WorldWideScience

Sample records for food preservative potential

  1. Irradiation's potential for preserving food

    Morrison, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The first experimental studies on the use of ionizing radiation for the preservation of foods were published over thirty years ago (1, 2) . After a period of high expectations and perhaps exaggerated optimism a series of disappointments occurred in the late '60s .The first company specifically created to operate a food irradiation plant, Newfield Products Inc, ran into financial difficulties and had to close its potato irradiation facility in 1966. The irradiator, designed to process 15,000t of potatoes per month for inhibition of sprouting, was in operation during one season only. In 1968 the US Food an Drug Administration refused approval for radiation-sterilisation of ham and withdrew the approval it had granted in 1963 for irradiated bacon. An International Project on the Irradiation of Fruit and Fruit juices, created in 1965 at Seibersdorf, Austria, with the collaboration or 9 countries, ended with general disappointment after three years. The first commercial grain irradiator, built in the Turkish harbour town of Iskenderun by the International Atomic Energy Agency with funds from the United Nations Development Program, never received the necessary operating licence from the Turkish Government and had to be dismantled in 1968. The US Atomic Energy Commission terminated its financial support to all research programmes on food irradiation in 1970. For a number of years, little chance seemed to remain that the new process would ever be practically used. However, research and development work was continued in a number of laboratories all over the world, and it appears that the temporary setbacks now have been overcome. Growing quantities of irradiated foods are being marketed in several countries and indications are that irradiated foods will eventually be as generally accepted as are frozen, dried or heatsterilised foods

  2. The potential of food preservation to reduce food waste.

    Martindale, Wayne

    2017-02-01

    While we state it seems unthinkable to throw away nearly a third of the food we produce, we still continue to overlook that we are all very much part of this problem because we all consume meals. The amount of food wasted clearly has an impact on our view of what we think a sustainable meal is and our research suggests food waste is a universal function that can help us determine the sustainability of diets. Achieving sustainability in food systems depends on the utilisation of both culinary skills and knowledge of how foods make meals. These are overlooked by the current food waste debate that is concerned with communicating the problem with food waste rather than solutions to it. We aim to change this oversight with the research presented here that demonstrates the need to consider the role of food preservation to reduce food waste and the requirement for new marketing terms associated with sustainability actions that can be used to stimulate changes in consumption behaviours. We have chosen frozen food to demonstrate this because our research has shown that the use of frozen foods results in 47 % less household food waste than fresh food categories. This has created a step-change in how we view food consumption and has stimulated consumer movements that act across different products and supply chains to enable the consumption of the sustainable meal.

  3. The potential of food preservation to reduce food waste

    Martindale, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    While we state it seems unthinkable to throw away nearly a third of the food we produce, we still continue to overlook that we are all very much part of this problem because we all consume meals. The amount of food wasted clearly has an impact on our view of what we think a sustainable meal is and our research suggests food waste is a universal function that can help us determine the sustainability of diets. Achieving sustainability in food systems depends on the utilisation of both culinary ...

  4. The Antibacterial Potential of Fermented Taro and Its Development as a Food Preservative

    Muller, Wayne

    2002-01-01

    ...: The antibacterial potential of the fermented taro and its development as a food preservative. In an attempt to understand the natural fermentation of taro to poi, bacteria have been isolated from freeze dried poi produced in Hawaii...

  5. Food preservation by irradiation

    Kooij, J. van

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-five years of development work on the preservation of food by irradiation have shown that this technology has the potential to reduce post-harvest losses and to produce safe foods. The technological feasibility has been established but general acceptance of food irradiation by national regulatory bodies and consumers requires attention. The positive aspects of food preservation by irradiation include: the food keeps its freshness and its physical state, agents which cause spoilage (bacteria, etc.) are eliminated, recontamination does not take place, provided packaging materials are impermeable to bacteria and insects. It inhibits sprouting of root crops, kills insects and parasites, inactivates bacteria, spores and moulds, delays ripening of fruit, improves the technological properties of food. It makes foods biologically safe, allows the production of shelf-stable foods and is excellent for quarantine treatment, and generally improves food hygiene. The dose ranges needed for effective treatment are given

  6. Eucalyptus essential oil as a natural food preservative: in vivo and in vitro antiyeast potential.

    Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Bukvicki, Danka; Gottardi, Davide; Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Malik, Anushree; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the application of eucalyptus essential oil/vapour as beverages preservative is reported. The chemical composition of eucalyptus oil was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and solid phase microextraction GC-MS (SPME/GC-MS) analyses. GC-MS revealed that the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (80.5%), limonene (6.5%), α-pinene (5%), and γ-terpinene (2.9%) while SPME/GC-MS showed a relative reduction of 1,8-cineole (63.9%) and an increase of limonene (13.8%), α-pinene (8.87%), and γ-terpinene (3.98%). Antimicrobial potential of essential oil was initially determined in vitro against 8 different food spoilage yeasts by disc diffusion, disc volatilization, and microdilution method. The activity of eucalyptus vapours was significantly higher than the eucalyptus oil. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) varied from 0.56 to 4.50 mg/mL and from 1.13 to 9 mg/mL, respectively. Subsequently, the combined efficacy of essential oil and thermal treatment were used to evaluate the preservation of a mixed fruit juice in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest eucalyptus oil as a potent inhibitor of food spoilage yeasts not only in vitro but also in a real food system. Currently, this is the first report that uses eucalyptus essential oil for fruit juice preservation against food spoiling yeast.

  7. Food preservation by irradiation

    Labots, H.; Huis in 't Veld, G.J.P.; Verrips, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    After a review of several methods for the preservation of food and the routes of food infections, the following chapters are devoted to the preservation by irradiation. Applications and legal aspects of food irradiation are described. Special reference is made to the international situation. (Auth.)

  8. Report: Potential of nano-emulsions as phytochemical delivery system for food preservation.

    Mahmood, Zaffar; Jahangir, Muhammad; Liaquat, Muhammad; Shah, Syed Wasim Ahmad; Khan, Muhammad Mumtaz; Stanley, Roger; D'Arcy, Bruce

    2017-11-01

    Nature is a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals. These plant based compounds have rich scope as antioxidants, antimicrobial compounds and food preservatives and so for long time to be used in meat, fruits, vegetables and processed food items, either as added preservative or as coating material in various food applications, but the major limitation is their limited solubility in a food grade medium. Nano-emulsion is a best choice as a medium having vast area of application. The major advantage of nano-emulsion would be the solubility of a vast group of compounds, due to the presence of water and lipid phases. In this way, nano-emulsions can be proved to be the most suitable candidate as phytochemical delivery system for food preservation. In present article, the use of phytochemicals as potent food preservatives has been reviewed, in context of solubility of phytochemicals in nano-emulsion and applications of food grade nano-emulsions to food systems.

  9. Food preservative potential of essential oils and fractions from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris against mycotoxigenic fungi

    Nguefack, J.; Dongmo, J. B. Lekagne; Dakole, C. D.

    2009-01-01

    The food preservative potential of essential oils from three aromatic plants Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris and their fractions was investigated against two mycotoxigenic strains each of Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium expansum and P. verrucosum. The fungicidal...

  10. Eucalyptus Essential Oil as a Natural Food Preservative: In Vivo and In Vitro Antiyeast Potential

    Bukvicki, Danka; Gottardi, Davide; Malik, Anushree; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the application of eucalyptus essential oil/vapour as beverages preservative is reported. The chemical composition of eucalyptus oil was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and solid phase microextraction GC-MS (SPME/GC-MS) analyses. GC-MS revealed that the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (80.5%), limonene (6.5%), α-pinene (5%), and γ-terpinene (2.9%) while SPME/GC-MS showed a relative reduction of 1,8-cineole (63.9%) and an increase of limonene (13.8%), α-pinene (8.87%), and γ-terpinene (3.98%). Antimicrobial potential of essential oil was initially determined in vitro against 8 different food spoilage yeasts by disc diffusion, disc volatilization, and microdilution method. The activity of eucalyptus vapours was significantly higher than the eucalyptus oil. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) varied from 0.56 to 4.50 mg/mL and from 1.13 to 9 mg/mL, respectively. Subsequently, the combined efficacy of essential oil and thermal treatment were used to evaluate the preservation of a mixed fruit juice in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest eucalyptus oil as a potent inhibitor of food spoilage yeasts not only in vitro but also in a real food system. Currently, this is the first report that uses eucalyptus essential oil for fruit juice preservation against food spoiling yeast. PMID:25177704

  11. Eucalyptus Essential Oil as a Natural Food Preservative: In Vivo and In Vitro Antiyeast Potential

    Amit Kumar Tyagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the application of eucalyptus essential oil/vapour as beverages preservative is reported. The chemical composition of eucalyptus oil was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and solid phase microextraction GC-MS (SPME/GC-MS analyses. GC-MS revealed that the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (80.5%, limonene (6.5%, α-pinene (5%, and γ-terpinene (2.9% while SPME/GC-MS showed a relative reduction of 1,8-cineole (63.9% and an increase of limonene (13.8%, α-pinene (8.87%, and γ-terpinene (3.98%. Antimicrobial potential of essential oil was initially determined in vitro against 8 different food spoilage yeasts by disc diffusion, disc volatilization, and microdilution method. The activity of eucalyptus vapours was significantly higher than the eucalyptus oil. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC varied from 0.56 to 4.50 mg/mL and from 1.13 to 9 mg/mL, respectively. Subsequently, the combined efficacy of essential oil and thermal treatment were used to evaluate the preservation of a mixed fruit juice in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest eucalyptus oil as a potent inhibitor of food spoilage yeasts not only in vitro but also in a real food system. Currently, this is the first report that uses eucalyptus essential oil for fruit juice preservation against food spoiling yeast.

  12. Food preservation by irradiation

    Oztasiran, I.

    1984-01-01

    Irradiation is a physical process for treating food and as such it is comparable to other processing techniques such as heating or freezing foods for preservation. The energy level used in food irradiation is always below that producing radioactivity in the treated food, hence this aspect can be totally excluded in wholesomeness evaluations. Water is readily ionized and may be the primary source of ionization in foods with secondary effects on other molecules, possibly more a result of water ionization than of direct hits. In the presence of oxygen, highly reactive compounds may be produced, such as H, H 3 0+ and H 2 O 2 . Radiation at the energy flux levels used for food (<2 MeV) does not induce radioactivity. Food irradiation applications are already technically and economically feasible and that food so treated is suitable for consumption. Food irradiation techniques can play an important role for an improved preservation, storage and distribution of food products. (author)

  13. Preserving food with radiation

    Thomas, A.C

    1978-01-01

    Food irradiation is becoming an increasingly more important method of food preservataion. The irradiation process and its advangages are briefly described, and its use in the preservation of poultry and various kinds of fruits is discussed. Fruit export is hampered by restrictions due to infestation. Radiation disinfestation will therefore be of great advantage and may lead to a growth in export markets

  14. ULTRAVIOLET TECHNOLOGY FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    Guedes, AMM; Novello, D; Mendes, GMD; Cristianini, M

    2009-01-01

    ULTRAVIOLET TECHNOLOGY FOR FOOD PRESERVATION This literature review article had as objective to gather information about ultraviolet (UV) technology utilization on the food industry, its effects and potential application. Aspects as the origin, concept and applications of the technology on the equipment industry and running mechanisms were approached. The application of UV radiation on food decontamination is still little used due its low penetration, but it is known that it can be easily app...

  15. Potential use of Rosemary, Propolis and Thyme as Natural Food Preservatives

    Tzima, K.; Makris, D.; Nikiforidis, C.V.; Mourtzinos, I.

    2015-01-01

    The use of preservatives in food stuffs and beverages is essential in order to prevent spoilage due to microbial growth or undesirable chemical changes. However, the use of synthetic additives has been associated with various health problems. Therefore, consumers have turned suspicious and obverted

  16. Food preservation by irradiation

    Gottschalk, M.

    1978-01-01

    In November, 1977, an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation was held at Wageningen, the Netherlands. About 200 participants attended the Symposium which was organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization; a reflection of the active interest which is being shown in food irradiation processing, particularly among developing countries. The 75 papers presented provided an excellent review of the current status of food irradiation on a wide range of different topics, and the Symposium also afforded the valuable opportunity for informal discussion among the participants and for developing personal contacts. A brief survey of the salient aspects discussed during the course of the meeting are reported on. (orig.) [de

  17. How to preserve foods

    Balek, V.; Vadassova, J.

    1979-01-01

    The use of gamma and fast electron radiations for food preservation is described. Examples are given of the application of ionizing radiation for retarding potato germination, onion growth, and fruit ripening, for limiting the action of microorganisms, and removing salmonella from meat products. The method has remarkable prospects although it may not be considered to be a general-purpose method. Geographic and economic conditions should always be taken into consideration. (J.P.)

  18. Mechanism of bacterial inactivation by (+-limonene and its potential use in food preservation combined processes.

    Laura Espina

    Full Text Available This work explores the bactericidal effect of (+-limonene, the major constituent of citrus fruits' essential oils, against E. coli. The degree of E. coli BJ4 inactivation achieved by (+-limonene was influenced by the pH of the treatment medium, being more bactericidal at pH 4.0 than at pH 7.0. Deletion of rpoS and exposure to a sub-lethal heat or an acid shock did not modify E. coli BJ4 resistance to (+-limonene. However, exposure to a sub-lethal cold shock decreased its resistance to (+-limonene. Although no sub-lethal injury was detected in the cell envelopes after exposure to (+-limonene by the selective-plating technique, the uptake of propidium iodide by inactivated E. coli BJ4 cells pointed out these structures as important targets in the mechanism of action. Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared Microspectroscopy (ATR-IRMS allowed identification of altered E. coli BJ4 structures after (+-limonene treatments as a function of the treatment pH: β-sheet proteins at pH 4.0 and phosphodiester bonds at pH 7.0. The increased sensitivity to (+-limonene observed at pH 4.0 in an E. coli MC4100 lptD4213 mutant with an increased outer membrane permeability along with the identification of altered β-sheet proteins by ATR-IRMS indicated the importance of this structure in the mechanism of action of (+-limonene. The study of mechanism of inactivation by (+-limonene led to the design of a synergistic combined process with heat for the inactivation of the pathogen E. coli O157:H7 in fruit juices. These results show the potential of (+-limonene in food preservation, either acting alone or in combination with lethal heat treatments.

  19. Mechanism of Bacterial Inactivation by (+)-Limonene and Its Potential Use in Food Preservation Combined Processes

    Espina, Laura; Gelaw, Tilahun K.; de Lamo-Castellví, Sílvia; Pagán, Rafael; García-Gonzalo, Diego

    2013-01-01

    This work explores the bactericidal effect of (+)-limonene, the major constituent of citrus fruits' essential oils, against E. coli. The degree of E. coli BJ4 inactivation achieved by (+)-limonene was influenced by the pH of the treatment medium, being more bactericidal at pH 4.0 than at pH 7.0. Deletion of rpoS and exposure to a sub-lethal heat or an acid shock did not modify E. coli BJ4 resistance to (+)-limonene. However, exposure to a sub-lethal cold shock decreased its resistance to (+)-limonene. Although no sub-lethal injury was detected in the cell envelopes after exposure to (+)-limonene by the selective-plating technique, the uptake of propidium iodide by inactivated E. coli BJ4 cells pointed out these structures as important targets in the mechanism of action. Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared Microspectroscopy (ATR-IRMS) allowed identification of altered E. coli BJ4 structures after (+)-limonene treatments as a function of the treatment pH: β-sheet proteins at pH 4.0 and phosphodiester bonds at pH 7.0. The increased sensitivity to (+)-limonene observed at pH 4.0 in an E. coli MC4100 lptD4213 mutant with an increased outer membrane permeability along with the identification of altered β-sheet proteins by ATR-IRMS indicated the importance of this structure in the mechanism of action of (+)-limonene. The study of mechanism of inactivation by (+)-limonene led to the design of a synergistic combined process with heat for the inactivation of the pathogen E. coli O157:H7 in fruit juices. These results show the potential of (+)-limonene in food preservation, either acting alone or in combination with lethal heat treatments. PMID:23424676

  20. Food preservation by irradiation

    NONE

    1978-02-15

    As shortages of food and energy still continue to constitute the major threats to the well-being of the human race, all actions aiming at overcoming these problems must be assigned vital importance. Of the two complementary ways of solving the food problem (i.e., increasing the production of food and decreasing the spoilage of food) a novel method designed to contribute to the latter purpose has been discussed at this symposium hosted by The Netherlands and held under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization. Progress made since the last symposium of this kind (Bombay, India, 1972) was reviewed from the technological, economic and wholesomeness points of view by participants from 39 countries (60% of the latter were of the developing world). From the reports presented on the use of radiations to control physiological changes in plants, feasibility of radiation preservation of potatoes, onions, garlic, as well as of some tropical and subtropical fruits (mangoes, papayas, litchis and avocado) was confirmed. For potatoes, onions and mangoes, optimal conditions of treatment and storage were established on a larger scale, combined with sizeable consumer trials. Combinations of ionizing radiation with chemicals (salycilic acid, for potatoes), and physical agents (ultraviolet rays, for papayas) have been reported to be successful against the incidence of rot. A considerable number of papers dealt with the control of microbiological spoilage of foods. Work since 1972 has shown that radurization of fruits and vegetables (bananas, mangoes, dried dates, endive, chickory, onions, soup-greens), meat, poultry, marine products (mackerel, cod and plaice fillets, shrimps), decontamination of food ingredients and food technology aids (enzyme preparations, proteins, starch, spices), radappertization of meat and animal feedstuffs as well as combination treatments with salt, heat

  1. Food preservation by irradiation

    1978-01-01

    As shortages of food and energy still continue to constitute the major threats to the well-being of the human race, all actions aiming at overcoming these problems must be assigned vital importance. Of the two complementary ways of solving the food problem (i.e., increasing the production of food and decreasing the spoilage of food) a novel method designed to contribute to the latter purpose has been discussed at this symposium hosted by The Netherlands and held under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization. Progress made since the last symposium of this kind (Bombay, India, 1972) was reviewed from the technological, economic and wholesomeness points of view by participants from 39 countries (60% of the latter were of the developing world). From the reports presented on the use of radiations to control physiological changes in plants, feasibility of radiation preservation of potatoes, onions, garlic, as well as of some tropical and subtropical fruits (mangoes, papayas, litchis and avocado) was confirmed. For potatoes, onions and mangoes, optimal conditions of treatment and storage were established on a larger scale, combined with sizeable consumer trials. Combinations of ionizing radiation with chemicals (salycilic acid, for potatoes), and physical agents (ultraviolet rays, for papayas) have been reported to be successful against the incidence of rot. A considerable number of papers dealt with the control of microbiological spoilage of foods. Work since 1972 has shown that radurization of fruits and vegetables (bananas, mangoes, dried dates, endive, chickory, onions, soup-greens), meat, poultry, marine products (mackerel, cod and plaice fillets, shrimps), decontamination of food ingredients and food technology aids (enzyme preparations, proteins, starch, spices), radappertization of meat and animal feedstuffs as well as combination treatments with salt, heat

  2. Preservation of food products by irradiation

    McGivney, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    The use of irradiation to preserve food has the potential to significantly enhance our capacity to maximize the quality and quantity of the food we consume. In a world in which distribution of food occurs across continents and in which malnourished populations are in dire need of basic food products, any safe, effective, and efficient means of preserving food is more than welcome. Irradiation, as a method for food preservation, has been studied for more than 30 years. This discussion focuses on this most recent method for the preservation of food with particular emphasis on its effects on the safety, nutritive, and aesthetic values of the food preserved by irradiation. The use of ionizing radiation as a method to preserve foods is one that has been demonstrated to be effective for a variety of food classes. Irradiation offers a means to decontaminate, disinfest, and retard the spoilage of the food supply. At the same time, it appears that the wholesomeness of these food products is maintained. Nutritive value can be sustained by use of effective doses of radiation. Concerns over the safety of irradiated food are rooted in questions regarding the potential induction of radioactivity, harmful radiolytic products, and pathogenic radiation-resistant or mutant strains of microorganisms. Research findings have allayed concerns over safety. However, more research is necessary to conclusively resolve these safety issues. Food irradiation is a promising technology that has and will contribute to our ability to feed the people of this world. This technology is but one of many available ways to preserve our greatest natural resource, the food supply. Enhancement of the ability to preserve food by irradiation will facilitate the distribution of food from fertile developed regions to the malnourished peoples of underdeveloped countries. 21 references

  3. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  4. Improving food preservation to reduce food waste

    Gronert, Alicja; Bikova, Borislava; Salce, Luca; Nogués, Marc; Batistelli, Patryk; Farid, Yomna

    2014-01-01

    The theme and issue of ‘Improving food preservation to reduce food waste’ is associated with all group members participating in this research project. This topic covers multiple processes including purchasing, preserving, preparing and storing food. The industry of fresh fruits and vegetables is an enormous market, which will not disappear any time soon. Food waste is mostly disregarded as fresh fruits and vegetables are mostly inexpensive. All group members believe that this mindset needs to...

  5. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production:a potential source of botanical food preservative

    Negero Gemeda; Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel; Daniel Asrat; Asfaw Debella

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production.Method: In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species.Results: Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5 336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations.Conclusions:In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi.

  6. A revolution in food preservation

    1986-01-01

    A brief consumer guide to food irradiation is presented. Aspects covered include some of the advantages of food irradiation compared to other methods of food preservation, the type of radiation used, the mechanism of action, some practical applications, safety and future benefits. (UK)

  7. Food preservation by irradiation

    Barrachina, M.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of food irradiation is to extend shelf-life of food commodities by delaying fruit ripening, inhibition of vegetable sprouting, desinfestation of grains and seeds, and in general by controlling microbial or parasitic food-transmitted infections. It was stated by the 1980 Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee that food irradiated up to 10 kGy does not pose any human health or nutritional problems. Following this recommendation, irradiation programmes are being developed at a good pace in several countries. It is hoped that commercial drawbacks now existing, such as psychological apprehension of consumers to radiation-treated products and innovative inertia to changes of the food chain, will be removed through appropriate information schemes and legislative advancement. (author)

  8. Food Preservation by Irradiation (Rev.)

    Urrows, Grace M.

    1968-01-01

    Up to 30% of food harvests are lost in some parts of the world because of animal pests and microorganisms. Nuclear techniques can help reduce and extend the shelf life of these foods. Around 55 countries now have food irradiation programs. The use of radiation is the most recent step in man's attempts to preserve some of his harvest for the lean part of the year.

  9. An evaluation of the potential of combination processes involving heat and irradiation for food preservation

    Shamsuzzaman, K.; Payne, B.; Cole, L.; Goodwin, M.; Borsa, J.

    1989-11-01

    Effects of combined heating and gamma radiation on Clostridium sporogenes spores and Salmonella seftenberg were examined. The order in which irradiation and heat were applied had a profound effect on the survival of the organisms. Heating of C.sporogenes spores at 95 degrees Celsius had very little effect on their sensitivity to subsequent irradiation, but irradiation of the spores at 0 degrees Celsius increased their sensitivity to subsequent heat treatment and thus reduced their heat D 10 values (time required to activate the spores to 10% of their initial number). This radiation-induced heat sensitivity increased with the increase in radiation dose. The Z values (change in temperature required for a tenfold change in D 10 values) of the spores were found to increase with the increase in pre-irradiation dose. Radiation-induced heat sensitivity was found to persist for at least 35 days in spores irradiated in frozen or freeze-dried states in distilled water or in phosphate buffer suspensions, and for at least 14 days in a number of food slurries. In phosphate buffer and nutrient broth suspensions, the radiation-heat synergism decreased with increasing pH of the media from pH 4.7 to pH 7.5. However, the effect of pH on synergism was less pronounced in spores suspended in some food slurries. Preliminary results indicate that pre-irradiation of S. senftenberg at 0.5 kGy did not change the heat sensitivity of this organism at 52 degrees Celsius, but when radiation and heat were applied simultaneously, synergistic inactivation was observed even at 50 degrees Celsius. Practical implications of these results are discussed

  10. Characterization of a noncytotoxic bacteriocin from probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 with potential as a food preservative.

    Das, Deeplina; Goyal, Arun

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to purify and characterize the bacteriocin produced by probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 in order to evaluate its potential as nutraceuticals. Lb. plantarum DM5 exhibited in vitro probiotic properties such as high resistance to gastric juice and bile salt, adherence to human adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells, bile salt hydrolase and cholesterol assimilation activity. Moreover, Lb. plantarum DM5 showed bacteriocin activity against several major food borne pathogens. Zymogram analysis of purified bacteriocin (plantaricin DM5) showed a molecular size of ∼15.2 kDa. Plantaricin DM5 was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes but stable in the pH range of 2.0-10.0, and it was heat resistant (121 °C for 15 min) and remained active upon treatment with surfactants and detergents. Cytotoxicity analysis of plantaricin DM5 on human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) and human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines revealed its nontoxic and biocompatible nature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the isolated strain expressing probiotic properties and broad antimicrobial activity without any cytotoxic effect on mammalian cells from indigenous fermented beverage Marcha from India, and thus contributes to the food industry as a novel bio-preservant.

  11. Preservation of food and radiation

    Kasamatsu, Tomomichi

    1975-01-01

    In the application of radiation to preservation of food, there are some methods; sterilization, elimination of noxious insects, prevention of germination and control of maturation. The former two utilize the lethal effect of radiation to the living things and the latter two utilize the injurious effect on the metabolism of the living things. At present, irradiation to potato is most widely permitted for the purpose of prevention of germination, and the irradiation with 15 Krad (maximum) is allowed to preserve potato for 8 months in Japan. In the other hand, a large quantity of doses, such as 4.5 to 5.6 Mrad, is necessary to sterilize completely for industrial use, degeneration of food component and high cost come into question. In addition, food is directly taken into the mouth of human being, therefore, wholesomeness, legal permission and determination of dose must be examined. (Tsukamoto, Y.)

  12. Potential Applications of the Cyclic Peptide Enterocin AS-48 in the Preservation of Vegetable Foods and Beverages.

    Abriouel, Hikmate; Lucas, Rosario; Omar, Nabil Ben; Valdivia, Eva; Gálvez, Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria. Among them, the enterococcal bacteriocin (enterocin) AS-48 stands for its peculiar characteristics and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. AS-48 belongs to the class of circular bacteriocins and has been studied in depth in several aspects: peptide structure, genetic determinants, and mode of action. Recently, a wealth of knowledge has accumulated on the antibacterial activity of this bacteriocin against foodborne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria in food systems, especially in vegetable foods and drinks. This work provides a general overview on the results from tests carried out with AS-48 in different vegetable food categories (such as fruit juices, ciders, sport and energy drinks, fresh fruits and vegetables, pre-cooked ready to eat foods, canned vegetables, and bakery products). Depending on the food substrate, the bacteriocin has been tested alone or as part of hurdle technology, in combination with physico-chemical treatments (such as mild heat treatments or high-intensity pulsed electric fields) and other antimicrobial substances (such as essential oils, phenolic compounds, and chemical preservatives). Since the work carried out on bacteriocins in preservation of vegetable foods and drinks is much more limited compared to meat and dairy products, the results reported for AS-48 may open new possibilities in the field of bacteriocin applications.

  13. New method of preserving food

    Carrard, G. (Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights)

    1983-07-01

    The use of gamma radiation for food preservation is discussed. Investigations at the AAEC include: the eradication of fruit-fly larvae in oranges, tomatoes and avocadoes; treatment of shrimps; extending the shelf life of mushrooms and potatoes; treatment of imported beans to prevent germination; killing of bacterial spores with a combination of pressure and gamma radiation; and the treatment of beehives containing honey-bee larvae with foulbrood.

  14. New method of preserving food

    Carrard, G.

    1983-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation for food preservation is discussed. Investigations at the AAEC include: the eradication of fruit-fly larvae in oranges, tomatoes and avocadoes; treatment of shrimps; extending the shelf life of mushrooms and potatoes; treatment of imported beans to prevent germination; killing of bacterial spores with a combination of pressure and gamma radiation; and the treatment of beehives containing honey-bee larvae with foulbrood

  15. Radiation preservation of cooked foods

    Aurangzeb; Bibi, N.; Badshah, A.; Khan, I.

    1989-01-01

    The preservation of irradiated cooked food has been explained in this report under vacuum conditions. The samples were irradiated at dose levels of 7.5 and 10.0 LGy. Measurement of fungal count was carried immediately after irradiation and after each 15 days of storage life upto 60 days of time interval. The samples were evaluated organolepticaly as well. It has been observed that no significance difference was observed among samples of irradiated and vacuum packed controls during storage for 45 days. (A.B.)

  16. Radiation in response to food preservation

    Bharti, Navaldey; Ram, R.B.; Gautam, Shreesh Kumar; Kumar, Vikas; Singh, Abhishek

    2012-01-01

    Preservation of food items is a pre-requisite for food security. The seasonal nature of production, perishable nature of food materials (fruits, vegetables and other value added products) and the rising gap between demand and supply have posed great challenges to conventional techniques of food preservation and thereby to food security. Food irradiation, one of the beneficial applications of atomic energy, is an important innovation in food preservation, since the development of canning in the 19th century. It provides an effective alternative to fumigants, which are being phased out owing to their adverse effects on the environment and human health. Moreover, exposure of food material to radiation has strong advantages over conventional methods of preservation such as cold storage, fumigation, salting and drying because it does not lead to loss of taste, texture, flavour, odour etc. or overall quality attributes. Generally, two types of radiations are used i.e., ionizing and non-ionizing. Since radiation does not generate heat, it is termed 'cold sterilization'. Gamma rays, E-beam and X-rays are used for irradiation. Irradiation under approved conditions has been demonstrated to have no dangerous effects on food, either chemical or microbial in nature and does not cause any significant loss of macronutrients. Proteins, fats and carbohydrates undergo little change in nutritional value during irradiation even with doses over 10 kGy, though there may be sensory changes. Similarly, the essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, minerals and trace elements are also unaffected. There can be a decrease in certain vitamins (particularly thiamin) but these are of the same order of magnitude as occurs in other manufacturing processes such as drying/dehydration or canning (thermal sterilization). So, there is urgent need to exploit the benefits of irradiation involve standardization, communication and education. The potential benefits of irradiation technology have been

  17. Food preservation by ionising radiation

    Andrade, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    The process of food preservation by ionising radiation is an alternative, or a complement, to the traditional methods of heating, refrigerating, freezing or using chemical additives. The study and development of this technique has started on the beginning of the fifties but it is based on the radiation killing effect on micro-organisms discovered by the end of last century. Foodstuffs are treated in appropriate plants: isotopic facilities (gamma radiation) and accelerated electron beams produced by machines called accelerators. The FAO and WHO in close cooperation with the IAEA have played an important role on the development of the process and on the increment of the industrial application of food irradiation. Over the world there are about 37 countries trading foods treated by ionising radiation. However, governments have been slow to clear the utilization of this process. The main reason of this attitude is in general due to the fact that the advantages of the technique are not clearly understood. Therefore, the dissemination of the information could on one hand clarify who has to take decisions and on the other hand support the choice of those foods by the consumers. This is the unique way to dynamize the application of this process

  18. SMART PACKAGING FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    Raquel Rodríguez-Sauceda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of the food industry is the preservation of its products, that is, to prevent them from being attacked by microorganisms that decompose them hauling economic losses and severe health damage to the consumer. Today, competition in the food industry is very high and any company that does not offer the quality products is doomed to fail. Consumers demand more and the industry still stands offering what is asked: quality, security and safety. The package, in addition to fulfilling its core functions is becoming a means of sophisticated interactions with content and a record of relevant information for both the end consumer and intermediate players in the value chain and concepts are born of active and intelligent packaging. A smart container is defined as a system that monitors the condition of the packaged product, being able to register and provide information about product quality or condition of the container, showing the possible "abnormal" practices that have suffered the product or the container during the entire supply chain, such as transportation or storage. These systems monitor the mechanisms of altered food due to physiological, chemical and biological processes that respond and communicate changes in the status of the product as time-temperature, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, microbial growth, etc. There are different types of smart packaging such as time-temperature indicators, color indicators, indicators of pathogens and indicators of leaks, to name a few. Through literature review, arguments that demonstrate the usefulness and necessity of the use of smart packaging to preserve the quality and safety of the product it contains, from manufacturing to the time it is used by consumers were found, as these besides communicating or providing information about their state, acting as a marketing tool.

  19. Home Food Preservation Training for Extension Educators

    Goard, Linnette Mizer; Hill, Melinda; Shumaker, Katharine; Warrix, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    During times of economic downturn, there has been an increased interest in home food preservation. As the primary resource for current research-based recommendations, a team of Extension Family and Consumer Sciences educators with specialization in food safety and food preservation responded to this demand by developing a standardized food…

  20. Potato wound-healing tissues: A rich source of natural antioxidant molecules with potential for food preservation.

    Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Wang, Isabel; Stark, Ruth E

    2016-11-01

    The need for safe, effective preservatives is a prominent issue in the food and drug industries, reflecting demand for natural alternatives to synthetic chemicals viewed as harmful to consumers and the environment. Thus, this study determined the identities and scavenging capacities of antioxidant metabolites produced as a response to potato tuber wounding, using activity-guided fractionation of polar extracts from a Yukon Gold cultivar that had previously exhibited exceptionally high radical-scavenging activity. Activity-guided fractionation using the ABTS(+) radical scavenging assay and LC-MS with TOF-MS for compositional analysis of the most potent antioxidant fractions yielded identification of nine constituents: coumaroylputrescine; feruloylquinic acid; isoferuloylputrescine; ferulic acid; 22,25-dimethoxy-3-[[2,3,4-tri-O-methyl-6-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-(3β)-lanost-9(11)-en-24-one; 4-(2Z)-2-decen-1-yl-5-[1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)decyl]-1,2-benzenediol; 8-[(2E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-yl]-5-hydroxy-2,8-dimethyl-6-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-2H-1-benzopyran-4,7(3H,8H)-dione; 3-[(2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-20-[(6-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-dammar-24-en-19-al; (3β)-28-oxo-28-(phenylmethoxy)oleanan-3-yl 2-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-3-O-(phenylmethyl)-, butyl ester β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid. A positive correlation was observed between the scavenging activities and the polarities of the active fractions. The antioxidant capacities of the fractions were also characterised by monitoring the activity throughout a 45-minute assay period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Food irradiation: a question of preservation

    McMurray, C.H.; Patterson, M.F.; Stewart, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    Although it has been around for years, food irradiation has yet to make its mark in the commercial world, but scientific evidence may now be on its side Food poisoning is not a pleasant experience, and severe cases can even be fatal. Stopping your dinner from turning into a gastronomic nightmare calls for good hygiene and careful storage. Unfortunately, food does not stay fresh - bread goes stale, milk goes sour - so finding ways to prevent deterioration and control infection by microorganisms has occupied man for centuries. Controls, such as refrigeration or pasteurisation, have become commonplace, but one technique remains somewhat controversial. Food irradiation - using ionising radiation to preserve food - has been around for over 60 years and can offer a number of potential benefits. Until recently, however, concerns about the safety of this technique have left it languishing in the laboratory. But now, with approvals for use on various foodstuffs in 40 countries, and reports from groups such as the World Health Organization acknowledging it as safe,[1,2] food irradiation may at last be ready to take centre stage

  2. Microbial control and food Preservation: Theory and practice:Principles of food preservation

    Food preservation is an action or method used to maintain foods at certain desirable properties or quality to obtain maximum benefit. A good method of food preservation is one that slows down or prevents altogether the action of the agents of spoilage without damaging the food. To achieve this, cert...

  3. teaching food production and preservation using constructivist

    Global Journal

    teaching methods where students are actively involved in thinking and creating ... KEYWORDS: food production, food preservation Biology, 5Es constructivist model, self-reliance ... shelf live. The world's population is growing every day but food production which is the basic ... life matters so as to be self-reliant citizens of this.

  4. Preserving food the radiation way

    Pim, L.

    1983-01-01

    The food irradiation issue was brought to the public's attention in the summer of 1983 when the Canadian federal government announced proposals to introduce regulations that would speed up the introduction of irradiated food for commercial use and resolve questions about the labelling of such food. The article covers the political forces involved as well as the problems involved in the irradiation process. These problems include chemical toxicity, nutritional quality, bacterial problems and the foods that are unsuitable for irradiation

  5. The impact of food preservation on food waste.

    Martindale, Wayne; Schiebel, Walter

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the relationship between food preservation and reducing consumer waste is of value in developing sustainable meal options. The research reports insights into Austrian marketplace for frozen and fresh foods that have been obtained from a consumer survey. The consumer survey methodologies indicate how preservation can change meal planning and lower food waste across frozen and fresh and ambient food purchases using freezing preservation methods. The results show food waste can be reduced by six-fold when frozen foods are compared with fresh foods. This study highlights the requirement for a greater understanding of the probability that specific foods will be wasted with respect to the frequency of purchase. This is a limitation of the current study that has been investigated by other researchers. This research has enabled the identification of different food waste amounts for different food product categories. The data presented could be used to guide food product development so that less consumer waste is produced. The research suggests a decision matrix approach can be used to can guide new product development and a model of this matrix is presented so that it may provide fit-for-purpose food preservation options for consumers. This paper will continue to highlight the overlooked value of food preservation during processing and manufacturing of foods and their preparation in households.

  6. The radiation preservation of food

    De Wet, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    The article reviews research that is being done in the field of food irradiation, especially in South Africa. The nutrition value and wholesomeness of irradiated food are regarded as very important. A list is given of a number of products that have been approved for irradiation in South Africa, as well as a list of products on which research is still in progress. The consumer acceptability and the market for irradiated food are also dealt with

  7. Effect of Hurdle Technology in Food Preservation: A Review.

    Singh, Shiv; Shalini, Rachana

    2016-01-01

    Hurdle technology is used in industrialized as well as in developing countries for the gentle but effective preservation of foods. Hurdle technology was developed several years ago as a new concept for the production of safe, stable, nutritious, tasty, and economical foods. Previously hurdle technology, i.e., a combination of preservation methods, was used empirically without much knowledge of the governing principles. The intelligent application of hurdle technology has become more prevalent now, because the principles of major preservative factors for foods (e.g., temperature, pH, aw, Eh, competitive flora), and their interactions, became better known. Recently, the influence of food preservation methods on the physiology and behavior of microorganisms in foods, i.e. their homeostasis, metabolic exhaustion, stress reactions, are taken into account, and the novel concept of multi-target food preservation emerged. The present contribution reviews the concept of the potential hurdles for foods, the hurdle effect, and the hurdle technology for the prospects of the future goal of a multi-target preservation of foods.

  8. Radioisotopes and food preservation against insects

    Hachem Ahmad, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    The book describes how to preserve food from harmful insects by using radioisotopes. It focusses on the impact of ionized radiation on the different stages of insect growth and on its metabolism and immunity. It also discusses the relationship between radiation doses and insect reproduction. It explains the various methods to detect the irradiated foods

  9. Irradiation preservation of food in Hungary

    Kiss, I.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the food irradiation activities in Hungary for preservation purposes. A historical background of this technology is given, and the present practice is outlined. Several food species are presently treated with Co-60 gamma-irradiation for their radurization. (R.P.)

  10. New tool in food preservation

    Rainey, Humphrey.

    1982-01-01

    A review of current trends in the processing of food by irradiation is presented. The history and development, techniques and effects of irradiation are outlined. Applications for New Zealand, in the light of overseas experience and facilities available, are discussed

  11. Recent progress in food preservation by irradiation

    Vas, K [Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy)

    1977-01-01

    The possible use of ionizing radiations in food preservation is discussed. It has been recognized that treatment of foods with ionizing radiations not only serves the purpose of stabilizing them in their original state, but may also enhance the hygienic properties of certain foodstuffs. Several examples conerning improvements in food quality and preservation by irradiation in different countries have been reported. The economic viewpoint and the possibilities for use of irradiated products in international trade are discussed. The development of international cooperation in sharing of research results and information and sharing of costs of wholesomeness testing have been pointed out.

  12. Recent progress in food preservation by irradiation

    Vas, K.

    1977-01-01

    The possible use of ionizing radiations in food preservation is discussed. It has been recognized that treatment of foods with ionizing radiations not only serves the purpose of stabilizing them in their original state, but may also enhance the hygienic properties of certain foodstuffs. Several examples conerning improvements in food quality and preservation by irradiation in different countries have been reported. The economic viewpoint and the possibilities for use of irradiated products in international trade are discussed. The development of international cooperation in sharing of research results and information and sharing of costs of wholesomeness testing have been pointed out. (G.C.)

  13. Food preservation using ionizing radiation.

    Andrews, L S; Ahmedna, M; Grodner, R M; Liuzzo, J A; Murano, P S; Murano, E A; Rao, R M; Shane, S; Wilson, P W

    1998-01-01

    Irradiation processing has been researched extensively and is now in use worldwide for many food commodities. Irradiation has been successfully used to reduce pathogenic bacteria, eliminate parasites, decrease postharvest sprouting, and extend the shelf life of fresh perishable foods. Although food irradiation is widely accepted in world food markets, U.S. markets have been slower to accept the idea of irradiated food products. For fruits and vegetables, irradiation is not a cure for shelf life problems; cost and quality problems damage preclude its general use. It appears that the most likely use of irradiation in fruits and vegetables is as an insect control in those commodities for which there is no effective alternative method. For grains such as rice and wheat, irradiation has been used primarily to control insect infestation when insects have been shown to develop resistance to the traditional fumigation methods. Treatment of spices with irradiation doses of 10 kGy has proved to extend shelf life without causing significant changes in sensory or chemical quality. Higher doses that effectively sterilize spices, however, may cause undesirable chemical and sensorial changes. For meat, especially red meat, irradiation is considered a viable alternative in the effort to improve the safety of meat products. With time, the authors believe that economic realities and the technical superiority of irradiation for specific poultry products will lead to public acceptance of the process. Irradiation of seafood products is still being considered for approval by the USFDA, although it is currently used in Asian and European markets, especially for shrimp. It is our belief that scientifically based research in food irradiation and the positive results thereof will also prove economical in the twenty-first century. As we move to a more peaceful world with reduced threat of nuclear holocaust, these valid opinions will prevail and will overshadow the distortions and

  14. Establishment of a world food preservation center

    Wilson Charles L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A World Food Preservation Center (WFPC is proposed in response to a pending civilization-threatening food shortage and our limited ability to adequately increase food production. Some estimates put losses of food in developing countries after it is produced and before it is consumed at 50%. These losses are particularly threatening to individuals and farmers who are living in the midst of food insecurity. Although numerous organizations have attempted to address this problem worldwide, the magnitude of the effort has not come close to the enormity of the problem. Most of these programs are also short-term and require continuous input by postharvest specialists from developed countries in order to be sustainable. A critical need exists for a substantial and sustainable worldwide program that can significantly reduce losses and waste of food in developing countries. The World Food Preservation Center proposed here meets this need by educating young scientists in developing countries about low-input, appropriate technologies for preserving food postharvest. It also conducts research on postharvest technologies especially suited for application in developing countries such as biological control, solar refrigeration, and coordinated transport and marketing schemes that support and sustain the local production of food commodities.

  15. Methods to preserve potentially toxigenic fungi

    Lucas Costa Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are a source of many high-value compounds which are useful to every living being, such as humans, plants and animals. Since the process of isolating and improving a microorganism can be lengthy and expensive, preserving the obtained characteristic is of paramount importance, so the process does not need to be repeated. Fungi are eukaryotic, achlorophyllous, heterotrophic organisms, usually filamentous, absorb their food, can be either macro or microscopic, propagate themselves by means of spores and store glycogen as a source of storage. Fungi, while infesting food, may produce toxic substances such as mycotoxins. The great genetic diversity of the Kingdom Fungi renders the preservation of fungal cultures for many years relevant. Several international reference mycological culture collections are maintained in many countries. The methodologies that are most fit for preserving microorganisms for extended periods are based on lowering the metabolism until it reaches a stage of artificial dormancy . The goal of this study was to analyze three methods for potentially toxigenic fungal conservation (Castellani's, continuous subculture and lyophilization and to identify the best among them.

  16. Bacteriocins as food preservatives: Challenges and emerging horizons.

    Johnson, Eldin Maliyakkal; Jung, Dr Yong-Gyun; Jin, Dr Ying-Yu; Jayabalan, Dr Rasu; Yang, Dr Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo Won

    2017-09-07

    The increasing demand for fresh-like food products and the potential health hazards of chemically preserved and processed food products have led to the advent of alternative technologies for the preservation and maintenance of the freshness of the food products. One such preservation strategy is the usage of bacteriocins or bacteriocins producing starter cultures for the preservation of the intended food matrixes. Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized smaller polypeptide molecules that exert antagonistic activity against closely related and unrelated group of bacteria. This review is aimed at bringing to lime light the various class of bacteriocins mainly from gram positive bacteria. The desirable characteristics of the bacteriocins which earn them a place in food preservation technology, the success story of the same in various food systems, the various challenges and the strategies employed to put them to work efficiently in various food systems has been discussed in this review. From the industrial point of view various aspects like the improvement of the producer strains, downstream processing and purification of the bacteriocins and recent trends in engineered bacteriocins has also been briefly discussed in this review.

  17. Essential Oils: Sources of Antimicrobials and Food Preservatives

    Pandey, Abhay K.; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, Nijendra N.; Bajpai, Vivek K.

    2017-01-01

    Aromatic and medicinal plants produce essential oils in the form of secondary metabolites. These essential oils can be used in diverse applications in food, perfume, and cosmetic industries. The use of essential oils as antimicrobials and food preservative agents is of concern because of several reported side effects of synthetic oils. Essential oils have the potential to be used as a food preservative for cereals, grains, pulses, fruits, and vegetables. In this review, we briefly describe the results in relevant literature and summarize the uses of essential oils with special emphasis on their antibacterial, bactericidal, antifungal, fungicidal, and food preservative properties. Essential oils have pronounced antimicrobial and food preservative properties because they consist of a variety of active constituents (e.g., terpenes, terpenoids, carotenoids, coumarins, curcumins) that have great significance in the food industry. Thus, the various properties of essential oils offer the possibility of using natural, safe, eco-friendly, cost-effective, renewable, and easily biodegradable antimicrobials for food commodity preservation in the near future. PMID:28138324

  18. Use of nuclear energy to preserve man's food

    Zeeuw, Dick de

    1976-01-01

    Food irradiation is one of these existing technologies. It is a physical method that can be used to preserve food from microbial and insect damage and infection, as well as from physiological deterioration. In other words, this method can extend the storage life of food considerably without noticeable change of the properties of the food commodity. The impact of food irradiation can be very great especially because of its contribution to the hygienization of food. Irradiation eliminates pathogens like Salmonella and other enterobacteria and replaces potential dangerous chemicals like ethylene oxide, methylbromide, maleic hydrazide. Furthermore, irradiation is a very low energy process compared with heating, freezing etc., and saves energy by reducing the frequency of food-transports. To save on energy is becoming very important. Over the past two decades, with our cheap energy and low-cost food economy, there was little impetus to push ahead with low energy processing such as food irradiation

  19. Technology of food preservation by irradiation

    Thomas, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai has demonstrated that radiation processing of foods can contribute to nations food security by reducing post-harvest losses caused by insect infestation, microbial-spoilage and physiological changes. The technology has commercial potential for the conservation of cereals, pulses and their products, spices, onions, potatoes, garlic, some tropical fruits, sea foods, meat and poultry. Irradiation can ensure hygienic quality in foods including frozen foods by eliminating food borne pathogens and parasitic organisms. It offers a viable environment friendly alternative to chemical fumigants for quarantine treatment against insect pests in agricultural and horticultural products entering international trade. The safety and nutritional adequacy of irradiated foods for human consumption is well established. About 40 countries including India have regulations permitting irradiation of foods and 28 countries are irradiating foods for processing industries and institutional catering

  20. Beneficial Effects of Spices in Food Preservation and Safety

    Gottardi, Davide; Bukvicki, Danka; Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit K.

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been used since ancient times. Although they have been employed mainly as flavoring and coloring agents, their role in food safety and preservation have also been studied in vitro and in vivo. Spices have exhibited numerous health benefits in preventing and treating a wide variety of diseases such as cancer, aging, metabolic, neurological, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the most relevant and recent findings on spices and their active compounds in terms of targets and mode of action; in particular, their potential use in food preservation and enhancement of shelf life as a natural bioingredient. PMID:27708620

  1. Irradiation technique useful in food preservation

    Jayaprakas, C.A.; Palaniswarmi, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    Application of innovative technologies to promote the production of food is indispensable to meet the demand of emerging populations. It is equally important to protect the stored products from the invasion of pests and diseases. Indiscriminate use of insecticides has now been highly discouraged, as it causes health and environmental hazards. In causes health and environmental hazards. In this juncture, an alternate method to curb the menace of pests and diseases is imperative. Irradiation technique, a gift of nuclear physics, which has been identified as an eco-friendly method to preserve food materials for long term, is now been getting wider acceptance

  2. Functional Dehydrated Foods for Health Preservation

    R. M. S. C. Morais

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The market of functional foods has experienced a huge growth in the last decades due to the increased consumers’ awareness in a healthy lifestyle. Dried fruits constitute good snacks, in alternative to salty or sweet ones, and food ingredients due to their taste and nutritional/health benefits. Bioactive molecules are interesting sources to develop functional foods, as they play a major role in improving the health status and minimizing disease risks. The bioactive compounds most widely discussed in literature are presented in this review, for example, polyphenols, phytosterols, and prebiotics. Different technologies to dry bioproducts for producing functional foods or ingredients are presented. New drying techniques for the preservation of bioactive compounds are proposed, focusing more specifically on dielectric drying. A discussion on the techniques that can be used to optimize drying processes is performed. An overview on dehydrated plant based foods with probiotics is provided. The microorganisms used, impregnation procedures, drying methods, and evaluated parameters are presented and discussed. The principal bioactive compounds responsible for nutritional and health benefits of plant derived dried food products—fruits and vegetables, fruits and vegetables by-products, grains, nuts, and algae—are presented. Phytochemical losses occurring during pretreatments and/or drying processes are also discussed.

  3. Numerical Simulation of Non-Thermal Food Preservation

    Rauh, C.; Krauss, J.; Ertunc, Ö.; Delgado, a.

    2010-09-01

    Food preservation is an important process step in food technology regarding product safety and product quality. Novel preservation techniques are currently developed, that aim at improved sensory and nutritional value but comparable safety than in conventional thermal preservation techniques. These novel non-thermal food preservation techniques are based for example on high pressures up to one GPa or pulsed electric fields. in literature studies the high potential of high pressures (HP) and of pulsed electric fields (PEF) is shown due to their high retention of valuable food components as vitamins and flavour and selective inactivation of spoiling enzymes and microorganisms. for the design of preservation processes based on the non-thermal techniques it is crucial to predict the effect of high pressure and pulsed electric fields on the food components and on the spoiling enzymes and microorganisms locally and time-dependent in the treated product. Homogenous process conditions (especially of temperature fields in HP and PEF processing and of electric fields in PEF) are aimed at to avoid the need of over-processing and the connected quality loss and to minimize safety risks due to under-processing. the present contribution presents numerical simulations of thermofluiddynamical phenomena inside of high pressure autoclaves and pulsed electric field treatment chambers. in PEF processing additionally the electric fields are considered. Implementing kinetics of occurring (bio-) chemical reactions in the numerical simulations of the temperature, flow and electric fields enables the evaluation of the process homogeneity and efficiency connected to different process parameters of the preservation techniques. Suggestions to achieve safe and high quality products are concluded out of the numerical results.

  4. The Use of Plant Antimicrobial Compounds for Food Preservation

    Hintz, Tana; Matthews, Karl K.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne disease is a global issue with significant impact on human health. With the growing consumer demand for natural preservatives to replace chemical compounds, plant antimicrobial compounds must be thoroughly investigated for their potential to serve as biopreservatives. This review paper will focus on the plant-derived products as antimicrobial agents for use in food preservation and to control foodborne pathogens in foods. Structure, modes of action, stability, and resistance to these plant compounds will be discussed as well as their application in food industries and possible technologies by which they can be delivered. Benefits as well as challenges, such as the need for further research for implementation and governmental regulation, will be highlighted. PMID:26539472

  5. Natural antioxidant extracts as food preservatives.

    Santos-Sánchez, Norma F; Salas-Coronado, Raúl; Valadez-Blanco, Rogelio; Hernández-Carlos, Beatriz; Guadarrama-Mendoza, Paula C

    2017-01-01

    The food industry is becoming more specialized and processing methods are continuously being developed to meet consumer needs. Consumers demand products that are safe and preferably free of synthetic additives. These additives are associated with health effects, in most cases without reasonable justification. Consequently, consumers are looking for clearly labelled products that guarantee the absence of synthetic additives. This has led to the need to search for natural additives, which the food industry claims arenatural antioxidant preservatives. The sources of natural antioxidants can be extremely varied, because practically all plants contain antioxidants that allow them to protect themselves from solar radiation and pests, as well as to regulate the production of chemical energy. However, the best alternatives for the food industry are fruits and spices, because they are already foods themselves. This article will describe fruits and spices considered as important sources of phenolic antioxidants. The main medicinal properties are related to phenolic compounds and their uses as additives, depending on their chemical structure.

  6. Food Preservation by Irradiation. Vol. II. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation

    1978-01-01

    In the task of alleviating the distress caused by the world-wide food shortage it is essential to preserve what has been grown and harvested in the fields. Clearly all suitable methods for preserving agricultural produce and food should be made use of. In this context treatment with ionizing radiation has proved its value as an environmentally clean, physical method of food preservation which is low in its energy requirement, but the volume of food being processed in this way is still low. The introduction of food irradiation on a global basis poses certain economic, legal, regulatory and health-related questions, the solution of which requires close international collaboration. Such collaboration between many international, intergovernmental and national organizations began over a decade ago. The need for dissemination and discussion of information gained through research and development work on this subject became apparent, and a number of inter-regional meetings were held. The last international symposium on the topic was held jointly by FAO and the IAEA in 1972 in Bombay. To review progress made since then, FAO and the IAEA, together with WHO, convened the present Symposium on 21-25 November 1977. It appeared timely to hold this Symposium for the following reasons: (1) Apart from significant scientific work reported in the literature, progress in other directions between 1972 and 1977 had also been made. For example, the number of food items authorized by governments, with or without restriction, had grown from 19 to 26, and the number of countries accepting one or more irradiated foods for human consumption had increased from 11 to 19. (2) Largely on the basis of the work of the International Project in the Field of Food Irradiation (Karlsruhe), already described at the Bombay Symposium, an international expert committee, jointly convened by FAO, the IAEA and WHO in August-September 1976, had made important statements on the philosophy of wholesomeness studies

  7. Food Preservation by Irradiation. Vol. I. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation

    1978-01-01

    In the task of alleviating the distress caused by the world-wide food shortage it is essential to preserve what has been grown and harvested in the fields. Clearly all suitable methods for preserving agricultural produce and food should be made use of. In this context treatment with ionizing radiation has proved its value as an environmentally clean, physical method o f food preservation which is low in its energy requirement, but the volume of food being processed in this way is still low. The introduction o f food irradiation on a global basis poses certain economic, legal, regulatory and health-related questions, the solution o f which requires close international collaboration. Such collaboration between many international, intergovernmental and national organizations began over a decade ago. The need for dissemination and discussion o f information gained through research and development work on this subject became apparent, and a number of inter-regional meetings were held. The last international symposium on the topic was held jointly by FAO and the IAEA in 1972 in Bombay. To review progress made since then, FAO and the IAEA, together with WHO, convened the present Symposium on 21-25 November 1977. It appeared timely to hold this Symposium for the following reasons: (1) Apart from significant scientific work reported in the literature, progress in other directions between 1972 and 1977 had also been made. For example, the number of food items authorized by governments, with or without restriction, had grown from 19 to 26, and the number of countries accepting one or more irradiated foods for human consumption had increased from 11 to 19. (2) Largely on the basis of the work of the International Project in the Field of Food Irradiation (Karlsruhe), already described at the Bombay Symposium, an international expert committee, jointly convened by FAO, the IAEA and WHO in August-September 1976, had made important statements on the philosophy of wholesomeness

  8. Food preservation and security at household level in rural Nsukka ...

    In Nigeria, food insecurity at the household level can partly be attributed to poor preservation of post-harvest surpluses. This study sought to demonstrate a relationship (if any) between preservation of post harvest surpluses and food security at rural household level. Eha-Alumona and Opi-Uno, in Nsukka, Enugu State were ...

  9. Influence of volatile compounds and food preservatives in the ...

    ... suppress fumonisisin B1 production to maximum extent. Camphor at a concentration of 15 mg/ml could inhibit fumonisin B1 production among different food preservatives studied. From the above results it is concluded that volatile compounds and food preservatives can be employed in the management of fumonisins (B1) ...

  10. Utilization of irradiation on food preservation

    Cho, Han Ok; Byun, Myung Woo; Kwon, Joong Ho; Kim, Suk Won; Yang, Jae Sung; Cha, Bo Sook; Park, Ki Bum

    1987-12-01

    The present project was intended to ascertain the efficacy of irradiation both in the decontamination and storeability of mixed condiments for convenience food and in the long-term preservation of a Kimchi. Based upon the preliminary studies, irradiated sample with doses at 1-3 kGy were evaluated during the storage for 30 days at 10 deg C from the points of view of microbiological (total aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds, and coliforms), physicochemical (pH, total acidity, volatile acid, reducing sugar, ascorbic acid, and texture) and organoleptic qualities. Besides, the combined effect of irradiation with heating on the storeability was investigated for five species of the lactic acid bacteria associated with the Kimchi fermentation. Under the room temperature storage conditions, physicochemical qualities of the irradiated samples were evaluated by determining pH, rancidity (TBA number), proximate composition, amino nitrogen, amino acid, and color changes. In the overall evaluation of sensory quality for the irradiated Kimchi, the nonirradiated control group was inedible after 15 days of storage, whereas 2-3 kGy irradiation could prolong the storage-life of the Kimchi over 2 times compared with the nonirradiated control, showing the good sensory quality even after 30 days of storage. In comparative effects of irradiation and ethylene oxide both treatments affected more or less rancidity, color, and amino acid content, but less than 10 kGy irradiation was shown to be safer than ethylene oxide fumigation. Form the foregoing results, it can be concluded that if a selective method could be applied to the radiation sterilization of minor ingredients capable of mainly contaminating the mixed condiments, even lower doses of irradiation should be effective for the microbial control. (Author)

  11. Role of vacuum in food preservation

    Bongirwar, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the processing of foods using operations viz. drying, evaporation, distillation, concentration, centrifugation, filtration, irradiation, freeze drying, osmotic drying etc. to get ready to eat food, convenience food, pre cooked dried food. Vacuum technology in direct or indirect way has played a vital role in carrying out these food processing operations. The role of vacuum in getting these processes developed and its use in the development of these high quality products with respect to colour, flavour, texture and other attributes has been highlighted along with process details. (author)

  12. Alternative food-preservation technologies: efficacy and mechanisms.

    Lado, Beatrice H; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2002-04-01

    High-pressure processing, ionizing radiation, pulsed electric field and ultraviolet radiation are emerging preservation technologies designed to produce safe food, while maintaining its nutritional and sensory qualities. A sigmoid inactivation pattern is observed in most kinetic studies. Damage to cell membranes, enzymes or DNA is the most commonly cited cause of death of microorganisms by alternative preservation technologies.

