WorldWideScience

Sample records for food preservatives artificial

  1. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labots, H.; Huis in 't Veld, G.J.P.; Verrips, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    After a review of several methods for the preservation of food and the routes of food infections, the following chapters are devoted to the preservation by irradiation. Applications and legal aspects of food irradiation are described. Special reference is made to the international situation. (Auth.)

  2. Simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners, preservatives, caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in food and pharmaceutical preparations by ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q C; Wang, J

    2001-12-07

    A novel ion chromatographic method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners (sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K), preservatives (benzoic acid, sorbic acid), caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. The separation was performed on an anion-exchange analytical column operated at 40 degrees C within 45 min by an isocratic elution with 5 mM aqueous NaH2PO4 (pH 8.20) solution containing 4% (v/v) acetonitrile as eluent, and the determination by wavelength-switching ultraviolet absorbance detection. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) for all analytes were below the sub-microg/ml level. Under the experimental conditions, several organic acids, including citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid and ascorbic acid, did not interfere with the determination. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of various food and pharmaceutical preparations, and the average recoveries for real samples ranged from 85 to 104%. The levels of all analytes determined by this method were in good agreement with those obtained by the high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. The results also indicated that ion chromatography would be possibly a beneficial alternative to conventional high-performance liquid chromatography for the separation and determination of these compounds.

  3. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztasiran, I.

    1984-01-01

    Irradiation is a physical process for treating food and as such it is comparable to other processing techniques such as heating or freezing foods for preservation. The energy level used in food irradiation is always below that producing radioactivity in the treated food, hence this aspect can be totally excluded in wholesomeness evaluations. Water is readily ionized and may be the primary source of ionization in foods with secondary effects on other molecules, possibly more a result of water ionization than of direct hits. In the presence of oxygen, highly reactive compounds may be produced, such as H, H 3 0+ and H 2 O 2 . Radiation at the energy flux levels used for food (<2 MeV) does not induce radioactivity. Food irradiation applications are already technically and economically feasible and that food so treated is suitable for consumption. Food irradiation techniques can play an important role for an improved preservation, storage and distribution of food products. (author)

  4. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooij, J. van

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-five years of development work on the preservation of food by irradiation have shown that this technology has the potential to reduce post-harvest losses and to produce safe foods. The technological feasibility has been established but general acceptance of food irradiation by national regulatory bodies and consumers requires attention. The positive aspects of food preservation by irradiation include: the food keeps its freshness and its physical state, agents which cause spoilage (bacteria, etc.) are eliminated, recontamination does not take place, provided packaging materials are impermeable to bacteria and insects. It inhibits sprouting of root crops, kills insects and parasites, inactivates bacteria, spores and moulds, delays ripening of fruit, improves the technological properties of food. It makes foods biologically safe, allows the production of shelf-stable foods and is excellent for quarantine treatment, and generally improves food hygiene. The dose ranges needed for effective treatment are given

  5. Preserving food with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A.C

    1978-01-01

    Food irradiation is becoming an increasingly more important method of food preservataion. The irradiation process and its advangages are briefly described, and its use in the preservation of poultry and various kinds of fruits is discussed. Fruit export is hampered by restrictions due to infestation. Radiation disinfestation will therefore be of great advantage and may lead to a growth in export markets

  6. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, M.

    1978-01-01

    In November, 1977, an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation was held at Wageningen, the Netherlands. About 200 participants attended the Symposium which was organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization; a reflection of the active interest which is being shown in food irradiation processing, particularly among developing countries. The 75 papers presented provided an excellent review of the current status of food irradiation on a wide range of different topics, and the Symposium also afforded the valuable opportunity for informal discussion among the participants and for developing personal contacts. A brief survey of the salient aspects discussed during the course of the meeting are reported on. (orig.) [de

  7. How to preserve foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balek, V.; Vadassova, J.

    1979-01-01

    The use of gamma and fast electron radiations for food preservation is described. Examples are given of the application of ionizing radiation for retarding potato germination, onion growth, and fruit ripening, for limiting the action of microorganisms, and removing salmonella from meat products. The method has remarkable prospects although it may not be considered to be a general-purpose method. Geographic and economic conditions should always be taken into consideration. (J.P.)

  8. Food preservation by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-02-15

    As shortages of food and energy still continue to constitute the major threats to the well-being of the human race, all actions aiming at overcoming these problems must be assigned vital importance. Of the two complementary ways of solving the food problem (i.e., increasing the production of food and decreasing the spoilage of food) a novel method designed to contribute to the latter purpose has been discussed at this symposium hosted by The Netherlands and held under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization. Progress made since the last symposium of this kind (Bombay, India, 1972) was reviewed from the technological, economic and wholesomeness points of view by participants from 39 countries (60% of the latter were of the developing world). From the reports presented on the use of radiations to control physiological changes in plants, feasibility of radiation preservation of potatoes, onions, garlic, as well as of some tropical and subtropical fruits (mangoes, papayas, litchis and avocado) was confirmed. For potatoes, onions and mangoes, optimal conditions of treatment and storage were established on a larger scale, combined with sizeable consumer trials. Combinations of ionizing radiation with chemicals (salycilic acid, for potatoes), and physical agents (ultraviolet rays, for papayas) have been reported to be successful against the incidence of rot. A considerable number of papers dealt with the control of microbiological spoilage of foods. Work since 1972 has shown that radurization of fruits and vegetables (bananas, mangoes, dried dates, endive, chickory, onions, soup-greens), meat, poultry, marine products (mackerel, cod and plaice fillets, shrimps), decontamination of food ingredients and food technology aids (enzyme preparations, proteins, starch, spices), radappertization of meat and animal feedstuffs as well as combination treatments with salt, heat

  9. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    As shortages of food and energy still continue to constitute the major threats to the well-being of the human race, all actions aiming at overcoming these problems must be assigned vital importance. Of the two complementary ways of solving the food problem (i.e., increasing the production of food and decreasing the spoilage of food) a novel method designed to contribute to the latter purpose has been discussed at this symposium hosted by The Netherlands and held under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization. Progress made since the last symposium of this kind (Bombay, India, 1972) was reviewed from the technological, economic and wholesomeness points of view by participants from 39 countries (60% of the latter were of the developing world). From the reports presented on the use of radiations to control physiological changes in plants, feasibility of radiation preservation of potatoes, onions, garlic, as well as of some tropical and subtropical fruits (mangoes, papayas, litchis and avocado) was confirmed. For potatoes, onions and mangoes, optimal conditions of treatment and storage were established on a larger scale, combined with sizeable consumer trials. Combinations of ionizing radiation with chemicals (salycilic acid, for potatoes), and physical agents (ultraviolet rays, for papayas) have been reported to be successful against the incidence of rot. A considerable number of papers dealt with the control of microbiological spoilage of foods. Work since 1972 has shown that radurization of fruits and vegetables (bananas, mangoes, dried dates, endive, chickory, onions, soup-greens), meat, poultry, marine products (mackerel, cod and plaice fillets, shrimps), decontamination of food ingredients and food technology aids (enzyme preparations, proteins, starch, spices), radappertization of meat and animal feedstuffs as well as combination treatments with salt, heat

  10. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  11. Improving food preservation to reduce food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Gronert, Alicja; Bikova, Borislava; Salce, Luca; Nogués, Marc; Batistelli, Patryk; Farid, Yomna

    2014-01-01

    The theme and issue of ‘Improving food preservation to reduce food waste’ is associated with all group members participating in this research project. This topic covers multiple processes including purchasing, preserving, preparing and storing food. The industry of fresh fruits and vegetables is an enormous market, which will not disappear any time soon. Food waste is mostly disregarded as fresh fruits and vegetables are mostly inexpensive. All group members believe that this mindset needs to...

  12. A revolution in food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    A brief consumer guide to food irradiation is presented. Aspects covered include some of the advantages of food irradiation compared to other methods of food preservation, the type of radiation used, the mechanism of action, some practical applications, safety and future benefits. (UK)

  13. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina, M.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of food irradiation is to extend shelf-life of food commodities by delaying fruit ripening, inhibition of vegetable sprouting, desinfestation of grains and seeds, and in general by controlling microbial or parasitic food-transmitted infections. It was stated by the 1980 Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee that food irradiated up to 10 kGy does not pose any human health or nutritional problems. Following this recommendation, irradiation programmes are being developed at a good pace in several countries. It is hoped that commercial drawbacks now existing, such as psychological apprehension of consumers to radiation-treated products and innovative inertia to changes of the food chain, will be removed through appropriate information schemes and legislative advancement. (author)

  14. Food Preservation by Irradiation (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urrows, Grace M.

    1968-01-01

    Up to 30% of food harvests are lost in some parts of the world because of animal pests and microorganisms. Nuclear techniques can help reduce and extend the shelf life of these foods. Around 55 countries now have food irradiation programs. The use of radiation is the most recent step in man's attempts to preserve some of his harvest for the lean part of the year.

  15. ULTRAVIOLET TECHNOLOGY FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes, AMM; Novello, D; Mendes, GMD; Cristianini, M

    2009-01-01

    ULTRAVIOLET TECHNOLOGY FOR FOOD PRESERVATION This literature review article had as objective to gather information about ultraviolet (UV) technology utilization on the food industry, its effects and potential application. Aspects as the origin, concept and applications of the technology on the equipment industry and running mechanisms were approached. The application of UV radiation on food decontamination is still little used due its low penetration, but it is known that it can be easily app...

  16. Preservation of food and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasamatsu, Tomomichi

    1975-01-01

    In the application of radiation to preservation of food, there are some methods; sterilization, elimination of noxious insects, prevention of germination and control of maturation. The former two utilize the lethal effect of radiation to the living things and the latter two utilize the injurious effect on the metabolism of the living things. At present, irradiation to potato is most widely permitted for the purpose of prevention of germination, and the irradiation with 15 Krad (maximum) is allowed to preserve potato for 8 months in Japan. In the other hand, a large quantity of doses, such as 4.5 to 5.6 Mrad, is necessary to sterilize completely for industrial use, degeneration of food component and high cost come into question. In addition, food is directly taken into the mouth of human being, therefore, wholesomeness, legal permission and determination of dose must be examined. (Tsukamoto, Y.)

  17. New method of preserving food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrard, G. (Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights)

    1983-07-01

    The use of gamma radiation for food preservation is discussed. Investigations at the AAEC include: the eradication of fruit-fly larvae in oranges, tomatoes and avocadoes; treatment of shrimps; extending the shelf life of mushrooms and potatoes; treatment of imported beans to prevent germination; killing of bacterial spores with a combination of pressure and gamma radiation; and the treatment of beehives containing honey-bee larvae with foulbrood.

  18. New method of preserving food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrard, G.

    1983-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation for food preservation is discussed. Investigations at the AAEC include: the eradication of fruit-fly larvae in oranges, tomatoes and avocadoes; treatment of shrimps; extending the shelf life of mushrooms and potatoes; treatment of imported beans to prevent germination; killing of bacterial spores with a combination of pressure and gamma radiation; and the treatment of beehives containing honey-bee larvae with foulbrood

  19. 21 CFR 150.161 - Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams. 150.161 Section 150.161 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... karaya, gum tragacanth, algin (sodium alginate), sodium carboxymethylcellulose (cellulose gum...

  20. Radiation preservation of cooked foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurangzeb; Bibi, N.; Badshah, A.; Khan, I.

    1989-01-01

    The preservation of irradiated cooked food has been explained in this report under vacuum conditions. The samples were irradiated at dose levels of 7.5 and 10.0 LGy. Measurement of fungal count was carried immediately after irradiation and after each 15 days of storage life upto 60 days of time interval. The samples were evaluated organolepticaly as well. It has been observed that no significance difference was observed among samples of irradiated and vacuum packed controls during storage for 45 days. (A.B.)

  1. Irradiation's potential for preserving food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The first experimental studies on the use of ionizing radiation for the preservation of foods were published over thirty years ago (1, 2) . After a period of high expectations and perhaps exaggerated optimism a series of disappointments occurred in the late '60s .The first company specifically created to operate a food irradiation plant, Newfield Products Inc, ran into financial difficulties and had to close its potato irradiation facility in 1966. The irradiator, designed to process 15,000t of potatoes per month for inhibition of sprouting, was in operation during one season only. In 1968 the US Food an Drug Administration refused approval for radiation-sterilisation of ham and withdrew the approval it had granted in 1963 for irradiated bacon. An International Project on the Irradiation of Fruit and Fruit juices, created in 1965 at Seibersdorf, Austria, with the collaboration or 9 countries, ended with general disappointment after three years. The first commercial grain irradiator, built in the Turkish harbour town of Iskenderun by the International Atomic Energy Agency with funds from the United Nations Development Program, never received the necessary operating licence from the Turkish Government and had to be dismantled in 1968. The US Atomic Energy Commission terminated its financial support to all research programmes on food irradiation in 1970. For a number of years, little chance seemed to remain that the new process would ever be practically used. However, research and development work was continued in a number of laboratories all over the world, and it appears that the temporary setbacks now have been overcome. Growing quantities of irradiated foods are being marketed in several countries and indications are that irradiated foods will eventually be as generally accepted as are frozen, dried or heatsterilised foods

  2. Food preservation by ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    The process of food preservation by ionising radiation is an alternative, or a complement, to the traditional methods of heating, refrigerating, freezing or using chemical additives. The study and development of this technique has started on the beginning of the fifties but it is based on the radiation killing effect on micro-organisms discovered by the end of last century. Foodstuffs are treated in appropriate plants: isotopic facilities (gamma radiation) and accelerated electron beams produced by machines called accelerators. The FAO and WHO in close cooperation with the IAEA have played an important role on the development of the process and on the increment of the industrial application of food irradiation. Over the world there are about 37 countries trading foods treated by ionising radiation. However, governments have been slow to clear the utilization of this process. The main reason of this attitude is in general due to the fact that the advantages of the technique are not clearly understood. Therefore, the dissemination of the information could on one hand clarify who has to take decisions and on the other hand support the choice of those foods by the consumers. This is the unique way to dynamize the application of this process

  3. SMART PACKAGING FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodríguez-Sauceda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of the food industry is the preservation of its products, that is, to prevent them from being attacked by microorganisms that decompose them hauling economic losses and severe health damage to the consumer. Today, competition in the food industry is very high and any company that does not offer the quality products is doomed to fail. Consumers demand more and the industry still stands offering what is asked: quality, security and safety. The package, in addition to fulfilling its core functions is becoming a means of sophisticated interactions with content and a record of relevant information for both the end consumer and intermediate players in the value chain and concepts are born of active and intelligent packaging. A smart container is defined as a system that monitors the condition of the packaged product, being able to register and provide information about product quality or condition of the container, showing the possible "abnormal" practices that have suffered the product or the container during the entire supply chain, such as transportation or storage. These systems monitor the mechanisms of altered food due to physiological, chemical and biological processes that respond and communicate changes in the status of the product as time-temperature, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, microbial growth, etc. There are different types of smart packaging such as time-temperature indicators, color indicators, indicators of pathogens and indicators of leaks, to name a few. Through literature review, arguments that demonstrate the usefulness and necessity of the use of smart packaging to preserve the quality and safety of the product it contains, from manufacturing to the time it is used by consumers were found, as these besides communicating or providing information about their state, acting as a marketing tool.

  4. Home Food Preservation Training for Extension Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goard, Linnette Mizer; Hill, Melinda; Shumaker, Katharine; Warrix, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    During times of economic downturn, there has been an increased interest in home food preservation. As the primary resource for current research-based recommendations, a team of Extension Family and Consumer Sciences educators with specialization in food safety and food preservation responded to this demand by developing a standardized food…

  5. Preservation of food products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGivney, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    The use of irradiation to preserve food has the potential to significantly enhance our capacity to maximize the quality and quantity of the food we consume. In a world in which distribution of food occurs across continents and in which malnourished populations are in dire need of basic food products, any safe, effective, and efficient means of preserving food is more than welcome. Irradiation, as a method for food preservation, has been studied for more than 30 years. This discussion focuses on this most recent method for the preservation of food with particular emphasis on its effects on the safety, nutritive, and aesthetic values of the food preserved by irradiation. The use of ionizing radiation as a method to preserve foods is one that has been demonstrated to be effective for a variety of food classes. Irradiation offers a means to decontaminate, disinfest, and retard the spoilage of the food supply. At the same time, it appears that the wholesomeness of these food products is maintained. Nutritive value can be sustained by use of effective doses of radiation. Concerns over the safety of irradiated food are rooted in questions regarding the potential induction of radioactivity, harmful radiolytic products, and pathogenic radiation-resistant or mutant strains of microorganisms. Research findings have allayed concerns over safety. However, more research is necessary to conclusively resolve these safety issues. Food irradiation is a promising technology that has and will contribute to our ability to feed the people of this world. This technology is but one of many available ways to preserve our greatest natural resource, the food supply. Enhancement of the ability to preserve food by irradiation will facilitate the distribution of food from fertile developed regions to the malnourished peoples of underdeveloped countries. 21 references

  6. Microbial control and food Preservation: Theory and practice:Principles of food preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food preservation is an action or method used to maintain foods at certain desirable properties or quality to obtain maximum benefit. A good method of food preservation is one that slows down or prevents altogether the action of the agents of spoilage without damaging the food. To achieve this, cert...

  7. teaching food production and preservation using constructivist

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    teaching methods where students are actively involved in thinking and creating ... KEYWORDS: food production, food preservation Biology, 5Es constructivist model, self-reliance ... shelf live. The world's population is growing every day but food production which is the basic ... life matters so as to be self-reliant citizens of this.

  8. Preserving food the radiation way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pim, L.

    1983-01-01

    The food irradiation issue was brought to the public's attention in the summer of 1983 when the Canadian federal government announced proposals to introduce regulations that would speed up the introduction of irradiated food for commercial use and resolve questions about the labelling of such food. The article covers the political forces involved as well as the problems involved in the irradiation process. These problems include chemical toxicity, nutritional quality, bacterial problems and the foods that are unsuitable for irradiation

  9. Artificial senses for characterization of food quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yan-bo; LAN Yu-bin; R.E. Lacey

    2004-01-01

    Food quality is of primary concern in the food industry and to the consumer. Systems that mimic human senses have been developed and applied to the characterization of food quality. The five primary senses are: vision, hearing, smell, taste and touch.In the characterization of food quality, people assess the samples sensorially and differentiate "good" from "bad" on a continuum.However, the human sensory system is subjective, with mental and physical inconsistencies, and needs time to work. Artificial senses such as machine vision, the electronic ear, electronic nose, electronic tongue, artificial mouth and even artificial the head have been developed that mimic the human senses. These artificial senses are coordinated individually or collectively by a pattern recognition technique, typically artificial neural networks, which have been developed based on studies of the mechanism of the human brain. Such a structure has been used to formulate methods for rapid characterization of food quality. This research presents and discusses individual artificial sensing systems. With the concept of multi-sensor data fusion these sensor systems can work collectively in some way. Two such fused systems, artificial mouth and artificial head, are described and discussed. It indicates that each of the individual systems has their own artificially sensing ability to differentiate food samples. It further indicates that with a more complete mimic of human intelligence the fused systems are more powerful than the individual systems in differentiation of food samples.

  10. The impact of food preservation on food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Wayne; Schiebel, Walter

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the relationship between food preservation and reducing consumer waste is of value in developing sustainable meal options. The research reports insights into Austrian marketplace for frozen and fresh foods that have been obtained from a consumer survey. The consumer survey methodologies indicate how preservation can change meal planning and lower food waste across frozen and fresh and ambient food purchases using freezing preservation methods. The results show food waste can be reduced by six-fold when frozen foods are compared with fresh foods. This study highlights the requirement for a greater understanding of the probability that specific foods will be wasted with respect to the frequency of purchase. This is a limitation of the current study that has been investigated by other researchers. This research has enabled the identification of different food waste amounts for different food product categories. The data presented could be used to guide food product development so that less consumer waste is produced. The research suggests a decision matrix approach can be used to can guide new product development and a model of this matrix is presented so that it may provide fit-for-purpose food preservation options for consumers. This paper will continue to highlight the overlooked value of food preservation during processing and manufacturing of foods and their preparation in households.

  11. PENGGUNAAN PENGAWET DAN PEMANIS BUATAN PADA PANGAN JAJANAN ANAK SEKOLAH (PJAS DI WILAYAH KABUPATEN KULON PROGO-DIY (The Use of Preservatives and Artificial Sweeteners in Elementary School-Food in Kulon Progo District of DIY Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatarina Wariyah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available School-food (SF is processed-foods sold by vendor in the elementary school. Recently, many SF has been found to contain excessive food additives and used hazardous substances those are prohibited i.e. formalin, boric acid and rhodamin. The prebious survey showed that the considerations for buying food of most people in Kulon Progo District of DIY province were price, taste, appearance, and were not of the quality and nutrition. The purpose of this research was to determine the SF profile in Kulon Progo District, especially those used excessive food additive (preservative and artificial sweetener, SF with hazardous substances, and the relation between SF condition and the education level of the vendor. The sampling method used Proportionate Random Sampling consists of two stages, namely: 1 sampling to determine the sub-district samples and 2 sampling to determine the amount of the elementary-school of each sub-district for SF sampling. The data were collected by direct observation, interview and experimental method. Analysis of sodium benzoat and sorbic acid, saccharin, sodium cyclamate, and unrecommended/hazardous substances were conducted in BBPOM Laboratory and BLK of Yoyakarta. The data were statistically analyzed by statistic-descriptive and processed with microsoft excell and SPSS for window version 13 for Spearman correlative test.The research showed that SF at the elementary school in Kulon Progo District indicated to contain excessive food additives and hazardous substances. There were 4% samples containing excessive sodium benzoat, sorbic acid and 8% samples containing excessive artificial sweetener of sodium cyclamate. SF with boric acid was 3% samples (cilok, sosis, kerupuk rambak and with formalin was 1% samples (burjo,cimol. There was a significant correlation between the education level of the SF vendor with knowledge about formalin, boric acid and artificial sweetener. Keywords: School-food, food-additives, unrecommended

  12. The radiation preservation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wet, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    The article reviews research that is being done in the field of food irradiation, especially in South Africa. The nutrition value and wholesomeness of irradiated food are regarded as very important. A list is given of a number of products that have been approved for irradiation in South Africa, as well as a list of products on which research is still in progress. The consumer acceptability and the market for irradiated food are also dealt with

  13. Radioisotopes and food preservation against insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachem Ahmad, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    The book describes how to preserve food from harmful insects by using radioisotopes. It focusses on the impact of ionized radiation on the different stages of insect growth and on its metabolism and immunity. It also discusses the relationship between radiation doses and insect reproduction. It explains the various methods to detect the irradiated foods

  14. Irradiation preservation of food in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, I.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the food irradiation activities in Hungary for preservation purposes. A historical background of this technology is given, and the present practice is outlined. Several food species are presently treated with Co-60 gamma-irradiation for their radurization. (R.P.)

  15. New tool in food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainey, Humphrey.

    1982-01-01

    A review of current trends in the processing of food by irradiation is presented. The history and development, techniques and effects of irradiation are outlined. Applications for New Zealand, in the light of overseas experience and facilities available, are discussed

  16. Recent progress in food preservation by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vas, K [Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy)

    1977-01-01

    The possible use of ionizing radiations in food preservation is discussed. It has been recognized that treatment of foods with ionizing radiations not only serves the purpose of stabilizing them in their original state, but may also enhance the hygienic properties of certain foodstuffs. Several examples conerning improvements in food quality and preservation by irradiation in different countries have been reported. The economic viewpoint and the possibilities for use of irradiated products in international trade are discussed. The development of international cooperation in sharing of research results and information and sharing of costs of wholesomeness testing have been pointed out.

  17. Recent progress in food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vas, K.

    1977-01-01

    The possible use of ionizing radiations in food preservation is discussed. It has been recognized that treatment of foods with ionizing radiations not only serves the purpose of stabilizing them in their original state, but may also enhance the hygienic properties of certain foodstuffs. Several examples conerning improvements in food quality and preservation by irradiation in different countries have been reported. The economic viewpoint and the possibilities for use of irradiated products in international trade are discussed. The development of international cooperation in sharing of research results and information and sharing of costs of wholesomeness testing have been pointed out. (G.C.)

  18. Food preservation using ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, L S; Ahmedna, M; Grodner, R M; Liuzzo, J A; Murano, P S; Murano, E A; Rao, R M; Shane, S; Wilson, P W

    1998-01-01

    Irradiation processing has been researched extensively and is now in use worldwide for many food commodities. Irradiation has been successfully used to reduce pathogenic bacteria, eliminate parasites, decrease postharvest sprouting, and extend the shelf life of fresh perishable foods. Although food irradiation is widely accepted in world food markets, U.S. markets have been slower to accept the idea of irradiated food products. For fruits and vegetables, irradiation is not a cure for shelf life problems; cost and quality problems damage preclude its general use. It appears that the most likely use of irradiation in fruits and vegetables is as an insect control in those commodities for which there is no effective alternative method. For grains such as rice and wheat, irradiation has been used primarily to control insect infestation when insects have been shown to develop resistance to the traditional fumigation methods. Treatment of spices with irradiation doses of 10 kGy has proved to extend shelf life without causing significant changes in sensory or chemical quality. Higher doses that effectively sterilize spices, however, may cause undesirable chemical and sensorial changes. For meat, especially red meat, irradiation is considered a viable alternative in the effort to improve the safety of meat products. With time, the authors believe that economic realities and the technical superiority of irradiation for specific poultry products will lead to public acceptance of the process. Irradiation of seafood products is still being considered for approval by the USFDA, although it is currently used in Asian and European markets, especially for shrimp. It is our belief that scientifically based research in food irradiation and the positive results thereof will also prove economical in the twenty-first century. As we move to a more peaceful world with reduced threat of nuclear holocaust, these valid opinions will prevail and will overshadow the distortions and

  19. Establishment of a world food preservation center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Charles L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A World Food Preservation Center (WFPC is proposed in response to a pending civilization-threatening food shortage and our limited ability to adequately increase food production. Some estimates put losses of food in developing countries after it is produced and before it is consumed at 50%. These losses are particularly threatening to individuals and farmers who are living in the midst of food insecurity. Although numerous organizations have attempted to address this problem worldwide, the magnitude of the effort has not come close to the enormity of the problem. Most of these programs are also short-term and require continuous input by postharvest specialists from developed countries in order to be sustainable. A critical need exists for a substantial and sustainable worldwide program that can significantly reduce losses and waste of food in developing countries. The World Food Preservation Center proposed here meets this need by educating young scientists in developing countries about low-input, appropriate technologies for preserving food postharvest. It also conducts research on postharvest technologies especially suited for application in developing countries such as biological control, solar refrigeration, and coordinated transport and marketing schemes that support and sustain the local production of food commodities.

  20. Radiation in response to food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharti, Navaldey; Ram, R.B.; Gautam, Shreesh Kumar; Kumar, Vikas; Singh, Abhishek

    2012-01-01

    Preservation of food items is a pre-requisite for food security. The seasonal nature of production, perishable nature of food materials (fruits, vegetables and other value added products) and the rising gap between demand and supply have posed great challenges to conventional techniques of food preservation and thereby to food security. Food irradiation, one of the beneficial applications of atomic energy, is an important innovation in food preservation, since the development of canning in the 19th century. It provides an effective alternative to fumigants, which are being phased out owing to their adverse effects on the environment and human health. Moreover, exposure of food material to radiation has strong advantages over conventional methods of preservation such as cold storage, fumigation, salting and drying because it does not lead to loss of taste, texture, flavour, odour etc. or overall quality attributes. Generally, two types of radiations are used i.e., ionizing and non-ionizing. Since radiation does not generate heat, it is termed 'cold sterilization'. Gamma rays, E-beam and X-rays are used for irradiation. Irradiation under approved conditions has been demonstrated to have no dangerous effects on food, either chemical or microbial in nature and does not cause any significant loss of macronutrients. Proteins, fats and carbohydrates undergo little change in nutritional value during irradiation even with doses over 10 kGy, though there may be sensory changes. Similarly, the essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, minerals and trace elements are also unaffected. There can be a decrease in certain vitamins (particularly thiamin) but these are of the same order of magnitude as occurs in other manufacturing processes such as drying/dehydration or canning (thermal sterilization). So, there is urgent need to exploit the benefits of irradiation involve standardization, communication and education. The potential benefits of irradiation technology have been

  1. Semen preservation and artificial insemination in domesticated South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, P Walter; Alarcon, V; Baca, L; Cuba, Y; Ordoñez, C; Salinas, J; Tito, F

    2013-01-10

    Semen preservation and artificial insemination in South American camelids are reviewed giving emphasis to work done in Peru and by the authors. Reports on semen evaluation and the preservation process indicate that semen of alpacas and llamas can be manipulated by making it liquid first. Collagenase appears to be the best enzyme to eliminate viscosity. Tris buffer solution maintains a higher motility than egg-yolk citrate, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), Triladyl, and Merck-I extenders. Cooling of semen took 1h after collected, and equilibrated with 7% glycerol presented a better motility and spermatozoa survival at 1, 7, 15 and 30days after being slowly frozen in 0.25mL plastic straws. Trials of artificial insemination with freshly diluted semen and frozen-thawed semen are encouraging and needs to be tested extensively under field conditions. Recently, fertility rates varied from 3 to 67%. Semen preservation and most important, artificial insemination appear to be a reality, and could be used to improve the genetic quality of alpacas and llamas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The potential of food preservation to reduce food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Wayne

    2017-02-01

    While we state it seems unthinkable to throw away nearly a third of the food we produce, we still continue to overlook that we are all very much part of this problem because we all consume meals. The amount of food wasted clearly has an impact on our view of what we think a sustainable meal is and our research suggests food waste is a universal function that can help us determine the sustainability of diets. Achieving sustainability in food systems depends on the utilisation of both culinary skills and knowledge of how foods make meals. These are overlooked by the current food waste debate that is concerned with communicating the problem with food waste rather than solutions to it. We aim to change this oversight with the research presented here that demonstrates the need to consider the role of food preservation to reduce food waste and the requirement for new marketing terms associated with sustainability actions that can be used to stimulate changes in consumption behaviours. We have chosen frozen food to demonstrate this because our research has shown that the use of frozen foods results in 47 % less household food waste than fresh food categories. This has created a step-change in how we view food consumption and has stimulated consumer movements that act across different products and supply chains to enable the consumption of the sustainable meal.

  3. Irradiation technique useful in food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaprakas, C.A.; Palaniswarmi, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    Application of innovative technologies to promote the production of food is indispensable to meet the demand of emerging populations. It is equally important to protect the stored products from the invasion of pests and diseases. Indiscriminate use of insecticides has now been highly discouraged, as it causes health and environmental hazards. In causes health and environmental hazards. In this juncture, an alternate method to curb the menace of pests and diseases is imperative. Irradiation technique, a gift of nuclear physics, which has been identified as an eco-friendly method to preserve food materials for long term, is now been getting wider acceptance

  4. Food irradiation: a question of preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurray, C.H.; Patterson, M.F.; Stewart, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    Although it has been around for years, food irradiation has yet to make its mark in the commercial world, but scientific evidence may now be on its side Food poisoning is not a pleasant experience, and severe cases can even be fatal. Stopping your dinner from turning into a gastronomic nightmare calls for good hygiene and careful storage. Unfortunately, food does not stay fresh - bread goes stale, milk goes sour - so finding ways to prevent deterioration and control infection by microorganisms has occupied man for centuries. Controls, such as refrigeration or pasteurisation, have become commonplace, but one technique remains somewhat controversial. Food irradiation - using ionising radiation to preserve food - has been around for over 60 years and can offer a number of potential benefits. Until recently, however, concerns about the safety of this technique have left it languishing in the laboratory. But now, with approvals for use on various foodstuffs in 40 countries, and reports from groups such as the World Health Organization acknowledging it as safe,[1,2] food irradiation may at last be ready to take centre stage

  5. Functional Dehydrated Foods for Health Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. S. C. Morais

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The market of functional foods has experienced a huge growth in the last decades due to the increased consumers’ awareness in a healthy lifestyle. Dried fruits constitute good snacks, in alternative to salty or sweet ones, and food ingredients due to their taste and nutritional/health benefits. Bioactive molecules are interesting sources to develop functional foods, as they play a major role in improving the health status and minimizing disease risks. The bioactive compounds most widely discussed in literature are presented in this review, for example, polyphenols, phytosterols, and prebiotics. Different technologies to dry bioproducts for producing functional foods or ingredients are presented. New drying techniques for the preservation of bioactive compounds are proposed, focusing more specifically on dielectric drying. A discussion on the techniques that can be used to optimize drying processes is performed. An overview on dehydrated plant based foods with probiotics is provided. The microorganisms used, impregnation procedures, drying methods, and evaluated parameters are presented and discussed. The principal bioactive compounds responsible for nutritional and health benefits of plant derived dried food products—fruits and vegetables, fruits and vegetables by-products, grains, nuts, and algae—are presented. Phytochemical losses occurring during pretreatments and/or drying processes are also discussed.

  6. Artificial radioisotopes in food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnerts, W.T.; Faber, K.; Klijn, N.; Lemmens, C.; Wissink, M.

    1986-01-01

    Use of uranium for nuclear fission involves the risk of environmental contamination by radiation during the processes of mining, concentration, peaceful and military application and storage, reprocessing and waste disposal. Three of the most dangerous radioisotopes have been followed here as they move through four different food chains. The main bottlenecks for fast and massive transfer are for 131 I its rather short half life, for 137 Cs the defective plant uptake from soil (and much less so also the pathway through the animal body), and for 90 Sr its discrimination relative to calcium in several transport processes in the animal body, and its preference for the bone mass. Hence it is often of advantage for man to use animals as an additional food chain. Known exceptions are discussed: the reindeer and karibou living entirely on lichens during the winter and thereby acquiring for 137 Cs nearly identical specific activity as plant food, and cow's milk for iodine during a short period after contamination. 15 refs.; 1 figure; 4 tabs

  7. Natural antioxidant extracts as food preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Sánchez, Norma F; Salas-Coronado, Raúl; Valadez-Blanco, Rogelio; Hernández-Carlos, Beatriz; Guadarrama-Mendoza, Paula C

    2017-01-01

    The food industry is becoming more specialized and processing methods are continuously being developed to meet consumer needs. Consumers demand products that are safe and preferably free of synthetic additives. These additives are associated with health effects, in most cases without reasonable justification. Consequently, consumers are looking for clearly labelled products that guarantee the absence of synthetic additives. This has led to the need to search for natural additives, which the food industry claims arenatural antioxidant preservatives. The sources of natural antioxidants can be extremely varied, because practically all plants contain antioxidants that allow them to protect themselves from solar radiation and pests, as well as to regulate the production of chemical energy. However, the best alternatives for the food industry are fruits and spices, because they are already foods themselves. This article will describe fruits and spices considered as important sources of phenolic antioxidants. The main medicinal properties are related to phenolic compounds and their uses as additives, depending on their chemical structure.

  8. Status, Antimicrobial Mechanism, and Regulation of Natural Preservatives in Livestock Food Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the status, antimicrobial mechanisms, application, and regulation of natural preservatives in livestock food systems. Conventional preservatives are synthetic chemical substances including nitrates/nitrites, sulfites, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, and potassium sorbate. The use of artificial preservatives is being reconsidered because of concerns relating to headache, allergies, and cancer. As the demand for biopreservation in food systems has increased, new natural antimicrobial compounds of various origins are being developed, including plant-derived products (polyphenolics, essential oils, plant antimicrobial peptides (pAMPs)), animal-derived products (lysozymes, lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, ovotransferrin, antimicrobial peptide (AMP), chitosan and others), and microbial metabolites (nisin, natamycin, pullulan, ε-polylysine, organic acid, and others). These natural preservatives act by inhibiting microbial cell walls/membranes, DNA/RNA replication and transcription, protein synthesis, and metabolism. Natural preservatives have been recognized for their safety; however, these substances can influence color, smell, and toxicity in large amounts while being effective as a food preservative. Therefore, to evaluate the safety and toxicity of natural preservatives, various trials including combinations of other substances or different food preservation systems, and capsulation have been performed. Natamycin and nisin are currently the only natural preservatives being regulated, and other natural preservatives will have to be legally regulated before their widespread use.

  9. Food Preservation by Irradiation. Vol. II. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In the task of alleviating the distress caused by the world-wide food shortage it is essential to preserve what has been grown and harvested in the fields. Clearly all suitable methods for preserving agricultural produce and food should be made use of. In this context treatment with ionizing radiation has proved its value as an environmentally clean, physical method of food preservation which is low in its energy requirement, but the volume of food being processed in this way is still low. The introduction of food irradiation on a global basis poses certain economic, legal, regulatory and health-related questions, the solution of which requires close international collaboration. Such collaboration between many international, intergovernmental and national organizations began over a decade ago. The need for dissemination and discussion of information gained through research and development work on this subject became apparent, and a number of inter-regional meetings were held. The last international symposium on the topic was held jointly by FAO and the IAEA in 1972 in Bombay. To review progress made since then, FAO and the IAEA, together with WHO, convened the present Symposium on 21-25 November 1977. It appeared timely to hold this Symposium for the following reasons: (1) Apart from significant scientific work reported in the literature, progress in other directions between 1972 and 1977 had also been made. For example, the number of food items authorized by governments, with or without restriction, had grown from 19 to 26, and the number of countries accepting one or more irradiated foods for human consumption had increased from 11 to 19. (2) Largely on the basis of the work of the International Project in the Field of Food Irradiation (Karlsruhe), already described at the Bombay Symposium, an international expert committee, jointly convened by FAO, the IAEA and WHO in August-September 1976, had made important statements on the philosophy of wholesomeness studies

  10. Food Preservation by Irradiation. Vol. I. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In the task of alleviating the distress caused by the world-wide food shortage it is essential to preserve what has been grown and harvested in the fields. Clearly all suitable methods for preserving agricultural produce and food should be made use of. In this context treatment with ionizing radiation has proved its value as an environmentally clean, physical method o f food preservation which is low in its energy requirement, but the volume of food being processed in this way is still low. The introduction o f food irradiation on a global basis poses certain economic, legal, regulatory and health-related questions, the solution o f which requires close international collaboration. Such collaboration between many international, intergovernmental and national organizations began over a decade ago. The need for dissemination and discussion o f information gained through research and development work on this subject became apparent, and a number of inter-regional meetings were held. The last international symposium on the topic was held jointly by FAO and the IAEA in 1972 in Bombay. To review progress made since then, FAO and the IAEA, together with WHO, convened the present Symposium on 21-25 November 1977. It appeared timely to hold this Symposium for the following reasons: (1) Apart from significant scientific work reported in the literature, progress in other directions between 1972 and 1977 had also been made. For example, the number of food items authorized by governments, with or without restriction, had grown from 19 to 26, and the number of countries accepting one or more irradiated foods for human consumption had increased from 11 to 19. (2) Largely on the basis of the work of the International Project in the Field of Food Irradiation (Karlsruhe), already described at the Bombay Symposium, an international expert committee, jointly convened by FAO, the IAEA and WHO in August-September 1976, had made important statements on the philosophy of wholesomeness

  11. Plants and mushrooms as sources of bio-based food coloring, preserving and bioactive agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2018-01-01

    Food additives have been used for thousands of years to enhance food properties, safety and appearance. Nevertheless, several of the worldwide used artificial additives have been related to potential toxic and allergenic effects to the consumers, which has been justifying the growing interest in additives of natural origin that provide colouring, preserving, and bioactive properties to foodstuff without hazardous effects [1]. In this context, several plants and mushrooms have been...

  12. Food preservation and security at household level in rural Nsukka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, food insecurity at the household level can partly be attributed to poor preservation of post-harvest surpluses. This study sought to demonstrate a relationship (if any) between preservation of post harvest surpluses and food security at rural household level. Eha-Alumona and Opi-Uno, in Nsukka, Enugu State were ...

  13. Influence of volatile compounds and food preservatives in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... suppress fumonisisin B1 production to maximum extent. Camphor at a concentration of 15 mg/ml could inhibit fumonisin B1 production among different food preservatives studied. From the above results it is concluded that volatile compounds and food preservatives can be employed in the management of fumonisins (B1) ...

  14. Utilization of irradiation on food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Han Ok; Byun, Myung Woo; Kwon, Joong Ho; Kim, Suk Won; Yang, Jae Sung; Cha, Bo Sook; Park, Ki Bum

    1987-12-01

    The present project was intended to ascertain the efficacy of irradiation both in the decontamination and storeability of mixed condiments for convenience food and in the long-term preservation of a Kimchi. Based upon the preliminary studies, irradiated sample with doses at 1-3 kGy were evaluated during the storage for 30 days at 10 deg C from the points of view of microbiological (total aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds, and coliforms), physicochemical (pH, total acidity, volatile acid, reducing sugar, ascorbic acid, and texture) and organoleptic qualities. Besides, the combined effect of irradiation with heating on the storeability was investigated for five species of the lactic acid bacteria associated with the Kimchi fermentation. Under the room temperature storage conditions, physicochemical qualities of the irradiated samples were evaluated by determining pH, rancidity (TBA number), proximate composition, amino nitrogen, amino acid, and color changes. In the overall evaluation of sensory quality for the irradiated Kimchi, the nonirradiated control group was inedible after 15 days of storage, whereas 2-3 kGy irradiation could prolong the storage-life of the Kimchi over 2 times compared with the nonirradiated control, showing the good sensory quality even after 30 days of storage. In comparative effects of irradiation and ethylene oxide both treatments affected more or less rancidity, color, and amino acid content, but less than 10 kGy irradiation was shown to be safer than ethylene oxide fumigation. Form the foregoing results, it can be concluded that if a selective method could be applied to the radiation sterilization of minor ingredients capable of mainly contaminating the mixed condiments, even lower doses of irradiation should be effective for the microbial control. (Author)

  15. Technology of food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai has demonstrated that radiation processing of foods can contribute to nations food security by reducing post-harvest losses caused by insect infestation, microbial-spoilage and physiological changes. The technology has commercial potential for the conservation of cereals, pulses and their products, spices, onions, potatoes, garlic, some tropical fruits, sea foods, meat and poultry. Irradiation can ensure hygienic quality in foods including frozen foods by eliminating food borne pathogens and parasitic organisms. It offers a viable environment friendly alternative to chemical fumigants for quarantine treatment against insect pests in agricultural and horticultural products entering international trade. The safety and nutritional adequacy of irradiated foods for human consumption is well established. About 40 countries including India have regulations permitting irradiation of foods and 28 countries are irradiating foods for processing industries and institutional catering

  16. Effect of Hurdle Technology in Food Preservation: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shiv; Shalini, Rachana

    2016-01-01

    Hurdle technology is used in industrialized as well as in developing countries for the gentle but effective preservation of foods. Hurdle technology was developed several years ago as a new concept for the production of safe, stable, nutritious, tasty, and economical foods. Previously hurdle technology, i.e., a combination of preservation methods, was used empirically without much knowledge of the governing principles. The intelligent application of hurdle technology has become more prevalent now, because the principles of major preservative factors for foods (e.g., temperature, pH, aw, Eh, competitive flora), and their interactions, became better known. Recently, the influence of food preservation methods on the physiology and behavior of microorganisms in foods, i.e. their homeostasis, metabolic exhaustion, stress reactions, are taken into account, and the novel concept of multi-target food preservation emerged. The present contribution reviews the concept of the potential hurdles for foods, the hurdle effect, and the hurdle technology for the prospects of the future goal of a multi-target preservation of foods.

  17. Role of vacuum in food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongirwar, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the processing of foods using operations viz. drying, evaporation, distillation, concentration, centrifugation, filtration, irradiation, freeze drying, osmotic drying etc. to get ready to eat food, convenience food, pre cooked dried food. Vacuum technology in direct or indirect way has played a vital role in carrying out these food processing operations. The role of vacuum in getting these processes developed and its use in the development of these high quality products with respect to colour, flavour, texture and other attributes has been highlighted along with process details. (author)

  18. Alternative food-preservation technologies: efficacy and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, Beatrice H; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2002-04-01

    High-pressure processing, ionizing radiation, pulsed electric field and ultraviolet radiation are emerging preservation technologies designed to produce safe food, while maintaining its nutritional and sensory qualities. A sigmoid inactivation pattern is observed in most kinetic studies. Damage to cell membranes, enzymes or DNA is the most commonly cited cause of death of microorganisms by alternative preservation technologies.

  19. Home Food Preservation among Families with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Lorraine J.; Sawicki, Marjorie A.; Elliott, Michael; White, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine preservation practices, perceived barriers, and likelihood of parents with young children to home preserve food in the future. Implications of this research relate to family and consumer sciences professionals who endeavor to improve fruit and vegetable intake and provide resources to families and…

  20. Irradiation pilot plants and experimental facilities available for food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    With the ever-increasing world food crisis mankind has to face today, the prevention of spoilage of perishable food is gaining in momentum. The World Food Conference (Rome, November 1974) of the United Nations clearly recognized the importance of food preservation and urged action in this field. Irradiation is one of the recently discovered methods to preserve food. Its practical introduction largely depends on three main factors: (a) proof of the safety for human consumption of the irradiated product, (b) technological feasibility and (c) economic competitiveness of the process. As data on safety for consumption ('wholesomeness') continue to become available, the number of countries authorizing the irradiation of certain food items is growing (present total: 17 countries), and the same is true for the number of licensed irradiated commodities (total: 23). Under these conditions, testing of the technological and economic feasibility of food irradiation is a matter of increasing importance. Economic feasibility of any industrial operation can only be studied in larger-scale experiments. Thus, they can only be performed with radiation sources larger than those found in laboratories, i.e. in pilot irradiators, capable of handling from a few hundred to a few thousand kilograms of material within a short period of time. The Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture has attempted to collect data on the availability, for food preservation, of suitable irradiators in Member States

  1. Recent advances in the preservation of food by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vas, K.

    1976-01-01

    There are two ways in which the world food problem can be attacked: (1) by increasing food production, that is, growing more food by utilizing agricultural knowledge and material input, and (2) by preserving more of the food that is already being produced by utilizing food science and technology. While both lines of action should be followed, it is logical that preservation should play a key role not only because it would reduce wastage of existing food that is desperately needed by millions of people, but also prevent the wastage of the energy invested in growing food. The preservation of food is, therefore, a vital technology, and studies of both traditional food preservation methods and new techniques should be actively pursued. The irradiation of food, usually by gamma rays from a cobalt-60 source, offers advantages over traditional methods, irradiation not only can delay the processes that lead to the onset of undesirable physiological changes (sprouting, over-ripening), microbial spoilage (rot, mould formation) and damage caused by insects, but also can kill disease-causing organisms that will infect the food if it is left untreated. It is rather surprising to find that after 25 years of extensive studies, practical introduction of food preservation by irradiation has only recently been started in one Member State of the IAEA. The main obstacles are of a psychological nature, but a number of other problems also remains to be solved. Nevertheless, it is clear that many questions have already been settled and significant progress has been made. Some of these developments will be briefly enumerated below. However, it should be noted right at the onset that, like the conventional methods, irradiation also has its limitations and cannot be considered a cure-all for all food problems under all conditions

  2. Methods combined with irradiation for food preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Pinela, José; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, consumers have been looking for safer, higher quality foods, but also more convenient and ready-to-eat. Quality assurance through the elimination of pathogenic microorganisms has been a major concern for the food industry. However, an alarming number of diseases are still caused by different foodborne pathogens, which cause hundreds of deaths.1 Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes are food poisoning microorganisms frequently involved in microbial outb...

  3. Food preservation technologies developed at BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    Food irradiation is important as it is being used to disinfest food grains, pulses, wheat flour, rice, semolina, raisins etc; quarantining and shelf life increasing of fruits like mangoes; microbial decontamination of spices; sprout inhibition of tubers and bulbs; shelf life increasing and pathogen control of meat and fish. Category-IV type irradiators based on gamma rays exposure of food are currently being employed for this purpose. Cobalt-60 isotope is produced in the nuclear reactors. Isotope gives gamma rays as its nucleus is unstable. The gamma rays pass through the food items and inhibit sprouting of tubers and bulbs, kill bacteria, virus and the larvae of insects

  4. Bacteriocins as food preservatives: Challenges and emerging horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eldin Maliyakkal; Jung, Dr Yong-Gyun; Jin, Dr Ying-Yu; Jayabalan, Dr Rasu; Yang, Dr Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo Won

    2017-09-07

    The increasing demand for fresh-like food products and the potential health hazards of chemically preserved and processed food products have led to the advent of alternative technologies for the preservation and maintenance of the freshness of the food products. One such preservation strategy is the usage of bacteriocins or bacteriocins producing starter cultures for the preservation of the intended food matrixes. Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized smaller polypeptide molecules that exert antagonistic activity against closely related and unrelated group of bacteria. This review is aimed at bringing to lime light the various class of bacteriocins mainly from gram positive bacteria. The desirable characteristics of the bacteriocins which earn them a place in food preservation technology, the success story of the same in various food systems, the various challenges and the strategies employed to put them to work efficiently in various food systems has been discussed in this review. From the industrial point of view various aspects like the improvement of the producer strains, downstream processing and purification of the bacteriocins and recent trends in engineered bacteriocins has also been briefly discussed in this review.

