WorldWideScience

Sample records for food preservation parameters

  1. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labots, H.; Huis in 't Veld, G.J.P.; Verrips, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    After a review of several methods for the preservation of food and the routes of food infections, the following chapters are devoted to the preservation by irradiation. Applications and legal aspects of food irradiation are described. Special reference is made to the international situation. (Auth.)

  2. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztasiran, I.

    1984-01-01

    Irradiation is a physical process for treating food and as such it is comparable to other processing techniques such as heating or freezing foods for preservation. The energy level used in food irradiation is always below that producing radioactivity in the treated food, hence this aspect can be totally excluded in wholesomeness evaluations. Water is readily ionized and may be the primary source of ionization in foods with secondary effects on other molecules, possibly more a result of water ionization than of direct hits. In the presence of oxygen, highly reactive compounds may be produced, such as H, H 3 0+ and H 2 O 2 . Radiation at the energy flux levels used for food (<2 MeV) does not induce radioactivity. Food irradiation applications are already technically and economically feasible and that food so treated is suitable for consumption. Food irradiation techniques can play an important role for an improved preservation, storage and distribution of food products. (author)

  3. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooij, J. van

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-five years of development work on the preservation of food by irradiation have shown that this technology has the potential to reduce post-harvest losses and to produce safe foods. The technological feasibility has been established but general acceptance of food irradiation by national regulatory bodies and consumers requires attention. The positive aspects of food preservation by irradiation include: the food keeps its freshness and its physical state, agents which cause spoilage (bacteria, etc.) are eliminated, recontamination does not take place, provided packaging materials are impermeable to bacteria and insects. It inhibits sprouting of root crops, kills insects and parasites, inactivates bacteria, spores and moulds, delays ripening of fruit, improves the technological properties of food. It makes foods biologically safe, allows the production of shelf-stable foods and is excellent for quarantine treatment, and generally improves food hygiene. The dose ranges needed for effective treatment are given

  4. Preserving food with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A.C

    1978-01-01

    Food irradiation is becoming an increasingly more important method of food preservataion. The irradiation process and its advangages are briefly described, and its use in the preservation of poultry and various kinds of fruits is discussed. Fruit export is hampered by restrictions due to infestation. Radiation disinfestation will therefore be of great advantage and may lead to a growth in export markets

  5. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, M.

    1978-01-01

    In November, 1977, an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation was held at Wageningen, the Netherlands. About 200 participants attended the Symposium which was organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization; a reflection of the active interest which is being shown in food irradiation processing, particularly among developing countries. The 75 papers presented provided an excellent review of the current status of food irradiation on a wide range of different topics, and the Symposium also afforded the valuable opportunity for informal discussion among the participants and for developing personal contacts. A brief survey of the salient aspects discussed during the course of the meeting are reported on. (orig.) [de

  6. How to preserve foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balek, V.; Vadassova, J.

    1979-01-01

    The use of gamma and fast electron radiations for food preservation is described. Examples are given of the application of ionizing radiation for retarding potato germination, onion growth, and fruit ripening, for limiting the action of microorganisms, and removing salmonella from meat products. The method has remarkable prospects although it may not be considered to be a general-purpose method. Geographic and economic conditions should always be taken into consideration. (J.P.)

