 2G process (MESP-2G, as well as improve the plant energy efficiency. This is achieved by integrating the well-established sucrose-to-bioethanol process with the enzymatic process for lignocellulosic materials. Bagasse and leaves were steam pretreated using H3PO4 as catalyst and separately hydrolysed and fermented. Results The addition of a steam dryer, doubling of the enzyme dosage in enzymatic hydrolysis, including leaves as raw material in the 2G process, heat integration and the use of more energy-efficient equipment led to a 37 % reduction in MESP-2G compared to the Base case. Modelling showed that the MESP for 2G ethanol was 0.97 US$/L, while in the future it could be reduced to 0.78 US$/L. In this case the overall production cost of 1G + 2G ethanol would be about 0.40 US$/L with an output of 102 L/ton dry sugar cane including 50 % leaves. Sensitivity analysis of the future scenario showed that a 50 % decrease in the cost of enzymes, electricity or leaves would lower the MESP-2G by about 20%, 10% and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusions According to the simulations, the production of 2G bioethanol from sugar cane bagasse and leaves in Brazil is already competitive (without subsidies with 1G starch-based bioethanol production in Europe. Moreover 2G bioethanol could be produced at a lower cost if subsidies were used to compensate for the

  1. Support for Food and Beverage Worksite Wellness Strategies and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake Among Employed U.S. Adults.

    Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; Pan, Liping; Kimmons, Joel; Foltz, Jennifer; Park, Sohyun

    2017-03-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is high among U.S. adults and is associated with obesity. Given that more than 100 million Americans consume food or beverages at work daily, the worksite may be a venue for interventions to reduce SSB consumption. However, the level of support for these interventions is unknown. We examined associations between workday SSB intake and employees' support for worksite wellness strategies (WWSs). We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from Web-based annual surveys that gather information on health-related attitudes and behaviors. Study setting was the United States. A total of 1924 employed adults (≥18 years) selected using probability-based sampling. The self-reported independent variable was workday SSB intake (0, food/drink, (3) available healthy options, and (4) less available SSB. Multivariable logistic regression was used to control for sociodemographic variables, employee size, and availability of cafeteria/vending machine. About half of employees supported accessible free water (54%), affordable healthy food/drink (49%), and available healthy options (46%), but only 28% supported less available SSB. Compared with non-SSB consumers, daily SSB consumers were significantly less supportive of accessible free water (adjusted odds ratio, .67; p < .05) or less available SSB (odds ratio, .49; p < .05). Almost half of employees supported increasing healthy options within worksites, although daily workday SSB consumers were less supportive of certain strategies. Lack of support could be a potential barrier to the successful implementation of certain worksite interventions.

  2. Improving availability, promotion and purchase of fruit and vegetable and non sugar-sweetened drink products at community sporting clubs: a randomised trial.

    Wolfenden, Luke; Kingsland, Melanie; Rowland, Bosco C; Dodds, Pennie; Gillham, Karen; Yoong, Sze Lin; Sidey, Maree; Wiggers, John

    2015-03-10

    Amateur sporting clubs represent an attractive setting for health promotion. This study assesses the impact of a multi-component intervention on the availability, promotion and purchase of fruit and vegetable and non sugar -sweetened drink products from community sporting club canteens. We also assessed the impact the intervention on sporting club revenue from the sale of food and beverages. A repeat cross-sectional, parallel group, cluster randomized controlled trial was undertaken with amateur community football clubs in New South Wales, Australia. The intervention was conducted over 2.5 winter sporting seasons and sought to improve the availability and promotion of fruit and vegetables and non sugar-sweetened drinks in sporting club canteens. Trial outcomes were assessed via telephone surveys of sporting club representatives and members. Eighty five sporting clubs and 1143 club members participated in the study. Relative to the control group, at follow-up, clubs allocated to the intervention were significantly more likely to have fruit and vegetable products available at the club canteen (OR = 5.13; 95% CI 1.70-15.38), were more likely to promote fruit and vegetable selection using reduced pricing and meal deals (OR = 34.48; 95% CI 4.18-250.00) and members of intervention clubs were more likely to report purchase of fruit and vegetable (OR = 2.58 95% CI; 1.08-6.18) and non sugar -sweetened drink (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.09-2.25) products. There was no significant difference between groups in the annual club revenue from food and non-alcoholic beverage sales. The findings demonstrate that the intervention can improve the nutrition environment of sporting clubs and the purchasing behaviour of members. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12609000224224 .

  3. Production of Fungal Glucoamylase for Glucose Production from Food Waste

    Carol Sze Ki Lin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using pastry waste as resource for glucoamylase (GA production via solid state fermentation (SSF was studied. The crude GA extract obtained was used for glucose production from mixed food waste. Our results showed that pastry waste could be used as a sole substrate for GA production. A maximal GA activity of 76.1 ± 6.1 U/mL was obtained at Day 10. The optimal pH and reaction temperature for the crude GA extract for hydrolysis were pH 5.5 and 55 °C, respectively. Under this condition, the half-life of the GA extract was 315.0 minutes with a deactivation constant (kd 2.20 × 10−3minutes−1. The application of the crude GA extract for mixed food waste hydrolysis and glucose production was successfully demonstrated. Approximately 53 g glucose was recovered from 100 g of mixed food waste in 1 h under the optimal digestion conditions, highlighting the potential of this approach as an alternative strategy for waste management and sustainable production of glucose applicable as carbon source in many biotechnological processes.

  4. Production of Fungal Glucoamylase for Glucose Production from Food Waste

    Lam, Wan Chi; Pleissner, Daniel; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of using pastry waste as resource for glucoamylase (GA) production via solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied. The crude GA extract obtained was used for glucose production from mixed food waste. Our results showed that pastry waste could be used as a sole substrate for GA production. A maximal GA activity of 76.1 ± 6.1 U/mL was obtained at Day 10. The optimal pH and reaction temperature for the crude GA extract for hydrolysis were pH 5.5 and 55 °C, respectively. Under this condition, the half-life of the GA extract was 315.0 minutes with a deactivation constant (kd) 2.20 × 10−3 minutes−1. The application of the crude GA extract for mixed food waste hydrolysis and glucose production was successfully demonstrated. Approximately 53 g glucose was recovered from 100 g of mixed food waste in 1 h under the optimal digestion conditions, highlighting the potential of this approach as an alternative strategy for waste management and sustainable production of glucose applicable as carbon source in many biotechnological processes. PMID:24970186

  5. Introduction to Food Production Challenges in Space

    Anderson, Molly

    2017-01-01

    Food is one of the most critical elements required for human survival. Though the time to effect may be shorter for oxygen, shelter, or water, the consequences are just as serious. Stored food has also been shown by studies performed by NASA's Evolvable Mars Campaign team to be a significant, multi-ton logistics burden for initial human exploration missions to Mars. Popular fiction and media assumes that in-situ production of food from plants will be part of future space missions. Scientific experiments have demonstrated that plant growth in space is feasible. Crew response to food and their time spent tending the plants also provide evidence for the benefit that plants can have for future missions. However, illustrations of possible options do not prove that biological systems will be cost effective or reliable. On Earth, biological systems are considered robust because they can recover with time, but success conditions for a space mission requires the safe return of the same crewmembers who began the mission, not just recovery of survivable conditions for another group of human beings.

  6. Kinetics of ethanol production by immobilized Kluyveromyces marxianus cells at varying sugar concentrations of Jerusalem artichoke juice

    Bajpai, P.; Margaritis, A.

    1987-08-01

    Kinetics of ethanol fermentation at varying sugar concentrations of Jerusalem artichoke tuber extract has been studied using Kluyveromyces marxianus cells immobilized in calcium alginate gel beads. A maximum ethanol concentration of 111 g/l was achieved at an initial sugar concentration of 260 g/l in 20 hours, when the immobilized cell concentration in the calcium alginate beads was 53.3 g dry wt./l bead volume. Ethanol yield remained almost unaffected by initial sugar concentration up to 250 g/l and was found to be about 88% of the theoretical. Maximum rate of ethanol production decreased from 22.5 g ethanol/l/h to 10.5 g ethanol/l/h while the maximum rate of total sugars utilization decreased from 74.9 g sugars/l/h to 28.5 g sugars/l/h as the initial substrate concentration was increased from 100 to 300 g/l. The concentration of free cells in the fermentation broth was low.

  7. State of the safety assessment and current use of nanomaterials in food and food production

    Bouwmeester, H.; Brandhoff, P.N.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Weigel, S.; Peters, R.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials are developed for and applied in food, food additives, supplements and food contact materials. In an inventory of internet databases 140 products in the food and food-related sectors were identified that claim to contain nanomaterials. A great diversity of nanomaterials is applied,

  8. From food production to food security: developing interdisciplinary, regional-level research

    Ingram, J.S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Food security is a condition whereby “all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” (FAO World Food Summit, 1996). Globally, food production has kept

  9. Cogeneration/auto production influences form sugar cane bagasse for the electric power market in Northeast

    Rocha, P.G. da; Fiscina, G.B.

    1990-01-01

    This work intends to evaluate to what extent the co-generation/auto production influences the electric power market. For that purpose, two sceneries have been developed considering sugar cane bagasse remains, taking as a basis the historic content (per Northeast state) and the energy policy for PROALCOOL. The installed potential in plants/distilleries for utilization of the bagasse industrial remains has also been considered. It has been determined the investments required for new facilities, enabling the use of all bagasse remains for electric energy, the benefits for the North/Northeast electric system resulting from such measures (as the decrease in deficit risks), and the value of energy sale by the system auto producers/co-generators. (author)

  10. Ethanol from sugar cane with simultaneous production of electrical energy and biofertilizer

    Filgueiras, G.

    1981-08-04

    A flexible nonpolluting industrial scheme is described for converting sugar cane into fuel-grade ethanol, fertilizer, and electric power. The cleaned cane is treated in a diffuser to separate the juice, which is enzymically hydrolyze d to ethanol, and bagasse containing 65-85% moisture, which is mechanically ground with the rest of the cane plant (leaves and buds) and biochemically digested to provide liquid and solid fertilizers as well as a methane-containing gas, which is burned in a gas turbine to generate electricity. The vinasse from the ethanol fermentation is also cycled to the digestion step. The process conditions can be varied depending upon the desired product ratio; if fuel is preferred, each ton of cane (dry weight) can produce 135 L ethanol, 50 kW electric power, and 150 kg fertilizer; if electric energy is preferred, each ton can give 75 L ethanol, 115 kW power, and 220 kg fertilizer.

  11. An infrared spectroscopic tool for process monitoring: sugar contents during the production of a depilatory formulation.