  5. Essential Oils: Sources of Antimicrobials and Food Preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhay K.; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, Nijendra N.; Bajpai, Vivek K.

    2017-01-01

    Aromatic and medicinal plants produce essential oils in the form of secondary metabolites. These essential oils can be used in diverse applications in food, perfume, and cosmetic industries. The use of essential oils as antimicrobials and food preservative agents is of concern because of several reported side effects of synthetic oils. Essential oils have the potential to be used as a food preservative for cereals, grains, pulses, fruits, and vegetables. In this review, we briefly describe the results in relevant literature and summarize the uses of essential oils with special emphasis on their antibacterial, bactericidal, antifungal, fungicidal, and food preservative properties. Essential oils have pronounced antimicrobial and food preservative properties because they consist of a variety of active constituents (e.g., terpenes, terpenoids, carotenoids, coumarins, curcumins) that have great significance in the food industry. Thus, the various properties of essential oils offer the possibility of using natural, safe, eco-friendly, cost-effective, renewable, and easily biodegradable antimicrobials for food commodity preservation in the near future. PMID:28138324

  6. Workshop report: The application of technology for food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razley Mohd Nordin

    1985-01-01

    A workshop on the application of ionizing technology for food preservation is reviewed. The major aim of this workshop is to introduce this new technology to the layman and local scientists so as to promote the new treatment in the local food industry

  7. Radiation preservation of food. Efficiency and wholesomeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Lebe, Louis; Raffi, Jacques; Henon, Yves.

    1982-03-01

    This document reviews the applications of ionizing radiations in the food industry. The two first chapters feature the characteristics of the three types of ionizing radiations that can be used (gamma rays from cobalt 60 and caesium 137, X rays, electron beams) and their action on foodstuff and the food spoilage organisms. The third chapter is a review of toxicological studies based on two complementary approaches: animal assays and studies on the radiolysis products. It provides the evidences that lead the international experts to regard irradiated food as safe for human consumption. In the fourth chapter, the problems of identification of irradiated food and the possible controls are exposed. The authors conclude by suggesting the measures that would allow commercial application in France [fr

  8. The activL® Artificial Disc: a next-generation motion-preserving implant for chronic lumbar discogenic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue JJ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available James J Yue,1 Rolando Garcia Jr,2 Larry E Miller3 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 2Orthopedic Care Center, Miami, FL, 3Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc., Asheville, NC, USA Abstract: Degeneration of the lumbar intervertebral discs is a leading cause of chronic low back pain in adults. Treatment options for patients with chronic lumbar discogenic pain unresponsive to conservative management include total disc replacement (TDR or lumbar fusion. Until recently, only two lumbar TDRs had been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration - the Charité Artificial Disc in 2004 and the ProDisc-L Total Disc Replacement in 2006. In June 2015, a next-generation lumbar TDR received Food and Drug Administration approval - the activL® Artificial Disc (Aesculap Implant Systems. Compared to previous-generation lumbar TDRs, the activL® Artificial Disc incorporates specific design enhancements that result in a more precise anatomical match and allow a range of motion that better mimics the healthy spine. The results of mechanical and clinical studies demonstrate that the activL® Artificial Disc results in improved mechanical and clinical outcomes versus earlier-generation artificial discs and compares favorably to lumbar fusion. The purpose of this report is to describe the activL® Artificial Disc including implant characteristics, intended use, surgical technique, postoperative care, mechanical testing, and clinical experience to date. Keywords: activL® Artificial Disc, artificial disc, degenerative disc disease, discogenic, implant, lumbar, motion preservation, pain

  9. Use of nuclear energy to preserve man's food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeeuw, Dick de

    1976-01-01

    Food irradiation is one of these existing technologies. It is a physical method that can be used to preserve food from microbial and insect damage and infection, as well as from physiological deterioration. In other words, this method can extend the storage life of food considerably without noticeable change of the properties of the food commodity. The impact of food irradiation can be very great especially because of its contribution to the hygienization of food. Irradiation eliminates pathogens like Salmonella and other enterobacteria and replaces potential dangerous chemicals like ethylene oxide, methylbromide, maleic hydrazide. Furthermore, irradiation is a very low energy process compared with heating, freezing etc., and saves energy by reducing the frequency of food-transports. To save on energy is becoming very important. Over the past two decades, with our cheap energy and low-cost food economy, there was little impetus to push ahead with low energy processing such as food irradiation

  10. Food irradiation: physical-chemical, technological and economical background and competing methods of food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1994-01-01

    Physical, chemical and technical as well as economical background of food preservation by irradiation have been performed. The radiation sources and the elements of radiation chemistry connected with their use in food irradiation process have been shown. The problems of dosimetry and endurance of dose uniformity for processed products have been also discussed. The other methods of food preservation and their weakness and advantages have been also presented and compared with food irradiation method

  11. Recent approaches in food bio-preservation - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Veer Pal

    2018-01-01

    Bio-preservation is a technique of extending the shelf life of food by using natural or controlled microbiota or antimicrobials. The fermentation products as well as beneficial bacteria are generally selected in this process to control spoilage and render pathogen inactive. The special interest organism or central organism used for this purpose is lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their metabolites. They are capable to exhibit antimicrobial properties and helpful in imparting unique flavour and texture to the food products. The major compounds produced by LAB are bacteriocin, organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Bacteriocin is peptides or proteins with antimicrobial activity. On the basis of size, structure and post-translational modification, bacteriocin is divided into four different classes. Due to non-toxic, non-immunogenic, thermo-resistance characteristics and broad bactericidal activity, LAB bacteriocins are considered good bio-preservative agents. The most common LAB bactriocin is nisin which has wider applications in food industry and has been Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved. Nisin and other bacteriocin are being used in vegetables products, dairy and meat industries. Apart from LAB metabolites, bacteriophages and endolysins has promising role in food processing, preservation and safety. Bacteriocins and endolysins are more suitable for DNA shuffling and protein engineering to generate highly potent variants with expanded activity spectrum. Genetically modified bacteriophages may also be helpful in bio-preservation, however; their safety issues must be addressed properly before selection as bio-preservative agent.

  12. Recent approaches in food bio-preservation - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veer Pal Singh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bio-preservation is a technique of extending the shelf life of food by using natural or controlled microbiota or antimicrobials. The fermentation products as well as beneficial bacteria are generally selected in this process to control spoilage and render pathogen inactive. The special interest organism or central organism used for this purpose is lactic acid bacteria (LAB and their metabolites. They are capable to exhibit antimicrobial properties and helpful in imparting unique flavour and texture to the food products. The major compounds produced by LAB are bacteriocin, organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Bacteriocin is peptides or proteins with antimicrobial activity. On the basis of size, structure and post-translational modification, bacteriocin is divided into four different classes. Due to non-toxic, non-immunogenic, thermo-resistance characteristics and broad bactericidal activity, LAB bacteriocins are considered good bio-preservative agents. The most common LAB bactriocin is nisin which has wider applications in food industry and has been Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved. Nisin and other bacteriocin are being used in vegetables products, dairy and meat industries. Apart from LAB metabolites, bacteriophages and endolysins has promising role in food processing, preservation and safety. Bacteriocins and endolysins are more suitable for DNA shuffling and protein engineering to generate highly potent variants with expanded activity spectrum. Genetically modified bacteriophages may also be helpful in bio-preservation, however; their safety issues must be addressed properly before selection as bio-preservative agent.

  13. Utilization of irradiation on food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, H.O.; Kwon, J.H.; Byun, M.W.; Yang, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    The research programme in 1982 was conducted not only to develop the commercial storage method of sprouting foods by irradiation combined with natural low temperature and to sterilize the E.coli of ginseng and ginseng product but also to approach the development of the long term storage method of rice and barley. (Author)

  14. Artificial Sweeteners as Food Additives (Turkish with English Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this review some artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate and aspartame as food additives are looked over for their usage purposes and the effects on health. The problems of public health caused by some artificial sweeteners are assessed according the recent scientific publication on the subject.

  15. Preservation of food by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, E.S.; Peterson, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    This study is presented in three volumes. Vol. I: Presents a concise description of the philosophy of radiation, protection for people working with irradiation processes, including problems associated with the design and operation of a large facility and solutions to problems encountered. Radiation dosimetry and radiolytic effects in foods are also presented. Vol. II: Effects of radiation on bacteria and viruses are discussed as well as the lethal effect on microorganisms and insects. Also presented are the effects of irradiated food on packaging materials. Vol. III: The effects of radurization on meats, poultry, fish, shellfish, fruits, vegetables, and spices. Also included are the effects of irradiation for the use of shelf-life extension

  16. Why the concern about irradiation as a food preservation technique?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Irradiation is a food preservation process that like the more traditional and alternative methods is intended to keep food safe to eat by delaying the natural decomposition processes that result from bacterial action. Preservation of foods by irradiation, although still not available in Australia, is readily accepted in some 44 countries, including France. This project is set up to examine if a sample of fresh fruits and vegetables, when irradiated to the recommended 'preservation' dose level, becomes 'radioactive'. By placing the 'irradiated' sample, together with an identical 'control' sample of the same fresh fruit and vegetables, in an x-radiography cassette in a shielded 'cave', differences in film 'blackening' over the exposure period would indicate relative radioactivity from within the respective samples. Also, using simultaneous daily photographs of both the 'irradiated' and non-irradiated 'control' samples, the delay of onset of visible decay of both can be determined

  17. Beneficial Effects of Spices in Food Preservation and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, Davide; Bukvicki, Danka; Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit K.

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been used since ancient times. Although they have been employed mainly as flavoring and coloring agents, their role in food safety and preservation have also been studied in vitro and in vivo. Spices have exhibited numerous health benefits in preventing and treating a wide variety of diseases such as cancer, aging, metabolic, neurological, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the most relevant and recent findings on spices and their active compounds in terms of targets and mode of action; in particular, their potential use in food preservation and enhancement of shelf life as a natural bioingredient. PMID:27708620

  18. Food preservation : relevance of nuclear techniques to developing nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiyar, A.S.; Sundaram, K.

    1977-01-01

    The usefulness of radiation processes over conventional methods for preservation of foods has been discussed in detail. There are five distinct objectives that can be achieved by exposing food to ionising radiation, and these are : (a) total elimination of food spoilage or disease-causing organisms, thus confering indefinite stability on the pre-packaged food; (b) significant reduction of spoilage microorganisms to enable extended shelf-life; (c) inactivation of organisms that poses public health hazards; (d) elimination of losses in dry foods due to insect infestation, by killing the eggs and their insects; and (e) control of post-harvest physiological processes such as sprouting, ripening etc. For highly perishable sea foods, such as, Bombay Duck, irradiation represents the only possible soultion to the problem of its preservation in the fresh state. An evaluation of the wholesomeness of irradiated mackerel is currently underway in India as part of an international effort at obtaining such data collectively, to minimise the enormour costs involved in such experimentation. Recently, clearances have been authorised for the release of irradiated foods for human consumption. A summary of international approvals for radiation preservation processes is presented. (A.K.)

  19. Utilization of irradiation on food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Han Ok; Kwon, Joong Ho; Byun, Myung Woo

    1985-04-01

    The number of total viable bacteria in chicken meat was reduced by over 90% with irradiation treatments of 5-10 kGy, and also an irradiation dose of yeasts, molds, coliforms, and especially Salmonella for 2-4 weeks of storage. In physicochemical properties of stored chichen, such as water holding capacity, TBA number, UBN, odor, color, overall appearance, cooking quality and organoleptic characteristics, the irradiated samples were superior to the nonirradiated samples, so the freshness of irradiated chicken was retained until 30 days ofter storage at 3-4degC. Commercial fried fish paste was comtaminated by 2.2x10 3 counts in total variable bacteria, 2.8x10 2 counts in yeasts and models, and 1.0x10 2 counts in coliforms, per gram of samples, but irradiation treatment of more than 3 kGy could reduce the microbial load up to 80-90%. As the storage period increased, chemical components of the irradiated samples were better than those of the nonirradiated samples, and the self-life of irradiated groups was extended by 3-4 times as compared with that of nonirradiated groups at room(10-20degC) and low(3-4degC) temperatures without apparent changes in organoleptic properties. Some packaged dried fishes, such as dried cod, dried squid, dried file fish and dried pollack, were preserved by irradiation under the room condictions. After storage of one year the by irradiated samples with doses of 3-8 kGy were found to be marketable resulting from organoleptic observations without showing any storage loss due to microbial and insect factors. (Author)

  20. The potential of food preservation to reduce food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Martindale, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    While we state it seems unthinkable to throw away nearly a third of the food we produce, we still continue to overlook that we are all very much part of this problem because we all consume meals. The amount of food wasted clearly has an impact on our view of what we think a sustainable meal is and our research suggests food waste is a universal function that can help us determine the sustainability of diets. Achieving sustainability in food systems depends on the utilisation of both culinary ...

  1. Numerical Simulation of Non-Thermal Food Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, C.; Krauss, J.; Ertunc, Ö.; Delgado, a.

    2010-09-01

    Food preservation is an important process step in food technology regarding product safety and product quality. Novel preservation techniques are currently developed, that aim at improved sensory and nutritional value but comparable safety than in conventional thermal preservation techniques. These novel non-thermal food preservation techniques are based for example on high pressures up to one GPa or pulsed electric fields. in literature studies the high potential of high pressures (HP) and of pulsed electric fields (PEF) is shown due to their high retention of valuable food components as vitamins and flavour and selective inactivation of spoiling enzymes and microorganisms. for the design of preservation processes based on the non-thermal techniques it is crucial to predict the effect of high pressure and pulsed electric fields on the food components and on the spoiling enzymes and microorganisms locally and time-dependent in the treated product. Homogenous process conditions (especially of temperature fields in HP and PEF processing and of electric fields in PEF) are aimed at to avoid the need of over-processing and the connected quality loss and to minimize safety risks due to under-processing. the present contribution presents numerical simulations of thermofluiddynamical phenomena inside of high pressure autoclaves and pulsed electric field treatment chambers. in PEF processing additionally the electric fields are considered. Implementing kinetics of occurring (bio-) chemical reactions in the numerical simulations of the temperature, flow and electric fields enables the evaluation of the process homogeneity and efficiency connected to different process parameters of the preservation techniques. Suggestions to achieve safe and high quality products are concluded out of the numerical results.

  2. Development of Food Preservation and Processing Technologies by Radiation Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun

    2007-07-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following: As the first cooperative venture business technically invested by National Atomic Research Development Project, institute/company's [technology-invested technology foundation No. 1] cooperative venture, Sun-BioTech Ltd., was founded and stated its business. This suggested new model for commercialization and industrialization of the research product by nation-found institute. From the notice of newly approved product list about irradiated food, radiation health related legal approval on 7 food items was achieved from the Ministry of health and wellfare, the Korea Food and Drug Administration, and this contributed the foundation of enlargement of practical use of irradiated food. As one of the foundation project for activation of radiation application technology for the sanitation and secure preservation of special food, such as military meal service, food service for patient, and food for sports, and instant food, such as ready-to-eat/ready-to-cook food, the proposal for radiation application to the major military commander at the Ministry of National Defence and the Joint Chiefs of Staff was accepted for the direction of military supply development in mid-termed plan for the development of war supply. Especially, through the preliminary research and the development of foundation technology for the development of the Korean style space food and functional space food, space Kimch with very long shelf life was finally developed. The development of new item/products for food and life science by combining RT/BT, the development of technology for the elimination/reduction of

  3. Development of Food Preservation and Processing Technologies by Radiation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun [and others

    2007-07-15

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following: As the first cooperative venture business technically invested by National Atomic Research Development Project, institute/company's [technology-invested technology foundation No. 1] cooperative venture, Sun-BioTech Ltd., was founded and stated its business. This suggested new model for commercialization and industrialization of the research product by nation-found institute. From the notice of newly approved product list about irradiated food, radiation health related legal approval on 7 food items was achieved from the Ministry of health and wellfare, the Korea Food and Drug Administration, and this contributed the foundation of enlargement of practical use of irradiated food. As one of the foundation project for activation of radiation application technology for the sanitation and secure preservation of special food, such as military meal service, food service for patient, and food for sports, and instant food, such as ready-to-eat/ready-to-cook food, the proposal for radiation application to the major military commander at the Ministry of National Defence and the Joint Chiefs of Staff was accepted for the direction of military supply development in mid-termed plan for the development of war supply. Especially, through the preliminary research and the development of foundation technology for the development of the Korean style space food and functional space food, space Kimch with very long shelf life was finally developed. The development of new item/products for food and life science by combining RT/BT, the development of technology for the elimination/reduction of

  4. Development of Food Preservation and Processing Technologies by Radiation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun (and others)

    2007-07-15

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following: As the first cooperative venture business technically invested by National Atomic Research Development Project, institute/company's [technology-invested technology foundation No. 1] cooperative venture, Sun-BioTech Ltd., was founded and stated its business. This suggested new model for commercialization and industrialization of the research product by nation-found institute. From the notice of newly approved product list about irradiated food, radiation health related legal approval on 7 food items was achieved from the Ministry of health and wellfare, the Korea Food and Drug Administration, and this contributed the foundation of enlargement of practical use of irradiated food. As one of the foundation project for activation of radiation application technology for the sanitation and secure preservation of special food, such as military meal service, food service for patient, and food for sports, and instant food, such as ready-to-eat/ready-to-cook food, the proposal for radiation application to the major military commander at the Ministry of National Defence and the Joint Chiefs of Staff was accepted for the direction of military supply development in mid-termed plan for the development of war supply. Especially, through the preliminary research and the development of foundation technology for the development of the Korean style space food and functional space food, space Kimch with very long shelf life was finally developed. The development of new item/products for food and life science by combining RT/BT, the development of technology for the elimination/reduction of

  5. High oxygen as an additional factor in food preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amanatidou, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis, the efficacy of high oxygen as an additional hurdle for food preservation is studied. At high oxygen conditions and at low temperature, significant impairment of growth and viability of bacterial cells is found to occur as the result of free

  6. Gamma irradiation for food preservation and sterilization of medical supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Abid Husain; Mohammad Said Kadis

    1981-01-01

    A new technology in food preservation by using gamma irradiation was introduced and its advantages over a number of conventional processes were discussed. The new technique is also applicable in the sterilization of medical supplies. It is relatively simple and does not require very highly skilled manpower

  7. Recent approaches in food bio-preservation - a review | Singh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from LAB metabolites, bacteriophages and endolysins has promising role in food processing, preservation and safety. Bacteriocins and endolysins are more suitable for DNA shuffling and protein engineering to generate highly potent variants with expanded activity spectrum. Genetically modified bacteriophages may ...

  8. Preserving food in Asia and the Pacific region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-15

    At this time of increasing world population there is greater need than ever before to produce more food, especially in developing countries which have the fastest growth of population. Equally important, but often overlooked by most authorities, is the need to preserve food after harvest so that losses are reduced, more food is available, and the investment and energy employed in food production is effectively used. One method of reducing losses is to use ionizing energy in the form of gamma rays, electron, or X-rays to prevent food from spoiling because of micro-organisms, insect pests or physiological factors. This method can treat food in the final package without significantly altering its physico-chemical characteristics. The technique has been much studied in many countries over the past three decades. As most countries in the Asian and Pacific region are in tropical zones which make food especially vulnerable to spoilage losses this technique has received wide attention from food and nuclear scientists. In 1979, the Agency and the Government of Japan sponsored a special mission to evaluate the state of the art of this technology in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It was evident from the mission's report that most of these countries not only have active research and development programmes in the use of ionizing energy for food preservation but also are anxious to develop their programmes to reach practical application. Moreover, most countries in Asia and the Pacific have a common interest in using this technology to preserve fishery products, tropical fruits, onions, and spices. Consequently, the Government of Japan agreed to sponsor a research programme in this field as one of the Co-ordinated Research Programmes of the Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development. Started in 1980, the project will last for three years

  9. Preserving food in Asia and the Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    At this time of increasing world population there is greater need than ever before to produce more food, especially in developing countries which have the fastest growth of population. Equally important, but often overlooked by most authorities, is the need to preserve food after harvest so that losses are reduced, more food is available, and the investment and energy employed in food production is effectively used. One method of reducing losses is to use ionizing energy in the form of gamma rays, electron, or X-rays to prevent food from spoiling because of micro-organisms, insect pests or physiological factors. This method can treat food in the final package without significantly altering its physico-chemical characteristics. The technique has been much studied in many countries over the past three decades. As most countries in the Asian and Pacific region are in tropical zones which make food especially vulnerable to spoilage losses this technique has received wide attention from food and nuclear scientists. In 1979, the Agency and the Government of Japan sponsored a special mission to evaluate the state of the art of this technology in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It was evident from the mission's report that most of these countries not only have active research and development programmes in the use of ionizing energy for food preservation but also are anxious to develop their programmes to reach practical application. Moreover, most countries in Asia and the Pacific have a common interest in using this technology to preserve fishery products, tropical fruits, onions, and spices. Consequently, the Government of Japan agreed to sponsor a research programme in this field as one of the Co-ordinated Research Programmes of the Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development. Started in 1980, the project will last for three years

  10. Essential oils: extraction, bioactivities, and their uses for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-07-01

    Essential oils are concentrated liquids of complex mixtures of volatile compounds and can be extracted from several plant organs. Essential oils are a good source of several bioactive compounds, which possess antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. In addition, some essential oils have been used as medicine. Furthermore, the uses of essential oils have received increasing attention as the natural additives for the shelf-life extension of food products, due to the risk in using synthetic preservatives. Essential oils can be incorporated into packaging, in which they can provide multifunctions termed "active or smart packaging." Those essential oils are able to modify the matrix of packaging materials, thereby rendering the improved properties. This review covers up-to-date literatures on essential oils including sources, chemical composition, extraction methods, bioactivities, and their applications, particularly with the emphasis on preservation and the shelf-life extension of food products. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. The Use of Plant Antimicrobial Compounds for Food Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, Tana; Matthews, Karl K.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne disease is a global issue with significant impact on human health. With the growing consumer demand for natural preservatives to replace chemical compounds, plant antimicrobial compounds must be thoroughly investigated for their potential to serve as biopreservatives. This review paper will focus on the plant-derived products as antimicrobial agents for use in food preservation and to control foodborne pathogens in foods. Structure, modes of action, stability, and resistance to these plant compounds will be discussed as well as their application in food industries and possible technologies by which they can be delivered. Benefits as well as challenges, such as the need for further research for implementation and governmental regulation, will be highlighted. PMID:26539472

  12. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Soo [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cherl Ho; Park, Hyun Jin [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Il Jun [Hallym Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jung Ho [Kyungbook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following; Processing techniques of low salted and fermented fish using gamma irradiation were developed and superiority of using irradiation to conventional food processing methods was established. Processing technique of value-added functional materials for the manufacture of food or public health products using RT/BT/NT combination technology was developed. The basic theories for the technology development to reduce toxic or undesirable compounds in food such as allergy or carcinogens were established. Exterminating methods of quarantine organisms in herbs/spices was established and the quality evaluation and detection conditions in quarantine treatment were set. From the studies on 'program of public understanding' based on safety of the gamma irradiated food, the information for public relation in enlargement of consumer acceptance/implementation and the peaceful use of nuclear energy were secured. Results from the research project will contribute on improvement of competency of domestic food industry and export market. The results also expect the improvement of public health by prevention of food borne diseases and enhancement of national economy and industry by increase of direct/indirect productivity.

  13. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Hak Soo; Lee, Cherl Ho; Park, Hyun Jin; Kang, Il Jun; Kwon, Jung Ho

    2002-05-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following; Processing techniques of low salted and fermented fish using gamma irradiation were developed and superiority of using irradiation to conventional food processing methods was established. Processing technique of value-added functional materials for the manufacture of food or public health products using RT/BT/NT combination technology was developed. The basic theories for the technology development to reduce toxic or undesirable compounds in food such as allergy or carcinogens were established. Exterminating methods of quarantine organisms in herbs/spices was established and the quality evaluation and detection conditions in quarantine treatment were set. From the studies on 'program of public understanding' based on safety of the gamma irradiated food, the information for public relation in enlargement of consumer acceptance/implementation and the peaceful use of nuclear energy were secured. Results from the research project will contribute on improvement of competency of domestic food industry and export market. The results also expect the improvement of public health by prevention of food borne diseases and enhancement of national economy and industry by increase of direct/indirect productivity

  14. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Soo [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cherl Ho; Park, Hyun Jin [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Il Jun [Hallym Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jung Ho [Kyungbook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following; Processing techniques of low salted and fermented fish using gamma irradiation were developed and superiority of using irradiation to conventional food processing methods was established. Processing technique of value-added functional materials for the manufacture of food or public health products using RT/BT/NT combination technology was developed. The basic theories for the technology development to reduce toxic or undesirable compounds in food such as allergy or carcinogens were established. Exterminating methods of quarantine organisms in herbs/spices was established and the quality evaluation and detection conditions in quarantine treatment were set. From the studies on 'program of public understanding' based on safety of the gamma irradiated food, the information for public relation in enlargement of consumer acceptance/implementation and the peaceful use of nuclear energy were secured. Results from the research project will contribute on improvement of competency of domestic food industry and export market. The results also expect the improvement of public health by prevention of food borne diseases and enhancement of national economy and industry by increase of direct/indirect productivity.

  15. Combination of preservation factors applied to minimal processing of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia de Daza, M S; Alzamora, S M; Chanes, J W

    1996-07-01

    Innovative technologies for producing minimally processed (MP) foods that apply the concept of combination of preservation factors are addressed in this article with special emphasis on a new combined approach that has been successfully applied in several Latin American countries for MP high-moisture fruit products (HMFP). HMFP can be regarded as a different approach to the commercially available and widely accepted MP concept for fruits and vegetables (even if developed for the same purpose of obtaining freshlike high-quality products with an extended shelf life) that is better adapted to Latin American countries in terms of independence of the chill chain and the use of simple and energy-efficient technologies. The continuous refrigeration hurdle associated with MP refrigerated fruits is not included in the preservation system of HMFP because a different combination of hurdles must be overcome to enhance the shelf stability of nonrespiring vegetable tissues while preserving freshlike character. Guidelines to obtain safe and high-quality MP fruit products are proposed. Other products preserved by combined factors technology are also discussed, as well as some other classical and new preservation factors whose application could enhance the quality of HMFP.

  16. Alternatives to those artificial FD&C food colorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E; Culver, Catherine A

    2012-01-01

    Replacement of artificial food dyes with natural colorants is a current marketing trend, notwithstanding the fact that neither the United States nor the European Union (EU) has defined natural with respect to food colors. Consumer groups have concerns over the safety of synthetic colorants, and in addition, many of the naturally derived colorants provide health benefits. Food scientists frequently have the assignment of replacing artificial colorants with natural alternatives. This can be challenging, as naturally derived colorants are usually less stable, and all desired hues might, in fact, not be obtainable. In this review, the chemical and physical properties, limitations, and more suitable applications for those colorants that are legally available as substitutes for the synthetic colorants are summarized. Issues and challenges for certain foods are discussed, and in addition, colorants that may be available in the future are briefly described.

  17. Alternative Food Preservation Techniques, New Technology in Food Preparation and Appropriateness of Food Supply for the Permanently Manned Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Alternative food preservation techniques are defined as unique processes and combinations of currently used processes for food preservation. Food preservation is the extension of the useful shelf-life of normally perishable foods (from harvest to final consumption) by controlling micro-organisms, enzymes, chemical changes, changes in sensory characteristics and the prevention of subsequent recontamination. The resulting products must comply with all applicable food manufacturing practice regulations and be safe. Most of the foods currently used in both space and military feeding are stabilized either by dehydration or the use of a terminal sterilization process. Other available options would be formulation to reduce water activity, the refrigeration and freezing of perishable foods, chemical addition, and physical treatment (ionizing or nonionizing radiation or mechanical action). These alternatives are considered and proposals made.

  18. Automatic food detection in egocentric images using artificial intelligence technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to develop an artificial intelligence (AI)-based algorithm which can automatically detect food items from images acquired by an egocentric wearable camera for dietary assessment. To study human diet and lifestyle, large sets of egocentric images were acquired using a wearable devic...

  19. Application of Bacteriocins and Protective Cultures in Dairy Food Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia C. G. Silva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the human health risk posed by the use of chemical preservatives in foods. In contrast, the increasing demand by the dairy industry to extend shelf-life and prevent spoilage of dairy products has appeal for new preservatives and new methods of conservation. Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides, which can be considered as safe since they can be easily degraded by proteolytic enzymes of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. Also, most bacteriocin producers belong to lactic acid bacteria (LAB, a group that occurs naturally in foods and have a long history of safe use in dairy industry. Since they pose no health risk concerns, bacteriocins, either purified or excreted by bacteriocin producing strains, are a great alternative to the use of chemical preservatives in dairy products. Bacteriocins can be applied to dairy foods on a purified/crude form or as a bacteriocin-producing LAB as a part of fermentation process or as adjuvant culture. A number of applications of bacteriocins and bacteriocin-producing LAB have been reported to successful control pathogens in milk, yogurt, and cheeses. One of the more recent trends consists in the incorporation of bacteriocins, directly as purified or semi-purified form or in incorporation of bacteriocin-producing LAB into bioactive films and coatings, applied directly onto the food surfaces and packaging. This review is focused on recent developments and applications of bacteriocins and bacteriocin-producing LAB for reducing the microbiological spoilage and improve safety of dairy products.

  20. Microbiological Problems in Food Preservation by Irradiation. Report of a Panel on Microbiological Problems in Food Preservation by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Irradiation is a technique that may increasingly be employed to help preserve the world's food supplies. Some countries have already given public-health clearance for particular irradiated foodstuffs, and pilot and semi-industrial irradiation plants have already been established or are under construction. Wide-spread industrial application is likely in the not too distant future. However, there are still problems to be solved; some of these are microbiological. A Panel on Microbiological Problems in Food Preservation by Irradiation was organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture on 27 June to 1 July 1966. A detailed evaluation was made of research and development needs in radicidation (i.e. destroying micro-organisms harmful to human health), in radurization (i.e. extending the shelf life of perishable foods by reducing the spoilage micro-organisms in it), in the elimination of viruses and in the inactivation of preformed toxins. The Panel also considered the unification and standardization of experimental methodology. Recommendations were drawn up for the Directors General of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and of the International Atomic Energy Agency on how these two organizations could best fulfil their roles in this field. It was considered important to continue sponsoring and co-ordinating research.. Establishing an international pilot and demonstration plant was thought essential for progress in development work, especially on radicidation. Experts on radio- and food microbiology and a representative of the World Health Organization attended the meeting. The proceedings contains the contributions of the members of the Panel together with the general conclusions and recommendations

  1. Health protection and food preservation by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Results of several major studies on food systems for space missions beginning with Apollo 12 through Apollo-Soyuz and investigations of the application of irradiation to food for manned space flight are reported. The study of flight food systems involved the application of radurization (pasteurizing levels) doses of gamma irradiation to flour and bread supplied by Pepperidge Farms in advance of the missions. All flights from Apollo 12 through 17 carried irradiated fresh bread. On Apollo 17, cooperation with Natick Laboratories permitted the introduction of a ham sandwich using irradiated bread and irradiated sterile ham. Investigations centered on irradiated bread were conducted during the course of these missions. Studies were applied to the concept of improving fresh bread from the point of view of mold inhibition. The studies considered how irradiation could best be applied at what levels and on a variety of bread types. Throughout the studies of the application of gamma irradiation the emphasis was placed upon using low levels of irradiation in the pasteurizing or radurizing doses--under a Megarad. The primary goal was to determine if a public health benefit could be demonstrated using radurization along with food preservation and food quality improvements. The public health benefit would be parallel to that of pasteurization of milk as a concept. Publications are included providing the details of these observations, one dealing with the flour characteristics and the other dealing with the influence on fresh bread types. These demonstrate the major findings noted during the period of the studies examining bread.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of Olea europaea Linné extracts and their applicability as natural food preservative agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielmann, J; Kohnen, S; Hauser, C

    2017-06-19

    The antimicrobial activity of phenolic compounds from Olea (O.) europaea Linné (L.) is part of the scientific discussion regarding the use of natural plant extracts as alternative food preservative agents. Although, the basic knowledge on the antimicrobial potential of certain molecules such as oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol or elenolic acid derivatives is given, there is still little information regarding their applicability for food preservation. This might be primarily due to the lack of information regarding the full antimicrobial spectrum of the compounds, their synergisms in natural or artificial combinations and their interaction with food ingredients. The present review accumulates available literature from the past 40 years, investigating the antimicrobial activity of O. europaea L. derived extracts and compounds in vitro and in food matrices, in order to evaluate their food applicability. In summary, defined extracts from olive fruit or leaves, containing the strongest antimicrobial compounds hydroxytyrosol, oleacein or oleacanthal in considerable concentrations, appear to be suitable for food preservation. Nonetheless there is still need for consequent research on the compounds activity in food matrices, their effect on the natural microbiota of certain foods and their influence on the sensorial properties of the targeted products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prospective follow-up study of artificial urinary sphincter placement preserving the bulbospongiosus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado Serra, Argimiro; Domínguez-Escrig, José; Gómez-Ferrer, Álvaro; Batista Miranda, Emilio; Rubio-Briones, José; Solsona Narbón, Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    Artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) AMS-800® is an effective treatment for male stress urinary incontinence. The aim of the study was to assess the long-term effectiveness and complications of artificial urinary sphincter placement preserving the bulbospongiosus muscle. From April 2004 to March 2014, all consecutive male patients with urinary incontinence who underwent an AUS prosthesis insertion were prospectively evaluated. Surgical technique consisted of a perineal incision for cuff placement around the bulbous urethra preserving the bulbospongiosus muscle. Cure rate was defined as no pad use. A total of 82 consecutive patients (median age 68 years, range: 54-78) were prospectively evaluated (median follow-up 46 months, range: 12-135). Bulbospongiosus muscles were preserved intact in all cases with no intraoperative complications. Postoperative complications were reported in 14 patients (1 urethral erosion). The overall cure rate (dry rate) was 76.8% and the median ICIQ-UI score improved from 18 (range: 8-21) to 4 (range: 0-17) (P Artificial urinary sphincter survival rate was 95.5% (95%CI 89.4-100%) at 24 months and 62.6% (95%CI 45.5-79.6%) at 60 months. The mechanical failure rate was 6.3% (median 46.1 months, range: 22.2-100.9) and urethral atrophy and/or inadequate compression rate was 9.5% (median 58.6 months, range: 39-101.4 months). Our study suggests that placement of AUS preserving the bulbospongiosus muscle is technically easy and efficient, reports excellent continence rates and lower urethral erosion rates, and could delay the onset of urethral atrophy compared to other surgical procedures used for sphincter placement. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Novel approaches in food-processing technology: new technologies for preserving foods and modifying function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, D

    1999-10-01

    Recent advances in emerging food-processing technologies, such as high hydrostatic pressure or high-intensity electric field pulses, allow targeted and sophisticated modification and preservation of foods. We are beginning to understand the mechanisms involved in pressure inactivation of bacterial spores and have been collecting considerable amounts of kinetic data regarding inactivation mechanisms of enzymes and vegetative microorganisms. We are also gaining more insight into the permeabilization of plant membranes and related biosynthetic responses, making progress in food structure engineering and food modification for function, and have been initiating process developments for gentle processing of delicate biomaterials based on pressure-assisted phase transitions of water.

  5. Nanosystems in Edible Coatings: A Novel Strategy for Food Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Zambrano-Zaragoza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, nanotechnology represents an important tool and an efficient option for extending the shelf life of foods. Reducing particle size to nanometric scale gives materials distinct and improved properties compared to larger systems. For food applications, this technology allows the incorporation of hydrophilic and lipophilic substances with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties that can be released during storage periods to increase the shelf life of diverse products, including whole and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, nuts, seeds, and cheese, among others. Edible coatings are usually prepared with natural polymers that are non-toxic, economical, and readily available. Nanosystems, in contrast, may also be prepared with biodegradable synthetic polymers, and liquid and solid lipids at room temperature. In this review, recent developments in the use of such nanosystems as nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanocomposites, and nanoemulsions, are discussed critically. The use of polymers as the support matrix for nanodispersions to form edible coatings for food preservation is also analyzed, but the central purpose of the article is to describe available information on nanosystems and their use in different food substrates to help formulators in their work.

  6. Perspectives of high power ultrasound in food preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evelyn; Silva, F. V. M.

    2018-04-01

    High Power ultrasound can be used to alter physicochemical properties and improve the quality of foods during processing due to a number of mechanical, chemical, and biochemical effects arising from acoustic cavitation. Cavitation creates pressure waves that inactivate microbes and de-agglomerate bacterial clusters or release ascospores from fungal asci. Bacterial and heat resistant fungal spores’ inactivation is a great challenge in food preservation due to their ability to survive after conventional food processing, causing food-borne diseases or spoilage. In this work, a showcase of application of high power ultrasound combined with heat or thermosonication, to inactivate bacterial spores i.e. Bacillus cereus spores in beef slurry and fungal spores i.e. Neosartorya fischeri ascospores in apple juice was presented and compared with thermal processing. Faster inactivation was achieved at higher TS (24 KHz, 0.33 W/g or W/mL) temperatures. Around 2 log inactivation was obtained for B. cereus spores after1 min (70 °C) and N. fischeri ascospores after 30 min (75 °C). Thermal treatments caused <1 log in B. Cereus after 2 min (70 °C) and no inactivation in N. Fischeri ascospores after 30 min (80 °C). In conclusion, temperature plays a significant role for TS spore inactivation and TS was more effective than thermal treatment alone. The mould spores were more resistant than the bacterial spores.

  7. Nanosystems in Edible Coatings: A Novel Strategy for Food Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Zaragoza, María L.; González-Reza, Ricardo; Miranda-Linares, Verónica; Bernal-Couoh, Tania F.; Mendoza-Elvira, Susana; Quintanar-Guerrero, David

    2018-01-01

    Currently, nanotechnology represents an important tool and an efficient option for extending the shelf life of foods. Reducing particle size to nanometric scale gives materials distinct and improved properties compared to larger systems. For food applications, this technology allows the incorporation of hydrophilic and lipophilic substances with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties that can be released during storage periods to increase the shelf life of diverse products, including whole and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, nuts, seeds, and cheese, among others. Edible coatings are usually prepared with natural polymers that are non-toxic, economical, and readily available. Nanosystems, in contrast, may also be prepared with biodegradable synthetic polymers, and liquid and solid lipids at room temperature. In this review, recent developments in the use of such nanosystems as nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanocomposites, and nanoemulsions, are discussed critically. The use of polymers as the support matrix for nanodispersions to form edible coatings for food preservation is also analyzed, but the central purpose of the article is to describe available information on nanosystems and their use in different food substrates to help formulators in their work. PMID:29494548

  8. Tracing artificial trans fat in popular foods in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To minimise the intake of industrial artificial trans fat (I-TF), nearly all European countries rely on food producers to voluntarily reduce the I-TF content in food. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of this strategy on I-TF content in prepackaged biscuits...... countries in Europe still consume I-TF in amounts that increase their risk of coronary heart disease. Under current European Union (EU) legislation, the sale of products containing I-TF is legal but conflicts with the WHO recommendation to minimise the intake of I-TF. An EU-legislative limit on I-TF content...

  9. Use of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in food preservation: Recent advances and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpenyong, Christopher E; Akpan, Ernest E

    2017-08-13

    The economic burdens and health implications of food spoilage are increasing. Contamination of food sources by fungi, bacteria, yeast, nematodes, insects, and rodents remains a major public health concern. Research has focused on developing safer natural products and innovations to meet consumers' acceptance as alternatives to synthetic food preservatives. Many recent novel preservative techniques and applications of both natural and synthetic origin continue to proliferate in food and chemical industries. In particular, some essential oils of plant origin are potent food preservatives and are thus attractive alternatives to synthetic preservatives. This paper provides an overview of recent advances and future prospects in assessing the efficacy of the use of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) essential oil in food preservation. The possible mechanisms of action and toxicological profile as well as evidence for or against the use of this essential oil as an alternative to synthetic food preservatives in domestic and industrial applications are discussed.

  10. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Yook, Hong Sun; Lee, Ju Woon and others

    2000-03-01

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamm irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in pork and chicken meats. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Pork loin ham with desirable color was also developed without using of sodium nitrite that is known as a carcinogen. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepatocarcinogenesis and the antioxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation at about 1 kGy completely eliminated the parasites in foods and drinking water. In the study of quarantine treatment of apple and pear for export by gamma irradiation, current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of apple and pear. However, irradiation doses at 1-3 kGy was suitable for controlling pests and did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. The result of the survey to assess the public understanding indicated that the irradiated food had somewhat negative impression to general public. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a public education and information program by using mass communication and by constructing communication system to obtain the enhanced impression from the general public

  11. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Yook, Hong Sun; Lee, Ju Woon and others

    2000-03-01

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamm irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in pork and chicken meats. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Pork loin ham with desirable color was also developed without using of sodium nitrite that is known as a carcinogen. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepatocarcinogenesis and the antioxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation at about 1 kGy completely eliminated the parasites in foods and drinking water. In the study of quarantine treatment of apple and pear for export by gamma irradiation, current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of apple and pear. However, irradiation doses at 1-3 kGy was suitable for controlling pests and did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. The result of the survey to assess the public understanding indicated that the irradiated food had somewhat negative impression to general public. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a public education and information program by using mass communication and by constructing communication system to obtain the enhanced impression from the general public.

  12. Status of radiation preservation of foods in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padwal-Desai, S.R.; Sharma, A.

    1994-01-01

    Food irradiation involves controlled application of radiation energy to agricultural commodities and other foodstuffs for improving hygiene, safety and shelf-life. A number of processes including hygienization of spices and condiments, disinfestation of grains, legumes, and their products, sprout inhibition of onion and potato, delay in ripening of mango and banana, radurization and radicidation of meat and fish have been studied. Collaborative studies have established the efficacy of the process. The technology offers a viable commercial proposition for food conservation and safety. The idea to use ionising radiation for preservation of foods originated almost a century ago. Though today the technology is poised for full scale commercial exploitation, it has undergone several ups and downs due mainly to the perception of users at different points of time. Even today it is difficult to eliminate completely, the fear psychosis in the public mind created by the display of devastating power of atom and radiation during World War II. The chemical revolution of 50s and 60s made all other now ecofriendly technologies appear dim. Nevertheless relentless efforts of the scientists and recognition of the hazards that chemicals posed turned the tide and the technology got its legitimate place in the service of mankind. (author). 5 refs., 6 tabs

  13. Automatic food detection in egocentric images using artificial intelligence technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wenyan; Li, Yuecheng; Qu, Ruowei; Baranowski, Thomas; Burke, Lora E; Zhang, Hong; Bai, Yicheng; Mancino, Juliet M; Xu, Guizhi; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2018-03-26

    To develop an artificial intelligence (AI)-based algorithm which can automatically detect food items from images acquired by an egocentric wearable camera for dietary assessment. To study human diet and lifestyle, large sets of egocentric images were acquired using a wearable device, called eButton, from free-living individuals. Three thousand nine hundred images containing real-world activities, which formed eButton data set 1, were manually selected from thirty subjects. eButton data set 2 contained 29 515 images acquired from a research participant in a week-long unrestricted recording. They included both food- and non-food-related real-life activities, such as dining at both home and restaurants, cooking, shopping, gardening, housekeeping chores, taking classes, gym exercise, etc. All images in these data sets were classified as food/non-food images based on their tags generated by a convolutional neural network. A cross data-set test was conducted on eButton data set 1. The overall accuracy of food detection was 91·5 and 86·4 %, respectively, when one-half of data set 1 was used for training and the other half for testing. For eButton data set 2, 74·0 % sensitivity and 87·0 % specificity were obtained if both 'food' and 'drink' were considered as food images. Alternatively, if only 'food' items were considered, the sensitivity and specificity reached 85·0 and 85·8 %, respectively. The AI technology can automatically detect foods from low-quality, wearable camera-acquired real-world egocentric images with reasonable accuracy, reducing both the burden of data processing and privacy concerns.

  14. EPR detection of foods preserved with ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowicz, W.; Burlinska, G.; Michalik, J.

    1998-06-01

    The applicability of the epr technique for the detection of dried vegetables, mushrooms, some spices, flavour additives and some condiments preserved with ionizing radiation is discussed. The epr signals recorded after exposure to gamma rays and to beams of 10 MeV electrons from linac are stable, intense and specific enough as compared with those observed with nonirradiated samples and could be used for the detection of irradiation. However, stability of radiation induced epr signals produced in these foods depends on storage condition. No differences in shapes (spectral parameters) and intensities of the epr spectra recorded with samples exposed to the same doses of gamma rays ( 60Co) and 10 MeV electrons were observed

  15. EPR detection of foods preserved with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachowicz, W.; Burlinska, G.; Michalik, J.

    1998-01-01

    The applicability of the epr technique for the detection of dried vegetables, mushrooms, some spices, flavour additives and some condiments preserved with ionizing radiation is discussed. The epr signals recorded after exposure to gamma rays and to the beams of 10 MeV electrons from linac are stable, intense and specific enough as compared with those observed with nonirradiated samples and could be used for the detection of irradiation. However, stability of radiation induced epr signals produced in these foods depends on storage condition. No differences in shapes (spectral parameters) and intensities of the epr spectra recorded with samples exposed to the same doses of gamma rays ( 60 Co) and 10 MeV electrons were observed

  16. EPR detection of foods preserved with ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachowicz, W.; Burlinska, G.; Michalik, J

    1998-06-01

    The applicability of the epr technique for the detection of dried vegetables, mushrooms, some spices, flavour additives and some condiments preserved with ionizing radiation is discussed. The epr signals recorded after exposure to gamma rays and to the beams of 10 MeV electrons from linac are stable, intense and specific enough as compared with those observed with nonirradiated samples and could be used for the detection of irradiation. However, stability of radiation induced epr signals produced in these foods depends on storage condition. No differences in shapes (spectral parameters) and intensities of the epr spectra recorded with samples exposed to the same doses of gamma rays ({sup 60}Co) and 10 MeV electrons were observed.

  17. Artificial Nutrition (Food) and Hydration (Fluids) at the End of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial Nutrition (Food) and Hydration (Fluids) at the End of Life It is very common for doctors to provide ... or recovering from surgery. This is called “artificial nutrition and hydration” and like all medical treatments, it ...

  18. Artificial Gravity: Will it Preserve Bone Health on Long-Duration Missions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Street, Janis; Paloski, William H.

    2005-01-01

    Prolonged microgravity exposure disrupts bone, muscle, and cardiovascular homeostasis, sensory-motor coordination, immune function, and behavioral performance. Bone loss, in particular, remains a serious impediment to the success of exploration-class missions by increasing the risks of bone fracture and renal stone formation for crew members. Current countermeasures, consisting primarily of resistive and aerobic exercise, have not yet proven fully successful for preventing bone loss during long-duration spaceflight. While other bone-specific countermeasures, such as pharmacological therapy and dietary modifications, are under consideration, countermeasure approaches that simultaneously address multiple physiologic systems may be more desirable for exploration-class missions, particularly if they can provide effective protection at reduced mission resource requirements (up-mass, power, crew time, etc). The most robust of the multi-system approaches under consideration, artificial gravity (AG), could prevent all of the microgravity-related physiological changes from occurring. The potential methods for realizing an artificial gravity countermeasure are reviewed, as well as selected animal and human studies evaluating the effects of artificial gravity on bone function. Future plans for the study of the multi-system effects of artificial gravity include a joint, cooperative international effort that will systematically seek an optimal prescription for intermittent AG to preserve bone, muscle, and cardiovascular function in human subjects deconditioned by 6 degree head-down-tilt-bed rest. It is concluded that AG has great promise as a multi-system countermeasure, but that further research is required to determine the appropriate parameters for implementation of such a countermeasure for exploration-class missions.