  7. Food preservation by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-02-15

    As shortages of food and energy still continue to constitute the major threats to the well-being of the human race, all actions aiming at overcoming these problems must be assigned vital importance. Of the two complementary ways of solving the food problem (i.e., increasing the production of food and decreasing the spoilage of food) a novel method designed to contribute to the latter purpose has been discussed at this symposium hosted by The Netherlands and held under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization. Progress made since the last symposium of this kind (Bombay, India, 1972) was reviewed from the technological, economic and wholesomeness points of view by participants from 39 countries (60% of the latter were of the developing world). From the reports presented on the use of radiations to control physiological changes in plants, feasibility of radiation preservation of potatoes, onions, garlic, as well as of some tropical and subtropical fruits (mangoes, papayas, litchis and avocado) was confirmed. For potatoes, onions and mangoes, optimal conditions of treatment and storage were established on a larger scale, combined with sizeable consumer trials. Combinations of ionizing radiation with chemicals (salycilic acid, for potatoes), and physical agents (ultraviolet rays, for papayas) have been reported to be successful against the incidence of rot. A considerable number of papers dealt with the control of microbiological spoilage of foods. Work since 1972 has shown that radurization of fruits and vegetables (bananas, mangoes, dried dates, endive, chickory, onions, soup-greens), meat, poultry, marine products (mackerel, cod and plaice fillets, shrimps), decontamination of food ingredients and food technology aids (enzyme preparations, proteins, starch, spices), radappertization of meat and animal feedstuffs as well as combination treatments with salt, heat

  8. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    As shortages of food and energy still continue to constitute the major threats to the well-being of the human race, all actions aiming at overcoming these problems must be assigned vital importance. Of the two complementary ways of solving the food problem (i.e., increasing the production of food and decreasing the spoilage of food) a novel method designed to contribute to the latter purpose has been discussed at this symposium hosted by The Netherlands and held under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization. Progress made since the last symposium of this kind (Bombay, India, 1972) was reviewed from the technological, economic and wholesomeness points of view by participants from 39 countries (60% of the latter were of the developing world). From the reports presented on the use of radiations to control physiological changes in plants, feasibility of radiation preservation of potatoes, onions, garlic, as well as of some tropical and subtropical fruits (mangoes, papayas, litchis and avocado) was confirmed. For potatoes, onions and mangoes, optimal conditions of treatment and storage were established on a larger scale, combined with sizeable consumer trials. Combinations of ionizing radiation with chemicals (salycilic acid, for potatoes), and physical agents (ultraviolet rays, for papayas) have been reported to be successful against the incidence of rot. A considerable number of papers dealt with the control of microbiological spoilage of foods. Work since 1972 has shown that radurization of fruits and vegetables (bananas, mangoes, dried dates, endive, chickory, onions, soup-greens), meat, poultry, marine products (mackerel, cod and plaice fillets, shrimps), decontamination of food ingredients and food technology aids (enzyme preparations, proteins, starch, spices), radappertization of meat and animal feedstuffs as well as combination treatments with salt, heat

  9. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  10. Improving food preservation to reduce food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Gronert, Alicja; Bikova, Borislava; Salce, Luca; Nogués, Marc; Batistelli, Patryk; Farid, Yomna

    2014-01-01

    The theme and issue of ‘Improving food preservation to reduce food waste’ is associated with all group members participating in this research project. This topic covers multiple processes including purchasing, preserving, preparing and storing food. The industry of fresh fruits and vegetables is an enormous market, which will not disappear any time soon. Food waste is mostly disregarded as fresh fruits and vegetables are mostly inexpensive. All group members believe that this mindset needs to...

  11. A revolution in food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    A brief consumer guide to food irradiation is presented. Aspects covered include some of the advantages of food irradiation compared to other methods of food preservation, the type of radiation used, the mechanism of action, some practical applications, safety and future benefits. (UK)

  12. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina, M.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of food irradiation is to extend shelf-life of food commodities by delaying fruit ripening, inhibition of vegetable sprouting, desinfestation of grains and seeds, and in general by controlling microbial or parasitic food-transmitted infections. It was stated by the 1980 Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee that food irradiated up to 10 kGy does not pose any human health or nutritional problems. Following this recommendation, irradiation programmes are being developed at a good pace in several countries. It is hoped that commercial drawbacks now existing, such as psychological apprehension of consumers to radiation-treated products and innovative inertia to changes of the food chain, will be removed through appropriate information schemes and legislative advancement. (author)

  13. Food Preservation by Irradiation (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urrows, Grace M.

    1968-01-01

    Up to 30% of food harvests are lost in some parts of the world because of animal pests and microorganisms. Nuclear techniques can help reduce and extend the shelf life of these foods. Around 55 countries now have food irradiation programs. The use of radiation is the most recent step in man's attempts to preserve some of his harvest for the lean part of the year.