    Kuligowski, Julia; Cascant, Mercedes; Garrigues, Salvador; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2012-09-15

    A fast, reliable and economical methodology has been developed to control the production process of sugar-based depilatories. The method is based on the use of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis. A very simple sample preparation process involving the dissolution of samples in water was applied. Employing a multivariate calibration model established from data of 15 well characterized samples, prediction errors equal or below 3.04 mg mL(-1) for the quantitative determination of fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose and maltotriose were obtained. Results found in this preliminary study indicate a great potential for the development of at-line ATR-FTIR-PLS methods based on a careful selection of variables from IR spectra, delivering fast and reliable results. As a reference method, a liquid chromatography (LC)-IR method was adapted for sample characterization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Concentration of stable elements in food products

    Montford, M.A.; Shank, K.E.; Hendricks, C.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    Food samples were taken from commercial markets and analyzed for stable element content. The concentrations of most stable elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hf, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, V, Zn, Zr) were determined using multiple-element neutron activation analysis, while the concentrations of other elements (Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb) were determined using atomic absorption. The relevance of the concentrations found are noted in relation to other literature values. An earlier study was extended to include the determination of the concentration of stable elements in home-grown products in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Comparisons between the commercial and local food-stuff values are discussed

  13. Herbal products, food supplements and teas for improvement of digestion

    Mozūraitienė, Vilija

    2016-01-01

    Objective of the study: To examine and systematize assortment of herbal products, food supplements and teas for improvement of digestion and also to find out public opinion about herbal products, food supplements and teas for improvement of digestion using questionnaire. Aim of the study: (1) To examine which digestive tract ailments are treated most frequently herbal products, food supplements and teas. (2) To examine which herbal products, food supplements and teas are used most frequent...

  14. Effective Production of Sorbitol and Mannitol from Sugars Catalyzed by Ni Nanoparticles Supported on Aluminium Hydroxide

    Rodiansono Rodiansono

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective production of hexitols (sorbitol and mannitol was achieved from sugars by means of nickel nanoparticles supported on aluminium hydroxide (NiNPs/AlOH catalyst. NiNPs/AlOH catalyst was prepared by a simple and benign environmentally procedure using less amount of sodium hydroxide. ICP-AES and XRD analyses confirmed that the NiNPs/AlOH catalysts comprised a large amount of remained aluminium hydroxide (i.e. bayerite and gibbsite. The presence of aluminium hydroxide caused a high dispersion Ni metal species. The average Ni crystallite sizes that derived from the Scherrer`s equation for former R-Ni and NiNPs/AlOH were 8.6 nm and 4.1 nm, respectively. The catalyst exhibited high activity and selectivity both hydrogenolysis of disaccharides (sucrose and cellobiose and monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, and xylose at 403 K for 24 h. The NiNPs/AlOH catalyst was found to be reusable for at least five consecutive runs without any significant loss of activity and selectivity. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 21st December 2012; Revised: 7th February 2013; Accepted: 10th February 2013[How to Cite: Rodiansono, R., Shimazu, S. (2013. Effective Production of Sorbitol and Mannitol from Sug-ars Catalyzed by Ni Nanoparticles Supported on Aluminium Hydroxide. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 40-46. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4290.40-46][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4290.40-46] | View in  |

  15. THE FACTORS FORMING QUALITY OF GRANULATED SUGAR

    N. G. Kulneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar, with good taste and high caloric, is one of the most popular human food. Consumers sugar must be sure that the sugar under normal conditions of use is of high quality and is not harmful to the health of the product. One reason for the decline in the quality of sugar is bacterial contamination. This is because the sugar industry products are good targets for the development of different groups of microorganisms, e.g., Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringes, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Torula alba, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Sarcina lutea and others. These organisms are affected with beets, and then with sugar beet chips and diffusion juice fall into the processing line of sugar production. Their number in the diffusion juice varies and depends on many facto rs such as the quality of raw materials, the quality of cleaning beet root colonization of transporter-washing and the supply of water to the diffusion process, the temperature of the diffusion and others. In the diffusion unit has the most favorable conditions for the development of micro-organisms. Some of them, especially resistant bacteria and thermophilic bacteria or their spores, forming a capsule which protects against external influences occur in the final product sugar. When injected into the fresh crop of product (juice, syrup, they begin to multiply rapidly, causing difficulties in the process. The higher seeding beet microorganisms, the more they decompose and emit sucrose metabolism byproducts. To reduce the negative impact of microbiological and reduce losses from decomposition of sucrose conducted research on the possibility of using chlorine-containing substances in the sugar industry. It was established experimentally that the investigated chlorinated drug has bacteriostatic action and can be recommended for use in sugar beet production.

  16. Cascade Production of Lactic Acid from Universal Types of Sugars Catalyzed by Lanthanum Triflate.

    Liu, Dajiang; Kim, Kwang Ho; Sun, Jian; Simmons, Blake A; Singh, Seema

    2018-02-09

    Lignocellulosic biomass conversion into value-added platform chemicals in the non-toxic, water-tolerant Lewis acid, and water solutions bears the hallmark of green chemistry. Lactic acid derived from biomass is an important chemical building block for biodegradable polymers such as polylactide. Herein, a universal method of converting lignocellulosic sugars into lactic acid using catalytic amount of water-stable Lewis acid La(OTf) 3 is demonstrated. The lignocellulosic sugars studied in this work include 1) pyrolytic sugars from pyrolysis oil, and 2) sugars derived from ionic liquid (IL)-pretreated biomass. Under moderate conditions (250 °C, 1 h), levoglucosan (major pyrolytic sugar), glucose, and xylose were converted into lactic acid with carbon-based molar yields of 75, 74, and 61 %, respectively. Furthermore, roughly 49 mol % (based on levoglucosan) and 74 wt % (relative to pretreated biomass) of lactic acid were obtained from the conversion of pyrolytic sugars and sugar-rich fraction after lignin removal from switchgrass, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first reported conversion of pyrolytic sugar into lactic acid by chemocatalysis and also lignocellulosic sugars are converted into lactic acid without hydrolysis. This approach could potentially be extended to other lignocellulosic sugars after simple removal of lignin from biomass pretreatment, rendering moderate to high yields of lactic acid. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Accounting for product substitution in the analysis of food taxes targeting obesity.

    Miao, Zhen; Beghin, John C; Jensen, Helen H

    2013-11-01

    We extend the existing literature on food taxes targeting obesity. We systematically incorporate the implicit substitution between added sugars and solid fats into a comprehensive food demand system and evaluate the effect of taxes on sugars and fats. The approach conditions how food and obesity taxes affect total calorie intake. The proposed methodology accounts for the ability of consumers to substitute leaner low-fat and low-sugar items for rich food items within the same food group. We calibrate this demand system approach using recent food intake data and existing estimates of price and income elasticities of demand. The demand system accounts for both the within-food group substitution and the substitution across these groups. Simulations of taxes on added sugars and solid fat show that the tax impact on consumption patterns is understated and the induced welfare loss is overstated when not allowing for the substitution possibilities within food groups. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Effect of γ-ray irradiation on sugar production from plant biomass

    Han, Y.W.; Ciegler, A.

    1982-01-01

    During the past several years, evidence has indicated the effectiveness of gamma radiation in altering lignocellulosic polymers to enhance their susceptibility to chemical and enzymatic attack. Reassessment of high-energy radiation as a tool in reducing the use of fossil fuel suggested that the procedure might have practical value in modification of lignocellulosics prior to hydrolysis to sugars for use in fermentation. Select combinations of chemical pretreatment and gamma radiation can also lead to production of feedstocks useful to the chemical synthesis industry. Preliminary research indicated that the properties of lignocellulosics are changed and a variety of compounds are produced by gamma irradiation. In general, gamma irradiation of lignocellulosics such as wood, paper, and crop residues causes depolymerization of biopolymers and decomposition of carbohydrates at dosages between 10 and 100 Mrad, and the resulting materials shows a loss of crystallinity and increase in digestibility by subsequent hydrolysis by acid and enzymes. These changes may be advantageously used for production of energy from biomass. Large quantities of gamma-emitting 137 Cs are found in fission-product wastes stored since the initiation of 239 Pu production during World War II. The task of disposing of the radioactive wastes produced by nuclear power plants is often cited as one of the principal drawbacks to the use of nuclear fission for electric power generation. 1 figure, 3 tables

  19. Ethanol production from the seaweed Gelidium amansii, using specific sugar acclimated yeasts.

    Cho, Hyeyoung; Ra, Chae-Hun; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2014-02-28

    For the production of ethanol from seaweed as the source material, thermal acid hydrolysis and enzymatic saccharification were carried out for monosugars production of 25.5 g/l galactose and 7.6 g/l glucose using Gelidium amansii. The fermentation was performed with Pichia stipitis KCTC 7228 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae KCCM 1129. When wild P. stipitis and S. cerevisiae were used, the ethanol productions of 11.2 g/l and 6.9 g/l were produced, respectively. The ethanol productions of 16.6 g/l and 14.6 g/l were produced using P. stipitis and S. cerevisiae acclimated to high concentration of galactose, respectively. The yields of ethanol fermentation increased to 0.5 and 0.44 from 0.34 and 0.21 using acclimated P. stipitis and S. cerevisiae, respectively. Therefore, acclimation of yeasts to a specific sugar such as galactose reduced the glucose-induced repression on the transport of galactose.

  20. Cashew apple bagasse as a source of sugars for ethanol production by Kluyveromyces marxianus CE025.

    Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; Rodrigues, Tigressa Helena Soares; Melo, Vania M M; Gonçalves, Luciana R B; de Macedo, Gorete Ribeiro

    2011-08-01

    The potential of cashew apple bagasse as a source of sugars for ethanol production by Kluyveromyces marxianus CE025 was evaluated in this work. This strain was preliminarily cultivated in a synthetic medium containing glucose and xylose and was able to produce ethanol and xylitol at pH 4.5. Next, cashew apple bagasse hydrolysate (CABH) was prepared by a diluted sulfuric acid pretreatment and used as fermentation media. This hydrolysate is rich in glucose, xylose, and arabinose and contains traces of formic acid and acetic acid. In batch fermentations of CABH at pH 4.5, the strain produced only ethanol. The effects of temperature on the kinetic parameters of ethanol fermentation by K. marxianus CE025 using CABH were also evaluated. Maximum specific growth rate (μ(max)), overall yields of ethanol based on glucose consumption [Formula: see text] and based on glucose + xylose consumption (Y ( P/S )), overall yield of ethanol based on biomass (Y ( P/X )), and ethanol productivity (P (E)) were determined as a function of temperature. Best results of ethanol production were achieved at 30°C, which is also quite close to the optimum temperature for the formation of biomass. The process yielded 12.36 ± 0.06 g l(-1) of ethanol with a volumetric production rate of 0.257 ± 0.002 g l(-1) h(-1) and an ethanol yield of 0.417 ± 0.003 g g(-1) glucose.