  13. Home Food Preservation among Families with Young Children

    Lorenz, Lorraine J.; Sawicki, Marjorie A.; Elliott, Michael; White, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine preservation practices, perceived barriers, and likelihood of parents with young children to home preserve food in the future. Implications of this research relate to family and consumer sciences professionals who endeavor to improve fruit and vegetable intake and provide resources to families and…

  14. Irradiation pilot plants and experimental facilities available for food preservation

    1975-01-01

    With the ever-increasing world food crisis mankind has to face today, the prevention of spoilage of perishable food is gaining in momentum. The World Food Conference (Rome, November 1974) of the United Nations clearly recognized the importance of food preservation and urged action in this field. Irradiation is one of the recently discovered methods to preserve food. Its practical introduction largely depends on three main factors: (a) proof of the safety for human consumption of the irradiated product, (b) technological feasibility and (c) economic competitiveness of the process. As data on safety for consumption ('wholesomeness') continue to become available, the number of countries authorizing the irradiation of certain food items is growing (present total: 17 countries), and the same is true for the number of licensed irradiated commodities (total: 23). Under these conditions, testing of the technological and economic feasibility of food irradiation is a matter of increasing importance. Economic feasibility of any industrial operation can only be studied in larger-scale experiments. Thus, they can only be performed with radiation sources larger than those found in laboratories, i.e. in pilot irradiators, capable of handling from a few hundred to a few thousand kilograms of material within a short period of time. The Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture has attempted to collect data on the availability, for food preservation, of suitable irradiators in Member States

  15. Recent advances in the preservation of food by irradiation

    Vas, K.

    1976-01-01

    There are two ways in which the world food problem can be attacked: (1) by increasing food production, that is, growing more food by utilizing agricultural knowledge and material input, and (2) by preserving more of the food that is already being produced by utilizing food science and technology. While both lines of action should be followed, it is logical that preservation should play a key role not only because it would reduce wastage of existing food that is desperately needed by millions of people, but also prevent the wastage of the energy invested in growing food. The preservation of food is, therefore, a vital technology, and studies of both traditional food preservation methods and new techniques should be actively pursued. The irradiation of food, usually by gamma rays from a cobalt-60 source, offers advantages over traditional methods, irradiation not only can delay the processes that lead to the onset of undesirable physiological changes (sprouting, over-ripening), microbial spoilage (rot, mould formation) and damage caused by insects, but also can kill disease-causing organisms that will infect the food if it is left untreated. It is rather surprising to find that after 25 years of extensive studies, practical introduction of food preservation by irradiation has only recently been started in one Member State of the IAEA. The main obstacles are of a psychological nature, but a number of other problems also remains to be solved. Nevertheless, it is clear that many questions have already been settled and significant progress has been made. Some of these developments will be briefly enumerated below. However, it should be noted right at the onset that, like the conventional methods, irradiation also has its limitations and cannot be considered a cure-all for all food problems under all conditions

  16. Methods combined with irradiation for food preservation

    Pinela, José; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, consumers have been looking for safer, higher quality foods, but also more convenient and ready-to-eat. Quality assurance through the elimination of pathogenic microorganisms has been a major concern for the food industry. However, an alarming number of diseases are still caused by different foodborne pathogens, which cause hundreds of deaths.1 Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes are food poisoning microorganisms frequently involved in microbial outb...

  17. Food preservation technologies developed at BARC

    Jain, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    Food irradiation is important as it is being used to disinfest food grains, pulses, wheat flour, rice, semolina, raisins etc; quarantining and shelf life increasing of fruits like mangoes; microbial decontamination of spices; sprout inhibition of tubers and bulbs; shelf life increasing and pathogen control of meat and fish. Category-IV type irradiators based on gamma rays exposure of food are currently being employed for this purpose. Cobalt-60 isotope is produced in the nuclear reactors. Isotope gives gamma rays as its nucleus is unstable. The gamma rays pass through the food items and inhibit sprouting of tubers and bulbs, kill bacteria, virus and the larvae of insects

  18. Workshop report: The application of technology for food preservation

    Razley Mohd Nordin

    1985-01-01

    A workshop on the application of ionizing technology for food preservation is reviewed. The major aim of this workshop is to introduce this new technology to the layman and local scientists so as to promote the new treatment in the local food industry

  19. Radiation preservation of food. Efficiency and wholesomeness

    Saint-Lebe, Louis; Raffi, Jacques; Henon, Yves.

    1982-03-01

    This document reviews the applications of ionizing radiations in the food industry. The two first chapters feature the characteristics of the three types of ionizing radiations that can be used (gamma rays from cobalt 60 and caesium 137, X rays, electron beams) and their action on foodstuff and the food spoilage organisms. The third chapter is a review of toxicological studies based on two complementary approaches: animal assays and studies on the radiolysis products. It provides the evidences that lead the international experts to regard irradiated food as safe for human consumption. In the fourth chapter, the problems of identification of irradiated food and the possible controls are exposed. The authors conclude by suggesting the measures that would allow commercial application in France [fr

  20. Food irradiation: physical-chemical, technological and economical background and competing methods of food preservation

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1994-01-01

    Physical, chemical and technical as well as economical background of food preservation by irradiation have been performed. The radiation sources and the elements of radiation chemistry connected with their use in food irradiation process have been shown. The problems of dosimetry and endurance of dose uniformity for processed products have been also discussed. The other methods of food preservation and their weakness and advantages have been also presented and compared with food irradiation method

  1. Recent approaches in food bio-preservation - a review.

    Singh, Veer Pal

    2018-01-01

    Bio-preservation is a technique of extending the shelf life of food by using natural or controlled microbiota or antimicrobials. The fermentation products as well as beneficial bacteria are generally selected in this process to control spoilage and render pathogen inactive. The special interest organism or central organism used for this purpose is lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their metabolites. They are capable to exhibit antimicrobial properties and helpful in imparting unique flavour and texture to the food products. The major compounds produced by LAB are bacteriocin, organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Bacteriocin is peptides or proteins with antimicrobial activity. On the basis of size, structure and post-translational modification, bacteriocin is divided into four different classes. Due to non-toxic, non-immunogenic, thermo-resistance characteristics and broad bactericidal activity, LAB bacteriocins are considered good bio-preservative agents. The most common LAB bactriocin is nisin which has wider applications in food industry and has been Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved. Nisin and other bacteriocin are being used in vegetables products, dairy and meat industries. Apart from LAB metabolites, bacteriophages and endolysins has promising role in food processing, preservation and safety. Bacteriocins and endolysins are more suitable for DNA shuffling and protein engineering to generate highly potent variants with expanded activity spectrum. Genetically modified bacteriophages may also be helpful in bio-preservation, however; their safety issues must be addressed properly before selection as bio-preservative agent.

  2. Recent approaches in food bio-preservation - a review

    Veer Pal Singh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bio-preservation is a technique of extending the shelf life of food by using natural or controlled microbiota or antimicrobials. The fermentation products as well as beneficial bacteria are generally selected in this process to control spoilage and render pathogen inactive. The special interest organism or central organism used for this purpose is lactic acid bacteria (LAB and their metabolites. They are capable to exhibit antimicrobial properties and helpful in imparting unique flavour and texture to the food products. The major compounds produced by LAB are bacteriocin, organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Bacteriocin is peptides or proteins with antimicrobial activity. On the basis of size, structure and post-translational modification, bacteriocin is divided into four different classes. Due to non-toxic, non-immunogenic, thermo-resistance characteristics and broad bactericidal activity, LAB bacteriocins are considered good bio-preservative agents. The most common LAB bactriocin is nisin which has wider applications in food industry and has been Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved. Nisin and other bacteriocin are being used in vegetables products, dairy and meat industries. Apart from LAB metabolites, bacteriophages and endolysins has promising role in food processing, preservation and safety. Bacteriocins and endolysins are more suitable for DNA shuffling and protein engineering to generate highly potent variants with expanded activity spectrum. Genetically modified bacteriophages may also be helpful in bio-preservation, however; their safety issues must be addressed properly before selection as bio-preservative agent.

  3. Utilization of irradiation on food preservation

    Cho, H.O.; Kwon, J.H.; Byun, M.W.; Yang, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    The research programme in 1982 was conducted not only to develop the commercial storage method of sprouting foods by irradiation combined with natural low temperature and to sterilize the E.coli of ginseng and ginseng product but also to approach the development of the long term storage method of rice and barley. (Author)

  4. Preservation of food by ionizing radiation

    Josephson, E.S.; Peterson, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    This study is presented in three volumes. Vol. I: Presents a concise description of the philosophy of radiation, protection for people working with irradiation processes, including problems associated with the design and operation of a large facility and solutions to problems encountered. Radiation dosimetry and radiolytic effects in foods are also presented. Vol. II: Effects of radiation on bacteria and viruses are discussed as well as the lethal effect on microorganisms and insects. Also presented are the effects of irradiated food on packaging materials. Vol. III: The effects of radurization on meats, poultry, fish, shellfish, fruits, vegetables, and spices. Also included are the effects of irradiation for the use of shelf-life extension

  5. Why the concern about irradiation as a food preservation technique?

    Anon

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Irradiation is a food preservation process that like the more traditional and alternative methods is intended to keep food safe to eat by delaying the natural decomposition processes that result from bacterial action. Preservation of foods by irradiation, although still not available in Australia, is readily accepted in some 44 countries, including France. This project is set up to examine if a sample of fresh fruits and vegetables, when irradiated to the recommended 'preservation' dose level, becomes 'radioactive'. By placing the 'irradiated' sample, together with an identical 'control' sample of the same fresh fruit and vegetables, in an x-radiography cassette in a shielded 'cave', differences in film 'blackening' over the exposure period would indicate relative radioactivity from within the respective samples. Also, using simultaneous daily photographs of both the 'irradiated' and non-irradiated 'control' samples, the delay of onset of visible decay of both can be determined

  6. Food preservation : relevance of nuclear techniques to developing nations

    Aiyar, A.S.; Sundaram, K.

    1977-01-01

    The usefulness of radiation processes over conventional methods for preservation of foods has been discussed in detail. There are five distinct objectives that can be achieved by exposing food to ionising radiation, and these are : (a) total elimination of food spoilage or disease-causing organisms, thus confering indefinite stability on the pre-packaged food; (b) significant reduction of spoilage microorganisms to enable extended shelf-life; (c) inactivation of organisms that poses public health hazards; (d) elimination of losses in dry foods due to insect infestation, by killing the eggs and their insects; and (e) control of post-harvest physiological processes such as sprouting, ripening etc. For highly perishable sea foods, such as, Bombay Duck, irradiation represents the only possible soultion to the problem of its preservation in the fresh state. An evaluation of the wholesomeness of irradiated mackerel is currently underway in India as part of an international effort at obtaining such data collectively, to minimise the enormour costs involved in such experimentation. Recently, clearances have been authorised for the release of irradiated foods for human consumption. A summary of international approvals for radiation preservation processes is presented. (A.K.)

  7. Utilization of irradiation on food preservation

    Cho, Han Ok; Kwon, Joong Ho; Byun, Myung Woo

    1985-04-01

    The number of total viable bacteria in chicken meat was reduced by over 90% with irradiation treatments of 5-10 kGy, and also an irradiation dose of yeasts, molds, coliforms, and especially Salmonella for 2-4 weeks of storage. In physicochemical properties of stored chichen, such as water holding capacity, TBA number, UBN, odor, color, overall appearance, cooking quality and organoleptic characteristics, the irradiated samples were superior to the nonirradiated samples, so the freshness of irradiated chicken was retained until 30 days ofter storage at 3-4degC. Commercial fried fish paste was comtaminated by 2.2x10 3 counts in total variable bacteria, 2.8x10 2 counts in yeasts and models, and 1.0x10 2 counts in coliforms, per gram of samples, but irradiation treatment of more than 3 kGy could reduce the microbial load up to 80-90%. As the storage period increased, chemical components of the irradiated samples were better than those of the nonirradiated samples, and the self-life of irradiated groups was extended by 3-4 times as compared with that of nonirradiated groups at room(10-20degC) and low(3-4degC) temperatures without apparent changes in organoleptic properties. Some packaged dried fishes, such as dried cod, dried squid, dried file fish and dried pollack, were preserved by irradiation under the room condictions. After storage of one year the by irradiated samples with doses of 3-8 kGy were found to be marketable resulting from organoleptic observations without showing any storage loss due to microbial and insect factors. (Author)

  8. Development of Food Preservation and Processing Technologies by Radiation Technology

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun

    2007-07-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following: As the first cooperative venture business technically invested by National Atomic Research Development Project, institute/company's [technology-invested technology foundation No. 1] cooperative venture, Sun-BioTech Ltd., was founded and stated its business. This suggested new model for commercialization and industrialization of the research product by nation-found institute. From the notice of newly approved product list about irradiated food, radiation health related legal approval on 7 food items was achieved from the Ministry of health and wellfare, the Korea Food and Drug Administration, and this contributed the foundation of enlargement of practical use of irradiated food. As one of the foundation project for activation of radiation application technology for the sanitation and secure preservation of special food, such as military meal service, food service for patient, and food for sports, and instant food, such as ready-to-eat/ready-to-cook food, the proposal for radiation application to the major military commander at the Ministry of National Defence and the Joint Chiefs of Staff was accepted for the direction of military supply development in mid-termed plan for the development of war supply. Especially, through the preliminary research and the development of foundation technology for the development of the Korean style space food and functional space food, space Kimch with very long shelf life was finally developed. The development of new item/products for food and life science by combining RT/BT, the development of technology for the elimination/reduction of

  9. Development of Food Preservation and Processing Technologies by Radiation Technology

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun [and others

    2007-07-15

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following: As the first cooperative venture business technically invested by National Atomic Research Development Project, institute/company's [technology-invested technology foundation No. 1] cooperative venture, Sun-BioTech Ltd., was founded and stated its business. This suggested new model for commercialization and industrialization of the research product by nation-found institute. From the notice of newly approved product list about irradiated food, radiation health related legal approval on 7 food items was achieved from the Ministry of health and wellfare, the Korea Food and Drug Administration, and this contributed the foundation of enlargement of practical use of irradiated food. As one of the foundation project for activation of radiation application technology for the sanitation and secure preservation of special food, such as military meal service, food service for patient, and food for sports, and instant food, such as ready-to-eat/ready-to-cook food, the proposal for radiation application to the major military commander at the Ministry of National Defence and the Joint Chiefs of Staff was accepted for the direction of military supply development in mid-termed plan for the development of war supply. Especially, through the preliminary research and the development of foundation technology for the development of the Korean style space food and functional space food, space Kimch with very long shelf life was finally developed. The development of new item/products for food and life science by combining RT/BT, the development of technology for the elimination/reduction of

  10. Development of Food Preservation and Processing Technologies by Radiation Technology

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun (and others)

    2007-07-15

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following: As the first cooperative venture business technically invested by National Atomic Research Development Project, institute/company's [technology-invested technology foundation No. 1] cooperative venture, Sun-BioTech Ltd., was founded and stated its business. This suggested new model for commercialization and industrialization of the research product by nation-found institute. From the notice of newly approved product list about irradiated food, radiation health related legal approval on 7 food items was achieved from the Ministry of health and wellfare, the Korea Food and Drug Administration, and this contributed the foundation of enlargement of practical use of irradiated food. As one of the foundation project for activation of radiation application technology for the sanitation and secure preservation of special food, such as military meal service, food service for patient, and food for sports, and instant food, such as ready-to-eat/ready-to-cook food, the proposal for radiation application to the major military commander at the Ministry of National Defence and the Joint Chiefs of Staff was accepted for the direction of military supply development in mid-termed plan for the development of war supply. Especially, through the preliminary research and the development of foundation technology for the development of the Korean style space food and functional space food, space Kimch with very long shelf life was finally developed. The development of new item/products for food and life science by combining RT/BT, the development of technology for the elimination/reduction of

  11. High oxygen as an additional factor in food preservation

    Amanatidou, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis, the efficacy of high oxygen as an additional hurdle for food preservation is studied. At high oxygen conditions and at low temperature, significant impairment of growth and viability of bacterial cells is found to occur as the result of free

  12. Gamma irradiation for food preservation and sterilization of medical supplies

    Syed Abid Husain; Mohammad Said Kadis

    1981-01-01

    A new technology in food preservation by using gamma irradiation was introduced and its advantages over a number of conventional processes were discussed. The new technique is also applicable in the sterilization of medical supplies. It is relatively simple and does not require very highly skilled manpower

  13. Recent approaches in food bio-preservation - a review | Singh ...

    Apart from LAB metabolites, bacteriophages and endolysins has promising role in food processing, preservation and safety. Bacteriocins and endolysins are more suitable for DNA shuffling and protein engineering to generate highly potent variants with expanded activity spectrum. Genetically modified bacteriophages may ...

  14. Preserving food in Asia and the Pacific region

    NONE

    1982-03-15

    At this time of increasing world population there is greater need than ever before to produce more food, especially in developing countries which have the fastest growth of population. Equally important, but often overlooked by most authorities, is the need to preserve food after harvest so that losses are reduced, more food is available, and the investment and energy employed in food production is effectively used. One method of reducing losses is to use ionizing energy in the form of gamma rays, electron, or X-rays to prevent food from spoiling because of micro-organisms, insect pests or physiological factors. This method can treat food in the final package without significantly altering its physico-chemical characteristics. The technique has been much studied in many countries over the past three decades. As most countries in the Asian and Pacific region are in tropical zones which make food especially vulnerable to spoilage losses this technique has received wide attention from food and nuclear scientists. In 1979, the Agency and the Government of Japan sponsored a special mission to evaluate the state of the art of this technology in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It was evident from the mission's report that most of these countries not only have active research and development programmes in the use of ionizing energy for food preservation but also are anxious to develop their programmes to reach practical application. Moreover, most countries in Asia and the Pacific have a common interest in using this technology to preserve fishery products, tropical fruits, onions, and spices. Consequently, the Government of Japan agreed to sponsor a research programme in this field as one of the Co-ordinated Research Programmes of the Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development. Started in 1980, the project will last for three years

  15. Preserving food in Asia and the Pacific region

    1982-01-01

    At this time of increasing world population there is greater need than ever before to produce more food, especially in developing countries which have the fastest growth of population. Equally important, but often overlooked by most authorities, is the need to preserve food after harvest so that losses are reduced, more food is available, and the investment and energy employed in food production is effectively used. One method of reducing losses is to use ionizing energy in the form of gamma rays, electron, or X-rays to prevent food from spoiling because of micro-organisms, insect pests or physiological factors. This method can treat food in the final package without significantly altering its physico-chemical characteristics. The technique has been much studied in many countries over the past three decades. As most countries in the Asian and Pacific region are in tropical zones which make food especially vulnerable to spoilage losses this technique has received wide attention from food and nuclear scientists. In 1979, the Agency and the Government of Japan sponsored a special mission to evaluate the state of the art of this technology in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It was evident from the mission's report that most of these countries not only have active research and development programmes in the use of ionizing energy for food preservation but also are anxious to develop their programmes to reach practical application. Moreover, most countries in Asia and the Pacific have a common interest in using this technology to preserve fishery products, tropical fruits, onions, and spices. Consequently, the Government of Japan agreed to sponsor a research programme in this field as one of the Co-ordinated Research Programmes of the Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development. Started in 1980, the project will last for three years

  16. Essential oils: extraction, bioactivities, and their uses for food preservation.

    Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-07-01

    Essential oils are concentrated liquids of complex mixtures of volatile compounds and can be extracted from several plant organs. Essential oils are a good source of several bioactive compounds, which possess antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. In addition, some essential oils have been used as medicine. Furthermore, the uses of essential oils have received increasing attention as the natural additives for the shelf-life extension of food products, due to the risk in using synthetic preservatives. Essential oils can be incorporated into packaging, in which they can provide multifunctions termed "active or smart packaging." Those essential oils are able to modify the matrix of packaging materials, thereby rendering the improved properties. This review covers up-to-date literatures on essential oils including sources, chemical composition, extraction methods, bioactivities, and their applications, particularly with the emphasis on preservation and the shelf-life extension of food products. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Soo [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cherl Ho; Park, Hyun Jin [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Il Jun [Hallym Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jung Ho [Kyungbook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following; Processing techniques of low salted and fermented fish using gamma irradiation were developed and superiority of using irradiation to conventional food processing methods was established. Processing technique of value-added functional materials for the manufacture of food or public health products using RT/BT/NT combination technology was developed. The basic theories for the technology development to reduce toxic or undesirable compounds in food such as allergy or carcinogens were established. Exterminating methods of quarantine organisms in herbs/spices was established and the quality evaluation and detection conditions in quarantine treatment were set. From the studies on 'program of public understanding' based on safety of the gamma irradiated food, the information for public relation in enlargement of consumer acceptance/implementation and the peaceful use of nuclear energy were secured. Results from the research project will contribute on improvement of competency of domestic food industry and export market. The results also expect the improvement of public health by prevention of food borne diseases and enhancement of national economy and industry by increase of direct/indirect productivity.

  18. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Hak Soo; Lee, Cherl Ho; Park, Hyun Jin; Kang, Il Jun; Kwon, Jung Ho

    2002-05-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following; Processing techniques of low salted and fermented fish using gamma irradiation were developed and superiority of using irradiation to conventional food processing methods was established. Processing technique of value-added functional materials for the manufacture of food or public health products using RT/BT/NT combination technology was developed. The basic theories for the technology development to reduce toxic or undesirable compounds in food such as allergy or carcinogens were established. Exterminating methods of quarantine organisms in herbs/spices was established and the quality evaluation and detection conditions in quarantine treatment were set. From the studies on 'program of public understanding' based on safety of the gamma irradiated food, the information for public relation in enlargement of consumer acceptance/implementation and the peaceful use of nuclear energy were secured. Results from the research project will contribute on improvement of competency of domestic food industry and export market. The results also expect the improvement of public health by prevention of food borne diseases and enhancement of national economy and industry by increase of direct/indirect productivity

  19. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Soo [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cherl Ho; Park, Hyun Jin [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Il Jun [Hallym Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jung Ho [Kyungbook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following; Processing techniques of low salted and fermented fish using gamma irradiation were developed and superiority of using irradiation to conventional food processing methods was established. Processing technique of value-added functional materials for the manufacture of food or public health products using RT/BT/NT combination technology was developed. The basic theories for the technology development to reduce toxic or undesirable compounds in food such as allergy or carcinogens were established. Exterminating methods of quarantine organisms in herbs/spices was established and the quality evaluation and detection conditions in quarantine treatment were set. From the studies on 'program of public understanding' based on safety of the gamma irradiated food, the information for public relation in enlargement of consumer acceptance/implementation and the peaceful use of nuclear energy were secured. Results from the research project will contribute on improvement of competency of domestic food industry and export market. The results also expect the improvement of public health by prevention of food borne diseases and enhancement of national economy and industry by increase of direct/indirect productivity.

  20. Food preservation by ionizing radiation in Nigeria. Present and future status

    Olorunda, A.O.; Aboaba, F.O.

    1978-01-01

    Research into the use of ionizing radiation in food preservation in Nigeria is still in its very infancy and most of the work done to date is at the exploratory stage. Such work has, however, demonstrated the potential of ionizing radiation in prolonging the shelf-life of yams and, possibly, onions. The paper reviews the present status of the use of radiation food preservation in Nigeria. The present research programme of the Faculty of Technology, University of Ibadan, which includes a wider application of ionizing radiation to fruit and vegetable preservation and grain storage, is also highlighted. The primary objectives of this programme are to establish the wholesomeness of the irradiated foods and the economics of the process. (author)

  1. Plants and mushrooms as sources of bio-based food coloring, preserving and bioactive agents

    Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2018-01-01

    Food additives have been used for thousands of years to enhance food properties, safety and appearance. Nevertheless, several of the worldwide used artificial additives have been related to potential toxic and allergenic effects to the consumers, which has been justifying the growing interest in additives of natural origin that provide colouring, preserving, and bioactive properties to foodstuff without hazardous effects [1]. In this context, several plants and mushrooms have been...

  2. Combination of preservation factors applied to minimal processing of foods.

    Tapia de Daza, M S; Alzamora, S M; Chanes, J W

    1996-07-01

    Innovative technologies for producing minimally processed (MP) foods that apply the concept of combination of preservation factors are addressed in this article with special emphasis on a new combined approach that has been successfully applied in several Latin American countries for MP high-moisture fruit products (HMFP). HMFP can be regarded as a different approach to the commercially available and widely accepted MP concept for fruits and vegetables (even if developed for the same purpose of obtaining freshlike high-quality products with an extended shelf life) that is better adapted to Latin American countries in terms of independence of the chill chain and the use of simple and energy-efficient technologies. The continuous refrigeration hurdle associated with MP refrigerated fruits is not included in the preservation system of HMFP because a different combination of hurdles must be overcome to enhance the shelf stability of nonrespiring vegetable tissues while preserving freshlike character. Guidelines to obtain safe and high-quality MP fruit products are proposed. Other products preserved by combined factors technology are also discussed, as well as some other classical and new preservation factors whose application could enhance the quality of HMFP.

  3. Food irradiation: Activities and potentialities

    Doellstaedt, R.; Huebner, G.

    After the acceptance of food irradiation up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy recommended by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food in October 1980, the G.D.R. started a programme for the development of techniques for food irradiation. A special onion irradiator was designed and built as a pilot plant for studying technological and economic parameters of the irradiation of onions. The new principle of bulk-cargo irradiation allows the integration of this technology into the usual harvest technology for onions on the way from field to storage. Scientific and applied research work has been carried out in the past 3 yr on the irradiation of spices, potatoes, eviscerated chicken, animal feeds, fodder yeast, drugs and vaccines. In connection with the irradiation of eviscerated chicken, fodder yeast and animal feeds the basis of an antisalmonella programme has been discussed. Germ-count-reduced spices were employed for the production of test charges of preserves and tinned products. The results have led to the decision to design and build a new multipurpose irradiator for food irradiation. In order to cover the legal aspects of food irradiation the Ministry of Health issued regulations concerning the recommendation of irradiated food in the G.D.R.

  4. Alternative Food Preservation Techniques, New Technology in Food Preparation and Appropriateness of Food Supply for the Permanently Manned Space Station

    Whelan, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Alternative food preservation techniques are defined as unique processes and combinations of currently used processes for food preservation. Food preservation is the extension of the useful shelf-life of normally perishable foods (from harvest to final consumption) by controlling micro-organisms, enzymes, chemical changes, changes in sensory characteristics and the prevention of subsequent recontamination. The resulting products must comply with all applicable food manufacturing practice regulations and be safe. Most of the foods currently used in both space and military feeding are stabilized either by dehydration or the use of a terminal sterilization process. Other available options would be formulation to reduce water activity, the refrigeration and freezing of perishable foods, chemical addition, and physical treatment (ionizing or nonionizing radiation or mechanical action). These alternatives are considered and proposals made.

  5. Application of Bacteriocins and Protective Cultures in Dairy Food Preservation

    Célia C. G. Silva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the human health risk posed by the use of chemical preservatives in foods. In contrast, the increasing demand by the dairy industry to extend shelf-life and prevent spoilage of dairy products has appeal for new preservatives and new methods of conservation. Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides, which can be considered as safe since they can be easily degraded by proteolytic enzymes of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. Also, most bacteriocin producers belong to lactic acid bacteria (LAB, a group that occurs naturally in foods and have a long history of safe use in dairy industry. Since they pose no health risk concerns, bacteriocins, either purified or excreted by bacteriocin producing strains, are a great alternative to the use of chemical preservatives in dairy products. Bacteriocins can be applied to dairy foods on a purified/crude form or as a bacteriocin-producing LAB as a part of fermentation process or as adjuvant culture. A number of applications of bacteriocins and bacteriocin-producing LAB have been reported to successful control pathogens in milk, yogurt, and cheeses. One of the more recent trends consists in the incorporation of bacteriocins, directly as purified or semi-purified form or in incorporation of bacteriocin-producing LAB into bioactive films and coatings, applied directly onto the food surfaces and packaging. This review is focused on recent developments and applications of bacteriocins and bacteriocin-producing LAB for reducing the microbiological spoilage and improve safety of dairy products.

  6. Preservation of Fertility Potential for Gender and Sex Diverse Individuals.

    Johnson, Emilie K; Finlayson, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    Gender and sex diverse individuals-transgender individuals and those with disorders of sex development (DSD)-both face medical treatments that may impair biological fertility potential. Young DSD patients also often have abnormal gonadal development. Fertility preservation for these populations has historically been poorly understood and rarely addressed. Future fertility should be discussed with gender and sex diverse individuals, particularly given recent advances in fertility preservation technologies and evolving views of fertility potential. Key ethical issues include parental proxy decision-making and uncertainty regarding prepubertal fertility preservation technologies. Many opportunities exist for advancing fertility-related care and research for transgender and DSD patients.

  7. Microbiological Problems in Food Preservation by Irradiation. Report of a Panel on Microbiological Problems in Food Preservation by Irradiation

    1967-01-01

    Irradiation is a technique that may increasingly be employed to help preserve the world's food supplies. Some countries have already given public-health clearance for particular irradiated foodstuffs, and pilot and semi-industrial irradiation plants have already been established or are under construction. Wide-spread industrial application is likely in the not too distant future. However, there are still problems to be solved; some of these are microbiological. A Panel on Microbiological Problems in Food Preservation by Irradiation was organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture on 27 June to 1 July 1966. A detailed evaluation was made of research and development needs in radicidation (i.e. destroying micro-organisms harmful to human health), in radurization (i.e. extending the shelf life of perishable foods by reducing the spoilage micro-organisms in it), in the elimination of viruses and in the inactivation of preformed toxins. The Panel also considered the unification and standardization of experimental methodology. Recommendations were drawn up for the Directors General of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and of the International Atomic Energy Agency on how these two organizations could best fulfil their roles in this field. It was considered important to continue sponsoring and co-ordinating research.. Establishing an international pilot and demonstration plant was thought essential for progress in development work, especially on radicidation. Experts on radio- and food microbiology and a representative of the World Health Organization attended the meeting. The proceedings contains the contributions of the members of the Panel together with the general conclusions and recommendations

  8. Health protection and food preservation by gamma irradiation

    1976-01-01

    Results of several major studies on food systems for space missions beginning with Apollo 12 through Apollo-Soyuz and investigations of the application of irradiation to food for manned space flight are reported. The study of flight food systems involved the application of radurization (pasteurizing levels) doses of gamma irradiation to flour and bread supplied by Pepperidge Farms in advance of the missions. All flights from Apollo 12 through 17 carried irradiated fresh bread. On Apollo 17, cooperation with Natick Laboratories permitted the introduction of a ham sandwich using irradiated bread and irradiated sterile ham. Investigations centered on irradiated bread were conducted during the course of these missions. Studies were applied to the concept of improving fresh bread from the point of view of mold inhibition. The studies considered how irradiation could best be applied at what levels and on a variety of bread types. Throughout the studies of the application of gamma irradiation the emphasis was placed upon using low levels of irradiation in the pasteurizing or radurizing doses--under a Megarad. The primary goal was to determine if a public health benefit could be demonstrated using radurization along with food preservation and food quality improvements. The public health benefit would be parallel to that of pasteurization of milk as a concept. Publications are included providing the details of these observations, one dealing with the flour characteristics and the other dealing with the influence on fresh bread types. These demonstrate the major findings noted during the period of the studies examining bread.

  9. Novel approaches in food-processing technology: new technologies for preserving foods and modifying function.

    Knorr, D

    1999-10-01

    Recent advances in emerging food-processing technologies, such as high hydrostatic pressure or high-intensity electric field pulses, allow targeted and sophisticated modification and preservation of foods. We are beginning to understand the mechanisms involved in pressure inactivation of bacterial spores and have been collecting considerable amounts of kinetic data regarding inactivation mechanisms of enzymes and vegetative microorganisms. We are also gaining more insight into the permeabilization of plant membranes and related biosynthetic responses, making progress in food structure engineering and food modification for function, and have been initiating process developments for gentle processing of delicate biomaterials based on pressure-assisted phase transitions of water.

  10. Nanosystems in Edible Coatings: A Novel Strategy for Food Preservation

    María L. Zambrano-Zaragoza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, nanotechnology represents an important tool and an efficient option for extending the shelf life of foods. Reducing particle size to nanometric scale gives materials distinct and improved properties compared to larger systems. For food applications, this technology allows the incorporation of hydrophilic and lipophilic substances with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties that can be released during storage periods to increase the shelf life of diverse products, including whole and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, nuts, seeds, and cheese, among others. Edible coatings are usually prepared with natural polymers that are non-toxic, economical, and readily available. Nanosystems, in contrast, may also be prepared with biodegradable synthetic polymers, and liquid and solid lipids at room temperature. In this review, recent developments in the use of such nanosystems as nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanocomposites, and nanoemulsions, are discussed critically. The use of polymers as the support matrix for nanodispersions to form edible coatings for food preservation is also analyzed, but the central purpose of the article is to describe available information on nanosystems and their use in different food substrates to help formulators in their work.

  11. Perspectives of high power ultrasound in food preservation

    Evelyn; Silva, F. V. M.

    2018-04-01

    High Power ultrasound can be used to alter physicochemical properties and improve the quality of foods during processing due to a number of mechanical, chemical, and biochemical effects arising from acoustic cavitation. Cavitation creates pressure waves that inactivate microbes and de-agglomerate bacterial clusters or release ascospores from fungal asci. Bacterial and heat resistant fungal spores’ inactivation is a great challenge in food preservation due to their ability to survive after conventional food processing, causing food-borne diseases or spoilage. In this work, a showcase of application of high power ultrasound combined with heat or thermosonication, to inactivate bacterial spores i.e. Bacillus cereus spores in beef slurry and fungal spores i.e. Neosartorya fischeri ascospores in apple juice was presented and compared with thermal processing. Faster inactivation was achieved at higher TS (24 KHz, 0.33 W/g or W/mL) temperatures. Around 2 log inactivation was obtained for B. cereus spores after1 min (70 °C) and N. fischeri ascospores after 30 min (75 °C). Thermal treatments caused <1 log in B. Cereus after 2 min (70 °C) and no inactivation in N. Fischeri ascospores after 30 min (80 °C). In conclusion, temperature plays a significant role for TS spore inactivation and TS was more effective than thermal treatment alone. The mould spores were more resistant than the bacterial spores.

  12. Nanosystems in Edible Coatings: A Novel Strategy for Food Preservation

    Zambrano-Zaragoza, María L.; González-Reza, Ricardo; Miranda-Linares, Verónica; Bernal-Couoh, Tania F.; Mendoza-Elvira, Susana; Quintanar-Guerrero, David

    2018-01-01

    Currently, nanotechnology represents an important tool and an efficient option for extending the shelf life of foods. Reducing particle size to nanometric scale gives materials distinct and improved properties compared to larger systems. For food applications, this technology allows the incorporation of hydrophilic and lipophilic substances with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties that can be released during storage periods to increase the shelf life of diverse products, including whole and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, nuts, seeds, and cheese, among others. Edible coatings are usually prepared with natural polymers that are non-toxic, economical, and readily available. Nanosystems, in contrast, may also be prepared with biodegradable synthetic polymers, and liquid and solid lipids at room temperature. In this review, recent developments in the use of such nanosystems as nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanocomposites, and nanoemulsions, are discussed critically. The use of polymers as the support matrix for nanodispersions to form edible coatings for food preservation is also analyzed, but the central purpose of the article is to describe available information on nanosystems and their use in different food substrates to help formulators in their work. PMID:29494548

  13. Application of low dose radiation for preservation of sea foods

    Venugopal, V.; Nair, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Treatment of food with low doses of gamma radiation has been recognized to have two main advantages. These consist of: (1) improvement of food safety by elimination of pathogens and (2) reduction of microbial spoilage and extension of shelf life of perishable items by reducing the number of viable spoilage organisms. Studies during the last few decades have conclusively proved the beneficial effects of radiation with respect to fishery products. The three potential areas of application to fish products include: (i) radurization for shelf life extension (ii) radicidation to eliminate food borne pathogens in the products and (iii) radiation treatment to dried products to control insects

  14. Use of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in food preservation: Recent advances and future perspectives.

    Ekpenyong, Christopher E; Akpan, Ernest E

    2017-08-13

    The economic burdens and health implications of food spoilage are increasing. Contamination of food sources by fungi, bacteria, yeast, nematodes, insects, and rodents remains a major public health concern. Research has focused on developing safer natural products and innovations to meet consumers' acceptance as alternatives to synthetic food preservatives. Many recent novel preservative techniques and applications of both natural and synthetic origin continue to proliferate in food and chemical industries. In particular, some essential oils of plant origin are potent food preservatives and are thus attractive alternatives to synthetic preservatives. This paper provides an overview of recent advances and future prospects in assessing the efficacy of the use of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) essential oil in food preservation. The possible mechanisms of action and toxicological profile as well as evidence for or against the use of this essential oil as an alternative to synthetic food preservatives in domestic and industrial applications are discussed.

  15. Exposure assessment of food preservatives (sulphites, benzoic and sorbic acid) in Austria.

    Mischek, Daniela; Krapfenbauer-Cermak, Christine

    2012-01-01

    An exposure assessment was performed to estimate the potential intake of preservatives in the Austrian population. Food consumption data of different population groups, such as preschool children aged 3-6 years, female and male adults aged 19-65 years were used for calculation. Levels of the preservatives in food were derived from analyses conducted from January 2007 to August 2010. Dietary intakes of the preservatives were estimated and compared to the respective acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). In the average-intake scenario, assuming that consumers randomly consume food products that do or do not contain food additives, estimated dietary intakes of all studied preservatives are well below the ADI for all population groups. Sulphite exposure accounted for 34%, 84% and 89% of the ADI in preschool children, females and males, respectively. The mean estimated daily intake of benzoic acid was 32% (preschool children), 31% (males) and 36% (females) of the ADI. Sorbic acid intakes correspond to 7% of the ADI in preschool children and 6% of the ADI in adults. In the high-intake scenario assuming that consumers always consume food products that contain additives and considering a kind of brand loyalty of consumers, the ADI is exceeded for sulphites among adults (119 and 124%, respectively). Major contributors to the total intake of sulphites were wine and dried fruits for adults. Mean estimated dietary intakes of benzoic acid exceeded the ADI in all population groups, 135% in preschool children, 124% in females and 118% of the ADI in males, respectively. Dietary intakes of sorbic acid are well below the ADI, accounting for a maximum of 30% of the ADI in preschool children. The highest contributors to benzoic and sorbic acid exposure were fish and fish products mainly caused by high consumption data of this large food group, including also mayonnaise-containing fish salads. Other important sources of sorbic acid were bread, buns and toast bread and fruit and vegetable

  16. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Byun, Myung Woo; Yook, Hong Sun; Lee, Ju Woon and others

    2000-03-01

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamm irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in pork and chicken meats. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Pork loin ham with desirable color was also developed without using of sodium nitrite that is known as a carcinogen. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepatocarcinogenesis and the antioxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation at about 1 kGy completely eliminated the parasites in foods and drinking water. In the study of quarantine treatment of apple and pear for export by gamma irradiation, current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of apple and pear. However, irradiation doses at 1-3 kGy was suitable for controlling pests and did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. The result of the survey to assess the public understanding indicated that the irradiated food had somewhat negative impression to general public. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a public education and information program by using mass communication and by constructing communication system to obtain the enhanced impression from the general public

  17. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Byun, Myung Woo; Yook, Hong Sun; Lee, Ju Woon and others

    2000-03-01

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamm irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in pork and chicken meats. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Pork loin ham with desirable color was also developed without using of sodium nitrite that is known as a carcinogen. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepatocarcinogenesis and the antioxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation at about 1 kGy completely eliminated the parasites in foods and drinking water. In the study of quarantine treatment of apple and pear for export by gamma irradiation, current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of apple and pear. However, irradiation doses at 1-3 kGy was suitable for controlling pests and did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. The result of the survey to assess the public understanding indicated that the irradiated food had somewhat negative impression to general public. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a public education and information program by using mass communication and by constructing communication system to obtain the enhanced impression from the general public.

  18. Status of radiation preservation of foods in India

    Padwal-Desai, S.R.; Sharma, A.

    1994-01-01

    Food irradiation involves controlled application of radiation energy to agricultural commodities and other foodstuffs for improving hygiene, safety and shelf-life. A number of processes including hygienization of spices and condiments, disinfestation of grains, legumes, and their products, sprout inhibition of onion and potato, delay in ripening of mango and banana, radurization and radicidation of meat and fish have been studied. Collaborative studies have established the efficacy of the process. The technology offers a viable commercial proposition for food conservation and safety. The idea to use ionising radiation for preservation of foods originated almost a century ago. Though today the technology is poised for full scale commercial exploitation, it has undergone several ups and downs due mainly to the perception of users at different points of time. Even today it is difficult to eliminate completely, the fear psychosis in the public mind created by the display of devastating power of atom and radiation during World War II. The chemical revolution of 50s and 60s made all other now ecofriendly technologies appear dim. Nevertheless relentless efforts of the scientists and recognition of the hazards that chemicals posed turned the tide and the technology got its legitimate place in the service of mankind. (author). 5 refs., 6 tabs

  19. EPR detection of foods preserved with ionizing radiation

    Stachowicz, W.; Burlinska, G.; Michalik, J.

    1998-06-01

    The applicability of the epr technique for the detection of dried vegetables, mushrooms, some spices, flavour additives and some condiments preserved with ionizing radiation is discussed. The epr signals recorded after exposure to gamma rays and to beams of 10 MeV electrons from linac are stable, intense and specific enough as compared with those observed with nonirradiated samples and could be used for the detection of irradiation. However, stability of radiation induced epr signals produced in these foods depends on storage condition. No differences in shapes (spectral parameters) and intensities of the epr spectra recorded with samples exposed to the same doses of gamma rays ( 60Co) and 10 MeV electrons were observed

  20. EPR detection of foods preserved with ionizing radiation

    Stachowicz, W.; Burlinska, G.; Michalik, J.

    1998-01-01

    The applicability of the epr technique for the detection of dried vegetables, mushrooms, some spices, flavour additives and some condiments preserved with ionizing radiation is discussed. The epr signals recorded after exposure to gamma rays and to the beams of 10 MeV electrons from linac are stable, intense and specific enough as compared with those observed with nonirradiated samples and could be used for the detection of irradiation. However, stability of radiation induced epr signals produced in these foods depends on storage condition. No differences in shapes (spectral parameters) and intensities of the epr spectra recorded with samples exposed to the same doses of gamma rays ( 60 Co) and 10 MeV electrons were observed

  1. EPR detection of foods preserved with ionizing radiation

    Stachowicz, W.; Burlinska, G.; Michalik, J

    1998-06-01

    The applicability of the epr technique for the detection of dried vegetables, mushrooms, some spices, flavour additives and some condiments preserved with ionizing radiation is discussed. The epr signals recorded after exposure to gamma rays and to the beams of 10 MeV electrons from linac are stable, intense and specific enough as compared with those observed with nonirradiated samples and could be used for the detection of irradiation. However, stability of radiation induced epr signals produced in these foods depends on storage condition. No differences in shapes (spectral parameters) and intensities of the epr spectra recorded with samples exposed to the same doses of gamma rays ({sup 60}Co) and 10 MeV electrons were observed.

  2. Lippia origanoides essential oil: an efficient and safe alternative to preserve food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products.

    Hernandes, C; Pina, E S; Taleb-Contini, S H; Bertoni, B W; Cestari, I M; Espanha, L G; Varanda, E A; Camilo, K F B; Martinez, E Z; França, S C; Pereira, A M S

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Lippia origanoides essential oil as a preservative in industrial products. The composition, antimicrobial activity, mutagenic and toxic potential of L. origanoides were determined. Then, the effect of essential oil as a preservative in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products was evaluated. The essential oil of L. origanoides consisted mainly of oxygenated monoterpenes (38·13%); 26·28% corresponded to the compound carvacrol. At concentrations ranging from 0·312 to 1·25 μl ml -1 and in association with polysorbate 80, the essential oil of L. origanoides inhibited the growth of all the tested micro-organisms. The medium lethal dose in mice was 3·5 g kg -1 , which categorizes it as nontoxic according to the European Union criteria, and negative results in the Ames test indicated that this oil was not mutagenic. In combination with polysorbate 80, the essential oil exerted preservative action on orange juice, cosmetic and pharmaceutical compositions, especially in the case of aqueous-based products. Lippia origanoides essential oil is an effective and safe preservative for orange juice, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. This study allowed for the complete understanding of the antimicrobial action and toxicological potential of L. origanoides essential oil. These results facilitate the development of a preservative system based on L. origanoides essential oil. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Functionality of liquid smoke as an all-natural antimicrobial in food preservation.

    Lingbeck, Jody M; Cordero, Paola; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Johnson, Michael G; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip G

    2014-06-01

    The smoking of foods, especially meats, has been used as a preservation technique for centuries. Today, smoking methods often involve the use of wood smoke condensates, commonly known as liquid smoke. Liquid smoke is produced by condensing wood smoke created by the pyrolysis of sawdust or wood chips followed by removal of the carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The main products of wood pyrolysis are phenols, carbonyls and organic acids which are responsible for the flavor, color and antimicrobial properties of liquid smoke. Several common food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus have shown sensitivity to liquid smoke in vitro and in food systems. Therefore liquid smoke has potential for use as an all-natural antimicrobial in commercial applications where smoke flavor is desired. This review will cover the application and effectiveness of liquid smoke and fractions of liquid smoke as an all-natural food preservative. This review will be valuable for the industrial and research communities in the food science and technology areas. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Antibacterial activity of essential oils: potential applications in food

    Burt, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Due to its antibacterial activity, oregano oil has lately become interesting as a potential 'natural' food preservative. Oregano oil was found to be a fast acting and effective inhibitor of a strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7, the causative agent of a serious gastro-enteritis, and was lethal to

  5. Improved applicability of nisin in novel combinations with other food preservation factors

    Pol, I.E.

    2001-01-01

    General discussion

    Modern consumers nowadays, have a preference for more natural, mildly preserved food products with a fresh appearance over traditionally preserved products. Mild preservation techniques applied singly are usually not sufficient to control microbial

  6. Bamboo shoot preservation for enhancing its business potential and local economy: a review.

    Bal, Lalit M; Singhal, Poonam; Satya, Santosh; Naik, S N; Kar, Abhijit

    2012-01-01

    Bamboo shoot as food has been used in traditional ways by the tribal community the world over. For enhancing its business potential, research on various aspects of bamboo shoot as food is being carried out in Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, and Asian countries and several products are available in the market. Bamboo shoots are used as a delicacy in human food, are a good source of dietary fiber, low in fat and calories. The research studies included in this review paper focus on post-harvest preservation of bamboo shoot. In view of the seasonal availability of bamboo shoot, the post-harvest preservation system for handling cynogenic toxicity in raw shoot while keeping nutrients intact and enhancement of shelf life of the value added products assume great significance for the business potential of this natural product. A yardstick of assessing the "Shelf life-Quality Matrix" developed in this review paper would give a new perspective of quality control in case of preservation of bamboo shoot. Also, knowledge gaps identified in this paper would give impetus to new academic and R&D activities, in turn generating an innovative job profile in the food industry as well as rural entrepreneurship.

  7. Antifungal potential of thyme essential oil as a preservative for storage of wheat seeds

    Anžlovar, Sabina; Likar, Matevž; Dolenc Koce, Jasna

    2017-01-01

    Plant essential oils are potential food preservatives due to their inhibitory effects on bacterial and fungal growth. Antifungal activities of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) essential oil were tested against endophytic fungi grown from wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain, molecularly identified as Alternaria alternata, Alternaria infectoria, Aspergillus fl avus, Epicoccum nigrum and Fusarium poae. Their susceptibility to thyme essential oil was tested in vitro, and ranged from fungicidal to fu...

  8. Application of physics technology in the preservation of food and fresh fruits and vegetables

    Bai Yaxiang; Hu Yucai; Xu Jianping

    2003-01-01

    Physics provides a new way for food storage and preservation. Experiments show that application of radiation, electrostatic fields, high voltage pulsed electric fields and microwaves to food, fruits and vegetables plays the part of insecticide, pasteurization and antisepsis without damaging nutritional structure and original flavor. Recent advances in the application of physics technology in food pasteurization and preservation are summarized, and prospects for future developments presented

  9. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Byun, Myung Woo; Yook, Hong Sun; Lee, Ju Woon and others

    1999-03-01

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamma irradiation at 2-10 kGy is considered to be an effective method to control pathogenic bacteria in species including Escherichia coli O157:H7. Gamma irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in beef. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Gamma irradiation on pre-rigor beef shortens the aging-period, improves tenderness and enhances the beef quality. And, a new beef processing method using gamma irradiation, such as in the low salt sausage and hygienic beef patty was developed. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats(beefs: 0-5 kGy; porks: 0-30 kGy) in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepato carcinogenesis and the anti oxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide, which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export and import, some selected agricultural products, such as chestnuts, acorns, red beans and mung beans, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach.Current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfecting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of agricultural produce. However, irradiation doses suitable for controlling pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. (author)

  10. Bio-preservative and therapeutic potential of pediocin: recent trends and future perspectives.

    Mehta, Ridhi; Arya, Ridhima; Goyal, Karan; Singh, Mahipal; Sharma, Anil K

    2013-12-01

    Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria are of keen interest to the food industry for their bio-preservative potential and antimicrobial properties. The increasing demand for high quality 'safe' foods which are not extensively processed has created a niche for natural food preservatives. The bacteriocins (produced by bacteria) derived their name after the genera that produce them, hence bacteriocins produced by genus Pediococcus are known as Pediocin. Pediocins are antimicrobial peptides which show a strong activity against food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, also are thermostable in nature as well as stable over a wide range of pH. Pediocin produced by Pediococcus acidilactici, has been generally recognized as safe (GRAS). The current review summarizes about the progress made on the Pediocin research from patent perspective along with the immense potential of these Pediococcus derived bacteriocins not only as antimicrobial, biopreservative and probiotic agents but also for the treatment of cancer, body odors and other health promoting actions. The relevant patents have been listed and briefly analyzed to upgrade and benefit food industries by prolonging the shelf life of various products.

  11. Status, Antimicrobial Mechanism, and Regulation of Natural Preservatives in Livestock Food Systems.

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the status, antimicrobial mechanisms, application, and regulation of natural preservatives in livestock food systems. Conventional preservatives are synthetic chemical substances including nitrates/nitrites, sulfites, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, and potassium sorbate. The use of artificial preservatives is being reconsidered because of concerns relating to headache, allergies, and cancer. As the demand for biopreservation in food systems has increased, new natural antimicrobial compounds of various origins are being developed, including plant-derived products (polyphenolics, essential oils, plant antimicrobial peptides (pAMPs)), animal-derived products (lysozymes, lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, ovotransferrin, antimicrobial peptide (AMP), chitosan and others), and microbial metabolites (nisin, natamycin, pullulan, ε-polylysine, organic acid, and others). These natural preservatives act by inhibiting microbial cell walls/membranes, DNA/RNA replication and transcription, protein synthesis, and metabolism. Natural preservatives have been recognized for their safety; however, these substances can influence color, smell, and toxicity in large amounts while being effective as a food preservative. Therefore, to evaluate the safety and toxicity of natural preservatives, various trials including combinations of other substances or different food preservation systems, and capsulation have been performed. Natamycin and nisin are currently the only natural preservatives being regulated, and other natural preservatives will have to be legally regulated before their widespread use.

  12. Effects of commonly used food preservatives on biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans in vitro.

    Al-Ahmad, Ali; Wiedmann-Al-Ahmad, Margit; Auschill, Thorsten Mathias; Follo, Marie; Braun, Gabriele; Hellwig, Elmar; Arweiler, Nicole Birgit

    2008-08-01

    Sodium benzoate (SB), potassium sorbate (PS) and sodium nitrite (SN) are commonly used food preservatives. In this in vitro study, the effects of these substances on biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans were analysed. In addition to the microtiter plate test (MPT), a biofilm reactor containing bovine enamel slabs (BES) was used to study the influence of food preservatives on biofilm formation in 5 independent periods of 4 days each. These included one period with chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) as a positive control as well as a period with growth medium alone as a negative control. The vitality of the biofilm on BES was detected using live/dead staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Additionally, the number of colony forming units (CFU) was determined. In MPT 0.12% SN significantly reduced the biofilm formation. PS at a concentration of 0.4% tended to inhibit biofilm formation, whereas the inhibition for 0.8% PS was significant. Less inhibition was caused by 0.8% SB. In the biofilm reactor 0.06% of SN, 0.1% of SB and 0.1% PS significantly reduced the covering grade as well as the CFU of the biofilm. Biofilm vitality was reduced significantly by CHX to a level of 32.5% compared to the control. Only SB reduced the vitality to a level of 19.1%. SN and PS showed no influence on biofilm vitality. This study indicates the potential of food preservatives as inhibitory agents in S. mutans biofilm formation, which should be kept in mind when studying the effects of conserved food on dental plaque biofilm in situ.

  13. Potential hazards due to food additives in oral hygiene products.

    Tuncer Budanur, Damla; Yas, Murat Cengizhan; Sepet, Elif

    2016-01-01

    Food additives used to preserve flavor or to enhance the taste and appearance of foods are also available in oral hygiene products. The aim of this review is to provide information concerning food additives in oral hygiene products and their adverse effects. A great many of food additives in oral hygiene products are potential allergens and they may lead to allergic reactions such as urticaria, contact dermatitis, rhinitis, and angioedema. Dental practitioners, as well as health care providers, must be aware of the possibility of allergic reactions due to food additives in oral hygiene products. Proper dosage levels, delivery vehicles, frequency, potential benefits, and adverse effects of oral health products should be explained completely to the patients. There is a necessity to raise the awareness among dental professionals on this subject and to develop a data gathering system for possible adverse reactions.

  14. POTENTIAL HAZARDS DUE TO FOOD ADDITIVES IN ORAL HYGIENE PRODUCTS

    Damla TUNCER-BUDANUR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food additives used to preserve flavor or to enhance the taste and appearance of foods are also available in oral hygiene products. The aim of this review is to provide information concerning food additives in oral hygiene products and their adverse effects. A great many of food additives in oral hygiene products are potential allergens and they may lead to allergic reactions such as urticaria, contact dermatitis, rhinitis, and angioedema. Dental practitioners, as well as health care providers, must be aware of the possibility of allergic reactions due to food additives in oral hygiene products. Proper dosage levels, delivery vehicles, frequency, potential benefits, and adverse effects of oral health products should be explained completely to the patients. There is a necessity to raise the awareness among dental professionals on this subject and to develop a data gathering system for possible adverse reactions.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of Olea europaea Linné extracts and their applicability as natural food preservative agents.

    Thielmann, J; Kohnen, S; Hauser, C

    2017-06-19

    The antimicrobial activity of phenolic compounds from Olea (O.) europaea Linné (L.) is part of the scientific discussion regarding the use of natural plant extracts as alternative food preservative agents. Although, the basic knowledge on the antimicrobial potential of certain molecules such as oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol or elenolic acid derivatives is given, there is still little information regarding their applicability for food preservation. This might be primarily due to the lack of information regarding the full antimicrobial spectrum of the compounds, their synergisms in natural or artificial combinations and their interaction with food ingredients. The present review accumulates available literature from the past 40 years, investigating the antimicrobial activity of O. europaea L. derived extracts and compounds in vitro and in food matrices, in order to evaluate their food applicability. In summary, defined extracts from olive fruit or leaves, containing the strongest antimicrobial compounds hydroxytyrosol, oleacein or oleacanthal in considerable concentrations, appear to be suitable for food preservation. Nonetheless there is still need for consequent research on the compounds activity in food matrices, their effect on the natural microbiota of certain foods and their influence on the sensorial properties of the targeted products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Potential of food irradiation in Malaysia

    Rahman, Mohd Ghazali Bin HJ Abdul

    1985-01-01

    Food irradiation has recently been viewed as a technology that can contribute to the solution of problems associated with the preservation of Malaysia's agricultural produce, hence improving the economic status of the rural sector. Economic, political, social and environmental factors need to be taken into consideration in the implementation of a food irradiation program in Malaysia. Coordinated research is being carried out on various food items such as rice and pepper. The government holds a positive view of the technology. However, it is important to consider consumer acceptance of the technology and its legislation before the technology is adopted

  17. food irradiation: activities and potentialities

    Doellstaedt, R.; Huebner, G.

    1985-01-01

    After the acceptance of food irradiation up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy recommended by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food in October 1980, the G.D.R. started a programme for the development of techniques for food irradiation. A special onion irradiator was designed and built as a pilot plant for studying technological and economic parameters of the irradiation of onions. (author)

  18. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. isolated from chicken samples.