  19. Report: Potential of nano-emulsions as phytochemical delivery system for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Zaffar; Jahangir, Muhammad; Liaquat, Muhammad; Shah, Syed Wasim Ahmad; Khan, Muhammad Mumtaz; Stanley, Roger; D'Arcy, Bruce

    2017-11-01

    Nature is a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals. These plant based compounds have rich scope as antioxidants, antimicrobial compounds and food preservatives and so for long time to be used in meat, fruits, vegetables and processed food items, either as added preservative or as coating material in various food applications, but the major limitation is their limited solubility in a food grade medium. Nano-emulsion is a best choice as a medium having vast area of application. The major advantage of nano-emulsion would be the solubility of a vast group of compounds, due to the presence of water and lipid phases. In this way, nano-emulsions can be proved to be the most suitable candidate as phytochemical delivery system for food preservation. In present article, the use of phytochemicals as potent food preservatives has been reviewed, in context of solubility of phytochemicals in nano-emulsion and applications of food grade nano-emulsions to food systems.

  20. Improved applicability of nisin in novel combinations with other food preservation factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, I.E.

    2001-01-01

    General discussion

    Modern consumers nowadays, have a preference for more natural, mildly preserved food products with a fresh appearance over traditionally preserved products. Mild preservation techniques applied singly are usually not sufficient to control microbial

  1. Quality and biochemical properties of artificially hibernated crucian carp for waterless preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Hongbo; Qian, Chunlu; Mao, Linchun

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the artificial hibernation of crucian carp for waterless preservation and to characterize the quality and biochemical properties during and after the hibernation. Anesthetized crucian carp using eugenol were stored at 8 °C with 90 % oxygen and 95-100 % relative humidity for 38 h and then transferred to fresh water to recover. Liquid loss and cooking loss had no significant changes (p > 0.05). The total volatile basic nitrogen content and 2-thiobarbituric acid value in hibernated fish were significantly higher (p 0.05). Both ACP and AKP activities decreased upon the fish recovered, but only the ACP activity returned to normal. However, there were increased serum glucose concentration, GOT and GPT activities in recovered fish. On the basis of these findings, it can be concluded that the artificially hibernated life of crucian carp was 38 h by the combination of anaesthetizing and low temperature. The muscle quality would not be influenced, and most of the stress responses would disappear after hibernated fish recovered.

  2. Application of physics technology in the preservation of food and fresh fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yaxiang; Hu Yucai; Xu Jianping

    2003-01-01

    Physics provides a new way for food storage and preservation. Experiments show that application of radiation, electrostatic fields, high voltage pulsed electric fields and microwaves to food, fruits and vegetables plays the part of insecticide, pasteurization and antisepsis without damaging nutritional structure and original flavor. Recent advances in the application of physics technology in food pasteurization and preservation are summarized, and prospects for future developments presented

  3. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Yook, Hong Sun; Lee, Ju Woon and others

    1999-03-01

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamma irradiation at 2-10 kGy is considered to be an effective method to control pathogenic bacteria in species including Escherichia coli O157:H7. Gamma irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in beef. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Gamma irradiation on pre-rigor beef shortens the aging-period, improves tenderness and enhances the beef quality. And, a new beef processing method using gamma irradiation, such as in the low salt sausage and hygienic beef patty was developed. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats(beefs: 0-5 kGy; porks: 0-30 kGy) in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepato carcinogenesis and the anti oxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide, which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export and import, some selected agricultural products, such as chestnuts, acorns, red beans and mung beans, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach.Current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfecting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of agricultural produce. However, irradiation doses suitable for controlling pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. (author)

  4. Amounts of artificial food dyes and added sugars in foods and sweets commonly consumed by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Laura J; Burgess, John R; Stochelski, Mateusz A; Kuczek, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Artificial food colors (AFCs) are used to color many beverages, foods, and sweets in the United States and throughout the world. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) limits the AFCs allowed in the diet to 9 different colors. The FDA certifies each batch of manufactured AFCs to guarantee purity and safety. The amount certified has risen from 12 mg/capita/d in 1950 to 62 mg/capita/d in 2010. Previously, we reported the amounts of AFCs in commonly consumed beverages. In this article, the amounts of AFCs in commonly consumed foods and sweets are reported. In addition, the amount of sugars in each product is included. Amounts of AFCs reported here along with the beverage data show that many children could be consuming far more dyes than previously thought. Clinical guidance is given to help caregivers avoid AFCs and reduce the amount of sugars in children's diets. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. isolated from chicken samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Buket; Demirhan, Burak; Onurdag, Fatma Kaynak; Ozgacar, Selda Özgen; Oktem, Aysel Bayhan

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella spp. are widespread foodborne pathogens that contaminate egg and poultry meats. Attachment, colonization, as well as biofilm formation capacity of Salmonella spp. on food and contact surfaces of food may cause continuous contamination. Biofilm may play a crucial role in the survival of salmonellae under unfavorable environmental conditions, such as in animal slaughterhouses and processing plants. This could serve as a reservoir compromising food safety and human health. Addition of antimicrobial preservatives extends shelf lives of food products, but even when products are supplemented with adequate amounts of preservatives, it is not always possible to inhibit the microorganisms in a biofilm community. In this study, our aims were i) to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBIC) of selected preservatives against planktonic and biofilm forms of Salmonella spp. isolated from chicken samples and Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 standard strain, ii) to show the differences in the susceptibility patterns of same strains versus the planktonic and biofilm forms to the same preservative agent, and iii) to determine and compare antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. For this purpose, Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 standard strain and 4 Salmonella spp. strains isolated from chicken samples were used. Investigation of antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. was done according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M100-S18 guidelines and BioTimer assay, respectively. As preservative agents, pure ciprofloxacin, sodium nitrite, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, methyl paraben, and propyl paraben were selected. As a result, it was determined that MBIC values are greater than the MIC values of the preservatives. This result verified the resistance seen in a biofilm community to food

  6. Gamma irradiation as a means of food preservation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pim, L.R.

    1983-11-01

    The status of food irradiation has changed significantly in the past three years with the establishment of inter-national standards by the Codex Alimentarious Commission of the United Nations and the setting of wholesomeness guidelines for a wide variety of foods by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on Food Irradiation. This report examines: the technology of food irradiation; the biochemical, nutritional and microbiological effects on food, with special attention paid to radiolytic products and their possible toxicity; the economic feasibility of a food irradiation industry; food irradiation in Canada -experience, outlook and regulatory proposals, and consumer reaction to irradiated foods; and presents conclusions and recommendations to Health and Welfare Canada and to Consumer and Corporate Affairs Canada

  7. Fish and food preservation by radiation in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) has been engaged for the last two decades in research and development activities in food irradiation and has been actively participating in research projects under the Regional Project in Food Irradiation (RPFI) of the RCA countries since its inception. The Institute of Food and Radiation Biology (IFRB) of the Commission has been using since 1979 a 50,000 curie Cobalt-60 gamma source (Gamma beam-650) for R and D and pilot-scale studies on food irradiation. The present status of food irradiation and its prospects of commercial introduction in Bangladesh are described

  8. The Antibacterial Potential of Fermented Taro and Its Development as a Food Preservative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muller, Wayne

    2002-01-01

    ...: The antibacterial potential of the fermented taro and its development as a food preservative. In an attempt to understand the natural fermentation of taro to poi, bacteria have been isolated from freeze dried poi produced in Hawaii...

  9. Essential oils as food eco-preservatives: Model system studies on the effect of temperature on limonene antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna; Flasiński, Michał; Romańczuk, Karolina

    2017-11-15

    Antimicrobial properties of essential oils predestine these substances to be used as ecological food preservatives. However, their activity is determined by variety of factors among which external conditions and food properties are highly important. Herein the influence of limonene on artificial membranes was studied to verify the effect of temperature on the incorporation of this compound into model bacterial membrane. The investigations were done on lipid monolayers and the experiments involved the surface pressure-area measurements, penetration studies and Brewster Angle Microscopy analysis. It was found that limonene incorporates into lipid monolayers causing their fluidization. However, the magnitude of alterations depends on limonene concentration, model membrane composition and, for a given composition, on system condensation. Moreover, the influence of limonene is stronger at lower temperatures and, in the light of collected data, this may be a consequence of strong volatility and evaporation of limonene increasing with temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 5 Steps to Food Preservation Program Meets the Needs of Idaho Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Lorie; Hoffman, Katie

    2014-01-01

    University of Idaho FCS Extension Educators in southeastern Idaho developed a five-lesson condensed version of safe food preservation classes, driven by participants' interest to meet the needs of everyday home preservers. A post-test survey revealed that participants took the course to be self-reliant, use their own produce, and be in control of…

  11. Is food irradiation an alternative to chemical preservation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1987-01-01

    The history is presented of food irradiation. The foods irradiated and the doses used are reported. The industrial use of food irradiation is restricted to a single industrial irradiation plant in Japan and several small facilities for irradiating herbs and feeds for special laboratory animal breeds. The limited application of the method is caused by high prices of radiation sources and adverse side effects (potato rotting, bad smell of meat, etc.). (M.D.). 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. Recent approaches in food bio-preservation - a review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes

    2018-03-19

    Mar 19, 2018 ... Department of Livestock Products Technology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, U.P. Pt. Deen ... bacteriophages may also be helpful in bio-preservation, however; their safety issues must be addressed properly before selection ... Fermentation process produces numbers of beneficial ...

  13. Vibro-thermal disinfestor for preservation of food grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chander, Ramesh; Dey, Chandan; Singh, Manjit

    2009-01-01

    Division of Remote Handling and Robotics (DRHR) along with Food Technology Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre has developed a simple vibro-thermal based system for disinfestations of food grains. This paper brings out the technical details of the system. (author)

  14. Natural and artificial radioactivity in commercial food for domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcante, Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    The levels of natural radioactivity throughout the planet and their eventual consequences are studied by Environmental Radioprotection. Over the past years, the international agencies concerned with radiation protection have debated over the practices conducted so far, regarding the protection of the fauna and ora, which believed that the recommendations implemented for human beings assured that other species were also protected. Thus, assessments of the activity concentration of different radionuclides in the environment, as well as the absorbed doses for species from different ecosystems, due to internal and external exposures, are needed. Brazil holds the second largest dog and cat population in the world and annually produces over 2 million tons of feed. The present work has investigated the radioactivity levels in commercial brands of dry dog and cat food, using high resolution gamma spectrometry. The results have shown activity concentrations for artificial radionuclides below the detector's Minimum Detectable Activity and also, low concentration levels for the natural radionuclides, varying from 0,9 ± 0,3 Bq/kg up to 5,1 ± 0,7 Bq/kg for 226 Ra, from 1,2 ± 0,4 Bq/kg up to 11,1 ± 1,0 Bq/kg for 232 Th and from 156 ± 7 Bq/kg up to 410± 19 Bq/kg for 40 K. In order to verify the mineral content in pet food, EDXRF technique was applied and, using multivariate statistics, correlations between the mineral and radionuclide content were verified. The good correlation observed between concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and calcium could be associated with meat and bone our used in feed manufacturing. The internal dose for some organs were inferred by Monte Carlo method and the results were no higher than 1 μGy/day. In summary, results have shown that the activity levels found in the pet food are low enough to conclude that the brands evaluated carry no radiological risks for the animals that consume them. (author)

  15. The activL® Artificial Disc: a next-generation motion-preserving implant for chronic lumbar discogenic pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, James J; Garcia, Rolando; Miller, Larry E

    2016-01-01

    Degeneration of the lumbar intervertebral discs is a leading cause of chronic low back pain in adults. Treatment options for patients with chronic lumbar discogenic pain unresponsive to conservative management include total disc replacement (TDR) or lumbar fusion. Until recently, only two lumbar TDRs had been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration − the Charité Artificial Disc in 2004 and the ProDisc-L Total Disc Replacement in 2006. In June 2015, a next-generation lumbar TDR received Food and Drug Administration approval − the activL® Artificial Disc (Aesculap Implant Systems). Compared to previous-generation lumbar TDRs, the activL® Artificial Disc incorporates specific design enhancements that result in a more precise anatomical match and allow a range of motion that better mimics the healthy spine. The results of mechanical and clinical studies demonstrate that the activL® Artificial Disc results in improved mechanical and clinical outcomes versus earlier-generation artificial discs and compares favorably to lumbar fusion. The purpose of this report is to describe the activL® Artificial Disc including implant characteristics, intended use, surgical technique, postoperative care, mechanical testing, and clinical experience to date. PMID:27274317

  16. Stability of fortified cefazolin ophthalmic solutions prepared in artificial tears containing surfactant-based versus oxidant-based preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojanarata, Theerasak; Tankul, Junlathip; Woranaipinich, Chayanee; Potawanich, Paweena; Plianwong, Samarwadee; Sakulma, Sirinart; Saehuan, Choedchai

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of fortified cefazolin sodium ophthalmic solutions (50 mg mL⁻¹) extemporaneously prepared in commercial artificial tears containing 2 different types of preservatives, namely the surfactants and oxidants. Fortified cefazolin sodium solutions were prepared by reconstituting cefazolin for injection with sterile water and further diluted with Tears Naturale II or Natear, 2 commercial artificial tears containing polyquaternium-1 and sodium perborate, respectively, as preservatives. The solutions were then kept at room temperature (28°C) or in the refrigerator (4°C). During the 28-day period, the formulations were periodically examined for the physical appearance, pH, and the remaining drug concentrations. The antibacterial potency was evaluated as the minimal inhibitory concentration against Staphylococcus aureus strain ATCC 29923 by broth dilution technique. The activity of the preservatives was demonstrated by antimicrobial effectiveness tests. On day 28, the microbial contamination in the preparations was tested. The stability profiles of cefazolin solutions prepared in Tears Naturale II, Natear, and water were not different, but they were significantly influenced by the storage temperature. The refrigerated formulations showed no loss of drug and antibacterial potency as well as alteration of physical appearance and pH throughout the 28 days. In contrast, those kept at room temperature showed gradual change in color and odor. The degradation of drug exceeded 10% from day 3 and the decrease of antibacterial potency could be observed at week 3. All cefazolin solutions prepared in artificial tears retained the antimicrobial activity of preservatives and were free from bacterial and fungal contamination throughout the 28-day period of study. Cefazolin sodium ophthalmic solutions can be extemporaneously prepared in Tears Naturale II or Natear without the influence from different types of preservatives used in

  17. Application of low dose radiation for preservation of sea foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.; Nair, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Treatment of food with low doses of gamma radiation has been recognized to have two main advantages. These consist of: (1) improvement of food safety by elimination of pathogens and (2) reduction of microbial spoilage and extension of shelf life of perishable items by reducing the number of viable spoilage organisms. Studies during the last few decades have conclusively proved the beneficial effects of radiation with respect to fishery products. The three potential areas of application to fish products include: (i) radurization for shelf life extension (ii) radicidation to eliminate food borne pathogens in the products and (iii) radiation treatment to dried products to control insects

  18. Nanomaterials for fresh-keeping and sterilization in food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongfang; Gu, Ning

    2009-06-01

    Food sterilizing and antistaling technologies are very important to the public's health and safety and have been attracting more and more attentions. In the past several years, new development chance was created by the introduction of nanomaterials to this critical field. Nanomaterials possess lots of outstanding properties, such as unique quantum size effect, large surface area and catalytic properties, which jointly facilitate high effective fresh-keeping, and thus were considered as promising materials in food sterilization and antistale. This review article focuses on the patented applications of nanomaterials as food biocidal agents, bacteriostatic agents, catalysts and carriers for antistaling agents.

  19. Food Preservation Manual: A Guide for School-Community Canneries in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jasper S., Ed.; Wood, Charles B.

    The manual was intended primarily for use by lay instructors and assistants involved in the daily operation of school-community canneries under the supervision of a high school agricultural education instructor. The first half deals in detail with the fundamentals of food preparation and cannery operation. Food preservation by canning, sanitation…

  20. Economic Feasibility Study for Using Irradiation Technology in Preservation of Animalism Foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gameel, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study discus the economic feasibility for the preservation animalism foods by using irradiation technology. This study has included the technical data, regression foretelling for the throughput, determination of irradiators types and radiation sources activity. This study comprises the financial analysis for the establishment animalism foods irradiation facilities (types: tote box, pallet conveyor) and the national return

  1. Food Preservation Mini-Modules Offer Options for Learners and Extension Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Renewed interest in growing and purchasing locally grown foods quadrupled requests for food preservation classes. Economic times tightened budgets, decreasing staffing levels of Extension educators. Offering options via the Internet was a natural progression to meet the increased demand. Extension educators created 20 5-minute online video--like…

  2. Detailed process design based on genomics of survivors of food preservation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brul, S.; Klis, F.M.; Oomes, S.J.C.M.; Montijn, R.C.; Schuren, F.H.J.; Coote, P.; Hellingwerf, K.J.

    2002-01-01

    The food processing industry is faced with an ever-increasing demand for safe and minimally processed wholesome foods. In order to come to a knowledge-based rather than a mainly empirical combination of appropriate preservation hurdles, we will introduce the application of the recently booming

  3. Nuclear technology applied to food preservation and sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvez, M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation to conserve and sterilize food dates back to 1995, when the first tests were performed in USA as part of the Atoms for peace program. After much controversy, the most prestigious international organizations- OECD, code Alimentarius, FDA and EC have not only authorized but also recommended its use. It is a proven fact that food irradiation provides optimum results for inhibition treatment of tuber shoots, elimination of insects from fruits and seeds, delaying the maturing processes of fruit and elimination of alternative microorganisms and pathogens in any type of food. Food is treated in two types of plants: 1.- Radioactive isotope plants or gamma radiation plants 2.- electron accelerator plants (beta radiation plants). These two types of plants are thoroughly legislated, as are the form and doses of the treatments. Commercial food irradiation is done in 32 countries in the world but is authorized in more than 40, and the WHO recommends that the method be used on a widespread basis, as it believes that it can help to improve food-related health worldwide. (Author) 5 refs.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of coriander oil and its effectiveness as food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Filomena; Domingues, Fernanda C

    2017-01-02

    ABTRACT Foodborne illness represents a major economic burden worldwide and a serious public health threat, with around 48 million people affected and 3,000 death each year only in the USA. One of the possible strategies to reduce foodborne infections is the development of effective preservation strategies capable of eradicating microbial contamination of foods. Over the last years, new challenges for the food industry have arisen such as the increase of antimicrobial resistance of foodborne pathogens to common preservatives and consumers demand for naturally based products. In order to overcome this, new approaches using natural or bio-based products as food preservatives need to be investigated. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a well-known herb widely used as spice, or in folk medicine, and in the pharmacy and food industries. Coriander seed oil is the world's second most relevant essential oil, exhibiting antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, some yeasts, dermatophytes and filamentous fungi. This review highlights coriander oil antimicrobial activity and possible mechanisms of action in microbial cells and discusses the ability of coriander oil usage as a food preservative, pointing out possible paths for the successful evolution for these strategies towards a successful development of a food preservation strategy using coriander oil.

  5. Evaluation of the economic feasibility of radiation preservation of selected food commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balazs-Sprincz, V.

    1977-01-01

    Food preservation methods have increased in importance with the rapid increase in world population. A novel preservation method, ionizing radiation, shows promising applications. Its economic feasibility has been carefully studied for the last two decades. The article reviews the literature on the economics of food irradiation. Cost-benefit analyses on irradiation of grain for disinfestation, on potatoes and onions for sprout inhibition and on mushrooms for retarding growth are surveyed in the first part. Calculations based on data of a few food-irradiation pilot plants and non-food irradiation plants indicate the cost range of the radiation treatment of these food items. The unit cost of irradiation would be only a few per cent of the value of produce treated and would not exceed the order of cost of other conventional preservation methods. The second part surveys the economic aspects of the application of ionizing radiation to food items including strawberries, certain tropical fruits, meat and marine products. The cost levels would seem to be acceptable to food processors. A food-irradiation plant would cost US$ 10 5 -10 6 and the annual operating cost would be from US$ 20000 to US$ 2 million. The prospective benefit of food irradiation would far outweigh the cost of treatment. Improved product quality, decreased spoilage losses and extension of shelf-life are considered to constitute the main benefits of food irradiation. (author)

  6. Facets of Nanotechnology as Seen in Food Processing, Packaging, and Preservation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Neha; Singh, Surjit; Ojha, Nupur; Shrivastava, Anamika; Barla, Anil; Rai, Vivek; Bose, Sutapa

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has proven its competence in almost all possible fields we are aware of. However, today nanotechnology has evolved in true sense by contributing to a very large extent to the food industry. With the growing number of mouths to feed, production of food is not adequate. It has to be preserved in order to reach to the masses on a global scale. Nanotechnology made the idea a reality by increasing the shelf life of different kinds of food materials. It is not an entirely full-proof measure; however it has brought down the extent of wastage of food due to microbial infestation. Not only fresh food but also healthier food is being designed with the help of nano-delivery systems which act as a carrier for the food supplements. There are regulations to follow however as several of them pose serious threats to the wellbeing of the population. In coming days, newer modes of safeguarding food are going to be developed with the help of nanotechnology. In this paper, an overview has been given of the different methods of food processing, packaging, and preservation techniques and the role nanotechnology plays in the food processing, packaging, and preservation industry.

  7. Facets of Nanotechnology as Seen in Food Processing, Packaging, and Preservation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Neha; Singh, Surjit; Ojha, Nupur; Shrivastava, Anamika; Barla, Anil; Rai, Vivek; Bose, Sutapa

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has proven its competence in almost all possible fields we are aware of. However, today nanotechnology has evolved in true sense by contributing to a very large extent to the food industry. With the growing number of mouths to feed, production of food is not adequate. It has to be preserved in order to reach to the masses on a global scale. Nanotechnology made the idea a reality by increasing the shelf life of different kinds of food materials. It is not an entirely full-proof measure; however it has brought down the extent of wastage of food due to microbial infestation. Not only fresh food but also healthier food is being designed with the help of nano-delivery systems which act as a carrier for the food supplements. There are regulations to follow however as several of them pose serious threats to the wellbeing of the population. In coming days, newer modes of safeguarding food are going to be developed with the help of nanotechnology. In this paper, an overview has been given of the different methods of food processing, packaging, and preservation techniques and the role nanotechnology plays in the food processing, packaging, and preservation industry. PMID:26613082

  8. Preservation of Fish by Irradiation. Proceedings of a Panel on the Irradiation Preservation of Foods of Marine Origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    The increasing emphasis on the need for protein-rich foods to improve the nutritional status of the world’s population has stimulated research on new methods of preserving fishery products. The sea offers a source of protein that could markedly reduce the protein gap existing in many parts of the world. The major problem in attaining a more complete exploitation of these products is how to preserve them so that they can be transported from the points of origin to areas of greatest need. The use of ionizing radiation as a preservation method has been satisfactorily demonstrated in many countries. In some respects it offers advantages over conventional methods; for example, it prolongs the market life without using heat or chemicals, and what is more, the products are treated while they are sealed in commercial types of containers. Although radiation processing appears feasible, additional research is needed to improve certain quality attributes of some treated foods and to demonstrate to the satisfaction of health authorities' that no deleterious effects result. To obtain advice on the problems that need attention a Panel on Irradiation Preservation of Foods of Marine Origin was convened in Vienna, by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture, on 15—19 December 1969. The main purpose of the panel’s work was to advise the Director General of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency on how these organizations can best fulfil their roles in radiation research on fishery products. The meeting was attended by thirteen experts from various countries and one representative of the World Health Organization. Reports were presented on research performed and detailed discussions were held on work done in perfecting the radurization treatment of fishery products. Evaluations were made of the microbiology of the radurization process, with special reference to

  9. Preservation of Fish by Irradiation. Proceedings of a Panel on the Irradiation Preservation of Foods of Marine Origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1970-11-15

    The increasing emphasis on the need for protein-rich foods to improve the nutritional status of the world's population has stimulated research on new methods of preserving fishery products. The sea offers a source of protein that could markedly reduce the protein gap existing in many parts of the world. The major problem in attaining a more complete exploitation of these products is how to preserve them so that they can be transported from the points of origin to areas of greatest need. The use of ionizing radiation as a preservation method has been satisfactorily demonstrated in many countries. In some respects it offers advantages over conventional methods; for example, it prolongs the market life without using heat or chemicals, and what is more, the products are treated while they are sealed in commercial types of containers. Although radiation processing appears feasible, additional research is needed to improve certain quality attributes of some treated foods and to demonstrate to the satisfaction of health authorities' that no deleterious effects result. To obtain advice on the problems that need attention a Panel on Irradiation Preservation of Foods of Marine Origin was convened in Vienna, by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture, on 15-19 December 1969. The main purpose of the panel's work was to advise the Director General of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency on how these organizations can best fulfil their roles in radiation research on fishery products. The meeting was attended by thirteen experts from various countries and one representative of the World Health Organization. Reports were presented on research performed and detailed discussions were held on work done in perfecting the radurization treatment of fishery products. Evaluations were made of the microbiology of the radurization process, with special reference to the

  10. Judgement of irradiation-preserved food by the adult population in Hungary (preliminary publication)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolnay, P.; Szabo, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    A wide survey by questionnaires was started in 1997 in the subject area of Nutrition and Health. Part of this survey was directed toward the acceptance of preserved food by irradiation treatment by the public. The results have been evaluated here and presented. The main problem was to find out the differences of various segments of the Hungarian adult population in their judgement of irradiated food, and what is the general knowledge in relation with radiopreservation technology of food. (R.P.)

  11. The role of packaging in preserving the quality of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varsanyi, I.

    1979-01-01

    The causes of food decomposition and the different conserving methods are reviewed. Among the physical conserving procedures the ionizing gamma and electron radiations are more and more widely used. The applied radiation dose is intended to exterminate even the most resistant microorganisms, e.g. the spores of Clostridium botulinum, but it should not damage the food product. The appropiate packaging material should be chosen according to the conserving technology, as radiation may alter the consistence of modern plastics (they become more rigid or fragile) or chemical disintegration can be induced rendering the product unenjoyable. (L.E.)

  12. Chitosan-incorporated different nanocomposite HPMC films for food preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuga Priya, D.; Suriyaprabha, R.; Yuvakkumar, R.; Rajendran, V.

    2014-02-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles were synthesized by cross-linking with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) using ionic gelation method and casted into hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films. XRD, FTIR, and UV-Vis spectra showed the corresponding phase, characteristic peaks of CS-TPP functional groups, and transmittance of the films, respectively. Oleic acid, TiO2, neem powder, and Ag of equal ratio were added as an additive to the optimized 1 wt% of chitosan-HPMC films and studied for its mechanical, solubility, thermal, structural, and antimicrobial property. The better physio-chemical and biological properties are achieved in the films incorporated with TiO2 and neem. The characterized films were directly tested for the preservation of grape and plums and for their decay index. Polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activity of the preserved fruits showed that grape and plums remained unchanged, respectively, for 10 days and for 3 weeks. This study reveals that shelf life of the grape using TiO2- and neem-doped CS-HPMC films was extended up to 10 days with good sensory and textural qualities compared with other films.

  13. Application of edible coating with essential oil in food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jian; Xie, Yunfei; Guo, Yahui; Cheng, Yuliang; Qian, He; Yao, Weirong

    2018-03-26

    Compared with other types of packaging, edible coatings are becoming more and more popular because of their more environmentally friendly properties and active ingredients carrying ability. The edible coating can reduce the influence of essential oils (EOs) on the flavor of the product and also can prolong the action time of EOs through the slow-release effect, which effectively promote the application of EOs in food. Understanding the different combinations of edible coatings and EOs as well as their antimicrobial effects on different microorganisms will be more powerful and targeted to promote the application of EOs in real food systems. The review focus on the contribution of the combination of EOs and edible coatings (EO-edible coatings) to prolong the shelf life of food products, (1) specifically addressing the main materials used in the preparation of EO-edible coatings and the application of EO-edible coatings in the product, (2) systematically summarizing the main production method of EO-edible coatings, (3) discussing the antiseptic activity of EO-edible coatings on different microorganisms in food.

  14. Possible use of ionizing radiation in food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salkova, Z.

    1975-01-01

    An informative survey is presented of the application of ionizing radiation in the food industry based on experiments performed and literary data. The possibility of radiation treatment of potatoes, onions and strawberries is discussed and the positive effect of experimentally determined gamma radiation doses on the extension of storage of meat is shown

  15. Radiation Dosimetry for Quality Control of Food Preservation and Disinfestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, Arne; Uribe, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    In the use of x and gamma rays and scanned electron beams to extend the shelf life of food by delay of sprouting and ripening, killing of microbes, and control of insect population, quality assurance is provided by standardized radiation dosimetry. By strategic placement of calibrated dosimeters...

  16. Consumption of artificial food colourings by school children in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Kist-van Holthe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is on-going controversy as to whether food colourings can cause symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children. The aim of our study was to assess which artificial food colourings children in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, consume, and in what quantities. Methods: A variety of products available in supermarkets and grocery shops in Amsterdam were surveyed for the presence of artificial food colourings (2012–2013. Subsequently, daily intake of artificial food colourings were assessed in a convenience sample of children (n=121, median age 7.0, range 5–12 years, 50% boys using a three-day prospective food diary (two weekdays and one day at the weekend, and compared to the acceptable daily intake (ADI. Results: Seventy-three of 550 (13% products from supermarkets, groceries, and Turkish and Moroccan shops contained artificial food colourings, predominantly in sweets (33% and (carbonated beverages (31%. Brilliant Blue (E133, Patent Blue (E131 and Indigotine (E132 were most often encountered. Of the 121 children surveyed, 18 (15% consumed artificial food colourings, though only Brilliant Blue (E133, Patent Blue (E131, Indigotine (E132 and Green S (E142 were encountered. The mean intake varied from 0.02–0.96 mg/kg/day, which is below the ADI (5–15 mg/kg/day. None of the children consumed yellow, orange or red artificial food colours. Conclusions: Intake of artificial food colourings in children in Amsterdam is well below the acceptable daily intake (ADI and is limited to Brilliant Blue (E133, Patent Blue (E131, Indigotine (E132 and Green S (E142.

  17. Preservation of food by cold chains. Part 4. Brief history of the industrial food preservation; Conservering van voedingsmiddelen door koudeketens. Deel 4. Korte historie van de industriele voedingsmiddelenconservering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Berg, C.; Berends, E.

    2011-10-01

    This is the fourth article in the series on cold chain food preservation, which describes the use of refrigeration in the food industry. Milestones were the building of cold chains for food distribution and new processes such as margarine and lager beer, and the scaling up of existing processes (e.g. for dairy, meat and fish products). By quick freezing, introduced by Clarence Birdseye in 1925, refrigeration can also be used for long term preservation of food products, as a powerful alternative for canning food. [Dutch] Dit vierde artikel in de reeks 'voedingsmiddelenconservering door koudeketens' completeert de beknopte historie van de voedingsmiddelenindustrie met een overzicht van het in gebruik nemen van de koelmachine. Mijlpalen zijn het ontstaan van koudeketens voor voedseldistributie en de nu mogelijk geworden nieuwe processen, de bereiding van pilsbier en margarine, de opschaling van bereidingsprocessen en het lange-afstandtransport van bederfelijke producten zoals zuivelproducten, vlees en vis. Door diepvriezen als methode aan te wenden, uitgevonden door Clarence Birdseye in 1925, kan koude ook worden gebruikt om voedingsmiddelen lang houdbaar te maken, een superieur alternatief voor inblikken van voedsel.

  18. Studies on the preservation of food by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.K.; Umeda, K.

    1979-01-01

    This work was conducted to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on the preservation of potato. The Irish Cobbler potato tubers were irradiated at the doses of 7 krad and 15 krad of gamma ray of Co-60 at room temperature. When the potato tubers were stored under various conditions, the freshness and preservability of irradiated potato tubers were remarkably extended by 20, June. The results of this work are summarized as follows: The potato tubers applied with 15 krad of gamma ray were observed freshness without any shrinkage and defects. The potato tubers of control rotted and sprouted completely on 3, March. All tubers of them were cured at 7 0 C and relative humidity of 90% for a month before irradiation and they were treated at 18-20 0 C and RH 80% for 2 weeks after irradiation. They were stored at the above mentioned conditions. Reducing Sugar content of irradiated potato tubers was negligibly changed such as non-irradiated potato tubers along with an extended storage period, when they, as pre-and post-irradiation, were stored at 7 0 C and RH 90%. If they were treated at 18-20 0 C and RH 80% for 2 weeks after irradiation, reducing sugar content of the potato tubers was temporarily increased and then it was decreased as much as the former. As the result of microscopic test for the wound-peridom formation of potato tubers, the dark brown cork layer of wounded tuber of control was perfectly built up at about 2 weeks of the post wound, and starch particles have disappeared almost. The cork layer of irradiated potato tuber was formed at 3-4 weeks after wounded and also starch particles were not watched. The layers irradiated potato was observed the same as cork layer of sound potato. (author)

  19. Food-processing, packaging and irradiation/preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, Jyothi

    2017-01-01

    The present talk describes the major projects being carried out in FFACS during last few years. One of the major aims of the section is development of ready-to-cook (RTC) vegetables and ready-to-eat (RTE) fruits with improved shelf life using radiation processing. RTC vegetables and fruits (French beans, ash gourd, drumstick, pumpkin, cabbage, cauliflower and pomegranate having shelf life of 2-3 days at 10 °C) with enhanced shelf life (up to 21 days at 10°C) were developed using radiation treatment. The developed products were far superior as compared to the corresponding control samples with respect to sensory and microbial quality during the intended storage period. The findings have helped the food industry in adoption of food irradiation technology. The products developed are now being taken up by HyperCITY Retail (India) Ltd. for sale on their shelves

  20. Food preservation by ionizing radiation in Nigeria. Present and future status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olorunda, A.O.; Aboaba, F.O.

    1978-01-01

    Research into the use of ionizing radiation in food preservation in Nigeria is still in its very infancy and most of the work done to date is at the exploratory stage. Such work has, however, demonstrated the potential of ionizing radiation in prolonging the shelf-life of yams and, possibly, onions. The paper reviews the present status of the use of radiation food preservation in Nigeria. The present research programme of the Faculty of Technology, University of Ibadan, which includes a wider application of ionizing radiation to fruit and vegetable preservation and grain storage, is also highlighted. The primary objectives of this programme are to establish the wholesomeness of the irradiated foods and the economics of the process. (author)

  1. Effects of food preservatives on growth and metabolism of plaque bacteria in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leikanger, S.; Bjertness, E.; Aamdal Scheie, A.

    1992-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the consumption of food preservatives during the last decades, and to study the effect of the preservatives, sorbic and benzoic acid, on growth and glycolysis of oral bacteria in vitro, and on acid formation by dental plaque in vivo. Five consumption reports from the Central Bureau of Statistics of Norway were used to estimate alterations in consumption of staple food containing the two preservatives. A modified broth dilution method was used to determine the MIC values of the preservatives against Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus sanguis. Extracellular 14 C-glycolytic metabolites were studied by HPLC analyses. Plaque-pH measurements were used to assess possible effects on acid production. The consumption reports were used to assess possible effects on acid production. The consumption reports indicated increased consumption of preservatives. The in vitro testing suggested that legal concentrations of preservatives may inhibit the growth of oral streptococci. However, the preservatives did not inhibit in vitro glycolysis at tested concentrations. In vivo testing with similar concentrations (0.4% w/v) showed a significant effect. A higher concentration (2% w/v potassium sorbate) had a tendency to inhibit acid-formation by dental plaque even more. (au)

  2. 21 CFR 501.22 - Animal foods; labeling of spices, flavorings, colorings, and chemical preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products thereof. Artificial flavor includes... products, or fermentation products thereof, whose significant function in food is flavoring rather than... or retard deterioration thereof, but does not include common salt, sugars, vinegars, spices, or oils...

  3. Food preservation experiment by irradiation in the south zone of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levit, Vladimir; Santos, Ari S.; Foes, Altair D.R.; Vaniel, Ana P.; Louzada, Ana R.; Silveira, Cristina M.; Jardim, Lisandra F.; Mesko, Marcia F.

    2000-01-01

    The south zone of the state of Rio Grande do Sul is characterized as an area of great food production as fruits, vegetables, meats, fish among others. In Brazil, the state RS is the producing greater of onion and peach. It was intended to study the use of the irradiation for the propose of preservation of peaches and onions, relating the diverse doses with the capacity of conservation of the peaches and retardation in the process of budding of onions. It was objective also to follow the changes in the properties of the peaches and onions radiated related to the physic-chemical and nutritional parameters, as well as determining the dose of radiation that is more efficient in the preservation and that provokes minor number of alterations in the sensorial and nutritional properties of these foods. In the process of preservation for irradiation the foods are submitted to a field of ionizing radiation in rigorously burst conditions in mode that the food receives the amount from necessary and enough energy for the intended handling. Different doses of gamma radiation of 60 Co had been used and the reached results show to the effectiveness of this technique in the preservation of studied foods

  4. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto,; Budiyono

    2015-01-01

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration

  5. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  6. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto,; Budiyono [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof. H. Soedarto, SH, Kampus Baru Tembalang, Semarang (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  7. The Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Microorganisms in Food Preservation

    OpenAIRE

    M. Arici

    2006-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is a new food preservation technology known for its capacity to inactivate spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. High-pressure treatments are receiving a great deal of attention for the inactivation of microorganisms in food processing, pressure instead of temperature is used as stabilizing factor. High hydrostatic pressure treatment is the most studied alternative process, many works reported successful results in inactivating a wide range of microorganisms under ...

  8. The application of nuclear track microhole membrance in food preservation through irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Defeng; Li Xianhai

    1999-01-01

    The author introduces a new practical air-seeping and germ-prevention packing container made with a combination of the 0.1-0.5 μm borediameter nuclear track microhole membrane (NTMM) and the PE food wrapper or other poisonous less PE containers of different shapes. It can be applied in the field of food preservation, especially for storage of fresh fruits through irradiation, to achieve breathing with oxygen, and thus to prolong the storage duration

  9. Potential use of Rosemary, Propolis and Thyme as Natural Food Preservatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzima, K.; Makris, D.; Nikiforidis, C.V.; Mourtzinos, I.

    2015-01-01

    The use of preservatives in food stuffs and beverages is essential in order to prevent spoilage due to microbial growth or undesirable chemical changes. However, the use of synthetic additives has been associated with various health problems. Therefore, consumers have turned suspicious and obverted

  10. Estimates of dietary exposure of children to artificial food colours in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, A; Sawaya, W; Al-Omair, A; Al-Zenki, S; Al-Amiri, H; Ahmed, N; Al-Sinan, M

    2006-03-01

    To assess the intake of artificial food colour additives by 5-14-year-old children in the State of Kuwait, a 24-h dietary recall was conducted twice on 3141 male and female Kuwaiti and non-Kuwaiti children from 58 schools. The determination of colour additives in 344 foods items consumed was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector. A comparison with the Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) was undertaken to evaluate the potential risk associated with the consumption of artificial colour additives by children in Kuwait. The results indicated that out of nine permitted colours, four exceeded their ADIs by factors of 2-8: tartrazine, sunset yellow, carmoisine and allura red. Further, follow-up studies to provide insight into potential adverse health effects associated with the high intakes of these artificial colour additives on the test population are warranted.

  11. Exposure assessment of food preservatives (sulphites, benzoic and sorbic acid) in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischek, Daniela; Krapfenbauer-Cermak, Christine

    2012-01-01

    An exposure assessment was performed to estimate the potential intake of preservatives in the Austrian population. Food consumption data of different population groups, such as preschool children aged 3-6 years, female and male adults aged 19-65 years were used for calculation. Levels of the preservatives in food were derived from analyses conducted from January 2007 to August 2010. Dietary intakes of the preservatives were estimated and compared to the respective acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). In the average-intake scenario, assuming that consumers randomly consume food products that do or do not contain food additives, estimated dietary intakes of all studied preservatives are well below the ADI for all population groups. Sulphite exposure accounted for 34%, 84% and 89% of the ADI in preschool children, females and males, respectively. The mean estimated daily intake of benzoic acid was 32% (preschool children), 31% (males) and 36% (females) of the ADI. Sorbic acid intakes correspond to 7% of the ADI in preschool children and 6% of the ADI in adults. In the high-intake scenario assuming that consumers always consume food products that contain additives and considering a kind of brand loyalty of consumers, the ADI is exceeded for sulphites among adults (119 and 124%, respectively). Major contributors to the total intake of sulphites were wine and dried fruits for adults. Mean estimated dietary intakes of benzoic acid exceeded the ADI in all population groups, 135% in preschool children, 124% in females and 118% of the ADI in males, respectively. Dietary intakes of sorbic acid are well below the ADI, accounting for a maximum of 30% of the ADI in preschool children. The highest contributors to benzoic and sorbic acid exposure were fish and fish products mainly caused by high consumption data of this large food group, including also mayonnaise-containing fish salads. Other important sources of sorbic acid were bread, buns and toast bread and fruit and vegetable

  12. Inorganic nutrients in natural and artificial food of Dacus oleae larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoukas, A.G.; Grimanis, A.; Mazomenos, B.

    1978-01-01

    Certain inorganic nutrients contained in the natural and artificial food of Dacus oleae larvae were determined by neutron activation analysis and spectrophotometry. The content of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron, zinc, copper and phosporus was reported for the olive fruit mesocarp at three stages of maturity, brewer's yeast, soybean hydrolysate and roasted peanuts. Several differences were found between the inorganic nutrient content of the natural food (olive fruit) and artificial diet of D. oleae larvae. The differences which may be important in the nutrition and metabolism of this insect were estimated and discussed

  13. Eucalyptus essential oil as a natural food preservative: in vivo and in vitro antiyeast potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Bukvicki, Danka; Gottardi, Davide; Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Malik, Anushree; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the application of eucalyptus essential oil/vapour as beverages preservative is reported. The chemical composition of eucalyptus oil was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and solid phase microextraction GC-MS (SPME/GC-MS) analyses. GC-MS revealed that the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (80.5%), limonene (6.5%), α-pinene (5%), and γ-terpinene (2.9%) while SPME/GC-MS showed a relative reduction of 1,8-cineole (63.9%) and an increase of limonene (13.8%), α-pinene (8.87%), and γ-terpinene (3.98%). Antimicrobial potential of essential oil was initially determined in vitro against 8 different food spoilage yeasts by disc diffusion, disc volatilization, and microdilution method. The activity of eucalyptus vapours was significantly higher than the eucalyptus oil. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) varied from 0.56 to 4.50 mg/mL and from 1.13 to 9 mg/mL, respectively. Subsequently, the combined efficacy of essential oil and thermal treatment were used to evaluate the preservation of a mixed fruit juice in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest eucalyptus oil as a potent inhibitor of food spoilage yeasts not only in vitro but also in a real food system. Currently, this is the first report that uses eucalyptus essential oil for fruit juice preservation against food spoiling yeast.

  14. Willingness to purchase Genetically Modified food: an analysis applying artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar-Ordóñez, M.; Rodríguez-Entrena, M.; Becerra-Alonso, D.

    2014-01-01

    Findings about consumer decision-making process regarding GM food purchase remain mixed and are inconclusive. This paper offers a model which classifies willingness to purchase GM food, using data from 399 surveys in Southern Spain. Willingness to purchase has been measured using three dichotomous questions and classification, based on attitudinal, cognitive and socio-demographic factors, has been made by an artificial neural network model. The results show 74% accuracy to forecast the willin...

  15. Artificial sweeteners and mixture of food additives cause to break oral tolerance and induce food allergy in murine oral tolerance model for food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, H; Matsuhara, H; Miotani, S; Sako, Y; Matsui, T; Tanaka, H; Inagaki, N

    2017-09-01

    Processed foods are part of daily life. Almost all processed foods contain food additives such as sweeteners, preservatives and colourants. From childhood, it is difficult to avoid consuming food additives. It is thought that oral tolerance for food antigens is acquired during early life. If tolerance fails, adverse immune responses to food proteins may occur. We hypothesized that food additives prevent acquisition of oral tolerance and aimed to verify the safety of food additives. We induced experimental oral tolerance in mice for ovalbumin (OVA), a food antigen, by previous oral treatment with OVA before sensitization with OVA injections. Food additives were administered at the induction of oral tolerance, and food allergy was induced by repeated administration of OVA. Symptoms of food allergy were defined as a change in body temperature and allergic diarrhoea. Saccharin sodium and a mixture of food additives inhibited acquisition of oral tolerance. Hypothermia and allergic diarrhoea with elevation of OVA-specific IgE were induced in the murine model of oral tolerance. Analyses of antigen-presenting cells in mesenteric lymph nodes showed that food additives affected their manner of migration. Additionally, food additives decreased the proportion of CD25 hi regulatory T cells among CD4 + T cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes. A large amount of food additives may prevent acquisition of oral tolerance. Intake of food additives in early life may increase the risk of food allergies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Comparative Effects of Food Preservatives on the Production of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin I from Staphylococcus aureus Isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanying Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal enterotoxin I (SEI is associated with staphylococcal food poisoning, but little is known about different food preservatives on the production of SEI. In this study, the effect of different food preservatives (sodium nitrite, polylysine, chitosan, and tea catechin on the bacteria growth, sei gene expression, and extracellular SEI production of Staphylococcus aureus isolate H4 was detected in tryptone soya broth (TSB culture. Our results showed that all of these preservatives depressed S. aureus H4 growth and the order of inhibitory effect was 0.8 g/L tea catechin > 6 g/L chitosan > 0.25 g/L polylysine > 0.4 g/L tea catechin > 0.15 g/L sodium nitrite. Furthermore, 0.25 g/L polylysine or 0.15 g/L sodium nitrite did not significantly alter sei gene transcription, while 6 g/L chitosan obviously increased the relative mRNA level of sei gene expression. 0.4 g/L tea catechin remarkably inhibited sei gene transcription. In addition, 0.15 g/L sodium nitrite and 6 g/L chitosan significantly enhanced SEI secretion. 0.25 g/L polylysine, especially 0.4 g/L tea catechin, sharply inhibited the level of SEI secretion. The results indicated that tea catechin not only suppressed Staphylococcus aureus growth, but also inhibited SEI production and secretion, suggesting that tea catechin may be better than sodium nitrite, polylysine, or chitosan for keeping the food from the contamination of SEI. These investigations would be useful for food industry to provide safer food products due to S. aureus enterotoxins-related control strategy.

  17. Lowering of thermal stress in food preservation by reduction of the thermal resistance of microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, I.

    1981-01-01

    Preservation of foodstuffs by heat treatment is a high-energy process the intensity of which is widely determined by the high thermoresistance of microbes and spores. However, tests revealed that germ numbers can be reduced and heat sensitivity of the spores can be increased by radiation treatment of the food additives. Thus the heat load of the products and the energy consumption could be reduced. (author)

  18. Knowledge and attitudes of selected home ecnomists toward irradiation in food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, F.C.S.

    1990-01-01

    Preservation of food with ionizing radiation treatment offers many benefits to consumers. Among other factors, the lack of certainty of the acceptance of this process by the public has slowed its commercial use in the U.S. Since home economists deal with food-related issues, it is likely that they will be asked questions by the public about this process. This project was designed to obtain information using a survey method about the knowledge and attitudes of selected California home economists toward the use of irradiation to preserve food. The information was used to determine whether a need existed to provide education about the irradiation process to these professionals. The survey revealed that these home economists lacked knowledge about the irradiation process, although they had a positive attitude toward it and desired to learn more about it. Based on these findings, a 90-minute statewide teleconference was conducted and viewed by more than 300 home economists and other interested professionals. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to analyze the data. Results revealed that (a) knowledge of and a positive attitude toward food irradiation increased as a result of participation in the teleconference, (b) the information provided was helpful, and (c) the objectives of the teleconference were met. This project should be replicated using a nationwide sample of home economists to obtain information about the knowledge and attitudes of a wide range of home economists about food irradiation and, if a need is demonstrated, a nationwide teleconference should be conducted

  19. Radiation technology for preservation and hygienization of food and agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajare, Sachin N.