  14. ULTRAVIOLET TECHNOLOGY FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes, AMM; Novello, D; Mendes, GMD; Cristianini, M

    2009-01-01

    ULTRAVIOLET TECHNOLOGY FOR FOOD PRESERVATION This literature review article had as objective to gather information about ultraviolet (UV) technology utilization on the food industry, its effects and potential application. Aspects as the origin, concept and applications of the technology on the equipment industry and running mechanisms were approached. The application of UV radiation on food decontamination is still little used due its low penetration, but it is known that it can be easily app...

  15. Preservation of food and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasamatsu, Tomomichi

    1975-01-01

    In the application of radiation to preservation of food, there are some methods; sterilization, elimination of noxious insects, prevention of germination and control of maturation. The former two utilize the lethal effect of radiation to the living things and the latter two utilize the injurious effect on the metabolism of the living things. At present, irradiation to potato is most widely permitted for the purpose of prevention of germination, and the irradiation with 15 Krad (maximum) is allowed to preserve potato for 8 months in Japan. In the other hand, a large quantity of doses, such as 4.5 to 5.6 Mrad, is necessary to sterilize completely for industrial use, degeneration of food component and high cost come into question. In addition, food is directly taken into the mouth of human being, therefore, wholesomeness, legal permission and determination of dose must be examined. (Tsukamoto, Y.)

  16. New method of preserving food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrard, G. (Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights)

    1983-07-01

    The use of gamma radiation for food preservation is discussed. Investigations at the AAEC include: the eradication of fruit-fly larvae in oranges, tomatoes and avocadoes; treatment of shrimps; extending the shelf life of mushrooms and potatoes; treatment of imported beans to prevent germination; killing of bacterial spores with a combination of pressure and gamma radiation; and the treatment of beehives containing honey-bee larvae with foulbrood.

  17. New method of preserving food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrard, G.

    1983-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation for food preservation is discussed. Investigations at the AAEC include: the eradication of fruit-fly larvae in oranges, tomatoes and avocadoes; treatment of shrimps; extending the shelf life of mushrooms and potatoes; treatment of imported beans to prevent germination; killing of bacterial spores with a combination of pressure and gamma radiation; and the treatment of beehives containing honey-bee larvae with foulbrood

  18. Radiation preservation of cooked foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurangzeb; Bibi, N.; Badshah, A.; Khan, I.

    1989-01-01

    The preservation of irradiated cooked food has been explained in this report under vacuum conditions. The samples were irradiated at dose levels of 7.5 and 10.0 LGy. Measurement of fungal count was carried immediately after irradiation and after each 15 days of storage life upto 60 days of time interval. The samples were evaluated organolepticaly as well. It has been observed that no significance difference was observed among samples of irradiated and vacuum packed controls during storage for 45 days. (A.B.)

  19. Irradiation's potential for preserving food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The first experimental studies on the use of ionizing radiation for the preservation of foods were published over thirty years ago (1, 2) . After a period of high expectations and perhaps exaggerated optimism a series of disappointments occurred in the late '60s .The first company specifically created to operate a food irradiation plant, Newfield Products Inc, ran into financial difficulties and had to close its potato irradiation facility in 1966. The irradiator, designed to process 15,000t of potatoes per month for inhibition of sprouting, was in operation during one season only. In 1968 the US Food an Drug Administration refused approval for radiation-sterilisation of ham and withdrew the approval it had granted in 1963 for irradiated bacon. An International Project on the Irradiation of Fruit and Fruit juices, created in 1965 at Seibersdorf, Austria, with the collaboration or 9 countries, ended with general disappointment after three years. The first commercial grain irradiator, built in the Turkish harbour town of Iskenderun by the International Atomic Energy Agency with funds from the United Nations Development Program, never received the necessary operating licence from the Turkish Government and had to be dismantled in 1968. The US Atomic Energy Commission terminated its financial support to all research programmes on food irradiation in 1970. For a number of years, little chance seemed to remain that the new process would ever be practically used. However, research and development work was continued in a number of laboratories all over the world, and it appears that the temporary setbacks now have been overcome. Growing quantities of irradiated foods are being marketed in several countries and indications are that irradiated foods will eventually be as generally accepted as are frozen, dried or heatsterilised foods