    Er, Buket; Demirhan, Burak; Onurdag, Fatma Kaynak; Ozgacar, Selda Özgen; Oktem, Aysel Bayhan

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella spp. are widespread foodborne pathogens that contaminate egg and poultry meats. Attachment, colonization, as well as biofilm formation capacity of Salmonella spp. on food and contact surfaces of food may cause continuous contamination. Biofilm may play a crucial role in the survival of salmonellae under unfavorable environmental conditions, such as in animal slaughterhouses and processing plants. This could serve as a reservoir compromising food safety and human health. Addition of antimicrobial preservatives extends shelf lives of food products, but even when products are supplemented with adequate amounts of preservatives, it is not always possible to inhibit the microorganisms in a biofilm community. In this study, our aims were i) to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBIC) of selected preservatives against planktonic and biofilm forms of Salmonella spp. isolated from chicken samples and Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 standard strain, ii) to show the differences in the susceptibility patterns of same strains versus the planktonic and biofilm forms to the same preservative agent, and iii) to determine and compare antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. For this purpose, Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 standard strain and 4 Salmonella spp. strains isolated from chicken samples were used. Investigation of antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. was done according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M100-S18 guidelines and BioTimer assay, respectively. As preservative agents, pure ciprofloxacin, sodium nitrite, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, methyl paraben, and propyl paraben were selected. As a result, it was determined that MBIC values are greater than the MIC values of the preservatives. This result verified the resistance seen in a biofilm community to food

  19. Gamma irradiation as a means of food preservation in Canada

    Pim, L.R.

    1983-11-01

    The status of food irradiation has changed significantly in the past three years with the establishment of inter-national standards by the Codex Alimentarious Commission of the United Nations and the setting of wholesomeness guidelines for a wide variety of foods by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on Food Irradiation. This report examines: the technology of food irradiation; the biochemical, nutritional and microbiological effects on food, with special attention paid to radiolytic products and their possible toxicity; the economic feasibility of a food irradiation industry; food irradiation in Canada -experience, outlook and regulatory proposals, and consumer reaction to irradiated foods; and presents conclusions and recommendations to Health and Welfare Canada and to Consumer and Corporate Affairs Canada

  20. Food irradiation: A technique for preserving and improving the safety of food

    1988-01-01

    Processing of food with low levels of radiation has the potential to contribute to reducing both spoilage of food during storage - a particular problem in developing countries - and the high incidence of food-borne disease currently seen in all countries. Approval has been granted for the treatment of more than 30 products with radiation in over 30 countries but, in general, governments have been slow to authorize the use of this new technique. One reason for this slowness is a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails. This book aims to increase understanding by providing information on the process of food irradiation in simple, non-technical language. It describes the effects that irradiation has on food, and the plant and equipment that are necessary to carry it out safely. The legislation and control mechanisms required to ensure the safety of food irradiation facilities are also discussed. Education is seen as the key to gaining the confidence of the consumers in the safety of irradiated food, and to promoting understanding of the benefits that irradiation can provide

  1. Food irradiation: A technique for preserving and improving the safety of food

    1992-01-01

    Processing of food with low levels of radiation has the potential to contribute to reducing both spoilage of food during storage - a particular problem in developing countries - and the high incidence of food-borne disease currently seen in all countries. Approval has been granted for the treatment of more than 30 products with radiation in over 30 countries but, in general , governments have been slow to authorize the use of this new technique. One reason for this slowness is a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails. This book aims to increase understanding by providing information on the process of food irradiation in simple, non-technical language. It describes the effects that irradiation has on food , and the plant and equipment that are necessary to carry it out safely. The legislation and control mechanisms required to ensure the safety of food irradiation facilities are also discussed. Education is seen as the key to gaining the confidence of the consumers in the safety of irradiated food, and to promoting understanding of the benefits that irradiation can provide

  2. Fish and food preservation by radiation in Bangladesh

    Hossain, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) has been engaged for the last two decades in research and development activities in food irradiation and has been actively participating in research projects under the Regional Project in Food Irradiation (RPFI) of the RCA countries since its inception. The Institute of Food and Radiation Biology (IFRB) of the Commission has been using since 1979 a 50,000 curie Cobalt-60 gamma source (Gamma beam-650) for R and D and pilot-scale studies on food irradiation. The present status of food irradiation and its prospects of commercial introduction in Bangladesh are described

  3. 5 Steps to Food Preservation Program Meets the Needs of Idaho Families

    Dye, Lorie; Hoffman, Katie

    2014-01-01

    University of Idaho FCS Extension Educators in southeastern Idaho developed a five-lesson condensed version of safe food preservation classes, driven by participants' interest to meet the needs of everyday home preservers. A post-test survey revealed that participants took the course to be self-reliant, use their own produce, and be in control of…

  4. Antimicrobial food packaging: potential and pitfalls

    Malhotra, Bhanu; Keshwani, Anu; Kharkwal, Harsha

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays food preservation, quality maintenance, and safety are major growing concerns of the food industry. It is evident that over time consumers’ demand for natural and safe food products with stringent regulations to prevent food-borne infectious diseases. Antimicrobial packaging which is thought to be a subset of active packaging and controlled release packaging is one such promising technology which effectively impregnates the antimicrobial into the food packaging film material and subsequently delivers it over the stipulated period of time to kill the pathogenic microorganisms affecting food products thereby increasing the shelf life to severe folds. This paper presents a picture of the recent research on antimicrobial agents that are aimed at enhancing and improving food quality and safety by reduction of pathogen growth and extension of shelf life, in a form of a comprehensive review. Examination of the available antimicrobial packaging technologies is also presented along with their significant impact on food safety. This article entails various antimicrobial agents for commercial applications, as well as the difference between the use of antimicrobials under laboratory scale and real time applications. Development of resistance amongst microorganisms is considered as a future implication of antimicrobials with an aim to come up with actual efficacies in extension of shelf life as well as reduction in bacterial growth through the upcoming and promising use of antimicrobials in food packaging for the forthcoming research down the line. PMID:26136740

  5. Is food irradiation an alternative to chemical preservation?

    Horacek, P.

    1987-01-01

    The history is presented of food irradiation. The foods irradiated and the doses used are reported. The industrial use of food irradiation is restricted to a single industrial irradiation plant in Japan and several small facilities for irradiating herbs and feeds for special laboratory animal breeds. The limited application of the method is caused by high prices of radiation sources and adverse side effects (potato rotting, bad smell of meat, etc.). (M.D.). 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Recent approaches in food bio-preservation - a review

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes

    2018-03-19

    Mar 19, 2018 ... Department of Livestock Products Technology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, U.P. Pt. Deen ... bacteriophages may also be helpful in bio-preservation, however; their safety issues must be addressed properly before selection ... Fermentation process produces numbers of beneficial ...

  7. Vibro-thermal disinfestor for preservation of food grains

    Chander, Ramesh; Dey, Chandan; Singh, Manjit

    2009-01-01

    Division of Remote Handling and Robotics (DRHR) along with Food Technology Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre has developed a simple vibro-thermal based system for disinfestations of food grains. This paper brings out the technical details of the system. (author)

  8. Nanomaterials for fresh-keeping and sterilization in food preservation.

    Liu, Dongfang; Gu, Ning

    2009-06-01

    Food sterilizing and antistaling technologies are very important to the public's health and safety and have been attracting more and more attentions. In the past several years, new development chance was created by the introduction of nanomaterials to this critical field. Nanomaterials possess lots of outstanding properties, such as unique quantum size effect, large surface area and catalytic properties, which jointly facilitate high effective fresh-keeping, and thus were considered as promising materials in food sterilization and antistale. This review article focuses on the patented applications of nanomaterials as food biocidal agents, bacteriostatic agents, catalysts and carriers for antistaling agents.

  9. Food Preservation Manual: A Guide for School-Community Canneries in Virginia.

    Lee, Jasper S., Ed.; Wood, Charles B.

    The manual was intended primarily for use by lay instructors and assistants involved in the daily operation of school-community canneries under the supervision of a high school agricultural education instructor. The first half deals in detail with the fundamentals of food preparation and cannery operation. Food preservation by canning, sanitation…

  10. Economic Feasibility Study for Using Irradiation Technology in Preservation of Animalism Foods

    El Gameel, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study discus the economic feasibility for the preservation animalism foods by using irradiation technology. This study has included the technical data, regression foretelling for the throughput, determination of irradiators types and radiation sources activity. This study comprises the financial analysis for the establishment animalism foods irradiation facilities (types: tote box, pallet conveyor) and the national return

  11. Food Preservation Mini-Modules Offer Options for Learners and Extension Staff

    Driessen, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Renewed interest in growing and purchasing locally grown foods quadrupled requests for food preservation classes. Economic times tightened budgets, decreasing staffing levels of Extension educators. Offering options via the Internet was a natural progression to meet the increased demand. Extension educators created 20 5-minute online video--like…

  12. Detailed process design based on genomics of survivors of food preservation processes

    Brul, S.; Klis, F.M.; Oomes, S.J.C.M.; Montijn, R.C.; Schuren, F.H.J.; Coote, P.; Hellingwerf, K.J.

    2002-01-01

    The food processing industry is faced with an ever-increasing demand for safe and minimally processed wholesome foods. In order to come to a knowledge-based rather than a mainly empirical combination of appropriate preservation hurdles, we will introduce the application of the recently booming

  13. Superchilling of muscle foods: Potential alternative for chilling and freezing.

    Banerjee, Rituparna; Maheswarappa, Naveena Basappa

    2017-12-05

    Superchilling is an attractive technique for preservation of muscle foods which freezes part of the water and insulate the food products from temperature fluctuations thereby enhancing the shelf-life during storage, transportation and retailing. Superchilling process synergistically improves the product shelf-life when used in combination with vacuum or modified atmospheric packaging. The shelf-life of muscle foods was reported to be increased by 1.5 to 4.0 times relative to traditional chilling technique. Advantages of superchilling and its ability to maintain the freshness of muscle foods over freezing has been discussed and its potential for Industrial application is highlighted. Present review also unravel the mechanistic bases for ice-crystal formation during superchilling and measures to ameliorate the drip loss. The future challenges especially automation in superchilling process for large scale Industrial application is presented.

  14. Nuclear technology applied to food preservation and sterilization

    Galvez, M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation to conserve and sterilize food dates back to 1995, when the first tests were performed in USA as part of the Atoms for peace program. After much controversy, the most prestigious international organizations- OECD, code Alimentarius, FDA and EC have not only authorized but also recommended its use. It is a proven fact that food irradiation provides optimum results for inhibition treatment of tuber shoots, elimination of insects from fruits and seeds, delaying the maturing processes of fruit and elimination of alternative microorganisms and pathogens in any type of food. Food is treated in two types of plants: 1.- Radioactive isotope plants or gamma radiation plants 2.- electron accelerator plants (beta radiation plants). These two types of plants are thoroughly legislated, as are the form and doses of the treatments. Commercial food irradiation is done in 32 countries in the world but is authorized in more than 40, and the WHO recommends that the method be used on a widespread basis, as it believes that it can help to improve food-related health worldwide. (Author) 5 refs.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of coriander oil and its effectiveness as food preservative.

    Silva, Filomena; Domingues, Fernanda C

    2017-01-02

    ABTRACT Foodborne illness represents a major economic burden worldwide and a serious public health threat, with around 48 million people affected and 3,000 death each year only in the USA. One of the possible strategies to reduce foodborne infections is the development of effective preservation strategies capable of eradicating microbial contamination of foods. Over the last years, new challenges for the food industry have arisen such as the increase of antimicrobial resistance of foodborne pathogens to common preservatives and consumers demand for naturally based products. In order to overcome this, new approaches using natural or bio-based products as food preservatives need to be investigated. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a well-known herb widely used as spice, or in folk medicine, and in the pharmacy and food industries. Coriander seed oil is the world's second most relevant essential oil, exhibiting antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, some yeasts, dermatophytes and filamentous fungi. This review highlights coriander oil antimicrobial activity and possible mechanisms of action in microbial cells and discusses the ability of coriander oil usage as a food preservative, pointing out possible paths for the successful evolution for these strategies towards a successful development of a food preservation strategy using coriander oil.

  16. Evaluation of the economic feasibility of radiation preservation of selected food commodities

    Balazs-Sprincz, V.

    1977-01-01

    Food preservation methods have increased in importance with the rapid increase in world population. A novel preservation method, ionizing radiation, shows promising applications. Its economic feasibility has been carefully studied for the last two decades. The article reviews the literature on the economics of food irradiation. Cost-benefit analyses on irradiation of grain for disinfestation, on potatoes and onions for sprout inhibition and on mushrooms for retarding growth are surveyed in the first part. Calculations based on data of a few food-irradiation pilot plants and non-food irradiation plants indicate the cost range of the radiation treatment of these food items. The unit cost of irradiation would be only a few per cent of the value of produce treated and would not exceed the order of cost of other conventional preservation methods. The second part surveys the economic aspects of the application of ionizing radiation to food items including strawberries, certain tropical fruits, meat and marine products. The cost levels would seem to be acceptable to food processors. A food-irradiation plant would cost US$ 10 5 -10 6 and the annual operating cost would be from US$ 20000 to US$ 2 million. The prospective benefit of food irradiation would far outweigh the cost of treatment. Improved product quality, decreased spoilage losses and extension of shelf-life are considered to constitute the main benefits of food irradiation. (author)

  17. Facets of Nanotechnology as Seen in Food Processing, Packaging, and Preservation Industry.

    Pradhan, Neha; Singh, Surjit; Ojha, Nupur; Shrivastava, Anamika; Barla, Anil; Rai, Vivek; Bose, Sutapa

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has proven its competence in almost all possible fields we are aware of. However, today nanotechnology has evolved in true sense by contributing to a very large extent to the food industry. With the growing number of mouths to feed, production of food is not adequate. It has to be preserved in order to reach to the masses on a global scale. Nanotechnology made the idea a reality by increasing the shelf life of different kinds of food materials. It is not an entirely full-proof measure; however it has brought down the extent of wastage of food due to microbial infestation. Not only fresh food but also healthier food is being designed with the help of nano-delivery systems which act as a carrier for the food supplements. There are regulations to follow however as several of them pose serious threats to the wellbeing of the population. In coming days, newer modes of safeguarding food are going to be developed with the help of nanotechnology. In this paper, an overview has been given of the different methods of food processing, packaging, and preservation techniques and the role nanotechnology plays in the food processing, packaging, and preservation industry.

  18. Facets of Nanotechnology as Seen in Food Processing, Packaging, and Preservation Industry

    Pradhan, Neha; Singh, Surjit; Ojha, Nupur; Shrivastava, Anamika; Barla, Anil; Rai, Vivek; Bose, Sutapa

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has proven its competence in almost all possible fields we are aware of. However, today nanotechnology has evolved in true sense by contributing to a very large extent to the food industry. With the growing number of mouths to feed, production of food is not adequate. It has to be preserved in order to reach to the masses on a global scale. Nanotechnology made the idea a reality by increasing the shelf life of different kinds of food materials. It is not an entirely full-proof measure; however it has brought down the extent of wastage of food due to microbial infestation. Not only fresh food but also healthier food is being designed with the help of nano-delivery systems which act as a carrier for the food supplements. There are regulations to follow however as several of them pose serious threats to the wellbeing of the population. In coming days, newer modes of safeguarding food are going to be developed with the help of nanotechnology. In this paper, an overview has been given of the different methods of food processing, packaging, and preservation techniques and the role nanotechnology plays in the food processing, packaging, and preservation industry. PMID:26613082

  19. Preservation of Fish by Irradiation. Proceedings of a Panel on the Irradiation Preservation of Foods of Marine Origin

    1970-01-01

    The increasing emphasis on the need for protein-rich foods to improve the nutritional status of the world’s population has stimulated research on new methods of preserving fishery products. The sea offers a source of protein that could markedly reduce the protein gap existing in many parts of the world. The major problem in attaining a more complete exploitation of these products is how to preserve them so that they can be transported from the points of origin to areas of greatest need. The use of ionizing radiation as a preservation method has been satisfactorily demonstrated in many countries. In some respects it offers advantages over conventional methods; for example, it prolongs the market life without using heat or chemicals, and what is more, the products are treated while they are sealed in commercial types of containers. Although radiation processing appears feasible, additional research is needed to improve certain quality attributes of some treated foods and to demonstrate to the satisfaction of health authorities' that no deleterious effects result. To obtain advice on the problems that need attention a Panel on Irradiation Preservation of Foods of Marine Origin was convened in Vienna, by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture, on 15—19 December 1969. The main purpose of the panel’s work was to advise the Director General of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency on how these organizations can best fulfil their roles in radiation research on fishery products. The meeting was attended by thirteen experts from various countries and one representative of the World Health Organization. Reports were presented on research performed and detailed discussions were held on work done in perfecting the radurization treatment of fishery products. Evaluations were made of the microbiology of the radurization process, with special reference to

  20. Preservation of Fish by Irradiation. Proceedings of a Panel on the Irradiation Preservation of Foods of Marine Origin

    NONE

    1970-11-15

    The increasing emphasis on the need for protein-rich foods to improve the nutritional status of the world's population has stimulated research on new methods of preserving fishery products. The sea offers a source of protein that could markedly reduce the protein gap existing in many parts of the world. The major problem in attaining a more complete exploitation of these products is how to preserve them so that they can be transported from the points of origin to areas of greatest need. The use of ionizing radiation as a preservation method has been satisfactorily demonstrated in many countries. In some respects it offers advantages over conventional methods; for example, it prolongs the market life without using heat or chemicals, and what is more, the products are treated while they are sealed in commercial types of containers. Although radiation processing appears feasible, additional research is needed to improve certain quality attributes of some treated foods and to demonstrate to the satisfaction of health authorities' that no deleterious effects result. To obtain advice on the problems that need attention a Panel on Irradiation Preservation of Foods of Marine Origin was convened in Vienna, by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture, on 15-19 December 1969. The main purpose of the panel's work was to advise the Director General of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency on how these organizations can best fulfil their roles in radiation research on fishery products. The meeting was attended by thirteen experts from various countries and one representative of the World Health Organization. Reports were presented on research performed and detailed discussions were held on work done in perfecting the radurization treatment of fishery products. Evaluations were made of the microbiology of the radurization process, with special reference to the

  1. Judgement of irradiation-preserved food by the adult population in Hungary (preliminary publication)

    Tolnay, P.; Szabo, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    A wide survey by questionnaires was started in 1997 in the subject area of Nutrition and Health. Part of this survey was directed toward the acceptance of preserved food by irradiation treatment by the public. The results have been evaluated here and presented. The main problem was to find out the differences of various segments of the Hungarian adult population in their judgement of irradiated food, and what is the general knowledge in relation with radiopreservation technology of food. (R.P.)

  2. The role of packaging in preserving the quality of food

    Varsanyi, I.

    1979-01-01

    The causes of food decomposition and the different conserving methods are reviewed. Among the physical conserving procedures the ionizing gamma and electron radiations are more and more widely used. The applied radiation dose is intended to exterminate even the most resistant microorganisms, e.g. the spores of Clostridium botulinum, but it should not damage the food product. The appropiate packaging material should be chosen according to the conserving technology, as radiation may alter the consistence of modern plastics (they become more rigid or fragile) or chemical disintegration can be induced rendering the product unenjoyable. (L.E.)

  3. Chitosan-incorporated different nanocomposite HPMC films for food preservation

    Shanmuga Priya, D.; Suriyaprabha, R.; Yuvakkumar, R.; Rajendran, V.

    2014-02-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles were synthesized by cross-linking with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) using ionic gelation method and casted into hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films. XRD, FTIR, and UV-Vis spectra showed the corresponding phase, characteristic peaks of CS-TPP functional groups, and transmittance of the films, respectively. Oleic acid, TiO2, neem powder, and Ag of equal ratio were added as an additive to the optimized 1 wt% of chitosan-HPMC films and studied for its mechanical, solubility, thermal, structural, and antimicrobial property. The better physio-chemical and biological properties are achieved in the films incorporated with TiO2 and neem. The characterized films were directly tested for the preservation of grape and plums and for their decay index. Polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activity of the preserved fruits showed that grape and plums remained unchanged, respectively, for 10 days and for 3 weeks. This study reveals that shelf life of the grape using TiO2- and neem-doped CS-HPMC films was extended up to 10 days with good sensory and textural qualities compared with other films.

  4. Application of edible coating with essential oil in food preservation.

    Ju, Jian; Xie, Yunfei; Guo, Yahui; Cheng, Yuliang; Qian, He; Yao, Weirong

    2018-03-26

    Compared with other types of packaging, edible coatings are becoming more and more popular because of their more environmentally friendly properties and active ingredients carrying ability. The edible coating can reduce the influence of essential oils (EOs) on the flavor of the product and also can prolong the action time of EOs through the slow-release effect, which effectively promote the application of EOs in food. Understanding the different combinations of edible coatings and EOs as well as their antimicrobial effects on different microorganisms will be more powerful and targeted to promote the application of EOs in real food systems. The review focus on the contribution of the combination of EOs and edible coatings (EO-edible coatings) to prolong the shelf life of food products, (1) specifically addressing the main materials used in the preparation of EO-edible coatings and the application of EO-edible coatings in the product, (2) systematically summarizing the main production method of EO-edible coatings, (3) discussing the antiseptic activity of EO-edible coatings on different microorganisms in food.

  5. Possible use of ionizing radiation in food preservation

    Salkova, Z.

    1975-01-01

    An informative survey is presented of the application of ionizing radiation in the food industry based on experiments performed and literary data. The possibility of radiation treatment of potatoes, onions and strawberries is discussed and the positive effect of experimentally determined gamma radiation doses on the extension of storage of meat is shown

  6. Radiation Dosimetry for Quality Control of Food Preservation and Disinfestation

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, Arne; Uribe, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    In the use of x and gamma rays and scanned electron beams to extend the shelf life of food by delay of sprouting and ripening, killing of microbes, and control of insect population, quality assurance is provided by standardized radiation dosimetry. By strategic placement of calibrated dosimeters...

  7. Preservation of food by cold chains. Part 4. Brief history of the industrial food preservation; Conservering van voedingsmiddelen door koudeketens. Deel 4. Korte historie van de industriele voedingsmiddelenconservering

    Van den Berg, C.; Berends, E.

    2011-10-01

    This is the fourth article in the series on cold chain food preservation, which describes the use of refrigeration in the food industry. Milestones were the building of cold chains for food distribution and new processes such as margarine and lager beer, and the scaling up of existing processes (e.g. for dairy, meat and fish products). By quick freezing, introduced by Clarence Birdseye in 1925, refrigeration can also be used for long term preservation of food products, as a powerful alternative for canning food. [Dutch] Dit vierde artikel in de reeks 'voedingsmiddelenconservering door koudeketens' completeert de beknopte historie van de voedingsmiddelenindustrie met een overzicht van het in gebruik nemen van de koelmachine. Mijlpalen zijn het ontstaan van koudeketens voor voedseldistributie en de nu mogelijk geworden nieuwe processen, de bereiding van pilsbier en margarine, de opschaling van bereidingsprocessen en het lange-afstandtransport van bederfelijke producten zoals zuivelproducten, vlees en vis. Door diepvriezen als methode aan te wenden, uitgevonden door Clarence Birdseye in 1925, kan koude ook worden gebruikt om voedingsmiddelen lang houdbaar te maken, een superieur alternatief voor inblikken van voedsel.

  8. Studies on the preservation of food by gamma irradiation

    Kim, S.K.; Umeda, K.

    1979-01-01

    This work was conducted to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on the preservation of potato. The Irish Cobbler potato tubers were irradiated at the doses of 7 krad and 15 krad of gamma ray of Co-60 at room temperature. When the potato tubers were stored under various conditions, the freshness and preservability of irradiated potato tubers were remarkably extended by 20, June. The results of this work are summarized as follows: The potato tubers applied with 15 krad of gamma ray were observed freshness without any shrinkage and defects. The potato tubers of control rotted and sprouted completely on 3, March. All tubers of them were cured at 7 0 C and relative humidity of 90% for a month before irradiation and they were treated at 18-20 0 C and RH 80% for 2 weeks after irradiation. They were stored at the above mentioned conditions. Reducing Sugar content of irradiated potato tubers was negligibly changed such as non-irradiated potato tubers along with an extended storage period, when they, as pre-and post-irradiation, were stored at 7 0 C and RH 90%. If they were treated at 18-20 0 C and RH 80% for 2 weeks after irradiation, reducing sugar content of the potato tubers was temporarily increased and then it was decreased as much as the former. As the result of microscopic test for the wound-peridom formation of potato tubers, the dark brown cork layer of wounded tuber of control was perfectly built up at about 2 weeks of the post wound, and starch particles have disappeared almost. The cork layer of irradiated potato tuber was formed at 3-4 weeks after wounded and also starch particles were not watched. The layers irradiated potato was observed the same as cork layer of sound potato. (author)

  9. Current topics in active and intelligent food packaging for preservation of fresh foods.

    Lee, Seung Yuan; Lee, Seung Jae; Choi, Dong Soo; Hur, Sun Jin

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current packaging systems, e.g. active packaging and intelligent packaging, for various foods. Active packaging, such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), extends the shelf life of fresh produce, provides a high-quality product, reduces economic losses, including those caused by delay of ripening, and improves appearance. However, in active packaging, several variables must be considered, such as temperature control and different gas formulations with different product types and microorganisms. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additive agents into packaging materials with the purpose of maintaining or extending food product quality and shelf life. Intelligent packaging is emerging as a potential advantage in food processing and is an especially useful tool for tracking product information and monitoring product conditions. Moreover, intelligent packaging facilitates data access and information exchange by altering conditions inside or outside the packaging and product. In spite of these advantages, few of these packaging systems are commercialized because of high cost, strict safety and hygiene regulations or limited consumer acceptance. Therefore more research is needed to develop cheaper, more easily applicable and effective packaging systems for various foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Food-processing, packaging and irradiation/preservation

    Tripathi, Jyothi

    2017-01-01

    The present talk describes the major projects being carried out in FFACS during last few years. One of the major aims of the section is development of ready-to-cook (RTC) vegetables and ready-to-eat (RTE) fruits with improved shelf life using radiation processing. RTC vegetables and fruits (French beans, ash gourd, drumstick, pumpkin, cabbage, cauliflower and pomegranate having shelf life of 2-3 days at 10 °C) with enhanced shelf life (up to 21 days at 10°C) were developed using radiation treatment. The developed products were far superior as compared to the corresponding control samples with respect to sensory and microbial quality during the intended storage period. The findings have helped the food industry in adoption of food irradiation technology. The products developed are now being taken up by HyperCITY Retail (India) Ltd. for sale on their shelves

  11. Effects of food preservatives on growth and metabolism of plaque bacteria in vitro and in vivo

    Leikanger, S.; Bjertness, E.; Aamdal Scheie, A.

    1992-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the consumption of food preservatives during the last decades, and to study the effect of the preservatives, sorbic and benzoic acid, on growth and glycolysis of oral bacteria in vitro, and on acid formation by dental plaque in vivo. Five consumption reports from the Central Bureau of Statistics of Norway were used to estimate alterations in consumption of staple food containing the two preservatives. A modified broth dilution method was used to determine the MIC values of the preservatives against Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus sanguis. Extracellular 14 C-glycolytic metabolites were studied by HPLC analyses. Plaque-pH measurements were used to assess possible effects on acid production. The consumption reports were used to assess possible effects on acid production. The consumption reports indicated increased consumption of preservatives. The in vitro testing suggested that legal concentrations of preservatives may inhibit the growth of oral streptococci. However, the preservatives did not inhibit in vitro glycolysis at tested concentrations. In vivo testing with similar concentrations (0.4% w/v) showed a significant effect. A higher concentration (2% w/v potassium sorbate) had a tendency to inhibit acid-formation by dental plaque even more. (au)

  12. Food preservation experiment by irradiation in the south zone of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Levit, Vladimir; Santos, Ari S.; Foes, Altair D.R.; Vaniel, Ana P.; Louzada, Ana R.; Silveira, Cristina M.; Jardim, Lisandra F.; Mesko, Marcia F.

    2000-01-01

    The south zone of the state of Rio Grande do Sul is characterized as an area of great food production as fruits, vegetables, meats, fish among others. In Brazil, the state RS is the producing greater of onion and peach. It was intended to study the use of the irradiation for the propose of preservation of peaches and onions, relating the diverse doses with the capacity of conservation of the peaches and retardation in the process of budding of onions. It was objective also to follow the changes in the properties of the peaches and onions radiated related to the physic-chemical and nutritional parameters, as well as determining the dose of radiation that is more efficient in the preservation and that provokes minor number of alterations in the sensorial and nutritional properties of these foods. In the process of preservation for irradiation the foods are submitted to a field of ionizing radiation in rigorously burst conditions in mode that the food receives the amount from necessary and enough energy for the intended handling. Different doses of gamma radiation of 60 Co had been used and the reached results show to the effectiveness of this technique in the preservation of studied foods

  13. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto,; Budiyono

    2015-01-01

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration

  14. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  15. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto,; Budiyono [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof. H. Soedarto, SH, Kampus Baru Tembalang, Semarang (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  16. The Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Microorganisms in Food Preservation

    M. Arici

    2006-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is a new food preservation technology known for its capacity to inactivate spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. High-pressure treatments are receiving a great deal of attention for the inactivation of microorganisms in food processing, pressure instead of temperature is used as stabilizing factor. High hydrostatic pressure treatment is the most studied alternative process, many works reported successful results in inactivating a wide range of microorganisms under ...

  17. The application of nuclear track microhole membrance in food preservation through irradiation

    Qian Defeng; Li Xianhai

    1999-01-01

    The author introduces a new practical air-seeping and germ-prevention packing container made with a combination of the 0.1-0.5 μm borediameter nuclear track microhole membrane (NTMM) and the PE food wrapper or other poisonous less PE containers of different shapes. It can be applied in the field of food preservation, especially for storage of fresh fruits through irradiation, to achieve breathing with oxygen, and thus to prolong the storage duration

  18. Food-associated lactic acid bacteria with antimicrobial potential from traditional Mexican foods.

    Alvarado, C; García Almendárez, B E; Martin, S E; Regalado, C

    2006-01-01

    This work was conducted to identify indigenous LAB capable of antimicrobial activity, present in traditional Mexican-foods with potential as natural preservatives. A total of 27 artisan unlabeled Mexican products were evaluated, from which 94 LAB strains were isolated, and only 25 strains showed antimicrobial activity against at least one pathogen indicator microorganism. Most of the inhibitory activity showed by the isolated LAB strains was attributed to pH reduction by organic acids. Lactobacillus and Lactococcus strains were good acid producers, depending on the substrate, and may enhance the safety of food products. Cell free cultures of Leuconostoc mesenteroides CH210, and PT8 (from chorizo and pulque, respectively) reduced the number of viable cells of enteropathogenic E. coli in broth system. Lb. plantarum CC10 (from "madre" of vinegar) showed significant inhibitory effect against S. aureus 8943. E. faecium QPII (from panela cheese) produced a bacteriocin with wide anti-L. monocytogenes activity. Selected LAB from traditional Mexican foods showed good potential as bio-preservatives.

  19. Microbial fermented tea - a potential source of natural food preservatives

    Mo, H.Z.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Chen, Z.M.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities of microbial fermented tea are much less known than its health beneficial properties. These antimicrobial activities are generated in natural microbial fermentation process with tea leaves as substrates. The antimicrobial components produced during the fermentation process

  20. Toxicological potential of 2-alkylcyclobutanones--specific radiolytic products in irradiated fat-containing food--in bacteria and human cell lines

    Hartwig, A; Pelzer, A; Burnouf, D; Titéca, H; Delincée, H; Briviba, K; Soika, C; Hodapp, C; Raul, F; Miesch, M; Werner, D; Horvatovich, P; Marchioni, E

    2007-01-01

    Food irradiation has been considered as a safe processing technology to improve food safety and preservation, eliminating efficiently bacterial pathogens, parasites and insects. This study aims to characterize the toxicological potential of 2-alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs), radiolytic derivatives of

  1. Bioenergy Potential from Food Waste in California.

    Breunig, Hanna M; Jin, Ling; Robinson, Alastair; Scown, Corinne D

    2017-02-07

    Food waste makes up approximately 15% of municipal solid waste generated in the United States, and 95% of food waste is ultimately landfilled. Its bioavailable carbon and nutrient content makes it a major contributor to landfill methane emissions, but also presents an important opportunity for energy recovery. This paper presents the first detailed analysis of monthly food waste generation in California at a county level, and its potential contribution to the state's energy production. Scenarios that rely on excess capacity at existing anaerobic digester (AD) and solid biomass combustion facilities, and alternatives that allow for new facility construction, are developed and modeled. Potential monthly electricity generation from the conversion of gross food waste using a combination of AD and combustion varies from 420 to 700 MW, averaging 530 MW. At least 66% of gross high moisture solids and 23% of gross low moisture solids can be treated using existing county infrastructure, and this fraction increases to 99% of high moisture solids and 55% of low moisture solids if waste can be shipped anywhere within the state. Biogas flaring practices at AD facilities can reduce potential energy production by 10 to 40%.

  2. Bioenergy Potential from Food Waste in California

    Breunig, Hanna M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Jin, Ling [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Robinson, Alastair [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Scown, Corinne D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States)

    2017-01-25

    This paper presents the first detailed analysis of monthly food waste generation in California at a county level, and its potential contribution to the state's energy production. Scenarios that rely on excess capacity at existing anaerobic digester (AD) and solid biomass combustion facilities, and alternatives that allow for new facility construction, are developed and modeled. Potential monthly electricity generation from the conversion of gross food waste using a combination of AD and combustion varies from 420 to 700 MW, averaging 530 MW. At least 66% of gross high moisture solids and 23% of gross low moisture solids can be treated using existing county infrastructure, and this fraction increases to 99% of high moisture solids and 55% of low moisture solids if waste can be shipped anywhere within the state. Biogas flaring practices at AD facilities can reduce potential energy production by 10 to 40%.

  3. Potential Safety Issues Surrounding the Use of Benzoate Preservatives

    Peter W. Piper

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sodium benzoate (E211 and potassium sorbate (E202 have long been used for large-scale beverage preservation, yet it is potassium sorbate that is now the preferred option for most soft drink manufacturers. Partly this is a reaction to the discovery that benzoate can cause drinks to contain traces of the carcinogen benzene. This benzene is thought to have its origins in a free-radical catalysed reaction of the benzoate with ascorbic acid. However, there may be additional benefits to using potassium sorbate rather than the benzoate preservatives in beverages. In children, a high dietary intake of sodium benzoate may be associated with asthma, allergy, or attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder. Benzoate is now known to influence cognitive functioning. By acting as a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO, thereby reducing the DAAO-catalysed degradation of D-serine, it can upregulate the activity of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors in the brain. A high benzoate intake might also generate glycine deficiency, lack of glycine generally exerting a negative impact on brain neurochemistry. There are therefore strong grounds for suspecting that dietary benzoate can have neuromodulatory (mood, learning, and personality effects and influence child hyperactivity disorders.

  4. Comparative Effects of Food Preservatives on the Production of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin I from Staphylococcus aureus Isolate

    Yanying Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal enterotoxin I (SEI is associated with staphylococcal food poisoning, but little is known about different food preservatives on the production of SEI. In this study, the effect of different food preservatives (sodium nitrite, polylysine, chitosan, and tea catechin on the bacteria growth, sei gene expression, and extracellular SEI production of Staphylococcus aureus isolate H4 was detected in tryptone soya broth (TSB culture. Our results showed that all of these preservatives depressed S. aureus H4 growth and the order of inhibitory effect was 0.8 g/L tea catechin > 6 g/L chitosan > 0.25 g/L polylysine > 0.4 g/L tea catechin > 0.15 g/L sodium nitrite. Furthermore, 0.25 g/L polylysine or 0.15 g/L sodium nitrite did not significantly alter sei gene transcription, while 6 g/L chitosan obviously increased the relative mRNA level of sei gene expression. 0.4 g/L tea catechin remarkably inhibited sei gene transcription. In addition, 0.15 g/L sodium nitrite and 6 g/L chitosan significantly enhanced SEI secretion. 0.25 g/L polylysine, especially 0.4 g/L tea catechin, sharply inhibited the level of SEI secretion. The results indicated that tea catechin not only suppressed Staphylococcus aureus growth, but also inhibited SEI production and secretion, suggesting that tea catechin may be better than sodium nitrite, polylysine, or chitosan for keeping the food from the contamination of SEI. These investigations would be useful for food industry to provide safer food products due to S. aureus enterotoxins-related control strategy.

  5. Lowering of thermal stress in food preservation by reduction of the thermal resistance of microorganisms

    Kiss, I.

    1981-01-01

    Preservation of foodstuffs by heat treatment is a high-energy process the intensity of which is widely determined by the high thermoresistance of microbes and spores. However, tests revealed that germ numbers can be reduced and heat sensitivity of the spores can be increased by radiation treatment of the food additives. Thus the heat load of the products and the energy consumption could be reduced. (author)

  6. Knowledge and attitudes of selected home ecnomists toward irradiation in food preservation

    Johnson, F.C.S.

    1990-01-01

    Preservation of food with ionizing radiation treatment offers many benefits to consumers. Among other factors, the lack of certainty of the acceptance of this process by the public has slowed its commercial use in the U.S. Since home economists deal with food-related issues, it is likely that they will be asked questions by the public about this process. This project was designed to obtain information using a survey method about the knowledge and attitudes of selected California home economists toward the use of irradiation to preserve food. The information was used to determine whether a need existed to provide education about the irradiation process to these professionals. The survey revealed that these home economists lacked knowledge about the irradiation process, although they had a positive attitude toward it and desired to learn more about it. Based on these findings, a 90-minute statewide teleconference was conducted and viewed by more than 300 home economists and other interested professionals. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to analyze the data. Results revealed that (a) knowledge of and a positive attitude toward food irradiation increased as a result of participation in the teleconference, (b) the information provided was helpful, and (c) the objectives of the teleconference were met. This project should be replicated using a nationwide sample of home economists to obtain information about the knowledge and attitudes of a wide range of home economists about food irradiation and, if a need is demonstrated, a nationwide teleconference should be conducted

  7. Radiation technology for preservation and hygienization of food and agricultural commodities

    Hajare, Sachin N.

    2017-01-01

    Growing population demands more food for consumption. Given that the agricultural land is shrinking day by day in urban as well as rural areas, we are left with no choice but to preserve the produce in whatever way we can. In this scenario, gamma irradiation or exposure of foods or food products to high energy rays is a very effective technology in long term preservation of these products. Food Irradiation is an established and effective processing methodology that involves controlled application of energy from ionizing radiations in an irradiation chamber shielded by thick concrete walls using radioisotopes (Cobalt-60 and Caesium-137), electron beam (up to 10 MeV) and X-rays (up to 5 MeV). Presently it is being practiced in more than 60 countries for various applications. Radiation processing can achieve insect disinfestation of stored products, inhibition of sprouting in tubers, bulbs and rhizomes, delay in fruit ripening, destruction of microbes responsible for food spoilage and elimination of pathogens and parasites of public health importance

  8. Chemical stability of astaxanthin integrated into a food matrix: Effects of food processing and methods for preservation.

    Martínez-Delgado, Alejandra Anahí; Khandual, Sanghamitra; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro Josefina

    2017-06-15

    Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment found in numerous organisms ranging from bacteria to algae, yeasts, plants, crustaceans and fish such as salmon. Technological importance of this pigment emerged from various studies demonstrating that it is a powerful antioxidant, even with higher activity than alpha-tocopherol and other carotenoids. It has been included in various pharmaceutical products because of several beneficial properties. By its nature, astaxanthin is susceptible to degradation and can undergo chemical changes during food processing. Therefore, different studies have focused on improving the stability of the carotenoid under conditions such as high temperatures, pressures and mechanical force, among others. In this review, common processes involved in food processing and their effect on the stability of astaxanthin, integrated into a food matrix are discussed. Moreover, preservation techniques such as microencapsulation, inclusion in emulsions, suspensions, liposomes, etc., that are being employed to maintain stability of the product are also reviewed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spontaneous Food Fermentations and Potential Risks for Human Health

    Vittorio Capozzi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods and beverages are a heterogeneous class of products with a relevant worldwide significance for human economy, nutrition and health for millennia. A huge diversity of microorganisms is associated with the enormous variety in terms of raw materials, fermentative behavior and obtained products. In this wide microbiodiversity it is possible that the presence of microbial pathogens and toxic by-products of microbial origin, including mycotoxins, ethyl carbamate and biogenic amines, are aspects liable to reduce the safety of the consumed product. Together with other approaches (e.g., use of preservatives, respect of specific physico-chemical parameters, starter cultures technology has been conceived to successfully dominate indigenous microflora and to drive fermentation to foresee the desired attributes of the matrix, assuring quality and safety. Recent trends indicate a general return to spontaneous food fermentation. In this review, we point out the potential risks for human health associated with uncontrolled (uninoculated food fermentation and we discuss biotechnological approaches susceptible to conciliate fermented food safety, with instances of an enhanced contribution of microbes associated to spontaneous fermentation.

  10. Evaluation of the efficacy of four weak acids as antifungal preservatives in low-acid intermediate moisture model food systems.

    Huang, Yang; Wilson, Mark; Chapman, Belinda; Hocking, Ailsa D

    2010-02-01

    The potential efficacy of four weak acids as preservatives in low-acid intermediate moisture foods was assessed using a glycerol based agar medium. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC, % wt./wt.) of each acid was determined at two pH values (pH 5.0, pH 6.0) and two a(w) values (0.85, 0.90) for five food spoilage fungi, Eurotium herbariorum, Eurotium rubrum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium roqueforti. Sorbic acid, a preservative commonly used to control fungal growth in low-acid intermediate moisture foods, was included as a reference. The MIC values of the four acids were lower at pH 5.0 than pH 6.0 at equivalent a(w) values, and lower at 0.85 a(w) than 0.90 a(w) at equivalent pH values. By comparison with the MIC values of sorbic acid, those of caprylic acid and dehydroacetic acid were generally lower, whereas those for caproic acid were generally higher. No general observation could be made in the case of capric acid. The antifungal activities of all five weak acids appeared related not only to the undissociated form, but also the dissociated form, of each acid.

  11. Preserving the evolutionary potential of floras in biodiversity hotspots.

    Forest, Félix; Grenyer, Richard; Rouget, Mathieu; Davies, T Jonathan; Cowling, Richard M; Faith, Daniel P; Balmford, Andrew; Manning, John C; Procheş, Serban; van der Bank, Michelle; Reeves, Gail; Hedderson, Terry A J; Savolainen, Vincent

    2007-02-15

    One of the biggest challenges for conservation biology is to provide conservation planners with ways to prioritize effort. Much attention has been focused on biodiversity hotspots. However, the conservation of evolutionary process is now also acknowledged as a priority in the face of global change. Phylogenetic diversity (PD) is a biodiversity index that measures the length of evolutionary pathways that connect a given set of taxa. PD therefore identifies sets of taxa that maximize the accumulation of 'feature diversity'. Recent studies, however, concluded that taxon richness is a good surrogate for PD. Here we show taxon richness to be decoupled from PD, using a biome-wide phylogenetic analysis of the flora of an undisputed biodiversity hotspot--the Cape of South Africa. We demonstrate that this decoupling has real-world importance for conservation planning. Finally, using a database of medicinal and economic plant use, we demonstrate that PD protection is the best strategy for preserving feature diversity in the Cape. We should be able to use PD to identify those key regions that maximize future options, both for the continuing evolution of life on Earth and for the benefit of society.

  12. Plant nutraceuticals as antimicrobial agents in food preservation: terpenoids, polyphenols and thiols.

    Gutiérrez-Del-Río, Ignacio; Fernández, Javier; Lombó, Felipe

    2018-05-16

    Synthetic food additives generate a negative perception in consumers. Therefore, food manufacturers search for safer natural alternatives as those involving phytochemicals and plant essential oils. These bioactives have antimicrobial activities widely proved in in vitro tests. Foodborne diseases cause thousands of deaths and millions of infections every year, mainly due to pathogenic bacteria as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes or Staphylococcus aureus. This review summarizes industrially interesting antimicrobial bioactivities, as well as their mechanisms of action, for three main types of plant nutraceuticals, terpenoids (as carnosic acid), polyphenols (as quercetin) and thiols (as allicin), which are important constituents of plant essential oils with a broad range of antimicrobial effects. These phytochemicals are widely distributed in fruits and vegetables and are really useful in food preservation as they inhibit microbial growth. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Influence of some physical treatments and natural food preservatives on the diversity of microorganisms in certain Egyptian juices

    Abu El-Naga, M.N.Z.I.

    2009-01-01

    Foods begin to lose their quality from the moment they are harvested through changes resulting from physical, chemical, enzymatic, or microbiological reactions. Food preservation prevents deteriorative reaction, extending the shelf life and assuring its safety. Microorganisms and enzymes are the main agents responsible for food spoilages and therefore the targets of preservation techniques. The i deal m ethod of food preservation has the following characteristics: It improves shelf life and safety by inactivating spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. It dose not leave residues. It is cheap and convenient to apply. It encounters no objection from consumers and legislators. One of the major advances in human history was the ability to preserve food. It was the perquisite to man setting down in one place instead of moving from place to place in the never ending hunt for fresh food. The earliest preservation technologies developed were drying, smoking, chilling and heating. The use of various compounds such as salts and spices to preserve food was also used in ancient times

  14. Recruitment potential of a green alga Ulva flexuosa Wolfen dark preserved zoospore and its development

    Imchen, T.

    Green Alga Ulva flexuosa Wulfen Dark Preserved Zoospore and Its Development Temjensangba Imchen* National Institute of Oceanography (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Goa, India Abstract The recruitment potential and the ability of Ulva... factors play a role in the process of recruitment. Citation: Imchen T (2012) Recruitment Potential of a Green Alga Ulva flexuosa Wulfen Dark Preserved Zoospore and Its Development. PLoS ONE 7(3): e32651. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032651 Editor: Ross...

  15. Ultraviolet Technology For Food Preservation [tecnologia De Ultravioleta Para Preservação De Alimentos

    Guedes A.M.M.; Novello D.; Mendes G.M.P.; Cristianini M.

    2009-01-01

    This literature review article had as objective to gather information about ultraviolet (UV) technology utilization on the food industry, its effects and potential application. Aspects as the origin, concept and applications of the technology on the equipment industry and running mechanisms were approached. The application of UV radiation on food decontamination is still little used due its low penetration, but it is known that it can be easily applied to solid and liquid food products. The r...

  16. Probiotic potential of spontaneously fermented cereal based foods ...

    Probiotic potential of spontaneously fermented cereal based foods – A review. ... The realization that food has a role beyond provision of energy and body forming ... with growing interest in the research and development of functional foods.

  17. Development of Volatile Oil of Mustard and Vanillin as an Effective Food Preservation System for Military Bread and Baked Goods

    Muller, Wayne S; Sikes, Anthony; Yeomans, Walter; Anderson, Danielle; Senecal, Andy

    2006-01-01

    ...) vanillin is an effective food preservation system for molds and yeast. Four bread spoilage organisms were evaluated in the study Penicillium notatum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera...

  18. Study on chemical, bioactive and food preserving properties of Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murr.

    Petrović, Jovana; Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Barros, Lillian; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2014-07-25

    Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murr. was studied to determine the nutritional value, bioactive compounds, in vitro antioxidants, and antimicrobial and antitumor activities. The studied mushroom is a rich source of carbohydrates and proteins. Mannitol and trehalose were the main free sugars. In addition, the polyunsaturated fatty acids α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols were found. Oxalic and citric acids were the most abundant organic acids; cinnamic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids were quantified in the methanolic extract and could be related to the antioxidant properties. It was the polysaccharidic extract that exhibited higher antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, indicating that the compounds present in this extract possess stronger bioactivity. Only the polysaccharidic extract revealed antiproliferative activity in human tumor cell lines. In addition, a suitable model system with chicken pâté was developed to test the antimicrobial preserving properties of L. sulphureus. The methanolic extract was used to examine in situ preserving properties against Aspergillus flavus and demonstrated excellent preserving potential.

  19. Health protection and food preservation by gamma irradiation. Final report, may 1976

    1976-05-01

    Results of several major studies on food systems for space missions beginning with Apollo 12 through Apollo-Soyuz and investigations of the application of irradiation to food for manned space flight are reported. The study of flight food systems involved the application of radurization (pasteurizing levels) doses of gamma irradiation to flour and bread supplied by Pepperidge Farms in advance of the missions. All flights from Apollo 12 through 17 carried irradiated fresh bread. On Apollo 17, cooperation with Natick Laboratories permitted the introduction of a ham sandwich using irradiated bread and irradiated sterile ham. Investigations centered on irradiated bread were conducted during the course of these missions. Studies were applied to the concept of improving fresh bread from the point of view of mold inhibition. The studies considered how irradiation could best be applied at what levels and on a variety of bread types. Throughout the studies of the application of gamma irradiation the emphasis was placed upon using low levels of irradiation in the pasteurizing or radurizing doses--under a Megarad. The primary goal was to determine if a public health benefit could be demonstrated using radurization along with food preservation and food quality improvements. The public health benefit would be parallel to that of pasteurization of milk as a concept. Publications are included providing the details of these observations, one dealing with the flour characteristics and the other dealing with the influence on fresh bread types. These demonstrate the major findings noted during the period of the studies examining bread. (Author)

  20. Hyperbaric storage at room temperature for food preservation: A study in strawberry juice

    Segovia-Bravo, Kharla A.; Guignon, Bérengère; Bermejo-Prada, Ana; Sanz Martínez, Pedro D.; Otero, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Hyperbaric storage at room temperature was evaluated as a new food preservation method. To do that, strawberry juices maintained at different pressure levels (0.1, 25, 100 or 220 MPa) and 20°C for 15 days were compared to raw and thermally pasteurized samples stored at atmospheric pressure and 5°C for the same period. Hyperbaric storage reduced the initial microbial load of the juices by more than 2 log units to levels below the limit of detection. Moreover, pressure was effective to attenuat...

  1. The Maillard reaction and its control during food processing. The potential of emerging technologies.

    Jaeger, H; Janositz, A; Knorr, D

    2010-06-01

    The Maillard reaction between reducing sugars and amino acids is a common reaction in foods which undergo thermal processing. Desired consequences like the formation of flavor and brown color of some cooked foods but also the destruction of essential amino acids and the production of anti-nutritive compounds require the consideration of the Maillard reaction and relevant mechanisms for its control. This paper aims to exemplify the recent advances in food processing with regard to the controllability of heat-induced changes in the food quality. Firstly, improved thermal technologies, such as ohmic heating, which allows direct heating of the product and overcoming the heat transfer limitations of conventional thermal processing are presented in terms of their applicability to reduce the thermal exposure during food preservation. Secondly, non-thermal technologies such as high hydrostatic pressure and pulsed electric fields and their ability to extend the shelf life of food products without the application of heat, thus also preserving the quality attributes of the food, will be discussed. Finally, an innovative method for the removal of Maillard reaction substrates in food raw materials by the application of pulsed electric field cell disintegration and extraction as well as enzymatic conversion is presented in order to demonstrate the potential of the combination of processes to control the occurrence of the Maillard reaction in food processing. (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Organic food - food quality and potential health effects

    Mie, Axel; Wivstad, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we try to approach the question “Is organic food healthier than conventional food?” from a scientific perspective. We can conclude that science does not provide a clear answer to this question. A small number of animal studies and epidemiological studies on health effects from the consumption of organic vs. conventional feed/food have been performed. These studies indicate that the production system of the food has some influence on the immune system of the consuming animal or...

  3. Hidden plastics of Lake Ontario, Canada and their potential preservation in the sediment record

    Corcoran, Patricia L.; Norris, Todd; Ceccanese, Trevor; Walzak, Mary Jane; Helm, Paul A.; Marvin, Chris H.

    2015-01-01

    Microplastics are a source of environmental pollution resulting from degradation of plastic products and spillage of resin pellets. We report the amounts of microplastics from various sites of Lake Ontario and evaluate their potential for preservation in the sediment record. A total of 4635 pellets were sampled from the Humber Bay shoreline on three sampling dates. Pellet colours were similar to those from the Humber River bank, suggesting that the river is a pathway for plastics transport into Lake Ontario. Once in the lake, high density microplastics, including mineral-polyethylene and mineral-polypropylene mixtures, sink to the bottom. The minerals may be fillers that were combined with plastics during production, or may have adsorbed to the surfaces of the polymers in the water column or on the lake bottom. Based on sediment depths and accumulation rates, microplastics have accumulated in the offshore region for less than 38 years. Their burial increases the chance of microplastics preservation. Shoreline pellets may not be preserved because they are mingled with organic debris that is reworked during storm events. - Highlights: • We determine the amount of microplastics in Lake Ontario shore and bottom sediments. • Pellet preservation in shoreline sediment is unlikely. • Microplastics have been accumulating in bottom sediments over <38 years. • Buried plastics in lake bottom sediment have a high potential for preservation. - Microplastics were identified in bottom sediments of Lake Ontario. Their burial could result in microplastics preservation in the future rock record

  4. The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement -Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes-

    Byeon, Myeong Uh; Cho, Han Ok; Yang, Jae Seung; Cho, Seong Ki; Kang, Il Joon

    1994-07-01

    With the increased consumption of processed food, quality control techniques are inevitably required in the food industry for its mass production and distribution. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of irradiation for solving the infrastructural problems in the food industry by developing viable alternatives to conventional technology and by improving the quality of processed foods. Even though food irradiation technology has been commercialized in 25 countries, and 18 items of irradiated foods have been approved for human consumption domestically, infrastructural studies are needed for the practical application of this technology. In order to enlarge the utilization of irradiation technology in solving the infrastructural problems of the food industry, this project was designed to investigate the efficacy of gamma irradiation for improving the process and physical properties of dried foods (corn and soybean), for preserving the reserved foods for emergency (red pepper) and for producing natural products (red polyketied pigment) using microbial immobilization with radiation-induced polymer

  5. Food irradiation: current problems and future potential

    Kilcast, D.

    1995-01-01

    Food irradiation is one of a set of processing technologies that can be used to increase the microbiological safety and shelf-life of a wide range of foods. Ionizing radiation is used to generate highly active chemical species within the food, which react with DNA. Under normal usage conditions, the food receives a pasteurizing treatment that gives a valuable reduction in common food-spoilage organisms and food pathogens. This review describes how the process is used in practice, including the benefits and limitations. The nature of changes to food components are outlined, together with the development of practical detection methods that utilize these changes. The legislative position of food irradiation is outlined, with the specific example of the introduction of the technology within the UK. The reasons for the slow uptake in the use of the technology are discussed, and the problem of consumer acceptance is addressed. (author)

  6. Food preservation by irradiation. V.- Economic study of the spanish potatoe market and preservation feasibility by irradiation

    Rivas, A.; Garcia de Mateos, A.; Ortin Sune, N.; Val Cob, M. del

    1967-01-01

    A study of the spanish potatoe market is carried o nt in order to know the possibilities of preservation by irradiation. The study is initiated with a recompilation of statistical data on the production and consumption of potatoes by regions and seasons. Last years losses are then estimated. (Author) 9 refs

  7. Dyes, preservatives and salicylates in the induction of food intolerance and/or hypersensitivity in children.

    Ibero, M; Eseverri, J L; Barroso, C; Botey, J

    1982-01-01

    We present 25 patients, aged between 18 and 153 months, with clinical symptoms suggestive of allergy to food antigens. After undergoing exhaustive studies (including case histories, cutaneous tests for reactions to food antigen, peripheral eosinophils, secretory and humoral immunity, determination of total IgE and of specific RAST, exclusion-provocation diets) and without being able to identify an offender, patients were submitted to oral provocation with different food additives (tartrazine, sunset yellow FCF, new coccine, erythrosine, sodium benzoate, 4-methyl hydroxybenzoate and acetylsalicylic acid) after 48 hours of exclusion from their diets of dyes, preservatives and salicylates. The results obtained reflect, at a global level, 57.89% of positivities for dyes, 34.21% for the benzoates and 7.81% for acetyl-salicylic acid. The low incidence of crossed intolerance phenomena should be emphasized (32% of the patients). The disparity of our results with those of other authors could be due to the age of our patients, the clinical patterns they present and the dietary habits of different countries and regions.

  8. Application of ionizing irradiation for food preservation and for reducing microbiological contamination

    Kiss, I.

    1992-01-01

    Ionizing irradiation can be an alternative or combinatory technique for food preservation. Several experiments proved that relatively small dosage (2-6 kGy) effectively reduces the number of microscopic fungi and bacteria in food. In addition the survivors had become more sensitive to salt and heat. No change in the quality of the treated food has been observed while their storability improved substantially. Some results of an extended experiment using Co-60 and Co-137 radioactive isotopes are listed below: (1) The storability of raw, sliced pork and beef improved 3-4 times after a 2 kGy dosage of irradiation. (2) The storability of chicken after the same treatment can be prolonged by 4-5 times. (3) 2.5 kGy dosage allowed to keep strawberries 2-3 times longer in the cold storage. (4) Wet (18-23 water) wheat's storability can be prolonged to 60 days by a 4 kGy treatment. (5) By using irradiated spices Fo=3 heat load was satisfactory instead of the usual Fo=4-5 when making canned meat

  9. Deprivation selectively modulates brain potentials to food pictures

    Stockburger, Jessica; Weike, Almut I.; Hamm, Alfons O.; Schupp, Harald Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to examine whether the processing of food pictures is selectively modulated by changes in the motivational state of the observer. Sixteen healthy male volunteers were tested twice 1 week apart, either after 24 hr of food deprivation or after normal food intake. ERPs were measured while participants viewed appetitive food pictures as well as standard emotional and neutral control pictures. Results show that the ERPs to food pictures in a hungry, ...

  10. Micronized copper wood preservatives: An efficiency and potential health risk assessment for copper-based nanoparticles

    Civardi, Chiara; Schwarze, Francis W.M.R.; Wick, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential biocide for wood protection, but fails to protect wood against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi. Recently Cu particles (size range: 1 nm–25 μm) were introduced to the wood preservation market. The new generation of preservatives with Cu-based nanoparticles (Cu-based NPs) is reputedly more efficient against wood-destroying fungi than conventional formulations. Therefore, it has the potential to become one of the largest end uses for wood products worldwide. However, during decomposition of treated wood Cu-based NPs and/or their derivate may accumulate in the mycelium of Cu-tolerant fungi and end up in their spores that are dispersed into the environment. Inhaled Cu-loaded spores can cause harm and could become a potential risk for human health. We collected evidence and discuss the implications of the release of Cu-based NPs by wood-destroying fungi and highlight the exposure pathways and subsequent magnitude of health impact. - Highlights: • We compared copper particulate wood preservatives with conventional ones. • We assessed the fungicidal activity of particulate copper wood preservatives. • We reviewed the Cu-tolerance mechanisms of some wood-destroying fungi. • Fungi colonizing wood treated with particulate copper may release Cu-loaded spores. - We assess the fungicidal activity of particulate copper wood preservatives and their possible release in the air by Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi

  11. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part 1. Potatoes and other tuber crops

    Thomas, P.