  1. Does Weight Status Influence Weight-Related Beliefs and the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Fast Food Purchases in Adolescents?

    Hearst, Mary O.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine if weight status affects the relationship between weight-related beliefs and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fast and convenience store food purchases (FCFP). Design: Observational, cross-sectional. Setting: Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, USA. Methods: Body composition and psychosocial survey…

  2. PROMOTING TRADITIONAL FOOD PRODUCTS AS HEALTHY DIET PRODUCTS

    Mihaela Teodora TARCZA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a brief introspection in the literature review in an attempt to highlight the peculiarities of traditional foodstuffs that enable them to be promoted as the primary food for a healthy diet. The trend of healthy eating is gaining ground not only for experts and researchers, but also for consumers on a daily basis. Traditional foodstuffs are brought back into the consumers’ attention in a market full of highly-processed foodstuffs. Marketing specialists noticed the link between the two concepts and they elaborated promotional strategies for traditional foodstuffs, having the ‘healthy diet’ as insight. Throughout the paper we will present theoretical considerations such as the concept of ‘traditional food product’, ‘promotion’, and ‘healthy diet’ from a marketing perspective followed by several examples of traditional food products perceived as healthy, and lastly, we will highlight the benefits of promoting a healthy diet by consuming traditional food products.

  3. Trade in Food and Food Products in Africa | Sekitoleko | African ...

    African Journal of Food and Nutritional Security ... Apart from the growing number of chronically food insecure people, projected to ... do not benefit from economic growth and social security interventions that also have a development pay-off.

  4. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    Food is an important basic human need for survival, growth, and good health. Most rural households in Tanzania, Kahama district inclusive produce the food they consume. Despite this reality, a number of households in the district suffer from food insecurity. However, there are inequalities across the districtfs ecological ...

  5. 27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17.133 Section 17.133 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage...

  6. Sugar Determination in Foods with a Radially Compressed High Performance Liquid Chromatography Column.

    Ondrus, Martin G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Advocates use of Waters Associates Radial Compression Separation System for high performance liquid chromatography. Discusses instrumentation and reagents, outlining procedure for analyzing various foods and discussing typical student data. Points out potential problems due to impurities and pump seal life. Suggests use of ribose as internal…

  7. Energy contribution of sugar-sweetened beverage refills at fast-food restaurants.

    Breck, Andrew; Cantor, Jonathan H; Elbel, Brian

    2017-09-01

    To identify demographic and consumer characteristics associated with refilling a soft drink at fast-food restaurants and the estimated energy content and volume of those refills. Logistic and linear regression with cross-sectional survey data. Data include fast-food restaurant receipts and consumer surveys collected from restaurants in New York City (all boroughs except Staten Island), and Newark and Jersey City, New Jersey, during 2013 and 2014. Fast-food restaurant customers (n 11795) from ninety-eight restaurants. Thirty per cent of fast-food customers ordered a refillable soft drink. Nine per cent of fast-food customers with a refillable soft drink reported refilling their beverage (3 % of entire sample). Odds of having a beverage refill were higher among respondents with a refillable soft drink at restaurants with a self-serve refill kiosk (adjusted OR (aOR)=7·37, Prestaurant (aOR=4·45, P<0·001). KFC (aOR=2·18, P<0·001) and Wendy's (aOR=0·41, P<0·001) customers had higher and lower odds, respectively, of obtaining a refill, compared with Burger King customers. Respondents from New Jersey (aOR=1·47, P<0·001) also had higher odds of refilling their beverage than New York City customers. Customers who got a refill obtained on average 29 more 'beverage ounces' (858 ml) and 250 more 'beverage calories' (1046 kJ) than customers who did not get a refill. Refilling a beverage was associated with having obtained more beverage calories and beverage ounces. Environmental cues, such as the placement and availability of self-serve beverage refills, may influence consumer beverage choice.

  8. A Complete Set of Technologies for Green Food Pork Production

    YANG Xing-wu; SHAN An-shan; JIANG Jiu-tian; ZHANG Tian-feng

    2003-01-01

    Key technologies for green food pork production were described in this article,as aspects of business standardization;production equipments and facilities,product quality control;and pork production site establishment.

  9. Bacteriocin producers from traditional food products

    Thonart P.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 220 strains of LAB isolated from 32 samples of traditional fermented food from Senegal were screened for bacteriocin production. Two bacteriocin producers, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Enterococcus faecium, were identified from 12 bacteriocin-producing isolates on the basis of phenotypic analyses and 16S rDNA sequence. Both bacteriocins produced by new isolates show antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus coagulans whereas only that produced by Lactococcus lactis has an activity against Bacillus cereus. Bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis strains were found in a variety of traditional foods indicating a high potential of growth of this strain in variable ecological complex environment. Partial 16S rDNA of the two bacteriocin producers obtained in this study has been registered to Genbank databases under the accession number AY971748 for Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (named CWBI-B1410 and AY971749 for Enterococcus faecium (named CWBI-B1411. The new bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain has been selected for identification and application of the bacteriocin to food preservation.

  10. Safety assessments and public concern for genetically modified food products: the American view.

    Harlander, Susan K

    2002-01-01

    In the relatively short time since their commercial introduction in 1996, genetically modified (GM) crops have been rapidly adopted in the United States GM crops are regulated through a coordinated framework developed in 1992 and administered by three agencies-the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) that ensures the products are safe to grow, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that ensures the products are safe for the environment, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that ensures the products are safe to eat. Rigorous food and environmental safety assessments must be completed before GM crops can be commercialized. Fifty-one products have been reviewed by the FDA, including several varieties of corn, soybeans, canola, cotton, rice, sugar beets, potatoes, tomatoes, squash, papaya, and flax. Because FDA considers these crops "substantially equivalent" to their conventional counterparts, no special labeling is required for GM crops in the United States and they are managed as commodities with no segregation or identity preservation. GM crops have thus made their way through commodity distribution channels into thousands of ingredients used in processed foods. It has been estimated that 70% to 85% of processed foods on supermarket shelves in the United States today contain one or more ingredients potentially derived from GM crops. The food industry and retail industry have been monitoring the opinions of their consumers on the GM issue for the past several years. Numerous independent groups have also surveyed consumer concerns about GM foods. The results of these surveys are shared and discussed here.

  11. Maternal educational level and preschool children's consumption of high-calorie snacks and sugar-containing beverages: mediation by the family food environment.

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Jansen, Wilma; Jansen, Pauline W; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein

    2013-11-01

    To examine the associations between maternal educational level and preschoolers' consumption of high-calorie snacks and sugar-containing beverages, and to assess the mediating effects of variables relating to the family food environment. We analyzed data from 2814 native Dutch preschoolers enrolled in a birth cohort study in Rotterdam (the Netherlands), between 2002 and 2006. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios of snacking ≥ 2 times/day and consuming sugar-containing beverages ≥ 3 glasses/day for children of mothers with low, mid-low, and mid-high educational levels (reference group: high educational level), before and after adjustment for mediators. Children of low and mid-low educated mothers were significantly more likely to consume excessive amounts of high-calorie snacks and sugar-containing beverages compared with children of high educated mothers, with the highest odds in children of low educated mothers (OR: 2.44; 95% CI: 1.84, 3.23 and OR: 2.46; 95% CI: 1.87, 3.24 respectively). Parental feeding practices, parental consumption of sugar-containing beverages, and children's television time partly explained these associations. Maternal educational level is inversely related to preschoolers' consumption of high-calorie snacks and sugar-containing beverages. Targeting the family food environment may be an effective way of reducing educational inequalities in children's unhealthy dietary behaviors. © 2013.

  12. Internet food marketing on popular children's websites and food product websites in Australia.

    Kelly, Bridget; Bochynska, Katarzyna; Kornman, Kelly; Chapman, Kathy

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the nature and extent of food marketing on popular children's websites and food product websites in Australia. Food product websites (n 119) and popular children's websites (n 196) were selected based on website traffic data and previous research on frequently marketed food brands. Coding instruments were developed to capture food marketing techniques. All references to food on popular children's websites were also classified as either branded or non-branded and according to food categories. Websites contained a range of marketing features. On food product websites these marketing features included branded education (79.0% of websites), competitions (33.6%), promotional characters (35.3%), downloadable items (35.3%), branded games (28.6%) and designated children's sections (21.8%). Food references on popular children's websites were strongly skewed towards unhealthy foods (60.8% v. 39.2% healthy food references; Pfood references for unhealthy foods. Branded food references displayed similar marketing features to those identified on food product websites. Internet food marketing uses a range of techniques to ensure that children are immersed in brand-related information and activities for extended periods, thereby increasing brand familiarity and exposure. The relatively unregulated marketing environment and increasing use of the Internet by children point to the potential increase in food marketing via this medium. Further research is required to investigate the impact of Internet food marketing on children's food preferences and consumption, and regulatory options to protect children.

  13. Development of lotus root fermented sugar syrup as a functional food supplement/condiment and evaluation of its physicochemical, nutritional and microbiological properties.

    Shukla, Shruti; Park, Juyeon; Park, Jung Hyun; Lee, Jong Suk; Kim, Myunghee

    2018-02-01

    Lotus ( Nelumbo nucifera ) root has been used as an edible vegetable in East Asia for thousands of years. The present research was aimed to explore the physicochemical, nutritional and microbiological safety of lotus root fermented sugar syrup as a fermented food supplement or condiment for human health benefits. In this study, the physicochemical, nutritional and microbiological safety properties of lotus root syrup fermented with 57° Brix brown sugar at different time periods until 6 months (180 days) was investigated. There was a significant improvement as compared to 57° Brix brown sugar broth (as a control) in the total acceptability and physicochemical properties of lotus root sugar syrup samples such as pH and color improvement. The red color values of 180 days lotus root fermented sugar syrup samples were significantly enhanced (6.85 ± 0.58) when compared with the control (0.20 ± 0.15). In addition, the total protein content was increased from 8.27 ± 0.86 to 392.33 ± 7.19 μg/mL, along with the increase in fermentation time reaching to the level of consumption acceptability. All the lotus root fermented sugar syrup samples were subjected to microbiological analysis. It was found that the coliform, Bacillus cereus , Escherichia coli , Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus counts were not detected in majority of the samples, confirming the high degree of hygiene processing of lotus root fermented sugar syrup samples for its use as a food supplement or condiment.