    2017-01-01

    Growing population demands more food for consumption. Given that the agricultural land is shrinking day by day in urban as well as rural areas, we are left with no choice but to preserve the produce in whatever way we can. In this scenario, gamma irradiation or exposure of foods or food products to high energy rays is a very effective technology in long term preservation of these products. Food Irradiation is an established and effective processing methodology that involves controlled application of energy from ionizing radiations in an irradiation chamber shielded by thick concrete walls using radioisotopes (Cobalt-60 and Caesium-137), electron beam (up to 10 MeV) and X-rays (up to 5 MeV). Presently it is being practiced in more than 60 countries for various applications. Radiation processing can achieve insect disinfestation of stored products, inhibition of sprouting in tubers, bulbs and rhizomes, delay in fruit ripening, destruction of microbes responsible for food spoilage and elimination of pathogens and parasites of public health importance

  20. Functionality of liquid smoke as an all-natural antimicrobial in food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingbeck, Jody M; Cordero, Paola; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Johnson, Michael G; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip G

    2014-06-01

    The smoking of foods, especially meats, has been used as a preservation technique for centuries. Today, smoking methods often involve the use of wood smoke condensates, commonly known as liquid smoke. Liquid smoke is produced by condensing wood smoke created by the pyrolysis of sawdust or wood chips followed by removal of the carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The main products of wood pyrolysis are phenols, carbonyls and organic acids which are responsible for the flavor, color and antimicrobial properties of liquid smoke. Several common food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus have shown sensitivity to liquid smoke in vitro and in food systems. Therefore liquid smoke has potential for use as an all-natural antimicrobial in commercial applications where smoke flavor is desired. This review will cover the application and effectiveness of liquid smoke and fractions of liquid smoke as an all-natural food preservative. This review will be valuable for the industrial and research communities in the food science and technology areas. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Food irradiation: A technique for preserving and improving the safety of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Processing of food with low levels of radiation has the potential to contribute to reducing both spoilage of food during storage - a particular problem in developing countries - and the high incidence of food-borne disease currently seen in all countries. Approval has been granted for the treatment of more than 30 products with radiation in over 30 countries but, in general, governments have been slow to authorize the use of this new technique. One reason for this slowness is a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails. This book aims to increase understanding by providing information on the process of food irradiation in simple, non-technical language. It describes the effects that irradiation has on food, and the plant and equipment that are necessary to carry it out safely. The legislation and control mechanisms required to ensure the safety of food irradiation facilities are also discussed. Education is seen as the key to gaining the confidence of the consumers in the safety of irradiated food, and to promoting understanding of the benefits that irradiation can provide

  2. Food irradiation: A technique for preserving and improving the safety of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Processing of food with low levels of radiation has the potential to contribute to reducing both spoilage of food during storage - a particular problem in developing countries - and the high incidence of food-borne disease currently seen in all countries. Approval has been granted for the treatment of more than 30 products with radiation in over 30 countries but, in general , governments have been slow to authorize the use of this new technique. One reason for this slowness is a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails. This book aims to increase understanding by providing information on the process of food irradiation in simple, non-technical language. It describes the effects that irradiation has on food , and the plant and equipment that are necessary to carry it out safely. The legislation and control mechanisms required to ensure the safety of food irradiation facilities are also discussed. Education is seen as the key to gaining the confidence of the consumers in the safety of irradiated food, and to promoting understanding of the benefits that irradiation can provide

  3. State of contamination of French food produces by artificial radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boursier, B.; Guiard, A.; Tesolin, B.; Janin, F.

    1994-01-01

    This study presents the results of 40236 recorded levels of caesium 134 Cs and 137 Cs activities carried out on French food. These controls, performed through gamma-spectrometry, have been carried out in France by the Veterinary Services and the CNEVA-LCHA (Centre National d'Etudes Veterinaires - Laboratoire Central d'Hygiene Alimentaire), as part of a radionuclides survey after the Chernobyl accident. The results have been collected by the CNEVA-LCHA, and show in 1992 that 99.6% of the radioactivity levels in the French food are below 50 Bq/kg. The present situation seems to be satisfying. However, very small amounts of 137 Cs residues were noticed in some mushroom species, such as Cantharellus tubaeformis. (authors). 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. Chemical stability of astaxanthin integrated into a food matrix: Effects of food processing and methods for preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Delgado, Alejandra Anahí; Khandual, Sanghamitra; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro Josefina

    2017-06-15

    Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment found in numerous organisms ranging from bacteria to algae, yeasts, plants, crustaceans and fish such as salmon. Technological importance of this pigment emerged from various studies demonstrating that it is a powerful antioxidant, even with higher activity than alpha-tocopherol and other carotenoids. It has been included in various pharmaceutical products because of several beneficial properties. By its nature, astaxanthin is susceptible to degradation and can undergo chemical changes during food processing. Therefore, different studies have focused on improving the stability of the carotenoid under conditions such as high temperatures, pressures and mechanical force, among others. In this review, common processes involved in food processing and their effect on the stability of astaxanthin, integrated into a food matrix are discussed. Moreover, preservation techniques such as microencapsulation, inclusion in emulsions, suspensions, liposomes, etc., that are being employed to maintain stability of the product are also reviewed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lippia origanoides essential oil: an efficient and safe alternative to preserve food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, C; Pina, E S; Taleb-Contini, S H; Bertoni, B W; Cestari, I M; Espanha, L G; Varanda, E A; Camilo, K F B; Martinez, E Z; França, S C; Pereira, A M S

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Lippia origanoides essential oil as a preservative in industrial products. The composition, antimicrobial activity, mutagenic and toxic potential of L. origanoides were determined. Then, the effect of essential oil as a preservative in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products was evaluated. The essential oil of L. origanoides consisted mainly of oxygenated monoterpenes (38·13%); 26·28% corresponded to the compound carvacrol. At concentrations ranging from 0·312 to 1·25 μl ml -1 and in association with polysorbate 80, the essential oil of L. origanoides inhibited the growth of all the tested micro-organisms. The medium lethal dose in mice was 3·5 g kg -1 , which categorizes it as nontoxic according to the European Union criteria, and negative results in the Ames test indicated that this oil was not mutagenic. In combination with polysorbate 80, the essential oil exerted preservative action on orange juice, cosmetic and pharmaceutical compositions, especially in the case of aqueous-based products. Lippia origanoides essential oil is an effective and safe preservative for orange juice, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. This study allowed for the complete understanding of the antimicrobial action and toxicological potential of L. origanoides essential oil. These results facilitate the development of a preservative system based on L. origanoides essential oil. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Effects of low-level laser therapy on orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption after artificial socket preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoud Seifi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low- level laser therapy has been used to stimulate the orthodontic tooth movements (OTM previously. Furthermore, in the orthodontic treatments accompanying tooth extractions, the adjacent teeth move towards the extraction sites and close the space in some cases. Then, the adjacent tooth movements must be prevented in the treatments requiring space. Laser stimulates and at some doses decelerates tooth movement; it also improves healing process and enhances osteogenesis. Hence, it can prevent movement by osteogenesis adjacent to the tooth. The present study investigated the effects of low-level laser therapy on the OTM and root resorption following artificial socket preservation. Materials and Methods: In this experimental animal trial, 16 male albino rabbits were selected with similar characteristics and randomly divided in two groups. Under general anesthesia, an artificial socket, 8 mm in height, was created in the mesial aspect of the first premolars of the rabbits and filled with demineralized freeze dried bone allograft (DFDBA. The first premolars were connected to the incisors using nickel titanium coil springs. In experimental group, gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs laser was irritated mesial to first premolar where artificial socket was created continuously (808 nm. The cycle was 10 days irritation, 14 days rest, 10 days irritation, 14 days rest (Biostimulation mode. Control group was not laser irradiated. All animals were sacrificed after 48 days and the distance between the distal aspect of the first premolars, and the mesial surface of the second premolars was measured with leaf gauge. The specimens underwent histological assessments. Integrity of root and its resorption was observed under microscope calibration. The size of resorption lacunae was calculated in mm 2 . Normality of data was proved according to Kolmogorov-Smirnov analysis, and Student′s t-test was done. P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant

  7. Plant nutraceuticals as antimicrobial agents in food preservation: terpenoids, polyphenols and thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Del-Río, Ignacio; Fernández, Javier; Lombó, Felipe

    2018-05-16

    Synthetic food additives generate a negative perception in consumers. Therefore, food manufacturers search for safer natural alternatives as those involving phytochemicals and plant essential oils. These bioactives have antimicrobial activities widely proved in in vitro tests. Foodborne diseases cause thousands of deaths and millions of infections every year, mainly due to pathogenic bacteria as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes or Staphylococcus aureus. This review summarizes industrially interesting antimicrobial bioactivities, as well as their mechanisms of action, for three main types of plant nutraceuticals, terpenoids (as carnosic acid), polyphenols (as quercetin) and thiols (as allicin), which are important constituents of plant essential oils with a broad range of antimicrobial effects. These phytochemicals are widely distributed in fruits and vegetables and are really useful in food preservation as they inhibit microbial growth. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Influence of some physical treatments and natural food preservatives on the diversity of microorganisms in certain Egyptian juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu El-Naga, M.N.Z.I.

    2009-01-01

    Foods begin to lose their quality from the moment they are harvested through changes resulting from physical, chemical, enzymatic, or microbiological reactions. Food preservation prevents deteriorative reaction, extending the shelf life and assuring its safety. Microorganisms and enzymes are the main agents responsible for food spoilages and therefore the targets of preservation techniques. The i deal m ethod of food preservation has the following characteristics: It improves shelf life and safety by inactivating spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. It dose not leave residues. It is cheap and convenient to apply. It encounters no objection from consumers and legislators. One of the major advances in human history was the ability to preserve food. It was the perquisite to man setting down in one place instead of moving from place to place in the never ending hunt for fresh food. The earliest preservation technologies developed were drying, smoking, chilling and heating. The use of various compounds such as salts and spices to preserve food was also used in ancient times

  9. Effects of commonly used food preservatives on biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahmad, Ali; Wiedmann-Al-Ahmad, Margit; Auschill, Thorsten Mathias; Follo, Marie; Braun, Gabriele; Hellwig, Elmar; Arweiler, Nicole Birgit

    2008-08-01

    Sodium benzoate (SB), potassium sorbate (PS) and sodium nitrite (SN) are commonly used food preservatives. In this in vitro study, the effects of these substances on biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans were analysed. In addition to the microtiter plate test (MPT), a biofilm reactor containing bovine enamel slabs (BES) was used to study the influence of food preservatives on biofilm formation in 5 independent periods of 4 days each. These included one period with chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) as a positive control as well as a period with growth medium alone as a negative control. The vitality of the biofilm on BES was detected using live/dead staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Additionally, the number of colony forming units (CFU) was determined. In MPT 0.12% SN significantly reduced the biofilm formation. PS at a concentration of 0.4% tended to inhibit biofilm formation, whereas the inhibition for 0.8% PS was significant. Less inhibition was caused by 0.8% SB. In the biofilm reactor 0.06% of SN, 0.1% of SB and 0.1% PS significantly reduced the covering grade as well as the CFU of the biofilm. Biofilm vitality was reduced significantly by CHX to a level of 32.5% compared to the control. Only SB reduced the vitality to a level of 19.1%. SN and PS showed no influence on biofilm vitality. This study indicates the potential of food preservatives as inhibitory agents in S. mutans biofilm formation, which should be kept in mind when studying the effects of conserved food on dental plaque biofilm in situ.

  10. Eucalyptus Essential Oil as a Natural Food Preservative: In Vivo and In Vitro Antiyeast Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukvicki, Danka; Gottardi, Davide; Malik, Anushree; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the application of eucalyptus essential oil/vapour as beverages preservative is reported. The chemical composition of eucalyptus oil was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and solid phase microextraction GC-MS (SPME/GC-MS) analyses. GC-MS revealed that the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (80.5%), limonene (6.5%), α-pinene (5%), and γ-terpinene (2.9%) while SPME/GC-MS showed a relative reduction of 1,8-cineole (63.9%) and an increase of limonene (13.8%), α-pinene (8.87%), and γ-terpinene (3.98%). Antimicrobial potential of essential oil was initially determined in vitro against 8 different food spoilage yeasts by disc diffusion, disc volatilization, and microdilution method. The activity of eucalyptus vapours was significantly higher than the eucalyptus oil. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) varied from 0.56 to 4.50 mg/mL and from 1.13 to 9 mg/mL, respectively. Subsequently, the combined efficacy of essential oil and thermal treatment were used to evaluate the preservation of a mixed fruit juice in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest eucalyptus oil as a potent inhibitor of food spoilage yeasts not only in vitro but also in a real food system. Currently, this is the first report that uses eucalyptus essential oil for fruit juice preservation against food spoiling yeast. PMID:25177704

  11. Eucalyptus Essential Oil as a Natural Food Preservative: In Vivo and In Vitro Antiyeast Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Tyagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the application of eucalyptus essential oil/vapour as beverages preservative is reported. The chemical composition of eucalyptus oil was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and solid phase microextraction GC-MS (SPME/GC-MS analyses. GC-MS revealed that the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (80.5%, limonene (6.5%, α-pinene (5%, and γ-terpinene (2.9% while SPME/GC-MS showed a relative reduction of 1,8-cineole (63.9% and an increase of limonene (13.8%, α-pinene (8.87%, and γ-terpinene (3.98%. Antimicrobial potential of essential oil was initially determined in vitro against 8 different food spoilage yeasts by disc diffusion, disc volatilization, and microdilution method. The activity of eucalyptus vapours was significantly higher than the eucalyptus oil. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC varied from 0.56 to 4.50 mg/mL and from 1.13 to 9 mg/mL, respectively. Subsequently, the combined efficacy of essential oil and thermal treatment were used to evaluate the preservation of a mixed fruit juice in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest eucalyptus oil as a potent inhibitor of food spoilage yeasts not only in vitro but also in a real food system. Currently, this is the first report that uses eucalyptus essential oil for fruit juice preservation against food spoiling yeast.

  12. Food preservative potential of essential oils and fractions from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris against mycotoxigenic fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguefack, J.; Dongmo, J. B. Lekagne; Dakole, C. D.

    2009-01-01

    The food preservative potential of essential oils from three aromatic plants Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris and their fractions was investigated against two mycotoxigenic strains each of Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium expansum and P. verrucosum. The fungicidal...

  13. Development of Volatile Oil of Mustard and Vanillin as an Effective Food Preservation System for Military Bread and Baked Goods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muller, Wayne S; Sikes, Anthony; Yeomans, Walter; Anderson, Danielle; Senecal, Andy

    2006-01-01

    ...) vanillin is an effective food preservation system for molds and yeast. Four bread spoilage organisms were evaluated in the study Penicillium notatum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera...

  14. Current topics in active and intelligent food packaging for preservation of fresh foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yuan; Lee, Seung Jae; Choi, Dong Soo; Hur, Sun Jin

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current packaging systems, e.g. active packaging and intelligent packaging, for various foods. Active packaging, such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), extends the shelf life of fresh produce, provides a high-quality product, reduces economic losses, including those caused by delay of ripening, and improves appearance. However, in active packaging, several variables must be considered, such as temperature control and different gas formulations with different product types and microorganisms. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additive agents into packaging materials with the purpose of maintaining or extending food product quality and shelf life. Intelligent packaging is emerging as a potential advantage in food processing and is an especially useful tool for tracking product information and monitoring product conditions. Moreover, intelligent packaging facilitates data access and information exchange by altering conditions inside or outside the packaging and product. In spite of these advantages, few of these packaging systems are commercialized because of high cost, strict safety and hygiene regulations or limited consumer acceptance. Therefore more research is needed to develop cheaper, more easily applicable and effective packaging systems for various foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effects of low-level laser therapy on orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption after artificial socket preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Massoud; Atri, Faezeh; Yazdani, Mohammad Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Low- level laser therapy has been used to stimulate the orthodontic tooth movements (OTM) previously. Furthermore, in the orthodontic treatments accompanying tooth extractions, the adjacent teeth move towards the extraction sites and close the space in some cases. Then, the adjacent tooth movements must be prevented in the treatments requiring space. Laser stimulates and at some doses decelerates tooth movement; it also improves healing process and enhances osteogenesis. Hence, it can prevent movement by osteogenesis adjacent to the tooth. The present study investigated the effects of low-level laser therapy on the OTM and root resorption following artificial socket preservation. In this experimental animal trial, 16 male albino rabbits were selected with similar characteristics and randomly divided in two groups. Under general anesthesia, an artificial socket, 8 mm in height, was created in the mesial aspect of the first premolars of the rabbits and filled with demineralized freeze dried bone allograft (DFDBA). The first premolars were connected to the incisors using nickel titanium coil springs. In experimental group, gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) laser was irritated mesial to first premolar where artificial socket was created continuously (808 nm). The cycle was 10 days irritation, 14 days rest, 10 days irritation, 14 days rest (Biostimulation mode). Control group was not laser irradiated. All animals were sacrificed after 48 days and the distance between the distal aspect of the first premolars, and the mesial surface of the second premolars was measured with leaf gauge. The specimens underwent histological assessments. Integrity of root and its resorption was observed under microscope calibration. The size of resorption lacunae was calculated in mm(2). Normality of data was proved according to Kolmogorov-Smirnov analysis, and Student's t-test was done. P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. The mean OTM were 5.68 ± 1.21 mm in the control

  16. Health protection and food preservation by gamma irradiation. Final report, may 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    Results of several major studies on food systems for space missions beginning with Apollo 12 through Apollo-Soyuz and investigations of the application of irradiation to food for manned space flight are reported. The study of flight food systems involved the application of radurization (pasteurizing levels) doses of gamma irradiation to flour and bread supplied by Pepperidge Farms in advance of the missions. All flights from Apollo 12 through 17 carried irradiated fresh bread. On Apollo 17, cooperation with Natick Laboratories permitted the introduction of a ham sandwich using irradiated bread and irradiated sterile ham. Investigations centered on irradiated bread were conducted during the course of these missions. Studies were applied to the concept of improving fresh bread from the point of view of mold inhibition. The studies considered how irradiation could best be applied at what levels and on a variety of bread types. Throughout the studies of the application of gamma irradiation the emphasis was placed upon using low levels of irradiation in the pasteurizing or radurizing doses--under a Megarad. The primary goal was to determine if a public health benefit could be demonstrated using radurization along with food preservation and food quality improvements. The public health benefit would be parallel to that of pasteurization of milk as a concept. Publications are included providing the details of these observations, one dealing with the flour characteristics and the other dealing with the influence on fresh bread types. These demonstrate the major findings noted during the period of the studies examining bread. (Author)

  17. Hyperbaric storage at room temperature for food preservation: A study in strawberry juice

    OpenAIRE

    Segovia-Bravo, Kharla A.; Guignon, Bérengère; Bermejo-Prada, Ana; Sanz Martínez, Pedro D.; Otero, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Hyperbaric storage at room temperature was evaluated as a new food preservation method. To do that, strawberry juices maintained at different pressure levels (0.1, 25, 100 or 220 MPa) and 20°C for 15 days were compared to raw and thermally pasteurized samples stored at atmospheric pressure and 5°C for the same period. Hyperbaric storage reduced the initial microbial load of the juices by more than 2 log units to levels below the limit of detection. Moreover, pressure was effective to attenuat...

  18. The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement -Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byeon, Myeong Uh; Cho, Han Ok; Yang, Jae Seung; Cho, Seong Ki; Kang, Il Joon

    1994-07-01

    With the increased consumption of processed food, quality control techniques are inevitably required in the food industry for its mass production and distribution. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of irradiation for solving the infrastructural problems in the food industry by developing viable alternatives to conventional technology and by improving the quality of processed foods. Even though food irradiation technology has been commercialized in 25 countries, and 18 items of irradiated foods have been approved for human consumption domestically, infrastructural studies are needed for the practical application of this technology. In order to enlarge the utilization of irradiation technology in solving the infrastructural problems of the food industry, this project was designed to investigate the efficacy of gamma irradiation for improving the process and physical properties of dried foods (corn and soybean), for preserving the reserved foods for emergency (red pepper) and for producing natural products (red polyketied pigment) using microbial immobilization with radiation-induced polymer

  19. Food preservation by irradiation. V.- Economic study of the spanish potatoe market and preservation feasibility by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas, A.; Garcia de Mateos, A.; Ortin Sune, N.; Val Cob, M. del

    1967-01-01

    A study of the spanish potatoe market is carried o nt in order to know the possibilities of preservation by irradiation. The study is initiated with a recompilation of statistical data on the production and consumption of potatoes by regions and seasons. Last years losses are then estimated. (Author) 9 refs

  20. Dyes, preservatives and salicylates in the induction of food intolerance and/or hypersensitivity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibero, M; Eseverri, J L; Barroso, C; Botey, J

    1982-01-01

    We present 25 patients, aged between 18 and 153 months, with clinical symptoms suggestive of allergy to food antigens. After undergoing exhaustive studies (including case histories, cutaneous tests for reactions to food antigen, peripheral eosinophils, secretory and humoral immunity, determination of total IgE and of specific RAST, exclusion-provocation diets) and without being able to identify an offender, patients were submitted to oral provocation with different food additives (tartrazine, sunset yellow FCF, new coccine, erythrosine, sodium benzoate, 4-methyl hydroxybenzoate and acetylsalicylic acid) after 48 hours of exclusion from their diets of dyes, preservatives and salicylates. The results obtained reflect, at a global level, 57.89% of positivities for dyes, 34.21% for the benzoates and 7.81% for acetyl-salicylic acid. The low incidence of crossed intolerance phenomena should be emphasized (32% of the patients). The disparity of our results with those of other authors could be due to the age of our patients, the clinical patterns they present and the dietary habits of different countries and regions.

  1. Application of ionizing irradiation for food preservation and for reducing microbiological contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, I.

    1992-01-01

    Ionizing irradiation can be an alternative or combinatory technique for food preservation. Several experiments proved that relatively small dosage (2-6 kGy) effectively reduces the number of microscopic fungi and bacteria in food. In addition the survivors had become more sensitive to salt and heat. No change in the quality of the treated food has been observed while their storability improved substantially. Some results of an extended experiment using Co-60 and Co-137 radioactive isotopes are listed below: (1) The storability of raw, sliced pork and beef improved 3-4 times after a 2 kGy dosage of irradiation. (2) The storability of chicken after the same treatment can be prolonged by 4-5 times. (3) 2.5 kGy dosage allowed to keep strawberries 2-3 times longer in the cold storage. (4) Wet (18-23 water) wheat's storability can be prolonged to 60 days by a 4 kGy treatment. (5) By using irradiated spices Fo=3 heat load was satisfactory instead of the usual Fo=4-5 when making canned meat

  2. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part 1. Potatoes and other tuber crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1984-01-01

    In Part 1 of a planned series of articles on preservation of foods of plant origin by gamma irradiation, the current state of research on the technological, nutritional, and biochemical aspects of sprout inhibition of potatoes and other tuber crops are reviewed. These include varietal responses, dose effects, time of irradiation, pre- and postirradiation storage, and handling requirements; postirradiation changes in carbohydrates, ascorbic acid, amino acids, and other nutrients; respiration; biochemical mechanisms involved in sprout inhibition; wound healing and microbial infection during storage; formation of wound and light-induced glycoalkaloids and identification of irradiated potatoes. The culinary and processing qualities with particular reference to darkening of boiled and processed potatoes are discussed. The prospects of irradiation on an industrial scale as an alternative to chemical sprout inhibitors or mechanical refrigeration are considered

  3. [Various methods for the determination of preservatives in food. II. Gaschromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, TAS-method (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hild, J; Gertz, C

    1980-02-01

    For the quantitative determination of preservatives in food, analyses were carried out by means of GLC, HPLC, and TLC according to the TAS-method. Using the alkaline extract (sample preparation see part I) the preservatives can be analysed as free acid or appropriate ester out the same GLC-column without any interference from coextractives. A fast and accurate HPLC determination can be achieved by direct injection of the alkaline extract. All preservatives were well separated and detected at a wavelength of 225 resp. 232 nm. As a quick test for the qualitative estimation the TLC (TAS) method is suggested and a suitable solvent system is proposed.

  4. Perspective on the Ongoing Replacement of Artificial and Animal-Based Dyes with Alternative Natural Pigments in Foods and Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2018-03-28

    This perspective highlights current trends, advances, and challenges related to the replacement of artificial dyes and the insect-based carmine with alternative natural pigments. Briefly reviewing the history of food coloration, key publications and public events leading to diverse concerns about artificial dyes and carmine will be summarized. An overview about promising alternatives in the market and those under development is provided, including a separate section on coloring foodstuffs. The perspective aims at supporting readers to keep abreast with the enormous efforts undertaken by the food and beverage industry to replace certain food dyes.

  5. Potential weekly intake of artificial food colours by 3-14-year-old children in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, M C; Guerchon, M S; Ragazzi, S

    1992-01-01

    The Potential Weekly Intake (PWI) of artificial food colours by 3-14-year-old children living in the District of Barão Geraldo, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, was estimated on the basis of average consumption data of artificially coloured food and analytically determined colour concentration in foodstuffs ingested. Coloured food consumption data were obtained through dietary recall interviews and collection of the packages and/or labels of the coloured foods consumed during a two-week period. Colours found in the individual types of foods detected through the consumption survey were identified and determined by methods that included wool dyeing and polyamide column extractions, ascending paper chromatography and spectrophotometry. The results showed that all artificial colours used in the composition of 83 commercial food products, including jellies, juices, soft drinks, syrups and 57 different candies, were permitted for use in food in Brazil the year the survey was conducted (1986), in amounts below those prescribed by law. Statistical analysis performed to compare the PWI for different population groups demonstrated that young male children, especially from lower social classes, were most exposed to artificial colours. Comparison of the estimated potential intakes with the toxicologically Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) showed that consumption of Amaranth, Sunset Yellow, Indigotine and Tartrazine by all children in the study represented approximately 24%, 3%, 0.05% and 0.4%, of the actual ADI values, respectively.

  6. Unconventional methods for food preservation and recovery of phytochemicals from plant wastes: towards a science for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Pinela, José; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2016-01-01

    Plants are irreplaceable sources of food and bioactive phytochemicals. In this sense, this work has been focused on valorisation and processing of traditional plant foods, including medicinal plants (consumed in herbal beverages), leafy vegetables, and tomato farmers’ varieties, but also biowastes (source of biomolecules), using non-conventional and emerging technologies [1]. The preservation of dried medicinal plants (Tuberaria lignosa (Sweet) Samp. and Malva neglecta Wallr.) ...

  7. Marketing Study Of The Preference Of The Egyptian Consuming Family To Buy Some Dried Food Preserved By Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gameel, E.A.; Elkhateeb, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Alongside traditional methods of processing and preserving food, the technology of food irradiation is gaining more and more attention around the world. In 1997/10/22, the Egyptian government issued clearance for irradiating certain items of food such as spices, herbs and dried onion and garlic. The approval of some other items of food such as poultry, fish and dried vegetables will issue in the near future. This study aims to know the opinion and attitude of the preference of the consuming Egyptian family to buy some dried food preserved by gamma radiation such as wheat, dried onion and garlic, dried date, dried legumes and yamish Ramadan when available on the market. A pool of 1160 sheets was collected randomly. The questionnaire was supported with simplified information about the use of atomic energy and radiation for peaceful purpose and other alternative methods to save food. The results obtained from this study showed that 67% of the total sample size accepted to buy irradiated fresh vegetables if its available in the markets while the objection was 15% and convinced were 17%. The model of the multi regression analysis was carried out between independent variables (the local consumer attitude towards buying some dried food preserved by gamma radiation) and dependent variables (technical, environmental, marketing and hygienic methods. The results were R2= 0.877 and F-test = 322 (significant). The model of the multi regression analysis was also carried out between dependent variables (the local consumer attitude towards buying some dried food preserved by gamma radiation) and independent variables (income, Education, age and governorates). The results were R2 = 0.53 and F-test12.64 (significant).

  8. Influence of some physical treatments and natural food preservatives on the diversity of microorganisms in certain egyptian juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu El-Naga, M.N.Z.I.

    2009-01-01

    Foods begin to lose their quality from the moment they are harvested.Microorganisms are the main agents responsible for food spoilages . Food preservation prevents deteriorative reaction, extending the shelf life and assuring its safety. The uses of chemical preservatives have harmful effects in long term application. So, the purpose of this article is to use the natural treatments instead of chemical preservatives or application of high temperature which cause losses of some essential nutrients of the juice. In this study the following treatments were investigated: 1. Gamma irradiation . the lethal effect of ionizing radiation on the microorganisms is primarily due to DNA damage, which destroys the reproductive capabilities and other functions of the cell. 2. Pasteurized temperatures(90 degree c).Heat can damage protein, lipids, and nucleic acids of microorganisms and destabilize their membranes.3.The natural preservatives : nisin, citric acid, lactic acid, cinnamon, combination treatments : it was performed between the previous treatments.The best results obtained from our experiments for preserving the fruit juice were performed by combing the pasteurized temperature 90 degree C for 30 sec with gamma irradiation (0.2 K Gy). Or using 200 μg/ml of nisin in combination with 2% (w/v) of citric acid and pasteurized temperature 90 degree C for 30 sec.

  9. Preservation of semi-perishable food and development of convenience food using a combination of irradiation and other physicochemical treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, N.; Siddiqui, A.K.; Chowdhury, N.A.; Youssouf, Q.M.; Rashid, H.; Begum, A.A.; Alam, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the development and irradiation preservation of semi-dried fish, e.g. Labeo rohita (Ruhi) and Cirrhiuas mrigala (Mrigel), the extension of shelf-life at ambient temperature, and the improvement in the microbiological quality of sealed, ready to eat, commercially prepared fish kebabs by a combination of gamma irradiation with spices and an acidulant such as ascorbic acid. In the processing of semi-dried fish, the combination treatment of a salt dip and irradiation at a dose of 4 kGy extended the shelf-life by more than 3 months. Kebabs prepared in the laboratory and irradiated at a dose of 5 kGy were found to have a shelf-life of up to 6 months at room temperature. With commercially prepared fish kebabs collected from ordinary and sophisticated food shops, the maximum shelf-life extension was 14 days for the 5 kGy treated samples stored at ambient temperature. The microbiological quality of such kebabs indicated that the fish used was of poor quality, resulting in a limited shelf-life, even after chemical and irradiation treatments. Inoculated pack studies of Clostridium botulinum spores showed that when oil fried, the kebab size had a definite effect on heat penetration, and consequent spore reduction. No spores were recovered from the 5 kGy irradiated fried kebabs. (author)

  10. ADDITIVES USED TO OBTAIN FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of food additives in food is determined by the growth of contemporary food needs of the world population. Additives used in food, both natural and artificial ones, contribute to: improving the organoleptic characteristics and to preserve the food longer, but we must not forget that all these additives should not be found naturally in food products. Some of these additives are not harmful and human pests in small quantities, but others may have harmful effects on health.

  11. Functional groupings and food web of an artificial reef used for sea cucumber aquaculture in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinzeng; Zhang, Libin; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Xuelei; Yang, Hongsheng

    2017-01-01

    Artificial reef is considered as a useful tool to remodel habitats in coastal and estuarine area. Some artificial reefs (ARs) were conducted in Shandong Peninsula for sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA). Little is known about the main feeding type and food resources of living organisms in this IMTA ecosystem. Neither is the information about other animals competing food with A. japonicus. Functional group (FG) and their food resources of mobile organisms and epifauna in ARs area were investigated. There were three types of food resources and five FGs within two trophic levels in studied area. Particle organic matter (POM), seaweed detritus and sediment were considered to be the main food resources. The first three FGs were primary consumers and were mainly epifauna, while the other two FGs were secondary consumers. FG 1 species were filter feeders, and group 2 was all deposit feeders and A. japonicus was in this group. FG 2 contained few species and this indicated that A. japonicus had few food competitors. FG 3 contained most epifauna species which were detritus feeders and this result implied that the artificial oyster shell reed can retain detritus effectively. The food sources of group 4 were complex. Species of group 5, mostly fish, occupied the top trophic level and fed primarily on species of FG 1 and FG 2. This kind of ARs can retain detritus effectively and provide suitable habitat to epifauna and surrounding natural fauna community.

  12. Recent developments of artificial intelligence in drying of fresh food: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qing; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S

    2018-03-01

    Intellectualization is an important direction of drying development and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies have been widely used to solve problems of nonlinear function approximation, pattern detection, data interpretation, optimization, simulation, diagnosis, control, data sorting, clustering, and noise reduction in different food drying technologies due to the advantages of self-learning ability, adaptive ability, strong fault tolerance and high degree robustness to map the nonlinear structures of arbitrarily complex and dynamic phenomena. This article presents a comprehensive review on intelligent drying technologies and their applications. The paper starts with the introduction of basic theoretical knowledge of ANN, fuzzy logic and expert system. Then, we summarize the AI application of modeling, predicting, and optimization of heat and mass transfer, thermodynamic performance parameters, and quality indicators as well as physiochemical properties of dried products in artificial biomimetic technology (electronic nose, computer vision) and different conventional drying technologies. Furthermore, opportunities and limitations of AI technique in drying are also outlined to provide more ideas for researchers in this area.

  13. CURRENCY OF THE MICROFLORA CORRECTION WHEN BEGINNING FEEDING WITH ADDITIONAL FOOD AND ARTIFICIAL MILK FORMULAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Toptchiy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Children feeding with breast milk have significantly lower risk of gastrointestinal infectious diseases development, than children feeding with artificial milk formulas. At the beginning of feeding with additional food influence of allogenic antigens on child’s organism is increasing, which can lead to disturbances in microbiocoenosis of the gastro-intestinal tract. This causes stool disorders, intestinal colic, dyspepsia, dermatitis, allergic reactions, immunodeficiency with recurrent relapses of infections and development of non-infectious disease and their transition into chronic condition. Forming of the malabsorption syndrome at the background of such conditions leads to growth and mental development retardation of children. Numerous clinical trials proved the beneficial effects of the probiotic Hylak Forte on intestinal microflora in disbiosis.

  14. Study on the interaction of artificial and natural food colorants with human serum albumin: A computational point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masone, Diego; Chanforan, Céline

    2015-06-01

    Due to the high amount of artificial food colorants present in infants' diets, their adverse effects have been of major concern among the literature. Artificial food colorants have been suggested to affect children's behavior, being hyperactivity the most common disorder. In this study we compare binding affinities of a group of artificial colorants (sunset yellow, quinoline yellow, carmoisine, allura red and tartrazine) and their natural industrial equivalents (carminic acid, curcumin, peonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside) to human serum albumin (HSA) by a docking approach and further refinement through atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Due to the protein-ligand conformational interface complexity, we used collective variable driven molecular dynamics to refine docking predictions and to score them according to a hydrogen-bond criterion. With this protocol, we were able to rank ligand affinities to HSA and to compare between the studied natural and artificial food additives. Our results show that the five artificial colorants studied bind better to HSA than their equivalent natural options, in terms of their H-bonding network, supporting the hypothesis of their potential risk to human health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Potential Applications of the Cyclic Peptide Enterocin AS-48 in the Preservation of Vegetable Foods and Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abriouel, Hikmate; Lucas, Rosario; Omar, Nabil Ben; Valdivia, Eva; Gálvez, Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria. Among them, the enterococcal bacteriocin (enterocin) AS-48 stands for its peculiar characteristics and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. AS-48 belongs to the class of circular bacteriocins and has been studied in depth in several aspects: peptide structure, genetic determinants, and mode of action. Recently, a wealth of knowledge has accumulated on the antibacterial activity of this bacteriocin against foodborne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria in food systems, especially in vegetable foods and drinks. This work provides a general overview on the results from tests carried out with AS-48 in different vegetable food categories (such as fruit juices, ciders, sport and energy drinks, fresh fruits and vegetables, pre-cooked ready to eat foods, canned vegetables, and bakery products). Depending on the food substrate, the bacteriocin has been tested alone or as part of hurdle technology, in combination with physico-chemical treatments (such as mild heat treatments or high-intensity pulsed electric fields) and other antimicrobial substances (such as essential oils, phenolic compounds, and chemical preservatives). Since the work carried out on bacteriocins in preservation of vegetable foods and drinks is much more limited compared to meat and dairy products, the results reported for AS-48 may open new possibilities in the field of bacteriocin applications.

  16. Mechanism of bacterial inactivation by (+-limonene and its potential use in food preservation combined processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Espina

    Full Text Available This work explores the bactericidal effect of (+-limonene, the major constituent of citrus fruits' essential oils, against E. coli. The degree of E. coli BJ4 inactivation achieved by (+-limonene was influenced by the pH of the treatment medium, being more bactericidal at pH 4.0 than at pH 7.0. Deletion of rpoS and exposure to a sub-lethal heat or an acid shock did not modify E. coli BJ4 resistance to (+-limonene. However, exposure to a sub-lethal cold shock decreased its resistance to (+-limonene. Although no sub-lethal injury was detected in the cell envelopes after exposure to (+-limonene by the selective-plating technique, the uptake of propidium iodide by inactivated E. coli BJ4 cells pointed out these structures as important targets in the mechanism of action. Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared Microspectroscopy (ATR-IRMS allowed identification of altered E. coli BJ4 structures after (+-limonene treatments as a function of the treatment pH: β-sheet proteins at pH 4.0 and phosphodiester bonds at pH 7.0. The increased sensitivity to (+-limonene observed at pH 4.0 in an E. coli MC4100 lptD4213 mutant with an increased outer membrane permeability along with the identification of altered β-sheet proteins by ATR-IRMS indicated the importance of this structure in the mechanism of action of (+-limonene. The study of mechanism of inactivation by (+-limonene led to the design of a synergistic combined process with heat for the inactivation of the pathogen E. coli O157:H7 in fruit juices. These results show the potential of (+-limonene in food preservation, either acting alone or in combination with lethal heat treatments.

  17. Mechanism of Bacterial Inactivation by (+)-Limonene and Its Potential Use in Food Preservation Combined Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Laura; Gelaw, Tilahun K.; de Lamo-Castellví, Sílvia; Pagán, Rafael; García-Gonzalo, Diego

    2013-01-01

    This work explores the bactericidal effect of (+)-limonene, the major constituent of citrus fruits' essential oils, against E. coli. The degree of E. coli BJ4 inactivation achieved by (+)-limonene was influenced by the pH of the treatment medium, being more bactericidal at pH 4.0 than at pH 7.0. Deletion of rpoS and exposure to a sub-lethal heat or an acid shock did not modify E. coli BJ4 resistance to (+)-limonene. However, exposure to a sub-lethal cold shock decreased its resistance to (+)-limonene. Although no sub-lethal injury was detected in the cell envelopes after exposure to (+)-limonene by the selective-plating technique, the uptake of propidium iodide by inactivated E. coli BJ4 cells pointed out these structures as important targets in the mechanism of action. Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared Microspectroscopy (ATR-IRMS) allowed identification of altered E. coli BJ4 structures after (+)-limonene treatments as a function of the treatment pH: β-sheet proteins at pH 4.0 and phosphodiester bonds at pH 7.0. The increased sensitivity to (+)-limonene observed at pH 4.0 in an E. coli MC4100 lptD4213 mutant with an increased outer membrane permeability along with the identification of altered β-sheet proteins by ATR-IRMS indicated the importance of this structure in the mechanism of action of (+)-limonene. The study of mechanism of inactivation by (+)-limonene led to the design of a synergistic combined process with heat for the inactivation of the pathogen E. coli O157:H7 in fruit juices. These results show the potential of (+)-limonene in food preservation, either acting alone or in combination with lethal heat treatments. PMID:23424676

  18. Convergent Innovation in Food through Big Data and Artificial Intelligence for Societal-Scale Inclusive Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurette Dubé

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive innovation has not yet reached societal scale due to a well-entrenched divide between wealth creation and social equity. Taking food as the initial test bed, we have proposed the convergent innovation model to address such challenges still facing 21st century society by bridging sectors and disciplines around an integrated goal on both sides of the social-economic divide for innovations that target wealth creation with an upfront consideration of its externalities. The convergent innovation model is empowered by two key enablers that integrate an advanced digital infrastructure with leading scientific knowledge on the drivers of human behaviour in varying contexts. This article discusses the structure, methods, and development of an artificial intelligence platform to support convergent innovation. Insights are gathered on consumer sentiment and behavioural drivers through the analysis of user-generated content on social media platforms. Empirical results show that user discussions related to marketing, consequences, and occasions are positive. Further regression modelling finds that economic consequences are a strong predictor of consumer global sentiment, but are also sensitive to both the actual price and economic awareness. This finding has important implications for inclusive growth and further emphasizes the need for affordable and accessible foods, as well as for consumer education. Challenges and opportunities inspired by the research results are discussed to inform the design, marketing, and delivery of convergent innovation products and services, while also contributing to dimensions of inclusion and economic performance for equitable health and wealth.

  19. Direct quantitation of the preservatives benzoic and sorbic acid in processed foods using derivative spectrophotometry combined with micro dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, Tomoharu; Ikami, Takahito; Kikukawa, Koji; Kobayashi, Masato; Takai, Rina; Kozaki, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    2018-02-01

    The preservatives benzoic acid and sorbic acid are generally quantified with separation techniques, such as HPLC or GC. Here we describe a new method for determining these compounds in processed food samples based on a narrowness of the UV-visible spectral band width with derivative processing. It permits more selective identification and determination of target analytes in matrices. After a sample is purified by micro dialysis, UV spectra of sample solutions were measured and fourth order derivatives of the spectrum were calculated. The amplitude between the maximum and minimum values in a high-order derivative spectrum was used for the determination of benzoic acid and sorbic acid. Benzoic acid and sorbic acid levels in several commercially available processed foods were measured by HPLC and the proposed spectrometry method. The levels obtained by the two methods were highly correlated (r 2 >0.97) for both preservatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ways in which irradiation could improve the effectiveness of several existing food preservation processes in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, H.T.

    1982-01-01

    With the introduction of irradiation as a possible food preservation method nearly three decades ago, there was a tendency to over-emphasise the advantages to be gained with this new process to the extent that some regarded this new technique as a panacea for most of the problems experienced in the preservation of food at that time. The pendulum swung to the other extreme when irradiation did not come up to the expectations associated with a so-called 'wonder' treatment and others took a decidedly pessimistic attitude towards the future of this process. The answer obviously lies between these two extreme views and fortunately this is the attitude prevailing in many countries towards irradiation treatment at the present time. The role of irradiation can be seen as supplementary and indeed complementary to existing preservation methods instead of being regarded as directly competitive. In this paper, several preservation processes will be considered such as heat treatment, canning and refrigeration, and the effectiveness of these methods in combination with irradiation treatment will be considered with respect to shelf-life extension of several important fruits and vegetables in South Africa. The possible mechanism of the combined or synergistic effect in relation to disease control in selected biological systems will also be discussed

  1. Food Web Responses to Artificial Mixing in a Small Boreal Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Arvola

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to simulate food web responses of small boreal lakes to changes in thermal stratification due to global warming, a 4 year whole-lake manipulation experiment was performed. Within that time, period lake mixing was intensified artificially during two successive summers. Complementary data from a nearby lake of similar size and basic water chemistry were used as a reference. Phytoplankton biomass and chlorophyll a did not respond to the greater mixing depth but an increase was observed in the proportional abundance of diatoms, and the proportional abundance of cryptophytes also increased immediately after the onset of mixing. Obligate anoxic green sulphur bacteria vanished at the onset of mixing but gradually recovered after re-establishment of hypolimnetic anoxic conditions. No major effect on crustacean zooplankton was found, but their diversity increased in the metalimnion. During the mixing, the density of rotifers declined but protozoan density increased in the hypolimnion. Littoral benthic invertebrate density increased during the mixing due to Ephemeroptera, Asellus aquaticus and Chironomidae, whereas the density of Chaoborus larvae declined during mixing and lower densities were still recorded one year after the treatment. No structural changes in fish community were found although gillnet catches increased after the onset of the study. The early growth of perch (Perca fluviatilis increased compared to the years before the mixing and in comparison to the reference lake, suggesting improved food availability in the experimental lake. Although several food web responses to the greater mixing depth were found, their persistence and ecological significance were strongly dependent on the extent of the disturbance. To better understand the impacts of wind stress on small lakes, long term whole-lake experiments are needed.

  2. Assessment of dietary exposure in the French population to 13 selected food colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemrah, Nawel; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Volatier, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    The results of French intake estimates for 13 food additives prioritized by the methods proposed in the 2001 Report from the European Commission on Dietary Food Additive Intake in the European Union are reported. These 13 additives were selected using the first and second tiers of the three-tier approach. The first tier was based on theoretical food consumption data and the maximum permitted level of additives. The second tier used real individual food consumption data and the maximum permitted level of additives for the substances which exceeded the acceptable daily intakes (ADI) in the first tier. In the third tier reported in this study, intake estimates were calculated for the 13 additives (colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners) according to two modelling assumptions corresponding to two different food habit scenarios (assumption 1: consumers consume foods that may or may not contain food additives, and assumption 2: consumers always consume foods that contain additives) when possible. In this approach, real individual food consumption data and the occurrence/use-level of food additives reported by the food industry were used. Overall, the results of the intake estimates are reassuring for the majority of additives studied since the risk of exceeding the ADI was low, except for nitrites, sulfites and annatto, whose ADIs were exceeded by either children or adult consumers or by both populations under one and/or two modelling assumptions. Under the first assumption, the ADI is exceeded for high consumers among adults for nitrites and sulfites (155 and 118.4%, respectively) and among children for nitrites (275%). Under the second assumption, the average nitrites dietary exposure in children exceeds the ADI (146.7%). For high consumers, adults exceed the nitrite and sulfite ADIs (223 and 156.4%, respectively) and children exceed the nitrite, annatto and sulfite ADIs (416.7, 124.6 and 130.6%, respectively).

  3. Extended safe preservation period of foods of plant origin through combined technological methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miteva, D.; Nacheva, I.; Dzhakova, A.; Tsvetkov, Tsv.

    2008-01-01

    The sublimation drying of fruits as an innovative technology for preservation their composition and enzyme activity is applied to various fruits: apricots, strawberries, plumbs, peaches and apples. The authors present the main methods of lyophilization as an original biotechnology for cryopreservation of fruits and afterwards are subjected to cold sterilization with 1.5 and 3 kGy doses of gamma irradiation. The combined application of both technologies provides safe and extended preservation of fresh fruits with high content of vitamins, mineral salts, maximum preserved enzyme system, aroma-tasty complex and microbiological purity

  4. Tracing artificial trans fat in popular foods in Europe: a market basket investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2014-05-20

    To minimise the intake of industrial artificial trans fat (I-TF), nearly all European countries rely on food producers to voluntarily reduce the I-TF content in food. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of this strategy on I-TF content in prepackaged biscuits/cakes/wafers in 2012-2013 in 20 European countries. The I-TF content was assessed in a market basket investigation. Three large supermarkets were visited in each capital, and in some countries, three additional ethnic shops were included. A total of 598 samples of biscuits/cakes/wafers with 'partially hydrogenated vegetable fat' or a similar term high on the list of ingredients were analysed, 312 products had more than 2% of fat as I-TF, exceeding the legislatively determined I-TF limit in Austria and Denmark; the mean (SD) was 19 (7)%. In seven countries, no I-TF was found, whereas nine predominantly Eastern European countries had products with very high I-TF content, and the remaining four countries had intermediate levels. Of the five countries that were examined using the same procedure as in 2006, three had unchanged I-TF levels in 2013, and two had lower levels. The 18 small ethnic shops examined in six Western European countries sold 83 products. The mean (SD) was 23 (12)% of the fat as I-TF, all imported from countries in Balkan. In Sweden, this type of food imported from Balkan was also available in large supermarkets. The findings suggest that subgroups of the population in many countries in Europe still consume I-TF in amounts that increase their risk of coronary heart disease. Under current European Union (EU) legislation, the sale of products containing I-TF is legal but conflicts with the WHO recommendation to minimise the intake of I-TF. An EU-legislative limit on I-TF content in foods is expected to be an effective strategy to achieve this goal. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  5. Amounts of artificial food colors in commonly consumed beverages and potential behavioral implications for consumption in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Laura J; Burgess, John R; Stochelski, Mateusz A; Kuczek, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Artificial food colors (AFCs) are widely used to color foods and beverages. The amount of AFCs the Food and Drug Administration has certified over the years has increased more than 5-fold since 1950 (12 mg/capita/day) to 2012 (68 mg/capita/day). In the past 38 years, there have been studies of adverse behavioral reactions such as hyperactivity in children to double-blind challenges with AFCs. Studies that used 50 mg or more of AFCs as the challenge showed a greater negative effect on more children than those which used less. The study reported here is the first to quantify the amounts of AFCs in foods (specifically in beverages) commonly consumed by children in the United States. Consumption data for all foods would be helpful in the design of more challenge studies. The data summarized here should help clinicians advise parents about AFCs and beverage consumption.