    1984-01-01

    In Part 1 of a planned series of articles on preservation of foods of plant origin by gamma irradiation, the current state of research on the technological, nutritional, and biochemical aspects of sprout inhibition of potatoes and other tuber crops are reviewed. These include varietal responses, dose effects, time of irradiation, pre- and postirradiation storage, and handling requirements; postirradiation changes in carbohydrates, ascorbic acid, amino acids, and other nutrients; respiration; biochemical mechanisms involved in sprout inhibition; wound healing and microbial infection during storage; formation of wound and light-induced glycoalkaloids and identification of irradiated potatoes. The culinary and processing qualities with particular reference to darkening of boiled and processed potatoes are discussed. The prospects of irradiation on an industrial scale as an alternative to chemical sprout inhibitors or mechanical refrigeration are considered

  12. [Various methods for the determination of preservatives in food. II. Gaschromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, TAS-method (author's transl)].

    Hild, J; Gertz, C

    1980-02-01

    For the quantitative determination of preservatives in food, analyses were carried out by means of GLC, HPLC, and TLC according to the TAS-method. Using the alkaline extract (sample preparation see part I) the preservatives can be analysed as free acid or appropriate ester out the same GLC-column without any interference from coextractives. A fast and accurate HPLC determination can be achieved by direct injection of the alkaline extract. All preservatives were well separated and detected at a wavelength of 225 resp. 232 nm. As a quick test for the qualitative estimation the TLC (TAS) method is suggested and a suitable solvent system is proposed.

  13. Potential of irradiation technique for development of convenience foods in India

    Bawa, A.S.; Vibhakara, H.S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: One of the important applications of ionising radiation is in the processing and preservation of food articles. An enormous research effort has been directed towards biological testing of irradiated foods for the evaluation of their safety and wholesomeness. Food irradiation has demonstrated several safe technically and economically feasible applications. Radiation processing of foods has the potential to provide mankind with such benefits as elimination of toxic fumigants for insect disinfestation, extended shelf life for refrigerated products, elimination of food borne pathogens and parasites and to provide high quality packaged food with long shelf life at room temperature. Food irradiation has been legally permitted in India and regulation is in place for its commercialization and marketing of irradiated foods. Marked changes in the life style have significantly influenced the growth of convenience foods. Food irradiation is now considered as a safe process, so with increased demand for high quality convenience food, efforts are required to evaluate the effectiveness of irradiation in combination with other processing methods to enhance their safety and shelf life since convenience foods are here to stay and play an even more significant role in the market place in future. Notable progress has been made in many countries in the recent past in the application of low dose irradiation process as combination treatment, synergistically complimentarily. There is a great hope in accelerating the pace of progress in potential application of the irradiation processes to prevent food losses. In view of the sociological changes occurring at a fast pace in our society as well as increased industrialization there is an ample scope for the convenience and processed traditional foods. So with today's demand for high quality convenience foods it is high time that irradiation technology is considered evaluated and popularized for the same

  14. Nutritional evaluation of indigenous foods with potential food-based ...

    SARAH

    2013-07-30

    Jul 30, 2013 ... E-mail: vadivelvellingiri@gmail.com .... 38% of all deaths in children under five years of age, of which 4% is as a result ... from the local open-air market at Kangemi and Uchumi supermarket .... of macro-nutrient analysis and energy contents of food ..... beverages, are important for human nutrition and affect.

  15. Unconventional methods for food preservation and recovery of phytochemicals from plant wastes: towards a science for sustainable development

    Pinela, José; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2016-01-01

    Plants are irreplaceable sources of food and bioactive phytochemicals. In this sense, this work has been focused on valorisation and processing of traditional plant foods, including medicinal plants (consumed in herbal beverages), leafy vegetables, and tomato farmers’ varieties, but also biowastes (source of biomolecules), using non-conventional and emerging technologies [1]. The preservation of dried medicinal plants (Tuberaria lignosa (Sweet) Samp. and Malva neglecta Wallr.) ...

  16. Marketing Study Of The Preference Of The Egyptian Consuming Family To Buy Some Dried Food Preserved By Gamma Radiation

    El-Gameel, E.A.; Elkhateeb, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Alongside traditional methods of processing and preserving food, the technology of food irradiation is gaining more and more attention around the world. In 1997/10/22, the Egyptian government issued clearance for irradiating certain items of food such as spices, herbs and dried onion and garlic. The approval of some other items of food such as poultry, fish and dried vegetables will issue in the near future. This study aims to know the opinion and attitude of the preference of the consuming Egyptian family to buy some dried food preserved by gamma radiation such as wheat, dried onion and garlic, dried date, dried legumes and yamish Ramadan when available on the market. A pool of 1160 sheets was collected randomly. The questionnaire was supported with simplified information about the use of atomic energy and radiation for peaceful purpose and other alternative methods to save food. The results obtained from this study showed that 67% of the total sample size accepted to buy irradiated fresh vegetables if its available in the markets while the objection was 15% and convinced were 17%. The model of the multi regression analysis was carried out between independent variables (the local consumer attitude towards buying some dried food preserved by gamma radiation) and dependent variables (technical, environmental, marketing and hygienic methods. The results were R2= 0.877 and F-test = 322 (significant). The model of the multi regression analysis was also carried out between dependent variables (the local consumer attitude towards buying some dried food preserved by gamma radiation) and independent variables (income, Education, age and governorates). The results were R2 = 0.53 and F-test12.64 (significant).

  17. Potential hazard by toxic substances in foods. Environmental protection

    Unterhalt, B

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews various toxic substances found in foods. These toxic substances include not only natural occurring toxins but also bacterial food poisons, pesticide residues, heavy metals, and food additives. The potential hazard of each toxic substance is discussed. 74 references.

  18. Influence of some physical treatments and natural food preservatives on the diversity of microorganisms in certain egyptian juices

    Abu El-Naga, M.N.Z.I.

    2009-01-01

    Foods begin to lose their quality from the moment they are harvested.Microorganisms are the main agents responsible for food spoilages . Food preservation prevents deteriorative reaction, extending the shelf life and assuring its safety. The uses of chemical preservatives have harmful effects in long term application. So, the purpose of this article is to use the natural treatments instead of chemical preservatives or application of high temperature which cause losses of some essential nutrients of the juice. In this study the following treatments were investigated: 1. Gamma irradiation . the lethal effect of ionizing radiation on the microorganisms is primarily due to DNA damage, which destroys the reproductive capabilities and other functions of the cell. 2. Pasteurized temperatures(90 degree c).Heat can damage protein, lipids, and nucleic acids of microorganisms and destabilize their membranes.3.The natural preservatives : nisin, citric acid, lactic acid, cinnamon, combination treatments : it was performed between the previous treatments.The best results obtained from our experiments for preserving the fruit juice were performed by combing the pasteurized temperature 90 degree C for 30 sec with gamma irradiation (0.2 K Gy). Or using 200 μg/ml of nisin in combination with 2% (w/v) of citric acid and pasteurized temperature 90 degree C for 30 sec.

  19. Deprivation selectively modulates brain potentials to food pictures.

    Stockburger, Jessica; Weike, Almut I; Hamm, Alfons O; Schupp, Harald T

    2008-08-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to examine whether the processing of food pictures is selectively modulated by changes in the motivational state of the observer. Sixteen healthy male volunteers were tested twice 1 week apart, either after 24 hr of food deprivation or after normal food intake. ERPs were measured while participants viewed appetitive food pictures as well as standard emotional and neutral control pictures. Results show that the ERPs to food pictures in a hungry, rather than satiated, state were associated with enlarged positive potentials over posterior sensor sites in a time window of 170-310 ms poststimulus. Minimum-norm analysis suggests the enhanced processing of food cues primarily in occipito-temporo-parietal regions. In contrast, processing of standard emotional and neutral pictures was not modulated by food deprivation. Considered from the perspective of motivated attention, the selective change of food cue processing may reflect a state-dependent change in stimulus salience.

  20. Preservation of semi-perishable food and development of convenience food using a combination of irradiation and other physicochemical treatments

    Choudhury, N.; Siddiqui, A.K.; Chowdhury, N.A.; Youssouf, Q.M.; Rashid, H.; Begum, A.A.; Alam, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the development and irradiation preservation of semi-dried fish, e.g. Labeo rohita (Ruhi) and Cirrhiuas mrigala (Mrigel), the extension of shelf-life at ambient temperature, and the improvement in the microbiological quality of sealed, ready to eat, commercially prepared fish kebabs by a combination of gamma irradiation with spices and an acidulant such as ascorbic acid. In the processing of semi-dried fish, the combination treatment of a salt dip and irradiation at a dose of 4 kGy extended the shelf-life by more than 3 months. Kebabs prepared in the laboratory and irradiated at a dose of 5 kGy were found to have a shelf-life of up to 6 months at room temperature. With commercially prepared fish kebabs collected from ordinary and sophisticated food shops, the maximum shelf-life extension was 14 days for the 5 kGy treated samples stored at ambient temperature. The microbiological quality of such kebabs indicated that the fish used was of poor quality, resulting in a limited shelf-life, even after chemical and irradiation treatments. Inoculated pack studies of Clostridium botulinum spores showed that when oil fried, the kebab size had a definite effect on heat penetration, and consequent spore reduction. No spores were recovered from the 5 kGy irradiated fried kebabs. (author)

  1. Biodiversity of Indigenous Saccharomyces Populations from Old Wineries of South-Eastern Sicily (Italy): Preservation and Economic Potential

    Di Maio, Sabina; Polizzotto, Giuseppe; Di Gangi, Enrico; Foresta, Giusy; Genna, Giuseppe; Verzera, Antonella; Scacco, Antonio; Amore, Gabriele; Oliva, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the preservation of biodiversity has become an important issue. Despite much public discussion, however, current practices in the food industry seldom take account of its potential economic importance: on the contrary, the introduction of industrialized agriculture practices over large areas has often resulted in a dramatic reduction in biodiversity. In this paper, we report on the remarkable degree of biodiversity in the wine yeast populations naturally present in a small area of Sicily (Italy) where traditional (non-industrial) winery practices are still in place. Out of more than 900 Saccharomyces yeast isolates recovered from late spontaneous fermentations, we detected at least 209 strains. Most interestingly, when evaluated at the fermentation and technological level, a number of isolates were found to be superior to industrial yeast strains. Out of a selected group, isolates from two strains were used for experimental fermentations in a winery environment and the quality of the wines produced was assessed at the technological, quality and sensory levels. Given that the characteristics of the wines produced were found to be industrially appealing, the study demonstrated the economic potential of preserving the patrimony of Sicilian yeast biodiversity and highlighted the importance of maintaining traditional wine making practices. PMID:22393353

  2. Biodiversity of indigenous Saccharomyces populations from old wineries of south-eastern Sicily (Italy: preservation and economic potential.

    Sabina Di Maio

    Full Text Available In recent years, the preservation of biodiversity has become an important issue. Despite much public discussion, however, current practices in the food industry seldom take account of its potential economic importance: on the contrary, the introduction of industrialized agriculture practices over large areas has often resulted in a dramatic reduction in biodiversity.In this paper, we report on the remarkable degree of biodiversity in the wine yeast populations naturally present in a small area of Sicily (Italy where traditional (non-industrial winery practices are still in place. Out of more than 900 Saccharomyces yeast isolates recovered from late spontaneous fermentations, we detected at least 209 strains. Most interestingly, when evaluated at the fermentation and technological level, a number of isolates were found to be superior to industrial yeast strains. Out of a selected group, isolates from two strains were used for experimental fermentations in a winery environment and the quality of the wines produced was assessed at the technological, quality and sensory levels. Given that the characteristics of the wines produced were found to be industrially appealing, the study demonstrated the economic potential of preserving the patrimony of Sicilian yeast biodiversity and highlighted the importance of maintaining traditional wine making practices.

  3. Biotechnological potential of natural food grade biocolorants ...

    Color becomes the most sensitive part of any commodity not only for its appeal but also it enhances consumer acceptability. In addition, the color of a food substance is important to indicate its freshness and safety that are also indices of good aesthetic and sensorial values. For natural color and additives, adherence to the ...

  4. Potential new methods of detection of irradiated food

    Raffi, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    The irradiation of food by X- and gamma-rays and by electron beams is a technological process which may be used for food preservation in addition to heat or chemical treatment. The role of the Community Bureau of Reference - the BCR programme - in this area is to support the development and the improvement of analytical methods required for the preparation and implementation of the European legislation. In this context, after consultation of specialists in the Member States and the EFTA countries, it was decided that the BCR should undertake a collaborative project for the identification of irradiated food. The aim of the Cadarache workshop was to examine the development of new methods of detection and to set up a concerted research action covering four areas: DNA based methods; microbiological and biological methods; physical methods; chemical methods

  5. The preservation of Listeria-critical foods by a combination of endolysin and high hydrostatic pressure.

    Misiou, Ourania; van Nassau, Tomas J; Lenz, Christian A; Vogel, Rudi F

    2018-02-02

    The aim of this work was to examine the combination of endolysin PlyP825 and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing against a cocktail of stationary phase Listeria monocytogenes cells in several Listeria-critical food products (i.e. milk, mozzarella and smoked salmon). In order to determine the efficacy of the combined application, both challenge-lethality tests and storage tests were performed. In milk and mozzarella, we could demonstrate that the application of PlyP825 prior to HHP processing allowed for a synergistic inactivation of cells, a reduction in the pressure level with equal antimicrobial efficacy and an enhanced eradication of L. monocytogenes during storage at abuse temperatures. For smoked salmon, no such effects were detected. Although the efficacy of the method was highly dependent on the food vehicle and parameters applied, we hereby demonstrated the potential of the combined endolysin-HHP application for complete eradication of L. monocytogenes from foods at milder processing conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sodium benzoate, a food preservative, affects the functional and activation status of splenocytes at non cytotoxic dose.

    Yadav, Ashish; Kumar, Arvind; Das, Mukul; Tripathi, Anurag

    2016-02-01

    Sodium benzoate (SB) is a widely used food preservative due to its bacteriostatic and fungistatic properties. The acceptable daily intake of SB is 5 mg/kg-bw, however, it has been found to be used in the food commodities at relatively high levels (2119 mg/kg). Earlier studies on SB have shown its immunosuppressive properties, but comprehensive immunotoxicity data is lacking. Our studies have shown that SB was non cytotoxic in splenocytes up to 1000 μg/ml for 72 h, however at 2500 μg/ml it was found to be cytotoxic. Thus, 1000 μg/ml dose of SB was chosen for the subsequent experiments. SB significantly suppresses the proliferation of Con A and LPS stimulated splenocytes at 72 h, while allogenic response of T cells was significantly decreased after 96 h. SB did not affect the relative expression of CD3e or CD4 molecules following 72 h exposure, however, it downregulated the relative expression of CD8 co-receptor. Further, exposure of splenocytes to SB for 72 h led to reduced expression of CD28 and CD95, which play a vital role in T cell activation. SB also suppresses the relative expression of CD19, CD40 and CD95 receptors on B cells after 72 h. In addition to the functional responses, SB lowered the expression of IL4, IL6, IFNγ and IL17 cytokines in Con A stimulated splenocytes; and IL6, IFNγ and TNFα in LPS stimulated splenocytes following 48 h of exposure. Taken together, the present study is suggestive of the immunomodulatory potential of SB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Human memory CD8 T cell effector potential is epigenetically preserved during in vivo homeostasis.

    Abdelsamed, Hossam A; Moustaki, Ardiana; Fan, Yiping; Dogra, Pranay; Ghoneim, Hazem E; Zebley, Caitlin C; Triplett, Brandon M; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Youngblood, Ben

    2017-06-05

    Antigen-independent homeostasis of memory CD8 T cells is vital for sustaining long-lived T cell-mediated immunity. In this study, we report that maintenance of human memory CD8 T cell effector potential during in vitro and in vivo homeostatic proliferation is coupled to preservation of acquired DNA methylation programs. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of primary human naive, short-lived effector memory (T EM ), and longer-lived central memory (T CM ) and stem cell memory (T SCM ) CD8 T cells identified effector molecules with demethylated promoters and poised for expression. Effector-loci demethylation was heritably preserved during IL-7- and IL-15-mediated in vitro cell proliferation. Conversely, cytokine-driven proliferation of T CM and T SCM memory cells resulted in phenotypic conversion into T EM cells and was coupled to increased methylation of the CCR7 and Tcf7 loci. Furthermore, haploidentical donor memory CD8 T cells undergoing in vivo proliferation in lymphodepleted recipients also maintained their effector-associated demethylated status but acquired T EM -associated programs. These data demonstrate that effector-associated epigenetic programs are preserved during cytokine-driven subset interconversion of human memory CD8 T cells. © 2017 Abdelsamed et al.

  8. Carbon sequestration potential of forest land: Management for products and bioenergy versus preservation

    Van Deusen, P.

    2010-01-01

    A 40 year projection of potential carbon sequestration is based on USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data from the state of Georgia. The objective is to compare carbon sequestration under a sustainable management strategy versus a preservation strategy. FIA plots are projected ahead in time with hotdeck matching. This matches each subject plot with another plot from the database that represents the subject plot at a future time. The matched plot sequences are used to provide input data to a harvest scheduling program to generate a management strategy for the state. The sequestration from the management strategy is compared with a preservation strategy that involves no harvesting. Harvested wood is assumed to go into products with various half life decay rates. Carbon sequestration is increased as increasing proportions go into wood for energy, which is treated like a product with an infinite half life. Therefore, the harvested carbon does not return immediately to the atmosphere. Public land and land close to cities is assumed to be unavailable, and all other private land is assumed to be accessible. The results are presented as gigatonnes of CO 2 equivalent to make them directly comparable to US annual carbon emissions. The conclusion is that forest management will sequester more above-ground carbon than preservation over a 40 year period if the wood is used for products with an average half life greater than 5 years.

  9. Direct quantitation of the preservatives benzoic and sorbic acid in processed foods using derivative spectrophotometry combined with micro dialysis.

    Fujiyoshi, Tomoharu; Ikami, Takahito; Kikukawa, Koji; Kobayashi, Masato; Takai, Rina; Kozaki, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    2018-02-01

    The preservatives benzoic acid and sorbic acid are generally quantified with separation techniques, such as HPLC or GC. Here we describe a new method for determining these compounds in processed food samples based on a narrowness of the UV-visible spectral band width with derivative processing. It permits more selective identification and determination of target analytes in matrices. After a sample is purified by micro dialysis, UV spectra of sample solutions were measured and fourth order derivatives of the spectrum were calculated. The amplitude between the maximum and minimum values in a high-order derivative spectrum was used for the determination of benzoic acid and sorbic acid. Benzoic acid and sorbic acid levels in several commercially available processed foods were measured by HPLC and the proposed spectrometry method. The levels obtained by the two methods were highly correlated (r 2 >0.97) for both preservatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ways in which irradiation could improve the effectiveness of several existing food preservation processes in South Africa

    Brodrick, H.T.

    1982-01-01

    With the introduction of irradiation as a possible food preservation method nearly three decades ago, there was a tendency to over-emphasise the advantages to be gained with this new process to the extent that some regarded this new technique as a panacea for most of the problems experienced in the preservation of food at that time. The pendulum swung to the other extreme when irradiation did not come up to the expectations associated with a so-called 'wonder' treatment and others took a decidedly pessimistic attitude towards the future of this process. The answer obviously lies between these two extreme views and fortunately this is the attitude prevailing in many countries towards irradiation treatment at the present time. The role of irradiation can be seen as supplementary and indeed complementary to existing preservation methods instead of being regarded as directly competitive. In this paper, several preservation processes will be considered such as heat treatment, canning and refrigeration, and the effectiveness of these methods in combination with irradiation treatment will be considered with respect to shelf-life extension of several important fruits and vegetables in South Africa. The possible mechanism of the combined or synergistic effect in relation to disease control in selected biological systems will also be discussed

  11. Energy potential in the food industry; Store energipotensialer i naeringsmiddelindustrien

    Rosenberg, E; Risberg, T M; Mydske, H J; Helgerud, H E

    2007-07-01

    The food industry is one of the most power consuming industries (excluding the heavy industry) and has large potential for reducing the energy consumption. This report explains the most energy efficient measures and if the injunctions are followed

  12. Assessment of dietary exposure in the French population to 13 selected food colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners.

    Bemrah, Nawel; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Volatier, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    The results of French intake estimates for 13 food additives prioritized by the methods proposed in the 2001 Report from the European Commission on Dietary Food Additive Intake in the European Union are reported. These 13 additives were selected using the first and second tiers of the three-tier approach. The first tier was based on theoretical food consumption data and the maximum permitted level of additives. The second tier used real individual food consumption data and the maximum permitted level of additives for the substances which exceeded the acceptable daily intakes (ADI) in the first tier. In the third tier reported in this study, intake estimates were calculated for the 13 additives (colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners) according to two modelling assumptions corresponding to two different food habit scenarios (assumption 1: consumers consume foods that may or may not contain food additives, and assumption 2: consumers always consume foods that contain additives) when possible. In this approach, real individual food consumption data and the occurrence/use-level of food additives reported by the food industry were used. Overall, the results of the intake estimates are reassuring for the majority of additives studied since the risk of exceeding the ADI was low, except for nitrites, sulfites and annatto, whose ADIs were exceeded by either children or adult consumers or by both populations under one and/or two modelling assumptions. Under the first assumption, the ADI is exceeded for high consumers among adults for nitrites and sulfites (155 and 118.4%, respectively) and among children for nitrites (275%). Under the second assumption, the average nitrites dietary exposure in children exceeds the ADI (146.7%). For high consumers, adults exceed the nitrite and sulfite ADIs (223 and 156.4%, respectively) and children exceed the nitrite, annatto and sulfite ADIs (416.7, 124.6 and 130.6%, respectively).

  13. Extended safe preservation period of foods of plant origin through combined technological methods

    Miteva, D.; Nacheva, I.; Dzhakova, A.; Tsvetkov, Tsv.

    2008-01-01

    The sublimation drying of fruits as an innovative technology for preservation their composition and enzyme activity is applied to various fruits: apricots, strawberries, plumbs, peaches and apples. The authors present the main methods of lyophilization as an original biotechnology for cryopreservation of fruits and afterwards are subjected to cold sterilization with 1.5 and 3 kGy doses of gamma irradiation. The combined application of both technologies provides safe and extended preservation of fresh fruits with high content of vitamins, mineral salts, maximum preserved enzyme system, aroma-tasty complex and microbiological purity

  14. Micronized copper wood preservatives: an efficiency and potential health risk assessment for copper-based nanoparticles.

    Civardi, Chiara; Schwarze, Francis W M R; Wick, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential biocide for wood protection, but fails to protect wood against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi. Recently Cu particles (size range: 1 nm-25 μm) were introduced to the wood preservation market. The new generation of preservatives with Cu-based nanoparticles (Cu-based NPs) is reputedly more efficient against wood-destroying fungi than conventional formulations. Therefore, it has the potential to become one of the largest end uses for wood products worldwide. However, during decomposition of treated wood Cu-based NPs and/or their derivate may accumulate in the mycelium of Cu-tolerant fungi and end up in their spores that are dispersed into the environment. Inhaled Cu-loaded spores can cause harm and could become a potential risk for human health. We collected evidence and discuss the implications of the release of Cu-based NPs by wood-destroying fungi and highlight the exposure pathways and subsequent magnitude of health impact. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of Diagenesis on Biosignature Preservation Potential in Playa Lake Evaporites of the Verde Formation, Arizona: Implications for Mars Exploration

    Shkolyar, S.; Farmer, J. D.

    2016-05-01

    We studied evaporite subfacies in the Verde Fmn., AZ. We identified diagenetic pathways and assessed how diagenesis affected biosignature preservation potential (BPP) in each. Results revealed eight pathways, each with diverse impacts on BPP.

  16. Grape seed oil: a potential functional food?

    Fernanda Branco SHINAGAWA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed oil (GSO is not often consumed in Brazil and little is known of its nutritional value. Around the world there are already studies that point to the high levels of minority bioactive compounds and their relation to health benefits. The main constituent of GSO is linoleic fatty acid, some works are controversial and there is no consensus in literature regarding their effect on the animal organism. Thus, this study aimed to present a review of GSO and show the potential health effects of its major components, not only linoleic acid, but also γ-tocotrienol and β-sitosterol, and finally, their influence on lipid-modulating, anti and pro oxidative parameters.

  17. Newer Approaches to Identify Potential Untoward Effects in Functional Foods.

    Marone, Palma Ann; Birkenbach, Victoria L; Hayes, A Wallace

    2016-01-01

    Globalization has greatly accelerated the numbers and variety of food and beverage products available worldwide. The exchange among greater numbers of countries, manufacturers, and products in the United States and worldwide has necessitated enhanced quality measures for nutritional products for larger populations increasingly reliant on functionality. These functional foods, those that provide benefit beyond basic nutrition, are increasingly being used for their potential to alleviate food insufficiency while enhancing quality and longevity of life. In the United States alone, a steady import increase of greater than 15% per year or 24 million shipments, over 70% products of which are food related, is regulated under the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This unparalleled growth has resulted in the need for faster, cheaper, and better safety and efficacy screening methods in the form of harmonized guidelines and recommendations for product standardization. In an effort to meet this need, the in vitro toxicology testing market has similarly grown with an anticipatory 15% increase between 2010 and 2015 of US$1.3 to US$2.7 billion. Although traditionally occupying a small fraction of the market behind pharmaceuticals and cosmetic/household products, the scope of functional food testing, including additives/supplements, ingredients, residues, contact/processing, and contaminants, is potentially expansive. Similarly, as functional food testing has progressed, so has the need to identify potential adverse factors that threaten the safety and quality of these products. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. The Research of Food Preservation by Irradiation and Its Industrialization in Korea

    Cho, Han Ok

    1987-01-01

    Since the late 1960s, radiation effects on the storage of potatoes, strawberry, grapes and rice have been investigated on an experimental basis in Korea, Based on the research results of batch scale storage for sprouting food (potatoes, onions, chestnuts) and white ginseng powder by the Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and on the recommendation. Food irradiation is a new process that may provide an alternative to existing food processes. From the extensive research in food irradiation for more than three decades by leading international organizations and advanced countries, the efficacy of a number of applications has been established, including sprout inhibition, disinfestation of insects, sterilization, delay of ripening, and improvement of organoleptic properties in food. Owing to the recommendation on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food by the Joint FAO/IAEA/W/o Expert Committee in 1980 and the adaption of the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Food by the Codex Allurements Commission in 1983, as of May 1985, thirty-two countries have officially approved 227 food items in 73 food groups as safe for human consumption. Food irradiation processing is increasingly recognized as a viable technology for reducing the overall quantity of spoiled food, reducing energy used in food storage, and reducing reliance on chemicals currently used

  19. Characterizing arsenic in preserved hair for assessing exposure potential and discriminating poisoning

    Kempson, Ivan M.; Henry, Dermot; Francis, James; (Museum Vic.); (U. South Australia); (UWO)

    2009-05-21

    Advanced analytical techniques have been used to characterize arsenic in taxidermy specimens. Arsenic was examined to aid in discriminating its use as a preservative from that incorporated by ingestion and hence indicate poisoning (in the case of historical figures). The results are relevant to museum curators, occupational and environmental exposure concerns, toxicological and anthropological investigations. Hair samples were obtained from six taxidermy specimens preserved with arsenic in the late 1800s and early 1900s to investigate the arsenic incorporation. The presence of arsenic poses a potential hazard in museum and private collections. For one sample, arsenic was confirmed to be present on the hair with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and then measured with neutron activation analysis to comprise 176 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The hair cross section was analysed with synchrotron micro-X-ray fluorescence to investigate the transverse distribution of topically applied arsenic. It was found that the arsenic had significantly penetrated all hair samples. Association with melanin clusters and the medulla was observed. Lead and mercury were also identified in one sample. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy of the As K-edge indicated that an arsenate species predominantly existed in all samples; however, analysis was hindered by very rapid photoreduction of the arsenic. It would be difficult to discriminate arsenic consumption from topically applied arsenic based on the physical transverse distribution. Longitudinal distributions and chemical speciation may still allow differentiation.

  20. Formulation of a peach ice cream as potential symbiotic food

    VILLALVA, Fernando Josué; CRAVERO BRUNERI, Andrea Paula; VINDEROLA, Gabriel; GONÇALVEZ DE OLIVEIRA, Enzo; PAZ, Noelia Fernanda; RAMÓN, Adriana Noemí

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Today’s population increasingly demands and consumes healthy products. For this reason, the food industry has been developing and marketing food with added bioactive components. The aim of this work was to formulate a peach ice cream reduced in calories with an added probiotic (Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12) and prebiotics (inulin), and to evaluate its sensory quality and acceptability as potential symbiotic food. The moisture content was 76.47%; 7.14% protein; 0.15% fat; 6.37%; carbo...

  1. Use of ionizing radiation for preservation of food and feed products

    Josephson, E.S.; Brynjolfsson, A.; Wierbicki, E.

    1975-01-01

    Exposing food to ionizing radiation can contribute to closing the worldwide food deficit by reducing food spoilage losses, by making available more food of higher nutritional quality (animal protein food) to more people, and by keeping prices down by reducing losses. Because ionizing radiation kills disease-causing organisms, it can reduce the incidence of food-borne diseases. It also reduces our dependence upon some of the chemical additives, such as nitrites and nitrates, now being questioned by health authorities to control food spoilage and food-borne diseases. The three basic types of ionizing radiation used for processing of food are electrons (10 MeV maximum energy), X-rays (5 MeV maximum energy) produced by electrons in an X-ray target, and gamma rays from 60 Co and 137 Cs. Electrons, X-rays, and gamma rays cause ionization in the food by either the primary electrons or by the secondary electrons resulting from gamma or X-ray interactions in the food with little rise in temperature and little total chemical change. The ionized and activated molecules form unstable secondary products that kill the organisms. Another effect is to slow down post-harvest growth and maturation in some fruits and vegetables

  2. Role of radiation technology in preservation of food and agricultural commodities

    Rajput, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Several technological benefits can be achieved by gamma radiation processing of agricultural commodities and food include: inhibition of sprouting in tubers, bulbs and rhizomes; disinfestation of insect pests in stored products; disinfestation of quarantine pests in fresh produce; delay in ripening and senescence in fruits and vegetables; destruction of microbes responsible for spoilage of food; elimination of parasites and pathogens of public health importance in food

  3. Functional properties of edible agar-based and starch-based films for food quality preservation.

    Phan, The D; Debeaufort, F; Luu, D; Voilley, A

    2005-02-23

    Edible films made of agar (AG), cassava starch (CAS), normal rice starch (NRS), and waxy (glutinous) rice starch (WRS) were elaborated and tested for a potential use as edible packaging or coating. Their water vapor permeabilities (WVP) were comparable with those of most of the polysaccharide-based films and with some protein-based films. Depending on the environmental moisture pressure, the WVP of the films varies and remains constant when the relative humidity (RH) is >84%. Equilibrium sorption isotherms of these films have been measured; the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) model was used to describe the sorption isotherm and contributed to a better knowledge of hydration properties. Surface hydrophobicity and wettability of these films were also investigated using the sessile drop contact angle method. The results obtained suggested the migration of the lipid fraction toward evaporation surface during film drying. Among these polysaccharide-based films, AG-based film and CAS-based film displayed more interesting mechanical properties: they are transparent, clear, homogeneous, flexible, and easily handled. NRS- and WRS-based films were relatively brittle and have a low tension resistance. Microstructure of film cross section was observed by environmental scanning electron microscopy to better understand the effect of the structure on the functional properties. The results suggest that AG-based film and CAS-based films, which show better functional properties, are promising systems to be used as food packaging or coating instead of NRS- and WRS-based films.

  4. Glycolipid biosurfactants: main properties and potential applications in agriculture and food industry.

    Mnif, Inès; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2016-10-01

    Glycolipids, consisting of a carbohydrate moiety linked to fatty acids, are microbial surface active compounds produced by various microorganisms. They are characterized by high structural diversity and have the ability to decrease the surface and interfacial tension at the surface and interface, respectively. Rhamnolipids, trehalolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids and cellobiose lipids are among the most popular glycolipids. They have received much practical attention as biopesticides for controlling plant diseases and protecting stored products. As a result of their antifungal activity towards phytopathogenic fungi and larvicidal and mosquitocidal potencies, glycolipid biosurfactants permit the preservation of plants and plant crops from pest invasion. Also, as a result of their emulsifying and antibacterial activities, glycolipids have great potential as food additives and food preservatives. Furthermore, the valorization of food byproducts via the production of glycolipid biosurfactant has received much attention because it permits the bioconversion of byproducts on valuable compounds and decreases the cost of production. Generally, the use of glycolipids in many fields requires their retention from fermentation media. Accordingly, different strategies have been developed to extract and purify glycolipids. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Ghrelin and food reward: the story of potential underlying substrates.

    Skibicka, Karolina P; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2011-11-01

    The incidence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate and this worldwide epidemic represents a significant decrease in life span and quality of life of a large part of the affected population. Therefore an understanding of mechanisms underlying food overconsumption and obesity development is urgent and essential to find potential treatments. Research investigating mechanisms underlying obesity and the control of food intake has recently experienced a major shift in focus, from the brain's hypothalamus to additional important neural circuits controlling emotion, cognition and motivated behavior. Among them, the mesolimbic system, and the changes in reward and motivated behavior for food, emerge as new promising treatment targets. Furthermore, there is also growing appreciation of the impact of peripheral hormones that signal nutrition status to the mesolimbic areas, and especially the only known circulating orexigenic hormone, ghrelin. This review article provides a synthesis of recent evidence concerning the impact of manipulation of ghrelin and its receptor on models of food reward/food motivation behavior and the mesolimbic circuitry. Particular attention is given to the potential neurocircuitry and neurotransmitter systems downstream of ghrelin's effects on food reward. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Purification and characterization of bacteriocin like substance produced from bacillus lentus with perspective of a new biopreservative for food preservation

    Sharma, N.; Gautam, N.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular weight of bacteriocin like substance (BLIS) of a new strain of Bacillus lentus 121 was found to be approximately 11 kDa. Purification of BLIS was attained by single step gel exclusion chromatography. BLIS was characterized by studying the inhibitory spectrum. It was active at broad pH range, high temperature and high NaCl concentration and showed sensitivity to proteolytic enzymes like trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin and papain, the characters desirable for food preservation. BLIS extended the shelf stability of milk upto 21 days as a biopreservative. (author)

  7. Encapsulation for preservation of functionality and targeted delivery of bioactive food components

    de Vos, Paul; Faas, Marijke M.; Spasojevic, Milica; Sikkema, Jan

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of food products containing bioactive components with a health promoting or disease preventing effect. Bioactive food components can be divided into bioactive molecules and bioactive living cells (probiotics). Both bioactive molecules and bioactive

  8. Formulation of a peach ice cream as potential symbiotic food

    Fernando Josué VILLALVA

    Full Text Available Abstract Today’s population increasingly demands and consumes healthy products. For this reason, the food industry has been developing and marketing food with added bioactive components. The aim of this work was to formulate a peach ice cream reduced in calories with an added probiotic (Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and prebiotics (inulin, and to evaluate its sensory quality and acceptability as potential symbiotic food. The moisture content was 76.47%; 7.14% protein; 0.15% fat; 6.37%; carbohydrates; 9.87% inulin; 1.22% ash; 0.201% calcium, 0.155% phosphorus and 0.168% sodium. On the first and 21th day of storage counts of B. lactis Bb – 12 was 4 x 108 CFU/mL and 1.5 x 107 CFU/mL, respectively. It was possible to formulate a peach ice cream reduced in calories, fat, and sugar and with potential symbiotic effect, by addition of B. lactis Bb – 12. A product with suitable organoleptic characteristics, creamy texture, peachy colour, taste and flavour, and no ice crystals was obtained. This ice cream would be a suitable food matrix to incorporate prebiotic and probiotic ingredients as a potential symbiotic food.

  9. Lactobacillus plantarum and Its Probiotic and Food Potentialities.

    Seddik, Hamza Ait; Bendali, Farida; Gancel, Frédérique; Fliss, Ismail; Spano, Giuseppe; Drider, Djamel

    2017-06-01

    The number of studies claiming probiotic health effects of Lactobacillus plantarum is escalating. Lb. plantarum is a lactic acid bacterium found in diverse ecological niches, highlighting its particular capabilities of adaptation and genome plasticity. Another function that needs to be underlined is the capabilities of Lb. plantarum to produce diverse and potent bacteriocins, which are antimicrobial peptides with possible applications as food preservative or antibiotic complementary agents. Taken together, all these characteristics design Lb. plantarum as a genuine model for academic research and viable biological agent with promising applications. The present review aims at shedding light on the safety of Lb. plantarum and run through the main studies underpinning its beneficial claims. The mechanisms explaining probiotic-related features are discussed.

  10. Essential oils as food eco-preservatives: Model system studies on the effect of temperature on limonene antibacterial activity.

    Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna; Flasiński, Michał; Romańczuk, Karolina

    2017-11-15

    Antimicrobial properties of essential oils predestine these substances to be used as ecological food preservatives. However, their activity is determined by variety of factors among which external conditions and food properties are highly important. Herein the influence of limonene on artificial membranes was studied to verify the effect of temperature on the incorporation of this compound into model bacterial membrane. The investigations were done on lipid monolayers and the experiments involved the surface pressure-area measurements, penetration studies and Brewster Angle Microscopy analysis. It was found that limonene incorporates into lipid monolayers causing their fluidization. However, the magnitude of alterations depends on limonene concentration, model membrane composition and, for a given composition, on system condensation. Moreover, the influence of limonene is stronger at lower temperatures and, in the light of collected data, this may be a consequence of strong volatility and evaporation of limonene increasing with temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins under Stress Encountered during Food Production and Preservation.

    Schelin, Jenny; Susilo, Yusak Budi; Johler, Sophia

    2017-12-15

    Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is the most prevalent cause of food-borne intoxications worldwide. Consumption of enterotoxins preformed in food causes violent vomiting and can be fatal in children and the elderly. While being repressed by competing bacteria in most matrices, Staphylococcus aureus benefits from crucial competitive advantages in foods with high osmolarity or low pH. During recent years, the long-standing belief in the feasibility of assessing SFP risk based on colony-forming units of S. aureus present in food products has been disproven. Instead, researchers and food business operators are acutely aware of the imminent threat arising from unforeseeable enterotoxin production under stress conditions. This paradigm shift led to a variety of new publications enabling an improved understanding of enterotoxin expression under stress conditions encountered in food. The wealth of data provided by these studies is extremely diverse, as it is based on different methodological approaches, staphylococcal strains, stressors, and enterotoxins. Therefore, in this review, we aggregated and critically evaluated the complex findings of these studies, to provide readers with a current overview of the state of research in the field.

  12. Potential benefits of genetic modification (GM) technology for food ...

    We assessed the perception of farmers towards potential adoption of genetic modification (GM) technology for improving health, food security and agricultural productivity using a semi-structured interview. A total sample of 54 small-scale farmers participated in 6 focus group meetings (FGMs) and 23 in-depth interviews at ...

  13. Establishing a milkborne disease outbreak profile: potential food defense implications.

    Newkirk, Ryan; Hedberg, Craig; Bender, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    The main objectives of this study were to establish baseline characteristics for milkborne outbreaks, establish an expected milkborne outbreak profile, and identify potential indicators of food terrorism. This study used 1990-2006 data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Annual Listings of Disease Outbreaks and the Foodborne Outbreak Database (FOOD) to establish epidemiologic baseline characteristics for disease outbreaks associated with fluid milk. FOOD data from 2007 were used to qualitatively validate the potential of the baseline characteristics and the expected outbreak profile. Eighty-three fluid milkborne outbreaks were reported between 1990 and 2006, resulting in 3621 illnesses. The mean number of illnesses per outbreak was 43.6 (illness range: 2-1644). Consumption of unpasteurized milk was associated with 55.4% of reported outbreaks. Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. caused 51.2%, 10.8%, and 9.6% of reported outbreaks, respectively. Private homes accounted for 41.0% of outbreak locations. Number ill, outbreak location, and etiology were the primary characteristics which could signal a potential intentional contamination event. In 2007, one pasteurized milk outbreak caused by Listeria was flagged as aberrative compared with the expected outbreak profile. The creation and dissemination of expected outbreak profiles and epidemiologic baseline characteristics allow public health and Homeland Security officials to quickly assess the potential of intentional food contamination. A faster public health and medical system response can result in decreased morbidity and mortality.

  14. Combined effect of thermal sterilization and ionizing radiation on storage life of preserved foods

    Hozova, B.; Sorman, L.; Fazekasova, H.

    1986-01-01

    The effect was studied of the binary combination of preservation methods, i.e., of a reduced intensity of thermosterilization and diverse doses of ionizing radiation, on the content of microorganisms in single-component tinned products (tinned beef and gravy, tinned pickled cauliflower) and in tins containing two components (beef with cauliflower) over a period of 115 days of storage at a laboratory temperature of 20 degC ± 2 degC. The experimental results showed that the chosen combined process of preservation guaranteed sufficient storage stability to the products over several months of storage. An ionizing radiation dose of 5 kGy was sufficient for both types of model samples, this both from microbiological, nutritional aspects (some group B vitamins, vitamin C, -SH groups, etc.) and with regard to organoleptic properties (outlook, color, odor, flavor, consistence, juiciness). The problems will further be studied. (author) 2 tabs., 4 figs., 14 refs

  15. Microbiological analysis of common preservatives used in food items and demonstration of their in vitro anti-bacterial activity

    Tohora Sultana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To quantify the microorganisms contaminating the common preservatives used in food as well as to detect their in vitro anti-bacterial traits. Methods: A total of 9 preservatives were subjected to conventional cultural and biochemical methods for microbial enumeration. Anti-bacterial activities were demonstrated through the agar well diffusion method. Results: All samples were found to be contaminated with bacteria up to 105 CFU/g and with the fungal flora within a range of 1 01-1 02 CFU/g. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp. and Staphylococcus spp. were demonstrated in most of the samples. Sodium sulfite and citric acid possessed the strongest anti-bacterial trait against all of the test bacteria. Acetic acid exhibited activity against 6 out of 8 test bacteria while vinegar exhibited the activity against 4 bacteria. Activity of salt was demonstrated only against Listeria spp. and Bacillus spp., while activity of sugar and honey was found only against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp., respectively. Conclusions: According to the current investigation, sodium sulfite and citric acid samples were found to be satisfactory preservatives both in terms of microbiological criteria and their antibacterial traits.

  16. Terminalia arjuna: A novel natural preservative for improved lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of muscle foods

    Insha Kousar Kalem

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to explore the possibility of utilization of Terminalia arjuna as a novel natural preservative in meat products by using chevon sausages as a model system. Chevon sausages were prepared by incorporating different levels of T. arjuna viz. T1 (0.25%, T2 (0.50% and T3 (0.75% and were assessed for various lipid oxidative stability and storage quality parameters under refrigerated (4 ± 1 °C conditions. T. arjuna showed a significant (p < 0.05 effect on the lipid oxidative stability as the treated products exhibited significantly (p < 0.05 lower TBARS (mg malonaldehyde/kg values in comparison to control. A significant (p < 0.05 effect was also observed on the microbial stability as T. arjuna incorporated products showed significantly (p < 0.05 lower values for total plate count (log cfu/g, psychrophilic count (log cfu/g, yeast and mould count (log cfu/g and FFA (% oleic acid values. Significantly (p < 0.05 higher scores were observed for various sensory parameters of the products incorporated with T. arjuna during refrigerated storage. T. arjuna successfully improved the lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of the model meat product and may be commercially exploited as a novel preservative in muscle foods. Keywords: Terminalia arjuna, Chevon sausages, Natural preservative, Lipid oxidation, Storage quality

  17. The EPR detection of foods preserved with the use of ionizing radiation

    Stachowicz, W.; Burlińska, G.; Michalik, J.; Dziedzic-Gocławska, A.; Ostrowski, K.

    1995-02-01

    Solid constituents extracted from irradiated foods have been examined by the epr (esr) spectroscopy. It has been proved that some epr active species produced by radiation in foods are specific and stable enough to be used for the detection of irradiation treatment. The most promising results have been obtained with bones extracted from frozen raw meat (beef, pork, poultry and fish), with seeds of fruits (dates and figs), with dried mushrooms, gelatin and macaroni.

  18. Assessment of the potential quality of preservative-treated pilings removed from service : [abstract

    Xiping Wang; John W. Forsman; John R. Erickson; Robert J. Ross; Douglas J. Gardner; Gary D. McGinnis; Rodney C. DeGroot

    1999-01-01

    Preservative-treated wood products are important construction materials. Preservative-treated wood pilings, after removal from service, constitute a major disposal problem for managers of waterfront facilities. For example, approximately 7,000 to 8,000 tons of mechanically or biologically deteriorated wood pilings are currently removed from U.S. naval facilities...

  19. Fenugreek: Potential Applications as a Functional Food and Nutraceutical

    Nasim Khorshidian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fenugreek (Trigonella  foenum graecum, native to southern Europe and Asia, is an annual herb with white flowers and hard, yellowish brown and angular seeds, known from ancient times, for nutritional value beside of its medicinal effects. Fenugreek seeds are rich source of gum, fiber, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and volatile content. Due to its high content of fiber, fenugreek could be used as food stabilizer, adhesive and emulsifying agent to change food texture for some special purposes. Some evidence suggests that fenugreek may also be regarded as antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial agent, antianorexia agent, and gastric stimulant, as well as remedy for hypocholesterolemia and hypoglycemia. The present article is aimed to review the potential applications of fenugreek as a functional food and nutraceutical agent.

  20. PRESERVATIVE POTENTIAL OF PURIFIED BACTERIOCIN PRODUCED FROM BREVIBACILLUS BORSTELENSIS AG1 ISOLATED FROM MARCHA – A TRADITIONAL WINE STARTER CULTURE CAKE IN TOMATO PASTE

    Anupama Gupta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purified bacteriocin produced from Brevibacillus borstelensis AG1 isolated from Marcha a local wine starter herbal cake, was used to enhance the shelf life of tomato paste. Preservative effect of purified bacteriocin was studied for nine days in tomato paste inoculated with food borne pathogens and was compared to commercial biopreservative – nisin and chemical preservative – sodium benzoate. The indicator strains i.e. Listeria monocytogenes MTCC839, Bacillus subtilis CRI and Clostridium perfringens MTCC1739 were used at the amount 8.16, 8.13 and 8.18 log CFU/ml. Viable cells were counted periodically and a consistent reduction in number of viable cells of each tested pathogen was observed. It was found antagonistic against L. monocytogenes MTCC839, B. subtilis CRI and C. perfringes MTCC1739 which are the most challengeable and food borne pathogens found in processed vegetables products. Purified bacteriocin was found active over a wide pH range i.e. 3.0 to 11.0 and was able to withstand temperature up to 100oC. It showed a better preservative potential by reducing pathogenic load of the tested strains (by 2.02, 2.05 and 2.02 log cycles (CFU/ml of L. monocytogenes MTCC839, B. subtilis CRI and C. perfringes MTCC1739, respectively in tomato paste as compared to control (without bacteriocin. This proves efficiency of bacteriocin produced by B. borstelensis AG1 as biopreservative to enhance the safety and shelf life of acidic foods.

  1. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part IV. Subtropical fruits: citrus, grapes, and avocados

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    Current information on the use of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of subtropical fruits like citrus, grapes, and avocados is reviewed. The feasibility of applying radiation either alone or in combination with other physical or chemical treatments for the control of postharvest fungal diseases is considered. Irradiation effects on the physiology of the fruits as related to respiration, ethylene evolution, changes in major chemical constituents, and quality are discussed. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation as an alternative treatment to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of citrus and avocados and the prospects for the future application of irradiation for preservation of some of these fruits are outlined. 128 references

  2. The global potential of local peri-urban food production

    Kriewald, Steffen; Garcia Cantu Ros, Anselmo; Sterzel, Till; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    One big challenge for the rest of the 21st century will be the massive urbanisation. It is expected that more than 7 out of 10 persons will live in a city by the year 2050. Crucial developments towards a sustainable future will therefore take place in cities. One important approach for a sustainable city development is to re-localize food production and to close urban nutrient cycles through better waste management. The re-location of food production avoids CO2 emissions from transportation of food to cities and can also generate income for inhabitants. Cities are by definition locations where fertility accumulates. As cities are often built along rivers, their soils are often fertile. Furthermore, labour force and the possibility of producing fertilizer from human fecal matter within the city promises sustainable nutrients cycles. Although urban and peri-urban agriculture can be found in many cities worldwide and already have a substantial contribution to food supply, it has not jet been comprehensibly structured by research. We combine several worldwide data sets to determine the supply of cities with regional food production, where regional is defined as a production that occurs very close to the consumption within the peri-urban area. Therefore, urban areas are not defined by administrative boundaries but by connected built-up urban areas, and peri-urban area by the surrounding area with the same size multiplied with a scaling parameter. Both together accumulate to an urban-bio-region (UBR). With regard to national food consumption, a linear program achieves the best possible yield on agricultural areas and allows the computation of the fraction of population, which can be nourished. Additionally, several climate scenarios and different dietary patterns were considered. To close the gap between single case studies and to provide a quantitative overview of the global potential of peri-urban food production we used high resolution land-use data Global Land Cover

  3. Self-preserving cosmetics.

    Varvaresou, A; Papageorgiou, S; Tsirivas, E; Protopapa, E; Kintziou, H; Kefala, V; Demetzos, C

    2009-06-01

    Preservatives are added to products for two reasons: first, to prevent microbial spoilage and therefore to prolong the shelf life of the product; second, to protect the consumer from a potential infection. Although chemical preservatives prevent microbial growth, their safety is questioned by a growing segment of consumers. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. In these formulations traditional/chemical preservatives have been replaced by other cosmetic ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to the Annex VI of the Commission Directive 76/768/EEC and the amending directives (2003/15/EC, 2007/17/EC and 2007/22/EC). 'Hurdle Technology', a technology that has been used for the control of product safety in the food industry since 1970s, has also been applied for the production of self-preserving cosmetics. 'Hurdle Technology' is a term used to describe the intelligent combination of different preservation factors or hurdles to deteriorate the growth of microorganisms. Adherence to current good manufacturing practice, appropriate packaging, careful choice of the form of the emulsion, low water activity and low or high pH values are significant variables for the control of microbial growth in cosmetic formulations. This paper describes the application of the basic principles of 'Hurdle Technology' in the production of self-preserving cosmetics. Multifunctional antimicrobial ingredients and plant-derived essential oils and extracts that are used as alternative or natural preservatives and are not listed in Annex VI of the Cosmetic Directive are also reported.

  4. Chemical composition and methane potential of commercial food wastes.

    Lopez, Victoria M; De la Cruz, Florentino B; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-10-01

    There is increasing interest in anaerobic digestion in the U.S. However, there is little information on the characterization of commercial food waste sources as well as the effect of waste particle size on methane yield. The objective of this research was to characterize four commercial food waste sources: (1) university dining hall waste, (2) waste resulting from prepared foods and leftover produce at a grocery store, (3) food waste from a hotel and convention center, and (4) food preparation waste from a restaurant. Each sample was tested in triplicate 8L batch anaerobic digesters after shredding and after shredding plus grinding. Average methane yields for the university dining, grocery store, hotel, and restaurant wastes were 363, 427, 492, and 403mL/dry g, respectively. Starch exhibited the most complete consumption and particle size did not significantly affect methane yields for any of the tested substrates. Lipids represented 59-70% of the methane potential of the fresh substrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sea salts as a potential source of food spoilage fungi.

    Biango-Daniels, Megan N; Hodge, Kathie T

    2018-02-01

    Production of sea salt begins with evaporation of sea water in shallow pools called salterns, and ends with the harvest and packing of salts. This process provides many opportunities for fungal contamination. This study aimed to determine whether finished salts contain viable fungi that have the potential to cause spoilage when sea salt is used as a food ingredient by isolating fungi on a medium that simulated salted food with a lowered water activity (0.95 a w ). The viable filamentous fungi from seven commercial salts were quantified and identified by DNA sequencing, and the fungal communities in different salts were compared. Every sea salt tested contained viable fungi, in concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 1.71 colony-forming units per gram of salt. In total, 85 fungi were isolated representing seven genera. One or more species of the most abundant genera, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Penicillium was found in every salt. Many species found in this study have been previously isolated from low water activity environments, including salterns and foods. We conclude that sea salts contain many fungi that have potential to cause food spoilage as well as some that may be mycotoxigenic. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. 21 CFR 501.22 - Animal foods; labeling of spices, flavorings, colorings, and chemical preservatives.

    2010-04-01

    ..., meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products thereof. Artificial flavor includes... products, or fermentation products thereof, whose significant function in food is flavoring rather than... or retard deterioration thereof, but does not include common salt, sugars, vinegars, spices, or oils...

  7. The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and processing improvement

    Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Han Ok; Jo, Sung Ki; Yook, Hong Sun; Kwon, Oh Jin; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Sung; Im, Sung Il

    1997-09-01

    This project has intended to develop alternative techniques to be used in food industry for food processing and utilization by safe irradiation methods. For improvement of rheology and processing in corn starch by irradiation, the production of modified starch with low viscosity as well as with excellent viscosity stability became feasible by the control of gamma irradiation dose levels and the amount of added inorganic peroxides to starch. Also, this project was developed the improvement methods of hygienic quality and long-term storage of dried red pepper by gamma irradiation. And, in Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield of major components. For the sanitization of health and convenience foods, gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment in decontamination of microorganisms, with minimal effect on the physicochemical properties analysed. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma-irradiated the Korean medicinal plants could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And, thirteen groups of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea Ministry of Health and Welfare. (author). 81 refs., 74 tabs.

  8. Functional genomics for food microbiology: Molecular mechanisms of weak organic acid preservative adaptation in yeast

    Brul, S.; Kallemeijn, W.; Smits, G.

    2008-01-01

    The recent era of genomics has offered tremendous possibilities to biology. This concise review describes the possibilities of applying (functional) genomics studies to the field of microbial food stability. In doing so, the studies on weak-organic-acid stress response in yeast are discussed by way

  9. The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and processing improvement

    Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Han Ok; Jo, Sung Ki; Yook, Hong Sun; Kwon, Oh Jin; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Sung; Im, Sung Il.

    1997-09-01

    This project has intended to develop alternative techniques to be used in food industry for food processing and utilization by safe irradiation methods. For improvement of rheology and processing in corn starch by irradiation, the production of modified starch with low viscosity as well as with excellent viscosity stability became feasible by the control of gamma irradiation dose levels and the amount of added inorganic peroxides to starch. Also, this project was developed the improvement methods of hygienic quality and long-term storage of dried red pepper by gamma irradiation. And, in Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield of major components. For the sanitization of health and convenience foods, gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment in decontamination of microorganisms, with minimal effect on the physicochemical properties analysed. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma-irradiated the Korean medicinal plants could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And, thirteen groups of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea Ministry of Health and Welfare. (author). 81 refs., 74 tabs

  10. Experimental approaches to predict allergenic potential of novel food

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Kroghsbo, Stine; Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm

    2013-01-01

    ’t know under what circumstances oral tolerance develops. With all these unanswered questions, it is a big challenge to designan animal model that, with relatively few animals, is able to predict if a food protein is a potential allergen. An even larger challenge is to predict its potency, a prerequisite...... for risk evaluation.Attempts have been made to rank proteins according to their allergenic potency based on the magnitude of the IgE response in experimental animals. This ranking has not included abundance as a parameter. We may be able to predict potential allergenicity i.e. hazard but our lack......There are many unanswered questions relating to food allergy sensitization in humans. We don’t know under what circumstances sensitization takes place i.e. route (oral, dermal, respiratory), age, dose, frequencyof exposure, infection or by-stander effect of other allergens. In addition we don...

  11. Sorbic and benzoic acid in non-preservative-added food products in Turkey.

    Cakir, Ruziye; Cagri-Mehmetoglu, Arzu

    2013-01-01

    Sorbic acid (SA) and benzoic acid (BA) were determined in yoghurt, tomato and pepper paste, fruit juices, chocolates, soups and chips in Turkey by using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Levels were compared with Turkish Food Codex limits. SA was detected only in 2 of 21 yoghurt samples, contrary to BA, which was found in all yoghurt samples but one, ranging from 10.5 to 159.9 mg/kg. Both SA and BA were detected also in 3 and 6 of 23 paste samples in a range of 18.1-526.4 and 21.7-1933.5 mg/kg, respectively. Only 1 of 23 fruit juices contained BA. SA was not detected in any chips, fruit juice, soup, or chocolate sample. Although 16.51% of the samples was not compliant with the Turkish Food Codex limits, estimated daily intake of BA or SA was below the acceptable daily intake.

  12. Study on mixis potential of rotifer resting eggs ( Brachionus plicatilis) with different collection times and different preservation periods

    Zhou, Li; Zheng, Yan; Xiang, Jian-Hai

    2001-09-01

    The present study investigated the possible changes in the mixis potential of rotifer resting eggs produced by a single stock of Brachionus plicatilis and collected and preserved annually from 1985 1998. Several clones derived from each batch of resting eggs were cultured under the same conditions for 21 days. The percentage of clones appearing resting eggs and the average yield of resting eggs produced from each clone were recorded and statistically analyzed to find the differences between the mixis potential of those resting egg batches. Results showed that different batches of resting eggs had different mictic levels among their descendent clones; but no regular relationship was found between the mixis potential of resting eggs and their collection times/preservation periods. Several internal and external factors that might affect the mixis potential of resting eggs were discussed.

  13. Printed paper and board food contact materials as a potential source of food contamination.

    Van Bossuyt, Melissa; Van Hoeck, Els; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera; Mertens, Birgit

    2016-11-01

    Food contact materials (FCM) are estimated to be the largest source of food contamination. Apart from plastics, the most commonly used FCM are made of printed paper and board. Unlike their plastic counterparts, these are not covered by a specific European regulation. Several contamination issues have raised concerns towards potential adverse health effects caused by exposure to substances migrating from printed paper and board FCM. In the current study, an inventory combining the substances which may be used in printed paper and board FCM, was created. More than 6000 unique compounds were identified, the majority (77%) considered non-evaluated in terms of potential toxicity. Based on a preliminary study of their physicochemical properties, it is estimated that most of the non-evaluated single substances have the potential to migrate into the food and become bioavailable after oral intake. Almost all are included in the FACET tool, indicating that their use in primary food packaging has been confirmed by industry. Importantly, 19 substances are also present in one of the lists with substances of concern compiled by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). To ensure consumer safety, the actual use of these substances in printed paper and board FCM should be investigated urgently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Corrosion inhibition with different protective layers in tinplate cans for food preservation.