  14. Uso de açúcares em produtos panificados Sugar effect on bakery products

    Mauricio Sergio Esteller

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pão é um produto popular consumido na forma de lanches ou com refeições e apreciado devido a sua aparência, aroma, sabor, preço e disponibilidade. Depois de produzidos, os pães sofrem transformações que levam rapidamente à perda de crocância e ao endurecimento. Este processo tem impacto econômico grande, obrigando os produtores a trabalharem com data de validade curta, promoções, retorno de produtos não comercializados e aumento nos custos de produção e distribuição. A maioria dos produtos panificados apresenta algum tipo de açúcar que, além do enriquecimento calórico, funciona como melhorador de sabor, cor, plasticidade, conservação e auxiliar na fermentação. Neste estudo utilizou-se formulação padronizada, substituindo-se a sacarose da formulação inicial por outros açúcares (frutose líquida e cristalina, dextrose anidra, mel e açúcar invertido, mantendo-se o teor de sólidos totais e o de água. O tempo e a temperatura de assamento foram fixados em 8min e 225ºC. Foram elaboradas análises de textura (dureza, umidade, volume, sensorial e vida-de-prateleira. Os resultados mostraram que a utilização de açúcares com características umectantes, se utilizados em quantidade adequada à formulação, podem melhorar a maciez e prolongar a vida-de-prateleira dos pães.Bread is a popular product consumed as a sandwich or during mealtime and appreciated by its appearance, flavor, taste, price and availability. After its production take place changes that leads to loss of crust crispness and increase of crumb firmness. Staling has a significant economic impact that lead the manufacturers to reduce the shelf-life, increase store discounts, production and distribution costs. The majority of bakery products contain some type of sugar which as font of energy improve flavor, color, softness, conservation and fermentation aid. A control bread formula was used changing sucrose from the original formula to different

  15. Perspective: Total, Added, or Free? What Kind of Sugars Should We Be Talking About?

    Mela, David J; Woolner, Elizabeth M

    2018-03-01

    There is consistent public guidance to limit sugars intakes. However, WHO recommendations are for "free" sugars, whereas some other guidance documents and public discussion focus on "added" sugars, and globally most food labeling states "total" sugars. Total sugars comprise all mono- and disaccharides, regardless of source, whereas both added and free sugars exclude the sugars that naturally occur in dairy products and intact fruit and vegetables. Definitions of added and free sugars differ mainly in their respective exclusion or inclusion of sugars in juiced or pureed fruit and vegetables. To date, there has been little evidence-based analysis of the scientific basis for these different sugar classifications or implications of their adoption for consumer communication and nutrition labeling. Evidence of discriminating relations of total compared with added or free sugars with weight gain or energy intake, type 2 diabetes, and dental caries was identified from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The relations were weakest for total sugars and most consistent for dietary sources corresponding to free sugars (including sugars added to and in fruit juices). Consideration of these health outcomes suggests that the emphasis for intake monitoring, public health guidance, and consumer communication should be on free sugars. However, at present, the adoption of free sugars for these purposes would also carry challenges related to implementation, including consumer understanding, consensus on specifications, and current (labeling) regulations.

  16. Perspective: Total, Added, or Free? What Kind of Sugars Should We Be Talking About?

    Mela, David J; Woolner, Elizabeth M

    2018-01-01

    Abstract There is consistent public guidance to limit sugars intakes. However, WHO recommendations are for “free” sugars, whereas some other guidance documents and public discussion focus on “added” sugars, and globally most food labeling states “total” sugars. Total sugars comprise all mono- and disaccharides, regardless of source, whereas both added and free sugars exclude the sugars that naturally occur in dairy products and intact fruit and vegetables. Definitions of added and free sugars differ mainly in their respective exclusion or inclusion of sugars in juiced or pureed fruit and vegetables. To date, there has been little evidence-based analysis of the scientific basis for these different sugar classifications or implications of their adoption for consumer communication and nutrition labeling. Evidence of discriminating relations of total compared with added or free sugars with weight gain or energy intake, type 2 diabetes, and dental caries was identified from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The relations were weakest for total sugars and most consistent for dietary sources corresponding to free sugars (including sugars added to and in fruit juices). Consideration of these health outcomes suggests that the emphasis for intake monitoring, public health guidance, and consumer communication should be on free sugars. However, at present, the adoption of free sugars for these purposes would also carry challenges related to implementation, including consumer understanding, consensus on specifications, and current (labeling) regulations. PMID:29659689

  17. Mismatch between Probiotic Benefits in Trials versus Food Products

    Scourboutakos, Mary J.; Franco-Arellano, Beatriz; Murphy, Sarah A.; Norsen, Sheida; Comelli, Elena M.; L?Abb?, Mary R.

    2017-01-01

    Probiotic food products contain a variety of different bacterial strains and may offer different health effects. The objective was to document the prevalence and dosage of probiotic strains in the Canadian food supply and to review the literature investigating these strains in order to understand what health benefits these products may offer. The Food Label Information Program was used to identify probiotic-containing products in the food supply. PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase were search...

  18. HACCP based quality assurance systems for organic food production systems

    Knight, C.; Stanley, R.

    2007-01-01

    HACCP provides an effective, logical and structured means of assuring food safety. Although first used in food manufacturing operations, HACCP can be – and, increasingly is – applied to food production and handling operations at all stages in the food chain. This includes the primary production sector. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how the principles of HACCP can be applied to organic production with special reference to the primary sector.

  19. Continuous fermentation and in-situ reed separation of butyric acid for higher sugar consumption rate and productivity

    Baroi, George Nabin; Skiadas, Ioannis; Westermann, Peter

    that disconnection of the REED system resulted to much lower (48 and 83% for glucose and xylose, respectively) sugars consumption rates and consequently lower butyric acid production rates. It was also noticeable that continuous operation, even without the REED system, resulted to higher glucose consumption rates...

  20. PIEteR : a field specific bio-economic production model for decision support in sugar beet growing

    Smit, A.B.

    1996-01-01


    To support decisions in sugar beet growing, a model, PIEteR, was developed. It simulates growth and production of the crop in a field specific way, making a tailor-made approach in decision taking possible.

    PIEteR is based on causal regression analysis of Dutch data of mostly

  1. Rapid estimation of sugar release from winter wheat straw during bioethanol production using FTIR-photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Bekiaris, Georgios; Lindedam, Jane; Peltre, Clément

    2015-01-01

    Complexity and high cost are the main limitations for high-throughput screening methods for the estimation of the sugar release from plant materials during bioethanol production. In addition, it is important that we improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which different chemical components...... are affecting the degradability of plant material. In this study, Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) was combined with advanced chemometrics to develop calibration models predicting the amount of sugars released after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw during...

  2. Perception v. actual intakes of junk food and sugar-sweetened beverages in Australian young adults: assessed using the mobile food record.

    Harray, Amelia J; Boushey, Carol J; Pollard, Christina M; Panizza, Chloe E; Delp, Edward J; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Kerr, Deborah A

    2017-09-01

    To determine perception v. actual intakes of energy-dense nutrient-poor 'junk food' (JF) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in young adults, using the mobile food record (mFR). Before-and-after eating images using a 4 d mFR were assessed for standardised 600 kJ (143 kcal) servings of JF and SSB (excluding diet drinks). Participants reported their concern about the health aspects of their diet, perceptions and intentions regarding JF and SSB. Perth, Western Australia. Adults (n 246) aged 18-30 years. The mean (sd) intake of JF+SSB was 3·7 (2·0) servings/d. Women thinking about drinking less SSB consumed more SSB servings/d (1·5 (1·2)) than men (0·7 (0·5); P<0·05) who were thinking about drinking less. Men not thinking about cutting down JF consumed more servings/d (4·6 (2·4)) than women (2·5 (0·7); P<0·01) who were not thinking about cutting down. Those who paid a lot of attention to the health aspects of their diet consumed less JF+SSB than those who took only a bit of notice (P<0·001), were not really thinking much about it (P<0·001) or who didn't think at all about the health aspects of food (P<0·01). Perceptions and attitudes regarding JF and SSB were associated with level of consumption. Those not thinking about cutting down their intake of these foods represent an important target group as they consume more than their peers. Further research is needed to identify how amenable young adults are to changing their intake, particularly given the lack of attention paid to the health aspects of their diet.

  3. Opportunities for small-scale biorefinery for production of sugar and ethanol in the Netherlands

    Kolfschoten, R.C.; Bruins, M.E.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Developments such as the Common Agricultural Policy reform, growth of the bio-based economy, increasing energy prices, increasing sustainability demands, and expected growth of global sugar demand change the environment in which the sugar producing industry operates. In order to remain competitive

  4. Soaking assisted thermal pretreatment of cassava peels wastes for fermentable sugar production: Process modelling and optimization

    Aruwajoye, Gabriel S.; Faloye, Funmilayo D.; Kana, Evariste Gueguim

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Soaking Assisted Thermal Pretreatment (SATP) of Cassava Peels’ waste is reported. • Maximum fermentable sugar of 0.93 g/g and 90.90% sugar recovery was achieved. • This technique gave a 31% sugar yield improvement over enzymatic pretreatment. • SEM and FTIR analysis confirms the efficiency of SATP. - Abstract: This study reports a hybrid pretreatment strategy for optimum fermentable sugar (FS) release from cassava peels waste. The Response Surface design method was used to investigate the effect of soaking temperature, soaking duration, autoclave duration, acid concentration and solid loading on reducing sugar yield. The model gave a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of 0.87. The optimum pretreatment conditions of 69.62 °C soaking temperature, 2.57 h soaking duration, 5 min autoclave duration, 3.68 v/v acid concentration and 9.65% w/v solid loading were obtained. Maximum reducing sugar of 89.80 ± 2.87 g/L corresponding to a fermentable sugar yield of 0.93 ± 0.03 g/g cassava peels was achieved upon model validation. A percentage sugar recovery of 90.79% was achieved with a 31% improvement in the FS yield from the enzyme pretreatment. The combined severity factor (CSF) of 0.77 and the low concentration of inhibitory compounds achieved further demonstrates the efficiency of this technique.

  5. Development of an integrated approach for α-pinene recovery and sugar production from loblolly pine using ionic liquids

    Papa, Gabriella; Kirby, James; Murthy Konda, N. V. S. N.

    2017-01-01

    perspective for the production of advanced cellulosic biofuels. To date, there have been very few examples where a single conversion process has enabled recovery of both terpenes and fermentable sugars in an integrated fashion. We have used the ionic liquid (IL), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C2C1Im......][OAc] at 120 °C and 160 °C in conjunction with analytical protocols using GC-MS, to extract α-pinene and simultaneously pretreat the pine to generate high yields of fermentable sugars after saccharification. Compared to solvent extraction, the IL process enabled higher recovery rates for α-pinene, from three...... tissues type of loblolly pine, i.e. pine chips from forest residues (FC), stems from young pine (YW) and lighter wood (LW), while also generating high yields of fermentable sugars following saccharification. We propose that this combined terpene extraction/lignocellulose pretreatment approach may provide...