  20. Food preservation by ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    The process of food preservation by ionising radiation is an alternative, or a complement, to the traditional methods of heating, refrigerating, freezing or using chemical additives. The study and development of this technique has started on the beginning of the fifties but it is based on the radiation killing effect on micro-organisms discovered by the end of last century. Foodstuffs are treated in appropriate plants: isotopic facilities (gamma radiation) and accelerated electron beams produced by machines called accelerators. The FAO and WHO in close cooperation with the IAEA have played an important role on the development of the process and on the increment of the industrial application of food irradiation. Over the world there are about 37 countries trading foods treated by ionising radiation. However, governments have been slow to clear the utilization of this process. The main reason of this attitude is in general due to the fact that the advantages of the technique are not clearly understood. Therefore, the dissemination of the information could on one hand clarify who has to take decisions and on the other hand support the choice of those foods by the consumers. This is the unique way to dynamize the application of this process

  1. SMART PACKAGING FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodríguez-Sauceda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of the food industry is the preservation of its products, that is, to prevent them from being attacked by microorganisms that decompose them hauling economic losses and severe health damage to the consumer. Today, competition in the food industry is very high and any company that does not offer the quality products is doomed to fail. Consumers demand more and the industry still stands offering what is asked: quality, security and safety. The package, in addition to fulfilling its core functions is becoming a means of sophisticated interactions with content and a record of relevant information for both the end consumer and intermediate players in the value chain and concepts are born of active and intelligent packaging. A smart container is defined as a system that monitors the condition of the packaged product, being able to register and provide information about product quality or condition of the container, showing the possible "abnormal" practices that have suffered the product or the container during the entire supply chain, such as transportation or storage. These systems monitor the mechanisms of altered food due to physiological, chemical and biological processes that respond and communicate changes in the status of the product as time-temperature, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, microbial growth, etc. There are different types of smart packaging such as time-temperature indicators, color indicators, indicators of pathogens and indicators of leaks, to name a few. Through literature review, arguments that demonstrate the usefulness and necessity of the use of smart packaging to preserve the quality and safety of the product it contains, from manufacturing to the time it is used by consumers were found, as these besides communicating or providing information about their state, acting as a marketing tool.

  2. Home Food Preservation Training for Extension Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goard, Linnette Mizer; Hill, Melinda; Shumaker, Katharine; Warrix, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    During times of economic downturn, there has been an increased interest in home food preservation. As the primary resource for current research-based recommendations, a team of Extension Family and Consumer Sciences educators with specialization in food safety and food preservation responded to this demand by developing a standardized food…

  3. Preservation of food products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGivney, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    The use of irradiation to preserve food has the potential to significantly enhance our capacity to maximize the quality and quantity of the food we consume. In a world in which distribution of food occurs across continents and in which malnourished populations are in dire need of basic food products, any safe, effective, and efficient means of preserving food is more than welcome. Irradiation, as a method for food preservation, has been studied for more than 30 years. This discussion focuses on this most recent method for the preservation of food with particular emphasis on its effects on the safety, nutritive, and aesthetic values of the food preserved by irradiation. The use of ionizing radiation as a method to preserve foods is one that has been demonstrated to be effective for a variety of food classes. Irradiation offers a means to decontaminate, disinfest, and retard the spoilage of the food supply. At the same time, it appears that the wholesomeness of these food products is maintained. Nutritive value can be sustained by use of effective doses of radiation. Concerns over the safety of irradiated food are rooted in questions regarding the potential induction of radioactivity, harmful radiolytic products, and pathogenic radiation-resistant or mutant strains of microorganisms. Research findings have allayed concerns over safety. However, more research is necessary to conclusively resolve these safety issues. Food irradiation is a promising technology that has and will contribute to our ability to feed the people of this world. This technology is but one of many available ways to preserve our greatest natural resource, the food supply. Enhancement of the ability to preserve food by irradiation will facilitate the distribution of food from fertile developed regions to the malnourished peoples of underdeveloped countries. 21 references