    Grassino, Antonela Ninčević; Grabarić, Zorana; Pezzani, Aldo; Squitieri, Giuseppe; Berković, Katarina

    2010-11-01

    In this work the influence of essential onion oil (EOO) on the protection of tinplates was compared with dioctyl sebacate oil (DOS) and epoxy phenolic lacquers, which are frequently used in the food canning industry. When EOO as the protective layer instead of DOS oil was used, tinplate porosity, measured electrochemically (7.58 ± 1.97 µA cm(-2) and 23.0 ± 1.3 µA cm(-2), respectively), and iron coating mass, calculated from AAS data (1.52 ± 0.15 mg m(-2) and 3.14 ± 0.42, respectively), was much lower indicating better corrosion protection. At higher storing temperature (36 °C) the addition of EOO to canned tomato purée enhanced the formation of hydrogen with time. The increasing volume fraction of H(2) (from 34.0 to 90.9% for cans without nitrates, and from 33.8 to 89.2% for cans with nitrates) is an indicator that corrosion takes place. As the use of EOO improves the protection of tinplate compared with DOS oil, and is almost as effective as epoxy phenolic lacquer, the addition of EOO can be recommended due to lower cost of canned food production and enhanced organoleptic properties, but the storage temperature has to be lower then 36 °C. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry

  15. Occurrence of Antibiotic resistance in some bacterial strains due to gamma radiation, heavy metals or food preservatives

    Mattar, Z.A.; Bashandy, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    The susceptibility of bacterial strains (B. cereus, Staph. aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella) against 10 different antibiotics that are commonly used against food borne pathogens was studied. All the tested strains were observed to tolerate up to 100 mg/l copper sulphate or lead acetate, and there was a positive correlations between the tolerance to high levels of Cu or Pb and multiple antibiotic resistance was investigated. When the food preservatives (potassium sorbate or sodium benzoate) were added to the growth medium at different concentrations, the bacterial strains were able to tolerate up to 1000 ppm potassium sorbate or sodium benzoate (MIC). The antibiotic resistance of these strains was increased when grown on media supplemented with the MIC of sodium sorbate or potassium benzoate. When these bacterial strains were irradiated at dose levels of 1 or 3 or 5 KGy and examined for antibiotic sensitivity, a correlation was observed between the increases of radiation dose up to 5 KGy and the antibiotic resistance in all the studied strains

  16. Lack of oestrogenic effects of food preservatives (parabens) in uterotrophic assays

    Hossaini, A.; Larsen, Jens-Jørgen; Larsen, John Christian

    2000-01-01

    The oestrogenic activity of the parabens, methyl-, ethyl- and propyl p-hydroxybenzoate, widely used as antimicrobials in food, and butyl p-hydroxybenzoate, which is used in cosmetic products, and their shared main metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid was investigated in a mouse uterotrophic assay......, Immature B6D2F1 mice were treated with oral or subcutaneous doses of the test compounds for three consecutive days, p-Hydroxgybenzoic acid and butyl p-hydroxybenzoate were also tested by the subcutaneous route in a rat uterotrophic assay. A significant increase in the uterus weight at day 4 was considered...... an oestrogenic effect. In the mouse assay, none of the compounds tested produced any oestrogenic response at dose levels up to 100 mg/kg body weight per day, for ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate even at a dose level of 1000 mg/kg body weight per day. In immature Wistar rats, subcutaneous administration of butyl p...

  17. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products.

  18. Differentiating TOC sources, preservation, and potential methane emissions in sub-Arctic lakes in Sweden

    Johnson, J. E.; Varner, R. K.; Wik, M.; Chanton, J.; Crill, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Organic carbon-rich sediments from high latitude, shallow lakes and ponds are significant sources of methane throughout the Arctic. The origin and evolution of these lakes and ponds, however, is often not the same. Several lake types have been identified based on (1) hydrological conditions (melt-water fed, rain water fed, groundwater influenced, evaporation dominated, drained) (2) permafrost condition (thermokarst), and (3) time of origin (glacial or post-glacial). Given sufficient time (100's to 1000's years) many of these lake types may morph into others. In sub-Arctic Sweden, near Abisko and within the zone of discontinuous permafrost, the elongate glacial lake Torneträsk is fed by several streams draining the surrounding highlands. Lake Tornetrask is one of several NW-SE trending glacial lakes common in the landscape throughout northern and western Sweden. Between and alongside these glacial lakes, several small (ponds exist in low-lying mires. Sediment cores from the lakes in the Stordalen Mire are characterized by high total organic carbon (TOC) content (10-50 wt. %) in the uppermost ~50 cm and commonly underlain by glaciofluvial derived sediments with lower TOC (emissions from several of these lakes has also been measured and is driven by heat input. Coincident young ages of carbon in the sediments and in methane indicate in situ production. A published record from Lake Torneträsk shows sediments there contain significantly less TOC (1-2.5 wt. %) that is derived primarily from old, terrestrial organic carbon delivered via rivers to the lake. Although the larger and deeper glacial lakes currently occupy much of the landscape it is becoming clear that as the Arctic warms TOC preservation and methane production in the smaller lakes and ponds play a more significant, immediate role in emission of methane to the atmosphere. With continued warming in the Arctic, terrestrial TOC will be relinquished from highland watersheds to glacial lakes, but the methane

  19. Development and validation of a stochastic model for potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in naturally contaminated lightly preserved seafood

    Mejlholm, Ole; Bøknæs, Niels; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-01-01

    added acetic and/or lactic acids. The stochastic model was developed from an existing deterministic model including the effect of 12 environmental parameters and microbial interaction (O. Mejlholm and P. Dalgaard, Food Microbiology, submitted for publication). Observed maximum population density (MPD...... of the least and most preserved sample of CSGH and CSS were used as input for the existing deterministic model. For both modelling approaches, it was shown that lag time and the effect of microbial interaction needs to be included to accurately predict MPD values of L. monocytogenes. Addition of organic acids...... to CSGH and CSS was confirmed as a suitable mitigation strategy against the risk of growth by L. monocytogenes as both types of products were in compliance with the EU regulation on ready-to-eat foods....

  20. Preservation of cardiac function by prolonged action potentials in mice deficient of KChIP2

    Grubb, Søren Jahn; Aistrup, Gary L; Koivumäki, Jussi T

    2015-01-01

    to the preservation of contractile function. Detailed analysis of current kinetics shows that only ICa,L density is reduced, and immunoblots demonstrate unaltered CaV1.2 and CaVβ2 protein levels. Computer modeling suggests that delayed repolarization would prolong the period of Ca(2+) entry into the cell, thereby...

  1. Influence of Natural Food Preservatives Combined with Gamma Radiation on Certain Microorganisms Isolated from Egyptian Juices

    El-Fouly, M.Z.; Hussein, H.A.; Abu El-Naga, M.N.; Haroun, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Twelve strains were isolated from different Egyptian juices. The nine bacteria strains were identified as Micrococcus agilis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. warneri, S. epidermidis, S. auricularls, Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter frundii, and Streptococcus pedococcus while the yeast strains were Debaryomyces sp., Kluveromyces sp .and Pichia sp. Three of the previous strains were chosen in the present work according to their common contamination in all samples and their characteristics; S. aureus represented gram positive bacteria, P. aeruginosa represented gram negative bacteria and Debaryomyces sp. to represent yeast strains. S. aureus has completely annihilated by 250 μ g/ml. of nisin, or 0.2% citric acid, or 0.15% lactic acid, or 1.2 % cinnamon or 5 kGy of gamma rays.; P. aeruginosa was destroyed by 0.3 % citric acid, or 0.3 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 4 kGy of gamma rays, while Debaryomyces sp. was eliminated by 4 % citric acid, or 4.5 % lactic acid, or 2 % cinnamon or 7 kGy of gamma rays. Nisin alone has no effect on P. aeruginosa or Debaryomyces sp. Combined treatments have decreased both of natural preservatives and irradiation doses needed to eliminate the microorganisms contaminated the juices. S. aureus was completely eliminated by 3 kGy combined with only 25 μ g/ml. of nisin. The lethal dose decreased to 2 kGy by combination with citric, lactic acid and cinnamon at conc. 0.05%, 0.01% and 0.4 %, respectively .The dose level of gamma rays needed to eliminate P. aeruginosa decreased to 3 kGy in combination with citric acid 0.1% or with cinnamon 0.5 % and it decreased to 2 kGy by combination with lactic acid 0.1 %. In case of Debaryomyces sp the lethal dose decreased from 7 kGy to 4 kGy by combination with citric acid 1.5 % or cinnamon 1 % and to 3 kGy with lactic acid 1.5 %. Also, the combination treatment has activated the effect of nisin on both of P. aeruginosa and Debaryomyces sp. Dose level of 4 kGy combined with 200 μ g/ml. nisin

  2. Influence of natural food preservatives combined with gamma radiation on certain microorganisms isolated from Egyptian Juices

    El-Fouly, M.Z.; Hussein, H.A.; Abu El-Naga, M.N.; Haroun, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    Twelve strains were isolated from different Egyptian juices. They were identified as Micrococcus agilis. Staphylococcus aureus, S. warneri, Debaryomyces sp., Pichia sp., S. epidermidis, S. auricularls, Kluveromyces sp., Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter frundii,and Streptococcus pedococcus. Three of the previous strains were chosen in the present work according to their common contamination in all samples and their characteristics; S. aureus represented gram positive bacteria, P. aeruginosa represented gram negative bacteria and Debaryomyces sp.to represent yeast strains. S. aureus has completely annihilated by 250 μg/ml. of nisin, or 0.2% citric acid, or 0.15% lactic acid, or 1.2 % cinnamon or 5 kGy of gamma rays. P. aeruginosa was destroyed by 0.3 % citric acid, or 0.3 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 4 kGy of gamma rays, while Debaryomyces sp. was eliminated by 4 % citric acid, or 4.5 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 7 kGy of gamma rays. Nisin alone has no effect on P. aeruginosa or Debaryomyces sp. Combined treatments have decreased both of natural preservatives and irradiation doses needed to eliminate the microorganisms contaminated the juices. S. aureus was completely eliminated by 3 kGy combined with only 25 μg/ml. of nisin. The lethal dose decreased to 2 kGy by combination with citric, lactic acid and cinnamon at conc. 0.05%, 0.01% and 0.4 %, respectively. The dose level of gamma rays needed to eliminate P. aeruginosa decreased to 3 kGy in combination with citric acid 0.1% or with cinnamon 0.5 % and it decreased to 2 kGy by combination with lactic acid 0.1 %. In case of Debaryomyces sp the lethal dose decreased from 7 kGy to 4 kGy by combination with citric acid 1.5 % or cinnamon 1 % and to 3 kGy with lactic acid 1.5 %. Also the combination treatment has activated the effect of nisin on both of P. aeruginosa and Debaryomyces sp. Dose level 4 kGy by combination with 200 μg/ml. nisin completely inhibited their growth

  3. Use of irradiation in the preservation of traditional South African foods

    Minnaar, A.; Bester, B.H.; Shilangale, R.P.M.

    2002-01-01

    A variety of traditional African foods are prepared in the home and enjoyed by a large number of consumers. Currently, hardly any of these foods are available commercially. However, these foods are laborious to prepare, not generally available commercially and have a limited shelf life. The application of irradiation (alone) or in combination with other technologies can help solve these problems. The effect of irradiation (0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy at 5 deg. C the consumer acceptability of a traditional South African ready-to-eat (RTE) meal consisting of spinach (morogo) and sorghum porridge was investigated. The two components of the meal remained acceptable up to a dose of 10 kGy. The limiting factor for using higher doses was the porridge component, especially in terms of texture (too soft) and taste (off-flavour development). Therefore the use irradiation at 10 kGy in combination with different levels of sodium nitrite was proposed to improve the storability of the RTE-meal. Research is in progress investigating the effects of combining mild heat, sodium nitrite and irradiation on the microbiological quality, shelf-life and acceptability of a RTE- meal consisting of spinach (morogo) and sorghum porridge. Washing in chlorinated water reduced inoculated Clostridium sporogenes spores in spinach by about 2 log 10 cfu/g probably because hypochlorites are bacteriostatic. Blanching of spinach after the chlorine treatment did not effect the C. sporogenes counts. However, C. sporogenes counts increased by about 1 log 10 cfu/g during cooking, probably due to the activation of the spores by heat. On the other hand, cooking reduced C. sporogenes counts in the porridge significantly (by about 2 log 10 cfu/g). Gelatinised starch granules probably protected the spores against heat activation. In both meal components, cooking caused a significant decrease in the final nitrite levels. This may be due to the fact that nitrite can form complexes with other components during heating

  4. Partition of selected food preservatives in fish oil-water systems

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan; Leth, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The partition coefficients (Kow) of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in systems of fish oil (sand eel)–water, fish oil–buffer solution, rape oil–water and olive oil–water were experimentally determined in a temperature range from 5 to 43 °C and pH from 4.5 to 6.5 °C. The dimerization of benzoic acid...... in fish oil–water system was observed at 25 °C. Two modifications have been made to the Nordic Food Analysis Standard for the determination of sorbic acid by HPLC. The experimental results show that the Kow of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in fish oil–buffer system is ca. 100 times lower than that in fish...... oil–water system. The Kow values of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in fish oil and water system decrease with increasing system pH values. The partition coefficients of plant origin and fish origin oils are in the same order of magnitude even though their molecular structures are very different....

  5. Application of the Ames mutagenicity test to food processed by physical preservation methods

    Kooij, J.G. van; Leveling, H.B.; Schubert, J.

    1978-01-01

    An irradiated (380 krad) mixture of four fresh vegetables - leek, celery, carrot, and cauliflower - was examined for mutagenicity by the Ames mutagenicity test using four different histidine-deficient strains of Salmonellae. Water extracts were prepared from the irradiated and unirradiated vegetables - a freeze dried extract (FDE) and a boiled extract (BE). Several problems were overcome in the mutagenicity testing of a complex substance such as food which contains free histidine, different species of bacteria, and a mixture of low and high molecular weight chemicals. In addition, we eliminated an omission in the usual protocols of the Ames test by testing the positive mutagen controls in the presence and absence of the test samples, thus reducing the possible incidence of false negatives and false positives. The induction and expression of mutagenesis by sodium azide (SA) and ethidium bromide (EB) in TA 100 and TA 98 mutant strains, respectively, decreased with increasing amounts of FDE, while increasing levels of BE suppressed the number of revertants in TA 98 in the presence of EB, but exerted little influence on the mutagenicity of SA in TA 100. No difference was observed in the antimutagenic action between the irradiated and unirradiated vegetable extracts. Both the FDE and BE preparations suppressed the action of a frameshift mutagen, but with a base-pair mutagen only the FDE or uncooked vegetable extracts produced suppression. (author)

  6. Production of an antimicrobial peptide derived from slaughterhouse by-product and its potential application on meat as preservative.

    Przybylski, Rémi; Firdaous, Loubna; Châtaigné, Gabrielle; Dhulster, Pascal; Nedjar, Naïma

    2016-11-15

    Bovine cruor, a slaughterhouse by-product, contains mainly hemoglobin, broadly described as a rich source of antimicrobial peptides. In the current context of food safety, bioactive peptides could be of interest as preservatives in the distribution of food products. The aim of this work was to study the α137-141 fragment of hemoglobin (Thr-Ser-Lys-Tyr-Arg), a small (653Da) and hydrophilic antimicrobial peptide. Its production was fast, with more 65% finally produced at 24h already produced after 30min of hydrolysis with pepsin. Moreover, increasing substrate concentration (from 1 to 8% (w/v)) resulted in a proportional augmentation of α137-141 production (to 807.95±41.03mgL(-1)). The α137-141 application on meat as preservative (0.5%, w/w) reduced the lipid oxidation about 60% to delay meat rancidity. The α137-141 peptide also inhibited the microbial growths under refrigeration during 14days. These antimicrobial effects were close to those of the butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermal and non-thermal preservation techniques of tiger nuts' beverage "horchata de chufa". Implications for food safety, nutritional and quality properties.

    Roselló-Soto, Elena; Poojary, Mahesha M; Barba, Francisco J; Koubaa, Mohamed; Lorenzo, Jose M; Mañes, Jordi; Moltó, Juan Carlos

    2018-03-01

    "Horchata de chufa" is a traditional Spanish beverage produced from tiger nuts (Cyperus esculentus L.). Due to its richness in nutritional compounds, it is highly perishable and its conservation by pasteurization and/or adding preservatives is required. Although efficient, conventional thermal treatment for pasteurization induces changes in the nutritional and sensory properties. Replacing conventional pasteurization by non-thermal technologies such as pulsed electric fields, ultraviolet, and high pressure, combined with moderate temperatures (preservation of the most thermo-sensitive molecules. Accordingly, this review deals with the description of the most relevant non-thermal technologies applied to preserve "horchata" beverage in order to extend the shelf life and inactivate pathogenic microorganisms as well as to preserve the nutritional and quality properties of this food beverage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development and analytical characterization of vitamin(s)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles for potential food packaging applications

    Aresta, Antonella; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Trapani, Adriana; Cellamare, Saverio; Zambonin, Carlo Giorgio; De Giglio, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    Most vitamins are well-known natural antioxidant agents which can be usefully employed for foods preservation to increase their shelf life. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential of vitamin-based chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) for novel food packaging application. In particular, Vitamin C- and/or E-loaded CSNPs were formulated following the ionic gelation technique and using sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin as cross-linking agent. The obtained CSNPs were characterized in terms of size and zeta potential measurements, leading to size range of 375–503 nm and zeta range values from +16.0 to +33.8 mV. At the solid-state, the same particles were subjected to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Then, the antioxidant potential of the produced vitamin(s) nanoparticulate formulations has been evaluated through 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl test, a rapid spectrophotometric assay. The standardized procedure was used on vitamin(s)-modified CSNPs systems to determine both the amount of active vitamin(s) loaded in CSNPs and their release performances by in vitro release studies. Of all, high vitamins association efficiency along with an improvement of their shelf life (also under light exposure up to 7 days) were achieved. Altogether, the results suggest that Vitamin E is available in a hydrophilic delivery system able to replace organic solvents usually used for the solubilization of this antioxidant agent. In conclusion, these nanocarriers represent a promising strategy for the co-administration of Vitamin E and Vitamin C in packaging materials intended for a better storage of hydrophilic and/or lipophilic food.

  9. Development and analytical characterization of vitamin(s)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles for potential food packaging applications

    Aresta, Antonella, E-mail: antonellamaria.aresta@uniba.it; Calvano, Cosima Damiana [University of Bari, Department of Chemistry (Italy); Trapani, Adriana; Cellamare, Saverio [University of Bari, Department of Pharmacy-Drug Sciences (Italy); Zambonin, Carlo Giorgio; De Giglio, Elvira [University of Bari, Department of Chemistry (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Most vitamins are well-known natural antioxidant agents which can be usefully employed for foods preservation to increase their shelf life. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential of vitamin-based chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) for novel food packaging application. In particular, Vitamin C- and/or E-loaded CSNPs were formulated following the ionic gelation technique and using sulfobutylether-{beta}-cyclodextrin as cross-linking agent. The obtained CSNPs were characterized in terms of size and zeta potential measurements, leading to size range of 375-503 nm and zeta range values from +16.0 to +33.8 mV. At the solid-state, the same particles were subjected to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Then, the antioxidant potential of the produced vitamin(s) nanoparticulate formulations has been evaluated through 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl test, a rapid spectrophotometric assay. The standardized procedure was used on vitamin(s)-modified CSNPs systems to determine both the amount of active vitamin(s) loaded in CSNPs and their release performances by in vitro release studies. Of all, high vitamins association efficiency along with an improvement of their shelf life (also under light exposure up to 7 days) were achieved. Altogether, the results suggest that Vitamin E is available in a hydrophilic delivery system able to replace organic solvents usually used for the solubilization of this antioxidant agent. In conclusion, these nanocarriers represent a promising strategy for the co-administration of Vitamin E and Vitamin C in packaging materials intended for a better storage of hydrophilic and/or lipophilic food.

  10. Digital preservation

    Deegan, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Digital preservation is an issue of huge importance to the library and information profession right now. With the widescale adoption of the internet and the rise of the world wide web, the world has been overwhelmed by digital information. Digital data is being produced on a massive scale by individuals and institutions: some of it is born, lives and dies only in digital form, and it is the potential death of this data, with its impact on the preservation of culture, that is the concern of this book. So how can information professionals try to remedy this? Digital preservation is a complex iss

  11. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. III. Tropical fruits: bananas, mangoes, and papayas

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    The current status of research on the use of ionizing radiation for shelf life improvement and disinfestation of fresh tropical fruits like bananas, mangoes, and papayas are reviewed. The aspects covered are influence of maturity and physiological state of the fruits on delayed ripening and tolerance to radiation; varietal responses; changes in chemical constituents, volatiles, respiration, and ethylene evolution; biochemical mechanisms of delayed ripening and browning of irradiated fruits; and organoleptic quality. The efficacy of the combination of hot water dip and radiation treatments for control of postharvest fungal diseases are considered. The immediate potential of radiation as a quarantine treatment, in place of the currently used chemical fumigants, for disinfestation of fruit flies and mango seed weevil are discussed. Future prospects for irradiation of tropical fruits are discussed in the light of experience gained from studies conducted in different countries.146 references

  12. TOWARDS FOOD SAFETY. POTENTIALLY HARMFUL ELEMENTS (PHEs FLUXES FROM SOIL TO FOOD CROPS

    Claudio Bini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil is the basis of the ecosystems and of our system of food production. Crops can uptake heavy metals and potentially toxic elements from the soil and store them in the roots or translocate them to the aerial parts. Excessive content of these elements in edible parts can produce toxic effects and, through the food chain and food consumption, result in a potential hazard for human health. In this study soils and plants (spring wheat, Triticum aestivum L. and maize, Zea mays L. from a tannery district in North-East Italy were analyzed to determine the content of some major and micro-nutrients and potentially toxic elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, S, Zn, V. The soils of the area are moderately polluted; Cr is the most important inorganic contaminant, followed by Ni, Cu and V. Factor analysis evidenced that the contaminants are in part anthropogenic and in part geogenic. Major anthropogenic origin was detected for Cr, Ni (from industrial activities, Zn, Cu, Cd (from agriculture practices. Biological Absorption Coefficient (BAC from soil to plant roots and Translocation factor (TF within the plant were calculated; major nutrients (K, P, S and some micronutrients (Cu, Zn, Mg, Mn are easily absorbed and translocated, whilst other nutrients (Ca, Fe and potentially toxic elements or micronutrients (Al, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, V are not accumulated in the seeds of the two considered plants. However, the two edible species proved differently able to absorb and translocate elements, and this suggests to consider separately every species as potential PHEs transporter to the food chain and to humans. Cr concentrations in seeds and other aerial parts (stem and leaves of the examined plants are higher than the values found for the same species and for other cereals grown on unpolluted soils. Comparing the Cr levels in edible parts with recommended dietary intake, besides other possible Cr sources (dust ingestion, water, there seems to be no

  13. Potential for Increased Mercury Accumulation in the Estuary Food Web

    Jay A Davis

    2003-10-01

    term monitoring on local and regional scales, and careful evaluation of individual restoration projects with regard to potential increase of food web mercury.

  14. Potential Applications of Carbohydrases Immobilization in the Food Industry

    Contesini, Fabiano Jares; de Alencar Figueira, Joelise; Kawaguti, Haroldo Yukio; de Barros Fernandes, Pedro Carlos; de Oliveira Carvalho, Patrícia; Nascimento, Maria da Graça; Sato, Hélia Harumi

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrases find a wide application in industrial processes and products, mainly in the food industry. With these enzymes, it is possible to obtain different types of sugar syrups (viz. glucose, fructose and inverted sugar syrups), prebiotics (viz. galactooligossacharides and fructooligossacharides) and isomaltulose, which is an interesting sweetener substitute for sucrose to improve the sensory properties of juices and wines and to reduce lactose in milk. The most important carbohydrases to accomplish these goals are of microbial origin and include amylases (α-amylases and glucoamylases), invertases, inulinases, galactosidases, glucosidases, fructosyltransferases, pectinases and glucosyltransferases. Yet, for all these processes to be cost-effective for industrial application, a very efficient, simple and cheap immobilization technique is required. Immobilization techniques can involve adsorption, entrapment or covalent bonding of the enzyme into an insoluble support, or carrier-free methods, usually based on the formation of cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs). They include a broad variety of supports, such as magnetic materials, gums, gels, synthetic polymers and ionic resins. All these techniques present advantages and disadvantages and several parameters must be considered. In this work, the most recent and important studies on the immobilization of carbohydrases with potential application in the food industry are reviewed. PMID:23344046

  15. Electrochemical Determination of Food Preservative Nitrite with Gold Nanoparticles/p-Aminothiophenol-Modified Gold Electrode.

    Üzer, Ayşem; Sağlam, Şener; Can, Ziya; Erçağ, Erol; Apak, Reşat

    2016-08-02

    Due to the negative impact of nitrate and nitrite on human health, their presence exceeding acceptable levels is not desired in foodstuffs. Thus, nitrite determination at low concentrations is a major challenge in electroanalytical chemistry, which can be achieved by fast, cheap, and safe electrochemical sensors. In this work, the working electrode (Au) was functionalized with p-aminothiophenol (p-ATP) and modified with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) to manufacture the final (Au/p-ATP-Aunano) electrode in a two-step procedure. In the first step, p-ATP was electropolymerized on the electrode surface to obtain a polyaminothiophenol (PATP) coating. In the second step, Au/p-ATP-Aunano working electrode was prepared by coating the surface with the use of HAuCl₄ solution and cyclic voltammetry. Determination of aqueous nitrite samples was performed with the proposed electrode (Au/p-ATP-Aunano) using square wave voltammetry (SWV) in pH 4 buffer medium. Characteristic peak potential of nitrite samples was 0.76 V, and linear calibration curves of current intensity versus concentration was linear in the range of 0.5-50 mg·L(-1) nitrite with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.12 mg·L(-1). Alternatively, nitrite in sausage samples could be colorimetrically determined with high sensitivity by means of p-ATP‒modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and naphthylethylene diamine as coupling agents for azo-dye formation due to enhanced charge-transfer interactions with the AuNPs surface. The slopes of the calibration lines in pure NO₂(-) solution and in sausage sample solution, to which different concentrations of NO₂(-) standards were added, were not significantly different from each other, confirming the robustness and interference tolerance of the method. The proposed voltammetric sensing method was validated against the colorimetric nanosensing method in sausage samples.

  16. Simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners, preservatives, caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in food and pharmaceutical preparations by ion chromatography.

    Chen, Q C; Wang, J

    2001-12-07

    A novel ion chromatographic method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners (sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K), preservatives (benzoic acid, sorbic acid), caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. The separation was performed on an anion-exchange analytical column operated at 40 degrees C within 45 min by an isocratic elution with 5 mM aqueous NaH2PO4 (pH 8.20) solution containing 4% (v/v) acetonitrile as eluent, and the determination by wavelength-switching ultraviolet absorbance detection. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) for all analytes were below the sub-microg/ml level. Under the experimental conditions, several organic acids, including citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid and ascorbic acid, did not interfere with the determination. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of various food and pharmaceutical preparations, and the average recoveries for real samples ranged from 85 to 104%. The levels of all analytes determined by this method were in good agreement with those obtained by the high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. The results also indicated that ion chromatography would be possibly a beneficial alternative to conventional high-performance liquid chromatography for the separation and determination of these compounds.

  17. Technique of radiation polymerization in fine art conservation: a potentially new method of restoration and preservation

    Garnett, J.L.; Major, G.

    1982-01-01

    The technique of using radiation polymerization for the restoration and preservation of art treasures is considered. The processes discussed include both radiation grafting and rapid cure procedures, particularly reactions initiated by uv and eb. Representative examples where the technique has already been used are treated including typical applications with paintings, tapestries, leather and archival repair. The structure of the monomers and oligomers used in both grafting and rapid cure systems is outlined. The experimental conditions where grafting may occur during radiation rapid cure processing are discussed. Possible future developments of the technique are outlined. 1 figure, 8 tables

  18. PRESERVATIVE POTENTIAL OF PURIFIED BACTERIOCIN PRODUCED FROM BREVIBACILLUS BORSTELENSIS AG1 ISOLATED FROM MARCHA – A TRADITIONAL WINE STARTER CULTURE CAKE IN TOMATO PASTE

    Anupama Gupta; Nivedita Sharma; Neha Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Purified bacteriocin produced from Brevibacillus borstelensis AG1 isolated from Marcha a local wine starter herbal cake, was used to enhance the shelf life of tomato paste. Preservative effect of purified bacteriocin was studied for nine days in tomato paste inoculated with food borne pathogens and was compared to commercial biopreservative – nisin and chemical preservative – sodium benzoate. The indicator strains i.e. Listeria monocytogenes MTCC839, Bacillus subtilis CRI and Clostridium perf...

  19. Potential for improvement of population diet through reformulation of commonly eaten foods.

    van Raaij, Joop; Hendriksen, Marieke; Verhagen, Hans

    2009-03-01

    FOOD REFORMULATION: Reformulation of foods is considered one of the key options to achieve population nutrient goals. The compositions of many foods are modified to assist the consumer bring his or her daily diet more in line with dietary recommendations. INITIATIVES ON FOOD REFORMULATION: Over the past few years the number of reformulated foods introduced on the European market has increased enormously and it is expected that this trend will continue for the coming years. LIMITS TO FOOD REFORMULATION: Limitations to food reformulation in terms of choice of foods appropriate for reformulation and level of feasible reformulation relate mainly to consumer acceptance, safety aspects, technological challenges and food legislation. IMPACT ON KEY NUTRIENT INTAKE AND HEALTH: The potential impact of reformulated foods on key nutrient intake and health is obvious. Evaluation of the actual impact requires not only regular food consumption surveys, but also regular updates of the food composition table including the compositions of newly launched reformulated foods.

  20. Methanization potential of anaerobic biodigestion of solid food waste

    Laís R. G. de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anaerobic biodigestion of solid and semi-solid wastes has been widely used for the treatment of these residues and methane production; however, during the process (more specifically in the acidogenic phase, there is a tendency of pH reduction, an unfavorable condition to methanogenic bacteria. Thus, the present work aims to evaluate the methanization potential of an agroindustrial anaerobic granular sludge (AIS from UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor, individually and biodigested with food waste (FW from the University Restaurant of the Federal University of Pernambuco with buffering agent (AIS + FW + b and without it (AIS + FW. After the laboratory tests, the AIS + FW + b configuration obtained a cumulative methane production approximately six times greater than that of AIS + FW, and approximately twice that of the inoculum alone (AIS.

  1. Food poisoning potential of Bacillus cereus strains from Norwegian dairies.

    Stenfors Arnesen, Lotte P; O'sullivan, Kristin; Granum, Per Einar

    2007-05-10

    Characteristics concerning diarrhoeal potential were investigated in B. cereus dairy strains. The thirty-nine strains, isolated from whipping cream, were tested for cytotoxicity after culturing at human body temperature as well as 25 degrees C and 32 degrees C. At 37 degrees C, none of the strains were highly cytotoxic. This observation suggests that those strains should be considered to pose a minor risk with regard to diarrhoeal food poisoning. However, some strains were moderately or highly cytotoxic when grown at 25 degrees C and 32 degrees C. While the majority of the strains were able to grow at refrigeration temperatures, only four B. weihenstephanensis strains were identified among them when subjected to discriminative PCR assays and growth temperatures which delimit this species.

  2. Quantifying food losses and the potential for reduction in Switzerland.

    Beretta, Claudio; Stoessel, Franziska; Baier, Urs; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2013-03-01

    A key element in making our food systems more efficient is the reduction of food losses across the entire food value chain. Nevertheless, food losses are often neglected. This paper quantifies food losses in Switzerland at the various stages of the food value chain (agricultural production, postharvest handling and trade, processing, food service industry, retail, and households), identifies hotspots and analyses the reasons for losses. Twenty-two food categories are modelled separately in a mass and energy flow analysis, based on data from 31 companies within the food value chain, and from public institutions, associations, and from the literature. The energy balance shows that 48% of the total calories produced (edible crop yields at harvest time and animal products, including slaughter waste) is lost across the whole food value chain. Half of these losses would be avoidable given appropriate mitigation measures. Most avoidable food losses occur at the household, processing, and agricultural production stage of the food value chain. Households are responsible for almost half of the total avoidable losses (in terms of calorific content). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anticoagulant Medicine: Potential for Drug-Food Interactions

    ... Medications Anticoagulants and Drug-Food Interactions Anticoagulants and Drug-Food Interactions Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer Patient ... Jewish Health wants you to be aware these drug-food interactions when taking anticoagulant medicine. Ask your health care ...

  4. Biotechnology and the food industry: some potentials for Ghana | Klu ...

    Biotechnology has played a major role in the traditional food and agriculture industry particularly in the areas of food fermentation, biological control of pests, and conventional animal vaccine production. The need to augment food production to meet the increasing population in Ghana requires that modern techniques be ...

  5. Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action

    Jessica Aschemann-Witzel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, food waste has received increased attention on both academic and societal levels. As a cause of negative economic, environmental and social effects, food waste is considered to be one of the sustainability issues that needs to be addressed. In developed countries, consumers are one of the biggest sources of food waste. To successfully reduce consumer-related food waste, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the factors influencing food waste-related consumer perceptions and behaviors. The present paper presents the results of a literature review and expert interviews on factors causing consumer-related food waste in households and supply chains. Results show that consumers’ motivation to avoid food waste, their management skills of food provisioning and food handling and their trade-offs between priorities have an extensive influence on their food waste behaviors. We identify actions that governments, societal stakeholders and retailers can undertake to reduce consumer-related food waste, highlighting that synergistic actions between all parties are most promising. Further research should focus on exploring specific food waste contexts and interactions more in-depth. Experiments and interventions in particular can contribute to a shift from analysis to solutions.

  6. Determining the potential productivity of food crops in controlled environments

    Bugbee, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    The quest to determine the maximum potential productivity of food crops is greatly benefitted by crop growth models. Many models have been developed to analyze and predict crop growth in the field, but it is difficult to predict biological responses to stress conditions. Crop growth models for the optimal environments of a Controlled Environment Life Support System (CELSS) can be highly predictive. This paper discusses the application of a crop growth model to CELSS; the model is used to evaluate factors limiting growth. The model separately evaluates the following four physiological processes: absorption of PPF by photosynthetic tissue, carbon fixation (photosynthesis), carbon use (respiration), and carbon partitioning (harvest index). These constituent processes determine potentially achievable productivity. An analysis of each process suggests that low harvest index is the factor most limiting to yield. PPF absorption by plant canopies and respiration efficiency are also of major importance. Research concerning productivity in a CELSS should emphasize: (1) the development of gas exchange techniques to continuously monitor plant growth rates and (2) environmental techniques to reduce plant height in communities.

  7. Food preservation by irradiation

    Thomas, A.C.; Beyers, M.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiation can be used to eliminate harmful bacteria in frozen products without thawing them. It can also replace chemicals or extended cold storage as a means of killing insect pests in export commodities

  8. Agaricus bohusii from Serbia: chemical characterization, antioxidant potential and antifungal preserving properties in cream cheese

    Reis, Filipa S.; Stojković, Dejan; Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms are widely appreciated all over the world for their nutritional and bioactive properties. They have been considered valuable health foods being a source of many different nutraceuticals, including antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds [1,2]. Agaricus bohusii Bon is an edible and prized mushroom especially common in Serbia and southern Europe. As far as we know, there are no studies about this species. In the present work, a detailed chemical characterization of A. bohusii was ...

  9. Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hooge, Ilona de; Amani, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    behaviors. We identify actions that governments, societal stakeholders and retailers can undertake to reduce consumer-related food waste, highlighting that synergistic actions between all parties are most promising. Further research should focus on exploring specific food waste contexts and interactions......In the past decade, food waste has received increased attention on both academic and societal levels. As a cause of negative economic, environmental and social effects, food waste is considered to be one of the sustainability issues that needs to be addressed. In developed countries, consumers...... are one of the biggest sources of food waste. To successfully reduce consumer-related food waste, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the factors influencing food waste-related consumer perceptions and behaviors. The present paper presents the results of a literature review and expert...

  10. Cold acclimation improves chill tolerance in the migratory locust through preservation of ion balance and membrane potential

    Andersen, Mads; Folkersen, Rasmus; MacMillan, Heath Andrew

    2017-01-01

    potential (Vm). Several studies have therefore suggested a link between preservation of Vm and cellular survival after cold stress, but none has measured Vm in this context. We tested this hypothesis by acclimating locusts (Locusta migratoria) to high (31°C) and low temperature (11°C) for 4 days before...... revealed that cellular injury during cold exposure occurs when Vm becomes severely depolarized. Interestingly, we found that cellular sensitivity to hypothermic hyperkalaemia was lower in cold-acclimated locusts that were better able to defend Vm whilst exposed to high extracellular [K+]. Together...

  11. Sensory evaluation of a highly nutritive bread, formulated for populations suffering food emergencies, preserved with ionizing radiation

    Gonzalez, G.S.; Gómez, B.; Cova, M.C.; Narvaiz, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate with sensorial analysis, the feasibility of extending the shelf life at room temperature of highly nutritive bread, specially formulated for people suffering alimentary emergencies such as floods, earthquakes, geographical isolation or malnourishment, by means of ionizing radiation. The shelf life of any bread is limited by microbial growth, so the food industry uses chemicals and /or refrigeration to control it. Twenty one breads were formulated and manufactured employing wheat and soybean flours, dehydrated whey, skim milk and egg, vegetal oil, water, and some commercial food additives as emulsifiers and water retention substances. A final formulation was chosen by means of a preliminary sensory evaluation. Bibliographic estimations were made on its nutritional quality as compared to that of a regular wheat bread; improvements were found on vitamins, minerals, proteins, lipids and fibre. Forty 450 g breads were manufactured, oven cooked at 220°C for 20 minutes, packaged with polyethylene film, 100 microns thickness, and irradiated at the semi industrial cobalt-60 facility of the Ezeiza Atomic Centre, about 600,000 Ci of activity, with doses of 0, 6 and 10 kilo Grays, dose rate: 10 kGy/h, dose uniformity: 1.1. Control and irradiated samples were stored at room temperature and relative humidity for 43 days. Sensory analysis was performed with a panel of about 50 consumers on days 3, 29 and 43, evaluating aroma, aspect, colour, flavour, texture and general acceptability with hedonic scores ranging from 1 to 9. No significant differences between control and irradiated samples were found, being the latter afforded scores close to 7 even at the end of the storage period. Control samples had to be discarded on day 6 due to visible mould growth. So this bread formulation, suitable to fulfill most of the nutritional requirements of a population under alimentary emergency, attained at least a 7 fold shelf life increase when treated

  12. Investigating the potential benefits of on-site food safety training for Folklorama, a temporary food service event.

    Mancini, Roberto; Murray, Leigh; Chapman, Benjamin J; Powell, Douglas A

    2012-10-01

    Folklorama in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, is a 14-day temporary food service event that explores the many different cultural realms of food, food preparation, and entertainment. In 2010, the Russian pavilion at Folklorama was implicated in a foodborne outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 that caused 37 illnesses and 18 hospitalizations. The ethnic nature and diversity of foods prepared within each pavilion presents a unique problem for food inspectors, as each culture prepares food in their own very unique way. The Manitoba Department of Health and Folklorama Board of Directors realized a need to implement a food safety information delivery program that would be more effective than a 2-h food safety course delivered via PowerPoint slides. The food operators and event coordinators of five randomly chosen pavilions selling potentially hazardous food were trained on-site, in their work environment, focusing on critical control points specific to their menu. A control group (five pavilions) did not receive on-site food safety training and were assessed concurrently. Public health inspections for all 10 pavilions were performed by Certified Public Health Inspectors employed with Manitoba Health. Critical infractions were assessed by means of standardized food protection inspection reports. The results suggest no statistically significant difference in food inspection scores between the trained and control groups. However, it was found that inspection report results increased for both the control and trained groups from the first inspection to the second, implying that public health inspections are necessary in correcting unsafe food safety practices. The results further show that in this case, the 2-h food safety course delivered via slides was sufficient to pass public health inspections. Further evaluations of alternative food safety training approaches are warranted.

  13. The extent of food advertising to children on Greek television: focus on foods potentially detrimental to oral health.

    Gatou, T; Mamai-Homata, E; Polychronopoulou, A; Koletsi-Kounari, H

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the extent and nature of food advertising to children on Greek television, focusing on the adverts for foods with potential harmful effects on oral health, and to examine the persuasive marketing techniques used to promote food products. Advertisements broadcast on six TV-channels during children's peak viewing times on two weekdays and two weekend days in the period May-June 2010 were recorded (166.7 hours). Each advertisement was coded according to: date, day, length, type of program in which the ad appeared, type of product advertised and promotional technique used. Food advertisements were subdivided according to their sugar and/or acid content as potentially harmful or non-harmful to teeth. Food advertisements had an average frequency of 8.0 per hour during children's peak viewing times with highest frequency (11.4 per hour) on weekends during child-focused programs. Of all advertisements, 1330 (26.7%) were for foods, and 595 (44.7%) of these deemed to be potentially harmful to teeth. The most commonly advertised food product during children's programs was confectionery, 80 (27.7%). Of food advertisements, 199 (15.0%) used at least one of the promotional techniques likely to appeal to children. Advertisements for foods potentially harmful for teeth were more likely to be shown during child-focused programs (OR 2.92, 95% CI 2.04-4.16) and to promise a free gift with purchase (OR 35.43, 95% CI 10.83-115.88). Children in Greece are exposed to a large volume of advertisements for unhealthy foods and drinks, which intensively use persuasive techniques proved to affect children's food preferences and consumption. Our study provides evidence that could support advocacy and interventions for the regulation of food advertising.

  14. Development and validation of a stochastic model for potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in naturally contaminated lightly preserved seafood.

    Mejlholm, Ole; Bøknæs, Niels; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-02-01

    A new stochastic model for the simultaneous growth of Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was developed and validated on data from naturally contaminated samples of cold-smoked Greenland halibut (CSGH) and cold-smoked salmon (CSS). During industrial processing these samples were added acetic and/or lactic acids. The stochastic model was developed from an existing deterministic model including the effect of 12 environmental parameters and microbial interaction (O. Mejlholm and P. Dalgaard, Food Microbiology, submitted for publication). Observed maximum population density (MPD) values of L. monocytogenes in naturally contaminated samples of CSGH and CSS were accurately predicted by the stochastic model based on measured variability in product characteristics and storage conditions. Results comparable to those from the stochastic model were obtained, when product characteristics of the least and most preserved sample of CSGH and CSS were used as input for the existing deterministic model. For both modelling approaches, it was shown that lag time and the effect of microbial interaction needs to be included to accurately predict MPD values of L. monocytogenes. Addition of organic acids to CSGH and CSS was confirmed as a suitable mitigation strategy against the risk of growth by L. monocytogenes as both types of products were in compliance with the EU regulation on ready-to-eat foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid lentiviral transduction preserves the engraftment potential of Fanca(-/-) hematopoietic stem cells.

    Müller, Lars U W; Milsom, Michael D; Kim, Mi-Ok; Schambach, Axel; Schuesler, Todd; Williams, David A

    2008-06-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare recessive syndrome, characterized by congenital anomalies, bone marrow failure, and predisposition to cancer. Two earlier clinical trials utilizing gamma-retroviral vectors for the transduction of autologous FA hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) required extensive in vitro manipulation and failed to achieve detectable long-term engraftment of transduced HSCs. As a strategy for minimizing ex vivo manipulation, we investigated the use of a "rapid" lentiviral transduction protocol in a murine Fanca(-/-) model. Importantly, while this and most murine models of FA fail to completely mimic the human hematopoietic phenotype, we observed a high incidence of HSC transplant engraftment failure and low donor chimerism after conventional transduction (CT) of Fanca(-/-) donor cells. In contrast, rapid transduction (RT) of Fanca(-/-) HSCs preserved engraftment to the level achieved in wild-type cells, resulting in long-term multilineage engraftment of gene-modified cells. We also demonstrate the correction of the characteristic hypersensitivity of FA cells against the cross-linking agent mitomycin C (MMC), and provide evidence for the advantage of using pharmacoselection as a means of further increasing gene-modified cells after RT. Collectively, these data support the use of rapid lentiviral transduction for gene therapy in FA.

  16. Food and biomass potential of Prunus virginiana L. (chokecherry).

    Wang, Sunmin; Young, Lester; Faye, Amberly; Li, Bonnie; Clancy, Johanna; Bors, Bob; Reaney, Martin

    2012-03-14

    Prunus virginiana L. (chokecherry) fruit has potential to provide both food and energy and as annual yield of biomass and energy are much greater than annual crops such as canola and wheat. We determined chokecherry fruit weight fractions as well as pit and extracted seed oil concentrations and fatty acid composition. Gross energy for each of the fractions was determined, as were carbon and nitrogen content. Extrapolation of these data suggests that gross energy from pits alone over a 24-year period (890 GJ·ha(-1)) is equivalent to that from an entire canola/wheat rotation (850 GJ·ha(-1)). After maturity, pulp contributes an additional 1130 GJ·ha(-1) over 21 years from ~3.4 t·ha(-1)·year(-1) (dw), while wood from pruning could add another 60 GJ·ha(-1)·year(-1). Over this time period, chokecherry would produce 1.5-2.5 times the amount of oil produced by a canola/wheat rotation.

  17. Perspective on food irradiation

    Newsome, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief review summarizes current scientific information on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of foods. Attention is focused on: specifics of the irradiation process and its effectiveness in food preservation; the historical development of food irradiation technology in the US; the response of the Institute of Food Technologists to proposed FDA guidelines for food irradiation; the potential uses of irradiation in the US food industry; and the findings of the absence of toxins and of unaltered nutrient density (except possibly for fats) in irradiated foods. The misconceptions of consumers concerning perceived hazards associated with food irradiation, as related to consumer acceptance, also are addressed

  18. Edible moisture barriers: how to assess of their potential and limits in food products shelf-life extension?

    Bourlieu, C; Guillard, V; Vallès-Pamiès, B; Guilbert, S; Gontard, N

    2009-05-01

    Control of moisture transfer inside composite food products or between food and its environment remains today a major challenge in food preservation. A wide rage of film-forming compounds is now available and facilitates tailoring moisture barriers with optimized functional properties. Despite these huge potentials, a realistic assessment of the film or coating efficacy is still critical. Due to nonlinear water sorption isotherms, water-dependent diffusivities, and variations of physical state, modelling transport phenomena through edible barriers is complex. Water vapor permeability can hardly be considered as an inherent property of films and only gives a relative indication of the barrier efficacy. The formal or mechanistic models reported in literature that describe the influence of testing conditions on the barrier properties of edible films are reviewed and discussed. Most of these models have been validated on a narrow range of conditions. Conversely, few original predictive models based on Fick's Second Law have been developed to assess shelf-life extension of food products including barriers. These models, assuming complex and realistic hypothesis, have been validated in various model foods. The development of nondestructive methods of moisture content measurement should speed up model validation and allow a better comprehension of moisture transfer through edible films.

  19. The Centre for Food Innovation -- Research Areas and Potential Projects

    2013-04-01

    barley, and rice  frozen red meat (beef, veal, lamb)  processed foods, particularly baby food, wine and beer  fruit juice UNCLASSIFIED 3...support gut health ( probiotics /prebiotics/bacteriocins), development of snack products (bars, FD fruit, HPP fruit, FD yoghurt etc.), novel ingredients

  20. Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action

    Aschemann-Witzel, J.; Hooge, de I.E.; Amani, P.; Bech-Larsen, T.; Oostindjer, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, food waste has received increased attention on both academic and societal levels. As a cause of negative economic, environmental and social effects, food waste is considered to be one of the sustainability issues that needs to be addressed. In developed countries, consumers are

  1. The potential for upgrading traditional fermented foods through ...

    Administrator

    Fermented foods play an important socio–economic role in developing countries as well as making a major contribution to the protein requirements of natural populations. In general, traditional fermented foods are made under primitive conditions, which result in low yield and poor quality. This paper outlines the present ...

  2. Benefits and potential probiotic food vehicles in Nigeria- A review ...

    Probiotic foods are known to be beneficial in human health and nutrition owing to the activities of the live microorganisms they contain. ... Soy products, beverages and fruit juices have also been employed as probiotic vehicles. ... The upgrading of such local foods could add to their value and promote their consumption.

  3. Potential of Insect-Derived Ingredients for Food Applications

    Tzompa Sosa, D.A.; Fogliano, V.

    2017-01-01

    Insects are a sustainable and efficient protein and lipid source, compared with conventional livestock. Moreover, insect proteins and lipids are highly nutritional. Therefore, insect proteins and lipids can find its place as food ingredients. The use of insect proteins and lipids as food ingredients

  4. Potential application of lipid organogels for food industry.

    Chaves, Kamila Ferreira; Barrera-Arellano, Daniel; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Badan

    2018-03-01

    Controversial issues regarding the role of trans fatty acids in food have led to progressive changes in the legislation of several countries to include more information for consumers. In response, the industries decided to gradually replace trans fat in various products with the development of fatty bases of equivalent functionality and economic viability to partially hydrogenated fats, causing, however, a substantial increase in the content of saturated fatty acids in foods. Today, the lipid science aims to define alternatives to a problem that is widely discussed by health organizations worldwide: limit the saturated fat content in food available to the population. In this context, organogels have been indicated as a viable alternative to obtain semi-solid fats with reduced content of saturated fatty acids and compatible properties for food application. The objective of this review was to present the studies that address the lipid organogels as an alternative for food application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Soldiers' Preferences Regarding Sperm Preservation, Posthumous Reproduction, and Attributes of a Potential "Posthumous Mother".

    Bokek-Cohen, Ya'arit; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2017-01-01

    We present study results regarding soldiers' willingness to conduct posthumous reproduction. Two hundred twelve Israeli soldiers filled in a questionnaire designed to examine their willingness to cryopreserve sperm and evaluate in which familial circumstances they would consent to posthumous reproduction. They ranked the desirability of 46 attributes of a potential mother and a life partner. Findings indicate a relatively high predisposition in favor of posthumous-assisted reproduction; the wishes of soldiers' parents had much more influence on soldiers' willingness to pursue this technology than those of a partner. Soldiers preferred "feminine" jobs for a potential mother that would allow her to dedicate herself to child-rearing. The desired traits of such a mother were rated similarly to partner preferences; however, significant differences were found in attributes that are most related to the potential mother's devotion to maternity. Interpretations of these findings are contextualized in relation to ethical and bereavement considerations.

  6. The Potential for Innovation in the Swedish Food Sector

    Beckeman, Märit

    2011-01-01

    The food sector in Sweden, comprised of retailers, food manufacturers and packaging suppliers, has been investigated, guided by two research questions: What does “innovation” mean to the different actors (i.e. is there a gap in opinions)? How is innovation performed and what are the key issues? But before this research of the present, the past was studied (the author’s licentiate) to identify and describe the factors and reasons behind the growing food sector in Sweden after World War II, par...

  7. Food hygienics

    Ryu, Yeong Gyun; Lee, Gwang Bae; Lee, Han Gi; Kim, Se Yeol

    1993-01-01

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  8. Risk of food losses and potential of food recovery for social purposes.

    Bilska, Beata; Wrzosek, Małgorzata; Kołożyn-Krajewska, Danuta; Krajewski, Karol

    2016-06-01

    All entities of the food supply chain should be responsible for counteracting food waste, therefore a need arises for joint initiatives in this area. To reduce food waste, businesses should be supported with a number of procedures for the efficient use of food for social purposes that shall be consistent with the law in force. Although they can bring about some losses, the following factors neither pose a threat to human health nor affect the donation of food for social purposes: wrong labelling of packages, food product wrong weight, close-to-end expiration date as well as mechanical damage to bulk packages. The purpose of this study is to identify such points at each of the four stages of the food supply chain (primary production, processing, distribution, sale) where food losses can be prevented by donating food to those who need it. A total of 15 Recovery Points were identified at the above mentioned four stages of the food supply chain. Food recovered there is safe to human health, so it can be donated for social purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Potentials for Commercial Production of Biogas from Domestic Food ...

    PROF HORSFALL

    Solid waste management, food waste, anaerobic digestion, biogas ... Ministry of Environment, 2005) have not been able to ... waste management system which ensures financial returns at ... that incorporates recycling, composting, incineration.

  10. The potential application of European market research data in dietary exposure modelling of food additives.

    Tennant, David Robin; Bruyninckx, Chris

    2018-03-01

    Consumer exposure assessments for food additives are incomplete without information about the proportions of foods in each authorised category that contain the additive. Such information has been difficult to obtain but the Mintel Global New Products Database (GNPD) provides information about product launches across Europe over the past 20 years. These data can be searched to identify products with specific additives listed on product labels and the numbers compared with total product launches for food and drink categories in the same database to determine the frequency of occurrence. There are uncertainties associated with the data but these can be managed by adopting a cautious and conservative approach. GNPD data can be mapped with authorised food categories and with food descriptions used in the EFSA Comprehensive European Food Consumption Surveys Database for exposure modelling. The data, when presented as percent occurrence, could be incorporated into the EFSA ANS Panel's 'brand-loyal/non-brand loyal exposure model in a quantitative way. Case studies of preservative, antioxidant, colour and sweetener additives showed that the impact of including occurrence data is greatest in the non-brand loyal scenario. Recommendations for future research include identifying occurrence data for alcoholic beverages, linking regulatory food codes, FoodEx and GNPD product descriptions, developing the use of occurrence data for carry-over foods and improving understanding of brand loyalty in consumer exposure models.

  11. Hyaluronan preserves the proliferation and differentiation potentials of long-term cultured murine adipose-derived stromal cells

    Chen, P.-Y.; Huang, Lynn L.H.; Hsieh, H.-J.

    2007-01-01

    For long-term culture, murine adipose-derived stromal cells (mADSCs) at latter passages demonstrated a marked decline in proliferative activity, exhibited senescent morphology and reduced differentiation potentials, particularly osteogenesis. To extend the lifespan of mADSCs, two culture conditions containing hyaluronan (HA) was compared in our study, one as a culture medium supplement (SHA), and the other where HA was pre-coated on culture surface (CHA). mADSCs cultivated with SHA exhibited a prolonged lifespan, reduced cellular senescence, and enhanced osteogenic potential compared to regular culture condition (control). Upon CHA treatment, mADSCs tended to form cell aggregates with gradual growth profiles, while their differentiation activities remained similar to SHA groups. After transferring mADSCs from CHA to control surface, they were shown to have an extended lifespan and an increase of osteogenic potential. Our results suggested that HA can be useful for preserving the proliferation and differentiation potentials of long-term cultured mADSCs

  12. Measuring potential access to food stores and food-service places in rural areas in the U.S.

    Sharkey, Joseph R

    2009-04-01

    Geographic access to healthy food resources remains a major focus of research that examines the contribution of the built environment to healthful eating. Methods used to define and measure spatial accessibility can significantly affect the results. Considering the implications for marketing, policy, and programs, adequate measurement of the food environment is important. Little of the published work on food access has focused on rural areas, where the burden of nutrition-related disease is greater. This article seeks to expand our understanding of the challenges to measurement of potential spatial access to food resources in rural areas in the U.S. Key challenges to the accurate measurement of the food environment in rural areas include: (1) defining the rural food environment while recognizing that market factors may be changing; (2) describing characteristics that may differentiate similar types of food stores and food-service places; and (3) determining location coordinates for food stores and food-service places. In order to enhance measurements in rural areas, "ground-truthed" methodology, which includes on-site observation and collection of GPS data, should become the standard for rural areas. Measurement must also recognize the emergence of new and changing store formats. Efforts should be made to determine accessibility, in terms of both proximity to a single location and variety of multiple locations within a specified buffer, from origins other than the home, and consider multipurpose trips and trip chaining. The measurement of food access will be critical for community-based approaches to meet dietary needs. Researchers must be willing to take the steps necessary for rigorous measurement of a dynamic food environment.

  13. Extremozymes from metagenome: Potential applications in food processing.

    Khan, Mahejibin; Sathya, T A

    2017-06-12

    The long-established use of enzymes for food processing and product formulation has resulted in an increased enzyme market compounding to 7.0% annual growth rate. Advancements in molecular biology and recognition that enzymes with specific properties have application for industrial production of infant, baby and functional foods boosted research toward sourcing the genes of microorganisms for enzymes with distinctive properties. In this regard, functional metagenomics for extremozymes has gained attention on the premise that such enzymes can catalyze specific reactions. Hence, metagenomics that can isolate functional genes of unculturable extremophilic microorganisms has expanded attention as a promising tool. Developments in this field of research in relation to food sector are reviewed.

  14. Functional food productions: release the potential of bioactive compounds through food processing

    Epidemiological studies of bioactive compounds from plant-based foods have consistently pointed to undisputed benefits of consumption of plant-based foods on human health particularly regarding cardiovascular diseases and cancers. However, in order to attain the dosage required from these studies, p...

  15. Tissue-engineered skin preserving the potential of epithelial cells to differentiate into hair after grafting.

    Larouche, Danielle; Cuffley, Kristine; Paquet, Claudie; Germain, Lucie

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether tissue-engineered skin produced in vitro was able to sustain growth of hair follicles in vitro and after grafting. Different tissues were designed. Dissociated newborn mouse keratinocytes or newborn mouse hair buds (HBs) were added onto dermal constructs consisting of a tissue-engineered cell-derived matrix elaborated from either newborn mouse or adult human fibroblasts cultured with ascorbic acid. After 7-21 days of maturation at the air-liquid interface, no hair was noticed in vitro. Epidermal differentiation was observed in all tissue-engineered skin. However, human fibroblast-derived tissue-engineered dermis (hD) promoted a thicker epidermis than mouse fibroblast-derived tissue-engineered dermis (mD). In association with mD, HBs developed epithelial cyst-like inclusions presenting outer root sheath-like attributes. In contrast, epidermoid cyst-like inclusions lined by a stratified squamous epithelium were present in tissues composed of HBs and hD. After grafting, pilo-sebaceous units formed and hair grew in skin elaborated from HBs cultured 10-26 days submerged in culture medium in association with mD. However, the number of normal hair follicles decreased with longer culture time. This hair-forming capacity after grafting was not observed in tissues composed of hD overlaid with HBs. These results demonstrate that epithelial stem cells can be kept in vitro in a permissive tissue-engineered dermal environment without losing their potential to induce hair growth after grafting.