  6. The use of sugar beet pulp lignin for the production of vanillin.

    Aarabi, Aazam; Mizani, Maryam; Honarvar, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this work is to produce vanillin from sugar beet pulp by lignin oxidation and evaluate the effect of process parameters (temperature, partial pressure of oxygen, reaction time, CuSO 4 as a catalyst) on the yield of vanillin. Purification and separation of vanillin from pressurized extract was carried out by organic solvent and crystallization. HPLC, FT-IR, H NMR, GC/MS and DSC methods were performed to approve the vanillin crystal. Results showed that production of vanillin was significantly affected by four parameters, and an optimal conditions for production of vanillin was found 4.3bar for an oxygen partial pressure under a temperature of 156°C and duration of time 30min without CuSO 4 , corresponding to 1439.3mg/100g vanillin. Thermal property of syntesis vanillin was coincide to DSC pure vanillin curve but there were differences in ΔH° f and ΔH c . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Blending municipal solid waste with corn stover for sugar production using ionic liquid process

    Sun, Ning [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Feng [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Thompson, Vicki S. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cafferty, Kara [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Li, Chenlin [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tanjore, Deepti [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Narani, Akash [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pray, Todd R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Simmons, Blake A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Singh, Seema [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents an attractive cellulosic resource for sustainable fuel production because of its abundance and its low or perhaps negative cost. However, the significant heterogeneity and toxic contaminants are barriers to efficient conversion to ethanol and other products. In this study, we generated MSW paper mix, blended with corn stover (CS), and have shown that both MSW paper mix alone and MSW/CS blends can be efficiently pretreated in certain ionic liquids (ILs) with high yields of fermentable sugars. After pretreatment in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2C1Im][OAc]), over 80% glucose has been released with enzymatic saccharification. We have also applied an enzyme free process by adding mineral acid and water directly into the IL/biomass slurry to induce hydrolysis. With the acidolysis process in the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2C1Im]Cl), up to 80% glucose and 90% xylose are released for MSW. The results indicate the feasibility of incorporating MSW as a robust blending agent for biorefineries.

  8. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE MASS AND ENERGY INTEGRATION IN THE SUGAR PROCESS PRODUCTION AND DERIVATIVE PROCESS

    Dennis Abel Clavelo Sierra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The current society needs now more than ever of industries that create new forms and methods where the saving of energy and materials is a fundamental aspect. For this reason, in the present investigation we present an outline with the considerations for the integration of the processes of sugar and other derived products, in an outline of bio refinery with the objective of achieving efficient processes with an appropriate use of the material resources and an efficient use of the energy, with minimum operation costs and investment. In the outline we take as base for the study, it is considered that the integrated complex has as basic input the sugarcane; it is also considered the variation of the prices of the products in the market. In the article we make an outline with the precise steps for the development of a methodology that allows analyzing the processes involved in the biorefinery outline and in this way to identify the common material and energy resources that the processes exchange. A heuristic diagram is presented that guides the strategy to continue for it.

  9. Effect of Different Sugar Beet Pulp Pretreatments on Biogas Production Efficiency.

    Ziemiński, Krzysztof; Kowalska-Wentel, Monika

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different sugar beet pulp (SBP) pretreatments on biogas yield from anaerobic digestion. SBP was subjected to grinding, thermal-pressure processing, enzymatic hydrolysis, or combination of these pretreatments. It was observed that grinding of SBP to 2.5-mm particles resulted in the cumulative biogas productivity of 617.2 mL/g volatile solids (VS), which was 20.2 % higher compared to the biogas yield from the not pretreated SBP, and comparable to that from not ground, enzymatically hydrolyzed SBP. The highest cumulative biogas productivity, 898.7 mL/g VS, was obtained from the ground, thermal-pressure pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed SBP. The latter pretreatment variant enabled to achieve the highest glucose concentration (24.765 mg/mL) in the enzymatic hydrolysates. The analysis of energy balance showed that the increase in the number of SBP pretreatment operations significantly reduced the gain of electric energy.

  10. CONSUMER BAHAVIOUR REGARDING “LIGHT” FOOD PRODUCTS ON THE ZAGREB MARKET

    MARIJA Cerjak

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The trend of healthy eating and consumers’ awareness of the connection between diet and own health increased the consumption of the food with reduced content of fat and sugar, i.e. “light” products. In order to satisfy consumers’ needs producers of “light” products need to be acquainted with their costumers. The goal of this research was to describe the “light” products consumers in the city of Zagreb and the surrounding area. The results of the research showed that most respondents use “light” products at least occasionally, but they are not well acquainted with the real meaning of the “light” label. Sex, age and consumers’ attitudes about their health, diet and “light” products infl uence their consumption behaviour. The results of this research could be used as a base for the marketing planning of “light” products producers.

  11. An Intergrated Sustainability Assessment of the Swedish Sugar Production System from a Life-Cycle Perspective: 2003-2015

    Barry Ness

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a sustainability assessment of the beet-to-sugar production system in Sweden from 2003 until 2015. It focuses on the life-cycle phases of beet growing, beet transport and sugar processing. Based on the Swedish sustainable development strategy, eight indicators in environmental and socio-economic domains based significantly on EU price and production quota changes are assessed. The study also appraises the autumn wheat-to-flour production system as an alternative scenario to provide a better understanding of the overall impacts on the region of the effects of the EU price and quota changes. The method used is a system analysis (simulation model developed with the software STELLA 9.1. The study is a part of a broader regional sustainability assessment that focuses on the sugar sector in Sweden. Model results of the combined sugar and flour systems show general declines in agricultural landscape diversity and revenues earned in the region with only slight decreases in the number of full-time jobs in the region. Results also reveal decreases in the amount of nutrient runoff, fossil fuel energy use, greenhouse gas releases and field chemical use, with more substantial decreases in biodiversity via the suspension of organic beet growing in the region.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an aqueous...

  13. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  14. Supplement: Why Colour Foods? Colouring Food Products with ...

    Today, the food industry is the kitchen of the world. It has revolutionised nutrition. Never before have standards of purity, stability, and physiological harmlessness been as high as they are today. New raw materials and new methods of refining and preserving, however, often alter the natural appearance of fresh foods.

  15. Food production in developing countries - the role of plant biotechnology

    D. I. Ferreira

    1995-01-01

    The world is facing major problems with regard to food production. Agricultural land suffers from various conditions which make it less efficient for crop production while the rapid population growth, especially in developing countries, raises concern for sustainable food production. The Green Revolution has failed to secure sustainable food production and it is hoped that biotechnology will facilitate the transition to more sustainable agriculture. Excellent progress has been made with b...

  16. Nutritional composition of five food trees species products used in ...

    Nutritional composition of five food trees species products used in human diet during food shortage period in Burkina Faso. Thiombiano Daniabla Natacha Edwige, Parkouda Charles, Lamien Nieyidouba, Sere Aminata, Castro-Euler Ana Margarida, Boussim Issaka Joseph ...

  17. ENGINEERING APPLIED TO FOOD PRODUCTION FORMULATED BY HYDROLYZED BAGASSE. A CASE OF STUDY

    Raúl Costales Sotelo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects of the engineering applied to the production of formulated food by hydrolyzed bagasse are showed, as an alternative in which fibrous component with increased digestibility constitutes 77% of the portion together with molasses at 15.9%, for almost 93% the total foodstuff potentially possible to be provided for a traditional sugar industry. The others ingredients such as urea, salts and minerals are common in animal diet and also in animal health and physiology. Local agriculture can contribute significantly to this program but is not taken into account in this exercise. This alternative, possible and feasible under Cuban economy conditions is magnified by the argument of operating periods of production facilities during and exceed normal sugar mill campaign for animals confinement periods of 180 days or longer, avoiding not only animals mortality but gaining weight at a rate of 500 g/day in a dry season by the input of 12 kg of formulated product per day. We have a first hydrolyzed plant which represents the beginning of an investment program that covers four more replicates, scattered throughout the national territory and it will significantly reduce food deficits needed by cattle as the main element of care, obtained by dual purpose: milk and meat production.

  18. Solid fat and added sugar intake among U.S. children: The role of stores, schools, and fast food, 1994-2010.

    Poti, Jennifer M; Slining, Meghan M; Popkin, Barry M

    2013-11-01

    Little is known about the role of location in U.S. children's excess intake of energy from solid fat and added sugar, collectively referred to as SoFAS. The goal of this study was to compare the SoFAS content of foods consumed by children from stores, schools, and fast-food restaurants and to determine whether trends from 1994 to 2010 differ across these locations. Children aged 2-18 years (N=22,103) from five nationally representative surveys of dietary intake from 1994 to 2010 were studied. SoFAS content was compared across locations for total intake and key foods. Regression models were used to test and compare linear trends across locations. Data were analyzed in 2012. The mean percentage of total energy intake consumed from each location that was provided by SoFAS remained above recommendations, despite significant improvements between 1994 and 2010 at stores (1994, 38.3%; 2004, 33.2%); schools (1994, 38.7%; 2004, 31.2%); and fast-food restaurants (1994, 34.6%; 2004, 34.6%). For each key food, SoFAS content decreased significantly at stores and schools, yet progress at schools was comparatively slower. Milk was higher in SoFAS at schools compared to stores because of shifts toward flavored milk at schools. Schools provided french fries that were higher in solid fat than store-bought versions and pizza that was not significantly different in SoFAS content than fast-food pizza. However, schools made significantly greater progress for sugar-sweetened beverages, as lower-sugar beverages replaced regular sodas. Key fast foods showed little improvement. These findings can inform future strategies targeted to the specific locations and foods where continued progress is needed to reduce children's SoFAS consumption. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  19. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Sugar Beet Pulp with Mixed Bacterial Cultures for Lactic Acid and Propylene Glycol Production

    Joanna Berlowska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Research into fermentative production of lactic acid from agricultural by-products has recently concentrated on the direct conversion of biomass, whereby pure sugars are replaced with inexpensive feedstock in the process of lactic acid production. In our studies, for the first time, the source of carbon used is sugar beet pulp, generated as a by-product of industrial sugar production. In this paper, we focus on the simultaneous saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass and fermentation of lactic acid, using mixed cultures with complementary assimilation profiles. Lactic acid is one of the primary platform chemicals, and can be used to synthesize a wide variety of useful products, including green propylene glycol. A series of controlled batch fermentations was conducted under various conditions, including pretreatment with enzymatic hydrolysis. Inoculation was performed in two sequential stages, to avoid carbon catabolite repression. Biologically-synthesized lactic acid was catalytically reduced to propylene glycol over 5% Ru/C. The highest lactic acid yield was obtained with mixed cultures. The yield of propylene glycol from the biological lactic acid was similar to that obtained with a water solution of pure lactic acid. Our results show that simultaneous saccharification and fermentation enables generation of lactic acid, suitable for further chemical transformations, from agricultural residues.