  6. The Research of Food Preservation by Irradiation and Its Industrialization in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Han Ok

    1987-01-01

    Since the late 1960s, radiation effects on the storage of potatoes, strawberry, grapes and rice have been investigated on an experimental basis in Korea, Based on the research results of batch scale storage for sprouting food (potatoes, onions, chestnuts) and white ginseng powder by the Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and on the recommendation. Food irradiation is a new process that may provide an alternative to existing food processes. From the extensive research in food irradiation for more than three decades by leading international organizations and advanced countries, the efficacy of a number of applications has been established, including sprout inhibition, disinfestation of insects, sterilization, delay of ripening, and improvement of organoleptic properties in food. Owing to the recommendation on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food by the Joint FAO/IAEA/W/o Expert Committee in 1980 and the adaption of the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Food by the Codex Allurements Commission in 1983, as of May 1985, thirty-two countries have officially approved 227 food items in 73 food groups as safe for human consumption. Food irradiation processing is increasingly recognized as a viable technology for reducing the overall quantity of spoiled food, reducing energy used in food storage, and reducing reliance on chemicals currently used

  7. Sustainable fuel, food, fertilizer and ecosystems through a global artificial photosynthetic system: overcoming anticompetitive barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Alex; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses challenges that artificial photosynthetic (AP) systems will face when entering and competing in a global market characterized by established fossil fuel technology. It provides a perspective on the neoliberal principles underpinning much policy entrenching such environmentally destructive technology and outlines how competition law could aid overcoming these hurdles for AP development. In particular, it critiques the potential for competition law to promote a global AP initiative with greater emphasis on atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen fixation (as well as solar-driven water splitting) to produce an equitable, globally distributed source of human food, fertilizer and biosphere sustainability, as well as hydrogen-based fuel. Some relevant strategies of competition law evaluated in this context include greater citizen–consumer involvement in shaping market values, legal requirements to factor services from the natural environment (i.e. provision of clean air, water, soil pollution degradation) into corporate costs, reform of corporate taxation and requirements to balance maximization of shareholder profit with contribution to a nominated public good, a global financial transactions tax, as well as prohibiting horizontal cartels, vertical agreements and unilateral misuse of market power. PMID:26052427

  8. Antiproliferative and genotoxic effects of nature identical and artificial synthetic food additives of aroma and flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. M. Nunes

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to analyze the antiproliferative and genotoxic potential of synthetic food flavorings, nature identical passion fruit and artificial vanilla. This assessment used root meristem cells of Allium cepa L., in exposure times of 24 and 48 hours and using doses of 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mL. Roots were fixed in Carnoy’s solution, hydrolyzed in hydrochloric acid, stained with acetic orcein and analyzed with optical microscope at 400× magnification, 5,000 cells for each treatment. For data analysis, it was used Chi-square test at 5%. Doses of 0.2 mL at ET 48 h; 0.4 and 0.6 mL at ET 24 and 48 h of passion fruit flavor, and the three doses of the vanilla flavor at ET 24 and 48 h significantly reduced the cell division rate in the meristems of roots, proving to be cytotoxic. Doses of 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mL of the passion fruit additive, and the three doses of vanilla tested, in the two exposure times, induced mitotic spindle changes and micronuclei formation in the cells of the test organism used, proving to be genotoxic. Therefore, under the studied conditions, flavoring solutions of vanilla and passion fruit, marketed nationally and internationally, significantly altered the functioning of the cell cycle in root meristem cells of A. cepa.

  9. Sustainable fuel, food, fertilizer and ecosystems through a global artificial photosynthetic system: overcoming anticompetitive barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Alex; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-06-06

    This article discusses challenges that artificial photosynthetic (AP) systems will face when entering and competing in a global market characterized by established fossil fuel technology. It provides a perspective on the neoliberal principles underpinning much policy entrenching such environmentally destructive technology and outlines how competition law could aid overcoming these hurdles for AP development. In particular, it critiques the potential for competition law to promote a global AP initiative with greater emphasis on atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen fixation (as well as solar-driven water splitting) to produce an equitable, globally distributed source of human food, fertilizer and biosphere sustainability, as well as hydrogen-based fuel. Some relevant strategies of competition law evaluated in this context include greater citizen-consumer involvement in shaping market values, legal requirements to factor services from the natural environment (i.e. provision of clean air, water, soil pollution degradation) into corporate costs, reform of corporate taxation and requirements to balance maximization of shareholder profit with contribution to a nominated public good, a global financial transactions tax, as well as prohibiting horizontal cartels, vertical agreements and unilateral misuse of market power.

  10. Growth, food consumption, and energy status of juvenile pallid sturgeon fed natural or artificial diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Hilary A.; Chipps, Steven R.; Graeb, Brian D. S.; Klumb, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Stocking of hatchery-raised fish is an important part of the pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus recovery program. In the wild, juvenile pallid sturgeon consume primarily aquatic insects, although little is known about specific dietary needs. In hatchery settings, pallid sturgeon are fed commercial diets that are formulated for salmonids. To compare food consumption, growth, and energy status of pallid sturgeon fed artificial or natural diets, we conducted a laboratory study using 24 juvenile pallid sturgeon (initial fork length 153–236 mm). Pallid sturgeon were fed a daily ration of either commercial pellets (1 mm, slow sinking; 45% protein, 19% fat) or chironomid larvae for 5 wk. Natural-fed pallid sturgeon exhibited a greater specific growth rate (2.12% d−1) than pellet-fed fish (0.06% d−1). Similarly, relative condition was greater for natural-fed sturgeon (Kn = 1.11) than that observed for pellet-fed fish (Kn = 0.87). In contrast, the hepatosomatic index was significantly higher in pellet-fed fish (2.5%), indicating a high lipid diet compared with natural-fed sturgeon (1.4%). Given the importance of natural diets to fish digestion and growth, it is suggested that a more holistic approach be applied in the development of a practical diet for pallid sturgeon that incorporates attributes of natural prey.

  11. Use of ionizing radiation for preservation of food and feed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, E.S.; Brynjolfsson, A.; Wierbicki, E.

    1975-01-01

    Exposing food to ionizing radiation can contribute to closing the worldwide food deficit by reducing food spoilage losses, by making available more food of higher nutritional quality (animal protein food) to more people, and by keeping prices down by reducing losses. Because ionizing radiation kills disease-causing organisms, it can reduce the incidence of food-borne diseases. It also reduces our dependence upon some of the chemical additives, such as nitrites and nitrates, now being questioned by health authorities to control food spoilage and food-borne diseases. The three basic types of ionizing radiation used for processing of food are electrons (10 MeV maximum energy), X-rays (5 MeV maximum energy) produced by electrons in an X-ray target, and gamma rays from 60 Co and 137 Cs. Electrons, X-rays, and gamma rays cause ionization in the food by either the primary electrons or by the secondary electrons resulting from gamma or X-ray interactions in the food with little rise in temperature and little total chemical change. The ionized and activated molecules form unstable secondary products that kill the organisms. Another effect is to slow down post-harvest growth and maturation in some fruits and vegetables

  12. A comparative study of the antacid effect of some commonly consumed foods for hyperacidity in an artificial stomach model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Vandana; Shinde, Priyanka; Deora, Jyoti; Gupta, Pankaj

    2017-10-01

    The incorporation of certain alkalinizing vegetables, fruits, milk and its products in the diet has been known to alleviate hyperacidity. These foods help to restore the natural gastric balance and function, curb acid reflux, aid digestion, reduce the burning sensation due to hyperacidity and soothe the inflamed mucosa of the stomach. The present study evaluates and compares the antacid effect of broccoli, kale, radish, cucumber, lemon juice, cold milk and curd in an artificial stomach model. The pH of the test samples and their neutralizing effect on artificial gastric acid was determined and compared with that of water, the active control sodium bicarbonate and a marketed antacid preparation ENO. A modified model of Vatier's artificial stomach was used to determine the duration of consistent neutralization of artificial gastric acid by the test samples. The neutralizing capacity of the test samples was determined in vitro using the classical titration method of Fordtran. All test samples except lemon showed significantly higher (p<0.05 for cucumber and p<0.001 for the rest) acid neutralizing effect than water. All test samples also exhibited a significantly (p<0.001) higher duration of consistent neutralization and higher antacid capacity than water. Highest antacid activity was demonstrated by cold milk and broccoli which was comparable with ENO and sodium bicarbonate. It may be concluded that the natural food ingredients used in this study exhibited significant antacid activity, justifying their use as essential dietary components to counter hyperacidity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on chemical, bioactive and food preserving properties of Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Jovana; Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Barros, Lillian; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2014-07-25

    Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murr. was studied to determine the nutritional value, bioactive compounds, in vitro antioxidants, and antimicrobial and antitumor activities. The studied mushroom is a rich source of carbohydrates and proteins. Mannitol and trehalose were the main free sugars. In addition, the polyunsaturated fatty acids α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols were found. Oxalic and citric acids were the most abundant organic acids; cinnamic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids were quantified in the methanolic extract and could be related to the antioxidant properties. It was the polysaccharidic extract that exhibited higher antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, indicating that the compounds present in this extract possess stronger bioactivity. Only the polysaccharidic extract revealed antiproliferative activity in human tumor cell lines. In addition, a suitable model system with chicken pâté was developed to test the antimicrobial preserving properties of L. sulphureus. The methanolic extract was used to examine in situ preserving properties against Aspergillus flavus and demonstrated excellent preserving potential.

  14. Evaluation of the efficacy of four weak acids as antifungal preservatives in low-acid intermediate moisture model food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang; Wilson, Mark; Chapman, Belinda; Hocking, Ailsa D

    2010-02-01

    The potential efficacy of four weak acids as preservatives in low-acid intermediate moisture foods was assessed using a glycerol based agar medium. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC, % wt./wt.) of each acid was determined at two pH values (pH 5.0, pH 6.0) and two a(w) values (0.85, 0.90) for five food spoilage fungi, Eurotium herbariorum, Eurotium rubrum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium roqueforti. Sorbic acid, a preservative commonly used to control fungal growth in low-acid intermediate moisture foods, was included as a reference. The MIC values of the four acids were lower at pH 5.0 than pH 6.0 at equivalent a(w) values, and lower at 0.85 a(w) than 0.90 a(w) at equivalent pH values. By comparison with the MIC values of sorbic acid, those of caprylic acid and dehydroacetic acid were generally lower, whereas those for caproic acid were generally higher. No general observation could be made in the case of capric acid. The antifungal activities of all five weak acids appeared related not only to the undissociated form, but also the dissociated form, of each acid.

  15. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production:a potential source of botanical food preservative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Negero Gemeda; Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel; Daniel Asrat; Asfaw Debella

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production.Method: In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species.Results: Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5 336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations.Conclusions:In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi.

  16. Role of radiation technology in preservation of food and agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Several technological benefits can be achieved by gamma radiation processing of agricultural commodities and food include: inhibition of sprouting in tubers, bulbs and rhizomes; disinfestation of insect pests in stored products; disinfestation of quarantine pests in fresh produce; delay in ripening and senescence in fruits and vegetables; destruction of microbes responsible for spoilage of food; elimination of parasites and pathogens of public health importance in food

  17. Ultraviolet Technology For Food Preservation [tecnologia De Ultravioleta Para Preservação De Alimentos

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes A.M.M.; Novello D.; Mendes G.M.P.; Cristianini M.

    2009-01-01

    This literature review article had as objective to gather information about ultraviolet (UV) technology utilization on the food industry, its effects and potential application. Aspects as the origin, concept and applications of the technology on the equipment industry and running mechanisms were approached. The application of UV radiation on food decontamination is still little used due its low penetration, but it is known that it can be easily applied to solid and liquid food products. The r...

  18. Replacing of live food with artificial diet on growth and survival rates of white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorbani Vagheie, R.; Matinfar, A.; Aeinjamshid, Kh.; Hafezieh, M.; Ghorbani, R.

    2011-01-01

    Replacing live food with artificial diets in aquatic larviculture, especially in shrimp larvae not only is caused convenience feeding, but also in economical view is very important. With this object, in this survey, a density of 100.L -1 white leg shrimp larvae in 9 nutritional treatments each with three replicates were cultured in 20L tanks each one was held with 10L of 30% salty water using one air stone. The larvae were fed 4 times.day-1 with different diets, including live foods (Cheatoce...

  19. Purification and characterization of bacteriocin like substance produced from bacillus lentus with perspective of a new biopreservative for food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, N.; Gautam, N.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular weight of bacteriocin like substance (BLIS) of a new strain of Bacillus lentus 121 was found to be approximately 11 kDa. Purification of BLIS was attained by single step gel exclusion chromatography. BLIS was characterized by studying the inhibitory spectrum. It was active at broad pH range, high temperature and high NaCl concentration and showed sensitivity to proteolytic enzymes like trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin and papain, the characters desirable for food preservation. BLIS extended the shelf stability of milk upto 21 days as a biopreservative. (author)

  20. Encapsulation for preservation of functionality and targeted delivery of bioactive food components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Paul; Faas, Marijke M.; Spasojevic, Milica; Sikkema, Jan

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of food products containing bioactive components with a health promoting or disease preventing effect. Bioactive food components can be divided into bioactive molecules and bioactive living cells (probiotics). Both bioactive molecules and bioactive

  1. Does maternal exposure to artificial food coloring additives increase oxidative stress in the skin of rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başak, K; Başak, P Y; Doğuç, D K; Aylak, F; Oğuztüzün, S; Bozer, B M; Gültekin, F

    2017-10-01

    Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P450 family 1 subfamily A polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1) metabolize and detoxify carcinogens, drugs, environmental pollutants, and reactive oxygen species. Changes of GST expression in tissues and gene mutations have been reported in association with many neoplastic skin diseases and dermatoses. Widely used artificial food coloring additives (AFCAs) also reported to effect primarily behavioral and cognitive function and cause neoplastic diseases and several inflammatory skin diseases. We aimed to identify the changes in expression of GSTs, CYP1A1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in rat skin which were maternally exposed AFCAs. A rat model was designed to evaluate the effects of maternal exposure of AFCAs on skin in rats. "No observable adverse effect levels" of commonly used AFCAs as a mixture were given to female rats before and during gestation. Immunohistochemical expression of GSTs, CYP1A1, and VEGF was evaluated in their offspring. CYP1A1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP), glutathione S-transferase alpha (GSTA), glutathione S-transferase mu (GSTM), glutathione S-transferase theta (GSTT), and VEGF were expressed by epidermal keratinocytes, dermal fibroblasts, sebaceous glands, hair follicle, and subcutaneous striated muscle in the normal skin. CYP1A1, GSTA, and GSTT were expressed at all microanatomical sites of skin in varying degrees. The expressions of CYP1A1, GSTA, GSTT, and VEGF were decreased significantly, while GSTM expression on sebaceous gland and hair follicle was increased. Maternal exposure of AFCAs apparently effects expression of the CYP1A1, GSTs, and VEGF in the skin. This prominent change of expressions might play role in neoplastic and nonneoplastic skin diseases.

  2. Artificial Hydration and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Your Health Resources Healthcare Management Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Share Print Patients who ...

  3. Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for confirming the photo-induced generation of dioxin-like derivatives and other cosmetic preservative photoproducts on artificial skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Llompart, Maria; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Lores, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The stability and photochemical transformations of cosmetic preservatives in topical applications exposed to UV-light is a serious but poorly understood problem. In this study, a high throughput extraction and selective method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was validated and applied to investigate the photochemical transformation of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), as well as the antimicrobials triclosan (TCS) and phenyl benzoate (PhBz) in an artificial skin model. Two sets of photodegradation experiments were performed: (i) UV-Irradiation (8W, 254nm) of artificial skin directly spiked with the target preservatives, and (ii) UV-irradiation of artificial skin after the application of a cosmetic cream fortified with the target compounds. After irradiation, PLE was used to isolate the target preservatives and their transformation products. The follow-up of the photodegradation kinetics of the parent preservatives, the identification of the arising by-products, and the monitorization of their kinetic profiles was performed by GC-MS. The photochemical transformation of triclosan into 2,8-dichloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (2,8-DCDD) and other dioxin-like photoproducts has been confirmed in this work. Furthermore, seven BHT photoproducts, and three benzophenones as PhBz by-products, have been also identified. These findings reveal the first evidences of cosmetic ingredients phototransformation into unwanted photoproducts on an artificial skin model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins under Stress Encountered during Food Production and Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelin, Jenny; Susilo, Yusak Budi; Johler, Sophia

    2017-12-15

    Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is the most prevalent cause of food-borne intoxications worldwide. Consumption of enterotoxins preformed in food causes violent vomiting and can be fatal in children and the elderly. While being repressed by competing bacteria in most matrices, Staphylococcus aureus benefits from crucial competitive advantages in foods with high osmolarity or low pH. During recent years, the long-standing belief in the feasibility of assessing SFP risk based on colony-forming units of S. aureus present in food products has been disproven. Instead, researchers and food business operators are acutely aware of the imminent threat arising from unforeseeable enterotoxin production under stress conditions. This paradigm shift led to a variety of new publications enabling an improved understanding of enterotoxin expression under stress conditions encountered in food. The wealth of data provided by these studies is extremely diverse, as it is based on different methodological approaches, staphylococcal strains, stressors, and enterotoxins. Therefore, in this review, we aggregated and critically evaluated the complex findings of these studies, to provide readers with a current overview of the state of research in the field.

  5. Combined effect of thermal sterilization and ionizing radiation on storage life of preserved foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozova, B.; Sorman, L.; Fazekasova, H.

    1986-01-01

    The effect was studied of the binary combination of preservation methods, i.e., of a reduced intensity of thermosterilization and diverse doses of ionizing radiation, on the content of microorganisms in single-component tinned products (tinned beef and gravy, tinned pickled cauliflower) and in tins containing two components (beef with cauliflower) over a period of 115 days of storage at a laboratory temperature of 20 degC ± 2 degC. The experimental results showed that the chosen combined process of preservation guaranteed sufficient storage stability to the products over several months of storage. An ionizing radiation dose of 5 kGy was sufficient for both types of model samples, this both from microbiological, nutritional aspects (some group B vitamins, vitamin C, -SH groups, etc.) and with regard to organoleptic properties (outlook, color, odor, flavor, consistence, juiciness). The problems will further be studied. (author) 2 tabs., 4 figs., 14 refs

  6. Microbiological analysis of common preservatives used in food items and demonstration of their in vitro anti-bacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohora Sultana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To quantify the microorganisms contaminating the common preservatives used in food as well as to detect their in vitro anti-bacterial traits. Methods: A total of 9 preservatives were subjected to conventional cultural and biochemical methods for microbial enumeration. Anti-bacterial activities were demonstrated through the agar well diffusion method. Results: All samples were found to be contaminated with bacteria up to 105 CFU/g and with the fungal flora within a range of 1 01-1 02 CFU/g. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp. and Staphylococcus spp. were demonstrated in most of the samples. Sodium sulfite and citric acid possessed the strongest anti-bacterial trait against all of the test bacteria. Acetic acid exhibited activity against 6 out of 8 test bacteria while vinegar exhibited the activity against 4 bacteria. Activity of salt was demonstrated only against Listeria spp. and Bacillus spp., while activity of sugar and honey was found only against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp., respectively. Conclusions: According to the current investigation, sodium sulfite and citric acid samples were found to be satisfactory preservatives both in terms of microbiological criteria and their antibacterial traits.

  7. Terminalia arjuna: A novel natural preservative for improved lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of muscle foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insha Kousar Kalem

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to explore the possibility of utilization of Terminalia arjuna as a novel natural preservative in meat products by using chevon sausages as a model system. Chevon sausages were prepared by incorporating different levels of T. arjuna viz. T1 (0.25%, T2 (0.50% and T3 (0.75% and were assessed for various lipid oxidative stability and storage quality parameters under refrigerated (4 ± 1 °C conditions. T. arjuna showed a significant (p < 0.05 effect on the lipid oxidative stability as the treated products exhibited significantly (p < 0.05 lower TBARS (mg malonaldehyde/kg values in comparison to control. A significant (p < 0.05 effect was also observed on the microbial stability as T. arjuna incorporated products showed significantly (p < 0.05 lower values for total plate count (log cfu/g, psychrophilic count (log cfu/g, yeast and mould count (log cfu/g and FFA (% oleic acid values. Significantly (p < 0.05 higher scores were observed for various sensory parameters of the products incorporated with T. arjuna during refrigerated storage. T. arjuna successfully improved the lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of the model meat product and may be commercially exploited as a novel preservative in muscle foods. Keywords: Terminalia arjuna, Chevon sausages, Natural preservative, Lipid oxidation, Storage quality

  8. The EPR detection of foods preserved with the use of ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowicz, W.; Burlińska, G.; Michalik, J.; Dziedzic-Gocławska, A.; Ostrowski, K.

    1995-02-01

    Solid constituents extracted from irradiated foods have been examined by the epr (esr) spectroscopy. It has been proved that some epr active species produced by radiation in foods are specific and stable enough to be used for the detection of irradiation treatment. The most promising results have been obtained with bones extracted from frozen raw meat (beef, pork, poultry and fish), with seeds of fruits (dates and figs), with dried mushrooms, gelatin and macaroni.

  9. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part IV. Subtropical fruits: citrus, grapes, and avocados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    Current information on the use of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of subtropical fruits like citrus, grapes, and avocados is reviewed. The feasibility of applying radiation either alone or in combination with other physical or chemical treatments for the control of postharvest fungal diseases is considered. Irradiation effects on the physiology of the fruits as related to respiration, ethylene evolution, changes in major chemical constituents, and quality are discussed. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation as an alternative treatment to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of citrus and avocados and the prospects for the future application of irradiation for preservation of some of these fruits are outlined. 128 references

  10. The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and processing improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Han Ok; Jo, Sung Ki; Yook, Hong Sun; Kwon, Oh Jin; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Sung; Im, Sung Il

    1997-09-01

    This project has intended to develop alternative techniques to be used in food industry for food processing and utilization by safe irradiation methods. For improvement of rheology and processing in corn starch by irradiation, the production of modified starch with low viscosity as well as with excellent viscosity stability became feasible by the control of gamma irradiation dose levels and the amount of added inorganic peroxides to starch. Also, this project was developed the improvement methods of hygienic quality and long-term storage of dried red pepper by gamma irradiation. And, in Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield of major components. For the sanitization of health and convenience foods, gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment in decontamination of microorganisms, with minimal effect on the physicochemical properties analysed. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma-irradiated the Korean medicinal plants could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And, thirteen groups of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea Ministry of Health and Welfare. (author). 81 refs., 74 tabs.

  11. Functional genomics for food microbiology: Molecular mechanisms of weak organic acid preservative adaptation in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brul, S.; Kallemeijn, W.; Smits, G.

    2008-01-01

    The recent era of genomics has offered tremendous possibilities to biology. This concise review describes the possibilities of applying (functional) genomics studies to the field of microbial food stability. In doing so, the studies on weak-organic-acid stress response in yeast are discussed by way

  12. The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and processing improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Han Ok; Jo, Sung Ki; Yook, Hong Sun; Kwon, Oh Jin; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Sung; Im, Sung Il.

    1997-09-01

    This project has intended to develop alternative techniques to be used in food industry for food processing and utilization by safe irradiation methods. For improvement of rheology and processing in corn starch by irradiation, the production of modified starch with low viscosity as well as with excellent viscosity stability became feasible by the control of gamma irradiation dose levels and the amount of added inorganic peroxides to starch. Also, this project was developed the improvement methods of hygienic quality and long-term storage of dried red pepper by gamma irradiation. And, in Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield of major components. For the sanitization of health and convenience foods, gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment in decontamination of microorganisms, with minimal effect on the physicochemical properties analysed. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma-irradiated the Korean medicinal plants could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And, thirteen groups of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea Ministry of Health and Welfare. (author). 81 refs., 74 tabs

  13. Sorbic and benzoic acid in non-preservative-added food products in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Ruziye; Cagri-Mehmetoglu, Arzu

    2013-01-01

    Sorbic acid (SA) and benzoic acid (BA) were determined in yoghurt, tomato and pepper paste, fruit juices, chocolates, soups and chips in Turkey by using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Levels were compared with Turkish Food Codex limits. SA was detected only in 2 of 21 yoghurt samples, contrary to BA, which was found in all yoghurt samples but one, ranging from 10.5 to 159.9 mg/kg. Both SA and BA were detected also in 3 and 6 of 23 paste samples in a range of 18.1-526.4 and 21.7-1933.5 mg/kg, respectively. Only 1 of 23 fruit juices contained BA. SA was not detected in any chips, fruit juice, soup, or chocolate sample. Although 16.51% of the samples was not compliant with the Turkish Food Codex limits, estimated daily intake of BA or SA was below the acceptable daily intake.

  14. The preservation of Listeria-critical foods by a combination of endolysin and high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiou, Ourania; van Nassau, Tomas J; Lenz, Christian A; Vogel, Rudi F

    2018-02-02

    The aim of this work was to examine the combination of endolysin PlyP825 and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing against a cocktail of stationary phase Listeria monocytogenes cells in several Listeria-critical food products (i.e. milk, mozzarella and smoked salmon). In order to determine the efficacy of the combined application, both challenge-lethality tests and storage tests were performed. In milk and mozzarella, we could demonstrate that the application of PlyP825 prior to HHP processing allowed for a synergistic inactivation of cells, a reduction in the pressure level with equal antimicrobial efficacy and an enhanced eradication of L. monocytogenes during storage at abuse temperatures. For smoked salmon, no such effects were detected. Although the efficacy of the method was highly dependent on the food vehicle and parameters applied, we hereby demonstrated the potential of the combined endolysin-HHP application for complete eradication of L. monocytogenes from foods at milder processing conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Corrosion inhibition with different protective layers in tinplate cans for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassino, Antonela Ninčević; Grabarić, Zorana; Pezzani, Aldo; Squitieri, Giuseppe; Berković, Katarina

    2010-11-01

    In this work the influence of essential onion oil (EOO) on the protection of tinplates was compared with dioctyl sebacate oil (DOS) and epoxy phenolic lacquers, which are frequently used in the food canning industry. When EOO as the protective layer instead of DOS oil was used, tinplate porosity, measured electrochemically (7.58 ± 1.97 µA cm(-2) and 23.0 ± 1.3 µA cm(-2), respectively), and iron coating mass, calculated from AAS data (1.52 ± 0.15 mg m(-2) and 3.14 ± 0.42, respectively), was much lower indicating better corrosion protection. At higher storing temperature (36 °C) the addition of EOO to canned tomato purée enhanced the formation of hydrogen with time. The increasing volume fraction of H(2) (from 34.0 to 90.9% for cans without nitrates, and from 33.8 to 89.2% for cans with nitrates) is an indicator that corrosion takes place. As the use of EOO improves the protection of tinplate compared with DOS oil, and is almost as effective as epoxy phenolic lacquer, the addition of EOO can be recommended due to lower cost of canned food production and enhanced organoleptic properties, but the storage temperature has to be lower then 36 °C. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry

  16. Occurrence of Antibiotic resistance in some bacterial strains due to gamma radiation, heavy metals or food preservatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattar, Z.A.; Bashandy, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    The susceptibility of bacterial strains (B. cereus, Staph. aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella) against 10 different antibiotics that are commonly used against food borne pathogens was studied. All the tested strains were observed to tolerate up to 100 mg/l copper sulphate or lead acetate, and there was a positive correlations between the tolerance to high levels of Cu or Pb and multiple antibiotic resistance was investigated. When the food preservatives (potassium sorbate or sodium benzoate) were added to the growth medium at different concentrations, the bacterial strains were able to tolerate up to 1000 ppm potassium sorbate or sodium benzoate (MIC). The antibiotic resistance of these strains was increased when grown on media supplemented with the MIC of sodium sorbate or potassium benzoate. When these bacterial strains were irradiated at dose levels of 1 or 3 or 5 KGy and examined for antibiotic sensitivity, a correlation was observed between the increases of radiation dose up to 5 KGy and the antibiotic resistance in all the studied strains

  17. Characterization of a noncytotoxic bacteriocin from probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 with potential as a food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Deeplina; Goyal, Arun

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to purify and characterize the bacteriocin produced by probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 in order to evaluate its potential as nutraceuticals. Lb. plantarum DM5 exhibited in vitro probiotic properties such as high resistance to gastric juice and bile salt, adherence to human adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells, bile salt hydrolase and cholesterol assimilation activity. Moreover, Lb. plantarum DM5 showed bacteriocin activity against several major food borne pathogens. Zymogram analysis of purified bacteriocin (plantaricin DM5) showed a molecular size of ∼15.2 kDa. Plantaricin DM5 was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes but stable in the pH range of 2.0-10.0, and it was heat resistant (121 °C for 15 min) and remained active upon treatment with surfactants and detergents. Cytotoxicity analysis of plantaricin DM5 on human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) and human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines revealed its nontoxic and biocompatible nature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the isolated strain expressing probiotic properties and broad antimicrobial activity without any cytotoxic effect on mammalian cells from indigenous fermented beverage Marcha from India, and thus contributes to the food industry as a novel bio-preservant.

  18. Lack of oestrogenic effects of food preservatives (parabens) in uterotrophic assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossaini, A.; Larsen, Jens-Jørgen; Larsen, John Christian

    2000-01-01

    The oestrogenic activity of the parabens, methyl-, ethyl- and propyl p-hydroxybenzoate, widely used as antimicrobials in food, and butyl p-hydroxybenzoate, which is used in cosmetic products, and their shared main metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid was investigated in a mouse uterotrophic assay......, Immature B6D2F1 mice were treated with oral or subcutaneous doses of the test compounds for three consecutive days, p-Hydroxgybenzoic acid and butyl p-hydroxybenzoate were also tested by the subcutaneous route in a rat uterotrophic assay. A significant increase in the uterus weight at day 4 was considered...... an oestrogenic effect. In the mouse assay, none of the compounds tested produced any oestrogenic response at dose levels up to 100 mg/kg body weight per day, for ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate even at a dose level of 1000 mg/kg body weight per day. In immature Wistar rats, subcutaneous administration of butyl p...

  19. An evaluation of the potential of combination processes involving heat and irradiation for food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuzzaman, K.; Payne, B.; Cole, L.; Goodwin, M.; Borsa, J.

    1989-11-01

    Effects of combined heating and gamma radiation on Clostridium sporogenes spores and Salmonella seftenberg were examined. The order in which irradiation and heat were applied had a profound effect on the survival of the organisms. Heating of C.sporogenes spores at 95 degrees Celsius had very little effect on their sensitivity to subsequent irradiation, but irradiation of the spores at 0 degrees Celsius increased their sensitivity to subsequent heat treatment and thus reduced their heat D 10 values (time required to activate the spores to 10% of their initial number). This radiation-induced heat sensitivity increased with the increase in radiation dose. The Z values (change in temperature required for a tenfold change in D 10 values) of the spores were found to increase with the increase in pre-irradiation dose. Radiation-induced heat sensitivity was found to persist for at least 35 days in spores irradiated in frozen or freeze-dried states in distilled water or in phosphate buffer suspensions, and for at least 14 days in a number of food slurries. In phosphate buffer and nutrient broth suspensions, the radiation-heat synergism decreased with increasing pH of the media from pH 4.7 to pH 7.5. However, the effect of pH on synergism was less pronounced in spores suspended in some food slurries. Preliminary results indicate that pre-irradiation of S. senftenberg at 0.5 kGy did not change the heat sensitivity of this organism at 52 degrees Celsius, but when radiation and heat were applied simultaneously, synergistic inactivation was observed even at 50 degrees Celsius. Practical implications of these results are discussed

  20. Determination of natural and artificial radionuclides and some trace metals in manufactured food of Syrian infant and their intake rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Nashawati, A.; Amin, Y.; Ibrahim, S.

    2001-06-01

    Natural and artificial radionuclides and some trace metals in some manufactured food of Syrian infant and their intake rates have been determined. Seventeen manufactured food and eleven types of canned milked, were collected from the local market, and chemically and radioactivity analyzed; radium-226, radium-228, potassium-40, lead-210, polonium-210 and trace metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn) being determined. Results have shown that 210 Po concentration varied between 0.38 and 2.89 Bq/Kg in canned milk while the highest concentration in infant food was found to be 1.69 Bq/Kg; other radionuclides concentration being below the limit of detection. Total uranium concentration varied between 2.2 and 10.5 μg/Kg in milk samples and 0.78-6.0 μg/Kg in food stuff samples. In addition, concentration of Pb and Cd in all samples were found to be very low and lower than the lower of limit of detection of the analytical method. (author)

  1. Influence of Natural Food Preservatives Combined with Gamma Radiation on Certain Microorganisms Isolated from Egyptian Juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fouly, M.Z.; Hussein, H.A.; Abu El-Naga, M.N.; Haroun, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Twelve strains were isolated from different Egyptian juices. The nine bacteria strains were identified as Micrococcus agilis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. warneri, S. epidermidis, S. auricularls, Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter frundii, and Streptococcus pedococcus while the yeast strains were Debaryomyces sp., Kluveromyces sp .and Pichia sp. Three of the previous strains were chosen in the present work according to their common contamination in all samples and their characteristics; S. aureus represented gram positive bacteria, P. aeruginosa represented gram negative bacteria and Debaryomyces sp. to represent yeast strains. S. aureus has completely annihilated by 250 μ g/ml. of nisin, or 0.2% citric acid, or 0.15% lactic acid, or 1.2 % cinnamon or 5 kGy of gamma rays.; P. aeruginosa was destroyed by 0.3 % citric acid, or 0.3 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 4 kGy of gamma rays, while Debaryomyces sp. was eliminated by 4 % citric acid, or 4.5 % lactic acid, or 2 % cinnamon or 7 kGy of gamma rays. Nisin alone has no effect on P. aeruginosa or Debaryomyces sp. Combined treatments have decreased both of natural preservatives and irradiation doses needed to eliminate the microorganisms contaminated the juices. S. aureus was completely eliminated by 3 kGy combined with only 25 μ g/ml. of nisin. The lethal dose decreased to 2 kGy by combination with citric, lactic acid and cinnamon at conc. 0.05%, 0.01% and 0.4 %, respectively .The dose level of gamma rays needed to eliminate P. aeruginosa decreased to 3 kGy in combination with citric acid 0.1% or with cinnamon 0.5 % and it decreased to 2 kGy by combination with lactic acid 0.1 %. In case of Debaryomyces sp the lethal dose decreased from 7 kGy to 4 kGy by combination with citric acid 1.5 % or cinnamon 1 % and to 3 kGy with lactic acid 1.5 %. Also, the combination treatment has activated the effect of nisin on both of P. aeruginosa and Debaryomyces sp. Dose level of 4 kGy combined with 200 μ g/ml. nisin

  2. Influence of natural food preservatives combined with gamma radiation on certain microorganisms isolated from Egyptian Juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fouly, M.Z.; Hussein, H.A.; Abu El-Naga, M.N.; Haroun, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    Twelve strains were isolated from different Egyptian juices. They were identified as Micrococcus agilis. Staphylococcus aureus, S. warneri, Debaryomyces sp., Pichia sp., S. epidermidis, S. auricularls, Kluveromyces sp., Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter frundii,and Streptococcus pedococcus. Three of the previous strains were chosen in the present work according to their common contamination in all samples and their characteristics; S. aureus represented gram positive bacteria, P. aeruginosa represented gram negative bacteria and Debaryomyces sp.to represent yeast strains. S. aureus has completely annihilated by 250 μg/ml. of nisin, or 0.2% citric acid, or 0.15% lactic acid, or 1.2 % cinnamon or 5 kGy of gamma rays. P. aeruginosa was destroyed by 0.3 % citric acid, or 0.3 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 4 kGy of gamma rays, while Debaryomyces sp. was eliminated by 4 % citric acid, or 4.5 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 7 kGy of gamma rays. Nisin alone has no effect on P. aeruginosa or Debaryomyces sp. Combined treatments have decreased both of natural preservatives and irradiation doses needed to eliminate the microorganisms contaminated the juices. S. aureus was completely eliminated by 3 kGy combined with only 25 μg/ml. of nisin. The lethal dose decreased to 2 kGy by combination with citric, lactic acid and cinnamon at conc. 0.05%, 0.01% and 0.4 %, respectively. The dose level of gamma rays needed to eliminate P. aeruginosa decreased to 3 kGy in combination with citric acid 0.1% or with cinnamon 0.5 % and it decreased to 2 kGy by combination with lactic acid 0.1 %. In case of Debaryomyces sp the lethal dose decreased from 7 kGy to 4 kGy by combination with citric acid 1.5 % or cinnamon 1 % and to 3 kGy with lactic acid 1.5 %. Also the combination treatment has activated the effect of nisin on both of P. aeruginosa and Debaryomyces sp. Dose level 4 kGy by combination with 200 μg/ml. nisin completely inhibited their growth

  3. Use of irradiation in the preservation of traditional South African foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minnaar, A.; Bester, B.H.; Shilangale, R.P.M.

    2002-01-01

    A variety of traditional African foods are prepared in the home and enjoyed by a large number of consumers. Currently, hardly any of these foods are available commercially. However, these foods are laborious to prepare, not generally available commercially and have a limited shelf life. The application of irradiation (alone) or in combination with other technologies can help solve these problems. The effect of irradiation (0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy at 5 deg. C the consumer acceptability of a traditional South African ready-to-eat (RTE) meal consisting of spinach (morogo) and sorghum porridge was investigated. The two components of the meal remained acceptable up to a dose of 10 kGy. The limiting factor for using higher doses was the porridge component, especially in terms of texture (too soft) and taste (off-flavour development). Therefore the use irradiation at 10 kGy in combination with different levels of sodium nitrite was proposed to improve the storability of the RTE-meal. Research is in progress investigating the effects of combining mild heat, sodium nitrite and irradiation on the microbiological quality, shelf-life and acceptability of a RTE- meal consisting of spinach (morogo) and sorghum porridge. Washing in chlorinated water reduced inoculated Clostridium sporogenes spores in spinach by about 2 log 10 cfu/g probably because hypochlorites are bacteriostatic. Blanching of spinach after the chlorine treatment did not effect the C. sporogenes counts. However, C. sporogenes counts increased by about 1 log 10 cfu/g during cooking, probably due to the activation of the spores by heat. On the other hand, cooking reduced C. sporogenes counts in the porridge significantly (by about 2 log 10 cfu/g). Gelatinised starch granules probably protected the spores against heat activation. In both meal components, cooking caused a significant decrease in the final nitrite levels. This may be due to the fact that nitrite can form complexes with other components during heating

  4. Artificial trans fat in popular foods in 2012 and in 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To minimise the intake of industrially produced trans fat (I-TF) and thereby decrease the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), nearly all European countries rely on food producers to voluntarily reduce the I-TF content in food. The objective of this study was to monitor the change...

  5. Partition of selected food preservatives in fish oil-water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan; Leth, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The partition coefficients (Kow) of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in systems of fish oil (sand eel)–water, fish oil–buffer solution, rape oil–water and olive oil–water were experimentally determined in a temperature range from 5 to 43 °C and pH from 4.5 to 6.5 °C. The dimerization of benzoic acid...... in fish oil–water system was observed at 25 °C. Two modifications have been made to the Nordic Food Analysis Standard for the determination of sorbic acid by HPLC. The experimental results show that the Kow of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in fish oil–buffer system is ca. 100 times lower than that in fish...... oil–water system. The Kow values of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in fish oil and water system decrease with increasing system pH values. The partition coefficients of plant origin and fish origin oils are in the same order of magnitude even though their molecular structures are very different....

  6. Functional properties of edible agar-based and starch-based films for food quality preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, The D; Debeaufort, F; Luu, D; Voilley, A

    2005-02-23

    Edible films made of agar (AG), cassava starch (CAS), normal rice starch (NRS), and waxy (glutinous) rice starch (WRS) were elaborated and tested for a potential use as edible packaging or coating. Their water vapor permeabilities (WVP) were comparable with those of most of the polysaccharide-based films and with some protein-based films. Depending on the environmental moisture pressure, the WVP of the films varies and remains constant when the relative humidity (RH) is >84%. Equilibrium sorption isotherms of these films have been measured; the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) model was used to describe the sorption isotherm and contributed to a better knowledge of hydration properties. Surface hydrophobicity and wettability of these films were also investigated using the sessile drop contact angle method. The results obtained suggested the migration of the lipid fraction toward evaporation surface during film drying. Among these polysaccharide-based films, AG-based film and CAS-based film displayed more interesting mechanical properties: they are transparent, clear, homogeneous, flexible, and easily handled. NRS- and WRS-based films were relatively brittle and have a low tension resistance. Microstructure of film cross section was observed by environmental scanning electron microscopy to better understand the effect of the structure on the functional properties. The results suggest that AG-based film and CAS-based films, which show better functional properties, are promising systems to be used as food packaging or coating instead of NRS- and WRS-based films.

  7. Application of the Ames mutagenicity test to food processed by physical preservation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooij, J.G. van; Leveling, H.B.; Schubert, J.

    1978-01-01

    An irradiated (380 krad) mixture of four fresh vegetables - leek, celery, carrot, and cauliflower - was examined for mutagenicity by the Ames mutagenicity test using four different histidine-deficient strains of Salmonellae. Water extracts were prepared from the irradiated and unirradiated vegetables - a freeze dried extract (FDE) and a boiled extract (BE). Several problems were overcome in the mutagenicity testing of a complex substance such as food which contains free histidine, different species of bacteria, and a mixture of low and high molecular weight chemicals. In addition, we eliminated an omission in the usual protocols of the Ames test by testing the positive mutagen controls in the presence and absence of the test samples, thus reducing the possible incidence of false negatives and false positives. The induction and expression of mutagenesis by sodium azide (SA) and ethidium bromide (EB) in TA 100 and TA 98 mutant strains, respectively, decreased with increasing amounts of FDE, while increasing levels of BE suppressed the number of revertants in TA 98 in the presence of EB, but exerted little influence on the mutagenicity of SA in TA 100. No difference was observed in the antimutagenic action between the irradiated and unirradiated vegetable extracts. Both the FDE and BE preparations suppressed the action of a frameshift mutagen, but with a base-pair mutagen only the FDE or uncooked vegetable extracts produced suppression. (author)

  8. Thermal and non-thermal preservation techniques of tiger nuts' beverage "horchata de chufa". Implications for food safety, nutritional and quality properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselló-Soto, Elena; Poojary, Mahesha M; Barba, Francisco J; Koubaa, Mohamed; Lorenzo, Jose M; Mañes, Jordi; Moltó, Juan Carlos

    2018-03-01

    "Horchata de chufa" is a traditional Spanish beverage produced from tiger nuts (Cyperus esculentus L.). Due to its richness in nutritional compounds, it is highly perishable and its conservation by pasteurization and/or adding preservatives is required. Although efficient, conventional thermal treatment for pasteurization induces changes in the nutritional and sensory properties. Replacing conventional pasteurization by non-thermal technologies such as pulsed electric fields, ultraviolet, and high pressure, combined with moderate temperatures (preservation of the most thermo-sensitive molecules. Accordingly, this review deals with the description of the most relevant non-thermal technologies applied to preserve "horchata" beverage in order to extend the shelf life and inactivate pathogenic microorganisms as well as to preserve the nutritional and quality properties of this food beverage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sodium benzoate, a food preservative, affects the functional and activation status of splenocytes at non cytotoxic dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ashish; Kumar, Arvind; Das, Mukul; Tripathi, Anurag

    2016-02-01

    Sodium benzoate (SB) is a widely used food preservative due to its bacteriostatic and fungistatic properties. The acceptable daily intake of SB is 5 mg/kg-bw, however, it has been found to be used in the food commodities at relatively high levels (2119 mg/kg). Earlier studies on SB have shown its immunosuppressive properties, but comprehensive immunotoxicity data is lacking. Our studies have shown that SB was non cytotoxic in splenocytes up to 1000 μg/ml for 72 h, however at 2500 μg/ml it was found to be cytotoxic. Thus, 1000 μg/ml dose of SB was chosen for the subsequent experiments. SB significantly suppresses the proliferation of Con A and LPS stimulated splenocytes at 72 h, while allogenic response of T cells was significantly decreased after 96 h. SB did not affect the relative expression of CD3e or CD4 molecules following 72 h exposure, however, it downregulated the relative expression of CD8 co-receptor. Further, exposure of splenocytes to SB for 72 h led to reduced expression of CD28 and CD95, which play a vital role in T cell activation. SB also suppresses the relative expression of CD19, CD40 and CD95 receptors on B cells after 72 h. In addition to the functional responses, SB lowered the expression of IL4, IL6, IFNγ and IL17 cytokines in Con A stimulated splenocytes; and IL6, IFNγ and TNFα in LPS stimulated splenocytes following 48 h of exposure. Taken together, the present study is suggestive of the immunomodulatory potential of SB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL FOOD COLOUR AND SWEETENER IN ADULT MALE ALBINO MICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDEL-RAHMAN, M.; EL-KHADRAGY, M.F.; ABDEL-AZIZ, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of aspartame (artificial sweetener) and sunset yellow (artificial colour) on monoamines content in different brain areas of the adult male albino mice (cerebellum, brain stem, striatum, hypothalamus and cerebral cortex), and also on testosterone level in serum.The present study showed that the daily intraperitoneal injection of aspartame with dose of 200 mg/kg caused significant increase in monoamines content and testosterone level at most experimental periods. The elevation of monoamines content may be due to increase in phenylalanine concentration which leading to increase the synthesis of monoamines. The elevation of testosterone level may be due to the increment of DA content in hypothalamus which led to increase the release of LHRH. On the other hand, the daily intraperitoneal injection of sunset yellow with a dose of 2.5 mg/kg caused significant decrease in monoamines content and non-significant change in serum testosterone level at most experimental periods. The decrement in monoamines content may be due to the decrease in its uptake by the neurotransmitters or decrease in its synthesis

  11. Feeding behavior by hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae in artificial food patches in an Atlantic Forest remnant in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas L. Lanna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT During flight, hummingbirds achieve the maximum aerobic metabolism rates within vertebrates. To meet such demands, these birds have to take in as much energy as possible, using strategies such as selecting the best food resources and adopting behaviors that allow the greatest energy gains. We tested whether hummingbirds choose sources that have higher sugar concentrations, and investigated their behaviors near and at food resources. The study was conducted at Atlantic forest remnant in Brazil, between June and December 2012. Four patches were provided with artificial feeders, containing sucrose solutions at concentrations of 5%, 15%, 25% and 35% weight/volume. Hummingbird behaviors were recorded using the ad libitum method with continuous recording of behaviors. The following species were observed: the Brazilian ruby Clytolaema rubricauda (Boddaert, 1783, Violet-capped woodnymph Thalurania glaucopis (Gmelin, 1788, Scale-throated hermit Phaethornis eurynome (Lesson, 1832, White-throated hummingbird Leucochloris albicollis (Vieillot, 1818, Versicoloured emerald Amazilia versicolor (Vieillot, 1818, Glittering-bellied emerald Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812 and other Phaethornis spp. C. rubricauda, P. eurynome and Phaethornis spp. visited the 35%-sucrose feeders more often, while the T. glaucopis visited the 25%-sucrose feeders more often. L. albicollis and A. versicolor visited more often solutions with sugar concentration of 15%. C. lucidus visited all patches equally. Three behavioral strategies were observed: 1 C. rubricauda and T. glaucopis exhibited interspecific and intraspecific dominance; 2 the remaining species exhibited subordinance to the dominant hummingbirds, and 3 P. eurynome and Phaethornis spp. adopted a hide-and-wait strategy to the dominant hummingbird species. The frequency of aggressive behaviors was correlated with the time the hummingbird spent feeding, and bird size. Our results showed that hummingbirds can adopt

  12. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A.C.; Beyers, M.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiation can be used to eliminate harmful bacteria in frozen products without thawing them. It can also replace chemicals or extended cold storage as a means of killing insect pests in export commodities

  13. Artificial Fruit: Postharvest Online Monitoring of Agricultural Food by Measuring Humidity and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübert, T.; Lang, C.

    2012-09-01

    An online monitoring of environmental and inherent product parameters is required during transportation and storage of fruit and vegetables to avoid quality degradation and spoilage. The control of transpiration losses is suggested as an indicator for fruit freshness by humidity measurements. For that purpose, an electronic sensor is surrounded by a wet porous fiber material which is in contact with the outer atmosphere. Transpiration reduces the water content of the porous material and thus also the internal water activity. The sensor system, known as "artificial fruit," measures the relative humidity and temperature inside the wet material. Humidity and temperature data are collected and transmitted on demand by a miniaturized radio communication unit. The decrease in the measured relative humidity has been calibrated against the mass loss of tomatoes under different external influencing parameters such as temperature, humidity, and air flow. Current battery life allows the sensor system, embedded in a fruit crate, to transmit data on transpiration losses via radio transmission for up to two weeks.