  16. The potential for upgrading traditional fermented foods through ...

    In general, traditional fermented foods are made under primitive conditions, which result in low yield and poor quality. This paper outlines the ... The techniques they use are labour intensive, time consuming and have low productivities, with success depending upon observation of good manufacturing practice. Factors ...

  17. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food: A spectrum of potential health consequences

    Contamination of grain with 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine ester alkaloids (dehydroPAs) and their N-oxides is responsible for large incidents of acute and subacute food poisoning, with high morbidity and mortality, in Africa and in central and south Asia. Herbal medicines and teas containing dehydroPAs ha...

  18. Prediction of preservative sensitization potential using surface marker CD86 and/or CD54 expression on human cell line, THP-1.

    Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Yoshida, Yukiko; Ito, Yuichi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2007-02-01

    Preservatives are important components in many products, but have a history of purported allergy. Several assays [e.g., guinea pig maximization test (GPMT), local lymph node assay (LLNA)] are used to evaluate allergy potential of preservatives. We recently developed the human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT), an in vitro skin sensitization test using human THP-1 cells. This test evaluates the augmentation of CD86 and CD54 expression, which are key events in the sensitization process, as an indicator of allergy following treatment with test chemical. Earlier, we found that a sub-toxic concentration was needed for the up-regulation of surface marker expression. In this study, we further evaluate the capability of h-CLAT to predict allergy potential using eight preservatives. Cytotoxicity was determined using propidium iodide with flow cytometry analysis and five doses that produce a 95, 85, 75, 65, and 50% cell viability were selected. If a material did not have any cytotoxicity at the highest technical dose (HTD), five doses are set using serial 1.3 dilutions of the HTD. The test materials used were six known allergic preservatives (e.g., methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, formaldehyde), and two non-allergic preservatives (methylparaben and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid). All allergic preservatives augmented CD86 and/or CD54 expression, indicating h-CLAT correctly identified the allergens. No augmentation was observed with the non-allergic preservatives; also correctly identified by h-CLAT. In addition, we report two threshold concentrations that may be used to categorize skin sensitization potency like the LLNA estimated concentration that yield a three-fold stimulation (EC3) value. These corresponding values are the estimated concentration which gives a relative fluorescence intensity (RFI) = 150 for CD86 and an RFI = 200 for CD54. These data suggest that h-CLAT, using THP-1 cells, may be able to predict the allergy potential of preservatives and

  19. Food waste in the Swiss food service industry - Magnitude and potential for reduction.

    Betz, Alexandra; Buchli, Jürg; Göbel, Christine; Müller, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Food losses occur across the whole food supply chain. They have negative effects on the economy and the environment, and they are not justifiable from an ethical point of view. The food service industry was identified by Beretta et al. (2013) as the third largest source of food waste based on food input at each stage of the value added chain. The total losses are estimated 18% of the food input, the avoidable losses 13.5%. However, these estimations are related with considerable uncertainty. To get more reliable and detailed data of food losses in this sector, the waste from two companies (in the education and business sectors) was classified into four categories (storage losses, preparation losses, serving losses, and plate waste) and seven food classes and measured for a period of five days. A questionnaire evaluated customer reaction, and a material flow analysis was used to describe the mass and monetary losses within the process chain. The study found that in company A (education sector) 10.73% and in company B (business sector) 7.69% of the mass of all food delivered was wasted during the process chain. From this, 91.98% of the waste in company A and 78.14% in company B were classified as avoidable. The highest proportion of waste occurred from serving losses with starch accompaniments and vegetables being the most frequently wasted items. The quantities of waste per meal were 91.23 g (value CHF 0.74) and 85.86 g (value CHF 0.44) for company A and company B, respectively. The annual loss averaged 10.47 tonnes (value CHF 85,047) in company A and 16.55 tonnes (value CHF 85,169) in company B. The customer survey showed that 15.79% (n=356) of the respondents in company A and 18.32% (n=382) in company B produced plate waste. The main causes of plate waste cited were 'portion served by staff too large' and 'lack of hunger'. Sustainable measures need to be implemented in the food service industry to reduce food waste and to improve efficiency. Copyright © 2014

  20. The potential of genetically enhanced plants to address food insecurity.

    Christou, Paul; Twyman, Richard M

    2004-06-01

    Food insecurity is one of the most important social issues faced today, with 840 million individuals enduring chronic hunger and three billion individuals suffering from nutrient deficiencies. Most of these individuals are poverty stricken and live in developing countries. Strategies to address food insecurity must aim to increase agricultural productivity in the developing world in order to tackle poverty, and must provide long-term improvements in crop yields to keep up with demand as the world's population grows. Genetically enhanced plants provide one route to sustainable higher yields, either by increasing the intrinsic yield capability of crop plants or by protecting them from biotic and abiotic constraints. The present paper discusses a range of transgenic approaches that could increase agricultural productivity if applied on a large scale, including the introduction of genes that confer resistance to pests and diseases, or tolerance of harsh environments, and genes that help to lift the intrinsic yield capacity by increasing metabolic flux towards storage carbohydrates, proteins and oils. The paper also explores how the nutritional value of plants can be improved by genetic engineering. Transgenic plants, as a component of integrated strategies to relieve poverty and deliver sustainable agriculture to subsistence farmers in developing countries, could have a significant impact on food security now and in the future.

  1. Science, practice, and human errors in controlling Clostridium botulinum in heat-preserved food in hermetic containers.

    Pflug, Irving J

    2010-05-01

    The incidence of botulism in canned food in the last century is reviewed along with the background science; a few conclusions are reached based on analysis of published data. There are two primary aspects to botulism control: the design of an adequate process and the delivery of the adequate process to containers of food. The probability that the designed process will not be adequate to control Clostridium botulinum is very small, probably less than 1.0 x 10(-6), based on containers of food, whereas the failure of the operator of the processing equipment to deliver the specified process to containers of food may be of the order of 1 in 40, to 1 in 100, based on processing units (retort loads). In the commercial food canning industry, failure to deliver the process will probably be of the order of 1.0 x 10(-4) to 1.0 x 10(-6) when U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations are followed. Botulism incidents have occurred in food canning plants that have not followed the FDA regulations. It is possible but very rare to have botulism result from postprocessing contamination. It may thus be concluded that botulism incidents in canned food are primarily the result of human failure in the delivery of the designed or specified process to containers of food that, in turn, result in the survival, outgrowth, and toxin production of C. botulinum spores. Therefore, efforts in C. botulinum control should be concentrated on reducing human errors in the delivery of the specified process to containers of food.

  2. Trends in Food Packaging.

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  3. Energy and protein feed-to-food conversion efficiencies in the US and potential food security gains from dietary changes

    Shepon, A.; Eshel, G.; Noor, E.; Milo, R.

    2016-10-01

    Feeding a growing population while minimizing environmental degradation is a global challenge requiring thoroughly rethinking food production and consumption. Dietary choices control food availability and natural resource demands. In particular, reducing or avoiding consumption of low production efficiency animal-based products can spare resources that can then yield more food. In quantifying the potential food gains of specific dietary shifts, most earlier research focused on calories, with less attention to other important nutrients, notably protein. Moreover, despite the well-known environmental burdens of livestock, only a handful of national level feed-to-food conversion efficiency estimates of dairy, beef, poultry, pork, and eggs exist. Yet such high level estimates are essential for reducing diet related environmental impacts and identifying optimal food gain paths. Here we quantify caloric and protein conversion efficiencies for US livestock categories. We then use these efficiencies to calculate the food availability gains expected from replacing beef in the US diet with poultry, a more efficient meat, and a plant-based alternative. Averaged over all categories, caloric and protein efficiencies are 7%-8%. At 3% in both metrics, beef is by far the least efficient. We find that reallocating the agricultural land used for beef feed to poultry feed production can meet the caloric and protein demands of ≈120 and ≈140 million additional people consuming the mean American diet, respectively, roughly 40% of current US population.

  4. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food: a spectrum of potential health consequences.

    Edgar, J A; Colegate, S M; Boppré, M; Molyneux, R J

    2011-03-01

    Contamination of grain with 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine ester alkaloids (dehydroPAs) and their N-oxides is responsible for large incidents of acute and subacute food poisoning, with high morbidity and mortality, in Africa and in central and south Asia. Herbal medicines and teas containing dehydroPAs have also caused fatalities in both developed and developing countries. There is now increasing recognition that some staple and widely consumed foods are sometimes contaminated by dehydroPAs and their N-oxides at levels that, while insufficient to cause acute poisoning, greatly exceed maximum tolerable daily intakes and/or maximum levels determined by a number of independent risk assessment authorities. This suggests that there may have been cases of disease in the past not recognised as resulting from dietary exposure to dehydroPAs. A review of the literature shows that there are a number of reports of liver disease where either exposure to dehydroPAs was suspected but no source was identified or a dehydroPA-aetiology was not considered but the symptoms and pathology suggests their involvement. DehydroPAs also cause progressive, chronic diseases such as cancer and pulmonary arterial hypertension but proof of their involvement in human cases of these chronic diseases, including sources of exposure to dehydroPAs, has generally been lacking. Growing recognition of hazardous levels of dehydroPAs in a range of common foods suggests that physicians and clinicians need to be alert to the possibility that these contaminants may, in some cases, be a possible cause of chronic diseases such as cirrhosis, pulmonary hypertension and cancer in humans.

  5. Local, organic food initiatives and their potentials for transforming the conventional food system

    Geir Lieblein

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de cet article est de discuter l’importance des initiatives locales dans la distribution de produits biologiques. Le sujet est abordé d’une part en fonction de la relation entre ce type d’initiatives et le système agroalimentaire conventionnel et d’autre part en fonction de la possibilité du développement d’un système agroalimentaire plus durable. Basé sur trois études scandinaves, concernant des produits biologiques en Norvège et au Danemark, cet article souligne le fait que les différents acteurs intreviewés jouent à la fois sur le tableau du local et du biologique et sur le tableau du conventionnel. En dépit de différences structurelles distinctes, les deux systèmes, et les conventions qui leur sont rattachées, s’influencent mutuellement. Afin de mettre au point une agriculture plus durable, il semble donc important de mettre en valeur le fondement global de l’agriculture écologique, qui repose non seulement sur des valeurs biologiques et locales, mais encore sur des aspects économiques, sociaux et culturels qui doivent être pris en considération.The aim of this article is to discuss the importance of local initiatives for distribution of organic food. This subject is discussed both in relation to how such initiatives may affect the overall conventional food system and the possible implications for development of a more sustainable food system. The article is based on findings from three different cases of local, organic food in Norway and Denmark. We found that actors within the cases are both involved with local, organic food initiatives and at the same time part of the overall conventional food system. Even though there are distinctive structural differences between these distribution systems, they mutually affect each other. This means that conventions normally associated with local, organic food systems may ‘rub off’ to the conventional food system and vice versa. In order to develop

  6. Melatonin identified in meats and other food stuffs: potentially nutritional impact.

    Tan, Dun-Xian; Zanghi, Brian M; Manchester, Lucien C; Reiter, Russel J

    2014-09-01

    Melatonin has been identified in primitive photosynthetic bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals including humans. Vegetables, fruits, cereals, wine, and beers all contain melatonin. However, the melatonin content in meats has not been reported previously. Here, for the first time, we report melatonin in meats, eggs, colostrum, and in other edible food products. The levels of melatonin measured by HPLC, in lamb, beef, pork, chicken, and fish, are comparable to other food stuffs (in the range of ng/g). These levels are significantly higher than melatonin concentrations in the blood of vertebrates. As melatonin is a potent antioxidant, its presence in the meat could contribute to shelf life duration as well as preserve their quality and taste. In addition, the consumption of these foods by humans or animals could have health benefits considering the important functions of melatonin as a potent free radical scavenger and antioxidant. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Changes in lipids and in the sensoric properties of foods due to combined preservation (thermosterilization + ionizing radiation)

    Rajniakova, A.; Sorman, L.; Hozova, B.; Salkova, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical changes in lipids were examined in ''Beef with Cauliflower'' model samples prepared by combined preservation, consisting in thermosterilization at 121 degC for 30 min and exposure to ionizing radiation doses of 3 to 5 kGy immediately after preparation and during storage (115 days at 20±2 degC). The acid, peroxide and carbonyl values increased with increasing radiation dose. The sensoric characteristics of the samples were examined as well, and no changes were observed in the 115 days of storage. Various preservation modes were tested, and the combination of steady sterilization at 121 degC for 30 min with subsequent exposure to a 5 kGy dose emerged as optimal; the nutrition value of the beef was higher and energy demands lower than in the application of conventional thermosterilization. (author). 6 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  8. Ecological and energy-saving technology for fish food preservation at positive temperatures and a method of checking the freshness

    Mirza, Maria; Popescu, G.M.; Dobrin, D.N.; Cristescu, T.M.; Stefanescu, I.; Steflea, D.; Titescu, Gh.; Tamaian, R.

    2002-01-01

    The procedure of maintaining eviscerated fish and fish fillet freshness is based on dilutions osmotic shock produced by deuterium depleted water with D/(D+H) concentration ratio of about 30 ppm. The studies evidenced the blocking of alteration enzymatic activities in tissues at positive temperatures within 0 - 30 deg. C. The procedure is completed with the method for evaluating the fish freshness. Its advantages are as follows; - the technology is ecologic and energy - saving as it uses natural ingredients and contributes to the ozone layer protection; - the flesh of fish can be preserved, in its natural state, immersed in deuterium depleted water with no salt addition or other metabolic blocking agents as smoke, polyphosphates or nitrides, known as carcinogenic; - the costs of technological applications are lower as compared with those of classical refrigeration; - the technology increases by 2 - 6 times the freshness period and preservation duration, respectively; - deuterium depleted water used as fish flesh preservative is a product with excellent therapeutical qualities. The procedure can be tested by a freshness checking method. Indeed by measuring the non-conventional tissue energies evidenced by the molecular electronic spectra of sample of tissue immersed in salty solution as compared with specific spectra of control samples one can establish the alteration degree from the relative maximal absorption spectra

  9. Potentials for commercial production of biogas from domestic food ...

    The work reported in this paper investigated the potentials of commercial biogas production from biodegradable waste in Benin metropolis. The study was carried out in two phases. The first phase involved characterization of solid waste generated and determination of the quantity of potential feed stock for biogas ...

  10. Preservation of food of the vegetable origin in the way of the radiation The selected technological aspects

    Taczanowski, M.

    1997-01-01

    The review of the selected applications of the radiation of the food of vegetable origin and targets which may be achieved dependently on the amount of energy absorbed by the radiated product. (author)

  11. Utilization of Industrial Waste for the Production of Bio-Preservative from Bacillus licheniformis Me1 and Its Application in Milk and Milk-Based Food Products.

    Nithya, Vadakedath; Prakash, Maya; Halami, Prakash M

    2018-06-01

    The bio-preservative efficacy of a partially purified antibacterial peptide (ppABP) produced by Bacillus licheniformis Me1 in an economical medium developed using agro-industry waste was evaluated by direct application in milk and milk-based food products. The addition of ppABP in milk samples stored at 4 ± 2 °C and 28 ± 2 °C resulted in the growth inhibition of pathogens Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, and Staphylococcus aureus FRI 722. The shelf life of milk samples with added ppABP increased to 4 days at 28 ± 2 °C, whereas curdling and off-odor were noticed in samples without ppABP. Furthermore, the milk samples with ppABP were sensorily acceptable. Antilisterial effect was also observed in cheese and paneer samples treated with ppABP. These results clearly indicate that the ppABP of B. licheniformis Me1 can be utilized as a bio-preservative to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, thereby reducing the risk of food-borne diseases.

  12. Nuclear technology applied to food preservation and sterilization; La tecnologia nuclear aplicada a la conservacion y esterilizacion de alimentos

    Galvez, M.

    2011-07-01

    The use of ionizing radiation to conserve and sterilize food dates back to 1995, when the first tests were performed in USA as part of the Atoms for peace program. After much controversy, the most prestigious international organizations- OECD, code Alimentarius, FDA and EC have not only authorized but also recommended its use. It is a proven fact that food irradiation provides optimum results for inhibition treatment of tuber shoots, elimination of insects from fruits and seeds, delaying the maturing processes of fruit and elimination of alternative microorganisms and pathogens in any type of food. Food is treated in two types of plants: 1.- Radioactive isotope plants or gamma radiation plants 2.- electron accelerator plants (beta radiation plants). These two types of plants are thoroughly legislated, as are the form and doses of the treatments. Commercial food irradiation is done in 32 countries in the world but is authorized in more than 40, and the WHO recommends that the method be used on a widespread basis, as it believes that it can help to improve food-related health worldwide. (Author) 5 refs.

  13. Influence of food preservation parameters and associated microbiota on production rate, profile and stability of acylated homoserine lactones from food-derived Enterobacteriaceae

    Flodgaard, Lars; Christensen, Allan Beck; Molin, Søren

    2003-01-01

    by Gram-negative bacteria participating in spoilage. As part of our investigation of the role of AHLs in food quality, we studied the AHL production in two Enterobacteriaceae isolated from cold-smoked salmon under growth conditions typical of those found in cold-smoked salmon. We tested the influence......H is approximately 6 and therefore only a low degree of pH-induced turnover is expected to occur in this product. Overall, our study demonstrates that food-derived Enterobacteriaceae produce AHLs of the same type and in the same magnitude when grown under food-relevant conditions as when grown in laboratory media...

  14. Molecular cloning, expression analysis, and potential food intake attenuation effect of peptide YY in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Chen, Yong; Shen, Yubang; Pandit, Narayan Prasad; Fu, Jianjun; Li, Da; Li, Jiale

    2013-06-15

    The peptide YY (PYY) is a 36 amino acid peptide involved in the food intake control in vertebrates. We have cloned and characterized a PYY gene from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus. The full-length cDNA encodes a precursor protein of grass carp PYY (gcPYY) that consists of a putative 28-amino acid signal peptide, a 36-amino acid mature peptide, an amidation-proteolytic site, and a 30-amino acid carboxy-terminal extension. The gcPYY gene is comprised of 4 exons interspaced by 3 introns as seen in PYYs from other species. Amino acid alignment and gene structure comparison indicate that the structure of PYY is well preserved throughout vertebrate phylogeny. The tissue distribution and postprandial changes in gcPYY mRNA expression were evaluated by real-time PCR, which showed that the gcPYY is expressed abundantly in the central nervous system, with significantly increased expression following a single meal. During embryogenesis, the presence of gcPYY mRNA was detected in early developing embryos, and high expression levels were observed when most larvae completed their switch from endogenous nourishment to exogenous feeding. Reduced food intake by juveniles during a single meal after giving perpheral injection of gcPYY1-36 suggests a potentially important role of PYY in the food intake attenuation in grass carp. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of the Degree of Food Processing in Relation With Its Health Potential and Effects.

    Fardet, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    Up today technological processes are intended to produce safe and palatable food products. Yet, it is also expected that processing produces healthy and sustainable foods. However, due to the dramatic increase of chronic diseases prevalence worldwide, i.e., obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and some cancers, ultraprocessing has been pointed out as producing unhealthy foods, rich in energy and poor in protective micronutrients and fiber, i.e., "empty" calories. Indeed the 1980s saw massive arrivals of ultraprocessed foods in supermarkets, i.e., fractionated-recombined foods with added ingredients and/or additives. Epidemiological studies clearly emphasized that populations adhering the most to ultraprocessed foods, e.g., processed meat, refined grains, ultraprocessed plant-based foods, and/or sweetened beverages, exhibited the higher prevalence of chronic diseases. This prompted researchers to classify foods according to their degree of processing as with the international NOVA classification (i.e., un/minimally processed, processed, and ultraprocessed foods). More and more studies showed that such a classification makes sense for health. Overall one distinguishes three categories of processes: mechanical, thermal, and fermentative treatments, this latter being the more favorable to food health potential. This chapter has therefore several ambitions: (1) to review association between degree of food processing and chronic disease risk prevalence; (2) to explore the impact of technological processes on food health potential considering both matrix and compositional effects; (3) to discuss the need for classifying food according to their degree of processing in future epidemiological studies; and (4) to analyze consequences of adhering to a more holistic paradigm in both food processing and nutrition. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Microalgae, a Potential Natural Functional Food Source – a Review

    Villarruel-López Angélica

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are a group of microorganisms used in aquaculture. The number of studies regarding their use as a functional food has recently increased due to their nutritional and bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, fatty acids, bioactive peptides, and pigments. Specific microalgal glucans (polysaccharides can activate the immune system or exert antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic effects. The importance of algal lipids is based on their polyunsaturated fatty acids, their anti-inflammatory effects, their modulation of lipid pathways, and their neuroprotective action. Microalgae peptides can bind or inhibit specific receptors in cardiovascular diseases and cancer, while carotenoids can act as potent antioxidants. The beneficial biological activity will depend on the specific microalga and its chemical constituents. Therefore, knowledge of the composition of microalgae would aid in identifying, selecting, and studying their functional effects.

  17. Potential sources for the radiation treatment of food

    Sande, W.E.; Libby, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The present, near-term, and potential (through year 2000) supply of radiation sources for large-scale radiosterilization applications is discussed. Principal sources considered are 60 Co produced in nuclear power reactors, 137 Cs presently available from ERDA encapsulation operations, and a mixture of 134 Cs- 137 Cs potentially available from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Some consideration is also given to electron accelerators

  18. Occurrence, Persistence, and Virulence Potential of Listeria ivanovii in Foods and Food Processing Environments in the Republic of Ireland

    Morgan, Ciara A.; Hill, Colin; Gahan, Cormac G. M.; Jordan, Kieran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of L. ivanovii in foods and food processing environments in Ireland, to track persistence, and to characterize the disease causing potential of the isolated strains. A total of 2,006 samples (432 food samples and 1,574 environmental swabs) were collected between March 2013 and March 2014 from 48 food business operators (FBOs) belonging to different production sectors (dairy, fish, meat, and fresh-cut vegetable). Six of the forty-eight FBOs had samples positive for L. ivanovii on at least one sampling occasion. L. ivanovii was present in fifteen samples (fourteen environmental samples and one food sample). All but one of those positive samples derived from the dairy sector, where L. ivanovii prevalence was 1.7%. Six distinguishable pulsotypes were obtained by PFGE analysis, with one pulsotype being persistent in the environment of a dairy food business. Sequence analysis of the sigB gene showed that fourteen isolates belonged to L. ivanovii subsp. londoniensis, while only one isolate was L. ivanovii subsp. ivanovii. Cell invasion assays demonstrated that the majority of L. ivanovii strains were comparable to L. monocytogenes EGDe in their ability to invade CACO-2 epithelial cells whilst four isolates had significantly higher invasion efficiencies. PMID:26543856

  19. Occurrence, Persistence, and Virulence Potential of Listeria ivanovii in Foods and Food Processing Environments in the Republic of Ireland

    Avelino Alvarez-Ordóñez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of L. ivanovii in foods and food processing environments in Ireland, to track persistence, and to characterize the disease causing potential of the isolated strains. A total of 2,006 samples (432 food samples and 1,574 environmental swabs were collected between March 2013 and March 2014 from 48 food business operators (FBOs belonging to different production sectors (dairy, fish, meat, and fresh-cut vegetable. Six of the forty-eight FBOs had samples positive for L. ivanovii on at least one sampling occasion. L. ivanovii was present in fifteen samples (fourteen environmental samples and one food sample. All but one of those positive samples derived from the dairy sector, where L. ivanovii prevalence was 1.7%. Six distinguishable pulsotypes were obtained by PFGE analysis, with one pulsotype being persistent in the environment of a dairy food business. Sequence analysis of the sigB gene showed that fourteen isolates belonged to L. ivanovii subsp. londoniensis, while only one isolate was L. ivanovii subsp. ivanovii. Cell invasion assays demonstrated that the majority of L. ivanovii strains were comparable to L. monocytogenes EGDe in their ability to invade CACO-2 epithelial cells whilst four isolates had significantly higher invasion efficiencies.

  20. An overview of means-end theory: potential application in consumer-oriented food product design

    Costa, A.I.A.; Dekker, M.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the means-end chain theory and associated techniques, and discusses the virtues and shortcomings of its potential application in consumer-oriented food product design. This overview, based on literature in the food area, presents also the process of conducting a

  1. KEY ISSUES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: BREAKOUT GROUP REPORTS

    AbstractOn the final afternoon of the Workshop, Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of 1) Use of Human Clinical Data; 2) Animal Models to Assess Food ...

  2. An exceptionally preserved Eocene shark and the rise of modern predator-prey interactions in the coral reef food web.

    Fanti, Federico; Minelli, Daniela; Conte, Gabriele Larocca; Miyashita, Tetsuto

    2016-01-01

    Following extreme climatic warming events, Eocene Lagerstätten document aquatic and terrestrial vertebrate faunas surprisingly similar to modern counterparts. This transition in marine systems is best documented in the earliest teleost-dominated coral reef assemblage of Pesciara di Bolca, northern Italy, from near the end of the Eocene Climatic Optimum. Its rich fauna shows similarities with that of the modern Great Barrier Reef in niche exploitation by and morphological disparity among teleost primary consumers. However, such paleoecological understanding has not transcended trophic levels above primary consumers, particularly in carcharhiniform sharks. We report an exceptionally preserved fossil school shark (Galeorhinus cuvieri) from Pesciara di Bolca. In addition to the spectacular preservation of soft tissues, including brain, muscles, and claspers, this male juvenile shark has stomach contents clearly identifiable as a sphyraenid acanthomorph (barracuda). This association provides evidence that a predator-prey relationship between Galeorhinus and Sphyraena in the modern coral reefs has roots in the Eocene. A growth curve of the living species of Galeorhinus fitted to G. cuvieri suggests that all specimens of G. cuvieri from the lagoonal deposits of Bolca represent sexually and somatically immature juveniles. The modern trophic association between higher-degree consumers (Galeorhinus and Sphyraena) has a counterpart in the Eocene Bolca, just as Bolca and the Great Barrier Reef show parallels among teleost primary consumers. Given the age of Bolca, trophic networks among consumers observed in modern coral reefs arose by the exit from the Climatic Optimum. The biased representation of juveniles suggests that the Bolca Lagerstätte served as a nursery habitat for G. cuvieri. Ultraviolet photography may be useful in probing for exceptional soft tissue preservation before common acid preparation methods.

  3. Terminalia arjuna: A novel natural preservative for improved lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of muscle foods

    Insha Kousar Kalem; Z.F. Bhat; Sunil Kumar; Ajay Desai

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to explore the possibility of utilization of Terminalia arjuna as a novel natural preservative in meat products by using chevon sausages as a model system. Chevon sausages were prepared by incorporating different levels of T. arjuna viz. T1 (0.25%), T2 (0.50%) and T3 (0.75%) and were assessed for various lipid oxidative stability and storage quality parameters under refrigerated (4 ± 1 °C) conditions. T. arjuna showed a significant (p 

  4. An investigation into the food and feeding ecology of a potential ...

    An investigation into the food and feeding ecology of a potential aquaculture ... The juveniles of Sarotherodon galilaeus multifasciatus feed mainly on insect and ... recruitment are recommended to enhance future production of the species ...

  5. Analysis of a benthic community food web using isotopically labelled potential food

    Beviss-Challinor, M.H.; Field, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    A series of experiments was designed to reveal the trophic structure of a benthic community using kelp holdfasts as microcosms within the kelp-bed community. The experimental food comprised zooplankton represented by 3 H 2 O-labelled Artemia sp. eggs and nauplii (200 to 300 μm), detritus derived from 14 C-labelled kelp (60 to 90 μm), and phytoplankton represented by 14 C-labelled Dunaliella primolecta (5 to 10 μm) cultures. Separate experiments of short duration (1 to 2 h) were used to indicate the primary consumers on each type of food, while longer experiments (4, 8 and 16 h) suggested the secondary consumers (coprophagous and carnivorous species). Several species were found to be omnivorous. (orig.)

  6. Potential of insects as food and feed in assuring food security.

    van Huis, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    With a growing world population and increasingly demanding consumers, the production of sufficient protein from livestock, poultry, and fish represents a serious challenge for the future. Approximately 1,900 insect species are eaten worldwide, mainly in developing countries. They constitute quality food and feed, have high feed conversion ratios, and emit low levels of greenhouse gases. Some insect species can be grown on organic side streams, reducing environmental contamination and transforming waste into high-protein feed that can replace increasingly more expensive compound feed ingredients, such as fish meal. This requires the development of cost-effective, automated mass-rearing facilities that provide a reliable, stable, and safe product. In the tropics, sustainable harvesting needs to be assured and rearing practices promoted, and in general, the food resource needs to be revalorized. In the Western world, consumer acceptability will relate to pricing, perceived environmental benefits, and the development of tasty insect-derived protein products.

  7. The Radical Potential of the Food Justice Movement

    Nancy Romer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The two main threats to our people and planet are climate change and corporate control of our economy and polity.[1] These enormous and completely intertwined issues will take a mass movement of epic proportions to shift. Time is of the essence as climate, economic and political disasters keep coming, ever gaining in intensity, impoverishing our people while enriching the transnational and national corporations.  Agreements like the Trans Pacific Partnership that would further strip national governments of their rights to protect labor and the environments in favor of protecting corporate profits cast this future as likely to deepen. The need to build dynamic and effective movements that embody the needs of our people is an imperative for those of us who believe that only democratic struggles, led by the most oppressed and joined by allies, can create a new world.  We need that new world more than ever as we face the realities of life on earth shifting before our very eyes. The Food Justice Movement (FJM offers a door through which to enter the enormous and often baffling labyrinth of broad sectors, issues, analyses and strategies of movements that exist and need to expand and gel.

  8. Foodstuffs preservation by ionization

    1991-12-01

    This document contains all the papers presented at the meeting on foodstuffs preservation by ionization. These papers deal especially with the food ionization process, its development and the view of the food industry on ionization. Refs and figs (F.M.)

  9. preservative activities parkia biglobosa ervative activities of aqueous

    userpc

    The general idea of preserving food is to incre its shelf life ... volatile oil and resinous matter (David, 197. Development in ... extracts of P. biglobosa as plant based food preservatives with. ,Preservative ..... activity of essential oils obtained from.

  10. Preserving Food by Drying. A Math/Science Teaching Manual. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual No. M-10.

    Fahy, Cynthia; And Others

    This manual presents a design for teaching science principles and mathematics concepts through a sequence of activities concentrating on weather, solar food dryers, and nutrition. Part I focuses on the effect of solar energy on air and water, examining the concepts of evaporation, condensation, radiation, conduction, and convection. These concepts…

  11. Potential food applications of biobased materials. An EU- concerted action project

    Haugaard, V.K.; Udsen, A.M.; Mortensen, G.

    2001-01-01

    and coatings to food but novel commercial applications of these are scarce. Based on information currently available on the properties of biobased packaging materials the study identified products in the fresh meat, dairy, ready meal, beverage, fruit and vegetable, snack, frozen food and dry food categories......The objective of the study was to ascertain the state of the art with regard to the applicability of biobased packaging materials to foods and to identify potential food applications for biobased materials. The study revealed relatively few examples of biobased materials used as primary, secondary...... or tertiary packaging materials for foods. This is due to the fact that published investigations on the use of biobased materials are still scarce, and results obtained remain unpublished because of commercial pressures. The scientific literature contains numerous reports on applications of edible films...

  12. The potential of a high protein-low carbohydrate diet to preserve intrahepatic triglyceride content in healthy humans.

    Martens, Eveline A; Gatta-Cherifi, Blandine; Gonnissen, Hanne K; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2014-01-01

    Protein supplementation has been shown to reduce the increases in intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content induced by acute hypercaloric high-fat and high-fructose diets in humans. To assess the effect of a 12-wk iso-energetic high protein-low carbohydrate (HPLC) diet compared with an iso-energetic high carbohydrate-low protein (HCLP) diet on IHTG content in healthy non-obese subjects, at a constant body weight. Seven men and nine women [mean ± SD age: 24 ± 5 y; BMI: 22.9 ± 2.1 kg/m2] were randomly allocated to a HPLC [30/35/35% of energy (En%) from protein/carbohydrate/fat] or a HCLP (5/60/35 En%) diet by stratification on sex, age and BMI. Dietary guidelines were prescribed based on individual daily energy requirements. IHTG content was measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after the dietary intervention. IHTG content changed in different directions with the HPLC (CH2H2O: 0.23 ± 0.17 to 0.20 ± 0.10; IHTG%: 0.25 ± 0.20% to 0.22 ± 0.11%) compared with the HCLP diet (CH2H2O: 0.34 ± 0.20 vs. 0.38 ± 0.21; IHTG%: 0.38 ± 0.22% vs. 0.43 ± 0.24%), which resulted in a lower IHTG content in the HPLC compared with the HCLP diet group after 12 weeks, which almost reached statistical significance (P = 0.055). A HPLC vs. a HCLP diet has the potential to preserve vs. enlarge IHTG content in healthy non-obese subjects at a constant body weight. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01551238.

  13. The potential of a high protein-low carbohydrate diet to preserve intrahepatic triglyceride content in healthy humans.

    Eveline A Martens

    Full Text Available Protein supplementation has been shown to reduce the increases in intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG content induced by acute hypercaloric high-fat and high-fructose diets in humans.To assess the effect of a 12-wk iso-energetic high protein-low carbohydrate (HPLC diet compared with an iso-energetic high carbohydrate-low protein (HCLP diet on IHTG content in healthy non-obese subjects, at a constant body weight.Seven men and nine women [mean ± SD age: 24 ± 5 y; BMI: 22.9 ± 2.1 kg/m2] were randomly allocated to a HPLC [30/35/35% of energy (En% from protein/carbohydrate/fat] or a HCLP (5/60/35 En% diet by stratification on sex, age and BMI. Dietary guidelines were prescribed based on individual daily energy requirements. IHTG content was measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after the dietary intervention.IHTG content changed in different directions with the HPLC (CH2H2O: 0.23 ± 0.17 to 0.20 ± 0.10; IHTG%: 0.25 ± 0.20% to 0.22 ± 0.11% compared with the HCLP diet (CH2H2O: 0.34 ± 0.20 vs. 0.38 ± 0.21; IHTG%: 0.38 ± 0.22% vs. 0.43 ± 0.24%, which resulted in a lower IHTG content in the HPLC compared with the HCLP diet group after 12 weeks, which almost reached statistical significance (P = 0.055.A HPLC vs. a HCLP diet has the potential to preserve vs. enlarge IHTG content in healthy non-obese subjects at a constant body weight.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01551238.

  14. Potential for irradiation of marine foods in New Zealand

    Burns, D.J.W.

    1984-01-01

    The potential for treatment of fish with ionising radiation to extend the useful shelf life lies with low dose pasteurization methods. A practical extension of 1 week or more under optimal refrigeration conditions can be achieved although a background loss of quality due to autolysis continues throughout storage. Of New Zealands markets for fish products only Australia could be serviced by sea freight with irradiated fresh fish. Two difficulties are forseen: firstly a market advantage for fresh over frozen fish is unproven; secondly the industry is dispersed and does not lend itself to a central irradiation facility. Some possibilities for irradiation may arise in future. (auth.)

  15. Seaweeds from the Portuguese coast: A potential food resource?

    Soares, C.; Machado, S.; Vieira, E. F.; Morais, S.; Teles, M. T.; Correia, M.; Carvalho, A.; Domingues, V. F.; Ramalhosa, M. J.; Delerue-Matos, C.; Antunes, F.

    2017-09-01

    The Portuguese coast presents a large amount of potentially edible seaweeds that are underexploited. The identification of different macroalgae species and their availability in the northern and central coast of the continental territory was assessed. The nutritional value of seaweeds is discussed based on a literature review (when available) focused on data for species collected in Portugal with the aim to define the most important nutritional parameters that should be characterized in the samples. Possible health concerns related with the presence of contaminants are also considered.

  16. Fishing inside or outside? A case studies analysis of potential spillover effect from marine protected areas, using food web models

    Colléter, Mathieu; Gascuel, Didier; Albouy, Camille; Francour, Patrice; Tito de Morais, Luis; Valls, Audrey; Le Loc'h, François

    2014-11-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are implemented worldwide as an efficient tool to preserve biodiversity and protect ecosystems. We used food web models (Ecopath and EcoTroph) to assess the ability of MPAs to reduce fishing impacts on targeted resources and to provide biomass exports for adjacent fisheries. Three coastal MPAs: Bonifacio and Port-Cros (Mediterranean Sea), and Bamboung (Senegalese coast), were used as case studies. Pre-existing related Ecopath models were homogenized and ecosystem characteristics were compared based on network indices and trophic spectra analyses. Using the EcoTroph model, we simulated different fishing mortality scenarios and assessed fishing impacts on the three ecosystems. Lastly, the potential biomass that could be exported from each MPA was estimated. Despite structural and functional trophic differences, the three MPAs showed similar patterns of resistance to simulated fishing mortalities, with the Bonifacio case study exhibiting the highest potential catches and a slightly inferior resistance to fishing. We also show that the potential exports from our small size MPAs are limited and thus may only benefit local fishing activities. Based on simulations, their potential exports were estimated to be at the same order of magnitude as the amount of catch that could have been obtained inside the reserve. In Port Cros, the ban of fishing inside MPA could actually allow for improved catch yields outside the MPA due to biomass exports. This was not the case for the Bonifacio site, as its potential exports were too low to offset catch losses. This insight suggests the need for MPA networks and/or sufficiently large MPAs to effectively protect juveniles and adults and provide important exports. Finally, we discuss the effects of MPAs on fisheries that were not considered in food web models, and conclude by suggesting possible improvements in the analysis of MPA efficiency.

  17. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes -The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement-

    Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Han Ok; Cho, Sung Kee; Kang, Il Joon; Yang, Jae Seung; Yook, Heung Sun

    1995-07-01

    The project was designed to solve the infra structural problem required for commercialization of food irradiation. In improvement of physical properties of corn starch, gamma irradiation was effective for increasing glucose productivity and for substituting traditional modified starches (acid modified starch, oxidized starch). In immobilization of microorganisms, the mass production method of natural red pigment was developed by using immobilized mold pellets. In Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma irradiated red ginseng could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And also, six items of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea ministry of health and welfare in May 19, 1995. 30 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author)

  18. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes -The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement-

    Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Han Ok; Cho, Sung Kee; Kang, Il Joon; Yang, Jae Seung; Yook, Heung Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    The project was designed to solve the infra structural problem required for commercialization of food irradiation. In improvement of physical properties of corn starch, gamma irradiation was effective for increasing glucose productivity and for substituting traditional modified starches (acid modified starch, oxidized starch). In immobilization of microorganisms, the mass production method of natural red pigment was developed by using immobilized mold pellets. In Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma irradiated red ginseng could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And also, six items of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea ministry of health and welfare in May 19, 1995. 30 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author).

  19. Beneficial bread without preservatives

    Denkova, Zapryana; Denkova, Rositsa

    2014-01-01

    Besides their inherent nutritional value functional foods contain substances that have beneficial impact on the functioning of organs and systems in the human body and reduce the risk of disease. Bread and bakery goods are basic foods in the diet of contemporary people. Preservatives are added to the composition of foods in order to ensure their microbiological safety, but these substances affect directly the balance of microflora in the tract. A great problem is mold and bacterial spoilage (...

  20. Sunflower seed: a potential source of food and feed products

    Kausar, T.; Ali, S.; Javed, M.A.; Javad, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Chemical composition of seven varieties of sunflower seeds and seed fractions i.e., kernels, hulls and meals was determined. Sunflower meals (SFM) contained 44.00 to 49.52% crude protein, 1.25 to 1.50% fat, 3.43 to 6.75% crude fibre, 7.50 to 8.51% ash, 27.30 to 36.09% nitrogen free extract, 3.12 to 3.51% phytic acid and 2.45 to 3.01% chlorogenic acid. Fatty acid profile of sunflower oil with respect to other vegetable oils (i.e., soybean, mustard, canola, cotton, corn oils) and protein solubility profile of sunflower meal as compared to soybean and mustard meals, indicate that its oil and meal have a great nutritional potential. (author)

  1. Radiation preservation of sea-foods : development of dehydro-irradiation processes for shrimp (Penaeus indicus) and Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus)

    Lewis, N.F.

    1978-01-01

    Bombay duck which comprises more than 10% of India's annual fish catch is not amenable to freezing and canning mainly due to the high content of free water and extreme lability of its proteins. The commercially available sun-dried product is suspect to rapid spoilage by mould leading to impairment of organoleptic qualities. The dehydro-irradiation process using heat and gamma radiation has been developed to stabilise sea foods and is studied with Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus) and shrimp (Penaeus indicus). The process has been found to preserve Bombay duck laminates for a period of four months at ambient temperature and the products are more superior in organoleptic qualities to those prepared by the conventional sun-drying method. (M.G.B.)

  2. Analyzing production potential of selected food and legume crops for food security in Punjab, Pakistan

    Qasim, M.; Hassan, S.; Bashir, A.; Mehmood, I.; Mahmood, H. Z.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess growth rate in area, yield and production of selected major food commodities and to project these parameters on the basis of estimated growth co-efficient. Time-series data for area, yield and production were collected for wheat, sugarcane, rice, mung and gram since 1980-81. The semi-log trend function was employed to find out the growth rate of selected commodities. The findings of the study showed the positive growth rates of area, production and yield of all selected food grain and legume crops. The estimated co-efficient for all growth models (area, production and yield) of selected commodities were statistically highly significant at 1 percentage level except yield of gram which was significant at 10 percentage level. The estimated annual growth rate of area for wheat, rice and sugarcane was 0.9 percentage, 2.1 percentage and 0.8 percentage, respectively with the production growth of 3.0 percentage, 3.8 percentage and 2.2 percentage, respectively and yield growth of 2.1 percentage, 1.6 percentage and 1.5 percentage, respectively. The results highlighted that the major contribution for expansion in production for rice and sugarcane was area while it was yield for wheat. In this scenario the wheat production can be enhanced by increasing its area than that of rice and sugarcane. The annual growth rate for gram and mung area was estimated about 1.0 v and 4.9 percentage, respectively, with the production growth rate of 2.3 percentage and 6.4 percentage while yield growth rate of 2.9 percentage and 1.4 percentage, respectively. Keeping in view the higher growth of gram yield the increase in its area may enhance its production more than that of mung. The proportionate higher increase in the area of wheat and gram may enhance the welfare of producers in particular and provide food security to masses in general. (author)

  3. Food irradiation: contaminating our food

    Piccioni, R.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry has promoted food irradiation as an effective and safe means of preserving food at minimum risk to the public. However, wide-scale food irradiation programmes such as that approved in the United States of America would have an adverse impact on public health in the following ways: through the consumption of carcinogenic substances generated in irradiated foods, through the use of irradiation to mask bacteriological contamination of spoiled food, through the replacement of fresh foods with nutritionally depleted foods, through accidents with leaks or mishandling of the radiation sources used and through the environmental damage resulting from reactor operation or spent fuel reprocessing necessary to produce the required isotopes for food irradiation. The food irradiation market is potentially enormous, requiring a large number of facilities and isotopes, some, such as caesium-137, would come from the production of nuclear weapons. Evidence of the presence of carcinogenic or mutagenic activity in irradiated foods is discussed. Although the US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a food irradiation programme it would actually be against the FDA's legal obligation which is to protect the health and safety of the American people. (UK)

  4. Food processing with linear accelerators

    Wilmer, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    The application of irradiation techniques to the preservation of foods is reviewed. The utility of the process for several important food groups is discussed in the light of work being done in a number of institutions. Recent findings in food chemistry are used to illustrate some of the potential advantages in using high power accelerators in food processing. Energy and dosage estimates are presented for several cases to illustrate the accelerator requirements and to shed light on the economics of the process

  5. [Are amylases in bakery products and flour potential food allergens?].

    Baur, X; Sander, I; Jansen, A; Czuppon, A B

    1994-05-21

    The enzyme alpha-amylase from the mould Aspergillus oryzae (Asp o II) routinely used for the production of bread, cakes and pastries has in recent years been identified as an inhalative allergen for occupational diseases (bakers' asthma). It is doubtful whether this amylase in the final product, i.e. after the baking procedure, can still be regarded as an allergen. To clarify this question, detailed case histories on 138 subjects were recorded (98 allergics, 20 patients suffering form chronic intestinal diseases, 20 healthy controls). The clinical examinations included prick skin test and IgE antibody determination using one of the customary enzyme preparations. EAST showed a few of these 138 bread consumers to be weakly sensitized to the enzyme. One of the subjects displayed a significant reaction to alpha-amylase heated to 200 degrees C. As expected, eleven bakers sensitized to alpha-amylase by inhaling it in the workplace (positive prick test, positive case history) predominantly exhibited specific IgE antibodies to the native enzyme. Apart from one weakly positive finding, heated alpha-amylase yielded negative results in this collective. Baking conditions vary widely, especially with regard to single components, temperature and duration. Thus, further investigations as to residual allergenicity or the feasible occurrence of new antigenic determinants during the production of bread, cake and pastries are required. 27% of bakers examined and 9% of atopics showed antibodies to a flour inherent enzyme, a beta-amylase. On the whole, the selected conditions hinted at a weakly sensitizing potential inherent in baking flour and in added amylase.

  6. The GMO-crop potential for more, and more nutritious food is blocked by unjustified regulation

    Ingo Potrykus

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the need for more and more nutritious food, the potential genetic engineering technology has to contribute to a solution, the fact that this potential is blocked by regulation, which to my understanding is totally unjustified.

  7. Envisioning a metropolitan foodshed: potential environmental consequences of increasing food-crop production around Chicago

    Bowen, E. E.; Martin, P. A.; Schuble, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    Nationwide, cities are increasingly developing policies aimed at greater sustainability, particularly focusing on reducing environmental impact. Such policies commonly emphasize more efficiently using energy to decrease the greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of the city. However, most plans ignore the food system as a factor in regional energy use and GHG emissions. Yet, the food system in the United States accounts for ~20% of per capita greenhouse gas emissions. Local, sustainable food production is cited as one strategy for mitigating GHG emissions of large metropolitan areas. “Sustainable” for regional agriculture is often identified as small-scale, diversified food crop production using best practices management. Localized food production (termed “foodshed”) using sustainable agriculture could mitigate climate change in multiple ways: (1) energy and therefore CO2-intensive portions of the conventional food system might be replaced by local, lower-input food production resulting in carbon offsets; (2) increased regional carbon storage might result from well-managed food crop production vs. commodity crop production; and (3) averted N2O emissions might result from closing nutrient cycles on agricultural lands following changes in management practices. The broader implications for environmental impact of widespread conversion to sustainable food crop agriculture, however, remain largely unknown. We examine the Chicago metropolitan region to quantify the impact of increased local food production on regional energy efficiency and GHG emissions. Geospatial analysis is used to quantify the resource potential for establishing a Chicago metropolitan foodshed. A regional foodshed is defined by minimizing cost through transportation mode (road, rail, or water) and maximizing the production potential of different soil types. Simple biogeochemical modeling is used to predict changes in N2O emissions and nutrient flows following changes in land management practices

  8. Safety Evaluation of Potential Toxic Metals Exposure from Street Foods Consumed in Mid-West Nigeria

    O. C. Ekhator

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Street-vended foods offer numerous advantages to food security; nevertheless, the safety of street food should be considered. This study has investigated the level of potential toxic metal (Pb, Cd, Hg, Sb, Mn, and Al contamination among street-vended foods in Benin City and Umunede. Methods. Twenty street food samples were purchased from vendors at bus stops. Metals were analyzed with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The methods developed by the US EPA were employed to evaluate the potential health risk of toxic metals. Results. The concentrations of the toxic metals in mg/kg were in the range of Pb (0.014–1.37, Cd (0.00–0.00017, Hg (0.00–0.00014, Sb (0.00–0.021, Mn (0.00–0.012, and Al (0.00–0.22. All the toxic metals except Pb were below permissible limit set by WHO, EU, and USEPA. The daily intake, hazard quotient, and hazard index of all toxic metals except for Pb in some street foods were below the tolerable daily intake and threshold value of 1, indicating an insignificant health risk. Total cancer risk was within the priority risk level of 1.0E-04 but higher than the acceptable risk level of 1E-06. Conclusion. Consumption of some of these street foods is of public health concern.

  9. An Overview of Food Emulsions: Description, Classification and Recent Potential Applications

    Meltem Serdaroğlu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emulsions take place partially or completely in the structures of many natural and processed foods or some foods are already emulsified in certain stages of production. In general “emulsion” is described as a structure created through the dispersion of one of two immiscible liquids within the other one in form of little droplets. Many terms are available to describe different emulsion types and it is very important to define and clarify these terms like “macro emulsion”, “nanoemulsion” and “multiple emulsion”. Nanoemulsions become increasingly important in food industry as an innovative approach in carrying functional agents. Application potential of multiple emulsions (W/O/W is also stated to be very high in food industry. The two main strategic purposes of utilization of multiple emulsions in food applications are to encapsulate various aromas, bioactive compounds or sensitive food compounds and to allow the production of the low-fat products. This review provides an overview to the general terms of emulsion types, the role of various emulsifying agents, and the application potential of emulsions in food industry.

  10. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of food waste through biochemical methane potential assays at different substrate: inoculum ratios.

    Hobbs, Shakira R; Landis, Amy E; Rittmann, Bruce E; Young, Michelle N; Parameswaran, Prathap

    2018-01-01

    Food waste has a high energy potential that can be converted into useful energy in the form of methane via anaerobic digestion. Biochemical Methane Potential assays (BMPs) were conducted to quantify the impacts on methane production of different ratios of food waste. Anaerobic digester sludge (ADS) was used as the inoculum, and BMPs were performed at food waste:inoculum ratios of 0.42, 1.42, and 3.0g chemical oxygen demand/g volatile solids (VS). The 1.42 ratio had the highest CH 4 -COD recovery: 90% of the initial total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) was from food waste, followed by ratios 0.42 and 3.0 at 69% and 57%, respectively. Addition of food waste above 0.42 caused a lag time for CH 4 production that increased with higher ratios, which highlighted the negative impacts of overloading with food waste. The Gompertz equation was able to represent the results well, and it gave lag times of 0, 3.6 and 30days and maximum methane productions of 370, 910, and 1950mL for ratios 0.42, 1.42 and 3.0, respectively. While ratio 3.0 endured a long lag phase and low VSS destruction, ratio 1.42 achieved satisfactory results for all performance criteria. These results provide practical guidance on food-waste-to-inoculum ratios that can lead to optimizing methanogenic yield. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative Analysis of the Composition and Active Property Evaluation of Certain Essential Oils to Assess their Potential Applications in Active Food Packaging.

    Vasile, Cornelia; Sivertsvik, Morten; Miteluţ, Amalia Carmen; Brebu, Mihai Adrian; Stoleru, Elena; Rosnes, Jan Thomas; Tănase, Elisabeta Elena; Khan, Waqas; Pamfil, Daniela; Cornea, Călina Petruţa; Irimia, Anamaria; Popa, Mona Elena

    2017-01-07

    The antifungal, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity of four commercial essential oils (EOs) (thyme, clove, rosemary, and tea tree) from Romanian production were studied in order to assess them as bioactive compounds for active food packaging applications. The chemical composition of the oils was determined with the Folin-Ciocâlteu method and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and flame ionization detectors, and it was found that they respect the AFNOR/ISO standard limits. The EOs were tested against three food spoilage fungi- Fusarium graminearum , Penicillium corylophilum, and Aspergillus brasiliensis -and three potential pathogenic food bacteria- Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes -using the disc diffusion method. It was found that the EOs of thyme, clove, and tea tree can be used as antimicrobial agents against the tested fungi and bacteria, thyme having the highest inhibitory effect. Concerning antioxidant activity determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods, it has been established that the clove oil exhibits the highest activity because of its high phenolic content. Promising results were obtained by their incorporation into chitosan emulsions and films, which show potential for food packaging. Therefore, these essential oils could be suitable alternatives to chemical additives, satisfying the consumer demand for naturally preserved food products ensuring its safety.

  12. Comparative Analysis of the Composition and Active Property Evaluation of Certain Essential Oils to Assess their Potential Applications in Active Food Packaging

    Cornelia Vasile

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity of four commercial essential oils (EOs (thyme, clove, rosemary, and tea tree from Romanian production were studied in order to assess them as bioactive compounds for active food packaging applications. The chemical composition of the oils was determined with the Folin–Ciocâlteu method and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and flame ionization detectors, and it was found that they respect the AFNOR/ISO standard limits. The EOs were tested against three food spoilage fungi—Fusarium graminearum, Penicillium corylophilum, and Aspergillus brasiliensis—and three potential pathogenic food bacteria—Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes—using the disc diffusion method. It was found that the EOs of thyme, clove, and tea tree can be used as antimicrobial agents against the tested fungi and bacteria, thyme having the highest inhibitory effect. Concerning antioxidant activity determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2’-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS methods, it has been established that the clove oil exhibits the highest activity because of its high phenolic content. Promising results were obtained by their incorporation into chitosan emulsions and films, which show potential for food packaging. Therefore, these essential oils could be suitable alternatives to chemical additives, satisfying the consumer demand for naturally preserved food products ensuring its safety.

  13. Identification of traditional foods with public health potential for complementary feeding in Western Kenya

    Kinyuru, John N,; Konyole, Silvenus O.; Kenji, Glaston M.

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of traditional foods in Kisumu West District of Western Kenya was assessed with an aim to identify the foods with a potential for complementary feeding. Leaves were the most consumed plant part amongst vegetables, while a few fruits were consumed together with their seeds. Amaranthus...... with nutritional and health benefits as perceived by the locals. Traditional food processing methods such as boiling, fermentation and sun drying were identified. Thus exploitation of the species possessing nutrient, health and processing benefits needs to be explored in complementary feeding....

  14. Co-development in the food industry: Status and potential advantages

    Olsen, Johanne R.; Harmsen, Hanne

    practice - co-development. Co-development gives the involved companies competitive advantages in the face of product imitation and globalization issues. An empirical study in the Danish food industry was performed to uncover tendencies in co-development activities and the potential for further development......The food industry is faced with new challenges. The need for fast solutions and convenience - and thus more complex products - is increasing as e.g. demographics and the every-day life of food consumers are changing. Companies have to break down traditional barriers to allow room for a new best...

  15. Preservation of cocoa antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, flavan-3-ols, and procyanidin content in foods prepared with cocoa powder.

    Stahl, L; Miller, K B; Apgar, J; Sweigart, D S; Stuart, D A; McHale, N; Ou, B; Kondo, M; Hurst, W J

    2009-08-01

    Little is known about the effects of common cooking processes on cocoa flavanols. Antioxidant activity, total polyphenols (TP), flavanol monomers, and procyanidin oligomers were determined in chocolate frosting, a hot cocoa drink, chocolate cookies, and chocolate cake made with natural cocoa powder. Recoveries of antioxidant activity, TP, flavanol monomers, and procyanidins ranged from 86% to over 100% in the chocolate frosting, hot cocoa drink, and chocolate cookies. Losses were greatest in the chocolate cake with recoveries ranging from 5% for epicatechin to 54% for antioxidant activity. The causes of losses in baked chocolate cakes were investigated by exchanging baking soda with baking powder or combinations of the 2 leavening agents. Use of baking soda as a leavening agent was associated with increased pH and darkening color of cakes. Losses of antioxidant activity, TP, flavanol monomers, and procyanidins were associated with an increased extractable pH of the baked cakes. Chocolate cakes made with baking powder for leavening resulted in an average extractable pH of 6.2 with essentially complete retention of antioxidant activity and flavanol content, but with reduced cake heights and lighter cake color. Commercially available chocolate cake mixes had final pHs above 8.3 and contained no detectable monomeric flavanols after baking. These results suggest that baking soda causes an increase in pH and subsequent destruction of flavanol compounds and antioxidant activity. Use of an appropriate leavening agent to moderate the final cake pH to approximately 7.25 or less results in both good leavening and preservation of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins.

  16. Using a concentrate of phenols obtained from olive vegetation water to preserve chilled food: two case studies

    Luca Fasolato

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenols are plant metabolites characterised by several interesting bioactive properties such as antioxidant and bactericidal activities. In this study the application of a phenols concentrate (PC from olive vegetation water to two different fresh products – gilt-head seabream (Sparus aurata and chicken breast – was described. Products were treated in a bath of PC (22 g/L; chicken breast or sprayed with two different solutions (L1:0.75 and L2:1.5 mg/mL; seabream and then stored under refrigeration conditions. The shelf life was monitored through microbiological analyses – quality index method for seabream and a specific sensory index for raw breast. The secondary products of lipid-peroxidation of the chicken breast were determined using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs test on cooked samples. Multivariate statistical techniques were adopted to investigate the impact of phenols and microbiological data were fitted by DMfit software. In seabream, the levels of PC did not highlight any significant difference on microbiological and sensory features. DMfit models suggested an effect only on H2S producing bacteria with an increased lag phase compared to the control samples (C: 87 h vs L2: 136 h. The results on chicken breast showed that the PC bath clearly modified the growth of Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae. The phenol dipping was effective in limiting lipid-peroxidation (TBARs after cooking. Treated samples disclosed an increase of shelf life of 2 days. These could be considered as preliminary findings suggesting the use of this concentrate as preservative in some fresh products.