  20. Pyruvate oxidase influences the sugar utilization pattern and capsule production in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Sandra M Carvalho

    Full Text Available Pyruvate oxidase is a key function in the metabolism and lifestyle of many lactic acid bacteria and its activity depends on the presence of environmental oxygen. In Streptococcus pneumoniae the protein has been suggested to play a major role in metabolism and has been implicated in virulence, oxidative stress survival and death in stationary phase. Under semi-aerobic conditions, transcriptomic and metabolite profiling analysis of a spxB mutant grown on glucose showed minor changes compared to the wild type, apart from the significant induction of two operons involved in carbohydrate uptake and processing. This induction leads to a change in the sugar utilization capabilities of the bacterium, as indicated by the analysis of the growth profiles of the D39 parent and spxB mutant on alternative carbohydrates. Metabolic analysis and growth experiments showed that inactivation of SpxB has no effect on the glucose fermentation pattern, except under aerobic conditions. More importantly, we show that mutation of spxB results in the production of increased amounts of capsule, the major virulence factor of S. pneumoniae. Part of this increase can be attributed to induction of capsule operon (cps transcription. Therefore, we propose that S. pneumoniae utilizes pyruvate oxidase as an indirect sensor of the oxygenation of the environment, resulting in the adaption of its nutritional capability and the amount of capsule to survive in the host.

  1. Techno-economic comparison of biojet fuel production from lignocellulose, vegetable oil and sugar cane juice.

    Diederichs, Gabriel Wilhelm; Ali Mandegari, Mohsen; Farzad, Somayeh; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a techno-economic comparison was performed considering three processes (thermochemical, biochemical and hybrid) for production of jet fuel from lignocellulosic biomass (2G) versus two processes from first generation (1G) feedstocks, including vegetable oil and sugar cane juice. Mass and energy balances were constructed for energy self-sufficient versions of these processes, not utilising any fossil energy sources, using ASPEN Plus® simulations. All of the investigated processes obtained base minimum jet selling prices (MJSP) that is substantially higher than the market jet fuel price (2-4 fold). The 1G process which converts vegetable oil, obtained the lowest MJSPs of $2.22/kg jet fuel while the two most promising 2G processes- the thermochemical (gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) and hybrid (gasification and biochemical upgrading) processes- reached MJSPs of $2.44/kg and $2.50/kg jet fuel, respectively. According to the economic sensitivity analysis, the feedstock cost and fixed capital investment have the most influence on the MJSP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification and characterisation of organisms associated with chocolate pralines and sugar syrups used for their production

    Nielsen, Cecilie Lykke Marvig; Kristiansen, Rikke M.; Madsen, Mikkel G.

    2014-01-01

    Spoilage of chocolate pralines, due to growth of microorganisms tolerating low water activity, causes problems in the confectionary industry. Therefore, an increased knowledge on which organisms are present in the chocolate fillings and their tolerance towards low aw, pH, ethanol and other...... preservatives is needed. Using media containing 40-50% glucose (aw 0.872-0.925) bacteria, yeasts and moulds were isolated from chocolate pralines (aw 0.70-0.898) of nine manufactures and sugar syrups (aw 0.854) used as ingredient in chocolate praline production by one of the manufacturers. Isolates were...... of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus terreus, respectively.Fifteen isolates were screened for their ability to grow in presence of low aw (0.65-0.90), low pH (pH=2.0-7.0), ethanol (0-15%), sorbic acid (0-1500ppm) and different temperatures (15°C-25°C) relevant for chocolate manufacturing. Z...

  3. Pyruvate oxidase influences the sugar utilization pattern and capsule production in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Carvalho, Sandra M; Farshchi Andisi, Vahid; Gradstedt, Henrik; Neef, Jolanda; Kuipers, Oscar P; Neves, Ana R; Bijlsma, Jetta J E

    2013-01-01

    Pyruvate oxidase is a key function in the metabolism and lifestyle of many lactic acid bacteria and its activity depends on the presence of environmental oxygen. In Streptococcus pneumoniae the protein has been suggested to play a major role in metabolism and has been implicated in virulence, oxidative stress survival and death in stationary phase. Under semi-aerobic conditions, transcriptomic and metabolite profiling analysis of a spxB mutant grown on glucose showed minor changes compared to the wild type, apart from the significant induction of two operons involved in carbohydrate uptake and processing. This induction leads to a change in the sugar utilization capabilities of the bacterium, as indicated by the analysis of the growth profiles of the D39 parent and spxB mutant on alternative carbohydrates. Metabolic analysis and growth experiments showed that inactivation of SpxB has no effect on the glucose fermentation pattern, except under aerobic conditions. More importantly, we show that mutation of spxB results in the production of increased amounts of capsule, the major virulence factor of S. pneumoniae. Part of this increase can be attributed to induction of capsule operon (cps) transcription. Therefore, we propose that S. pneumoniae utilizes pyruvate oxidase as an indirect sensor of the oxygenation of the environment, resulting in the adaption of its nutritional capability and the amount of capsule to survive in the host.

  4. A Simple Method To Demonstrate the Enzymatic Production of Hydrogen from Sugar

    Hershlag, Natalie; Hurley, Ian; Woodward, Jonathan

    1998-10-01

    There is current interest in and concern for the development of environmentally friendly bioprocesses whereby biomass and the biodegradable content of municipal wastes can be converted to useful forms of energy. For example, cellulose, a glucose polymer that is the principal component of biomass and paper waste, can be enzymatically degraded to glucose, which can subsequently be converted by fermentation or further enzymatic reaction to fuels such as ethanol or hydrogen. These products represent alternative energy sources to fossil fuels such as oil. Demonstration of the relevant reactions in high-school and undergraduate college laboratories would have value not only in illustrating environmentally friendly biotechnology for the utilization of renewable energy sources, such as cellulosic wastes, but could also be used to teach the principles of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. In the experimental protocol described here, it has been demonstrated that the common sugar glucose can be used to produce hydrogen using two enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase and hydrogenase. No sophisticated or expensive hydrogen detection equipment is required-only a redox dye, benzyl viologen, which turns purple when it is reduced. The color can be detected by a simple colorimeter. Furthermore, it is shown that the renewable resource cellulose, in its soluble derivative from carboxymethylcellulose, as well as aspen-wood waste, is also a source of hydrogen if the enzyme cellulase is included in the reaction mixture.

  5. A co-production of sugars, lignosulfonates, cellulose, and cellulose nanocrystals from ball-milled woods.

    Du, Lanxing; Wang, Jinwu; Zhang, Yang; Qi, Chusheng; Wolcott, Michael P; Yu, Zhiming

    2017-08-01

    This study demonstrated the technical potential for the large-scale co-production of sugars, lignosulfonates, cellulose, and cellulose nanocrystals. Ball-milled woods with two particle sizes were prepared by ball milling for 80min or 120min (BMW 80 , BMW 120 ) and then enzymatically hydrolyzed. 78.3% cellulose conversion of BMW 120 was achieved, which was three times as high as the conversion of BMW 80 . The hydrolyzed residues (HRs) were neutrally sulfonated cooking. 57.72g/L and 88.16g/L lignosulfonate concentration, respectively, were harvested from HR 80 and HR 120 , and 42.6±0.5% lignin were removed. The subsequent solid residuals were purified to produce cellulose and then this material was acid-hydrolyzed to produce cellulose nanocrystals. The BMW 120 maintained smaller particle size and aspect ratio during each step of during the multiple processes, while the average aspect ratio of its cellulose nanocrystals was larger. The crystallinity of both materials increased with each step of wet processing, reaching to 74% for the cellulose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    insecurity existed among households in the study areas based on the recommended average DEC/AE, of 2200 kcal and ... An International Journal of Basic and Applied Research. 41 ... population, for example, eating of less preferred foods.

  7. A Study on Anthropometric Measurements, Blood Pressure, Blood Sugar and Food Intakes Among Different Social Status and Ethnicities

    Jafarirad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Metabolic syndrome is a disorder that increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate some risk factors of the metabolic syndrome and food intakes among people who lived in Ahvaz City, Iran. Methods It was a filed study that was conducted on 211 subjects who participated in health exhibition. Socioeconomic status and ethnicity were asked by a general questionnaire. Weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference (WC and WC to hip circumference ratio (WHR were obtained. Blood sugar was measured by a glucometer. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were obtained and dietary intakes were assessed by a brief instrument. Results There was a significant difference in weight, height, WC, WHR and systolic blood pressure among different jobs. Workers had more intakes of cake and sweets. Arab subjects had more intakes of bread and fishes and Persians more intakes of vegetables. Soda, chocolate and candy were more consumed by Kurd ethnicity. Conclusions Job may be accounted as an important effective socioeconomic factor related to metabolic syndrome risk factors; also different cultures due to different ethnicities may have an influence on lifestyle and dietary intakes.

  8. Food production and environmental hazards in Pakistan

    Idris, M.; Iqbal, M.M.; Shah, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    , fertilizers, agro-chemicals and farm machinery which no doubt have help in increasing agricultural production but have simultaneous exerted telling effect on the environment. The effect of these resources on environment and human health is briefly reviewed below. In addition to this forest and food related hazards one on environment and human health are also discussed. (author)

  9. Hydrogen production from sugar beet juice using an integrated biohydrogen process of dark fermentation and microbial electrolysis cell.

    Dhar, Bipro Ranjan; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Hafez, Hisham; Lee, Hyung-Sool

    2015-12-01

    An integrated dark fermentation and microbial electrochemical cell (MEC) process was evaluated for hydrogen production from sugar beet juice. Different substrate to inoculum (S/X) ratios were tested for dark fermentation, and the maximum hydrogen yield was 13% of initial COD at the S/X ratio of 2 and 4 for dark fermentation. Hydrogen yield was 12% of initial COD in the MEC using fermentation liquid end products as substrate, and butyrate only accumulated in the MEC. The overall hydrogen production from the integrated biohydrogen process was 25% of initial COD (equivalent to 6 mol H2/mol hexoseadded), and the energy recovery from sugar beet juice was 57% using the combined biohydrogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution.