  4. Functional Dehydrated Foods for Health Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. S. C. Morais

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The market of functional foods has experienced a huge growth in the last decades due to the increased consumers’ awareness in a healthy lifestyle. Dried fruits constitute good snacks, in alternative to salty or sweet ones, and food ingredients due to their taste and nutritional/health benefits. Bioactive molecules are interesting sources to develop functional foods, as they play a major role in improving the health status and minimizing disease risks. The bioactive compounds most widely discussed in literature are presented in this review, for example, polyphenols, phytosterols, and prebiotics. Different technologies to dry bioproducts for producing functional foods or ingredients are presented. New drying techniques for the preservation of bioactive compounds are proposed, focusing more specifically on dielectric drying. A discussion on the techniques that can be used to optimize drying processes is performed. An overview on dehydrated plant based foods with probiotics is provided. The microorganisms used, impregnation procedures, drying methods, and evaluated parameters are presented and discussed. The principal bioactive compounds responsible for nutritional and health benefits of plant derived dried food products—fruits and vegetables, fruits and vegetables by-products, grains, nuts, and algae—are presented. Phytochemical losses occurring during pretreatments and/or drying processes are also discussed.

  5. Influence of food preservation parameters and associated microbiota on production rate, profile and stability of acylated homoserine lactones from food-derived Enterobacteriaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flodgaard, Lars; Christensen, Allan Beck; Molin, Søren

    2003-01-01

    by Gram-negative bacteria participating in spoilage. As part of our investigation of the role of AHLs in food quality, we studied the AHL production in two Enterobacteriaceae isolated from cold-smoked salmon under growth conditions typical of those found in cold-smoked salmon. We tested the influence......H is approximately 6 and therefore only a low degree of pH-induced turnover is expected to occur in this product. Overall, our study demonstrates that food-derived Enterobacteriaceae produce AHLs of the same type and in the same magnitude when grown under food-relevant conditions as when grown in laboratory media...

  6. Microbial control and food Preservation: Theory and practice:Principles of food preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food preservation is an action or method used to maintain foods at certain desirable properties or quality to obtain maximum benefit. A good method of food preservation is one that slows down or prevents altogether the action of the agents of spoilage without damaging the food. To achieve this, cert...

  7. teaching food production and preservation using constructivist

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    teaching methods where students are actively involved in thinking and creating ... KEYWORDS: food production, food preservation Biology, 5Es constructivist model, self-reliance ... shelf live. The world's population is growing every day but food production which is the basic ... life matters so as to be self-reliant citizens of this.

  8. Preserving food the radiation way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pim, L.

    1983-01-01

    The food irradiation issue was brought to the public's attention in the summer of 1983 when the Canadian federal government announced proposals to introduce regulations that would speed up the introduction of irradiated food for commercial use and resolve questions about the labelling of such food. The article covers the political forces involved as well as the problems involved in the irradiation process. These problems include chemical toxicity, nutritional quality, bacterial problems and the foods that are unsuitable for irradiation

  9. The impact of food preservation on food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Wayne; Schiebel, Walter

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the relationship between food preservation and reducing consumer waste is of value in developing sustainable meal options. The research reports insights into Austrian marketplace for frozen and fresh foods that have been obtained from a consumer survey. The consumer survey methodologies indicate how preservation can change meal planning and lower food waste across frozen and fresh and ambient food purchases using freezing preservation methods. The results show food waste can be reduced by six-fold when frozen foods are compared with fresh foods. This study highlights the requirement for a greater understanding of the probability that specific foods will be wasted with respect to the frequency of purchase. This is a limitation of the current study that has been investigated by other researchers. This research has enabled the identification of different food waste amounts for different food product categories. The data presented could be used to guide food product development so that less consumer waste is produced. The research suggests a decision matrix approach can be used to can guide new product development and a model of this matrix is presented so that it may provide fit-for-purpose food preservation options for consumers. This paper will continue to highlight the overlooked value of food preservation during processing and manufacturing of foods and their preparation in households.