  17. Characterizing food waste substrates for co-digestion through biochemical methane potential (BMP) experiments.

    Lisboa, Maria Sol; Lansing, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    Co-digestion of food waste with dairy manure is increasingly utilized to increase energy production and make anaerobic digestion more affordable; however, there is a lack of information on appropriate co-digestion substrates. In this study, biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted to determine the suitability of four food waste substrates (meatball, chicken, cranberry and ice cream processing wastes) for co-digestion with flushed dairy manure at a ratio of 3.2% food waste and 96.8% manure (by volume), which equated to 14.7% (ice-cream) to 80.7% (chicken) of the VS being attributed to the food waste. All treatments led to increases in methane production, ranging from a 67.0% increase (ice cream waste) to a 2940% increase (chicken processing waste) compared to digesting manure alone, demonstrating the large potential methane production of food waste additions compared to relatively low methane production potential of the flushed dairy manure, even if the overall quantity of food waste added was minimal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mitigation potential and global health impacts from emissions pricing of food commodities

    Springmann, Marco; Mason-D'Croz, Daniel; Robinson, Sherman; Wiebe, Keith; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Rayner, Mike; Scarborough, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The projected rise in food-related greenhouse gas emissions could seriously impede efforts to limit global warming to acceptable levels. Despite that, food production and consumption have long been excluded from climate policies, in part due to concerns about the potential impact on food security. Using a coupled agriculture and health modelling framework, we show that the global climate change mitigation potential of emissions pricing of food commodities could be substantial, and that levying greenhouse gas taxes on food commodities could, if appropriately designed, be a health-promoting climate policy in high-income countries, as well as in most low- and middle-income countries. Sparing food groups known to be beneficial for health from taxation, selectively compensating for income losses associated with tax-related price increases, and using a portion of tax revenues for health promotion are potential policy options that could help avert most of the negative health impacts experienced by vulnerable groups, whilst still promoting changes towards diets which are more environmentally sustainable.

  19. Wood preservation

    Kevin Archer; Stan Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood preservation can be interpreted to mean protection from fire, chemical degradation, mechanical wear, weathering, as well as biological attack. In this chapter, the term preservation is applied more restrictively to protection from biological hazards.

  20. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation - Studies on the safety and consumer acceptance of gamma irradiated meats

    Kang, Il Jun; Lee, Young Jin; Lee, Young Sook; Kim, Ha Kyung [Hallym University, Chunchon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to chickens for evaluation of their possible genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity and nutritional safety. The results were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537. Clastogenic effects of the irradiated samples tested were not shown in vivo mouse micronucleus assay and in chromosomal aberration tests with CHL cells. In an acute toxicity test, the maximal dose of 5,000 mg/kg did not change any toxic parameter examined in this study. In four-week oral toxicity study, appearance, behavior, mortality, food and water consumption of mouse of treated groups were not affected during the experimental periods(four-weeks). In urine analysis, in hematological examination as well as in serum biochemical experiment, no significant differences were found between the control and treatment groups. Although minor changes in some hematological and biochemical parameters were observed, they were in the normal range and were not dose dependent. In nutritional safety, the proximate composition of foods were not significantly changed by irradiation dose. No significant difference in the components of fatty acids were observed by gamma irradiation. In general, the amount of released free amino acid was not significantly changed by gamma irradiation. There was no difference in total amino acid content between non irradiated and irradiated samples. The SDS electrophoresis patterns of samples were not significantly different between nonirradiated and irradiated samples. The major mineral compositions of chicken were phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium. The content of mineral was not significantly changed by gamma irradiation. 58 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  1. Evaluation of functional potentiality of selected commonly consumed foods of Bangladesh

    Nazma Shaheen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rising tide of chronic nutrition related non-communicable diseases yoked with extant under nutrition problems makes it imperative to carry out scientific research towards the discovery of functional foods. Although the emergence of these diseases are believed to be related to a constellation of dietary, socio-economic and lifestyle related risk factors, central to the pathogenesis of these diseases (or disease states are free radicals, oxidative stress, and inflammatory processes typically accompanied by pain. Therefore, functional whole foods with physiologically active antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic compounds seem to be the most promising option to deal with the pathogenesis of existing and emerging chronic diseases burden of Bangladesh. Methods: Edible portions of 70 commonly consumed Bangladeshi foods – including one cereal, five legumes, fourteen vegetables, four tea varieties, five oil seeds, twenty spices, and twenty one fruits – were evaluated for total phenol content (TPC by Folin-Ciocalteau assay. To evaluate functional potentiality, in vitro antioxidant capacity (AC of selected food items were evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assays, in vitro anti-inflammatory potential by observing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α using J774A.1 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, in vivo anti-inflammatory potential by measuring carrageenan induced rat paw edema reduction, and in vivo analgesic potential by acetic acid induced writhing test in mice. Results: Spices, oilseeds, and teas showed high concentration of TPC among the analyzed foods, while spices and teas exhibited notable AC. Green tea showed highest concentrations of TPC (2349 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent / g and AC (2432 µmole Trolox Equivalent/g. Fourteen food items showed potential in vitro anti-inflammatory activity with confirmatory dose response effect shown by 8 items. In vivo, black sesame

  2. Food acid content and erosive potential of sugar-free confections.

    Shen, P; Walker, G D; Yuan, Y; Reynolds, C; Stacey, M A; Reynolds, E C

    2017-06-01

    Dental erosion is an increasingly prevalent problem associated with frequent consumption of acidic foods and beverages. The aim of this study was to measure the food acid content and the erosive potential of a variety of sugar-free confections. Thirty sugar-free confections were selected and extracts analysed to determine pH, titratable acidity, chemical composition and apparent degree of saturation with respect to apatite. The effect of the sugar-free confections in artificial saliva on human enamel was determined in an in vitro dental erosion assay using change in surface microhardness. The change in surface microhardness was used to categorize the confections as high, moderate or low erosive potential. Seventeen of the 30 sugar-free confections were found to contain high concentrations of food acids, exhibit low pH and high titratable acidity and have high erosive potential. Significant correlations were found between the dental erosive potential (change in enamel surface microhardness) and pH and titratable acidity of the confections. Ten of these high erosive potential confections displayed dental messages on the packaging suggesting they were safe for teeth. Many sugar-free confections, even some with 'Toothfriendly' messages on the product label, contain high contents of food acids and have erosive potential. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  3. Potential contaminants in the food chain: identification, prevention and issue management.

    Scanlan, Francis P

    2007-01-01

    Contaminants are a vast subject area of food safety and quality. They are generally divided into chemical, microbiological and physical classes and are present in our food chain from raw materials to finished products. They are the subject of international and national legislation that has widened to cover more and more contaminant classes and food categories. In addition, consumers have become increasingly aware of and alarmed by their risks, whether rightly or not. What is the food industry doing to ensure the safety and quality of the products we feed our children? This is a valid question which this article attempts to address from an industrial viewpoint. Chemical food safety is considered a complex field where the risk perception of consumers is often the highest. The effects of chronic or acute exposure to chemical carcinogens may cause disease conditions long after exposure that can be permanently debilitating or even fatal. It is also a moving target, as knowledge about the toxicity and occurrence data of new chemical contaminants continues to be generated. Their identification, prevention and management are challenges to the food industry as a whole. A reminder of the known chemical hazards in the food chain will be presented with an emphasis on the use of early warning to identify potential new contaminants. Early warning is also a means of prevention, anticipating food safety concerns before they become issues to manage. Current best management practices including Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points relating to the supply chain of baby foods and infant formulae will be developed. Finally, key lessons from a case study on recent contamination issues in baby food products will be presented.

  4. Genotoxicity of clays with potential use in biopolymers for food packaging

    Sharma, Anoop Kumar; Mortensen, Alicja; Hadrup, Niels

    Genotoxicity of clays with potential use in biopolymers for food packaging Plastics produced from biopolymers are of commercial interest as they are manufactured from renewable resources such as agricultural crop wastes and have the potential to meet environmental and health requirements. Biopoly......Genotoxicity of clays with potential use in biopolymers for food packaging Plastics produced from biopolymers are of commercial interest as they are manufactured from renewable resources such as agricultural crop wastes and have the potential to meet environmental and health requirements...... in crude suspensions (suspended in cell culture medium) and crude suspensions filtrated through a 0.2 µm pore size filter in order to investigate the potential effect of “nanoparticles” only. The two clays showed noticeable differences in genotoxicity; both crude and filtered suspensions of Cloisite...

  5. Antimicrobial Activity of TiO2 Nanoparticle-Coated Film for Potential Food Packaging Applications

    Siti Hajar Othman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent uses of titanium dioxide (TiO2 have involved various applications which include the food industry. This study aims to develop TiO2 nanoparticle-coated film for potential food packaging applications due to the photocatalytic antimicrobial property of TiO2. The TiO2 nanoparticles with varying concentrations (0–0.11 g/ 100 mL organic solvent were coated on food packaging film, particularly low density polyethylene (LDPE film. The antimicrobial activity of the films was investigated by their capability to inactivate Escherichia coli (E. coli in an actual food packaging application test under various conditions, including types of light (fluorescent and ultraviolet (UV and the length of time the film was exposed to light (one–three days. The antimicrobial activity of the TiO2 nanoparticle-coated films exposed under both types of lighting was found to increase with an increase in the TiO2 nanoparticle concentration and the light exposure time. It was also found that the antimicrobial activity of the films exposed under UV light was higher than that under fluorescent light. The developed film has the potential to be used as a food packaging film that can extend the shelf life, maintain the quality, and assure the safety of food.

  6. Use and application of gelatin as potential biodegradable packaging materials for food products.

    Nur Hanani, Z A; Roos, Y H; Kerry, J P

    2014-11-01

    The manufacture and potential application of biodegradable films for food application has gained increased interest as alternatives to conventional food packaging polymers due to the sustainable nature associated with their availability, broad and abundant source range, compostability, environmentally-friendly image, compatibility with foodstuffs and food application, etc. Gelatin is one such material and is a unique and popularly used hydrocolloid by the food industry today due to its inherent characteristics, thereby potentially offering a wide range of further and unique industrial applications. Gelatin from different sources have different physical and chemical properties as they contain different amino acid contents which are responsible for the varying characteristics observed upon utilization in food systems and when being utilized more specifically, in the manufacture of films. Packaging films can be successfully produced from all gelatin sources and the behaviour and characteristics of gelatin-based films can be altered through the incorporation of other food ingredients to produce composite films possessing enhanced physical and mechanical properties. This review will present the current situation with respect to gelatin usage as a packaging source material and the challenges that remain in order to move the manufacture of gelatin-based films nearer to commercial reality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part VI. Mushrooms, tomatoes, minor fruits and vegetables, dried fruits, and nuts

    Thomas, P.

    1988-01-01

    In this concluding article in the series on the technological feasibility of ionizing radiation treatment for shelf life improvement of fruits and vegetables, the present status of research on several commodities that have not been dealt with earlier is discussed. The commodities include mushrooms, tomatoes, pineapples, lychees, longans, rambutans, mangostenes, guavas, sapotas, loquats, ber, soursops, passion fruits, persimmons, figs, melons, cucumbers, aubergines, globe artichokes, endives, lettuce, ginger, carrots, beet roots, turnips, olives, dates, chestnuts, almonds, pistachios, and other dried fruits and nuts. Changes induced by irradiation on metabolism, chemical constituents, and organoleptic qualities are considered while evaluating the shelf life. The commodities have been grouped into those showing potential benefits and those not showing any clear advantages from radiation treatment. Shelf life improvement of mushrooms and insect disinfestation in dried fruits, nuts, and certain fresh fruits appears to have immediate potential for commercial application. 194 references

  8. Sporulation of Bacillus spp. within biofilms: a potential source of contamination in food processing environments.

    Faille, C; Bénézech, T; Midelet-Bourdin, G; Lequette, Y; Clarisse, M; Ronse, G; Ronse, A; Slomianny, C

    2014-06-01

    Bacillus strains are often isolated from biofilms in the food industries. Previous works have demonstrated that sporulation could occur in biofilms, suggesting that biofilms would be a significant source of food contamination with spores. In this study, we investigated the properties of mono-species and mixed Bacillus biofilms and the ability of Bacillus strains to sporulate inside biofilms. Bacillus strains were able to form mono-species biofilms on stainless steel coupons, with up to 90% spores after a 48 h-incubation. These spores were highly resistant to cleaning but were easily transferred to agar, mimicking the cross-contamination of food, thereby suggesting that biofilms would be of particular concern due to a potential for Bacillus spore food contamination. This hypothesis was strengthened by the fact that Bacillus strains were able to form mixed biofilms with resident strains and that sporulation still occurred easily in these complex structures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Potential impacts of biofuel development on food security in Botswana: A contribution to energy policy

    Kgathi, Donald L.; Mfundisi, K.B.; Mmopelwa, G.; Mosepele, K.

    2012-01-01

    Biofuel development continues to be a critical development strategy in Africa because it promises to be an important part of the emerging bio-economy. However, there is a growing concern that the pattern of biofuel development is not always consistent with the principles of sustainable development. This paper assesses the potential of the impacts of biofuel development on food security in Botswana. Drawing on informal and semi-structured interviews, the paper concludes that there is potential for the development of biofuels in Botswana without adverse effects on food security due mainly to availability of idle land which accounted for 72% of agricultural land in the eastern part of the country in 2008. It is suggested that farmers could be incentivized to produce energy crops and more food from such land. Although it is hypothesized that the implementation of biofuel development programmes in other countries had an impact on local commodity prices during the period 2005–2008 in Botswana, it is argued that local biofuel production may not necessarily lead to a substantial increase in commodity food prices because land availability is not a major issue. The paper makes policy recommendations for sustainable biofuel development in Botswana. - Highlights: ► Biofuel development in Botswana can be pursued without harming food security. ► There is plenty idle land which could be used for biofuel and food production. ► Biofuel production will not lead to significant increases in food prices. ► There is need to define land for biofuels to avoid future scarcity of land for food production.

  10. Technique of radiation polymerization in fine art conservation: a potentially new method of restoration and preservation. [Uv and electron beams

    Garnett, J.L. (Univ. of New South Wales, Kensington, Australia); Major, G.

    1982-01-01

    The technique of using radiation polymerization for the restoration and preservation of art treasures is considered. The processes discussed include both radiation grafting and rapid cure procedures, particularly reactions initiated by uv and eb. Representative examples where the technique has already been used are treated including typical applications with paintings, tapestries, leather and archival repair. The structure of the monomers and oligomers used in both grafting and rapid cure systems is outlined. The experimental conditions where grafting may occur during radiation rapid cure processing are discussed. Possible future developments of the technique are outlined. 1 figure, 8 tables.

  11. Pandora's picnic basket: the potential and hazards of genetically modified foods

    McHughen, Alan

    2000-01-01

    ... technologies in the them from with breeding whether examines and Picnic Basket subject, from potentially dangerous products. either use or about the regulatory processes established to protect us genetically other regulators modified "natural" the production. explains, in dear language, the technologies around the food, methods question of world of Researc...

  12. ASSESSMENT OF ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: AN AGENDA FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

    AbstractSpeakers and participants in the Workshop Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods met in breakout groups to discuss a number of issues including needs for future research. There was agreement that research should move forward quickly in t...

  13. Indonesian jellyfish as potential for raw materials of food and drug

    Yusuf, S.; Fahmid, I. M.; Abdullah, N.; Zulhaeriah

    2018-05-01

    Jellyfish used to be considered as a pest of fish and a nuisance to fishing operations. Yet, forty years ago this jellyfish was found to be materials of food, medicine and cosmetics and the utilization of jellyfish is now familiar in Indonesia after being imported by China and Japan industry. This study aims to determine the potential development of jellyfish commodities as food and drugs from Indonesia with the target to improve the welfare of fishermen. This research used methods of rapid observation, limited interview, processing with immersion experiment and desiccation. In addition, various literatures were also used to enrich the knowledge about jellyfish business. Observation showed that the appearance of jellyfish in Indonesian waters varies based on the fertility of the waters affected by oceanographic conditions. Jellyfish contains low calorie and fat content, high protein and minerals as well as total collagen. Thus, jellyfish is a nutritious food source to be developed into food supplements, nutricosmetics and functional foods. Due to its large size, the jellyfish from Bunyu Island is more viable than jellyfish from Suppa Pinrang to be exported as raw material. Therefore, the manufacture of food and medicines from jellyfish materials is possible to be done in Indonesia.

  14. Food packaged with toys: an investigation on potential obesogenic effects in Indian children.

    Gregori, Dario; Gulati, Achal; Hochdorn, Alexander; Ballali, Simonetta; Paramesh, Haralappa; Kumar, Malathi; Baldi, Ileana

    2014-09-01

    To investigate, in a large pan Indian sample of school children, whether gadgets (toys) added to food increase food consumption, and if contemporary exposure to TV and/or advertising is a further promoting factor. A total of 1,680 Indian children were first randomized to food exposure with or without toy and then to a five-level exposure to TV viewing and advertising according to a 2 × 5 full factorial ad libitum eating design study. The sample size was computed to detect a difference of 20 Kcal of caloric intake (assuming the same standard deviation of 20 Kcal in both groups) between "food with gadget" (Toy) and "food alone" (No Toy) groups in each level of the exposure to TV and advertising factor, given an alpha error equal to 0.05 and a power of 0.90. Mean caloric intake both in "Toy" and "No Toy" group was around 223 Kcal. When considering exposure to TV and advertising, mean values varied negligibly between 222 and 225 Kcal. According to linear models for the effect of gadget and exposure to TV and/or advertising on children's intake, no significant adjusted associations were found, neither as main effects nor as interactions. Food consumption by children is not influenced by the presence of added toys, even after adjustment for several potential confounding factors. The city where they live and age significantly influences Indian children's caloric intake.

  15. Development Of Functional Foods Sea Weeds Algae Untouched Potential And Alternative Resource - A Review

    Habtamu Admassu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food by Hippocrates was obscured with the advent of modern drug therapy and nutrition science until to twentieth century. The combination of consumer desires advances in food technology and new evidence-based correlation between nutrition to disease and disease prevention has created an unprecedented opportunity to concentrate on public health issues through diet and lifestyle. There is widespread interest these days to make a choice of functional foods from natural products that might promote health through specific bio-active compounds. Considering the diversity of biochemicals and capable of exerting functional bioactivities a growing trend is developing across globe to use seaweeds in functional food development. Compounds isolated from seaweeds have various functional biological activities antibacterial activity antioxidant potential anti-inflammatory properties anti-e coagulant activity anti-viral activity and antifungal and apoptotic activity. Therefore this review focuses on several bioactive chemicals in seaweeds and their biological activities for which they are responsible as a functional food ingredient.

  16. Food choice in hyperthyroidism: potential influence of the autonomic nervous system and brain serotonin precursor availability.

    Pijl, H; de Meijer, P H; Langius, J; Coenegracht, C I; van den Berk, A H; Chandie Shaw, P K; Boom, H; Schoemaker, R C; Cohen, A F; Burggraaf, J; Meinders, A E

    2001-12-01

    We explored energy and macronutrient intake in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism. We specifically hypothesized that hyperthyroidism is associated with increased appetite for carbohydrates, because of enhanced sympathetic tone and diminished serotonin mediated neurotransmission in the brain. To test this hypothesis, we measured food intake by dietary history and food selected for lunch in the laboratory in 14 patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism. Twenty-four-hour catecholamine excretion was used as a measure of activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the plasma [Trp]/[NAA] ratio was measured to estimate (rate limiting) precursor availability for brain 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis. All measurements were repeated after the subjects had been treated to establish euthyroidism. In addition, the effects of nonselective beta-adrenoceptor blockade upon these parameters were studied to evaluate the influence of beta-adrenergic hyperactivity on food intake. Hyperthyroidism was marked by increased SNS activity and reduced plasma [Trp]/[NAA] ratio. Accordingly, energy intake was considerably and significantly increased in hyper vs. euthyroidism, which was fully attributable to enhanced carbohydrate consumption, as protein and fat intake were not affected. These results suggest that hyperthyroidism alters the neurophysiology of food intake regulation. Increased SNS activity and reduced Trp precursor availability for 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis in the brain may drive the marked hyperphagia and craving for carbohydrates that appears to characterize hyperthyroid patients. Because propranolol did not affect food intake in hyperthyroidism, the potential effect of catecholamines on food intake might be mediated by alpha-adrenoceptors.

  17. Evidence for opal phytolith preservation in the Langebaanweg ‘E’ Quarry Varswater Formation and its potential for palaeohabitat reconstruction

    P. Haarhof

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the Miocene epoch, C4 grasslands began to expand at the expense of tree-, shrub- and forb-dominated C3 ecosystems. While C4 grasses were spreading throughout most regions of the world, C3 grasses may have been spreading along South Africa’s southwest coast. Stable isotope analyses of hypsodont fossil ungulates from ‘E’ Quarry, a well-known Late Miocene/Early Pliocene fossil locality near the town of Langebaanweg, suggest that the local environment might have included a substantial C3 grass component. Besides this indirect evidence, little is known about the evolution, nature and importance of grass in the ‘E’ Quarry biome. As a preliminary step towards addressing these questions, we initiated a trial investigation to assess whether sediments at the site are conducive to the preservation of phytoliths, an important tool in the reconstruction of palaeohabitats. Results indicate that fossil phytoliths are sufficiently well preserved to allow a comprehensive analysis of the ‘E’ Quarry phytolith assemblage.

  18. Carbon annuities and their potential to preserve tropical forests and slow global warming: an application for small-scale farmers

    Caviglia-Harris, J.L. [Salisbury University, Salisbury, MD (United States). Dept. of Economics and Finance; Kahn, J.R. [Washington and Lee University, Lexington, VA (United States). Dept. of Economics

    2003-07-01

    Carbon annuities have been suggested as a means for rewarding landowners for preserving forests and sequestering carbon. Although this is an intuitively appealing approach, the benefits of the sequestration activities have not been compared with the opportunity cost of preserving the forest. This paper represents an initial attempt at analysing how large carbon annuities must be to induce a landowner in the Amazonian rainforest to accept the annuity and leave the forest intact. The benefits of carbon sequestration are computed based on estimates in the literature on the carbon contained in a hectare of rainforest and the damages associated with a ton of carbon emissions. This is compared with information on household income from Rondonia, Brazil. Our results show that, for the majority of our conservative assumptions about the damages of carbon emissions, the magnitude of an annuity is greater than the income from agriculture. For less conservative assumptions about the damages from global warming, a fraction of the annuity would be a sufficient incentive for small- scale farmers to switch to sustainable techniques that leave the forest intact. (author)

  19. Characterisation and potential migration of silver nanoparticles from commercially available polymeric food contact materials.

    Addo Ntim, Susana; Thomas, Treye A; Begley, Timothy H; Noonan, Gregory O

    2015-01-01

    The potential for consumer exposure to nano-components in food contact materials (FCMs) is dependent on the migration of nanomaterials into food. Therefore, characterising the physico-chemical properties and potential for migration of constituents is an important step in assessing the safety of FCMs. A number of commercially available food storage products, purchased domestically within the United States and internationally, that claim to contain nanosilver were evaluated. The products were made of polyethylene, polypropylene and polyphenylene ether sulfone and all contained silver (0.001-36 mg kg(-1) of polymer). Silver migration was measured under various conditions, including using 3% acetic acid and water as food simulants. Low concentrations (sub-ppb levels) of silver were detected in the migration studies generally following a trend characterised by a surface desorption phenomenon, where the majority of the silver migration occurred in the first of three consecutive exposures. Silver nanoparticles were not detected in food simulants, suggesting that the silver migration may be due solely to ionic silver released into solution from oxidation of the silver nanoparticle surface. The absence of detectable silver nanoparticles was consistent with expectations from a physico-chemical view point. For the products tested, current USFDA guidance for evaluating migration from FCMs was applicable.

  20. Food and beverage TV advertising to young children: Measuring exposure and potential impact.

    Harris, Jennifer L; Kalnova, Svetlana S

    2018-04-01

    Children of all ages are vulnerable to influence from exposure to unhealthy food advertisements, but experts raise additional concerns about children under 6 due to their more limited cognitive abilities. Most companies in the U.S. Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) industry self-regulatory program pledge to not direct any advertising to children under 6. However, young children also watch programming primarily directed to older children and thus may view food-related advertising despite companies' pledges. Research is required to understand the amount and potential impact of this exposure on preschool-age children. Study 1 uses Nielsen advertising exposure data to compare preschoolers' (2-5 years) and older children's (6-11 years) exposure to food advertising in 2015. Preschoolers viewed on average 3.2 food ads daily on children's programming, just 6% fewer compared to 6- to 11-year-olds; over 60% were placed by CFBAI-participating companies. Study 2 exposed young children (N = 49) in a child-care setting to child-directed food ads, measured their attitudes about the ads and advertised brands, and compared responses by 4- to 5-year-olds and 6- to 7-year olds. Most children indicated that they liked the child-directed ads, with media experience associated with greater liking for both age groups. Ad liking and previous consumption independently predicted brand liking for both age groups, although previous consumption was a stronger predictor for older children. Despite pledges by food companies to not direct advertising to children under age 6, preschoolers continue to view advertisements placed by these companies daily, including on children's programming. This advertising likely increases children's preferences for nutritionally poor advertised brands. Food companies and media companies airing children's programming should do more to protect young children from advertising that takes advantage of their vulnerabilities. Copyright © 2017

  1. Tank-connected food waste disposer systems--current status and potential improvements.

    Bernstad, A; Davidsson, A; Tsai, J; Persson, E; Bissmont, M; la Cour Jansen, J

    2013-01-01

    An unconventional system for separate collection of food waste was investigated through evaluation of three full-scale systems in the city of Malmö, Sweden. Ground food waste is led to a separate settling tank where food waste sludge is collected regularly with a tank-vehicle. These tank-connected systems can be seen as a promising method for separate collection of food waste from both households and restaurants. Ground food waste collected from these systems is rich in fat and has a high methane potential when compared to food waste collected in conventional bag systems. The content of heavy metals is low. The concentrations of N-tot and P-tot in sludge collected from sedimentation tanks were on average 46.2 and 3.9 g/kg TS, equalling an estimated 0.48 and 0.05 kg N-tot and P-tot respectively per year and household connected to the food waste disposer system. Detergents in low concentrations can result in increased degradation rates and biogas production, while higher concentrations can result in temporary inhibition of methane production. Concentrations of COD and fat in effluent from full-scale tanks reached an average of 1068 mg/l and 149 mg/l respectively over the five month long evaluation period. Hydrolysis of the ground material is initiated between sludge collection occasions (30 days). Older food waste sludge increases the degradation rate and the risks of fugitive emissions of methane from tanks between collection occasions. Increased particle size decreases hydrolysis rate and could thus decrease losses of carbon and nutrients in the sewerage system, but further studies in full-scale systems are needed to confirm this. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Preservation and storage of food using natural gas as an energy source; Preservacao e armazenamento de alimentos usando gas natural como fonte de energia

    Silva, Gabriel F. da; Lira, Moema de Lima; Carnelossi, Marcelo A.G.; Sousa, Mabel R [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Jesus, Marcos Fabio de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Campos, Michel Fabianski; Martins, Ronaldo M; Furini Filho, Roberto [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, Sara Macedo dos [Centro de Tecnologias do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In this work a study on preservation and storage of agricultural products was undertaken in chambers cooled through an absorption system, which used natural gas in the power plant and the results were compared with the compression system using electric energy. For the study a refrigeration pilot unit was mounted which consisted of chiller through water/ammonia absorption with direct natural gas burning, having a maximum consumption of 2,7{sup 3}/ h and capacity of 5 TR's, three refrigerating chambers with isopanel walls polyurethane, dimensions 2mx3mx2m with maximum capacity of storage of 2.000 kg each, control panel, a system of compressed natural gas supplying two carts each containing three cylinders with capacity of 71,4{sup 3} and a compression system connected to a chamber of same characteristics. Optimization studies in the storage of some fruits and vegetables were undertaken. A program was established which takes in account the food properties and characteristics of refrigeration systems to estimate the operational cost with the two systems. A techno-economic feasibility study was carried out on the two system of absorption and compression. This project was developed in the UFS, and is part of RedeGasEnergia, support for the financial aid was provided by PETROBRAS and FINEP/CTPETRO programs. (author)

  3. Preservation and storage of food using natural gas as an energy source; Preservacao e armazenamento de alimentos usando gas natural como fonte de energia

    Silva, Gabriel F. da; Lira, Moema de Lima; Carnelossi, Marcelo A.G.; Sousa, Mabel R. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Jesus, Marcos Fabio de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Campos, Michel Fabianski; Martins, Ronaldo M.; Furini Filho, Roberto [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, Sara Macedo dos [Centro de Tecnologias do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In this work a study on preservation and storage of agricultural products was undertaken in chambers cooled through an absorption system, which used natural gas in the power plant and the results were compared with the compression system using electric energy. For the study a refrigeration pilot unit was mounted which consisted of chiller through water/ammonia absorption with direct natural gas burning, having a maximum consumption of 2,7{sup 3}/ h and capacity of 5 TR's, three refrigerating chambers with isopanel walls polyurethane, dimensions 2mx3mx2m with maximum capacity of storage of 2.000 kg each, control panel, a system of compressed natural gas supplying two carts each containing three cylinders with capacity of 71,4{sup 3} and a compression system connected to a chamber of same characteristics. Optimization studies in the storage of some fruits and vegetables were undertaken. A program was established which takes in account the food properties and characteristics of refrigeration systems to estimate the operational cost with the two systems. A techno-economic feasibility study was carried out on the two system of absorption and compression. This project was developed in the UFS, and is part of RedeGasEnergia, support for the financial aid was provided by PETROBRAS and FINEP/CTPETRO programs. (author)

  4. Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Wild Mushroom Show Potential Antimicrobial Activities against Food Borne Pathogens

    Yugal Kishore Mohanta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates an economical and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using the wild mushroom Ganoderma sessiliforme. The synthesis of AgNPs was confirmed and the products characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR analysis was performed to identify the viable biomolecules involved in the capping and active stabilization of AgNPs. Moreover, the average sizes and morphologies of AgNPs were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM. The potential impacts of AgNPs on food safety and control were evaluated by the antimicrobial activity of the synthesized AgNPs against common food-borne bacteria, namely, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus faecalis, Listeria innocua and Micrococcus luteus. The results of this study revealed that the synthesized AgNPs can be used to control the growth of food-borne pathogens and have potential application in the food packaging industry. Moreover, the AgNPs were evaluated for antioxidant activity (DPPH, for biocompatibility (L-929, normal fibroblast cells, and for cytotoxic effects on human breast adenosarcoma cells (MCF-7 & MDA-MB231 to highlight their potential for use in a variety of bio-applications.

  5. CLUSTER OF INDONESIA KABUPATEN-KOTA POTENTIAL IN DEVELOPING FOOD CROP AND HORTICULTURE COMMODITIES

    Imam Wahyudi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Identification of potential areas in an agricultural sector is needed in order to meet the national food needs, among others, by carrying out mapping the potential areas through clustering the Kabupaten-Kota in Indonesia, especially on imported agricultural commodities of food crops and horticultures. The use of cluster analysis with top-down clustering method (K-means produces the best cluster. Of 268 regencies-cities, there are 7 clusters, namely Cluster 1 consisting of 154 regencies, Cluster 2 consisting of 2 regencies, Cluster 3 consisting of only1 regency, Cluster 4 consisting of 8 regencies, Cluster 5 consisting of 24 regencies, Cluster 6 consisting of 75 regencies, and Cluster 7 consisting of 4 regencies. Each cluster has its own dominant commodity characteristics.  The results of typology klassen on constructed clusters show that food crop and horticulture commodities have grown well and fast. Out of 13 commodities, there are 7 major commodities: Cluster 1: rice and corns; Clusters 2, 3 and 7: cassava; Cluster 4: corns, cassavas and chilly; Cluster 5: apples; Cluster 6: corns, shallots, and garlic. Six other commodities do not grow well, namely sorghum, potatoes, soybeans, peanuts, oranges, and grapes. The potential lack of an area is due to the plants’ low productivity, which is mainly because of plant pests, highly operational cost, climates and natural disasters. Keywords: imports, food crops, horticulture, cluster, and leading sector.

  6. 75 FR 32952 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; “‘Harmful and Potentially...

    2010-06-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-D-0281] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; ```Harmful and Potentially Harmful... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.'' This draft guidance provides written guidance to industry and FDA staff...

  7. Potential impact on food safety and food security from persistent organic pollutants in top soil improvers on Mediterranean pasture.

    Brambilla, G; Abate, V; Battacone, G; De Filippis, S P; Esposito, M; Esposito, V; Miniero, R

    2016-02-01

    The organic carbon of biosolids from civil wastewater treatment plants binds persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorodibenzo -dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin and non-dioxin -like polychlorobiphenyls (DL and NDL-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). The use of such biosolids, derived digestates and composts as top soil improvers (TSIs) may transfer POPs into the food chain. We evaluated the potential carry-over of main bioavailable congeners from amended soil-to-milk of extensive farmed sheep. Such estimates were compared with regulatory limits (food security) and human intakes (food safety). The prediction model was based on farming practices, flocks soil intake, POPs toxicokinetics, and dairy products intake in children, of the Mediterranean area. TSI contamination ranged between 0.20-113 ng WHO-TEQ/kg dry matter for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs (N = 56), 3.40-616 μg/kg for ∑6 NDL-PCBs (N = 38), 0.06-17.2 and 0.12-22.3 μg/kg for BDE no. 47 and no. 99, 0.872-89.50 μg/kg for PFOS (N = 27). For a 360 g/head/day soil intake of a sheep with an average milk yield of 2.0 kg at 6.5% of fat percentage, estimated soil quality standards supporting milk safety and security were 0.75 and 4.0 ng WHO-TEQ/kg for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs, and 3.75 and 29.2 μg/kg for ∑6 NDL-PCBs, respectively. The possibility to use low-contaminated TSIs to maximize agriculture benefits and if the case, to progressively mitigate highly contaminated soils is discussed.

  8. Indiana Pavement Preservation Program

    Ong, Ghim Ping (Raymond); Nantung, Tommy E.; Sinha, Kumares C.

    2010-01-01

    State highway agencies are facing immense pressure to maintain roads at acceptable levels amidst the challenging financial and economic situations. In recent years, pavement preservation has been sought as a potential alternative for managing the pavement assets, believing that it would provide a cost-effective solution in maintaining infrastructural conditions and meeting user expectations. This study explores the potential of pavement preservation concepts in managing the agency‘s pavement ...

  9. Mapping the Lisbon Potential Foodshed in Ribatejo e Oeste: A Suitability and Yield Model for Assessing the Potential for Localized Food Production

    Andreia Saavedra Cardoso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on food planning has been recently proposed in North American and European planning to account for how cities might change their food provision to respond to the rising demands for a more sustainable and ethical food system. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the agro-ecological potential of the Lisbon city region, Ribatejo e Oeste, to increase its Regional Food Self-Reliance (RFSR, through adopting demand restraint and food system relocalization approaches to food system sustainability. Three new diet scenarios were considered: meat-based, plant-based and strict vegetarian, defined in accordance with healthy dietary patterns. We used agro-climatic and agro-edaphic agricultural suitability models to evaluate the agro-ecological potential for RFSR, and proposed the use of Foodshed Landscape Plans within a landscape planning methodology. Results showed the extent of local food production that could improve food self-reliance, with 72%, 76%, 84% of total food needs in the meat-based, plant-based, and strict vegetarian scenarios, respectively. Thus, food system transformation by means of relocalization, is therefore ecologically feasible and would ensure the sustainable use of the ecological basis of food security. Additionally, a dietary transition would imply significant land sparing, which strengthens the demand restraint perspective for a transition to food system sustainability.

  10. Chemical rules on the assessment of antioxidant potential in food and food additives aimed at reducing oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

    Franco, Rafael; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva

    2017-11-15

    Antioxidants (aOXs) enlarge the useful life of products consumed by humans. Life requires oxidation of glucose/fatty acids and, therefore, "antioxidant" becomes an oxymoron when trying to define benefits in organisms living in an oxygen-rich atmosphere. According to basic physico-chemical principles, the in vivo aOX potential of food supplements is negligible when compared with the main aOX molecules in the animal Kingdom: glucose and fatty acids. Thus, the aOX assumption to improve life-quality is misleading as oxidative stress and exacerbation occur when oxidant foods (e.g. fava beans) are consumed. Evolution produced potent detoxification mechanisms to handle these situations. When age/genetic/environmental factors negatively impact on detoxification mechanisms, nutrition helps on providing metabolites/precursors needed for boosting innate resources. Ambiguous techniques that attempt to measure in vivo aOX power, should give way to measuring the level of supplements and their metabolites in body fluids/tissues, and to measure the efficacy on antioxidant boosting REDOX pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Software preservation

    Tadej Vodopivec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comtrade Ltd. covers a wide range of activities related to information and communication technologies; its deliverables include web applications, locally installed programs,system software, drivers, embedded software (used e.g. in medical devices, auto parts,communication switchboards. Also the extensive knowledge and practical experience about digital long-term preservation technologies have been acquired. This wide spectrum of activities puts us in the position to discuss the often overlooked aspect of the digital preservation - preservation of software programs. There are many resources dedicated to digital preservation of digital data, documents and multimedia records,but not so many about how to preserve the functionalities and features of computer programs. Exactly these functionalities - dynamic response to inputs - render the computer programs rich compared to documents or linear multimedia. The article opens the questions on the beginning of the way to the permanent digital preservation. The purpose is to find a way in the right direction, where all relevant aspects will be covered in proper balance. The following questions are asked: why at all to preserve computer programs permanently, who should do this and for whom, when we should think about permanent program preservation, what should be persevered (such as source code, screenshots, documentation, and social context of the program - e.g. media response to it ..., where and how? To illustrate the theoretic concepts given the idea of virtual national museum of electronic banking is also presented.

  12. High resolution melting (HRM) analysis of DNA--its role and potential in food analysis.

    Druml, Barbara; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2014-09-01

    DNA based methods play an increasing role in food safety control and food adulteration detection. Recent papers show that high resolution melting (HRM) analysis is an interesting approach. It involves amplification of the target of interest in the presence of a saturation dye by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent melting of the amplicons by gradually increasing the temperature. Since the melting profile depends on the GC content, length, sequence and strand complementarity of the product, HRM analysis is highly suitable for the detection of single-base variants and small insertions or deletions. The review gives an introduction into HRM analysis, covers important aspects in the development of an HRM analysis method and describes how HRM data are analysed and interpreted. Then we discuss the potential of HRM analysis based methods in food analysis, i.e. for the identification of closely related species and cultivars and the identification of pathogenic microorganisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hunger and Satiety Mechanisms and Their Potential Exploitation in the Regulation of Food Intake.

    Amin, Tehmina; Mercer, Julian G

    2016-03-01

    Effective strategies to combat recent rises in obesity levels are limited. The accumulation of excess body fat results when energy intake exceeds that expended. Energy balance is controlled by hypothalamic responses, but these can be overridden by hedonic/reward brain systems. This override, combined with unprecedented availability of cheap, energy-dense, palatable foods, may partly explain the increase in overweight and obesity. The complexity of the processes that regulate feeding behaviour has driven the need for further fundamental research. Full4Health is an EU-funded project conceived to advance our understanding of hunger and satiety mechanisms. Food intake has an impact on and is also affected by the gut-brain signalling which controls hunger and appetite. This review describes selected recent research from Full4Health and how new mechanistic findings could be exploited to adapt and control our physiological responses to food, potentially providing an alternative solution to addressing the global problems related to positive energy balance.

  14. Potential utilization of algal protein concentrate as a food ingredient in space habitats

    Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.

    1989-01-01

    Green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was studied as one of the potential sources of macronutrients in a space habitat. Algal protein concentrate (70.5% protein) was incorporated into a variety of food products such as bran muffins, fettuccine (spinach noodle imitation) and chocolate chip cookies. Food products containing 20 to 40% of incorporated algal proteins were considered. In the sensory analysis the greenish color of the bran muffins and cookies was not found to be objectional. The mild spinachy flavor (algae flavor) was less detectable in chocolate chip cookies than in bran muffins. The color and taste of the algae noodles were found to be pleasant and compared well with commercially available spinach noodles. Commercially available spray-dried Spirulina algae was also incorporated so the products can be compared with those containing Scenedesmus obliquus concentrate. Food products containing commercial algae had a dark green color and a "burnt after taste" and were less acceptable to the panelists.

  15. Commercial processed food may have endocrine-disrupting potential: soy-based ingredients making the difference.

    Omoruyi, Iyekhoetin Matthew; Kabiersch, Grit; Pohjanvirta, Raimo

    2013-01-01

    Processed and packaged food items as well as ready-to-eat snacks are neglected and poorly characterised sources of human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study we investigated the presence of xenoestrogens in commercially processed and packaged Finnish foods, arising from substances deliberately added or inadvertently contaminating the food, substances formed as a result of food processing, or substances leaching from food packaging materials. Samples were obtained in three separate batches of equivalent products from both a supermarket and a local representative of a global chain of hamburger restaurants and extracted by a solid-phase extraction method. Their endocrine-disrupting potential was determined by yeast bioluminescent assay, using two recombinant yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMAEREluc/ERα and S. cerevisiae BMA64/luc. In this test system, the majority of samples (both foodstuffs and wrappers) analysed proved negative. However, all batches of industrially prepared hamburgers (but not those obtained from a hamburger restaurant) as well as pepper salami significantly induced luciferase activity in the BMAEREluc/ERα yeast strain indicating the presence of xenoestrogens, with estradiol equivalents of these products ranging from 0.2 to 443 pg g(-1). All three products contained soy-based ingredients, which apparently accounted for, or at least contributed to, their high estrogenic activity, since no signal in the assay was observed with extracts of the packaging material, while two different soy sauces tested yielded an intense signal (28 and 54 pg ml(-1) estradiol-equivalent). These findings imply that by and large chemicals arising in the processing or packaging of foodstuffs in Finland constitute an insignificant source of xenoestrogens to consumers. However, soy-derived ingredients in certain food items might render the entire products highly estrogenic. The estrogenic activity of soy is attributed to isoflavones whose

  16. Strain-Level Metagenomic Analysis of the Fermented Dairy Beverage Nunu Highlights Potential Food Safety Risks.

    Walsh, Aaron M; Crispie, Fiona; Daari, Kareem; O'Sullivan, Orla; Martin, Jennifer C; Arthur, Cornelius T; Claesson, Marcus J; Scott, Karen P; Cotter, Paul D

    2017-08-15

    The rapid detection of pathogenic strains in food products is essential for the prevention of disease outbreaks. It has already been demonstrated that whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing can be used to detect pathogens in food but, until recently, strain-level detection of pathogens has relied on whole-metagenome assembly, which is a computationally demanding process. Here we demonstrated that three short-read-alignment-based methods, i.e., MetaMLST, PanPhlAn, and StrainPhlAn, could accurately and rapidly identify pathogenic strains in spinach metagenomes that had been intentionally spiked with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in a previous study. Subsequently, we employed the methods, in combination with other metagenomics approaches, to assess the safety of nunu, a traditional Ghanaian fermented milk product that is produced by the spontaneous fermentation of raw cow milk. We showed that nunu samples were frequently contaminated with bacteria associated with the bovine gut and, worryingly, we detected putatively pathogenic E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in a subset of nunu samples. Ultimately, our work establishes that short-read-alignment-based bioinformatics approaches are suitable food safety tools, and we describe a real-life example of their utilization. IMPORTANCE Foodborne pathogens are responsible for millions of illnesses each year. Here we demonstrate that short-read-alignment-based bioinformatics tools can accurately and rapidly detect pathogenic strains in food products by using shotgun metagenomics data. The methods used here are considerably faster than both traditional culturing methods and alternative bioinformatics approaches that rely on metagenome assembly; therefore, they can potentially be used for more high-throughput food safety testing. Overall, our results suggest that whole-metagenome sequencing can be used as a practical food safety tool to prevent diseases or to link outbreaks to specific food products. Copyright

  17. Antimicrobial potential of sophorolipids for anti-acne, anti-dental caries, hide preservation and food safety applications

    Sophorolipids (SLs) are microbial glycolipids that can be produced via fermentation in relatively large yields (reportedly as high as 400 g/L under appropriate growth conditions). These versatile molecules have demonstrated usefulness as additives in detergent, cleaner, cosmetic, and stabilizer appl...

  18. Food animal transport: A potential source of community exposures to health hazards from industrial farming (CAFOs

    Ana M. Rule

    Full Text Available Summary: Use of antimicrobial feed additives in food animal production is associated with selection for drug resistance in bacterial pathogens, which can then be released into the environment through occupational exposures, high volume ventilation of animal houses, and land application of animal wastes. We tested the hypothesis that current methods of transporting food animals from farms to slaughterhouses may result in pathogen releases and potential exposures of persons in vehicles traveling on the same road. Air and surface samples were taken from cars driving behind poultry trucks for 17 miles. Air conditioners and fans were turned off and windows fully opened. Background and blank samples were used for quality control. Samples were analyzed for susceptible and drug-resistant strains. Results indicate an increase in the number of total aerobic bacteria including both susceptible and drug-resistant enterococci isolated from air and surface samples, and suggest that food animal transport in open crates introduces a novel route of exposure to harmful microorganisms and may disseminate these pathogens into the general environment. These findings support the need for further exposure characterization, and attention to improving methods of food animal transport, especially in highly trafficked regions of high density farming such as the Delmarva Peninsula. Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance, CAFO, Bioaerosol, Food animal transport, Air sampling, Surface sampling

  19. Potentials and Limitations of Regional Organic Food Supply: A Qualitative Analysis of Two Food Chain Types in the Berlin Metropolitan Region

    Alexandra Doernberg

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Regional food systems and organic agriculture are both considered more sustainable than the conventional, globalized food system they provide an alternative to. The emergence and expansion of alternative forms of food supply are influenced by various factors on different scales. Using the food systems approach we aim to study potentials and limitations of regional organic food supply in the Berlin metropolitan region (BMR. Based on the literature, we developed an analytical framework and identified determinants of regional organic food provision along the three major levels of the supply chain: agricultural production, food chain organization, and consumption. Then, we examined a qualitative case study with two different types of alternative food networks (A organic community supported agriculture (CSA and (B organic retail trade. Factors that hinder or promote the provision of regional organic food were identified through qualitative interviews and assessed by regional stakeholders in a workshop. Our findings show that demand for regional organic food is higher than regional supply, which could offer good possibilities for organic farmers. However, actors in these two food chains need to overcome some obstacles, including limited access to land, increasing renting prices, insufficient processing capacities, and unsupportive political environment for organic farming.

  20. In vitro assessment of Pediococcus acidilactici Kp10 for its potential use in the food industry.

    Abbasiliasi, Sahar; Tan, Joo Shun; Bashokouh, Fatemeh; Ibrahim, Tengku Azmi Tengku; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Vakhshiteh, Faezeh; Sivasamboo, Subhashini; Ariff, Arbakariya B

    2017-05-23

    Selection of a microbial strain for the incorporation into food products requires in vitro and in vivo evaluations. A bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacterium (LAB), Pediococcus acidilactici Kp10, isolated from a traditional dried curd was assessed in vitro for its beneficial properties as a potential probiotic and starter culture. The inhibitory spectra of the bacterial strain against different gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, its cell surface hydrophobicity and resistance to phenol, its haemolytic, amylolytic and proteolytic activities, ability to produce acid and coagulate milk together with its enzymatic characteristics and adhesion property were all evaluated in vitro. P. acidilactici Kp10 was moderately tolerant to phenol and adhere to mammalian epithelial cells (Vero cells and ileal mucosal epithelium). The bacterium also exhibited antimicrobial activity against several gram-positive and gram-negative food-spoilage and food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytgenes ATCC 15313, Salmonella enterica ATCC 13311, Shigella sonnei ATCC 9290, Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182, Enterobacter cloaca ATCC 35030 and Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 12378. The absence of haemolytic activity and proteinase (trypsin) and the presence of a strong peptidase (leucine-arylamidase) and esterase-lipase (C4 and C8) were observed in this LAB strain. P. acidilactici Kp10 also produced acid, coagulated milk and has demonstrated proteolytic and amylolactic activities. The properties exhibited by P. acidilactici Kp10 suggested its potential application as probiotic and starter culture in the food industry.

  1. The Food and Beverage Occurrence of Furfuryl Alcohol and Myrcene-Two Emerging Potential Human Carcinogens?

    Okaru, Alex O; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2017-03-11

    For decades, compounds present in foods and beverages have been implicated in the etiology of human cancers. The World Health Organization (WHO) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) continues to classify such agents regarding their potential carcinogenicity in humans based on new evidence from animal and human studies. Furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene are potential human carcinogens due to be evaluated. The major source of furfuryl alcohol in foods is thermal processing and ageing of alcoholic beverages, while β-myrcene occurs naturally as a constituent of the essential oils of plants such as hops, lemongrass, and derived products. This study aimed to summarize the occurrence of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene in foods and beverages using literature review data. Additionally, results of furfuryl alcohol occurrence from our own nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis are included. The highest content of furfuryl alcohol was found in coffee beans (>100 mg/kg) and in some fish products (about 10 mg/kg), while among beverages, wines contained between 1 and 10 mg/L, with 8 mg/L in pineapple juice. The content of β-myrcene was highest in hops. In conclusion, the data about the occurrence of the two agents is currently judged as insufficient for exposure and risk assessment. The results of this study point out the food and beverage groups that may be considered for future monitoring of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene.

  2. The Food and Beverage Occurrence of Furfuryl Alcohol and Myrcene—Two Emerging Potential Human Carcinogens?

    Alex O. Okaru

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For decades, compounds present in foods and beverages have been implicated in the etiology of human cancers. The World Health Organization (WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC continues to classify such agents regarding their potential carcinogenicity in humans based on new evidence from animal and human studies. Furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene are potential human carcinogens due to be evaluated. The major source of furfuryl alcohol in foods is thermal processing and ageing of alcoholic beverages, while β-myrcene occurs naturally as a constituent of the essential oils of plants such as hops, lemongrass, and derived products. This study aimed to summarize the occurrence of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene in foods and beverages using literature review data. Additionally, results of furfuryl alcohol occurrence from our own nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis are included. The highest content of furfuryl alcohol was found in coffee beans (>100 mg/kg and in some fish products (about 10 mg/kg, while among beverages, wines contained between 1 and 10 mg/L, with 8 mg/L in pineapple juice. The content of β-myrcene was highest in hops. In conclusion, the data about the occurrence of the two agents is currently judged as insufficient for exposure and risk assessment. The results of this study point out the food and beverage groups that may be considered for future monitoring of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene.

  3. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of Laurus nobilis L. and Myrtus communis L. essential oils from Morocco and evaluation of their antimicrobial activity acting alone or in combined processes for food preservation.

    Cherrat, Lamia; Espina, Laura; Bakkali, Mohammed; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael; Laglaoui, Amin

    2014-04-01

    This study describes the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Laurus nobilis L. and Myrtus communis L. essential oils (EOs). This is the first report of the synergistic antimicrobial effect of these EOs in combination with physical food preservation treatments. EOs obtained by steam distillation from aerial parts of Laurus nobilis and Myrtus communis were analysed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main compounds were 1,8-cineole and 2-carene (L. nobilis EO); and myrtenyl acetate, 1,8-cineole and α-pinene (M. communis EO). L. nobilis EO showed higher antioxidant activity than M. communis EO in three complementary antioxidant tests. Although antimicrobial activity tests demonstrated the effectiveness of L. nobilis EO and the lack of bactericidal effect of M. communis EO, synergistic lethal effects were observed when combining each EO (0.2 µL mL(-1)) with mild heat (54°C for 10 min) or high hydrostatic pressure (175-400 MPa for 20 min). In contrast, combination of EOs with pulsed electric fields (30 kV cm(-1) for 25 pulses) showed no additional effects. This study shows the great potential of these EOs in combined treatments with mild heat and high hydrostatic pressure to obtain a higher inactivation of foodborne pathogens, which might help in the design of safe processes applied at low intensity. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. A study on the potential of insect protein and lipid as a food source

    Yi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Propositions

    Propositions belonging to the thesis, entitled:‘A study on the potential of insect protein and lipid as a food source’. Liya Yi

    Wageningen, 9 February 2015.High protein

  5. Assessment of Food Processing and Pharmaceutical Industrial Wastes as Potential Biosorbents: A Review

    El-Sayed, Hanan E. M.; El-Sayed, Mayyada M. H.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for the use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents in water/wastewater treatment applications. Conventional adsorbents as well as biosorbents from different natural and agricultural sources have been extensively studied and reviewed. However, there is a lack of reviews on biosorption utilizing industrial wastes, particularly those of food processing and pharmaceuticals. The current review evaluates the potential of these wastes as biosorbents for the removal of some ha...

  6. AllergenOnline: A peer-reviewed, curated allergen database to assess novel food proteins for potential cross-reactivity

    Goodman, Richard E.; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Ferreira, Fatima; Sampson, Hugh A.; van Ree, Ronald; Vieths, Stefan; Baumert, Joseph L.; Bohle, Barbara; Lalithambika, Sreedevi; Wise, John; Taylor, Steve L.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly regulators are demanding evaluation of potential allergenicity of foods prior to marketing. Primary risks are the transfer of allergens or potentially cross-reactive proteins into new foods. AllergenOnline was developed in 2005 as a peer-reviewed bioinformatics platform to evaluate

  7. Cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of food-borne nitriles in a liver in vitro model

    Kupke, Franziska; Herz, Corinna; Hanschen, Franziska S.; Platz, Stefanie; Odongo, Grace A.; Helmig, Simone; Bartolomé Rodríguez, María M.; Schreiner, Monika; Rohn, Sascha; Lamy, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Isothiocyanates are the most intensively studied breakdown products of glucosinolates from Brassica plants and well recognized for their pleiotropic effects against cancer but also for their genotoxic potential. However, knowledge about the bioactivity of glucosinolate-borne nitriles in foods is very poor. As determined by GC-MS, broccoli glucosinolates mainly degrade to nitriles as breakdown products. The cytotoxicity of nitriles in human HepG2 cells and primary murine hepatocytes was marginal as compared to isothiocyanates. Toxicity of nitriles was not enhanced in CYP2E1-overexpressing HepG2 cells. In contrast, the genotoxic potential of nitriles was found to be comparable to isothiocyanates. DNA damage was persistent over a certain time period and CYP2E1-overexpression further increased the genotoxic potential of the nitriles. Based on actual in vitro data, no indications are given that food-borne nitriles could be relevant for cancer prevention, but could pose a certain genotoxic risk under conditions relevant for food consumption. PMID:27883018

  8. Tests of potential functional barriers for laminated multilayer food packages. Part I: Low molecular weight permeants.

    Simal-Gándara, J; Sarria-Vidal, M; Koorevaar, A; Rijk, R

    2000-08-01

    The advent of the functional barrier concept in food packaging has brought with it a requirement for fast tests of permeation through potential barrier materials. In such tests it would be convenient for both foodstuffs and materials below the functional barrier (sub-barrier materials) to be represented by standard simulants. By means of inverse gas chromatography, liquid paraffin spiked with appropriate permeants was considered as a potential simulant of sub-barrier materials based on polypropylene (PP) or similar polyolefins. Experiments were performed to characterize the kinetics of the permeation of low molecular weight model permeants (octene, toluene and isopropanol) from liquid paraffin, through a surrogate potential functional barrier (25 microns-thick oriented PP) into the food stimulants olive oil and 3% (w/v) acetic acid. These permeation results were interpreted in terms of three permeation kinetic models regarding the solubility of a particular model permeant in the post-barrier medium (i.e. the food simulant). The results obtained justify the development and evaluation of liquid sub-barrier simulants that would allow flexible yet rigorous testing of new laminated multilayer packaging materials.

  9. Potential Sources for Lipid Soluble Food Colorants from Selected Malaysian Traditional Vegetables

    Rashidi Othman; Fatimah Azzahra Mohd Zaifuddin; Norazian Mohd Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Colour is one important characteristic to food products as it dictates consumers first perception on the foods flavour and quality. In the current food industry, most of the colorants used were derived from synthetic sources. However, due to negative health impacts of the synthetic colorants, the urgency to find natural colorants and impose it to food products is of great importance. In this study, a group of plant pigments which are potentially introduced as natural food colorants were quantified from 24 species of local traditional vegetables (ulam), characterized as neoxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthine, α-carotene and β-carotene by using HPLC. It was shown that Sauropus androgynous contained the highest amount of neoxanthin, violaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthine at 142.40±3.57, 28.06±0.65 and 0.07±0.00 mg/ g dry weight (DW), respectively. In contrast, highest content of lutein and α-carotene were observed in Centella asiatica at 16.53±0.97 and 2.14±0.12 mg/ g DW, accordingly. Meanwhile, Piper sarmentosum contained the highest zeaxanthin level (123.45±12.3 mg/ g DW) and Oenanthe javanica has the largest amount of β-carotene (3.09±0.06 mg/ g DW). The extracted yellow-to-red lipid soluble pigments can be further developed into commercial food colorant to replace the synthetic colorants in the market thus improving social awareness towards natural products as well as strengthening the national economy. (author)

  10. Environmental education on wood preservatives and preservative ...

    The development and use of wood preservatives in Nigeria should address not only the cost and demand functions but also the potential hazards in environmental equations. Forest products specialists are often asked about the perceived risks and environmental costs of treated wood products. Evidently, the civil society is ...

  11. Junk-food enhances conditioned food cup approach to a previously established food cue, but does not alter cue potentiated feeding; implications for the effects of palatable diets on incentive motivation.

    Derman, Rifka C; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2018-03-16

    Efforts to stem the global rise in obesity have been minimally effective, perhaps in part because our understanding of the psychological and behavioral drivers of obesity is limited. It is well established that stimuli that are paired with palatable foods can powerfully influence food-seeking and feeding behaviors. However, how consumption of sugary, fatty "junk-foods" affects these motivational responses to food cues is poorly understood. Here, we determined the effects of short- and long-term "junk-food" consumption on the expression of cue potentiated feeding and conditioned food cup approach to Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CS). Further, to determine the degree to which effects of "junk-food" were selective to Pavlovian motivational processes, we varied the predictive validity of the CS by including training groups conditioned with unique CS-US contingencies ranging from -1.0 to +1.0. "Junk-food" did not enhance cue potentiated feeding in any group, but expression of this potentiation effect varied with the CS-US contingency independent of diet. In contrast, "junk-food" consistently enhanced conditioned approach to the food cup; this effect was dependent on the previously established CS-US contingency. That is, consumption of "junk-food" following training enhanced approach to the food cup only in response to CSs with previously positive CS-US contingencies. This was accompanied by reduced motivation for the US itself. Together these data show that "junk-food" consumption selectively enhances incentive motivational responses to previously established food CSs, without altering cue potentiated feeding induced by these same CSs, and in the absence of enhanced motivation for food itself. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Urine Preservative

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  13. Potential impact on food safety and food security from persistent organic pollutants in top soil improvers on Mediterranean pasture

    Brambilla, G.; Abate, V.; Battacone, G.; De Filippis, S.P.; Esposito, M.; Esposito, V.; Miniero, R.