    Huang, Haibo; Singh, Vijay; Qureshi, Nasib

    2015-01-01

    Waste is currently a major problem in the world, both in the developing and the developed countries. Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. This study investigated using food waste to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initial glucose 56.7 g/L) was used to produce 14.2 g/L of ABE with a fermentation productivity and a yield of 0.22 g/L/h and 0.35 g/g, respectively. In a similar fermentation 81 g/L of food waste (containing equivalent glucose of 60.1 g/L) was used as substrate, and the culture produced 18.9 g/L ABE with a high ABE productivity of 0.46 g/L/h and a yield of 0.38 g/g. Fermentation of food waste at higher concentrations (129, 181 and 228 g/L) did not remarkably increase ABE production but resulted in high residual glucose due to the culture butanol inhibition. An integrated vacuum stripping system was designed and applied to recover butanol from the fermentation broth simultaneously to relieve the culture butanol inhibition, thereby allowing the fermentation of food waste at high concentrations. ABE fermentation integrated with vacuum stripping successfully recovered the ABE from the fermentation broth and controlled the ABE concentrations below 10 g/L during fermentation when 129 g/L food waste was used. The ABE productivity with vacuum fermentation was 0.49 g/L/h, which was 109 % higher than the control fermentation (glucose based). More importantly, ABE vacuum recovery and fermentation allowed near-complete utilization of the sugars (~98 %) in the broth. In these studies it was demonstrated that food waste is a superior feedstock for producing butanol using Clostridium beijerinckii. Compared to costly glucose, ABE fermentation of food waste has several advantages including lower feedstock cost, higher productivity, and less residual sugars.

  11. Consumers’ perceptions of HPP and PEF food products

    Andersen, Anne-Mette Sonne; Grunert, Klaus G; Olsen, Nina V.

    2012-01-01

    for their future success. It is up to food producers and food scientists to provide the evidence that will convince consumers that these new technologies are safe to use. Originality/value – This research contributes to the limited knowledge on consumer attitudes towards food products produced by HPP and PEF. From...... consequences with product attributes related to the nutritional value and the taste of the products produced by means of these novel technologies. Also the environmental benefits from processing foods by applying these technologies were seen as highly positive characteristics of the technologies. However, many...... a general perspective, the research expands the body of knowledge on consumer perception of food technologies....

  12. Top of the food chain: Product services in the food industry

    Dixon, Andrew M.; Simon, Matthew

    2001-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the environmental impact of the food industry supply chain and explore the potential for new product-service systems in the food sector, which has not been subject to a great deal of eco-design research. Data from a cross-sector analysis of UK industry, concentrating on the sectors representing the food industry supply chain, is utilised. These sectors are agriculture, food processing, retailing, food services, and kitchen equipment. The analysis combines economic ...

  13. Halal Food : Thai Halal Food Products and International Market

    Ali, Noaman; Wanwang, Alisa

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to examine salient issues in the Halal food business with special focus on entering Thai Halal food products into international market. Market screening plays an important role in entering new market or setting up the business in the foreign country. In this paper we have analyzed the importance of Halal Food for the Muslims and explained the growth of Halal food in French markets. The study focuses attention on the identification of key areas in Halal food export and channel ...

  14. Production of nanoparticles under benign conditions using vitamins, sugars, glutathione and polyphenols from tea and winery

    In continuation of our developmental program for sustainable pathways to nanomaterials, an account of greener preparation of nanoparticles utilizing naturally occurring reagents such as vitamins, sugars, tea extracts, and biodegradable polymers will be presented which reduces or ...

  15. Liquid chromatographic separation of terpenoid pigments in foods and food products.

    Cserháti, T; Forgács, E

    2001-11-30

    The newest achievements in the use of various liquid chromatographic techniques such as adsorption and reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography and HPLC employed for the separation and quantitative determination of terpenoid-based color substances in foods and food products are reviewed. The techniques applied for the analysis of individual pigments and pigments classes are surveyed and critically evaluated. Future trends in the separation and identification of pigments in foods and food products are delineated.

  16. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    2011-08-12

    ... for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the... quantity of the tariff-rate quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar...), the United States maintains tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar...

  17. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    2012-09-17

    ... Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States... quantity of the tariff-rate quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar... imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar. Pursuant to Additional U.S. Note 8 to Chapter 17 of the HTS...

  18. Ensuring safe food: from production to consumption

    Committee to Ensure Safe Food from Production to Consumption, Institute of Medicine and National Research Council

    .... Recent actions taken at the federal, state, and local levels in response to the increase in reported incidences of food borne illnesses point to the need to evaluate the food safety system in the United States...

  19. Relevance of microbial finished product testing in food safety management

    Zwietering, M.H.; Jacxsens, L.; Membre, J.M.; Nauta, M.; Peterz, M.

    2016-01-01

    Management of microbiological food safety is largely based on good design of processes, products and procedures. Finished product testing may be considered as a control measure at the end of the production process. However, testing gives only very limited information on the safety status of a food.

  20. Safety aspects of the production of foods and food ingredients from insects.

    Schlüter, Oliver; Rumpold, Birgit; Holzhauser, Thomas; Roth, Angelika; Vogel, Rudi F; Quasigroch, Walter; Vogel, Stephanie; Heinz, Volker; Jäger, Henry; Bandick, Nils; Kulling, Sabine; Knorr, Dietrich; Steinberg, Pablo; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2017-06-01

    At present, insects are rarely used by the European food industry, but they are a subject of growing interest as an alternative source of raw materials. The risks associated with the use of insects in the production of foods and food ingredients have not been sufficiently investigated. There is a lack of scientifically based knowledge of insect processing to ensure food safety, especially when these processes are carried out on an industrial scale. This review focuses on the safety aspects that need to be considered regarding the fractionation of insects for the production of foods and food ingredients. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Contribuição da cadeia produtiva da cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L. no sabor dos alimentos / Contribution of sugar-cane (Saccharum officinarum L. value chain in food flavour

    Romeu Schvarz Sobrinho

    2010-04-01

    the use of sugar-cane as raw material for production of mono sodium glutamate and in its use by Perdigão Agroindustrial enterprise. Hence, the present article attempts to answer the following question: In which way does the industrialized productsof Perdigão Agroindustrial. enterprise benefit from the sugar-cane value chain and from the mono sodium glutamate? In order reply to this question it was first necessary to answer the following questions: a How did sugar-cane value chain contribute for the production of mono sodium glutamate? b What is the importance of this flavour highlighter in human palatability? From bibliography research on secondary sources, it was possible to identify that the sugar-cane value chain has contributed in food industry providing sugar-cane and molasses as raw material for mono sodium glutamate production. This product, in turn, is used in the industry of ready or semi-ready food like beef, pork and poultry, as well as other frozen and fast food.Key words: mono sodium glutamate; umami flavour; Perdigão Agroindustrial; product innovation.

  2. Maillard reaction products in pet foods

    Rooijen, van C.

    2015-01-01

    Pet dogs and cats around the world are commonly fed processed commercial foods throughout their lives. Often heat treatments are used during the processing of these foods to improve nutrient digestibility, shelf life, and food safety. Processing is known to induce the Maillard reaction, in which

  3. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    2010-10-01

    ... products. (3) Frozen bakery products. (b) All procured frozen processed food products that contain meat... frozen bakery products that ship products in interstate commerce are required to comply with the Federal... products. 870.111-5 Section 870.111-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS...

  4. Flexibility Study of a Liquid Food Production Process

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Applying process engineering simulation method to model the processing of liquid food can provide a way to build a flexible food factory that can efficiently offer a wide range of tailored products in short delivery time. A milk production process, as an example, is simulated using a process...... engineering software to investigate the process operation conditions and flexibility. The established simulation method can be adapted to simulate similar liquid food production processes through suitable modifications....

  5. Product development in the European and overseas food industry

    Balogh, Sandor

    2007-01-01

    In the present study various product development trends in the food industry are reviewed with the main focus on convenience, organic and functional foods. Also highlighted are differences between the U.S. and Europe in terms of consumer habits and food supply trends. Through exploring the reasons behind differences in the extent of product innovation, the author illustrates the different role convenience products have in the US and European markets. Also revealed is the relationship linking ...

  6. Utilization of household food waste for the production of ethanol at high dry material content.

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Kekos, Dimitris; Loizidou, Maria; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2014-01-08

    Environmental issues and shortage of fossil fuels have turned the public interest to the utilization of renewable, environmentally friendly fuels, such as ethanol. In order to minimize the competition between fuels and food production, researchers are focusing their efforts to the utilization of wastes and by-products as raw materials for the production of ethanol. household food wastes are being produced in great quantities in European Union and their handling can be a challenge. Moreover, their disposal can cause severe environmental issues (for example emission of greenhouse gasses). On the other hand, they contain significant amounts of sugars (both soluble and insoluble) and they can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Household food wastes were utilized as raw material for the production of ethanol at high dry material consistencies. A distinct liquefaction/saccharification step has been included to the process, which rapidly reduced the viscosity of the high solid content substrate, resulting in better mixing of the fermenting microorganism. This step had a positive effect in both ethanol production and productivity, leading to a significant increase in both values, which was up to 40.81% and 4.46 fold, respectively. Remaining solids (residue) after fermentation at 45% w/v dry material (which contained also the unhydrolyzed fraction of cellulose), were subjected to a hydrothermal pretreatment in order to be utilized as raw material for a subsequent ethanol fermentation. This led to an increase of 13.16% in the ethanol production levels achieving a final ethanol yield of 107.58 g/kg dry material. In conclusion, the ability of utilizing household food waste for the production of ethanol at elevated dry material content has been demonstrated. A separate liquefaction/saccharification process can increase both ethanol production and productivity. Finally, subsequent fermentation of the remaining solids could lead to an increase of the overall

  7. Nutritional content of food and beverage products in television advertisements seen on children's programming.

    Powell, Lisa M; Schermbeck, Rebecca M; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-12-01

    Given the high rates of childhood obesity, assessing the nutritional content of food and beverage products in television (TV) advertisements to which children are exposed is important. TV ratings data for children 2-5 and 6-11 years of age were used to examine the nutritional content of food and beverage products in advertisements seen by children on all programming and children's programming (≥35% child-audience share). Nutritional content was assessed based on the federal Interagency Working Group (IWG) recommended nutrients to limit (NTL), including saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and sodium. A total of 46.2% of 2- to 5-year-olds' and 43.5% of 6- to 11-year-olds' total exposure to food and beverage TV advertising was for ads seen on children's programming. Among children 2-5 and 6-11 years, respectively, 84.1 and 84.4% of ads seen on all programming and 95.8 and 97.3% seen on children's programming were for products high in NTL, and 97.8 and 98.1% of Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) company-member ads seen on children's programming were for products high in NTL, compared to 80.5 and 89.9% of non-CFBAI product ads. Most food and beverage products in TV ads seen by children do not meet the IWG nutrition recommendations and less than one half of such ads are covered by self-regulation. Products advertised on children's versus general-audience programming and by CFBAI- versus non-CFBAI-member companies are particularly of low nutritional quality, suggesting that self-regulation has not successfully protected children from exposure to advertising for unhealthy foods and that continued monitoring is required.