  14. Sensory evaluation of a highly nutritive bread, formulated for populations suffering food emergencies, preserved with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.S.; Gómez, B.; Cova, M.C.; Narvaiz, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate with sensorial analysis, the feasibility of extending the shelf life at room temperature of highly nutritive bread, specially formulated for people suffering alimentary emergencies such as floods, earthquakes, geographical isolation or malnourishment, by means of ionizing radiation. The shelf life of any bread is limited by microbial growth, so the food industry uses chemicals and /or refrigeration to control it. Twenty one breads were formulated and manufactured employing wheat and soybean flours, dehydrated whey, skim milk and egg, vegetal oil, water, and some commercial food additives as emulsifiers and water retention substances. A final formulation was chosen by means of a preliminary sensory evaluation. Bibliographic estimations were made on its nutritional quality as compared to that of a regular wheat bread; improvements were found on vitamins, minerals, proteins, lipids and fibre. Forty 450 g breads were manufactured, oven cooked at 220°C for 20 minutes, packaged with polyethylene film, 100 microns thickness, and irradiated at the semi industrial cobalt-60 facility of the Ezeiza Atomic Centre, about 600,000 Ci of activity, with doses of 0, 6 and 10 kilo Grays, dose rate: 10 kGy/h, dose uniformity: 1.1. Control and irradiated samples were stored at room temperature and relative humidity for 43 days. Sensory analysis was performed with a panel of about 50 consumers on days 3, 29 and 43, evaluating aroma, aspect, colour, flavour, texture and general acceptability with hedonic scores ranging from 1 to 9. No significant differences between control and irradiated samples were found, being the latter afforded scores close to 7 even at the end of the storage period. Control samples had to be discarded on day 6 due to visible mould growth. So this bread formulation, suitable to fulfill most of the nutritional requirements of a population under alimentary emergency, attained at least a 7 fold shelf life increase when treated

  15. Potato wound-healing tissues: A rich source of natural antioxidant molecules with potential for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Wang, Isabel; Stark, Ruth E

    2016-11-01

    The need for safe, effective preservatives is a prominent issue in the food and drug industries, reflecting demand for natural alternatives to synthetic chemicals viewed as harmful to consumers and the environment. Thus, this study determined the identities and scavenging capacities of antioxidant metabolites produced as a response to potato tuber wounding, using activity-guided fractionation of polar extracts from a Yukon Gold cultivar that had previously exhibited exceptionally high radical-scavenging activity. Activity-guided fractionation using the ABTS(+) radical scavenging assay and LC-MS with TOF-MS for compositional analysis of the most potent antioxidant fractions yielded identification of nine constituents: coumaroylputrescine; feruloylquinic acid; isoferuloylputrescine; ferulic acid; 22,25-dimethoxy-3-[[2,3,4-tri-O-methyl-6-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-(3β)-lanost-9(11)-en-24-one; 4-(2Z)-2-decen-1-yl-5-[1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)decyl]-1,2-benzenediol; 8-[(2E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-yl]-5-hydroxy-2,8-dimethyl-6-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-2H-1-benzopyran-4,7(3H,8H)-dione; 3-[(2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-20-[(6-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-dammar-24-en-19-al; (3β)-28-oxo-28-(phenylmethoxy)oleanan-3-yl 2-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-3-O-(phenylmethyl)-, butyl ester β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid. A positive correlation was observed between the scavenging activities and the polarities of the active fractions. The antioxidant capacities of the fractions were also characterised by monitoring the activity throughout a 45-minute assay period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A decade of assessment of the natural and artificial radioactivity in feedstuff and food commodities imported and exported by Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecequilo, Brigitte; Pileggi, Patricia; Nisti, Marcelo B.; Maduar, Marcelo F.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Natural and artificial radionuclides in feedstuff with concentration levels surpassing the brazilian (CNEN-NN 3.05, January 2005) and international (IAEA 115 Safety Series, 1996 and Codex Alimentarius, 2006) limits are harmless to the human health and an effective control is needed in order to only allow consumption of products presenting radiation levels below limits. Since 1988, after the Chernobyl accident, the Environmental Radiometric Laboratory at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares), performs, on a regular basis, analysis of potassium-40, cesium-134 and cesium-137 concentrations in feedstuff and food commodities imported and exported by Brazil. The present work covers mostly a decade of results, from 1996 to 2007, assessed from the measurements of almost 2600 samples. The imported Belgium and the exported ones are originated from 14 Brazilian States and 111 regions. Nearly 90 different kinds of feedstuff and food commodities were measured, including condensed milk, milk powder, soy beans, sugar, raw coffee beans, etc. All samples were analyzed by high resolution gamma-spectrometry and the results, compared with brazilian and international limits, released as a technical report. The radioactivity present in all analyzed products was within the international limits, allowing to conclude that consumption of such goods offers no health risk derived from radiation. Potential relationships between the type and the origin of the products exported and imported by Brazil and the radionuclides concentrations are also approached. Finally, all results will contribute to the establishment of a radiometric database for the radionuclides concentrations in the feedstuff and food commodities produced in Brazil. (author)

  17. Effect of 22-hours liquid preservation on migration of 131I-labelled sperma in the genital tract of ewes, following artificial insemination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, G.; Kaempfer, I.

    1984-01-01

    Comparative studies on migration and distribution of 131 I-labelled ram sperma in the genital tract of estrus-synchronized ewes at different points of time after insemination (40, 120, 180, and 240 minutes). The sperma had been preserved in liquid condition for 4 or 22 hours. The results suggested that up to 2 hours after insemination the migration of sperma preserved 22 hours was clearly slower (lower transcervical passage and smaller amount in oviducts) than that of sperma preserved 4 hours. These differences were significant 2 hours after insemination and were reduced, with mutual adjustment of distribution patterns, between 2 and 4 hours after insemination. The pattern of migration was affected by certain physiological factors. Obviously the optimum timing of insemination is of great importance in applying 22 hours preserved ram sperma. (author)

  18. An Empirical Analysis of United States Consumers' Concerns about Eight Food Production and Processing Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Yun Jae; Roe, Brian E.; Teisl, Mario F.

    2005-01-01

    For a representative sample of U.S. consumers, we rank, correlate and explain ratings of concern toward eight food production and processing technologies (antibiotics, pesticides, artificial growth hormones, genetic modification, irradiation, artificial colors/flavors, pasteurization, and preservatives). Concern is highest for pesticides and hormones, followed by concern toward antibiotics, genetic modification and irradiation. We document standard relationships between many demographic, econ...

  19. Food consumption by Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae infected with Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae and effects of feeding natural versus artificial diets on mortality and mycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Tadele; Pringle, K L

    2003-11-01

    Second and third instar Chilo partellus larvae were infected with Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae (both at 1x10(8)conidia/ml) and daily consumption of maize leaves was measured. Infection by the fungi was associated with reduced mean daily food consumption. Reduction in food consumption became evident 3-4 days after treatment with the fungi for second instar larvae and 4-5 days for third instar larvae. Four conidial concentrations, 1x10(5), 1x10(6), 1x10(7), and 1x10(8)conidia/ml, were tested against second instar larvae. Food consumption dropped by 70-85% when the second instar larvae were treated with the fungi at 1x10(8)conidia/ml. Reduction in food consumption by C. partellus larvae infected with B. bassiana and M. anisopliae may offset the slow speed of kill of the fungi. The effect of artificial versus natural diets on mortality and mycoses of second instar larvae treated with the fungi at 1x10(8)conidia/ml was determined. Larvae provided with artificial diet suffered little mortality and mycoses than larvae provided with maize leaves. The LT(50) was longer for larvae provided with artificial diet.

  20. Food hygienics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Yeong Gyun; Lee, Gwang Bae; Lee, Han Gi; Kim, Se Yeol

    1993-01-01

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  1. Substitution time of natural food by artificial diet on survival rate and growth of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae during rearing in low salinity media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Hukama Taqwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine natural food substitution time by artificial diet   after salinity acclimatization from 20 ppt until 2 ppt, which can increase survival and growth of (Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae during rearing period. Design experiment was completely randomized design with five treatments and three replications of natural food Chironomus sp.  (60% of crude protein substitution time by artificial diet (40% of crude protein at day: 1 (A, 7 (B, 14 (C, 21 (D and full natural food without artificial diet (E during 28 days rearing period. White shrimp postlarvae and rearing media in this experiment based from best result of earlier research that is PL25 from acclimatization in media 2 ppt with addition of potassium 25 ppm to freshwater media.  The densities of PL25 white shrimp were 20 PLs/50 liters of 2 ppt media. The result of this experiment showed that the use of artificial diet as soon as after salinity acclimatization (PL25 gave best performance production compared to which only that was given natural food Chironomus sp. during experiment or with treatment by artificial diet substitution at day-7, day-14 or day-21, shown with the highest value of food consumption level, protein retention, energy retention, daily growth rate and food efficiency. Survival rate of PL54 was above 80% and not significant different between treatment. That is supported by chemical-physical value of water quality still in range appropriate to survival rate of white shrimp post larvae during a rearing period. The result of this experiment indicated that requirement nutrient of PL25 in low salinity did not fulfilled if only rely on natural food, so that require artificial diet with nutrition content to support growth and survival rate of white shrimp post larvae more maximal. Key words: salinity, natural food, artificial diet, Pacific white shrimp   ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan waktu penggantian pakan alami oleh

  2. Operation of a two-stage continuous fermentation process producing hydrogen and methane from artificial food wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, Kohki; Mizuno, Shiho; Umeda, Yoshito; Sakka, Makiko [Toho Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan); Osaka, Noriko [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd. (Japan); Sakka, Kazuo [Mie Univ. (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    An anaerobic two-stage continuous fermentation process with combined thermophilic hydrogenogenic and methanogenic stages (two-stage fermentation process) was applied to artificial food wastes on a laboratory scale. In this report, organic loading rate (OLR) conditions for hydrogen fermentation were optimized before operating the two-stage fermentation process. The OLR was set at 11.2, 24.3, 35.2, 45.6, 56.1, and 67.3 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} with a temperature of 60 C, pH5.5 and 5.0% total solids. As a result, approximately 1.8-2.0 mol-H{sub 2} mol-hexose{sup -1} was obtained at the OLR of 11.2-56.1 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1}. In contrast, it was inferred that the hydrogen yield at the OLR of 67.3 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} decreased because of an increase in lactate concentration in the culture medium. The performance of the two-stage fermentation process was also evaluated over three months. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) of methane fermentation was able to be shortened 5.0 days (under OLR 12.4 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} conditions) when the OLR of hydrogen fermentation was 44.0 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1}, and the average gasification efficiency of the two-stage fermentation process was 81% at the time. (orig.)

  3. Artificial Consciousness or Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spanache Florin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a tool designed by people for the gratification of their own creative ego, so we can not confuse conscience with intelligence and not even intelligence in its human representation with conscience. They are all different concepts and they have different uses. Philosophically, there are differences between autonomous people and automatic artificial intelligence. This is the difference between intelligence and artificial intelligence, autonomous versus automatic. But conscience is above these differences because it is neither conditioned by the self-preservation of autonomy, because a conscience is something that you use to help your neighbor, nor automatic, because one’s conscience is tested by situations which are not similar or subject to routine. So, artificial intelligence is only in science-fiction literature similar to an autonomous conscience-endowed being. In real life, religion with its notions of redemption, sin, expiation, confession and communion will not have any meaning for a machine which cannot make a mistake on its own.

  4. Science, practice, and human errors in controlling Clostridium botulinum in heat-preserved food in hermetic containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflug, Irving J

    2010-05-01

    The incidence of botulism in canned food in the last century is reviewed along with the background science; a few conclusions are reached based on analysis of published data. There are two primary aspects to botulism control: the design of an adequate process and the delivery of the adequate process to containers of food. The probability that the designed process will not be adequate to control Clostridium botulinum is very small, probably less than 1.0 x 10(-6), based on containers of food, whereas the failure of the operator of the processing equipment to deliver the specified process to containers of food may be of the order of 1 in 40, to 1 in 100, based on processing units (retort loads). In the commercial food canning industry, failure to deliver the process will probably be of the order of 1.0 x 10(-4) to 1.0 x 10(-6) when U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations are followed. Botulism incidents have occurred in food canning plants that have not followed the FDA regulations. It is possible but very rare to have botulism result from postprocessing contamination. It may thus be concluded that botulism incidents in canned food are primarily the result of human failure in the delivery of the designed or specified process to containers of food that, in turn, result in the survival, outgrowth, and toxin production of C. botulinum spores. Therefore, efforts in C. botulinum control should be concentrated on reducing human errors in the delivery of the specified process to containers of food.

  5. Changes in lipids and in the sensoric properties of foods due to combined preservation (thermosterilization + ionizing radiation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajniakova, A.; Sorman, L.; Hozova, B.; Salkova, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical changes in lipids were examined in ''Beef with Cauliflower'' model samples prepared by combined preservation, consisting in thermosterilization at 121 degC for 30 min and exposure to ionizing radiation doses of 3 to 5 kGy immediately after preparation and during storage (115 days at 20±2 degC). The acid, peroxide and carbonyl values increased with increasing radiation dose. The sensoric characteristics of the samples were examined as well, and no changes were observed in the 115 days of storage. Various preservation modes were tested, and the combination of steady sterilization at 121 degC for 30 min with subsequent exposure to a 5 kGy dose emerged as optimal; the nutrition value of the beef was higher and energy demands lower than in the application of conventional thermosterilization. (author). 6 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  6. Measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides in food samples and water for human consumption in Austria for the calculation of the ingestion dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudia Landstetter; Michael Zapletal; Merita Sinojmeri; Christian Katzlberger

    2013-01-01

    A new report on food habits of the Austrian population in the year 2006/2007 was released in 2008. Mixed diets and foodstuffs are measured within a monitoring program according to the Austrian radiation protection law, food law, and the Commission Recommendation 2000/473/Euratom on the application of Article 36 of the Euratom Treaty concerning the monitoring of the levels of radioactivity in the environment for the purpose of assessing the exposure of the population as a whole. In addition, drinking and mineral water samples are measured for natural and artificial radionuclides. The ingestion dose for the Austrian population is recalculated based on the results of these measurements, literature data, and the data of the new report on food habits. In general, the major part of the ingestion dose is caused by natural radionuclides, especially 40 K. (author)

  7. Ecological and energy-saving technology for fish food preservation at positive temperatures and a method of checking the freshness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, Maria; Popescu, G.M.; Dobrin, D.N.; Cristescu, T.M.; Stefanescu, I.; Steflea, D.; Titescu, Gh.; Tamaian, R.

    2002-01-01

    The procedure of maintaining eviscerated fish and fish fillet freshness is based on dilutions osmotic shock produced by deuterium depleted water with D/(D+H) concentration ratio of about 30 ppm. The studies evidenced the blocking of alteration enzymatic activities in tissues at positive temperatures within 0 - 30 deg. C. The procedure is completed with the method for evaluating the fish freshness. Its advantages are as follows; - the technology is ecologic and energy - saving as it uses natural ingredients and contributes to the ozone layer protection; - the flesh of fish can be preserved, in its natural state, immersed in deuterium depleted water with no salt addition or other metabolic blocking agents as smoke, polyphosphates or nitrides, known as carcinogenic; - the costs of technological applications are lower as compared with those of classical refrigeration; - the technology increases by 2 - 6 times the freshness period and preservation duration, respectively; - deuterium depleted water used as fish flesh preservative is a product with excellent therapeutical qualities. The procedure can be tested by a freshness checking method. Indeed by measuring the non-conventional tissue energies evidenced by the molecular electronic spectra of sample of tissue immersed in salty solution as compared with specific spectra of control samples one can establish the alteration degree from the relative maximal absorption spectra

  8. Preservation of food of the vegetable origin in the way of the radiation The selected technological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taczanowski, M.

    1997-01-01

    The review of the selected applications of the radiation of the food of vegetable origin and targets which may be achieved dependently on the amount of energy absorbed by the radiated product. (author)

  9. Utilization of Industrial Waste for the Production of Bio-Preservative from Bacillus licheniformis Me1 and Its Application in Milk and Milk-Based Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithya, Vadakedath; Prakash, Maya; Halami, Prakash M

    2018-06-01

    The bio-preservative efficacy of a partially purified antibacterial peptide (ppABP) produced by Bacillus licheniformis Me1 in an economical medium developed using agro-industry waste was evaluated by direct application in milk and milk-based food products. The addition of ppABP in milk samples stored at 4 ± 2 °C and 28 ± 2 °C resulted in the growth inhibition of pathogens Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, and Staphylococcus aureus FRI 722. The shelf life of milk samples with added ppABP increased to 4 days at 28 ± 2 °C, whereas curdling and off-odor were noticed in samples without ppABP. Furthermore, the milk samples with ppABP were sensorily acceptable. Antilisterial effect was also observed in cheese and paneer samples treated with ppABP. These results clearly indicate that the ppABP of B. licheniformis Me1 can be utilized as a bio-preservative to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, thereby reducing the risk of food-borne diseases.

  10. Nuclear technology applied to food preservation and sterilization; La tecnologia nuclear aplicada a la conservacion y esterilizacion de alimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvez, M.

    2011-07-01

    The use of ionizing radiation to conserve and sterilize food dates back to 1995, when the first tests were performed in USA as part of the Atoms for peace program. After much controversy, the most prestigious international organizations- OECD, code Alimentarius, FDA and EC have not only authorized but also recommended its use. It is a proven fact that food irradiation provides optimum results for inhibition treatment of tuber shoots, elimination of insects from fruits and seeds, delaying the maturing processes of fruit and elimination of alternative microorganisms and pathogens in any type of food. Food is treated in two types of plants: 1.- Radioactive isotope plants or gamma radiation plants 2.- electron accelerator plants (beta radiation plants). These two types of plants are thoroughly legislated, as are the form and doses of the treatments. Commercial food irradiation is done in 32 countries in the world but is authorized in more than 40, and the WHO recommends that the method be used on a widespread basis, as it believes that it can help to improve food-related health worldwide. (Author) 5 refs.

  11. Activity patterns during food provisioning are affected by artificial light in free living great tits (Parus major.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Titulaer

    Full Text Available Artificial light may have severe ecological consequences but there is limited experimental work to assess these consequences. We carried out an experimental study on a wild population of great tits (Parus major to assess the impact of light pollution on daily activity patterns during the chick provisioning period. Pairs that were provided with a small light outside their nest box did not alter the onset, cessation or duration of their working day. There was however a clear effect of artificial light on the feeding rate in the second half of the nestling period: when provided with artificial light females increased their feeding rate when the nestlings were between 9 and 16 days old. Artificial light is hypothesised to have affected the perceived photoperiod of either the parents or the offspring which in turn led to increased parental care. This may have negative fitness consequences for the parents, and light pollution may thus create an ecological trap for breeding birds.

  12. Influence of food preservation parameters and associated microbiota on production rate, profile and stability of acylated homoserine lactones from food-derived Enterobacteriaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flodgaard, Lars; Christensen, Allan Beck; Molin, Søren

    2003-01-01

    by Gram-negative bacteria participating in spoilage. As part of our investigation of the role of AHLs in food quality, we studied the AHL production in two Enterobacteriaceae isolated from cold-smoked salmon under growth conditions typical of those found in cold-smoked salmon. We tested the influence......H is approximately 6 and therefore only a low degree of pH-induced turnover is expected to occur in this product. Overall, our study demonstrates that food-derived Enterobacteriaceae produce AHLs of the same type and in the same magnitude when grown under food-relevant conditions as when grown in laboratory media...

  13. An exceptionally preserved Eocene shark and the rise of modern predator-prey interactions in the coral reef food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Federico; Minelli, Daniela; Conte, Gabriele Larocca; Miyashita, Tetsuto

    2016-01-01

    Following extreme climatic warming events, Eocene Lagerstätten document aquatic and terrestrial vertebrate faunas surprisingly similar to modern counterparts. This transition in marine systems is best documented in the earliest teleost-dominated coral reef assemblage of Pesciara di Bolca, northern Italy, from near the end of the Eocene Climatic Optimum. Its rich fauna shows similarities with that of the modern Great Barrier Reef in niche exploitation by and morphological disparity among teleost primary consumers. However, such paleoecological understanding has not transcended trophic levels above primary consumers, particularly in carcharhiniform sharks. We report an exceptionally preserved fossil school shark (Galeorhinus cuvieri) from Pesciara di Bolca. In addition to the spectacular preservation of soft tissues, including brain, muscles, and claspers, this male juvenile shark has stomach contents clearly identifiable as a sphyraenid acanthomorph (barracuda). This association provides evidence that a predator-prey relationship between Galeorhinus and Sphyraena in the modern coral reefs has roots in the Eocene. A growth curve of the living species of Galeorhinus fitted to G. cuvieri suggests that all specimens of G. cuvieri from the lagoonal deposits of Bolca represent sexually and somatically immature juveniles. The modern trophic association between higher-degree consumers (Galeorhinus and Sphyraena) has a counterpart in the Eocene Bolca, just as Bolca and the Great Barrier Reef show parallels among teleost primary consumers. Given the age of Bolca, trophic networks among consumers observed in modern coral reefs arose by the exit from the Climatic Optimum. The biased representation of juveniles suggests that the Bolca Lagerstätte served as a nursery habitat for G. cuvieri. Ultraviolet photography may be useful in probing for exceptional soft tissue preservation before common acid preparation methods.

  14. Terminalia arjuna: A novel natural preservative for improved lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of muscle foods

    OpenAIRE

    Insha Kousar Kalem; Z.F. Bhat; Sunil Kumar; Ajay Desai

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to explore the possibility of utilization of Terminalia arjuna as a novel natural preservative in meat products by using chevon sausages as a model system. Chevon sausages were prepared by incorporating different levels of T. arjuna viz. T1 (0.25%), T2 (0.50%) and T3 (0.75%) and were assessed for various lipid oxidative stability and storage quality parameters under refrigerated (4 ± 1 °C) conditions. T. arjuna showed a significant (p 

  15. Foodstuffs preservation by ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains all the papers presented at the meeting on foodstuffs preservation by ionization. These papers deal especially with the food ionization process, its development and the view of the food industry on ionization. Refs and figs (F.M.)

  16. preservative activities parkia biglobosa ervative activities of aqueous

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    The general idea of preserving food is to incre its shelf life ... volatile oil and resinous matter (David, 197. Development in ... extracts of P. biglobosa as plant based food preservatives with. ,Preservative ..... activity of essential oils obtained from.

  17. Preserving Food by Drying. A Math/Science Teaching Manual. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual No. M-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Cynthia; And Others

    This manual presents a design for teaching science principles and mathematics concepts through a sequence of activities concentrating on weather, solar food dryers, and nutrition. Part I focuses on the effect of solar energy on air and water, examining the concepts of evaporation, condensation, radiation, conduction, and convection. These concepts…

  18. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes -The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Han Ok; Cho, Sung Kee; Kang, Il Joon; Yang, Jae Seung; Yook, Heung Sun

    1995-07-01

    The project was designed to solve the infra structural problem required for commercialization of food irradiation. In improvement of physical properties of corn starch, gamma irradiation was effective for increasing glucose productivity and for substituting traditional modified starches (acid modified starch, oxidized starch). In immobilization of microorganisms, the mass production method of natural red pigment was developed by using immobilized mold pellets. In Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma irradiated red ginseng could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And also, six items of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea ministry of health and welfare in May 19, 1995. 30 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author)

  19. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes -The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Han Ok; Cho, Sung Kee; Kang, Il Joon; Yang, Jae Seung; Yook, Heung Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    The project was designed to solve the infra structural problem required for commercialization of food irradiation. In improvement of physical properties of corn starch, gamma irradiation was effective for increasing glucose productivity and for substituting traditional modified starches (acid modified starch, oxidized starch). In immobilization of microorganisms, the mass production method of natural red pigment was developed by using immobilized mold pellets. In Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma irradiated red ginseng could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And also, six items of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea ministry of health and welfare in May 19, 1995. 30 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author).

  20. Beneficial bread without preservatives

    OpenAIRE

    Denkova, Zapryana; Denkova, Rositsa

    2014-01-01

    Besides their inherent nutritional value functional foods contain substances that have beneficial impact on the functioning of organs and systems in the human body and reduce the risk of disease. Bread and bakery goods are basic foods in the diet of contemporary people. Preservatives are added to the composition of foods in order to ensure their microbiological safety, but these substances affect directly the balance of microflora in the tract. A great problem is mold and bacterial spoilage (...

  1. Methods to preserve potentially toxigenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Costa Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are a source of many high-value compounds which are useful to every living being, such as humans, plants and animals. Since the process of isolating and improving a microorganism can be lengthy and expensive, preserving the obtained characteristic is of paramount importance, so the process does not need to be repeated. Fungi are eukaryotic, achlorophyllous, heterotrophic organisms, usually filamentous, absorb their food, can be either macro or microscopic, propagate themselves by means of spores and store glycogen as a source of storage. Fungi, while infesting food, may produce toxic substances such as mycotoxins. The great genetic diversity of the Kingdom Fungi renders the preservation of fungal cultures for many years relevant. Several international reference mycological culture collections are maintained in many countries. The methodologies that are most fit for preserving microorganisms for extended periods are based on lowering the metabolism until it reaches a stage of artificial dormancy . The goal of this study was to analyze three methods for potentially toxigenic fungal conservation (Castellani's, continuous subculture and lyophilization and to identify the best among them.

  2. Radiation preservation of sea-foods : development of dehydro-irradiation processes for shrimp (Penaeus indicus) and Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, N.F.

    1978-01-01

    Bombay duck which comprises more than 10% of India's annual fish catch is not amenable to freezing and canning mainly due to the high content of free water and extreme lability of its proteins. The commercially available sun-dried product is suspect to rapid spoilage by mould leading to impairment of organoleptic qualities. The dehydro-irradiation process using heat and gamma radiation has been developed to stabilise sea foods and is studied with Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus) and shrimp (Penaeus indicus). The process has been found to preserve Bombay duck laminates for a period of four months at ambient temperature and the products are more superior in organoleptic qualities to those prepared by the conventional sun-drying method. (M.G.B.)

  3. Activity Patterns during Food Provisioning Are Affected by Artificial Light in Free Living Great Tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Titulaer, M.; Spoelstra, K.; Lange, C.Y.M.J.G.; Visser, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Artificial light may have severe ecological consequences but there is limited experimental work to assess these consequences. We carried out an experimental study on a wild population of great tits (Parus major) to assess the impact of light pollution on daily activity patterns during the chick

  4. Preservation of cocoa antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, flavan-3-ols, and procyanidin content in foods prepared with cocoa powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, L; Miller, K B; Apgar, J; Sweigart, D S; Stuart, D A; McHale, N; Ou, B; Kondo, M; Hurst, W J

    2009-08-01

    Little is known about the effects of common cooking processes on cocoa flavanols. Antioxidant activity, total polyphenols (TP), flavanol monomers, and procyanidin oligomers were determined in chocolate frosting, a hot cocoa drink, chocolate cookies, and chocolate cake made with natural cocoa powder. Recoveries of antioxidant activity, TP, flavanol monomers, and procyanidins ranged from 86% to over 100% in the chocolate frosting, hot cocoa drink, and chocolate cookies. Losses were greatest in the chocolate cake with recoveries ranging from 5% for epicatechin to 54% for antioxidant activity. The causes of losses in baked chocolate cakes were investigated by exchanging baking soda with baking powder or combinations of the 2 leavening agents. Use of baking soda as a leavening agent was associated with increased pH and darkening color of cakes. Losses of antioxidant activity, TP, flavanol monomers, and procyanidins were associated with an increased extractable pH of the baked cakes. Chocolate cakes made with baking powder for leavening resulted in an average extractable pH of 6.2 with essentially complete retention of antioxidant activity and flavanol content, but with reduced cake heights and lighter cake color. Commercially available chocolate cake mixes had final pHs above 8.3 and contained no detectable monomeric flavanols after baking. These results suggest that baking soda causes an increase in pH and subsequent destruction of flavanol compounds and antioxidant activity. Use of an appropriate leavening agent to moderate the final cake pH to approximately 7.25 or less results in both good leavening and preservation of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins.

  5. Using a concentrate of phenols obtained from olive vegetation water to preserve chilled food: two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Fasolato

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenols are plant metabolites characterised by several interesting bioactive properties such as antioxidant and bactericidal activities. In this study the application of a phenols concentrate (PC from olive vegetation water to two different fresh products – gilt-head seabream (Sparus aurata and chicken breast – was described. Products were treated in a bath of PC (22 g/L; chicken breast or sprayed with two different solutions (L1:0.75 and L2:1.5 mg/mL; seabream and then stored under refrigeration conditions. The shelf life was monitored through microbiological analyses – quality index method for seabream and a specific sensory index for raw breast. The secondary products of lipid-peroxidation of the chicken breast were determined using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs test on cooked samples. Multivariate statistical techniques were adopted to investigate the impact of phenols and microbiological data were fitted by DMfit software. In seabream, the levels of PC did not highlight any significant difference on microbiological and sensory features. DMfit models suggested an effect only on H2S producing bacteria with an increased lag phase compared to the control samples (C: 87 h vs L2: 136 h. The results on chicken breast showed that the PC bath clearly modified the growth of Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae. The phenol dipping was effective in limiting lipid-peroxidation (TBARs after cooking. Treated samples disclosed an increase of shelf life of 2 days. These could be considered as preliminary findings suggesting the use of this concentrate as preservative in some fresh products.

  6. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Archer; Stan Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood preservation can be interpreted to mean protection from fire, chemical degradation, mechanical wear, weathering, as well as biological attack. In this chapter, the term preservation is applied more restrictively to protection from biological hazards.

  7. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation - Studies on the safety and consumer acceptance of gamma irradiated meats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Jun; Lee, Young Jin; Lee, Young Sook; Kim, Ha Kyung [Hallym University, Chunchon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to chickens for evaluation of their possible genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity and nutritional safety. The results were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537. Clastogenic effects of the irradiated samples tested were not shown in vivo mouse micronucleus assay and in chromosomal aberration tests with CHL cells. In an acute toxicity test, the maximal dose of 5,000 mg/kg did not change any toxic parameter examined in this study. In four-week oral toxicity study, appearance, behavior, mortality, food and water consumption of mouse of treated groups were not affected during the experimental periods(four-weeks). In urine analysis, in hematological examination as well as in serum biochemical experiment, no significant differences were found between the control and treatment groups. Although minor changes in some hematological and biochemical parameters were observed, they were in the normal range and were not dose dependent. In nutritional safety, the proximate composition of foods were not significantly changed by irradiation dose. No significant difference in the components of fatty acids were observed by gamma irradiation. In general, the amount of released free amino acid was not significantly changed by gamma irradiation. There was no difference in total amino acid content between non irradiated and irradiated samples. The SDS electrophoresis patterns of samples were not significantly different between nonirradiated and irradiated samples. The major mineral compositions of chicken were phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium. The content of mineral was not significantly changed by gamma irradiation. 58 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  8. Effects of voluntary exercise on spontaneous physical activity and food consumption in mice: Results from an artificial selection experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copes, Lynn E; Schutz, Heidi; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Acosta, Wendy; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effect of voluntary exercise on spontaneous physical activity (SPA) and food consumption in mice from 4 replicate lines bred for 57 generations for high voluntary wheel running (HR) and from 4 non-selected control (C) lines. Beginning at ~24 days of age, mice were housed in standard cages or in cages with attached wheels. Wheel activity and SPA were monitored in 1-min intervals. Data from the 8th week of the experiment were analyzed because mice were sexually mature and had plateaued in body mass, weekly wheel running distance, SPA, and food consumption. Body mass, length, and masses of the retroperitoneal fat pad, liver, and heart were recorded after the 13th week. SPA of both HR and C mice decreased with wheel access, due to reductions in both duration and average intensity of SPA. However, total activity duration (SPA+wheel running; min/day) was ~1/3 greater when mice were housed with wheels, and food consumption was significantly increased. Overall, food consumption in both HR and C mice was more strongly affected by wheel running than by SPA. Duration of wheel running had a stronger effect than average speed, but the opposite was true for SPA. With body mass as a covariate, chronic wheel access significantly reduced fat pad mass and increased heart mass in both HR and C mice. Given that both HR and C mice housed with wheels had increased food consumption, the energetic cost of wheel running was not fully compensated by concomitant reductions in SPA. The experiment demonstrates that both duration and intensity of both wheel running and SPA were significant predictors of food consumption. This sort of detailed analysis of the effects of different aspects of physical activity on food consumption has not previously been reported for a non-human animal, and it sets the stage for longitudinal examination of energy balance and its components in rodent models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of green, blue and yellow artificial food colorants and their abuse in herb-coloured green Easter beers on tap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachová, Ivana; Lhotská, Ivona; Solich, Petr; Šatínský, Dalibor

    2016-07-01

    Beer is one of the most popular alcoholic beverages worldwide. For consumer acceptance, significant factors are its taste, flavour and colour. This study determines selected synthetic green, blue and yellow food colorants in popular Easter herb-coloured green beers on tap produced in breweries on Holy Thursday. The abuse of beer colouring with Tartrazine (E 102), Quinoline yellow (E 104), Sunset yellow (E 110), Patent blue (E 131), Indigo carmine (E 132), Brilliant blue FCF (E 133), Green S (E 142) and Fast green FCF (E 143) was assessed in 11 green beer samples purchased in local restaurants. HPLC was used for the separation and detection of artificial colorants with diode-array detection and a Chromolith Performance CN 100 × 4.6 mm column with guard pre-column Chromolith CN 5 × 4.6 mm. Separation was performed in gradient elution with mobile phase containing methanol-aqueous 2% ammonium acetate at pH 7.0. The study showed that eight beers (70%) marketed in the Czech Republic contained artificial colorants (Tartrazine and Brilliant blue FCF). The concentration of colorants found in analysed green herb-coloured beers ranged from 1.58 to 3.49 mg l(-)(1) for Tartrazine, 0.45-2.18 mg l(-)(1) for Brilliant blue, while Indigo carmine was detected only once at concentration 2.36 mg l(-)(1). Only three beers showed no addition of the synthetic colorants. However, the levels of artificial colorants found in beers marketed in the Czech region were very low and did not show a serious risk for consumers' health.

  10. Preservation and storage of food using natural gas as an energy source; Preservacao e armazenamento de alimentos usando gas natural como fonte de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Gabriel F. da; Lira, Moema de Lima; Carnelossi, Marcelo A.G.; Sousa, Mabel R [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Jesus, Marcos Fabio de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Campos, Michel Fabianski; Martins, Ronaldo M; Furini Filho, Roberto [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, Sara Macedo dos [Centro de Tecnologias do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In this work a study on preservation and storage of agricultural products was undertaken in chambers cooled through an absorption system, which used natural gas in the power plant and the results were compared with the compression system using electric energy. For the study a refrigeration pilot unit was mounted which consisted of chiller through water/ammonia absorption with direct natural gas burning, having a maximum consumption of 2,7{sup 3}/ h and capacity of 5 TR's, three refrigerating chambers with isopanel walls polyurethane, dimensions 2mx3mx2m with maximum capacity of storage of 2.000 kg each, control panel, a system of compressed natural gas supplying two carts each containing three cylinders with capacity of 71,4{sup 3} and a compression system connected to a chamber of same characteristics. Optimization studies in the storage of some fruits and vegetables were undertaken. A program was established which takes in account the food properties and characteristics of refrigeration systems to estimate the operational cost with the two systems. A techno-economic feasibility study was carried out on the two system of absorption and compression. This project was developed in the UFS, and is part of RedeGasEnergia, support for the financial aid was provided by PETROBRAS and FINEP/CTPETRO programs. (author)

  11. Preservation and storage of food using natural gas as an energy source; Preservacao e armazenamento de alimentos usando gas natural como fonte de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Gabriel F. da; Lira, Moema de Lima; Carnelossi, Marcelo A.G.; Sousa, Mabel R. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Jesus, Marcos Fabio de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Campos, Michel Fabianski; Martins, Ronaldo M.; Furini Filho, Roberto [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, Sara Macedo dos [Centro de Tecnologias do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In this work a study on preservation and storage of agricultural products was undertaken in chambers cooled through an absorption system, which used natural gas in the power plant and the results were compared with the compression system using electric energy. For the study a refrigeration pilot unit was mounted which consisted of chiller through water/ammonia absorption with direct natural gas burning, having a maximum consumption of 2,7{sup 3}/ h and capacity of 5 TR's, three refrigerating chambers with isopanel walls polyurethane, dimensions 2mx3mx2m with maximum capacity of storage of 2.000 kg each, control panel, a system of compressed natural gas supplying two carts each containing three cylinders with capacity of 71,4{sup 3} and a compression system connected to a chamber of same characteristics. Optimization studies in the storage of some fruits and vegetables were undertaken. A program was established which takes in account the food properties and characteristics of refrigeration systems to estimate the operational cost with the two systems. A techno-economic feasibility study was carried out on the two system of absorption and compression. This project was developed in the UFS, and is part of RedeGasEnergia, support for the financial aid was provided by PETROBRAS and FINEP/CTPETRO programs. (author)

  12. Self-preserving cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvaresou, A; Papageorgiou, S; Tsirivas, E; Protopapa, E; Kintziou, H; Kefala, V; Demetzos, C

    2009-06-01

    Preservatives are added to products for two reasons: first, to prevent microbial spoilage and therefore to prolong the shelf life of the product; second, to protect the consumer from a potential infection. Although chemical preservatives prevent microbial growth, their safety is questioned by a growing segment of consumers. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. In these formulations traditional/chemical preservatives have been replaced by other cosmetic ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to the Annex VI of the Commission Directive 76/768/EEC and the amending directives (2003/15/EC, 2007/17/EC and 2007/22/EC). 'Hurdle Technology', a technology that has been used for the control of product safety in the food industry since 1970s, has also been applied for the production of self-preserving cosmetics. 'Hurdle Technology' is a term used to describe the intelligent combination of different preservation factors or hurdles to deteriorate the growth of microorganisms. Adherence to current good manufacturing practice, appropriate packaging, careful choice of the form of the emulsion, low water activity and low or high pH values are significant variables for the control of microbial growth in cosmetic formulations. This paper describes the application of the basic principles of 'Hurdle Technology' in the production of self-preserving cosmetics. Multifunctional antimicrobial ingredients and plant-derived essential oils and extracts that are used as alternative or natural preservatives and are not listed in Annex VI of the Cosmetic Directive are also reported.

  13. Software preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Vodopivec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comtrade Ltd. covers a wide range of activities related to information and communication technologies; its deliverables include web applications, locally installed programs,system software, drivers, embedded software (used e.g. in medical devices, auto parts,communication switchboards. Also the extensive knowledge and practical experience about digital long-term preservation technologies have been acquired. This wide spectrum of activities puts us in the position to discuss the often overlooked aspect of the digital preservation - preservation of software programs. There are many resources dedicated to digital preservation of digital data, documents and multimedia records,but not so many about how to preserve the functionalities and features of computer programs. Exactly these functionalities - dynamic response to inputs - render the computer programs rich compared to documents or linear multimedia. The article opens the questions on the beginning of the way to the permanent digital preservation. The purpose is to find a way in the right direction, where all relevant aspects will be covered in proper balance. The following questions are asked: why at all to preserve computer programs permanently, who should do this and for whom, when we should think about permanent program preservation, what should be persevered (such as source code, screenshots, documentation, and social context of the program - e.g. media response to it ..., where and how? To illustrate the theoretic concepts given the idea of virtual national museum of electronic banking is also presented.

  14. Natural and artificial radioactivity in commercial food for domestic animals; Avaliação da radioatividade natural e artificial em rações comerciais para animais domésticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Fernanda

    2017-07-01

    The levels of natural radioactivity throughout the planet and their eventual consequences are studied by Environmental Radioprotection. Over the past years, the international agencies concerned with radiation protection have debated over the practices conducted so far, regarding the protection of the fauna and ora, which believed that the recommendations implemented for human beings assured that other species were also protected. Thus, assessments of the activity concentration of different radionuclides in the environment, as well as the absorbed doses for species from different ecosystems, due to internal and external exposures, are needed. Brazil holds the second largest dog and cat population in the world and annually produces over 2 million tons of feed. The present work has investigated the radioactivity levels in commercial brands of dry dog and cat food, using high resolution gamma spectrometry. The results have shown activity concentrations for artificial radionuclides below the detector's Minimum Detectable Activity and also, low concentration levels for the natural radionuclides, varying from 0,9 ± 0,3 Bq/kg up to 5,1 ± 0,7 Bq/kg for {sup 226}Ra, from 1,2 ± 0,4 Bq/kg up to 11,1 ± 1,0 Bq/kg for {sup 232}Th and from 156 ± 7 Bq/kg up to 410± 19 Bq/kg for {sup 40}K. In order to verify the mineral content in pet food, EDXRF technique was applied and, using multivariate statistics, correlations between the mineral and radionuclide content were verified. The good correlation observed between concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and calcium could be associated with meat and bone our used in feed manufacturing. The internal dose for some organs were inferred by Monte Carlo method and the results were no higher than 1 μGy/day. In summary, results have shown that the activity levels found in the pet food are low enough to conclude that the brands evaluated carry no radiological risks for the animals that consume them. (author)

  15. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  16. Comparative analysis of methods for measurements of food intake and utilization using the soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens and artificial media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, J.R.P.; Kogan, M.; Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station, Urbana; Illinois Univ., Urbana

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of intake and utilization of an artificial medium by larvae of the soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens Walker, Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, was performed using 4 methods: standard gravimetric, chromic oxide, Calco Oil Red, and 14 C-glucose. Each method was used in conjunction with standard gravimetry. The relative merits of the indirect methods were analyzed in terms of precision and accuracy for ECI and ECD estimation, cost, and overall versatility. Only the gravimetric method combined ca. 80% precision in ECI and ECD estimation with low cost and maximum versatility. Calco Oil Red at 0.1% w/v was detrimental to the larvae. Cr 2 O 3 caused reduced intake but conversion was increased resulting in normal development and growth of larvae. The radioisotopic method had the advantage of providing a direct means of measuring expired CO 2 . The need to operate under a totally enclosed system, however, poses some serious difficulties in the use of radioisotopes. There seems to be little advantage in any of the proposed indirect methods, except if there are unusual difficulties in separating the excreta from the medium. (orig.)

  17. Digital preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Deegan, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Digital preservation is an issue of huge importance to the library and information profession right now. With the widescale adoption of the internet and the rise of the world wide web, the world has been overwhelmed by digital information. Digital data is being produced on a massive scale by individuals and institutions: some of it is born, lives and dies only in digital form, and it is the potential death of this data, with its impact on the preservation of culture, that is the concern of this book. So how can information professionals try to remedy this? Digital preservation is a complex iss

  18. Parsimonious classification of binary lacunarity data computed from food surface images using kernel principal component analysis and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Abdullah; Valous, Nektarios A; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Lacunarity is about quantifying the degree of spatial heterogeneity in the visual texture of imagery through the identification of the relationships between patterns and their spatial configurations in a two-dimensional setting. The computed lacunarity data can designate a mathematical index of spatial heterogeneity, therefore the corresponding feature vectors should possess the necessary inter-class statistical properties that would enable them to be used for pattern recognition purposes. The objectives of this study is to construct a supervised parsimonious classification model of binary lacunarity data-computed by Valous et al. (2009)-from pork ham slice surface images, with the aid of kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) and artificial neural networks (ANNs), using a portion of informative salient features. At first, the dimension of the initial space (510 features) was reduced by 90% in order to avoid any noise effects in the subsequent classification. Then, using KPCA, the first nineteen kernel principal components (99.04% of total variance) were extracted from the reduced feature space, and were used as input in the ANN. An adaptive feedforward multilayer perceptron (MLP) classifier was employed to obtain a suitable mapping from the input dataset. The correct classification percentages for the training, test and validation sets were 86.7%, 86.7%, and 85.0%, respectively. The results confirm that the classification performance was satisfactory. The binary lacunarity spatial metric captured relevant information that provided a good level of differentiation among pork ham slice images. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Urine Preservative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  20. Complications of Lumbar Artificial Disc Replacement Compared to Fusion: Results From the Prospective, Randomized, Multicenter US Food and Drug Administration Investigational Device Exemption Study of the Charité Artificial Disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majd, Mohammed E.; Isaza, Jorge E.; Blumenthal, Scott L.; McAfee, Paul C.; Guyer, Richard D.; Hochschuler, Stephen H.; Geisler, Fred H.; Garcia, Rolando; Regan, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Previous reports of lumbar total disc replacement (TDR) have described significant complications. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) investigational device exemption (IDE) study of the Charité artificial disc represents the first level I data comparison of TDR to fusion. Methods In the prospective, randomized, multicenter IDE study, patients were randomized in a 2:1 ratio, with 205 patients in the Charité group and 99 patients in the control group (anterior lumbar interbody fusion [ALIF] with BAK cages). Inclusion criteria included confirmed single-level degenerative disc disease at L4-5 or L5-S1 and failure of nonoperative treatment for at least 6 months. Complications were reported throughout the study. Results The rate of approach-related complications was 9.8% in the investigational group and 10.1% in the control group. The rate of major neurological complications was similar between the 2 groups (investigational = 4.4%, control = 4.0%). There was a higher rate of superficial wound infection in the investigational group but no deep wound infections in either group. Pseudarthrosis occurred in 9.1% of control group patients. The rate of subsidence in the investigational group was 3.4%. The reoperation rate was 5.4% in the investigational group and 9.1% in the control group. Conclusions The incidence of perioperative and postoperative complications for lumbar TDR was similar to that of ALIF. Vigilance is necessary with respect to patient indications, training, and correct surgical technique to maintain TDR complications at the levels experienced in the IDE study. PMID:25802575

  1. Food preservation by irradiation. V.- Economic study of the spanish potatoe market and preservation feasibility by irradiation; Conservacion de alimentos por irradiacion. V.- Estudio economico del mercado de patatas en Espana y posibilidades de su conservacion por irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, A; Garcia de Mateos, A; Ortin Sune, N; Val Cob, M del

    1967-07-01

    A study of the spanish potatoe market is carried o nt in order to know the possibilities of preservation by irradiation. The study is initiated with a recompilation of statistical data on the production and consumption of potatoes by regions and seasons. Last years losses are then estimated. (Author) 9 refs.

  2. Design of Connectivity Preserving Flocking Using Control Lyapunov Function

    OpenAIRE

    Erfianto, Bayu; Bambang, Riyanto T.; Hindersah, Hilwadi; Muchtadi-Alamsyah, Intan

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates cooperative flocking control design with connectivity preserving mechanism. During flocking, interagent distance is measured to determine communication topology of the flocks. Then, cooperative flocking motion is built based on cooperative artificial potential field with connectivity preserving mechanism to achieve the common flocking objective. The flocking control input is then obtained by deriving cooperative artificial potential field using control Lyapunov functio...

  3. Comparative studies of natural and artificial α-emitters (actinides) in the lichen-reindeer-man food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Persson, B.R.R.

    1981-01-01

    Fallout of actinide elements has been investigated by studying samples of lichen collected at different places in Scandinavia. Maximum-activity concentrations of plutonium isotopes in lichen were found in 1965. Americium-241 has been formed in situ from the decay of 241 Pu, and the maximum-activity concentration found in lichen is 35 PCi/kg. In reindeer, the activity concentrations of 239+240 Pu, 241 Pu, and 241 Am have been studied in liver and bone. The fraction of Pu activity ingested and retained in reindeer liver is about two to three times higher than that of Am. Investigations of Pu and Am in human food chains raise the question of comparisons with the natural α-emitting radionuclides uranium, thorium, and their daughters. Americium and thorium exhibit very similar biophysical behavior in the environement. The fraction of activity that is absorbed by gastrointestinal ingestion seems to be of the same order of magnitude. High concentrations of uranium in reindeer tissues probably depend on a high intake from drinking water and other foodstuffs than lichen

  4. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

  5. Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Vasilaras, Tatjana H; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of appetite studies in free-living subjects supplying the habitual diet with either sucrose or artificially sweetened beverages and foods. Furthermore, the focus of artificial sweeteners has only been on the energy intake (EI) side of the energy-balance equation. The data are from...

  6. Emittance preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kain, V; Arduini, G; Goddard, B; Holzer, B J; Jowett, J M; Meddahi, M; Mertens, T; Roncarolo, F; Schaumann, M; Versteegen, R; Wenninger, J [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Emittance measurements during the LHC proton run 2011 indicated a blow-up of 20 % to 30 % from LHC injection to collisions. This presentation will show the emittance preservation throughout the different parts of the LHC cycle and discuss the current limitations on emittance determination. An overview of emittance preservation through the injector complex as function of bunch intensity will also be given. Possible sources for the observed blow-up and required tests in 2012 will be presented. Possible improvements of emittance diagnostics and analysis tools for 2012 will be shown.