  10. The radiation preservation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wet, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    The article reviews research that is being done in the field of food irradiation, especially in South Africa. The nutrition value and wholesomeness of irradiated food are regarded as very important. A list is given of a number of products that have been approved for irradiation in South Africa, as well as a list of products on which research is still in progress. The consumer acceptability and the market for irradiated food are also dealt with

  11. Radioisotopes and food preservation against insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachem Ahmad, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    The book describes how to preserve food from harmful insects by using radioisotopes. It focusses on the impact of ionized radiation on the different stages of insect growth and on its metabolism and immunity. It also discusses the relationship between radiation doses and insect reproduction. It explains the various methods to detect the irradiated foods

  12. Irradiation preservation of food in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, I.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the food irradiation activities in Hungary for preservation purposes. A historical background of this technology is given, and the present practice is outlined. Several food species are presently treated with Co-60 gamma-irradiation for their radurization. (R.P.)

  13. New tool in food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainey, Humphrey.

    1982-01-01

    A review of current trends in the processing of food by irradiation is presented. The history and development, techniques and effects of irradiation are outlined. Applications for New Zealand, in the light of overseas experience and facilities available, are discussed

  14. Recent progress in food preservation by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vas, K [Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy)

    1977-01-01

    The possible use of ionizing radiations in food preservation is discussed. It has been recognized that treatment of foods with ionizing radiations not only serves the purpose of stabilizing them in their original state, but may also enhance the hygienic properties of certain foodstuffs. Several examples conerning improvements in food quality and preservation by irradiation in different countries have been reported. The economic viewpoint and the possibilities for use of irradiated products in international trade are discussed. The development of international cooperation in sharing of research results and information and sharing of costs of wholesomeness testing have been pointed out.

  15. Recent progress in food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vas, K.

    1977-01-01

    The possible use of ionizing radiations in food preservation is discussed. It has been recognized that treatment of foods with ionizing radiations not only serves the purpose of stabilizing them in their original state, but may also enhance the hygienic properties of certain foodstuffs. Several examples conerning improvements in food quality and preservation by irradiation in different countries have been reported. The economic viewpoint and the possibilities for use of irradiated products in international trade are discussed. The development of international cooperation in sharing of research results and information and sharing of costs of wholesomeness testing have been pointed out. (G.C.)

  16. Food preservation using ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, L S; Ahmedna, M; Grodner, R M; Liuzzo, J A; Murano, P S; Murano, E A; Rao, R M; Shane, S; Wilson, P W

    1998-01-01

    Irradiation processing has been researched extensively and is now in use worldwide for many food commodities. Irradiation has been successfully used to reduce pathogenic bacteria, eliminate parasites, decrease postharvest sprouting, and extend the shelf life of fresh perishable foods. Although food irradiation is widely accepted in world food markets, U.S. markets have been slower to accept the idea of irradiated food products. For fruits and vegetables, irradiation is not a cure for shelf life problems; cost and quality problems damage preclude its general use. It appears that the most likely use of irradiation in fruits and vegetables is as an insect control in those commodities for which there is no effective alternative method. For grains such as rice and wheat, irradiation has been used primarily to control insect infestation when insects have been shown to develop resistance to the traditional fumigation methods. Treatment of spices with irradiation doses of 10 kGy has proved to extend shelf life without causing significant changes in sensory or chemical quality. Higher doses that effectively sterilize spices, however, may cause undesirable chemical and sensorial changes. For meat, especially red meat, irradiation is considered a viable alternative in the effort to improve the safety of meat products. With time, the authors believe that economic realities and the technical superiority of irradiation for specific poultry products will lead to public acceptance of the process. Irradiation of seafood products is still being considered for approval by the USFDA, although it is currently used in Asian and European markets, especially for shrimp. It is our belief that scientifically based research in food irradiation and the positive results thereof will also prove economical in the twenty-first century. As we move to a more peaceful world with reduced threat of nuclear holocaust, these valid opinions will prevail and will overshadow the distortions and