    2016-01-01

    The organic carbon of biosolids from civil wastewater treatment plants binds persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorodibenzo -dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin and non-dioxin -like polychlorobiphenyls (DL and NDL-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). The use of such biosolids, derived digestates and composts as top soil improvers (TSIs) may transfer POPs into the food chain. We evaluated the potential carry-over of main bioavailable congeners from amended soil-to-milk of extensive farmed sheep. Such estimates were compared with regulatory limits (food security) and human intakes (food safety). The prediction model was based on farming practices, flocks soil intake, POPs toxicokinetics, and dairy products intake in children, of the Mediterranean area. TSI contamination ranged between 0.20–113 ng WHO-TEQ/kg dry matter for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs (N = 56), 3.40–616 μg/kg for ∑_6 NDL-PCBs (N = 38), 0.06–17.2 and 0.12–22.3 μg/kg for BDE no. 47 and no. 99, 0.872–89.50 μg/kg for PFOS (N = 27). For a 360 g/head/day soil intake of a sheep with an average milk yield of 2.0 kg at 6.5% of fat percentage, estimated soil quality standards supporting milk safety and security were 0.75 and 4.0 ng WHO-TEQ/kg for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs, and 3.75 and 29.2 μg/kg for ∑_6 NDL-PCBs, respectively. The possibility to use low-contaminated TSIs to maximize agriculture benefits and if the case, to progressively mitigate highly contaminated soils is discussed. - Highlights: • Top soil improvers were characterized for selected POPs content, in Italy. • Grazing behaviour makes sheep sensitive to top soil contamination. • Environmental quality standards for grazing areas were modelled • The impact on Mediterranean sheep milk safety/security was evaluated. • Low contaminated TSIs support safe intake and compliance of dairy products.

  14. Potential impact on food safety and food security from persistent organic pollutants in top soil improvers on Mediterranean pasture

    Brambilla, G.; Abate, V. [Istituto Superiore di sanità, Veterinary Public Health Dept, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Battacone, G. [Università degli Studi di Sassari, Agricultural Science, Viale Italia, 39 07100 Sassari (Italy); De Filippis, S.P. [Istituto Superiore di sanità, Toxicological Chemistry Unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Esposito, M. [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno, Via Salute 2, 08055 Portici, (Neaples) (Italy); Esposito, V. [Agenzia Regionale Per la Protezione dell' Ambiente Regione Puglia, Via Anfiteatro 8, 74100 Taranto (Italy); Miniero, R. [Istituto Superiore di sanità, Toxicological Chemistry Unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2016-02-01

    The organic carbon of biosolids from civil wastewater treatment plants binds persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorodibenzo -dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin and non-dioxin -like polychlorobiphenyls (DL and NDL-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). The use of such biosolids, derived digestates and composts as top soil improvers (TSIs) may transfer POPs into the food chain. We evaluated the potential carry-over of main bioavailable congeners from amended soil-to-milk of extensive farmed sheep. Such estimates were compared with regulatory limits (food security) and human intakes (food safety). The prediction model was based on farming practices, flocks soil intake, POPs toxicokinetics, and dairy products intake in children, of the Mediterranean area. TSI contamination ranged between 0.20–113 ng WHO-TEQ/kg dry matter for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs (N = 56), 3.40–616 μg/kg for ∑{sub 6} NDL-PCBs (N = 38), 0.06–17.2 and 0.12–22.3 μg/kg for BDE no. 47 and no. 99, 0.872–89.50 μg/kg for PFOS (N = 27). For a 360 g/head/day soil intake of a sheep with an average milk yield of 2.0 kg at 6.5% of fat percentage, estimated soil quality standards supporting milk safety and security were 0.75 and 4.0 ng WHO-TEQ/kg for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs, and 3.75 and 29.2 μg/kg for ∑{sub 6} NDL-PCBs, respectively. The possibility to use low-contaminated TSIs to maximize agriculture benefits and if the case, to progressively mitigate highly contaminated soils is discussed. - Highlights: • Top soil improvers were characterized for selected POPs content, in Italy. • Grazing behaviour makes sheep sensitive to top soil contamination. • Environmental quality standards for grazing areas were modelled • The impact on Mediterranean sheep milk safety/security was evaluated. • Low contaminated TSIs support safe intake and compliance of dairy products.

  15. Time and temperature affect glycolysis in blood samples regardless of fluoride-based preservatives: a potential underestimation of diabetes.

    Stapleton, Mary; Daly, Niamh; O'Kelly, Ruth; Turner, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    Background The inhibition of glycolysis prior to glucose measurement is an important consideration when interpreting glucose tolerance tests. This is particularly important in gestational diabetes mellitus where prompt diagnosis and treatment is essential. A study was planned to investigate the effect of preservatives and temperature on glycolysis. Methods Blood samples for glucose were obtained from consented females. Lithium heparin and fluoride-EDTA samples transported rapidly in ice slurry to the laboratory were analysed for glucose concentration and then held either in ice slurry or at room temperature for varying time intervals. Paired fluoride-citrate samples were received at room temperature and held at room temperature, with analysis at similar time intervals. Results No significant difference was noted between mean glucose concentrations when comparing different sample types received in ice slurry. The mean glucose concentrations decreased significantly for both sets of samples when held at room temperature (0.4 mmol/L) and in ice slurry (0.2 mmol/L). A review of patient glucose tolerance tests reported in our hospital indicated that 17.8% exceeded the recommended diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus. It was predicted that if the results of fasting samples were revised to reflect the effect of glycolysis at room temperature, the adjusted diagnostic rate could increase to 35.3%. Conclusion Preanalytical handling of blood samples for glucose analysis is vital. Fluoride-EDTA is an imperfect antiglycolytic, even when the samples are transported and analysed rapidly provides such optimal conditions. The use of fluoride-citrate tubes may offer a viable alternative in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.

  16. Predictive potential of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF).

    Luedike, Peter; Alatzides, Georgios; Papathanasiou, Maria; Heisler, Martin; Pohl, Julia; Lehmann, Nils; Rassaf, Tienush

    2018-05-04

    Prognostication in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is challenging and novel biomarkers are urgently needed. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a crucial role in cardiovascular and various inflammatory diseases. Whether MIF is involved in HFpEF is unknown. Sixty-two patients with HFpEF were enrolled and followed up for 180 days. MIF plasma levels as well as natriuretic peptide (NP) levels were assessed. High MIF levels significantly predicted the combined end-point of all-cause death or hospitalization at 180 days in the univariate analysis (HR 2.41, 95% CI 1.12-5.19, p = 0.025) and after adjustment for relevant covariates in a Cox proportional hazard regression model (HR 2.35, 95% CI 1.05-5.27, p = 0.0374). Furthermore, MIF levels above the median were associated with higher pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) as assessed by echocardiography (PASP 31 mmHg vs 48 mmHg in the low- and high-MIF group, respectively, p = 0.017). NPs significantly correlated with MIF in HFpEF patients (BNP p = 0.011; r = 0.32; NT-proBNP p = 0.027; r = 0.28). MIF was associated with clinical outcomes and might be involved in the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension in patients with HFpEF. These first data on MIF in HFpEF should stimulate further research to elucidate the role of this cytokine in heart failure. Trial registration NCT03232671.

  17. Intraoperative facial motor evoked potentials monitoring with transcranial electrical stimulation for preservation of facial nerve function in patients with large acoustic neuroma

    LIU Bai-yun; TIAN Yong-ji; LIU Wen; LIU Shu-ling; QIAO Hui; ZHANG Jun-ting; JIA Gui-jun

    2007-01-01

    Background Although various monitoring techniques have been used routinely in the treatment of the lesions in the skull base, iatrogenic facial paresis or paralysis remains a significant clinical problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intraoperative facial motor evoked potentials monitoring with transcranial electrical stimulation on preservation of facial nerve function.Method From January to November 2005, 19 patients with large acoustic neuroma were treated using intraoperative facial motor evoked potentials monitoring with transcranial electrical stimulation (TCEMEP) for preservation of facial nerve function. The relationship between the decrease of MEP amplitude after tumor removal and the postoperative function of the facial nerve was analyzed.Results MEP amplitude decreased more than 75% in 11 patients, of which 6 presented significant facial paralysis (H-B grade 3), and 5 had mild facial paralysis (H-B grade 2). In the other 8 patients, whose MEP amplitude decreased less than 75%, 1 experienced significant facial paralysis, 5 had mild facial paralysis, and 2 were normal.Conclusions Intraoperative TCEMEP can be used to predict postoperative function of the facial nerve. The decreased MEP amplitude above 75 % is an alarm point for possible severe facial paralysis.

  18. Involving children in cooking activities: A potential strategy for directing food choices toward novel foods containing vegetables.

    Allirot, Xavier; da Quinta, Noelia; Chokupermal, Krithika; Urdaneta, Elena

    2016-08-01

    Involving children in cooking has been suggested as a strategy to improve dietary habits in childhood. Interventions in schools including cooking, gardening and tasting activities have showed promising results. Several cross-sectional surveys demonstrated associations between frequency of involvement in food preparation and better diet quality. However, experimental studies confirming the beneficial effect of cooking on food choices in children are missing from the literature. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of involving children in cooking on their willingness to taste novel foods, food intake, liking and hunger. A between-subject experiment was conducted with 137 children between 7 and 11 years old. 69 children (COOK group) participated in the preparation of three unfamiliar foods containing vegetables: apple/beetroot juice, zucchini tortilla sandwich and spinach cookies. 68 children (CONTROL group) participated, instead, in a creative workshop. Afterwards, the children were invited to choose, for an afternoon snack, between three familiar vs. unfamiliar foods: orange vs. apple/beetroot juice, potato vs. zucchini tortilla sandwich and chocolate vs. spinach cookie. The mean number of unfamiliar foods chosen per child was higher in the COOK vs. CONTROL group (P = 0.037). The overall willingness to taste the unfamiliar foods was also higher in the COOK group (P = 0.011). The liking for the whole afternoon snack (P = 0.034), for 2 of 3 unfamiliar foods and for 1 of 3 familiar foods was higher in the COOK group (P food intake and hunger/satiety scores. This study demonstrated that involving children in cooking can increase their willingness to taste novel foods and direct food choices towards foods containing vegetables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Food preservation by irradiation. V.- Economic study of the spanish potatoe market and preservation feasibility by irradiation; Conservacion de alimentos por irradiacion. V.- Estudio economico del mercado de patatas en Espana y posibilidades de su conservacion por irradiacion

    Rivas, A; Garcia de Mateos, A; Ortin Sune, N; Val Cob, M del

    1967-07-01

    A study of the spanish potatoe market is carried o nt in order to know the possibilities of preservation by irradiation. The study is initiated with a recompilation of statistical data on the production and consumption of potatoes by regions and seasons. Last years losses are then estimated. (Author) 9 refs.

  20. Potential effect of physical activity calorie equivalent labeling on parent fast food decisions.

    Viera, Anthony J; Antonelli, Ray

    2015-02-01

    Menu labels displaying food energy in physical activity calorie equivalents (PACE) is a possible strategy to encourage ordering meals with fewer calories and promoting physical activity. Potential effects of such labeling for children have never been examined. We conducted a national survey of 1000 parents randomized to 1 of 4 fast food menus: no labels, calories only, calories plus minutes, or calories plus miles needed to walk to burn the calories. Respondents were asked to imagine they were in a fast food restaurant and place an order for their child. At the survey's conclusion, all respondents were shown a calorie-only label and both PACE labels and asked to rate the likelihood each label would influence them to encourage their child to exercise. We excluded respondents whose meals totaled 0 calories or >4000 calories, leaving 823 parents in the analysis. The mean age of the child for whom the meal was "ordered" was 9.5 years. Parents whose menus displayed no label ordered an average of 1294 calories, whereas those shown calories only, calories plus minutes, or calories plus miles ordered 1066, 1060, and 1099 calories, respectively (P = .0001). Only 20% of parents reported that calories-only labeling would be "very likely" to prompt them to encourage their children to exercise versus 38% for calories plus minutes (P calories plus miles (P food items to order for their children and encourage them to get their children to exercise. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Arsenic and lead in foods: a potential threat to human health in Bangladesh.

    Islam, Md Saiful; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Islam, Kazi Nazrul; Ibrahim, Md; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2014-01-01

    The non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk of arsenic and lead to adults and children via daily dietary intake of food composites in Bangladesh was estimated. The target hazard quotients (THQs), hazard index (HI) and target carcinogenic risk (TR) were calculated to evaluate the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risk from arsenic and lead. Most of the individual food composites contain a considerable amount of arsenic and lead. The highest mean concentrations of arsenic were found in cereals (0.254 mg kg⁻¹ fw) and vegetables (0.250 mg kg⁻¹ fw), and lead in vegetables (0.714 mg kg⁻¹ fw) and fish (0.326 mg kg⁻¹ fw). The results showed the highest THQs of arsenic in cereals and lead in vegetables for both adults and children which exceeded the safe limit (> 1) indicating that cereals and vegetables are the main food items contributing to the potential health risk. The estimated TR from ingesting dietary arsenic and lead from most of the foods exceeded 10⁻⁶, indicating carcinogenic risks for all adult people of the study area.

  2. Fluorescence from the maillard reaction and its potential applications in food science.

    Matiacevich, Silvia B; Santagapita, Patricio R; Buera, M Pilar

    2005-01-01

    The chemistry of the Maillard reaction involves a complex set of steps, and its interpretation represents a challenge in basic and applied aspects of Food Science. Fluorescent compounds have been recognized as important early markers of the reaction in food products since 1942. However, the recent advances in the characterization of fluorophores' development were observed in biological and biomedical areas. The in vivo non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins produces biological effects, promoting health deterioration. The characteristic fluorescence of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) is similar to that of Maillard food products and represents an indicator of the level of AGE-modified proteins, but the structure of the fluorescent groups is, typically, unknown. Application of fluorescence measurement is considered a potential tool for addressing key problems of food deterioration as an early marker or index of the damage of biomolecules. Fluorophores may be precursors of the brown pigments and/or end products. A general scheme of the Maillard reaction is proposed in this article, incorporating the pool concept. A correct interpretation of the effect of environmental and compositional conditions and their influences on the reaction kinetics may help to define the meaning of fluorescence development for each particular system.

  3. Food animal transport: a potential source of community exposures to health hazards from industrial farming (CAFOs).

    Rule, Ana M; Evans, Sean L; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2008-01-01

    Use of antimicrobial feed additives in food animal production is associated with selection for drug resistance in bacterial pathogens, which can then be released into the environment through occupational exposures, high volume ventilation of animal houses, and land application of animal wastes. We tested the hypothesis that current methods of transporting food animals from farms to slaughterhouses may result in pathogen releases and potential exposures of persons in vehicles traveling on the same road. Air and surface samples were taken from cars driving behind poultry trucks for 17 miles. Air conditioners and fans were turned off and windows fully opened. Background and blank samples were used for quality control. Samples were analyzed for susceptible and drug-resistant strains. Results indicate an increase in the number of total aerobic bacteria including both susceptible and drug-resistant enterococci isolated from air and surface samples, and suggest that food animal transport in open crates introduces a novel route of exposure to harmful microorganisms and may disseminate these pathogens into the general environment. These findings support the need for further exposure characterization, and attention to improving methods of food animal transport, especially in highly trafficked regions of high density farming such as the Delmarva Peninsula.

  4. Potential of Phytase-Mediated Iron Release from Cereal-Based Foods: A Quantitative View

    Nielsen, Anne V. F.; Tetens, Inge; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    The major part of iron present in plant foods such as cereals is largely unavailable for direct absorption in humans due to complexation with the negatively charged phosphate groups of phytate (myo-inositol (1,2,3,4,5,6)-hexakisphosphate). Human biology has not evolved an efficient mechanism to naturally release iron from iron phytate complexes. This narrative review will evaluate the quantitative significance of phytase-catalysed iron release from cereal foods. In vivo studies have shown how addition of microbially derived phytases to cereal-based foods has produced increased iron absorption via enzyme-catalysed dephosphorylation of phytate, indicating the potential of this strategy for preventing and treating iron deficiency anaemia. Despite the immense promise of this strategy and the prevalence of iron deficiency worldwide, the number of human studies elucidating the significance of phytase-mediated improvements in iron absorption and ultimately in iron status in particularly vulnerable groups is still low. A more detailed understanding of (1) the uptake mechanism for iron released from partially dephosphorylated phytate chelates, (2) the affinity of microbially derived phytases towards insoluble iron phytate complexes, and (3) the extent of phytate dephosphorylation required for iron release from inositol phosphates is warranted. Phytase-mediated iron release can improve iron absorption from plant foods. There is a need for development of innovative strategies to obtain better effects. PMID:23917170

  5. Review of comparative LCAs of food waste management systems – Current status and potential improvements

    Bernstad, A.; Cour Jansen, J. la

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► GHG-emissions from different treatment alternatives vary largely in 25 reviewed comparative LCAs of bio-waste management. ► System-boundary settings often vary largely in reviewed studies. ► Existing LCA guidelines give varying recommendations in relation to several key issues. - Abstract: Twenty-five comparative cycle assessments (LCAs) addressing food waste treatment were reviewed, including the treatment alternatives landfill, thermal treatment, compost (small and large scale) and anaerobic digestion. The global warming potential related to these treatment alternatives varies largely amongst the studies. Large differences in relation to setting of system boundaries, methodological choices and variations in used input data were seen between the studies. Also, a number of internal contradictions were identified, many times resulting in biased comparisons between alternatives. Thus, noticed differences in global warming potential are not found to be a result of actual differences in the environmental impacts from studied systems, but rather to differences in the performance of the study. A number of key issues with high impact on the overall global warming potential from different treatment alternatives for food waste were identified through the use of one-way sensitivity analyses in relation to a previously performed LCA of food waste management. Assumptions related to characteristics in treated waste, losses and emissions of carbon, nutrients and other compounds during the collection, storage and pretreatment, potential energy recovery through combustion, emissions from composting, emissions from storage and land use of bio-fertilizers and chemical fertilizers and eco-profiles of substituted goods were all identified as highly relevant for the outcomes of this type of comparisons. As the use of LCA in this area is likely to increase in coming years, it is highly relevant to establish more detailed guidelines within this field in order to

  6. Review of comparative LCAs of food waste management systems - Current status and potential improvements

    Bernstad, A., E-mail: anna.bernstad@chemeng.lth.se [Water and Environmental Engineering at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, Chemical Centre, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Cour Jansen, J. la [Water and Environmental Engineering at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, Chemical Centre, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHG-emissions from different treatment alternatives vary largely in 25 reviewed comparative LCAs of bio-waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System-boundary settings often vary largely in reviewed studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Existing LCA guidelines give varying recommendations in relation to several key issues. - Abstract: Twenty-five comparative cycle assessments (LCAs) addressing food waste treatment were reviewed, including the treatment alternatives landfill, thermal treatment, compost (small and large scale) and anaerobic digestion. The global warming potential related to these treatment alternatives varies largely amongst the studies. Large differences in relation to setting of system boundaries, methodological choices and variations in used input data were seen between the studies. Also, a number of internal contradictions were identified, many times resulting in biased comparisons between alternatives. Thus, noticed differences in global warming potential are not found to be a result of actual differences in the environmental impacts from studied systems, but rather to differences in the performance of the study. A number of key issues with high impact on the overall global warming potential from different treatment alternatives for food waste were identified through the use of one-way sensitivity analyses in relation to a previously performed LCA of food waste management. Assumptions related to characteristics in treated waste, losses and emissions of carbon, nutrients and other compounds during the collection, storage and pretreatment, potential energy recovery through combustion, emissions from composting, emissions from storage and land use of bio-fertilizers and chemical fertilizers and eco-profiles of substituted goods were all identified as highly relevant for the outcomes of this type of comparisons. As the use of LCA in this area is likely to increase in coming years, it is highly

  7. Food irradiation: chemistry and applications

    Thakur, B.R.; Singh, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Food irradiation is one of the most extensively and thoroughly studied methods of food preservation. Despite voluminous data on safety and wholesomeness of irradiated foods, food irradiation is still a “process in waiting.” Although some countries are allowing the use of irradiation technology on certain foods, its full potential is not recognized. Only 37 countries worldwide permit the use of this technology. If used to its full potential, food irradiation can save millions of human lives being lost annually due to food‐borne diseases or starvation and can add billions of dollars to the world economy. This paper briefly reviews the history and chemistry of food irradiation along with its main applications, impediments to its adoption, and its role in improving food availability and health situation, particularly in developing countries of the world

  8. Plant and Fungal Food Components with Potential Activity on the Development of Microbial Oral Diseases

    Maria Daglia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the content in macronutrients, free sugars, polyphenols, and inorganic ions, known to exert any positive or negative action on microbial oral disease such as caries and gingivitis, of seven food/beverages (red chicory, mushroom, raspberry, green and black tea, cranberry juice, dark beer. Tea leaves resulted the richest material in all the detected ions, anyway tea beverages resulted the richest just in fluoride. The highest content in zinc was in chicory, raspberry and mushroom. Raspberry is the richest food in strontium and boron, beer in selenium, raspberry and mushroom in copper. Beer, cranberry juice and, especially green and black tea are very rich in polyphenols, confirming these beverages as important sources of such healthy substances. The fractionation, carried out on the basis of the molecular mass (MM, of the water soluble components occurring in raspberry, chicory, and mushroom extracts (which in microbiological assays revealed the highest potential action against oral pathogens, showed that both the high and low MM fractions are active, with the low MM fractions displaying the highest potential action for all the fractionated extracts. Our findings show that more compounds that can play a different active role occur in these foods.

  9. Combination irradiation treatments for food safety and phytosanitary uses

    Combination of irradiation treatment with other preservation techniques is of potential importance in enhancing the effectiveness and reducing the energy or dose requirement for destroying food borne illness and spoilage organisms while retaining or improving product quality. Phytosanitary irradiati...

  10. Assessing potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in selected vegetables and food crops.

    Islam, Ejaz ul; Yang, Xiao-e; He, Zhen-li; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead, chromium and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. Their presence in the atmosphere, soil and water, even in traces can cause serious problems to all organisms, and heavy metal bioaccumulation in the food chain especially can be highly dangerous to human health. Heavy metals enter the human body mainly through two routes namely: inhalation and ingestion, ingestion being the main route of exposure to these elements in human population. Heavy metals intake by human populations through food chain has been reported in many countries. Soil threshold for heavy metal toxicity is an important factor affecting soil environmental capacity of heavy metal and determines heavy metal cumulative loading limits. For soil-plant system, heavy metal toxicity threshold is the highest permissible content in the soil (total or bioavailable concentration) that does not pose any phytotoxic effects or heavy metals in the edible parts of the crops does not exceed food hygiene standards. Factors affecting the thresholds of dietary toxicity of heavy metal in soil-crop system include: soil type which includes soil pH, organic matter content, clay mineral and other soil chemical and biochemical properties; and crop species or cultivars regulated by genetic basis for heavy metal transport and accumulation in plants. In addition, the interactions of soil-plant root-microbes play important roles in regulating heavy metal movement from soil to the edible parts of crops. Agronomic practices such as fertilizer and water managements as well as crop rotation system can affect bioavailability and crop accumulation of heavy metals, thus influencing the thresholds for assessing dietary toxicity of heavy metals in the food chain. This paper reviews the phytotoxic effects and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vegetables and food crops and assesses soil heavy metal thresholds for potential dietary

  11. Tests of potential functional barriers for laminated multilayer food packages. Part II: Medium molecular weight permeants.

    Simal-Gándara, J; Sarria-Vidal, M; Rijk, R

    2000-09-01

    Experiments were performed to characterize the kinetics of the permeation of different medium molecular weight model permeants: bisphenol A, warfarin and anthracene, from liquid paraffin, through a surrogate potential functional barrier (25 microns-thick orientated polypropylene--OPP) into the food simulants olive oil and 3% (w/v) acetic acid. The characterization of permeation kinetics generally observed the permeation models previously reported to explain the experimental permeation results obtained for a low molecular weight group of model permeants. In general, the model permeants exhibited behaviour consistent with their relative molecular weights with respect to (a) the time taken to attain steady-state permeation into the food simulant in which they were more soluble, (b) their subsequent steady-state permeation rates, and (c) their partition between liquid paraffin and the OPP membrane.

  12. Potential Applications of Immobilized β-Galactosidase in Food Processing Industries

    Parmjit S. Panesar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme β-galactosidase can be obtained from a wide variety of sources such as microorganisms, plants, and animals. The use of β-galactosidase for the hydrolysis of lactose in milk and whey is one of the promising enzymatic applications in food and dairy processing industries. The enzyme can be used in either soluble or immobilized forms but the soluble enzyme can be used only for batch processes and the immobilized form has the advantage of being used in batch wise as well as in continuous operation. Immobilization has been found to be convenient method to make enzyme thermostable and to prevent the loss of enzyme activity. This review has been focused on the different types of techniques used for the immobilization of β-galactosidase and its potential applications in food industry.

  13. Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases

    Lordan, Sinéad; Ross, R. Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases. PMID:21747748

  14. In-flight food delivery and waste collection service: the passengers’ perspective and potential improvement

    Romli, F. I.; Rahman, K. Abdul; Ishak, F. D.

    2016-10-01

    Increased competition in the commercial air transportation industry has made service quality of the airlines as one of the key competitive measures to attract passengers against their rivals. In-flight services, particularly food delivery and waste collection, have a notable impact on perception of the overall airline's service quality because they are directly and interactively provided to passengers during flight. An online public survey is conducted to explore general passengers' perception of current in-flight food delivery and waste collection services, and to identify potential rooms for improvement. The obtained survey results indicate that in-flight service does have an effect on passengers' choice of airlines. Several weaknesses of the current service method and possible improvements have been established from the collected responses.

  15. Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases

    Catherine Stanton

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases.

  16. ORGANIC FOODfood quality and potential health effects. A review of current knowledge, and a discussion of uncertainties

    Mie, Axel; Wivstad, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we try to approach the question “Is organic food healthier than conventional food?” from a scientific perspective. We can conclude that science does not provide a clear answer to this question. A small number of animal studies and epidemiological studies on health effects from the consumption of organic vs. conventional feed/food have been performed. These studies indicate that the production system of the food has some influence on the immune system of the consuming animal or...

  17. Potential Use of Gamma-Irradiated Ethnic Ready-to-Eat Foods to Improve the Nutritional Status of Landslide Victims.

    Koenari, Zubaidah Irawati; Siagian, Carmen M; Simanungkalit, Bona; Nilatany, Asti; Pratama, Indra Mustika; Lasmawati, Deudeu; Nurcahya, Cecep M

    2016-07-26

    The safety and high quality of ethnic ready-to-eat foods as a source of nourishment and food supplies chain to the remote areas become particularly important. Consuming healthy and balanced nutritional foods means eating better quality foods in proper quantities. Such foods can be developed through a preservation technique by using ionizing radiation. Although implementation of the technology for certain foodstuffs has been implemented in some countries, application of the process to a complete set of meals for selected target groups is still very limited. The various recipes of ready-to-eat food rations based on soy bean, fish, red meat, and poultry, were first developed in collaboration with medium-sized food enterprises prior to quality assessments. The products were individually packed and sealed either in a laminate pouch of Nylon-PE or polyester-aluminum foil-LLDPE and exposed to ionizing radiation at 8 kGy or 45 kGy, respectively, under cryogenic conditions throughout the process, to protect the essential dietary nutrients against free radical attack, and to reduce the undesirable chemical migration from packing material to the food and oxidative changes within the food matrix containing fats. The irradiated foods were stored at room temperature without impairing the overall quality. The high quality of irradiated ethnic foods, i.e., bacem tofu, pepes gold fish, rendang beef, semur beef, and semur chicken, have been administered through an intervention study on adult groups as landslide victims in Cikadu, Pemalang for 30 days continuously at breakfast time: 7.00-9.00 A.M. The results showed that body mass index (BMI) (kg/m²), skin fold caliper (SFC) (mm), hemoglobin (g/dL), and total lymphocyte counts (%) of the targeted respondents did not tend to increase (at p ≥ 0.05) after consuming the irradiated foods, while the albumin content (g/dL) showed a significant increase in blood serum (at p ≤ 0.05). Sensory attributes, such as general appearance

  18. Potential Use of Gamma-Irradiated Ethnic Ready-to-Eat Foods to Improve the Nutritional Status of Landslide Victims

    Zubaidah Irawati Koenari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The safety and high quality of ethnic ready-to-eat foods as a source of nourishment and food supplies chain to the remote areas become particularly important. Consuming healthy and balanced nutritional foods means eating better quality foods in proper quantities. Such foods can be developed through a preservation technique by using ionizing radiation. Although implementation of the technology for certain foodstuffs has been implemented in some countries, application of the process to a complete set of meals for selected target groups is still very limited. The various recipes of ready-to-eat food rations based on soy bean, fish, red meat, and poultry, were first developed in collaboration with medium-sized food enterprises prior to quality assessments. The products were individually packed and sealed either in a laminate pouch of Nylon-PE or polyester-aluminum foil-LLDPE and exposed to ionizing radiation at 8 kGy or 45 kGy, respectively, under cryogenic conditions throughout the process, to protect the essential dietary nutrients against free radical attack, and to reduce the undesirable chemical migration from packing material to the food and oxidative changes within the food matrix containing fats. The irradiated foods were stored at room temperature without impairing the overall quality. The high quality of irradiated ethnic foods, i.e., bacem tofu, pepes gold fish, rendang beef, semur beef, and semur chicken, have been administered through an intervention study on adult groups as landslide victims in Cikadu, Pemalang for 30 days continuously at breakfast time: 7.00–9.00 A.M. The results showed that body mass index (BMI (kg/m2, skin fold caliper (SFC (mm, hemoglobin (g/dL, and total lymphocyte counts (% of the targeted respondents did not tend to increase (at p ≥ 0.05 after consuming the irradiated foods, while the albumin content (g/dL showed a significant increase in blood serum (at p ≤ 0.05. Sensory attributes, such as general

  19. Changes in Arable Land Demand for Food in India and China: A Potential Threat to Food Security

    Reshmita Nath

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available India and China are two similar developing countries with huge populations, rapid economic growth and limited natural resources, therefore facing the massive pressure of ensuring food security. In this paper, we will discuss the food security situations in these two countries by studying the historical changes of food supply-demand balance with the concept of agricultural land requirements for food (LRF from 1963–2009. LRF of a country is a function of population, per capita consumption/diet, cropping yield and cropping intensity. We have attempted to discuss and compare our results in a framework which links consumption of different groups of food items to diet patterns; then, to the total land requirement for food in a scenario when population is growing rapidly and diet diversification and urbanization due to economic reform impose excessive pressure on food security of both countries. We also elaborate on the role of technology dissemination and critically analyze the achievements and drawbacks of government policies to ensure food self-sufficiency and food security of nations. Our results show that the total LRF increases approximately by 42% and 40%, whereas per capita LRF decreases significantly by about 48% and 30% from 1963–2009, for India and China, respectively. Furthermore, our studies reveal that population growth dominates most of the increase in total LRF for India; whereas diet pattern change induced by income growth drives the major increase in LRF for China. Therefore, sustainable management of agricultural land resource is an urgent need both for India and China as there will be demand for more food to meet the diet requirement for the entire population. We also demonstrate the role of India and China in future global food security programs and the challenges to implement the new land reform policies domestically.

  20. Meeting the global food demand of the future by engineering crop photosynthesis and yield potential.

    Long, Stephen P; Marshall-Colon, Amy; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2015-03-26

    Increase in demand for our primary foodstuffs is outstripping increase in yields, an expanding gap that indicates large potential food shortages by mid-century. This comes at a time when yield improvements are slowing or stagnating as the approaches of the Green Revolution reach their biological limits. Photosynthesis, which has been improved little in crops and falls far short of its biological limit, emerges as the key remaining route to increase the genetic yield potential of our major crops. Thus, there is a timely need to accelerate our understanding of the photosynthetic process in crops to allow informed and guided improvements via in-silico-assisted genetic engineering. Potential and emerging approaches to improving crop photosynthetic efficiency are discussed, and the new tools needed to realize these changes are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sugar and hexokinase suppress expression of PIP aquaporins and reduce leaf hydraulics that preserves leaf water potential.

    Kelly, Gilor; Sade, Nir; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Lerner, Stephen; Shatil-Cohen, Arava; Yeselson, Yelena; Egbaria, Aiman; Kottapalli, Jayaram; Schaffer, Arthur A; Moshelion, Menachem; Granot, David

    2017-07-01

    Sugars affect central aspects of plant physiology, including photosynthesis, stomatal behavior and the loss of water through the stomata. Yet, the potential effects of sugars on plant aquaporins (AQPs) and water conductance have not been examined. We used database and transcriptional analyses, as well as cellular and whole-plant functional techniques to examine the link between sugar-related genes and AQPs. Database analyses revealed a high level of correlation between the expression of AQPs and that of sugar-related genes, including the Arabidopsis hexokinases 1 (AtHXK1). Increased expression of AtHXK1, as well as the addition of its primary substrate, glucose (Glc), repressed the expression of 10 AQPs from the plasma membrane-intrinsic proteins (PIP) subfamily (PIP-AQPs) and induced the expression of two stress-related PIP-AQPs. The osmotic water permeability of mesophyll protoplasts of AtHXK1-expressing plants and the leaf hydraulic conductance of those plants were significantly reduced, in line with the decreased expression of PIP-AQPs. Conversely, hxk1 mutants demonstrated a higher level of hydraulic conductance, with increased water potential in their leaves. In addition, the presence of Glc reduced leaf water potential, as compared with an osmotic control, indicating that Glc reduces the movement of water from the xylem into the mesophyll. The production of sugars entails a significant loss of water and these results suggest that sugars and AtHXK1 affect the expression of AQP genes and reduce leaf water conductance, to coordinate sugar levels with the loss of water through transpiration. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Preservation of differentiation and clonogenic potential of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during lyophilization and ambient storage.

    Buchanan, Sandhya S; Pyatt, David W; Carpenter, John F

    2010-09-01

    Progenitor cell therapies show great promise, but their potential for clinical applications requires improved storage and transportation. Desiccated cells stored at ambient temperature would provide economic and practical advantages over approaches employing cell freezing and subzero temperature storage. The objectives of this study were to assess a method for loading the stabilizing sugar, trehalose, into hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HPC) and to evaluate the effects of subsequent freeze-drying and storage at ambient temperature on differentiation and clonogenic potential. HPC were isolated from human umbilical cord blood and loaded with trehalose using an endogenous cell surface receptor, termed P2Z. Solution containing trehalose-loaded HPC was placed into vials, which were transferred to a tray freeze-dryer and removed during each step of the freeze-drying process to assess differentiation and clonogenic potential. Control groups for these experiments were freshly isolated HPC. Control cells formed 1450+/-230 CFU-GM, 430+/-140 BFU-E, and 50+/-40 CFU-GEMM per 50 microL. Compared to the values for the control cells, there was no statistical difference observed for cells removed at the end of the freezing step or at the end of primary drying. There was a gradual decrease in the number of CFU-GM and BFU-E for cells removed at different temperatures during secondary drying; however, there were no significant differences in the number of CFU-GEMM. To determine storage stability of lyophilized HPC, cells were stored for 4 weeks at 25 degrees C in the dark. Cells reconstituted immediately after lyophilization produced 580+/-90 CFU-GM ( approximately 40%, relative to unprocessed controls pGM (approximately 35%, relative to unprocessed controls, p<0.0001), 112+/-68 BFU-E (approximately 26%, p<0.0001), and 36+/-17 CFU-GEMM ( approximately 82%, p = 0.2164) These studies are the first to document high level retention of CFU-GEMM following lyophilization and

  3. Preservation of differentiation and clonogenic potential of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during lyophilization and ambient storage.

    Sandhya S Buchanan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Progenitor cell therapies show great promise, but their potential for clinical applications requires improved storage and transportation. Desiccated cells stored at ambient temperature would provide economic and practical advantages over approaches employing cell freezing and subzero temperature storage. The objectives of this study were to assess a method for loading the stabilizing sugar, trehalose, into hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HPC and to evaluate the effects of subsequent freeze-drying and storage at ambient temperature on differentiation and clonogenic potential. HPC were isolated from human umbilical cord blood and loaded with trehalose using an endogenous cell surface receptor, termed P2Z. Solution containing trehalose-loaded HPC was placed into vials, which were transferred to a tray freeze-dryer and removed during each step of the freeze-drying process to assess differentiation and clonogenic potential. Control groups for these experiments were freshly isolated HPC. Control cells formed 1450+/-230 CFU-GM, 430+/-140 BFU-E, and 50+/-40 CFU-GEMM per 50 microL. Compared to the values for the control cells, there was no statistical difference observed for cells removed at the end of the freezing step or at the end of primary drying. There was a gradual decrease in the number of CFU-GM and BFU-E for cells removed at different temperatures during secondary drying; however, there were no significant differences in the number of CFU-GEMM. To determine storage stability of lyophilized HPC, cells were stored for 4 weeks at 25 degrees C in the dark. Cells reconstituted immediately after lyophilization produced 580+/-90 CFU-GM ( approximately 40%, relative to unprocessed controls p<0.0001, 170+/-70 BFU-E (approximately 40%, p<0.0001, and 41+/-22 CFU-GEMM (approximately 82%, p = 0.4171, and cells reconstituted after 28 days at room temperature produced 513+/-170 CFU-GM (approximately 35%, relative to unprocessed controls, p<0

  4. Emittance preservation

    Kain, V; Arduini, G; Goddard, B; Holzer, B J; Jowett, J M; Meddahi, M; Mertens, T; Roncarolo, F; Schaumann, M; Versteegen, R; Wenninger, J [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Emittance measurements during the LHC proton run 2011 indicated a blow-up of 20 % to 30 % from LHC injection to collisions. This presentation will show the emittance preservation throughout the different parts of the LHC cycle and discuss the current limitations on emittance determination. An overview of emittance preservation through the injector complex as function of bunch intensity will also be given. Possible sources for the observed blow-up and required tests in 2012 will be presented. Possible improvements of emittance diagnostics and analysis tools for 2012 will be shown.

  5. The potential role of taxes and subsidies on food in the prevention of obesity in Europe.

    González-Zapata, Laura Inés; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Millstone, Erik; Clemente-Gómez, Vicente; Holdsworth, Michelle; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocio; Lobstein, Tim; Sarri, Katerina; De Marchi, Bruna; Horvath, Katalin Z

    2010-08-01

    Obesity implies costs not only for the individual but also for society. The authors explore the opinions of stakeholders on the potential of taxes or subsidies, as measures for tackling obesity in Europe. Structured interviews were conducted using Multicriteria Mapping, a computer-based, decision-support tool, with 189 interviewees drawn from 21 different stakeholder categories across nine members of the EU interviews, to appraise 20 predefined policy options aimed at reducing obesity, including 'taxing obesity-promoting foods' and 'subsidising healthy foods.' A four-step approach involved selecting options, defining criteria, scoring options quantitatively and weighting criteria to provide overall rankings of options. Interviews were recorded and transcribed to yield qualitative data. Compared with other policy options appraised, taxation and subsidies were not favourably received, mainly because they were considered difficult to implement. Overall, trade unions rated both options more favourably than all other stakeholder groups. As anticipated, both options received their lowest scores from representatives of the farming, food processing and advertising industries. Nutritional/obesity advisory experts and public sector caterers gave the most positive ratings to subsidies overall. Along with public health professionals, large commercial retailers were most in favour of taxation. Taxation and subsidies were poorly appraised compared with other policy measures, with stakeholders expressing reservations mainly focussed on the practicalities and cost of introducing such measures. Although applying taxes/subsidies could be useful to combat obesity, the study suggests that most stakeholders still need to be convinced of their viability and acceptability when compared with other measures.

  6. Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria with Potential to Design Natural Biofunctional Health-Promoting Dairy Foods.

    Linares, Daniel M; Gómez, Carolina; Renes, Erica; Fresno, José M; Tornadijo, María E; Ross, R P; Stanton, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Consumer interest in healthy lifestyle and health-promoting natural products is a major driving force for the increasing global demand of biofunctional dairy foods. A number of commercial sources sell synthetic formulations of bioactive substances for use as dietary supplements. However, the bioactive-enrichment of health-oriented foods by naturally occurring microorganisms during dairy fermentation is in increased demand. While participating in milk fermentation, lactic acid bacteria can be exploited in situ as microbial sources for naturally enriching dairy products with a broad range of bioactive components that may cover different health aspects. Several of these bioactive metabolites are industrially and economically important, as they are claimed to exert diverse health-promoting activities on the consumer, such as anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic, anti-oxidative, immune-modulatory, anti-cholesterolemic, or microbiome modulation. This review aims at discussing the potential of these health-supporting bacteria as starter or adjunct cultures for the elaboration of dairy foods with a broad spectrum of new functional properties and added value.

  7. Glyphosate: environmental contamination, toxicity and potential risks to human health via food contamination.

    Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Ogbourne, Steven M

    2016-10-01

    Glyphosate has been the most widely used herbicide during the past three decades. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classifies glyphosate as 'practically non-toxic and not an irritant' under the acute toxicity classification system. This classification is based primarily on toxicity data and due to its unique mode of action via a biochemical pathway that only exists in a small number of organisms that utilise the shikimic acid pathway to produce amino acids, most of which are green plants. This classification is supported by the majority of scientific literature on the toxic effects of glyphosate. However, in 2005, the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) reported that glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), are of potential toxicological concern, mainly as a result of accumulation of residues in the food chain. The FAO further states that the dietary risk of glyphosate and AMPA is unlikely if the maximum daily intake of 1 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) is not exceeded. Research has now established that glyphosate can persist in the environment, and therefore, assessments of the health risks associated with glyphosate are more complicated than suggested by acute toxicity data that relate primarily to accidental high-rate exposure. We have used recent literature to assess the possible risks associated with the presence of glyphosate residues in food and the environment.

  8. Assessment of Nano Cellulose from Peach Palm Residue as Potential Food Additive: Part II: Preliminary Studies.

    Andrade, Dayanne Regina Mendes; Mendonça, Márcia Helena; Helm, Cristiane Vieira; Magalhães, Washington L E; de Muniz, Graciela Ines Bonzon; Kestur, Satyanarayana G

    2015-09-01

    High consumption of dietary fibers in the diet is related to the reduction of the risk of non-transmitting of chronic diseases, prevention of the constipation etc. Rich diets in dietary fibers promote beneficial effects for the metabolism. Considering the above and recognizing the multifaceted advantages of nano materials, there have been many attempts in recent times to use the nano materials in the food sector including as food additive. However, whenever new product for human and animal consumption is developed, it has to be tested for their effectiveness regarding improvement in the health of consumers, safety aspects and side effects. However, before it is tried with human beings, normally such materials would be assessed through biological tests on a living organism to understand its effect on health condition of the consumer. Accordingly, based on the authors' finding reported in a previous paper, this paper presents body weight, biochemical (glucose, cholesterol and lipid profile in blood, analysis of feces) and histological tests carried out with biomass based cellulose nano fibrils prepared by the authors for its possible use as food additive. Preliminary results of the study with mice have clearly brought out potential of these fibers for the said purpose.

  9. Engineered Nanoparticles as Potential Food Contaminants and Their Toxicity to Caco-2 Cells.

    Mao, Xiaomo; Nguyen, Trang H D; Lin, Mengshi; Mustapha, Azlin

    2016-08-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), such as metallic or metallic oxide nanoparticles (NPs), have gained much attention in recent years. Increasing use of ENPs in various areas may lead to the release of ENPs into the environment and cause the contamination of agricultural and food products by ENPs. In this study, we selected two important ENPs (zinc oxide [ZnO] and silver [Ag] NPs) as potential food contaminants and investigated their toxicity via an in vitro model using Caco-2 cells. The physical properties of ENPs and their effects on Caco-2 cells were characterized by electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (EDS) techniques. Results demonstrate that a significant inhibition of cell viability was observed after a 24-h of exposure of Caco-2 cells to 3-, 6-, and 12-mM ZnO NPs or 0.5-, 1.5-, and 3-mM Ag NPs. The noticeable changes of cells include the alteration in cell shape, abnormal nuclear structure, membrane blebbing, and cytoplasmic deterioration. The toxicity of ZnO NPs, but not that of Ag NPs after exposure to simulated gastric fluid, significantly decreased. Scanning transmission electron microscopy shows that ZnO and Ag NPs penetrated the membrane of Caco-2 cells. EDS results also confirm the presence of NPs in the cytoplasm of the cells. This study demonstrates that ZnO and Ag NPs have cytotoxic effects and can inhibit the growth of Caco-2 cells. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Metabolomics, Nutrition, and Potential Biomarkers of Food Quality, Intake, and Health Status.

    Sébédio, Jean-Louis

    Diet, dietary patterns, and other environmental factors such as exposure to toxins are playing an important role in the prevention/development of many diseases, like obesity, type 2 diabetes, and consequently on the health status of individuals. A major challenge nowadays is to identify novel biomarkers to detect as early as possible metabolic dysfunction and to predict evolution of health status in order to refine nutritional advices to specific population groups. Omics technologies such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics coupled with statistical and bioinformatics tools have already shown great potential in this research field even if so far only few biomarkers have been validated. For the past two decades, important analytical techniques have been developed to detect as many metabolites as possible in human biofluids such as urine, blood, and saliva. In the field of food science and nutrition, many studies have been carried out for food authenticity, quality, and safety, as well as for food processing. Furthermore, metabolomic investigations have been carried out to discover new early biomarkers of metabolic dysfunction and predictive biomarkers of developing pathologies (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes, etc.). Great emphasis is also placed in the development of methodologies to identify and validate biomarkers of nutrients exposure. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria with Potential to Design Natural Biofunctional Health-Promoting Dairy Foods

    Daniel M. Linares

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Consumer interest in healthy lifestyle and health-promoting natural products is a major driving force for the increasing global demand of biofunctional dairy foods. A number of commercial sources sell synthetic formulations of bioactive substances for use as dietary supplements. However, the bioactive-enrichment of health-oriented foods by naturally occurring microorganisms during dairy fermentation is in increased demand. While participating in milk fermentation, lactic acid bacteria can be exploited in situ as microbial sources for naturally enriching dairy products with a broad range of bioactive components that may cover different health aspects. Several of these bioactive metabolites are industrially and economically important, as they are claimed to exert diverse health-promoting activities on the consumer, such as anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic, anti-oxidative, immune-modulatory, anti-cholesterolemic, or microbiome modulation. This review aims at discussing the potential of these health-supporting bacteria as starter or adjunct cultures for the elaboration of dairy foods with a broad spectrum of new functional properties and added value.

  12. Radioprotection potential of the ascorbic acid on the carrageenan used as food additive

    Aliste, Antonio Joao; Mastro, Nelida Lucia del

    2002-01-01

    Carrageenans are a group of natural carbohydrates that are present in the structure of certain varieties of red algae (Rhodophyceae). They are used in emulsions, for syneresis control and to grow up, to promote adhesiveness and dispersion. In the industry of foods they can be used for instance, as thickness and gelling agents, alone or together with other additives. The processing of foods by radiation is increasing considerably, because the efficiency of the process in the industrial decontamination of products. The objective of this work was to study the action of the ascorbic acid as potential radioprotector of the carrageenan against 60 Co gamma radiation effects, using the viscosity as parameter. Samples of commercial carrageenan dissolved at 1,0% were irradiated in the presence or not of ascorbic acid, with doses of 0.0 kGy; 1.0 kGy; 2.5 kGy; 5.0 kGy and 10.0 kGy. After the irradiation the relationships viscosity/dose were established for the temperature of 60 deg C. For the dose of 10.0 kGy a better protecting effect of the ascorbic acid on the carrageenan was seen. The implications of the use of this antioxidant is discussed as a form of minimizing the effect of the radiation in irradiated foods. (author)

  13. Measuring the potential of GHG emissions reductions on the food and beverage processing sector in Ontario

    Singleton, M.; Ciccone, A.D.

    2000-07-01

    Seven per cent of the greenhouse gas emissions from the industrial sector in Ontario relate to the food and beverage processing sector. This report provides the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs with the ability to identify the effects of reducing greenhouse gas emissions on Ontario's food and beverage processing sector. The study was undertaken in response to Ontario's efforts to address the challenges set by the Kyoto Protocol and the proposed release of Canada's National Implementation Strategy on Climate Change. The objective of the report is to help Ontario decide if it should support a national strategy and/or ratify the Kyoto Protocol. Potential ways to meet the Kyoto commitments were also identified in the report. The study was based on an analysis of large amounts of data and information regarding the economic and technological aspects that affect the food and beverage processing industry in Ontario, including the seven major sub-sectors, located mostly in southern Ontario. The types of plants and their associated processes and fuel use were assessed to determine the size and nature of fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions for each sub-sector. The study examined end uses and base technologies for each sub-sector and compared them with energy efficient technologies and opportunities within the industry. Barriers, and how to overcome them, were also described. Ontario's results were then compared with results from Canada's Foundation Paper and Options Analysis prepared for the Agriculture and Agri-Food Table on Climate Change. It was determined that the primary source of greenhouse gases for the industry comes from the use of energy directly from the combustion of fossil fuels and indirectly from the use of electricity. The contributions to greenhouse gases through chlorofluorocarbons or through waste stream is small and shrinking. It was concluded that mitigation strategies should concentrate on energy conservation through energy

  14. Novel natural food antimicrobials.

    Juneja, Vijay K; Dwivedi, Hari P; Yan, Xianghe

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds could be applied as food preservatives to protect food quality and extend the shelf life of foods and beverages. These compounds are naturally produced and isolated from various sources, including plants, animals and microorganisms, in which they constitute part of host defense systems. Many naturally occurring compounds, such as nisin, plant essential oils, and natamycin, have been widely studied and are reported to be effective in their potential role as antimicrobial agents against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Although some of these natural antimicrobials are commercially available and applied in food processing, their efficacy, consumer acceptance and regulation are not well defined. This manuscript reviews natural antimicrobial compounds with reference to their applications in food when applied individually or in combination with other hurdles. It also reviews the mechanism of action of selected natural antimicrobials, factors affecting their antimicrobial activities, and future prospects for use of natural antimicrobials in the food industry.

  15. Molecular characteristics and virulence potential of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from Chinese food systems.

    Chen, Jianshun; Luo, Xiaokai; Jiang, Lingli; Jin, Peijie; Wei, Wei; Liu, Dongyou; Fang, Weihuan

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we examined Listeria monocytogenes isolates from Chinese food sources in an attempt to gain further insights on the molecular characteristics and virulence potential of this important foodborne pathogen. Of the 88 L. monocytogenes food isolates recovered, 42 (47.7%) were of serovars 1/2a or 3a; 23 (26.1%) of serovars 1/2b or 3b; 15 (17.0%) of 1/2c or 3c; 6 (6.8%) of serovars 4b, 4d or 4e; and 2 (2.2%) of serovars 4a or 4c. In contrast to inlAB locus conserved in all serovars, internalin cluster between ascB and dapE varies with different serovars, with inlC2DE, inlGC2DE and inlGHE predominantly in serovars 1/2b or 4b, serovar 1/2a and serovar 1/2c. While inlF existed in all the inlGHE- and inlGC2DE-containing isolates but 17.4% of those having inlC2DE, lmo2026 existed in all the inlGHE-containing isolates but 20.0% of those bearing inlGC2DE, suggesting that inlF might have co-evolved with inlGC2DE and inlGHE while lmo2026 with inlGHE only. With the exception of serovar 4a isolate, most serovar isolates demonstrated remarkable ability to form plaques on L929 cells and produced significant mouse mortality irrespective of the internalin gene organization and whether an intact actA gene is present or not. These results indicate that majority of these food isolates may have the potential to cause human diseases if ingested via contaminated foods. Given that serovar 4b accounts for nearly half of human clinical listeriosis cases documented, the relative low proportion of serovar 4b food isolates suggests that this serovar is probably more tolerant of the adverse conditions in the host's stomach and/or more efficient in entering host cells than serovars 1/2a, 1/2b and 1/2c.

  16. Potential of extensification of European agriculture for a more sustainable food system, focusing on nitrogen

    van Grinsven, Hans J. M.; Willem Erisman, Jan; de Vries, Wim; Westhoek, Henk

    2015-02-01

    Most global strategies for future food security focus on sustainable intensification of production of food and involve increased use of nitrogen fertilizer and manure. The external costs of current high nitrogen (N) losses from agriculture in the European Union, are 0.3-1.9% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2008. We explore the potential of sustainable extensification for agriculture in the EU and The Netherlands by analysing cases and scenario studies focusing on reducing N inputs and livestock densities. Benefits of extensification are higher local biodiversity and less environmental pollution and therefore less external costs for society. Extensification also has risks such as a reduction of yields and therewith a decrease of the GDP and farm income and a smaller contribution to the global food production, and potentially an i0ncrease of global demand for land. We demonstrate favourable examples of extensification. Reducing the N fertilization rate for winter wheat in Northwest Europe to 25-30% below current N recommendations accounts for the external N cost, but requires action to compensate for a reduction in crop yield by 10-20%. Dutch dairy and pig farmers changing to less intensive production maintain or even improve farm income by price premiums on their products, and/or by savings on external inputs. A scenario reducing the Dutch pig and poultry sector by 50%, the dairy sector by 20% and synthetic N fertilizer use by 40% lowers annual N pollution costs by 0.2-2.2 billion euro (40%). This benefit compensates for the loss of GDP in the primary sector but not in the supply and processing chain. A 2030 scenario for the EU27 reducing consumption and production of animal products by 50% (demitarean diet) reduces N pollution by 10% and benefits human health. This diet allows the EU27 to become a food exporter, while reducing land demand outside Europe in 2030 by more than 100 million hectares (2%), which more than compensates increased land demand when

  17. Potential of extensification of European agriculture for a more sustainable food system, focusing on nitrogen

    Van Grinsven, Hans J M; Westhoek, Henk; Erisman, Jan Willem; De Vries, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Most global strategies for future food security focus on sustainable intensification of production of food and involve increased use of nitrogen fertilizer and manure. The external costs of current high nitrogen (N) losses from agriculture in the European Union, are 0.3–1.9% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2008. We explore the potential of sustainable extensification for agriculture in the EU and The Netherlands by analysing cases and scenario studies focusing on reducing N inputs and livestock densities. Benefits of extensification are higher local biodiversity and less environmental pollution and therefore less external costs for society. Extensification also has risks such as a reduction of yields and therewith a decrease of the GDP and farm income and a smaller contribution to the global food production, and potentially an i0ncrease of global demand for land. We demonstrate favourable examples of extensification. Reducing the N fertilization rate for winter wheat in Northwest Europe to 25–30% below current N recommendations accounts for the external N cost, but requires action to compensate for a reduction in crop yield by 10–20%. Dutch dairy and pig farmers changing to less intensive production maintain or even improve farm income by price premiums on their products, and/or by savings on external inputs. A scenario reducing the Dutch pig and poultry sector by 50%, the dairy sector by 20% and synthetic N fertilizer use by 40% lowers annual N pollution costs by 0.2–2.2 billion euro (40%). This benefit compensates for the loss of GDP in the primary sector but not in the supply and processing chain. A 2030 scenario for the EU27 reducing consumption and production of animal products by 50% (demitarean diet) reduces N pollution by 10% and benefits human health. This diet allows the EU27 to become a food exporter, while reducing land demand outside Europe in 2030 by more than 100 million hectares (2%), which more than compensates increased land demand when

  18. In vitro synergistic antibacterial activity of Melissa officinalis L. and some preservatives

    Stanojeic, D.; Comic, L.; Stefanovic, O.; Solujic Sukdolak, S.

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the species Melissa officinalis L. and their in vitro synergistic action with preservatives, namely: sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate against selected food spoiling bacteria, for a potential use in food industry. Synergistic action was noticed in almost every combination between plant extracts and preservatives. This work showed that the active compounds from ethanol, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis L. significantly enhanced the effectiveness of tested preservatives. Synergism was established at plant extract and preservative concentrations corresponding to 1/4 and 1/8 minimal inhibitory concentration values, which indicated the possibility of avoiding the use of higher concentrations of tested preservatives. (Author) 25 refs.

  19. High solids co-digestion of food and landscape waste and the potential for ammonia toxicity

    Drennan, Margaret F.; DiStefano, Thomas D., E-mail: thomas.distefano@bucknell.edu

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • We evaluated co-digestion of food and landscape waste with a pilot-scale anaerobic dry digester. • We evaluated reactor performance at 35 °C under low and high organic loading rates. • Performance was stable under low organic loading rate, but declined under high organic loading rate. • Respirometry was employed to investigate potential inhibition due to ammonia. • Landscape waste was unsuitable in increasing the C:N ratio during codigestion. - Abstract: A pilot-scale study was completed to determine the feasibility of high-solids anaerobic digestion (HSAD) of a mixture of food and landscape wastes at a university in central Pennsylvania (USA). HSAD was stable at low loadings (2 g COD/L-day), but developed inhibitory ammonia concentrations at high loadings (15 g COD/L-day). At low loadings, methane yields were 232 L CH{sub 4}/kg COD fed and 229 L CH{sub 4}/kg VS fed, and at high loadings yields were 211 L CH{sub 4}/kg COD fed and 272 L CH{sub 4}/kg VS fed. Based on characterization and biodegradability studies, food waste appears to be a good candidate for HSAD at low organic loading rates; however, the development of ammonia inhibition at high loading rates suggests that the C:N ratio is too low for use as a single substrate. The relatively low biodegradability of landscape waste as reported herein made it an unsuitable substrate to increase the C:N ratio. Codigestion of food waste with a substrate high in bioavailable carbon is recommended to increase the C:N ratio sufficiently to allow HSAD at loading rates of 15 g COD/L-day.

  20. Possible links between intestinal permeablity and food processing: a potential therapeutic niche for glutamine

    Jean Robert Rapin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased intestinal permeability is a likely cause of various pathologies, such as allergies and metabolic or even cardiovascular disturbances. Intestinal permeability is found in many severe clinical situations and in common disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome. In these conditions, substances that are normally unable to cross the epithelial barrier gain access to the systemic circulation. To illustrate the potential harmfulness of leaky gut, we present an argument based on examples linked to protein or lipid glycation induced by modern food processing. Increased intestinal permeability should be largely improved by dietary addition of compounds, such as glutamine or curcumin, which both have the mechanistic potential to inhibit the inflammation and oxidative stress linked to tight junction opening. This brief review aims to increase physician awareness of this common, albeit largely unrecognized, pathology, which may be easily prevented or improved by means of simple nutritional changes.