  7. Isotope and machine sources for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar G, M.

    1992-05-01

    Artificial radioactive sources as Co-60 and Cs- 137 are produced by bombarding Co-59 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor and by chemical separation of spent nuclear fuel respectively. Both radioactive sources emit very high frequency electromagnetic radiation called y-rays. This highly penetrating radiation is employed for preservation of food. Each y-ray emitted from a radioactive source transports energy from the source to the irradiated food. Penetration of y-rays and their intensity depend on y-energy. Inside this study the advantages and disadvantages of both sources are compared. (Author)

  8. Isotope and machine sources for food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar G, M

    1992-05-15

    Artificial radioactive sources as Co-60 and Cs- 137 are produced by bombarding Co-59 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor and by chemical separation of spent nuclear fuel respectively. Both radioactive sources emit very high frequency electromagnetic radiation called y-rays. This highly penetrating radiation is employed for preservation of food. Each y-ray emitted from a radioactive source transports energy from the source to the irradiated food. Penetration of y-rays and their intensity depend on y-energy. Inside this study the advantages and disadvantages of both sources are compared. (Author)

  9. Food Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Food engineering is a rapidly changing discipline. Traditionally, the main focus was on food preservation and stabilization, whereas trends now are on diversity, health, taste, and sustainable production. Next to a general introduction of the definition of food engineering, this article gives a

  10. Food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... safety URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002434.htm Food safety To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Food safety refers to the conditions and practices that preserve the quality of food. These practices prevent contamination and foodborne ...

  11. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products.

  12. Artificial Consciousness or Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Spanache Florin

    2017-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is a tool designed by people for the gratification of their own creative ego, so we can not confuse conscience with intelligence and not even intelligence in its human representation with conscience. They are all different concepts and they have different uses. Philosophically, there are differences between autonomous people and automatic artificial intelligence. This is the difference between intelligence and artificial intelligence, autonomous versus a...

  13. Influence of relative humidity in the preservation of irradiated avocados. Part of a coordinated programme on insect disinfestation of food and agricultural products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmelic, V.J.

    1985-02-01

    Avocados were irradiated with gamma rays (Cs-137) and subjected to thermal treatment. Relative humidity (RH) is an important factor in this preservation; the higher the RH the longer the shelf-life. PVC was used to maintain the humidity of the fruits

  14. [Artificial organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguin, Thibaut; Dupret-Bories, Agnès; Debry, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Research has been fighting against organ failure and shortage of donations by supplying artificial organs for many years. With the raise of new technologies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, many organs can benefit of an artificial equivalent: thanks to retinal implants some blind people can visualize stimuli, an artificial heart can be proposed in case of cardiac failure while awaiting for a heart transplant, artificial larynx enables laryngectomy patients to an almost normal life, while the diabetic can get a glycemic self-regulation controlled by smartphones with an artificial device. Dialysis devices become portable, as well as the oxygenation systems for terminal respiratory failure. Bright prospects are being explored or might emerge in a near future. However, the retrospective assessment of putative side effects is not yet sufficient. Finally, the cost of these new devices is significant even if the advent of three dimensional printers may reduce it. © 2017 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  15. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The article explains what radiation does to food to preserve it. Food irradiation is of economic importance to Canada because Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is the leading world supplier of industrial irradiators. Progress is being made towards changing regulations which have restricted the irradiation of food in the United States and Canada. Examples are given of applications in other countries. Opposition to food irradiation by antinuclear groups is addressed

  16. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  17. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is added...

  18. 21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. 145.181... § 145.181 Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pineapple is the food that conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned pineapple by § 145...

  19. Artificial Reefs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An artificial reef is a human-made underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, control erosion, block...

  20. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  1. Title: Microbiological quality and preservative capacity of commonly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Mwambete

    in self-pressurized containers, are usually self- preserved and are ... preparations were not included in the study. Due to limited time ... Determination of preservative capacity by cup- plate technique ..... [12] Cosmetic handbook-US. Food and.

  2. Feasibility of gamma irradiation for coffee beans preservation. Part of a coordinated programme on technological and economic feasibility of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias Filho, M.

    1978-09-01

    No abstract is needed as most of the work under this contract was presented at the International Symposium on Food Irradiation, Wageningen, the Netherlands in November 1977. The proceedings of this symposium including a paper on this study has already been published by the Agency

  3. Solidago canadensis L. Essential Oil Vapor Effectively Inhibits Botrytis cinerea Growth and Preserves Postharvest Quality of Strawberry as a Food Model System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shumin; Shao, Xingfeng; Wei, Yanzhen; Li, Yonghua; Xu, Feng; Wang, Hongfei

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the anti-fungal properties of Solidago canadensis L. essential oil (SCLEO) against Botrytis cinerea in vitro, and its ability to control gray mold and maintain quality in strawberry fruits. SCLEO exhibited dose-dependent antifungal activity against B. cinerea and profoundly altered mycelial morphology, cellular ultrastructure, and membrane permeability as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. SCLEO vapor at 0.1 mL/L maintained higher sensory acceptance and reduced decay of fresh strawberry fruit, and also reduced gray mold in artificially inoculated fruit. SCLEO treatment did not, however, stimulate phenylalanin ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase, or chitinase, enzymes related to disease resistance. This suggests that SCLEO reduces gray mold by direct inhibition of pathogen growth. SCLEO vapor may provide a new and effective strategy for controlling postharvest disease and maintaining quality in strawberries.

  4. Solidago canadensis L essential oil vapor effectively inhibits Botrytis cinerea growth and preserves postharvest quality of strawberry as a food model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the anti-fungal properties of Solidago canadensis L essential oil (SCLEO against Botrytis cinerea in vitro, and its ability to control gray mold and maintain quality in strawberry fruits. SCLEO exhibited dose-dependent antifungal activity against B. cinerea and profoundly altered mycelial morphology, cellular ultrastructure, and membrane permeability as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. SCLEO vapor at 0.1 mL/L maintained higher sensory acceptance and reduced decay of fresh strawberry fruit, and also reduced gray mold in artificially inoculated fruit. SCLEO treatment did not however, stimulate phenylalanin ammonia-lyase (PAL, polyphenol oxidase (POD, or chitinase (CHI, enzymes related to disease resistance. This suggests that SCLEO reduces gray mold by direct inhibition of pathogen growth. SCLEO vapor may provide a new and effective strategy for controlling postharvest disease and maintaining quality in strawberries.

  5. Artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian

    2012-01-01

    Low-calorie sweeteners are authorised food additives in the European Union (EU). The safety of these sweeteners has been evaluated in accordance with internationally agreed principles for the safety evaluation of food additives. In the EU, the European Commission’s Scientific Committee for Food...... (SCF) was the scientific guarantor for the safety of food additives until March 2003. Since then this has been taken over by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), notably its Scientific Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources Added to Food (ANS Panel). Based on the large number...... of toxicological studies that are requested for the safety evaluation of food additives, a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) is identified for the most sensitive effect in the most sensitive animal species. A safety factor of 100 is normally applied to the NOAEL in order to establish an acceptable daily...

  6. Validation of reference genes for normalization of qPCR mRNA expression levels in Staphylococcus aureus exposed to osmotic and lactic acid stress conditions encountered during food production and preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihto, Henna-Maria; Tasara, Taurai; Stephan, Roger; Johler, Sophia

    2014-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus represents the most prevalent cause of food-borne intoxications worldwide. While being repressed by competing bacteria in most matrices, this pathogen exhibits crucial competitive advantages during growth at high salt concentrations or low pH, conditions frequently encountered in food production and preservation. We aimed to identify reference genes that could be used to normalize qPCR mRNA expression levels during growth of S. aureus in food-related osmotic (NaCl) and acidic (lactic acid) stress adaptation models. Expression stability of nine housekeeping genes was evaluated in full (LB) and nutrient-deficient (CYGP w/o glucose) medium under conditions of osmotic (4.5% NaCl) and acidic stress (lactic acid, pH 6.0) after 2-h exposure. Among the set of candidate reference genes investigated, rplD, rpoB,gyrB, and rho were most stably expressed in LB and thus represent the most suitable reference genes for normalization of qPCR data in osmotic or lactic acid stress models in a rich medium. Under nutrient-deficient conditions, expression of rho and rpoB was highly stable across all tested conditions. The presented comprehensive data on changes in expression of various S. aureus housekeeping genes under conditions of osmotic and lactic acid stress facilitate selection of reference genes for qPCR-based stress response models. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, Anne Birgitte; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie-containin......Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie......-containing sweeteners. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence on the effect of artificial sweeteners on body weight, appetite, and risk markers for diabetes and CVD in humans....

  8. Survey of postharvest handling, preservation and processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey of postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices along the camel milk chain in Isiolo district, Kenya. ... Despite the important contribution of camel milk to food security for pastoralists in Kenya, little is known about the postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices. In this study, existing ...

  9. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  10. Artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret-Galix, D.

    1992-01-01

    A vivid example of the growing need for frontier physics experiments to make use of frontier technology is in the field of artificial intelligence and related themes. This was reflected in the second international workshop on 'Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in High Energy and Nuclear Physics' which took place from 13-18 January at France Telecom's Agelonde site at La Londe des Maures, Provence. It was the second in a series, the first having been held at Lyon in 1990

  11. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wash, Darrel Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Making a machine seem intelligent is not easy. As a consequence, demand has been rising for computer professionals skilled in artificial intelligence and is likely to continue to go up. These workers develop expert systems and solve the mysteries of machine vision, natural language processing, and neural networks. (Editor)

  12. Growth and membrane fluidity of food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in the presence of weak acid preservatives and hydrochloric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis eDiakogiannis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses a major issue in microbial food safety, the elucidation of correlations between acid stress and changes in membrane fluidity of the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. In order to assess the possible role that membrane fluidity changes play in L. monocytogenes tolerance to antimicrobial acids (acetic, lactic, hydrochloric acid at low pH or benzoic acid at neutral pH, the growth of the bacterium and the gel-to-liquid crystalline transition temperature point (Tm of cellular lipids of each adapted culture was measured and compared with unexposed cells. The Tm of extracted lipids was measured by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. A trend of increasing Tm values but not of equal extent was observed upon acid tolerance for all samples and this increase is not directly proportional to each acid antibacterial action. The smallest increase in Tm value was observed in the presence of lactic acid, which presented the highest antibacterial action. In the presence of acids with high antibacterial action such as acetic, hydrochloric acid or low antibacterial action such as benzoic acid, increased Tm values were measured. The Tm changes of lipids were also correlated with our previous data about fatty acid changes to acid adaptation. The results imply that the fatty acid changes are not the sole adaptation mechanism for decreased membrane fluidity (increased Tm. Therefore, this study indicates the importance of conducting an in-depth structural study on how acids commonly used in food systems affect the composition of individual cellular membrane lipid molecules.

  13. Natural Food Additives and Preservatives for Fish-Paste Products: A Review of the Past, Present, and Future States of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khawaja Muhammad Imran Bashir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish-paste products, also known as fish cakes or surimi-based products, are worldwide favorites. Surimi, a wet protein concentrate of fish muscle, is used as an intermediate raw material to produce surimi seafood. The flavor, texture, taste, shelf-life, and market value of surimi-based products depend on the source of the fish meat, type of applied heat treatment, and additives used to prepare the surimi. While preparing surimi with chemical additives, several problems have been observed, such as a lack of unique characteristics, inferior acceptability, and poor functionality. Various types of fish-paste products have been developed by using different ingredients (e.g., vegetables, seafood, herbs and oriental medicines, grains and roots including carrots, and functional food materials. However, a systematic review of fish-paste products prepared using natural food additives has not yet been performed. Therefore, the quality characteristics of fish-paste products and their functionalities were elucidated in this study. With the increasing demand for surimi seafood products, the functional properties, physiochemical properties, and shelf-life of surimi-based products need to be improved. This review will aid the preparation of new value-added products in the surimi industry.

  14. Is the kisspeptin system involved in responses to food restriction in order to preserve reproduction in pubertal male sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Sebastián; Felip, Alicia; Zanuy, Silvia; Carrillo, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Previous works on European sea bass have determined that long-term exposure to restrictive feeding diets alters the rhythms of some reproductive/metabolic hormones, delaying maturation and increasing apoptosis during gametogenesis. However, exactly how these diets affect key genes and hormones on the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis to trigger puberty is still largely unknown. We may hypothesize that all these signals could be integrated, at least in part, by the kisspeptin system. In order to capture a glimpse of these regulatory mechanisms, kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA expression levels and those of their kiss receptors (kiss1r, kiss2r) were analyzed in different areas of the brain and in the pituitary of pubertal male sea bass during gametogenesis. Furthermore, other reproductive hormones and factors as well as the percentage of males showing full spermiation were also analyzed. Treated fish fed maintenance diets provided evidence of overexpression of the kisspeptin system in the main hypophysiotropic regions of the brain throughout the entire sexual cycle. Conversely, Gnrh1 and gonadotropin pituitary content and plasma sexual steroid levels were downregulated, except for Fsh levels, which were shown to increase during spermiation. Treated fish exhibited lower rates of spermiation as compared to control group and a delay in its accomplishment. These results demonstrate how the kisspeptin system and plasma Fsh levels are differentially affected by maintenance diets, causing a retardation, but not a full blockage of the reproductive process in the teleost fish European sea bass. This suggests that a hormonal adaptive strategy may be operating in order to preserve reproductive function in this species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  16. Shelf-Stable Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bulk quantities and are used by food manufacturers (noodle makers, bakers, etc.) or by institutional food service ( ... to preserve such food as dried soup mixes, instant coffee, fruits, and vegetables. To freeze dry, frozen ...

  17. Artificial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Duda, Antonín

    2009-01-01

    Abstract : Issue of this work is to acquaint the reader with the history of artificial inteligence, esspecialy branch of chess computing. Main attention is given to progress from fifties to the present. The work also deals with fighting chess programs against each other, and against human opponents. The greatest attention is focused on 1997 and duel Garry Kasparov against chess program Deep Blue. The work is divided into chapters according to chronological order.

  18. Artificial heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-18

    Super-pure plutonium-238 could use heat produced during fission to power an implanted artificial heart. Three model hearts have worked for some time. Concern that excess heat would make the procedure unsafe for humans has broadened the search for another energy source, such as electrohydraulic drive or an external power battery. A back pack approach may provide an interim solution until materials are developed which can withstand heart activity and be small enough for implantation.

  19. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luecher, O.

    1979-01-01

    Limitations of existing preserving methods and possibilities of improved food preservation by application of nuclear energy are explained. The latest state-of-the-art in irradiation technology in individual countries is described and corresponding recommendations of FAO, WHO and IAEA specialists are presented. The Sulzer irradiation equipment for potato sprout blocking is described, the same equipment being suitable also for the treatment of onions, garlic, rice, maize and other cereals. Systems with a higher power degree are needed for fodder preserving irradiation. (author)

  20. Artificial fertilization of oocytes and sperm activation in pacu: effects of the spermatozoa:oocyte ratio, water volume, and in natura semen preservation Fertilização artificial de ovócitos e ativação espermática em pacus: efeito da razão espermatozoide:ovócito, volume de água e preservação do sêmen in natura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antônio Sanches

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate artificial fertilization and the duration of sperm motility in pacu with different insemination doses, water volume, and in natura semen preservation. It was carried out four experimentsfor evaluation of insemination doses (7x10³, 7x10(4, 7x10(5, 7x10(6, and 7x10(7 spermatozoa oocytes-1 on the artificial fertilization of oocytes; the effect of water volume (0.5, 15.0, 30.0, 45.0, and 60.0 mL water mL-1 of oocyte with insemination doses of 105,481 and 210,963 spermatozoa oocytes-1; the effect of semen dilutions (0.005, 0.05, 0.5, and 5.0 µL semen mL-1 of water on sperm motility duration; and the effect of storage at 15ºC for 9h on sperm motility duration and sperm survival ratio. The highest results obtained were: insemination doses from 7x10³ to 7x10(7 spermatozoa oocytes-1; from 15 to 60mL water mL-1 of oocytes; semen dilution of 0.005 µL semen/mL water and 98.65% sperm survival until 2h45min 36s preservation time. Preservation at 15ºC for 9h does not influence sperm motility duration. The highest fertilization rates can be observed by using 0.27 to 270 µL semen mL-1 of oocytes with 15 at 60 mL water for activation.Objetivou-se foi avaliar a fertilização artificial e a duração da motilidade espermática em pacus com diferentes doses inseminantes, volumes de água e preservação do sêmen in natura. Foram realizados quatro experimentos para avaliação do efeito de doses inseminantes (7x10³, 7x10(4, 7x10(5, 7x10(6 e 7x10(7 espermatozoides ovócito-1 sobre a fertilização artificial dos ovócitos; do efeito do volume de água (0,5; 15,0; 30,0; 45,0 e 60,0 mL de água mL-1 de ovócitos com doses inseminantes de 105.481 e 210.963 espermatozoides ovócito-1; do efeito de diluição do sêmen (0,005; 0,05; 0,5 e 5,0 µL de sêmen mL-1 de água sobre a duração da motilidade espermática; e do efeito do armazenamento a 15 ºC por 9 h sobre a duração da motilidade espermática e o

  1. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of optional...

  2. 21 CFR 178.3800 - Preservatives for wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Preservatives for wood. 178.3800 Section 178.3800... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3800 Preservatives for wood. Preservatives may be safely used... to accomplish the technical effect of protecting the wood from decay, mildew, and water absorption...

  3. Artificial sweetener; Jinko kanmiryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The patents related to the artificial sweetener that it is introduced to the public in 3 years from 1996 until 1998 are 115 cases. The sugar quality which makes an oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol the subject is greatly over 28 cases of the non-sugar quality in the one by the kind as a general tendency of these patents at 73 cases in such cases as the Aspartame. The method of manufacture patent, which included new material around other peptides, the oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol isn`t inferior to 56 cases of the formation thing patent at 43 cases, and pays attention to the thing, which is many by the method of manufacture, formation. There is most improvement of the quality of sweetness with 31 cases in badness of the aftertaste which is characteristic of the artificial sweetener and so on, and much stability including the improvement in the flavor of food by the artificial sweetener, a long time and dissolution, fluid nature and productivity and improvement of the economy such as a cost are seen with effect on a purpose. (NEDO)

  4. Artificial graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maire, J.

    1984-01-01

    Artificial graphites are obtained by agglomeration of carbon powders with an organic binder, then by carbonisation at 1000 0 C and graphitization at 2800 0 C. After description of the processes and products, we show how the properties of the various materials lead to the various uses. Using graphite enables us to solve some problems, but it is not sufficient to satisfy all the need of the application. New carbonaceous material open application range. Finally, if some products are becoming obsolete, other ones are being developed in new applications [fr

  5. Differential incorporation of natural spawners vs. artificially planted salmon carcasses in a stream food web: Evidence from delta 15N of juvenile coho salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placement of salmon carcasses is a common restoration technique in Oregon and Washington streams, with the goal of improving food resources and productivity of juvenile salmon. To explore the effectiveness of this restoration technique, we measured the δ15N of juvenile coho salmo...

  6. Ethico-epistemological implications of artificial intelligence for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We argued for a re-direction of AI. research and suggested a humanization of Artificial Intelligence that cloaks technoscientific innovations with humanistic life jackets for man‟s preservation. The textual analysis method is adopted for this research. Key words: Ethics, Epistemology, Artificial Intelligence, Humanity.

  7. Perspectives of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miettinen, J.K.

    1974-01-01

    Food preservation by means of ionizing radiation has been technically feasible for more than a decade. Its utilization could increase food safety, extend the transport and shell life of foods, cut food losses, and reduce dependence upon chemical additives. The prime obstacles have been the strict safety requirements set by health authorities to this preservation method and the high costs of the long-term animal tests necessary to fulfil these requirements. An International Food Irradiation Project, expected to establish the toxicological safety of 10 foods by about 1976, is described in some detail. (author)

  8. State of contamination of French food produces by artificial radionuclides; Etat de la contamination par les radionucleides artificiels des produits alimentaires francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boursier, B.; Guiard, A.; Tesolin, B.; Janin, F. [Centre National d`Etudes Veterinaires et Alimentaires, 75 - Paris (France)

    1994-05-01

    This study presents the results of 40236 recorded levels of caesium {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs activities carried out on French food. These controls, performed through gamma-spectrometry, have been carried out in France by the Veterinary Services and the CNEVA-LCHA (Centre National d`Etudes Veterinaires - Laboratoire Central d`Hygiene Alimentaire), as part of a radionuclides survey after the Chernobyl accident. The results have been collected by the CNEVA-LCHA, and show in 1992 that 99.6% of the radioactivity levels in the French food are below 50 Bq/kg. The present situation seems to be satisfying. However, very small amounts of {sup 137}Cs residues were noticed in some mushroom species, such as Cantharellus tubaeformis. (authors). 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Determination of fat, moisture, and protein in meat and meat products by using the FOSS FoodScan Near-Infrared Spectrophotometer with FOSS Artificial Neural Network Calibration Model and Associated Database: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Shirley

    2007-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of the FOSS FoodScan near-infrared spectrophotometer with artificial neural network calibration model and database for the determination of fat, moisture, and protein in meat and meat products. Representative samples were homogenized by grinding according to AOAC Official Method 983.18. Approximately 180 g ground sample was placed in a 140 mm round sample dish, and the dish was placed in the FoodScan. The operator ID was entered, the meat product profile within the software was selected, and the scanning process was initiated by pressing the "start" button. Results were displayed for percent (g/100 g) fat, moisture, and protein. Ten blind duplicate samples were sent to 15 collaborators in the United States. The within-laboratory (repeatability) relative standard deviation (RSD(r)) ranged from 0.22 to 2.67% for fat, 0.23 to 0.92% for moisture, and 0.35 to 2.13% for protein. The between-laboratories (reproducibility) relative standard deviation (RSD(R)) ranged from 0.52 to 6.89% for fat, 0.39 to 1.55% for moisture, and 0.54 to 5.23% for protein. The method is recommended for Official First Action.

  10. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of Laurus nobilis L. and Myrtus communis L. essential oils from Morocco and evaluation of their antimicrobial activity acting alone or in combined processes for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrat, Lamia; Espina, Laura; Bakkali, Mohammed; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael; Laglaoui, Amin

    2014-04-01

    This study describes the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Laurus nobilis L. and Myrtus communis L. essential oils (EOs). This is the first report of the synergistic antimicrobial effect of these EOs in combination with physical food preservation treatments. EOs obtained by steam distillation from aerial parts of Laurus nobilis and Myrtus communis were analysed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main compounds were 1,8-cineole and 2-carene (L. nobilis EO); and myrtenyl acetate, 1,8-cineole and α-pinene (M. communis EO). L. nobilis EO showed higher antioxidant activity than M. communis EO in three complementary antioxidant tests. Although antimicrobial activity tests demonstrated the effectiveness of L. nobilis EO and the lack of bactericidal effect of M. communis EO, synergistic lethal effects were observed when combining each EO (0.2 µL mL(-1)) with mild heat (54°C for 10 min) or high hydrostatic pressure (175-400 MPa for 20 min). In contrast, combination of EOs with pulsed electric fields (30 kV cm(-1) for 25 pulses) showed no additional effects. This study shows the great potential of these EOs in combined treatments with mild heat and high hydrostatic pressure to obtain a higher inactivation of foodborne pathogens, which might help in the design of safe processes applied at low intensity. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Prediction by artificial neural networks of the physicochemical quality of cane molasses vinegar by time-temperature effect of food to flash evaporator-distiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Vásquez V

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available It was predicted via Artificial Neural Networks (ANN important physicochemical characteristics of molasses vinegar: pH, density, total acidity, ethanol, total aldehydes and furfural, obtained by flash evaporation operations and flash distillation clarification. Alcoholic and acetic fermented molasses were fed to a flash evaporator at four temperatures (61, 66, 71 and 76 ° C and in three times (25, 35 and 45 min. The prediction was made with two networks: ANN and ANN-A-B, both with good performance. The ANN-A was of the feedforward (FF type with Backpropagation (BP training algorithms and set of Levenberg-Marquardt (LM weights adjustment, topology: 6 inputs (operations data of flash evaporation-distillation, 7 linear outputs (physicochemical characteristics, 9 tangent sigmoidal neurons in 1 hidden layer, 0.5 moment coefficient, 0.01 learning rate, 0.0001 error goal and 20 training stages. The ANN-A showed better performance than a statistical model of first order. The ANN-B also FF, BP and LM algorithms, topology: 2 inputs (data from flash evaporation, 7 linear outputs (physical and chemical characteristics, 84 logarithm sigmoid neurons in 1 hidden layer, 0.5 moment coefficient, 0.01 learning rate, 0.0001 error goal and 300 training stages. The ANN-B showed the same predictive capacity as a statistical model of the first-order with interaction of terms.

  12. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Food preservation by irradiation is one part of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program that is enjoying renewed interest. Classified as a food additive by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 instead of a processing technique, irradiation lost public acceptance. Experiments have not been done to prove that there are no health hazards from gamma radiation, but there are new pressures to get Food and Drug Administration approval for testing in order to make commercial use of some radioactive wastes. Irradiation causes chemical reactions and nutritional changes, including the destruction of several vitamins, as well as the production of radiolytic products not normally found in food that could have adverse effects. The author concludes that, lacking epidemiological evidence, willing buyers should be able to purchase irradiated food as long as it is properly labeled

  13. Utilization of irradiation on food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Han Ok; Kwon, Joong Ho; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Suck Won; Yang, Jae Seung

    1986-12-01

    Dried marine products showed some higher microbial contaminations than dried agricultural products and the load of microorganisms was different depending on the kind of samples. In comparative effects of radiation and ethylene oxide (E.O) fumigation, total aerobic and acid tolerant bacteria were reduced by 2 to 3 log orders by gamma irradiation at 3 to 5 KGy. The sterilizing doses for coliforms, fungi and total bacterial count were shown to be 5 KGy, 5 to 7 KGy, and 7 tp 10 KGy, respectively. D values of total bacterial count in dried agricultural and marine products ranged from 0.80 to 3.99 KGy. In the meantime, E.O. treatment proved insufficient to reduce the microbial load of highly contaminated samples below the 10 per gram of the international hygienic standard, especially in total aerobic bacteria, thermophiles and gun fungi. An optimum dose of irradiation had little detrimental effect on the chemical components of the sample, but E.O. treatment brought about a significant reduction especially in amino acid and ascorbic acid contents. The values of thiobarbituric acid(TBA), PH and trimethyleamine(TMA), as quality parameters, were more stable during the storage period in the irradiated groups than the control and E.O. treatment caused changes in color, leading to deterioration of overall appearance of the samples. Sensory evaluation after three months of storage at room temperatures indicated that the irradiated samples with doses of 5 to 10 KGy were more acceptable in the overall flavor and appearance of each product than the nontreated control group as well as the E.O. fumigated samples

  14. Preserving experience through expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelinek, J.B.; Weidman, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    Expert systems technology, one of the branches in the field of computerized artificial intelligence, has existed for >30 yr but only recently has been made available on commercially standard hardware and software platforms. An expert system can be defined as any method of encoding knowledge by representing that knowledge as a collection of facts or objects. Decisions are made by the expert program by obtaining data about the problem or situation and correlating encoded facts (knowledge) to the data until a conclusion can be reached. Such conclusions can be relayed to the end user as expert advice. Realizing the potential of this technology, General Electric (GE) Nuclear Energy (GENE) has initiated a development program in expert systems applications; this technology offers the potential for packaging, distributing, and preserving nuclear experience in a software form. The paper discusses application fields, effective applications, and knowledge acquisition and knowledge verification

  15. The combined effect of pasteurization intensity, water activity, pH and incubation temperature on the survival and outgrowth of spores of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus in artificial media and food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samapundo, S; Heyndrickx, M; Xhaferi, R; de Baenst, I; Devlieghere, F

    2014-07-02

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the combined effects of pasteurization intensity (no heat treatment and 10 min at 70, 80 and 90 °C), water activity (aw) (0.960-0.990), pH (5.5-7.0) and storage temperature (7 and 10 °C) on the survival and outgrowth of psychrotolerant spores of Bacillus cereus FF119b and Bacillus pumilus FF128a. The experiments were performed in both artificial media and a validation was performed on real food products (cream, béchamel sauce and mixed vegetable soup). It was determined that in general, heat treatments of 10 min at 70 °C or 80 °C activated the spores of both B. cereus FF119b and B. pumilus FF128a, resulting in faster outgrowth compared to native (non-heat treated) spores. A pasteurization treatment of 10 min at 90 °C generally resulted in the longest lag periods before outgrowth of both isolates. Some of the spores were inactivated by this heat treatment, with more inactivation being observed the lower the pH value of the heating medium. Despite this, it was also observed that under some conditions the remaining (surviving) spores were actually activated as their outgrowth took place after a shorter period of time compared to native non-heated spores. While the response of B. cereus FF119b to the pasteurization intensity in cream and béchamel sauce was similar to the trends observed in the artificial media at 10 °C, in difference, outgrowth was only observed at 7 °C in both products when the spores had been heated for 10 min at 80 °C. Moreover, no inactivation was observed in cream or béchamel sauce when the spores were heated for 10 min at 90 °C in these two products. This was attributed to the protective effect of fat in the cream and the ingredients in the béchamel sauce. The study provides some insight into the potential microbial (stability and safety) consequences of the current trend towards milder heat treatments which is being pursued in the food industry. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Food nanoscience and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscience and nanotechnology have had a great impact on the food industry. They have increased the nutritional and functional properties of a number of food products and have aided in food preservation through the addition of antimicrobials or the reduction of water activity. These and many other applications have emerged in recent years to transform food science and technology. This book proposes to look at some of these applications and their effect on food production and innovation.

  17. Food irradiation - now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basson, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Food irradiation technology in South Africa is about to take its rightful place next to existing food preservation methods in protecting food supplies. This is as a result of several factors, the most important of which is the decision by the Department of Health and Population Development to introduce compulsory labelling of food irradiation. The factors influencing food irradiation technology in South Africa are discussed

  18. Food chemistry. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltes, W.

    1989-01-01

    This second edition of the textbook deals with all essential aspects of food chemistry. The revision improved in particular the chapters on food preservation, including irradiation of food, food additives, and pollutants and residues, including radionuclides. The chapter on the German legal regime for foodstuffs has been updated to cover the recent amendments of the law, and the information on processes applied in food technology has been largely enhanced. (VHE) With 153 figs., 78 tabs [de

  19. Perspective on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsome, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief review summarizes current scientific information on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of foods. Attention is focused on: specifics of the irradiation process and its effectiveness in food preservation; the historical development of food irradiation technology in the US; the response of the Institute of Food Technologists to proposed FDA guidelines for food irradiation; the potential uses of irradiation in the US food industry; and the findings of the absence of toxins and of unaltered nutrient density (except possibly for fats) in irradiated foods. The misconceptions of consumers concerning perceived hazards associated with food irradiation, as related to consumer acceptance, also are addressed

  20. Food irradiation: contaminating our food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccioni, R.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry has promoted food irradiation as an effective and safe means of preserving food at minimum risk to the public. However, wide-scale food irradiation programmes such as that approved in the United States of America would have an adverse impact on public health in the following ways: through the consumption of carcinogenic substances generated in irradiated foods, through the use of irradiation to mask bacteriological contamination of spoiled food, through the replacement of fresh foods with nutritionally depleted foods, through accidents with leaks or mishandling of the radiation sources used and through the environmental damage resulting from reactor operation or spent fuel reprocessing necessary to produce the required isotopes for food irradiation. The food irradiation market is potentially enormous, requiring a large number of facilities and isotopes, some, such as caesium-137, would come from the production of nuclear weapons. Evidence of the presence of carcinogenic or mutagenic activity in irradiated foods is discussed. Although the US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a food irradiation programme it would actually be against the FDA's legal obligation which is to protect the health and safety of the American people. (UK)

  1. Thermal food processing: new technologies and quality issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Da-Wen

    2012-01-01

    .... Part I, Modeling of Thermal Food Processes, discusses the thermal physical properties of foods, recent developments in heat and mass transfer, innovative modeling techniques including artificial...

  2. Design of Connectivity Preserving Flocking Using Control Lyapunov Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Erfianto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates cooperative flocking control design with connectivity preserving mechanism. During flocking, interagent distance is measured to determine communication topology of the flocks. Then, cooperative flocking motion is built based on cooperative artificial potential field with connectivity preserving mechanism to achieve the common flocking objective. The flocking control input is then obtained by deriving cooperative artificial potential field using control Lyapunov function. As a result, we prove that our flocking protocol establishes group stabilization and the communication topology of multiagent flocking is always connected.

  3. Containers in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolumen, S.; Espinosa, R.

    1997-01-01

    The preservation of food by irradiation is promising technology which increases industrial application. Packaging of irradiated foods is an integral part of the process. Judicious selection of the package material for successful trade is essential. In this paper is presented a brief review of important aspects of packaging in food irradiation [es

  4. Protection against radioactive contamination of food and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.; Kovacs, Z.

    1977-01-01

    Due to contaminating effects from nuclear explosions and nuclear power plants, the systematic investigation of environmental radioactive contamination is absolutely necessary. In order to reduce the artificial radiation dose to which the human body is exposed, isotope content of foods and agricultural products should be known. The authors evaluate the decontamination possibilities of food produced from vegetable and animal products, starting from the contamination of some products. For vegetable product decontamination the use of suitable fertilizers, thorough scrubbing in excess water and, for cereals, milling is proposed. As the most effective preventive measure of radiation contamination of food products of animal origin, appropriate packing is proposed. The storage and preservation problems are emphasized for short half-life radiation contamination. (P.J.)

  5. ISS as testbed towards food production on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuebler, Ulrich; Thallemer, Axel; Kern, Peter; Schwarzwaelder, Achim

    Almost all major space faring nations are presently investigating concepts for the exploration of extra terrestrial planetary bodies, including Earth's Moon and Mars. One major objective to sustain any human exploration plans will be the provision of fresh food. Even if a delivery from Earth to Moon is still possible with regular preservation techniques as for the international space station, there will be a big psychological impact from the ability to grow fresh food on a Moon Basis. Various architectural and agricultural concepts have been proposed. A comprehensive summary of the related requirements and constraints shall be presented as a baseline for further studies. One presently unknown constraint is the question of the gravity threshold for the genetic stability of plants or more specifically the level of gravity which is needed for normal growth and reproduction of plants. This paper shall focus on a roadmap towards a food production facility a planetary surface using the International Space Station as a test bed. Presented will be 1.) The concept of a Food Research Rotor for the artificial gravity facility EMCS. This Rotor shall allow the investigation into the gravity dependence of growth and reproduction of nutritionally relevant plants like radishes, tomatoes, bell peppers or lettuce. An important answer from this research could be if the Moon Gravity of 1/6g is sufficient for a vegetative food production or if additional artificial gravity is needed for a Moon Greenhouse. 2.) An inflatable demonstrator for ATV as scaled down version of a proposed planetary greenhouse

  6. Preserving Digital Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a single-volume introduction to the principles, strategies and practices currently applied by librarians and recordkeeping professionals to the critical issue of preservation of digital information. It incorporates practice from both the recordkeeping and the library communities, taking stock of current knowledge about digital preservation and describing recent and current research, to provide a framework for reflecting on the issues that digital preservation raises in professional practice.

  7. New trends in food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Señorans, Javier; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    In this work some of the newest trends in food processing are reviewed. This revision intends to provide an updated overview (including works published until February 2001) on the newest food processes, including food manufacturing, preservation, and control. Modern processes for food and food ingredients manufacturing based on membrane technology, super-critical fluid technology, and some applications of biotechnology are presented, mainly applied to obtain functional foods, "all-natural" enriched foods, probiotics and prebiotics. Also included is a critical assessment concerning non-thermal preservation techniques used for food preservation, such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields, ultrasound, pulsed light, hurdle systems, etc. Finally, a group of new analytical techniques (i.e., molecular techniques such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), food image analysis, and biosensors) and their use for food and process control is reviewed.

  8. Environmental education on wood preservatives and preservative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development and use of wood preservatives in Nigeria should address not only the cost and demand functions but also the potential hazards in environmental equations. Forest products specialists are often asked about the perceived risks and environmental costs of treated wood products. Evidently, the civil society is ...

  9. Mass preserving image registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results the mass preserving image registration method in the Evaluation of Methods for Pulmonary Image Registration 2010 (EMPIRE10) Challenge. The mass preserving image registration algorithm was applied to the 20 image pairs. Registration was evaluated using four different...

  10. Modes of fossil preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  11. 21 CFR 1305.17 - Preservation of DEA Forms 222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preservation of DEA Forms 222. 1305.17 Section... II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.17 Preservation of DEA Forms 222. (a) The purchaser must retain Copy 3 of each executed DEA Form 222 and all copies of unaccepted or defective forms with each...

  12. 21 CFR 1305.27 - Preservation of electronic orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preservation of electronic orders. 1305.27 Section... II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Electronic Orders § 1305.27 Preservation of electronic orders. (a) A... two years. (c) If electronic order records are maintained on a central server, the records must be...

  13. Chilled storage of foods - principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilled storage is the most common method for preserving perishable foods. The consumers’ increasing demand for convenient, minimally processed foods has caused food manufacturers to increase production of refrigerated foods worldwide. This book chapter reviews the development of using low tempera...

  14. 21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificially sweetened fruit jelly. 150.141 Section 150.141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... locust bean gum), guar gum, gum karaya, gum tragacanth, algin (sodium alginate), sodium...

  15. Food microbiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain); Moss, M. O; Adams, M. R

    2008-01-01

    ... is directed primarily at students of Microbiology, Food Science and related subjects up to Master's level and assumes some knowledge of basic microbiology. We have chosen not to burden the text with references to the primary literature in order to preserve what we hope is a reasonable narrative flow. Some suggestions for further reading for each chapter are included in Chapter 12. These are largely review articles and monographs which develop the overview provided and can also give access to...

  16. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  17. Artificial Disc Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Artificial Disc Replacement (ADR) Patient Education Committee Jamie Baisden The disc ... Disc An artificial disc (also called a disc replacement, disc prosthesis or spine arthroplasty device) is a ...

  18. Certification of the Cu and Cd amount contents in artificial food digest using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for Pilot Study 13 of the Comite Consultatif pour la Quantite de Matiere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassileva, E.; Quetel, C.R.; Petrov, I.

    2003-01-01

    The Comite Consultatif pour la Quantite de Matiere (CCQM) launched the Pilot Study 13, an interlaboratory comparison between the metrological organizations worldwide on the determination of Ca, Cu and Cd in artificial food digests. These samples (available in 7% HNO 3 and with a salinity evaluated around 370 mg kg -1 , including approx. 30 mg Na kg -1 ) were prepared by gravimetrical mixing, and thus reference values traceable to the Kg for the three elements were available eventually. This paper describes the contribution of IRMM for the certification of the Cu and the Cd amount contents. The analytical protocol developed was based on isotope dilution associated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS). The Cu measurements required 125-fold dilution of the initial sample solution. An interference of 23 Na 40 Ar + on 63 Cu + was identified but, since the ratio between both species was over 1000, it was successfully overcome by the calculation of a correction factor for its effect on the Cu amount content directly. Dilution of the sample was not possible for Cd only present at the low ng g -1 level. Up to 1% difference was observed on Cd isotope ratio results between measurements performed directly or after matrix separation. This is rarely shown. As similar results could be obtained either way after the necessary corrections, the direct measurements approach associated to a correction for mass discrimination effects using the CCQM-P13 sample itself (and the IUPAC table values as reference for the natural Cd isotopic composition) was preferred as it was the easiest. SI traceable values were obtained for Cu and Cd with less than 1 and 1.5% combined uncertainty, respectively (6 995±55 (k=2) nmol kg -1 and 45.53±0.64 (k=2) nmol kg -1 ). The excellent agreement between these results and the reference values (less than 0.6 and 0.08% difference) further validated the analytical protocols developed

  19. Encapsulation in the food industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, B F; Kermasha, S; Alli, I; Mulligan, C N

    1999-05-01

    Encapsulation involves the incorporation of food ingredients, enzymes, cells or other materials in small capsules. Applications for this technique have increased in the food industry since the encapsulated materials can be protected from moisture, heat or other extreme conditions, thus enhancing their stability and maintaining viability. Encapsulation in foods is also utilized to mask odours or tastes. Various techniques are employed to form the capsules, including spray drying, spray chilling or spray cooling, extrusion coating, fluidized bed coating, liposome entrapment, coacervation, inclusion complexation, centrifugal extrusion and rotational suspension separation. Each of these techniques is discussed in this review. A wide variety of foods is encapsulated--flavouring agents, acids bases, artificial sweeteners, colourants, preservatives, leavening agents, antioxidants, agents with undesirable flavours, odours and nutrients, among others. The use of encapsulation for sweeteners such as aspartame and flavours in chewing gum is well known. Fats, starches, dextrins, alginates, protein and lipid materials can be employed as encapsulating materials. Various methods exist to release the ingredients from the capsules. Release can be site-specific, stage-specific or signalled by changes in pH, temperature, irradiation or osmotic shock. In the food industry, the most common method is by solvent-activated release. The addition of water to dry beverages or cake mixes is an example. Liposomes have been applied in cheese-making, and its use in the preparation of food emulsions such as spreads, margarine and mayonnaise is a developing area. Most recent developments include the encapsulation of foods in the areas of controlled release, carrier materials, preparation methods and sweetener immobilization. New markets are being developed and current research is underway to reduce the high production costs and lack of food-grade materials.

  20. Sensory properties of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plestenjak, A.

    1997-01-01

    Food irradiation is a simple and effective preservation technique. The changes caused by irradiation depend on composition of food, on the absorbed dose, the water content and temperature during and after irradiation. In this paper the changes of food components caused by irradiation, doses for various food irradiation treatments, foods and countries where the irradiation is allowed, and sensory properties of irradiated food are reviewed

  1. Artificial life and Piaget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ulrich; Grobman, K H.

    2003-04-01

    Artificial life provides important theoretical and methodological tools for the investigation of Piaget's developmental theory. This new method uses artificial neural networks to simulate living phenomena in a computer. A recent study by Parisi and Schlesinger suggests that artificial life might reinvigorate the Piagetian framework. We contrast artificial life with traditional cognitivist approaches, discuss the role of innateness in development, and examine the relation between physiological and psychological explanations of intelligent behaviour.

  2. Chronopolis Digital Preservation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Minor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chronopolis Digital Preservation Initiative, one of the Library of Congress’ latest efforts to collect and preserve at-risk digital information, has completed its first year of service as a multi-member partnership to meet the archival needs of a wide range of domains.Chronopolis is a digital preservation data grid framework developed by the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC at UC San Diego, the UC San Diego Libraries (UCSDL, and their partners at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR in Colorado and the University of Maryland's Institute for Advanced Computer Studies (UMIACS.Chronopolis addresses a critical problem by providing a comprehensive model for the cyberinfrastructure of collection management, in which preserved intellectual capital is easily accessible, and research results, education material, and new knowledge can be incorporated smoothly over the long term. Integrating digital library, data grid, and persistent archive technologies, Chronopolis has created trusted environments that span academic institutions and research projects, with the goal of long-term digital preservation.A key goal of the Chronopolis project is to provide cross-domain collection sharing for long-term preservation. Using existing high-speed educational and research networks and mass-scale storage infrastructure investments, the partnership is leveraging the data storage capabilities at SDSC, NCAR, and UMIACS to provide a preservation data grid that emphasizes heterogeneous and highly redundant data storage systems.In this paper we will explore the major themes within Chronopolis, including:a The philosophy and theory behind a nationally federated data grid for preservation. b The core tools and technologies used in Chronopolis. c The metadata schema that is being developed within Chronopolis for all of the data elements. d Lessons learned from the first year of the project.e Next steps in digital preservation using Chronopolis: how we

  3. Optimization of preservation activities and preservation engineering (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki; Mimaki, Hidehito; Oda, Mitsuyuki

    2004-01-01

    In order to deal with the optimization of preservation activities and 'preservation engineering' which makes it possible, the relation between general society and preservation, the content and the structure of preservation activities, and the viewpoint and the approach of the optimization of the preventive preservation are described. The optimization of the preventive preservation is shown respectively in the four stages of planning, implementation, result evaluation and countermeasure. (K. Kato)

  4. VT Historic Preservation Grant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The State-funded Historic Preservation Grant Program helps municipalities and non-profit organizations rehabilitate the historic buildings that are a vital part of...

  5. Preservation of Built Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    When built environments and recently also cultural environments are to be preserved, the historic and architectural values are identified as the key motivations. In Denmark the SAVE system is used as a tool to identify architectural values, but in recent years it has been criticized for having...... architectural value in preservation work as a matter of maintaining the buildings -as keeping them "alive" and allowing this to continue in the future. The predominantly aesthetic preservation approach will stop the buildings' life process, which is the same as - "letting them die". Finnebyen in Aarhus...... is an example of a residential area, where the planning authority currently has presented a preservational district plan, following guidelines from the SAVE method. The purpose is to protect the area's architectural values in the future. The predominantly aesthetic approach is here used coupled to the concept...

  6. Radiation preservation of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasito.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation preservation of maize was carried out. Radiation doses and sources, shielding materials, packaging materials, chemical radiation effects, biological radiation effects, were discussed. Experimental methods, samples and accessories were also presented. (SMN)

  7. Digital preservation for heritages

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    ""Digital Preservation for Heritages: Technologies and Applications"" provides a comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of digital technologies in the area of cultural heritage preservation, including digitalization, research aiding, conservation aiding, digital exhibition, and digital utilization. Processes, technical frameworks, key technologies, as well as typical systems and applications are discussed in the book. It is intended for researchers and students in the fields of computer science and technology, museology, and archaeology. Dr. Dongming Lu is a professor at College of Computer Sci

  8. Indiana Pavement Preservation Program

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Ghim Ping (Raymond); Nantung, Tommy E.; Sinha, Kumares C.

    2010-01-01

    State highway agencies are facing immense pressure to maintain roads at acceptable levels amidst the challenging financial and economic situations. In recent years, pavement preservation has been sought as a potential alternative for managing the pavement assets, believing that it would provide a cost-effective solution in maintaining infrastructural conditions and meeting user expectations. This study explores the potential of pavement preservation concepts in managing the agency‘s pavement ...

  9. Food Processing: Technology and Nutritive Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbouin-Rerolle, Pascale

    1993-01-01

    This booklet examines the principles of food preservation, food preservation techniques, and nutrition-related consequences of food processing. All foodstuffs in their natural state will deteriorate and become unfit for human consumption due to internal factors, such as enzyme activity, or external factors, such as insects, rodents, and…

  10. Introduction of a novel food processing technology- food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    The treatment of food with ionizing radiation for its preservation is a resurging technology which was lying dormant since its introduction after the discovery on the use of x-ray as an effective way to kill bacteria in food. Large research programmes were initiated on the use of gamma rays for food preservation in many countries and some of the conclusions derived are discussed. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  11. Food additives: Sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, azorubine, and tartrazine modify the expression of NFκB, GADD45α, and MAPK8 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, B; Pónusz, R; Gerencsér, G; Budán, F; Gyöngyi, Z; Tibold, A; Hegyi, D; Kiss, I; Koller, Á; Varjas, T

    2016-09-01

    It has been reported that some of the food additives may cause sensitization, inflammation of tissues, and potentially risk factors in the development of several chronic diseases. Thus, we hypothesized that expressions of common inflammatory molecules - known to be involved in the development of various inflammatory conditions and cancers - are affected by these food additives. We investigated the effects of commonly used food preservatives and artificial food colorants based on the expressions of NFκB, GADD45α, and MAPK8 (JNK1) from the tissues of liver. RNA was isolated based on Trizol protocol and the activation levels were compared between the treated and the control groups. Tartrazine alone could elicit effects on the expressions of NFκB (p = 0.013) and MAPK8 (p = 0.022). Azorubine also resulted in apoptosis according to MAPK8 expression (p = 0.009). Preservatives were anti-apoptotic in high dose. Sodium benzoate (from low to high doses) dose-dependently silenced MAPK8 expression (p = 0.004 to p = 0.002). Addition of the two preservatives together elicited significantly greater expression of MAPK8 at half-fold dose (p = 0.002) and at fivefold dose (p = 0.008). This study suggests that some of the food preservatives and colorants can contribute to the activation of inflammatory pathways.

  12. Trends in Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  13. Agriculture and food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Lebai Juri

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discuss the application of nuclear technology in agriculture sector. Nuclear Technology has help agriculture and food processing to develop tremendously. Two techniques widely use in both clusters are ionization radiation and radioisotopes. Among techniques for ionizing radiation are plant mutation breeding, SIT and food preservation. Meanwhile radioisotopes use as a tracer for animal research, plant soil relations water sedimentology

  14. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author) [es

  15. 77 FR 71746 - Artificially Sweetened Fruit Jelly and Artificially Sweetened Fruit Preserves and Jams; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... product formulas or manufacturing practices in ways that would be permitted by the proposed rule, if... content claim and a standardized term. We also tentatively conclude that this action will promote honesty... electronic comments in the following way: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the...