  8. Nutritional Content of Food and Beverage Products in Television Advertisements Seen on Children's Programming

    Schermbeck, Rebecca M.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Given the high rates of childhood obesity, assessing the nutritional content of food and beverage products in television (TV) advertisements to which children are exposed is important. Methods: TV ratings data for children 2–5 and 6–11 years of age were used to examine the nutritional content of food and beverage products in advertisements seen by children on all programming and children's programming (≥35% child-audience share). Nutritional content was assessed based on the federal Interagency Working Group (IWG) recommended nutrients to limit (NTL), including saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and sodium. Results: A total of 46.2% of 2- to 5-year-olds' and 43.5% of 6- to 11-year-olds' total exposure to food and beverage TV advertising was for ads seen on children's programming. Among children 2–5 and 6–11 years, respectively, 84.1 and 84.4% of ads seen on all programming and 95.8 and 97.3% seen on children's programming were for products high in NTL, and 97.8 and 98.1% of Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) company-member ads seen on children's programming were for products high in NTL, compared to 80.5 and 89.9% of non-CFBAI product ads. Conclusions: Most food and beverage products in TV ads seen by children do not meet the IWG nutrition recommendations and less than one half of such ads are covered by self-regulation. Products advertised on children's versus general-audience programming and by CFBAI- versus non-CFBAI-member companies are particularly of low nutritional quality, suggesting that self-regulation has not successfully protected children from exposure to advertising for unhealthy foods and that continued monitoring is required. PMID:24206260

  9. Progress achieved in restricting the marketing of high-fat, sugary and salty food and beverage products to children

    Kraak, V.; Vandevijvere, S.; Sacks, G.; Brinsden, H.; Hawkes, C.; Barquera, S.; Lobstein, T.; Swinburn, S.

    2016-01-01

    In May 2010, 192 Member States endorsed Resolution WHA63.14 to restrict the marketing of food and non-alcoholic beverage products high in saturated fats, trans fatty acids, free sugars and/or salt to children and adolescents globally. We examined the actions taken between 2010 and early 2016 – by civil society groups, the World Health Organization (WHO) and its regional offices, other United Nations (UN) organizations, philanthropic institutions and transnational industries – to help decrease...

  10. Progress achieved in restricting the marketing of high-fat, sugary and salty food and beverage products to children

    Kraak, Vivica I; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Sacks, Gary; Brinsden, Hannah; Hawkes, Corinna; Barquera, Sim?n; Lobstein, Tim; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2016-01-01

    In May 2010, 192 Member States endorsed Resolution WHA63.14 to restrict the marketing of food and non-alcoholic beverage products high in saturated fats, trans fatty acids, free sugars and/or salt to children and adolescents globally. We examined the actions taken between 2010 and early 2016 - by civil society groups, the World Health Organization (WHO) and its regional offices, other United Nations (UN) organizations, philanthropic institutions and transnational industries - to help decrease...

  11. Food Grade Ehanol Production With Fermentation And Distillation Process Using Stem Sorghum

    Yuliana Setyowati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 10% -12% of sugar in its stem which is the optimum sugar concentration in fermentation process for bioethanol production. Sorghum has a high potential to be developed as a raw material for food-grade ethanol production which can be used to support food-grade ethanol demand in Indonesia through a fermentation process. This research focused on the effect of microorganism varieties in the fermentation process which are mutant Zymomonas mobilis (A3, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis mixture. The Research for purification process are separated into two parts, distillation with steel wool structured packing and dehydration process using molecular sieve and eliminating impurities using activated carbon. The research can be concluded that the best productivity shown in continuous fermentation in the amount of 84.049 (g / L.hr using the mixture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis. The highest percentage of ethanol yield produced in batch fermentation using the mixture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis that is equal to 51.269%. And for the adsorption, the best result shown in continuous fermentation by using Zymomonas Mobilis of 88.374%..

  12. Factors associated with the acceptance of sugar and sugar substitutes by the public.

    Mackay, D A

    1985-09-01

    Acceptance is described in both market and sensory research terminology and recent developments in the fields of applied psychology and physiology are examined for their pertinence to public acceptance of sucrose and its substitutes. Information on the function of sucrose in foods other than beverages is presented with emphasis on salivation as an acceptance factor and attention is drawn to its possible dental significance. Distinctions are made between the sweetening and bulking properties of sucrose and sugar substitutes. Factors having a bearing on the acceptance of sweet foods and the determination of their optimal sugar content are described in detail. While major decreases in sucrose intake in the US resulted from high-fructose corn-sweetener usage in soft drinks, no evidence is yet available to suggest that the use of sugar substitutes of the intense artificial sweetener type has caused any decrease in ordinary sugar consumption. Neither is the consumption of polyols (sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol) high enough in confectionery categories to cause any discernible decrease in sugar usage. The evidence suggests not so much that sugar substitutes may have stopped the growth in sucrose usage, but that new product categories such as diet foods and "sugarless' confections may have been created. These categories were never available to fermentable carbohydrate sweeteners and equivalence in acceptance to sucrose-sweetened products was not an important factor in their growth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de, E-mail: pauladesalles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k{sub 0} method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  14. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de

    2013-01-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k 0 method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  15. Production of bioethanol from fermented sugars of sugarcane bagasse produced by lignocellulolytic enzymes of Exiguobacterium sp. VSG-1.

    Vijayalaxmi, S; Anu Appaiah, K A; Jayalakshmi, S K; Mulimani, V H; Sreeramulu, K

    2013-09-01

    Exiguobacterium sp. VSG-1 was isolated from the soil sample and characterized for the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes. Production of these enzymes by the strain VSG-1 was carried out using steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SCB) and found to secrete cellulase, pectinase, mannanase, xylanase, and tannase. The growth and enzyme production were found to be optimum at pH 9.0 and 37 °C. Upon steam explosion of SCB, the cellulose increased by 42 %, whereas hemicelluloses and lignin decreased by 40 and 62 %, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-exploded SCB yielded 640 g/l of total sugars. Fermentation of sugars produced from pretreated SCB was carried out by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae at pH 5.0 and 30 °C. The alcohol produced was calculated and found to be 62.24 g/l corresponding to 78 % of the theoretical yield of ethanol. Hence, the strain VSG-1 has an industrial importance for the production of fermentable sugars for biofuels.

  16. No Fat, No Sugar, No Salt . . . No Problem? Prevalence of "Low-Content" Nutrient Claims and Their Associations with the Nutritional Profile of Food and Beverage Purchases in the United States.

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Ng, Shu Wen; Xue, Ya; Busey, Emily; Harding, Matthew

    2017-09-01

    Nutrient claims are a commonly used marketing tactic, but the association between claims and nutritional quality of products is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine trends in the proportion of packaged food and beverage purchases with a nutrient claim, whether claims are associated with improved nutritional profile, and whether the proportion of purchases with claims differs by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status. This cross-sectional study examined nutrient claims on more than 80 million food and beverage purchases from a transaction-level database of 40,000 US households from 2008 to 2012. χ 2 Tests were used to examine whether the proportion of purchases with a low/no-content claim changed over time or differed by race/ethnicity or household socioeconomic status. Pooled transactions were examined using t-tests to compare products' nutritional profiles overall and by food and beverage group. Thirteen percent of food and 35% of beverage purchases had a low-content claim. Prevalence of claims among purchases did not change over time. Low-fat claims were most prevalent for both foods and beverages (10% and 19%, respectively), followed by low-calorie (3% and 9%), low-sugar (2% and 8%), and low-sodium (2% for both) claims. Compared to purchases with no claim, purchases with any low-content claim had lower mean energy, total sugar, total fat, and sodium densities. However, the association between particular claim types and specific nutrient densities varied substantially, and purchases featuring a given low-content claim did not necessarily offer better overall nutritional profiles or better profiles for the claimed nutrient, relative to products without claims. In addition, there was substantial heterogeneity in associations between claims and nutrient densities within food and beverage groups. Variations in nutrient density by claim type and food and beverage group suggests that claims may have differential utility for certain foods or nutrients

  17. The relative reinforcing value of snack foods in response to consumption of sugar- or non-nutritive-sweetened beverages

    The effects of sugar and non-nutritive sweetener on regulation of appetite and energy intake remain controversial. Using a behavioral economic choice paradigm, we sought to determine the effects of consuming a sugar-sweetened (S) or a non-nutritive sweetened (NNS) beverage on appetite and the relati...

  18. Study of the production of ethanol from sugar beets for use as a motor fuel. Final report, February 1, 1980-April 30, 1981

    Baird, H W

    1981-04-27

    This study was performed to assess the feasibility of producing fuel ethanol from sugar beets. Sugar beets are a major agricultural crop in the area and the beet sugar industry is a major employer. There have been some indications that increasing competition from imported sugar and fructose sugar produced from corn may lead to lower average sugar prices than have prevailed in the past. Fuel ethanol might provide an attractive alternative market for beets and ethanol production would continue to provide an industrial base for labor. Ethanol production from beets would utilize much of the same field and plant equipment as is now used for sugar. It is logical to examine the modification of an existing sugar plant from producing sugar to ethanol. The decision was made to use Great Western Sugar Company's plant at Mitchell as the example plant. This plant was selected primarily on the basis of its independence from other plants and the availability of relatively nearby beet acreage. The potential feedstocks assessed included sugar beets, corn, hybrid beets, and potatoes. Markets were assessed for ethanol and fermentation by-products saleability. Investment and operating costs were determined for each prospective plant. Plants were evaluated using a discounted cash flow technique to obtain data on full production costs. Environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic aspects of potential facilities were examined. Three consulting engineering firms and 3 engineering-construction firms are considered capable of providing the desired turn-key engineering design and construction services. It was concluded that the project is technically feasible. (DMC)

  19. Relevance of microbial finished product testing in food safety management

    Zwietering, Marcel H.; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Membré, Jeanne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Management of microbiological food safety is largely based on good design of processes, products and procedures. Finished product testing may be considered as a control measure at the end of the production process. However, testing gives only very limited information on the safety status of a food......-active way by implementing an effective food safety management system. For verification activities in a food safety management system, finished product testing may however be useful. For three cases studies; canned food, chocolate and cooked ham, the relevance of testing both of finished products....... If a hazardous organism is found it means something, but absence in a limited number of samples is no guarantee of safety of a whole production batch. Finished product testing is often too little and too late. Therefore most attention should be focussed on management and control of the hazards in a more pro...

  20. Systems biology and pathway engineering enable Saccharomyces cerevisiae to utilize C-5 and C-6 sugars simultaneously for cellulosic ethanol production

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a traditional industrial workhorse for ethanol production. However, conventional ethanologenic yeast is superior in fermentation of hexose sugars (C-6) such as glucose but unable to utilize pentose sugars (C-5) such as xylose richly embedded in lignocellulosic biomass. In...