  16. Sensory evaluation of a highly nutritive bread, formulated for populations suffering food emergencies, preserved with ionizing radiation; Evaluación sensorial de un panificado de alto valor nutricional formulado para poblaciones en emergencia alimentaria, preservado por radiaciones ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, G. S.; Gómez, B., E-mail: gabygon22@yahoo.com.ar, E-mail: bgomez@fb.uner.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de Entre Ríos, Gualeguaychú (Argentina); Cova, M. C.; Narvaiz, Patricia [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Ezeiza (Argentina). Gerencia de Área Aplicaciones de la Tecnología Nuclear, Gerencia de Aplicaciones y Tecnología de Radiaciones, Sector Irradiación de Alimentos

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate with sensorial analysis, the feasibility of extending the shelf life at room temperature of highly nutritive bread, specially formulated for people suffering alimentary emergencies such as floods, earthquakes, geographical isolation or malnourishment, by means of ionizing radiation. The shelf life of any bread is limited by microbial growth, so the food industry uses chemicals and /or refrigeration to control it. Twenty one breads were formulated and manufactured employing wheat and soybean flours, dehydrated whey, skim milk and egg, vegetal oil, water, and some commercial food additives as emulsifiers and water retention substances. A final formulation was chosen by means of a preliminary sensory evaluation. Bibliographic estimations were made on its nutritional quality as compared to that of a regular wheat bread; improvements were found on vitamins, minerals, proteins, lipids and fibre. Forty 450 g breads were manufactured, oven cooked at 220°C for 20 minutes, packaged with polyethylene film, 100 microns thickness, and irradiated at the semi industrial cobalt-60 facility of the Ezeiza Atomic Centre, about 600,000 Ci of activity, with doses of 0, 6 and 10 kilo Grays, dose rate: 10 kGy/h, dose uniformity: 1.1. Control and irradiated samples were stored at room temperature and relative humidity for 43 days. Sensory analysis was performed with a panel of about 50 consumers on days 3, 29 and 43, evaluating aroma, aspect, colour, flavour, texture and general acceptability with hedonic scores ranging from 1 to 9. No significant differences between control and irradiated samples were found, being the latter afforded scores close to 7 even at the end of the storage period. Control samples had to be discarded on day 6 due to visible mould growth. So this bread formulation, suitable to fulfill most of the nutritional requirements of a population under alimentary emergency, attained at least a 7 fold shelf life increase when treated

  17. Training for Preservation Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam M. Foot

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available In August 1997 the first of a series of summer schools in Preservation Management was held at the Archivschule in Marburg (Germany. The school was organised by the ECPA, the LIBER Division on Preservation, ICA and the Archivschule itself and was aimed at archivists and librarians in management positions from European institutions. It dealt with managerial, organisational and financial aspects of preservation and required active participation by those attending. Apart from introductory sessions by the teaching staff at the Archivschule, a large part of the course took the form of working groups, discussions, assignments and role play, to which participants were expected to take their own experience and problems. The school was conducted in German. Topics, spread over five days, ranged from preservation in the context of the core activities of libraries and archives; planning of preservation projects; general management issues, such as resource management, budgeting, priority setting, communication and effecting change; to more detailed considerations of day-to-day issues, such as storage, disaster control, microfilming and digitising, mass conservation processes, and moulds and fungi.

  18. Implanted artificial heart with radioisotope power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumakov, V I; Griaznov, G M; Zhemchuzhnikov, G N; Kiselev, I M; Osipov, A P

    1983-02-01

    An atomic artificial heart for orthotopic implantation was developed with the following characteristics: volume, 1.2 L; weight, 1.5 kg; radioisotope power, 45 W; operating life, up to 5 years; hemodynamics, similar to natural hemodynamics. The artificial heart includes a thermal drive with systems for regulating power, feeding steam into the cylinders, return of the condensate to the steam generator, and delivery of power to the ventricles and heat container. The artificial heart is placed in an artificial pericardium partially filled with physiologic solution. It uses a steam engine with two operating cylinders that separately drive the left and right ventricles. There is no electronic control system in the proposed design. The operation of the heat engine is controlled, with preservation of autoregulation by the vascular system of the body. The separate drives for the ventricles is of primary importance as it provides for operation of the artificial heart through control of cardiac activity by venous return. Experimental testing on a hydromechanical bench demonstrated effective autoregulation.

  19. Cancer and fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertini, Matteo; Del Mastro, Lucia; Pescio, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, thanks to the improvement in the prognosis of cancer patients, a growing attention has been given to the fertility issues. International guidelines on fertility preservation in cancer patients recommend that physicians discuss, as early as possible, with all patients...... of reproductive age their risk of infertility from the disease and/or treatment and their interest in having children after cancer, and help with informed fertility preservation decisions. As recommended by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society for Medical Oncology, sperm...... data have become available, and several issues in this field are still controversial and should be addressed by both patients and their treating physicians.In April 2015, physicians with expertise in the field of fertility preservation in cancer patients from several European countries were invited...

  20. Optimization of preservation activities and preservation engineering (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki; Mimaki, Hidehito; Oda, Mitsuyuki

    2004-01-01

    In order to deal with the optimization of preservation activities and 'preservation engineering' which makes it possible, the viewpoint and the approach of the optimization of the ex post facto preservation and the content to be possessed in 'preservation engineering' are described. The optimization of the ex post facto preservation is shown respectively in the four stages of planning, implementation, result evaluation and countermeasure. (K. Kato)

  1. Applications of Electromigration Techniques: Applications of Electromigration Techniques in Food Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Piotr; Ligor, Magdalena; Buszewski, Bogusław

    Electromigration techniques, including capillary electrophoresis (CE), are widely used for separation and identification of compounds present in food products. These techniques may also be considered as alternate and complementary with respect to commonly used analytical techniques, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), or gas chromatography (GC). Applications of CE concern the determination of high-molecular compounds, like polyphenols, including flavonoids, pigments, vitamins, food additives (preservatives, antioxidants, sweeteners, artificial pigments) are presented. Also, the method developed for the determination of proteins and peptides composed of amino acids, which are basic components of food products, are studied. Other substances such as carbohydrates, nucleic acids, biogenic amines, natural toxins, and other contaminations including pesticides and antibiotics are discussed. The possibility of CE application in food control laboratories, where analysis of the composition of food and food products are conducted, is of great importance. CE technique may be used during the control of technological processes in the food industry and for the identification of numerous compounds present in food. Due to the numerous advantages of the CE technique it is successfully used in routine food analysis.

  2. Preservation of potatoes by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouani, A.; Boussaha, A.

    1987-01-01

    In Algeria, potatoes are a major food item in nutrition habits. Because of lack of cold storage facilities, losses can reach up to 40% of the total output of summer harvest. This paper describes the first experiments on the application of gamma irradiation for the preservation of local varieties of potatoes. Losses are strongly reduced by inhibition sprouting effect of irradiation and reduction of sugars content has no significant influence on the acceptability of irradiated potatoes

  3. Advanced Digital Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Giaretta, David

    2011-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the need to address the fragility of digital information, on which our society heavily depends for smooth operation in all aspects of daily life. This has been discussed in many books and articles on digital preservation, so why is there a need for yet one more? Because, for the most part, those other publications focus on documents, images and webpages -- objects that are normally rendered to be simply displayed by software to a human viewer. Yet there are clearly many more types of digital objects that may need to be preserved, such as databases, scientific da

  4. Artificial cognition architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Friess, Shelli A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this book is to establish the foundation, principles, theory, and concepts that are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are some basic human intelligence concepts framed for Artificial Intelligence systems. These include concepts like Metacognition and Metamemory, along with architectural constructs for Artificial Intelligence versions of human brain functions like the prefrontal cortex. Also presented are possible hardware and software architectures that lend themselves to learning, reasoning, and self-evolution

  5. Artificial Intelligence Study (AIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGNECE HARDWARE ....... 2-50 AI Architecture ................................... 2-49 AI Hardware ....................................... 2...ftf1 829 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE STUDY (RIS)(U) MAY CONCEPTS 1/3 A~NLYSIS AGENCY BETHESA RD R B NOJESKI FED 6? CM-RP-97-1 NCASIFIED /01/6 M |K 1.0...p/ - - ., e -- CAA- RP- 87-1 SAOFŔ)11 I ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE STUDY (AIS) tNo DTICFEBRUARY 1987 LECT 00 I PREPARED BY RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS

  6. Artificial Intelligence in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinney, E. J.; Prša, A.; Guinan, E. F.; Degeorge, M.

    2010-12-01

    From the perspective (and bias) as Eclipsing Binary researchers, we give a brief overview of the development of Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications, describe major application areas of AI in astronomy, and illustrate the power of an AI approach in an application developed under the EBAI (Eclipsing Binaries via Artificial Intelligence) project, which employs Artificial Neural Network technology for estimating light curve solution parameters of eclipsing binary systems.

  7. Quo Vadis, Artificial Intelligence?

    OpenAIRE

    Berrar, Daniel; Sato, Naoyuki; Schuster, Alfons

    2010-01-01

    Since its conception in the mid 1950s, artificial intelligence with its great ambition to understand and emulate intelligence in natural and artificial environments alike is now a truly multidisciplinary field that reaches out and is inspired by a great diversity of other fields. Rapid advances in research and technology in various fields have created environments into which artificial intelligence could embed itself naturally and comfortably. Neuroscience with its desire to understand nervou...

  8. Inteligencia artificial en vehiculo

    OpenAIRE

    Amador Díaz, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Desarrollo de un robot seguidor de líneas, en el que se implementan diversas soluciones de las áreas de sistemas embebidos e inteligencia artificial. Desenvolupament d'un robot seguidor de línies, en el qual s'implementen diverses solucions de les àrees de sistemes encastats i intel·ligència artificial. Follower robot development of lines, in which various solutions are implemented in the areas of artificial intelligence embedded systems.

  9. Ionization of food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    After general remarks on foods preservation, on international works and on ionization future prospects, main irradiation sources are described. Recalls on radioactivity, on radiation-matter interaction, on toxicology of ionized foods and on ionized foods detection are given. Ionization applications to various products are reviewed, especially in: - Poultry meat - Fishing products - Fresh fruits and vegetables - Dry fruits and vegetables - spices, tea, infusion - prepacked products... An evaluation of economics and sociocultural impacts is presented in connection with recent experiments [fr

  10. Radioactivity and food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references

  11. STANFORD ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE PROJECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , GAME THEORY, DECISION MAKING, BIONICS, AUTOMATA, SPEECH RECOGNITION, GEOMETRIC FORMS, LEARNING MACHINES, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, SERVOMECHANISMS, SIMULATION, BIBLIOGRAPHIES.

  12. Integral-preserving integrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, D I; Quispel, G R W

    2004-01-01

    Ordinary differential equations having a first integral may be solved numerically using one of several methods, with the integral preserved to machine accuracy. One such method is the discrete gradient method. It is shown here that the order of the method can be bootstrapped repeatedly to higher orders of accuracy. The method is illustrated using the Henon-Heiles system. (letter to the editor)

  13. Preserve America News

    Science.gov (United States)

    phone number. Whether or not you're able to let us know ahead of time, however, we hope you can join us Amache Preservation Society in Colorado and the Friends of Mount Hope Cemetery in New York. This brings Places: Breathing New Life into Our Communities." Read about this informative session. National

  14. POLARISATION PRESERVING OPTICAL FIBRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    . This cladding structure provides polarisation preserving properties to the optical fibre. Optical fibres using this technology may have claddings with elements placed non-periodically as well as in a two-dimensional periodic lattice - such as cladding providing Photonic Band Gap (PBG) effects....

  15. Wood preservative testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Ibach; Stan T. Lebow

    2012-01-01

    Most wood species used in commercial and residential construction have little natural biological durability and will suffer from biodeterioration when exposed to moisture. Historically, this problem has been overcome by treating wood for outdoor use with toxic wood preservatives. As societal acceptance of chemical use changes, there is continual pressure to develop and...

  16. Preservation in New Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kitching

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In the United Kingdom (as in many other countries increasing attention is being paid to the importance of each library and archive having a written preservation strategy endorsed by its governing body. So increasingly we are asking: where does „preservation“ begin and what are its top priorities? Some would say preservation begins with the definition of collecting policies to ensure that only relevant items are acquired in the first place, and therefore that no unnecessary costs are incurred on the long-term care of unwanted and unconsulted items. Others might argue that the first priority must be the careful appraisal of existing holdings to determine their preservation and conservation requirements and to prioritise their treatment. Or should preservation begin with damage-limitation: restricting the physical handling of books and documents, on the one hand by providing whenever possible surrogate copies in digital formats or microform, and on the other hand by offering at least basic protection through appropriate boxing and packaging? This, surely, goes hand-in-hand with the education of staff and readers about the importance of treating rare or unique materials with proper respect.

  17. Preserving the Seminar Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, David; Evans, Jocelyn; Levy, Meyer

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a new approach to online graduate education. With hopes of recruiting a larger cohort in order to preserve a graduate program struggling with low enrollment, we began offering a limited number of seats to students who would attend class in real time but from remote locations, using a videoconferencing platform. Unlike…

  18. Food spoilage - interactions between food spoilage bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Flodgaard, Lars; Rasch, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Food spoilage is a complex process and excessive amounts of foods are lost due to microbial spoilage even with modem day preservation techniques. Despite the heterogeneity in raw materials and processing conditions, the microflora that develops during storage and in spoiling foods can be predicted...... based on knowledge of the origin of the food, the substrate base and a few central preservation parameters such as temperature, atmosphere, a(w) and pH. Based on such knowledge, more detailed sensory, chemical and microbiological analysis can be carried out on the individual products to determine...... the actual specific spoilage organism. Whilst the chemical and physical parameters are the main determining factors for selection of spoilage microorganisms, a level of refinement may be found in some products in which the interactive behavior of microorganisms may contribute to their growth and/or spoilage...

  19. Food irradiation nears commercial development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    One person out of eight in the world today suffers from chronic undernourishment. This problem is likely to get worse as the world's population doubles during the next thirty to forty years. Since about 25% or more of our harvested food is lost due to various kinds of wastage and spoilage, food preservation is no less important than food production. To supply the world's demand for food, it is more reasonable to conserve what is produced than to produce more to compensate for subsequent losses. Thus, it is obvious that all methods of preserving food and agricultural produce should be examined to see if their use might alleviate the world's food shortage, and that to develop better and safer techniques of food preservation will improve food supplies. Food preservation is an ever greater problem for the developing countries, not only because of their chronic problems of undernourishment, but also because most of them are in tropical or sub-tropical regions where food spoilage is rapid. The IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) held a symposium on food irradiation at Colombo in Sri Lanka. The symposium paid special attention to the use of food irradiation in preserving tropical fruits as well as fish and fish products. It also examined the cost of the food irradiation process and compared it with those of conventional processes. Food irradiation is one field in which advance is most likely to be achieved through international co-operation. This co-operation has been supported by the IAEA and FAO in a number of ways. During the last 15 years three previous symposia (Karlsruhe, 1966; Bombay, 1972; Wageningen, 1977), numerous panel meetings, and training courses, have been held on this subject and many nations' food irradiation projects have been supported by technical assistance and co-ordinated research programmes

  20. Artificial life and life artificialization in Tron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dantas Figueiredo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinema constantly shows the struggle between the men and artificial intelligences. Fiction, and more specifically fiction films, lends itself to explore possibilities asking “what if?”. “What if”, in this case, is related to the eventual rebellion of artificial intelligences, theme explored in the movies Tron (1982 and Tron Legacy (2010 trat portray the conflict between programs and users. The present paper examines these films, observing particularly the possibility programs empowering. Finally, is briefly mentioned the concept of cyborg as a possibility of response to human concerns.

  1. DNA preservation in silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yawen; Zheng, Zhaozhu; Gong, He; Liu, Meng; Guo, Shaozhe; Li, Gang; Wang, Xiaoqin; Kaplan, David L

    2017-06-27

    The structure of DNA is susceptible to alterations at high temperature and on changing pH, irradiation and exposure to DNase. Options to protect and preserve DNA during storage are important for applications in genetic diagnosis, identity authentication, drug development and bioresearch. In the present study, the stability of total DNA purified from human dermal fibroblast cells, as well as that of plasmid DNA, was studied in silk protein materials. The DNA/silk mixtures were stabilized on filter paper (silk/DNA + filter) or filter paper pre-coated with silk and treated with methanol (silk/DNA + PT-filter) as a route to practical utility. After air-drying and water extraction, 50-70% of the DNA and silk could be retrieved and showed a single band on electrophoretic gels. 6% silk/DNA + PT-filter samples provided improved stability in comparison with 3% silk/DNA + filter samples and DNA + filter samples for DNA preservation, with ∼40% of the band intensity remaining at 37 °C after 40 days and ∼10% after exposure to UV light for 10 hours. Quantitative analysis using the PicoGreen assay confirmed the results. The use of Tris/borate/EDTA (TBE) buffer enhanced the preservation and/or extraction of the DNA. The DNA extracted after storage maintained integrity and function based on serving as a functional template for PCR amplification of the gene for zinc finger protein 750 (ZNF750) and for transgene expression of red fluorescence protein (dsRed) in HEK293 cells. The high molecular weight and high content of a crystalline beta-sheet structure formed on the coated surfaces likely accounted for the preservation effects observed for the silk/DNA + PT-filter samples. Although similar preservation effects were also obtained for lyophilized silk/DNA samples, the rapid and simple processing available with the silk-DNA-filter membrane system makes it appealing for future applications.

  2. Introduction to Innovative Food Processing and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Tokusoglu, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    Consumers, the food industry and the regulatory agencies demand the innovative technologies to provide safe and stable foods. Nonthermal processing technologies offer unprecedented opportunities and challenges for the food industry to market safe, high quality health-promoting foods. Those innovative food processing is often perceived as an alternative to thermal food processing, yet there are many nonthermal preparatory unit operations as well as food processing and preservation opportunitie...

  3. Radiation processing of food - safety and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Pratap

    2007-01-01

    Food is vital for human existence. Conservation and preservation of food is a prerequisite for food security and it provides economic stability and self-reliance to a nation. The need to preserve food has been felt by mankind since time immemorial. The seasonal nature of production, long distances between production and consumption centres and rising gap between demand and supply have made this need even more relevant today

  4. Radioecological aspects in artificial groundwater recharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthess, G [Kiel Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Geologisch-Palaeontologisches Inst. und Museum; Neumayr, V [Institut fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene, Frankfurt am Main (Germany, F.R.)

    1980-01-01

    In increasing extent surface waters, especially those of rivers and streams, are contaminated by radionuclides. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the possibility of impairment of the quality of artificially recharged groundwater and drinking water by radionuclides. Hazards for man are possible by drinking water, that was affected by waste and during exposition to air, as well as indirectly by irrigation water and the food chain. In a model calculation using realistic conditions the order of magnitude of these hazards for man by incorporation of radioactively contaminated artificially recharged drinking water are to be assessed. Here the parameters are discussed which must be considered in such an assessment. The model includes the use of river water for artificial recharge. All models and assessments assume the most unfavourable preconditions, which may lead to an impact to man.

  5. The Philosophical Consideration about Food Additives

    OpenAIRE

    Baoyu Ma

    2015-01-01

    This study mainly analyzes the essential features of food additives technology from the angle of philosophy, explaining the essential characteristics of food additives technology. As for the attitude towards the application of food additives, it is influenced by the public's gender, age, educational level, occupation and monthly expenditure for buying non-staple food and other variables, thus, the attitude towards food additives and green food, as well as the attitude towards using artificial...

  6. Preservation and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramiere, R.

    1991-01-01

    The paper reviews briefly the application of gamma radiation to preservation of cultural objects for disinsectization, disinfection and strengthening of materials such as wood or stone by impregnation with a liquid resin and in situ polymerization. As heavy equipment is required two facilities are specialized a 1000 T Bq cobalt 60 source at Grenoble (France) and 100 T Bq one at Rostoky (Czechoslovakia). Examples of treated objects are given [fr

  7. Fertility preservation 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Michel; Smitz, Johan; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced long-term survival rates of young women with cancer and advances in reproductive medicine and cryobiology have culminated in an increased interest in fertility preservation methods in girls and young women with cancer. Present data suggest that young patients with cancer should be referred for fertility preservation counselling quickly to help with their coping process. Although the clinical application of novel developments, including oocyte vitrification and oocyte maturation in vitro, has resulted in reasonable success rates in assisted reproduction programmes, experience with these techniques in the setting of fertility preservation is in its infancy. It is hoped that these and other approaches, some of which are still regarded as experimental (eg, ovarian tissue cryopreservation, pharmacological protection against gonadotoxic agents, in-vitro follicle growth, and follicle transplantation) will be optimised and become established within the next decade. Unravelling the complex mechanisms of activation and suppression of follicle growth will not only expand the care of thousands of women diagnosed with cancer, but also inform the care of millions of women confronted with reduced reproductive fitness because of ageing. PMID:25283571

  8. Grain preservation in SSSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trisviatski, L.A.

    1973-01-01

    First the importance of cereals collected in the S.S.S.R., the reason why the government had to put in practice a storage chain, composed of large capacity store houses (200 000 metric tonnes, or more) is reminded. When climatic conditions result in wet harvested grains, cereals are dried either in state enterprise dryers (32 to 50 tonnes/hour) or in kolkhozes' dryers (2 to 16 tonnes/hour). A new type of drying with recycling, has been developped, economizing 10 to 15 p. 100. Then the possibilities offered by the technique of partial drying of very wet grains are studied and the preservation processes using fresh ventilation, or hot ventilation with drying effect are described. The question of silage of wet grains destined to animal consumption is then examined as well as preservation by sodium pyrosulfide; the use of propionic acid, little developped in SSSR, is studied now, just as storage with inert gas. The struggle technics against insects, either with chemical agents, or with irradiation are described. Finally the modalities of technicians formation, specialized in preservation, are discussed [fr

  9. Food physics and radiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    In the lecture information is given about food physics, which is a rather new, interdisciplinary field of science, connecting food science and applied physics. The topics of radioactivity of foodstuffs and radiation techniques in the food industry are important parts of food physics detailed information will be given about the main fields (e.g. radio stimulation, food preservation) of radiation techniques in the agro-food sector. Finally some special questions of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in hungary and applicability of radioanalytical techniques (e.g. Inaa) for food investigation will be analyzed and discussed

  10. Novel approaches in food microbiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montijn, R.; Schuren, F.; Spek, H.D. van; Keijser, B.; Brul, S.

    2004-01-01

    The development of genomics technologies for guiding the predictive modeling of microorganism behavior to make food preservation treatments effective, are discussed. A fully genomewide description of cellular response to environmental conditions lies in the combination of a transcriptome and

  11. Training development for pavement preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This research project strives to help the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT) fully achieve the full benefits of pavement : preservation through training on proper selection, design, and application of pavement preservation treatments. In some ca...

  12. ACHP | Tribal Historic Preservation Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    preservation of significant historic properties. Those functions include identifying and maintaining Working with Section 106 Federal, State, & Tribal Programs Training & Education Publications Search skip specific nav links Home arrow Historic Preservation Programs & Officers arrow THPOs

  13. [Total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antretter, H; Dumfarth, J; Höfer, D

    2015-09-01

    To date the CardioWest™ total artificial heart is the only clinically available implantable biventricular mechanical replacement for irreversible cardiac failure. This article presents the indications, contraindications, implantation procedere and postoperative treatment. In addition to a overview of the applications of the total artificial heart this article gives a brief presentation of the two patients treated in our department with the CardioWest™. The clinical course, postoperative rehabilitation, device-related complications and control mechanisms are presented. The total artificial heart is a reliable implant for treating critically ill patients with irreversible cardiogenic shock. A bridge to transplantation is feasible with excellent results.

  14. Food irradiation in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wet, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    The article indicates the necessity for additional methods of food preservation and emphasises that food irradiation is developing into an important method of food preservation because it has been proved scientifically and practically that food irradiation can be applied effectively; also that there is absolute certainty that radiation-processed products are safe and nutritious and that such food is acceptable to the consumer and food trade, also with a view to costs. It discusses the joint food irradiation programme of the AEB and Department of Agriculture and Fisheries and points out that exemption for the irradiation of potatoes was already obtained in 1977 and later for mango's, paw-paws, chicken, onions, garlic and strawberries. Conditional exemption was obtained for avocado's and dried bananas. Other food-kinds on which research is being continued are grapes, melons, mushrooms, stone fruit and spices

  15. Food irradiation in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wet, W J

    1982-01-01

    The article indicates the necessity for additional methods of food preservation and emphasises that food irradiation is developing into an important method of food preservation because it has been proved scientifically and practically that food irradiation can be applied effectively; also that there is absolute certainty that radiation-processed products are safe and nutritious and that such food is acceptable to the consumer and food trade, also with a view to costs. It discusses the joint food irradiation programme of the AEB and Department of Agriculture and Fisheries and points out that exemption for the irradiation of potatoes was already obtained in 1977 and later for mangos, paw-paws, chicken, onions, garlic and strawberries. Conditional exemption was obtained for avocado's and dried bananas. Other food-kinds on which research is being continued are grapes, melons, mushrooms, stone fruit and spices.

  16. Coal ash artificial reef demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, R.J.; Brendel, G.F.; Bruzek, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This experimental project evaluated the use of coal ash to construct artificial reefs. An artificial reef consisting of approximately 33 tons of cement-stabilized coal ash blocks was constructed in approximately 20 feet of water in the Gulf of Mexico approximately 9.3 miles west of Cedar Key, Florida. The project objectives were: (1) demonstrate that a durable coal ash/cement block can be manufactured by commercial block-making machines for use in artificial reefs, and (2) evaluate the possibility that a physically stable and environmentally acceptable coal ash/cement block reef can be constructed as a means of expanding recreational and commercial fisheries. The reef was constructed in February 1988 and biological surveys were made at monthly intervals from May 1988 to April 1989. The project provided information regarding: Development of an optimum design mix, block production and reef construction, chemical composition of block leachate, biological colonization of the reef, potential concentration of metals in the food web associated with the reef, acute bioassays (96-hour LC 50 ). The Cedar Key reef was found to be a habitat that was associated with a relatively rich assemblage of plants and animals. The reef did not appear to be a major source of heavy metals to species at various levels of biological organization. GAI Consultants, Inc (GAI) of Monroeville, Pennsylvania was the prime consultant for the project. The biological monitoring surveys and evaluations were performed by Environmental Planning and Analysis, Inc. of Tallahassee, Florida. The chemical analyses of biological organisms and bioassay elutriates were performed by Savannah Laboratories of Tallahassee, Florida. Florida Power Corporation of St. Petersburg, Florida sponsored the project and supplied ash from their Crystal River Energy Complex

  17. Preservative treatments for building components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Lebow

    2007-01-01

    The wood species most commonly used in construction have little natural durability Thus, they are treated with preservatives when used in conditions that favor biodeterioration. The type of preservative used varies with the type of wood product, exposure condition, and specific agent of deterioration. This paper discusses the characteristics of several preservative...

  18. Ban irradiation of food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Hatijah bt; Gnanamuthu, E

    1986-12-31

    Irradiation of food has been promoted as a new technology in the preservation of food. Several countries have already introduced the technology for selected food items. However, there remain several questions that have yet to be answered. Foremost is the question of its safety. Proponents have argued that it is safe. Others cast doubts on these studies and the interpretations of their results. Second is the question of the nutritive value of the food that is irradiated. These and many other questions related to safety will be discussed in this paper

  19. Ban irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, Hatijah bt; Gnanamuthu, E.

    1985-01-01

    Irradiation of food has been promoted as a new technology in the preservation of food. Several countries have already introduced the technology for selected food items. However, there remain several questions that have yet to be answered. Foremost is the question of its safety. Proponents have argued that it is safe. Others cast doubts on these studies and the interpretations of their results. Second is the question of the nutritive value of the food that is irradiated. These and many other questions related to safety will be discussed in this paper

  20. Active food packaging technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Murat; Floros, John D

    2004-01-01

    Active packaging technologies offer new opportunities for the food industry, in the preservation of foods. Important active packaging systems currently known to date, including oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide emitters/absorbers, moisture absorbers, ethylene absorbers, ethanol emitters, flavor releasing/absorbing systems, time-temperature indicators, and antimicrobial containing films, are reviewed. The principle of operation of each active system is briefly explained. Recent technological advances in active packaging are discussed, and food related applications are presented. The effects of active packaging systems on food quality and safety are cited.

  1. Food processing with linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmer, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    The application of irradiation techniques to the preservation of foods is reviewed. The utility of the process for several important food groups is discussed in the light of work being done in a number of institutions. Recent findings in food chemistry are used to illustrate some of the potential advantages in using high power accelerators in food processing. Energy and dosage estimates are presented for several cases to illustrate the accelerator requirements and to shed light on the economics of the process

  2. Bibliography: Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Annotates reference material on artificial intelligence, mostly at an introductory level, with applications to education and learning. Topics include: (1) programing languages; (2) expert systems; (3) language instruction; (4) tutoring systems; and (5) problem solving and reasoning. (JM)

  3. Preserving the Manhattan Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    2014-03-01

    When future generations look back on the 20th century, few events will rival the harnessing of nuclear energy as a turning point in world history, science and society. Yet, the Department of Energy has not always embraced its Manhattan Project origins. The presentation will focus on the progress made over the last 20 years to preserve the properties and first-hand accounts that for decades have been threatened with demolition and indifference. Since the mid-1950s, most remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos National Laboratory had been abandoned. Among them was a cluster of wooden buildings called the ``V Site.'' This is where scientists assembled the ``Gadget,'' the world's first atomic device tested on July 16, 1945. Regardless of its significance, the ``V Site'' buildings like all the rest were slated for demolition. The Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) toured the properties in November 1998. Most could not believe that the world's first atomic bomb was designed in such humble structures. The properties were declared to be ``monumental in their lack of monumentality.'' A Save America's Treasures grant for 700,000 was awarded to restore the properties. To raise the required matching funds, I left the Federal government and soon founded the Atomic Heritage Foundation. The presentation will trace the progress made over the last decade to generate interest and support nationwide to preserve the Manhattan Project heritage. Saving both the physical properties and first-hand accounts of the men and women have been a priority. Perhaps our most significant achievement may be legislation now under consideration by Congress to create a Manhattan Project National Historical Park. Seventy years later, the Manhattan Project is finally getting the recognition it deserves.

  4. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, A. N.; Kambhampati, C.; Monson, J. R. T.; Drew, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. METHODS: Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of ...

  5. Minimally Naturalistic Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Steven Stenberg

    2017-01-01

    The rapid advancement of machine learning techniques has re-energized research into general artificial intelligence. While the idea of domain-agnostic meta-learning is appealing, this emerging field must come to terms with its relationship to human cognition and the statistics and structure of the tasks humans perform. The position of this article is that only by aligning our agents' abilities and environments with those of humans do we stand a chance at developing general artificial intellig...

  6. Artificial Intelligence Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Symposium on Aritificial Intelligence and Software Engineering Working Notes, March 1989. Blumenthal, Brad, "An Architecture for Automating...Artificial Intelligence Project Final Technical Report ARO Contract: DAAG29-84-K-OGO Artificial Intelligence LaboratO"ry The University of Texas at...Austin N>.. ~ ~ JA 1/I 1991 n~~~ Austin, Texas 78712 ________k A,.tificial Intelligence Project i Final Technical Report ARO Contract: DAAG29-84-K-0060

  7. Artificial intelligence in cardiology

    OpenAIRE

    Bonderman, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Summary Decision-making is complex in modern medicine and should ideally be based on available data, structured knowledge and proper interpretation in the context of an individual patient. Automated algorithms, also termed artificial intelligence that are able to extract meaningful patterns from data collections and build decisions upon identified patterns may be useful assistants in clinical decision-making processes. In this article, artificial intelligence-based studies in clinical cardiol...

  8. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  9. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    OpenAIRE

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally r...

  10. Fertility Preservation in Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennia Michaeli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Children that undergo treatment for cancer are at risk of suffering from subfertility or hormonal dysfunction due to the detrimental effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapeutic agents on the gonads. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue prior to treatment offers the possibility of restoring gonadal function after resumption of therapy. Effective counseling and management of pediatric patients is crucial for preserving their future reproductive potential. The purpose of this article is to review recent literature and to revise recommendations we made in a 2007 article. Pediatric hemato-oncology, reproductive endocrinology, surgery, anesthesia and bioethics perspectives are discussed and integrated to propose guidelines for offering ovarian cryopreservation to premenarcheal girls with cancer.

  11. Radiation preservation of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badshah, A.; Tasnim, A.; Khan, M.; Sattar, A.; Khan, I.

    1989-01-01

    The use of gamma irradiation for preservation of red hot pepper has been explained in report, as it can kill the harmful organisms without altering the organolpetic properties. The sample were dried and reduced to pass through 20 mesh. The samples were irradiated at different dose levels of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 KGy and results have been shown after different time intervals. Radiation and packaging treatments resulted normaly no effect on the color of dry fruits. (A.B)

  12. Preserving Transactional Data

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Day Thomson

    2017-01-01

    This paper is an adaptation of a longer report commissioned by the UK Data Service. The longer report contributes to on-going support for the Big Data Network – a programme funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC). The longer report can be found at doi:10.7207/twr16-02. This paper discusses requirements for preserving transactional data and the accompanying challenges facing the companies and institutions who aim to re-use these data for analysis or research. It present...

  13. Development of radiation preservation technique in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongdi; Li Guixiang; Pang Mei

    1990-12-01

    The 60 Co radiation preservation technique which was used to preserve persimmons, green peppers and four varieties of apple was studied. Apples and persimmons were irradiated with 0.1 ∼ 0.7kGy and 0.1 ∼ 1.0kGy respectively, then they were stored under a constant environmental temperature. Green peppers were treated with heat, irradiated with low dose and stored at low temperature. After a certain time of storing, the results showed that the quality of irradiated groups was better than control group, and there was no difference of main nutrient components between the irradiated groups and the control group. Finally, the radiation processing does not cause radioactivity increasing and microelements decreasing in the food

  14. Mutual preservation of entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veitia, Andrzej; Jing, Jun; Yu, Ting; Wong, Chee Wei

    2012-01-01

    We study a generalized double Jaynes–Cummings (JC) model where two entangled pairs of two-level atoms interact indirectly. We show that there exist initial states of the qubit system so that two entangled pairs are available at all times. In particular, the minimum entanglement in the pairs as a function of the initial state is studied. Finally, we extend our findings to a model consisting of multi-mode atom–cavity interactions. We use a non-Markovian quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to obtain the steady-state density matrix for the qubits. We show that the multi-mode model also displays dynamical preservation of entanglement. -- Highlights: ► Entanglement dynamics is studied in a generalized double Jaynes–Cummings model. ► We show that for certain initial states, the atoms remain entangled at all times. ► We extend the results to the case of multi-mode atom–cavity interactions. ► The model suggest that indirect interaction may help to preserve entanglement.

  15. Food glowing with freshness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desautels, L.

    1984-01-01

    Irradiation is gaining ground as a food preservation technique in Canada. Some fears remain among members of the public about the safety of irradiated foods, but government standards are being met. Two radiation sources can be used in food irradiation: gamma radiation from a cobalt 60 source, or electrons from an accelerator. The radiation affects the DNA of cells within food such as potatoes, preventing sprouting. It also causes changes within lipids, producing an undesirable rancid flavour. As a result, radiation processing is used primarily on fruits, vegetables, cereals and lean meats. The dose required for preservation is around 0.3 kGy, but higher doses are required for sterilization: 1 to 10 kGy, or even as high as 50 kGy for complete sterilization

  16. Food problems and food irradiation, recent trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Food irradiation is to contribute to the stable security of foodstuffs which is the fundamental condition of human survival by improving the preservation of foodstuffs and food sanitation utilizing the biological effect due to irradiation. The research and development have been carried out internationally since 1950s, but after the safety declaration of irradiated foods in 1980 by the international organ concerned, the permission and practical use for foods in various foreign countries, the technology transfer to developing countries and so on have been advanced. At present, food irradiation is permitted in 38 countries, and the practical irradiation is carried out in 24 countries. In Japan, the irradiation of potatoes to prevent germination was permitted in 1972, and the practical irradiation on potatoes of yearly 15,000 t is carried out. In the near future, irradiated foods will appear in international foodstuff market, and Japan which imports foodstuffs must cope with them. Foodstuffs and the safety, food irradiation, the soundness of irradiated foods, food irradiation in various foreign countries and Japan, the trend of international organs and the criticism of food irradiation are reported. (K.I.)

  17. TO THE ISSUE OF PRESERVATION AND RESTORATION OF STURGEON STOCKS IN THE VOLGA-CASPIAN BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Vasilieva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that for the preservation and restoration of natural sturgeon populations it is necessary to increase the eff iciency of reproduction, both natural and artificial Article determines the crucial role of artificial reproduction of sturgeon at the present stage to keep the gene pool of these valuable fish species and restoration of biological resources for commercial fishing.The article contains a set of measures for the conservation, restoration and rational use of natural resources of sturgeon.

  18. Preserving reptiles for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.; Zug, George R.; Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    What are voucher specimens and why do we collect them? Voucher specimens are animals and/or their parts that are deposited in a research museum to document the occurrence of a taxon at a specific location in space and time (Pleijel et al., 2008; Reynolds and McDiarmid, 2012). For field biologists, vouchers are the repeatable element of a field study as they allow other biologists, now and in the future, to confirm the identity of species that were studied. The scientific importance of a voucher specimen or series of specimens is that other people are afforded the opportunity to examine the entire animal and confirm or correct identifications. A photographic record is somewhat useful for recording the occurrence of a species, but such records can be insufficient for reliable confirmation of specific identity. Even if a photo shows diagnostic characters of currently recognized taxa, it may not show characters that separate taxa that may be described in the future. Substantial cryptic biodiversity is being found in even relatively well-known herpetofaunas (Crawford et al., 2010), and specimens allow researchers to retroactively evaluate the true diversity in a study as understanding of taxonomy evolves. They enable biologists to study the systematic relationships of populations by quantifying variation in different traits. Specimens are also a source of biological data such as behaviour, ecology, epidemiology, and reproduction through examination of their anatomy, reproductive and digestive tracts, and parasites (Suarez and Tsutsui, 2004). Preserving reptiles as vouchers is not difficult, although doing it properly requires care, effort, and time. Poorly preserved vouchers can invalidate the results and conclusions of your study because of the inability to confirm the identity of your study animals. Good science requires repeatability of observations, and the absence of vouchers or poorly preserved ones prevents such confirmation. Due to space restrictions, we are

  19. Ultrasensitive, simple and solvent-free micro-assay for determining sulphite preservatives (E220-228) in foods by HS-SDME and UV-vis micro-spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Otero, E; Costas, M; Lavilla, I; Bendicho, C

    2014-03-01

    A new method based on headspace single-drop microextraction in combination with UV-vis micro-spectrophotometry has been developed for the ultrasensitive determination of banned sulphite preservatives (E220-228) in fruits and vegetables. Sample acidification was used for SO2 generation, which is collected onto a 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) microdrop for spectrophotometric measurement. A careful study of this reaction was necessary, including conditions for SO2 generation from different sulphating salts, drop pH, 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) concentration and potential interference effects. Variables influencing mass transfer (stirring, sample volume and addition of salt) and microextraction time were also studied. A simple sulphite extraction was carried out, and problems caused by oxidation during the extraction process were addressed. A high enrichment factor (380) allows the determination of low levels of free SO2 in fruits and vegetables (limit of detection 0.06 μg g(-1), limit of quantification 0.2 μg g(-1)) with an adequate precision (repeatability, relative standard deviation 5 %). In addition, the sulphiting process was studied through the monitoring of residual SO2 in a vegetal sample, thus showing the importance of a sensitive tool for SO2 detection at low levels.

  20. Commercial implementation of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welt, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent positive developments in regulatory matters involving food irradiation appear to be opening the door to commercial implementation of the technology. Experience gained over five years in operating multi-purpose food irradiation facilities in the United States have demonstrated the technical and economic feasibility of the radiation preservation of food for a wide variety of purposes. Public education regarding food irradiation has been intensified especially with the growing favorable involvement of food trade associations, the USDA, and the American Medical Association. After 41 years of development effort, food irradiation will become a commercial reality in 1985. (author)

  1. Plasma Technology as a New Preservation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, R.; Calzada, M. D.

    The preliminary results of using the surface wave discharge at the atmospheric pressure on groups of lentils and sherry Fino wine samples are presented. In this research, the capability of active species and UV radiation from the plasma, has been assessed on preservation of food. Besides, the generation and emission of both excited molecules in a metastable state N2}(B3Π {g-> A3}Σ u{+) and the de-excitation of species NO(A2}Σ {+) producing UV radiation have been also studied.

  2. Radiation preservation of fruits and vegetables in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Ismail.

    1975-01-01

    The storage problem of fruits and vegetables is explained. The effect of gamma radiation on storage properties, organoleptic characteristics and chemical constituents of various fruits and vegetables has been discussed. The wholesomeness and clearance of various irradiated products is reviewed and the cost economics of the radiation technology calculated. It is concluded that since the problem of food spoilage is acute in Pakistan, radiation technique should be used commercially for food preservation

  3. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Provider Pocket Guides Provider Guides Fertility Preservation for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed ... Patient Pocket Guides Patient Guides Fertility Preservation for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed ...

  4. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ...

  5. Supplement: Why Colour Foods? Colouring Food Products with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today, the food industry is the kitchen of the world. It has revolutionised nutrition. Never before have standards of purity, stability, and physiological harmlessness been as high as they are today. New raw materials and new methods of refining and preserving, however, often alter the natural appearance of fresh foods.

  6. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-11-15

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  7. Artificial organ engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annesini, Maria Cristina; Piemonte, Vincenzo; Turchetti, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Artificial organs may be considered as small-scale process plants, in which heat, mass and momentum transfer operations and, possibly, chemical transformations are carried out. This book proposes a novel analysis of artificial organs based on the typical bottom-up approach used in process engineering. Starting from a description of the fundamental physico-chemical phenomena involved in the process, the whole system is rebuilt as an interconnected ensemble of elemental unit operations. Each artificial organ is presented with a short introduction provided by expert clinicians. Devices commonly used in clinical practice are reviewed and their performance is assessed and compared by using a mathematical model based approach. Whilst mathematical modelling is a fundamental tool for quantitative descriptions of clinical devices, models are kept simple to remain focused on the essential features of each process. Postgraduate students and researchers in the field of chemical and biomedical engineering will find that t...

  8. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  9. Artificial organs and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splendiani, G; Cipriani, S; Vega, A; Casciani, C U

    2003-05-01

    Nowadays artificial devices are not able to totally and undefinitely replace the loss of function of all vital organs and artificial organs can be used only to bridge the time to transplantation, which must be considered the first choice in the therapeutical approach for many chronic diseases. Since general population aging process is leading to an increase of organ demand, the gap between performed and requested transplantation is hard to fill. Xenotransplantation is nowadays only an experimental alternative solution and we have to do our best using available artificial organs to increase and improve the survival of patients waiting for transplantation. In this meeting we particularly dealt about organ function replacing therapy, especially regarding the kidney, heart, liver, pancreas and ear.

  10. Charlas sobre inteligencia artificial

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Sánchez, José Ramón; Ferrández Vicente, José Manuel; Paz López, Félix de la

    2014-01-01

    Serie: Informática en Radio 3 La Inteligencia Artificial es una de las ciencias que causa mayor impacto en la sociedad, mucho más si tenemos en cuenta que cambiará el futuro de la humanidad. En España existen actualmente un nutrido grupo de equipos de investigación relacionados con las tecnologías de computación natural-artificial que aúnan sus esfuerzos a través de la RTNAC la Red Temática en Tecnologías de Computación Natural-Artificial . La UNED participa en todas sus actividades desde ...

  11. Artificial Intelligence in Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kipp W; Torres Soto, Jessica; Glicksberg, Benjamin S; Shameer, Khader; Miotto, Riccardo; Ali, Mohsin; Ashley, Euan; Dudley, Joel T

    2018-06-12

    Artificial intelligence and machine learning are poised to influence nearly every aspect of the human condition, and cardiology is not an exception to this trend. This paper provides a guide for clinicians on relevant aspects of artificial intelligence and machine learning, reviews selected applications of these methods in cardiology to date, and identifies how cardiovascular medicine could incorporate artificial intelligence in the future. In particular, the paper first reviews predictive modeling concepts relevant to cardiology such as feature selection and frequent pitfalls such as improper dichotomization. Second, it discusses common algorithms used in supervised learning and reviews selected applications in cardiology and related disciplines. Third, it describes the advent of deep learning and related methods collectively called unsupervised learning, provides contextual examples both in general medicine and in cardiovascular medicine, and then explains how these methods could be applied to enable precision cardiology and improve patient outcomes. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines. (topical review)

  13. Novel natural food antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Dwivedi, Hari P; Yan, Xianghe

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds could be applied as food preservatives to protect food quality and extend the shelf life of foods and beverages. These compounds are naturally produced and isolated from various sources, including plants, animals and microorganisms, in which they constitute part of host defense systems. Many naturally occurring compounds, such as nisin, plant essential oils, and natamycin, have been widely studied and are reported to be effective in their potential role as antimicrobial agents against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Although some of these natural antimicrobials are commercially available and applied in food processing, their efficacy, consumer acceptance and regulation are not well defined. This manuscript reviews natural antimicrobial compounds with reference to their applications in food when applied individually or in combination with other hurdles. It also reviews the mechanism of action of selected natural antimicrobials, factors affecting their antimicrobial activities, and future prospects for use of natural antimicrobials in the food industry.

  14. Artificial intelligence executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wamsley, S.J.; Purvis, E.E. III

    1984-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a high technology field that can be used to provide problem solving diagnosis, guidance and for support resolution of problems. It is not a stand alone discipline, but can also be applied to develop data bases for retention of the expertise that is required for its own knowledge base. This provides a way to retain knowledge that otherwise may be lost. Artificial Intelligence Methodology can provide an automated construction management decision support system, thereby restoring the manager's emphasis to project management

  15. Artificial intelligence in cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonderman, Diana

    2017-12-01

    Decision-making is complex in modern medicine and should ideally be based on available data, structured knowledge and proper interpretation in the context of an individual patient. Automated algorithms, also termed artificial intelligence that are able to extract meaningful patterns from data collections and build decisions upon identified patterns may be useful assistants in clinical decision-making processes. In this article, artificial intelligence-based studies in clinical cardiology are reviewed. The text also touches on the ethical issues and speculates on the future roles of automated algorithms versus clinicians in cardiology and medicine in general.

  16. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...... made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  17. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2003-01-01

    As the power of Bayesian techniques has become more fully realized, the field of artificial intelligence has embraced Bayesian methodology and integrated it to the point where an introduction to Bayesian techniques is now a core course in many computer science programs. Unlike other books on the subject, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence keeps mathematical detail to a minimum and covers a broad range of topics. The authors integrate all of Bayesian net technology and learning Bayesian net technology and apply them both to knowledge engineering. They emphasize understanding and intuition but also provide the algorithms and technical background needed for applications. Software, exercises, and solutions are available on the authors' website.

  18. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction......Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...

  19. Preserving Employee Privacy in Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Paul E

    2017-07-01

    The proposed "Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act" states that the collection of information about the manifested disease or disorder of a family member shall not be considered an unlawful acquisition of genetic information. The bill recognizes employee privacy protections that are already in place and includes specific language relating to nondiscrimination based on illness. Why did legislation expressly intending to "preserve wellness programs" generate such antipathy about wellness among journalists? This article argues that those who are committed to preserving employee wellness must be equally committed to preserving employee privacy. Related to this, we should better parse between discussions and rules about commonplace health screenings versus much less common genetic testing.

  20. Impacts of Artificial Reefs and Diving Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Jakšić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are currently endangered throughout the world. One of the main activities responsible for this is scuba-diving. Scuba-diving on coral reefs was not problematic in the begging, but due to popularization of the new sport, more and more tourists desired to participate in the activity. Mass tourism, direct contact of the tourists with the coral reefs and unprofessional behavior underwater has a negative effect on the coral reefs. The conflict between nature preservation and economy benefits related to scuba-diving tourism resulted in the creation of artificial reefs, used both to promote marine life and as tourists attractions, thereby taking the pressure off the natural coral reefs. Ships, vehicles and other large structures can be found on the coastal sea floor in North America, Australia, Japan and Europe. The concept of artificial reefs as a scuba-diving attraction was developed in Florida. The main goal was to promote aquaculture, with the popularization of scuba-diving attractions being a secondary effect. The aim of this paper is to determine the effects of artificial reefs on scuba-diving tourism, while taking into account the questionnaire carried out among 18 divers