  17. Establishment of a world food preservation center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Charles L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A World Food Preservation Center (WFPC is proposed in response to a pending civilization-threatening food shortage and our limited ability to adequately increase food production. Some estimates put losses of food in developing countries after it is produced and before it is consumed at 50%. These losses are particularly threatening to individuals and farmers who are living in the midst of food insecurity. Although numerous organizations have attempted to address this problem worldwide, the magnitude of the effort has not come close to the enormity of the problem. Most of these programs are also short-term and require continuous input by postharvest specialists from developed countries in order to be sustainable. A critical need exists for a substantial and sustainable worldwide program that can significantly reduce losses and waste of food in developing countries. The World Food Preservation Center proposed here meets this need by educating young scientists in developing countries about low-input, appropriate technologies for preserving food postharvest. It also conducts research on postharvest technologies especially suited for application in developing countries such as biological control, solar refrigeration, and coordinated transport and marketing schemes that support and sustain the local production of food commodities.

  18. Radiation in response to food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharti, Navaldey; Ram, R.B.; Gautam, Shreesh Kumar; Kumar, Vikas; Singh, Abhishek

    2012-01-01

    Preservation of food items is a pre-requisite for food security. The seasonal nature of production, perishable nature of food materials (fruits, vegetables and other value added products) and the rising gap between demand and supply have posed great challenges to conventional techniques of food preservation and thereby to food security. Food irradiation, one of the beneficial applications of atomic energy, is an important innovation in food preservation, since the development of canning in the 19th century. It provides an effective alternative to fumigants, which are being phased out owing to their adverse effects on the environment and human health. Moreover, exposure of food material to radiation has strong advantages over conventional methods of preservation such as cold storage, fumigation, salting and drying because it does not lead to loss of taste, texture, flavour, odour etc. or overall quality attributes. Generally, two types of radiations are used i.e., ionizing and non-ionizing. Since radiation does not generate heat, it is termed 'cold sterilization'. Gamma rays, E-beam and X-rays are used for irradiation. Irradiation under approved conditions has been demonstrated to have no dangerous effects on food, either chemical or microbial in nature and does not cause any significant loss of macronutrients. Proteins, fats and carbohydrates undergo little change in nutritional value during irradiation even with doses over 10 kGy, though there may be sensory changes. Similarly, the essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, minerals and trace elements are also unaffected. There can be a decrease in certain vitamins (particularly thiamin) but these are of the same order of magnitude as occurs in other manufacturing processes such as drying/dehydration or canning (thermal sterilization). So, there is urgent need to exploit the benefits of irradiation involve standardization, communication and education. The potential benefits of irradiation technology have been

  19. The potential of food preservation to reduce food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Wayne

    2017-02-01

    While we state it seems unthinkable to throw away nearly a third of the food we produce, we still continue to overlook that we are all very much part of this problem because we all consume meals. The amount of food wasted clearly has an impact on our view of what we think a sustainable meal is and our research suggests food waste is a universal function that can help us determine the sustainability of diets. Achieving sustainability in food systems depends on the utilisation of both culinary skills and knowledge of how foods make meals. These are overlooked by the current food waste debate that is concerned with communicating the problem with food waste rather than solutions to it. We aim to change this oversight with the research presented here that demonstrates the need to consider the role of food preservation to reduce food waste and the requirement for new marketing terms associated with sustainability actions that can be used to stimulate changes in consumption behaviours. We have chosen frozen food to demonstrate this because our research has shown that the use of frozen foods results in 47 % less household food waste than fresh food categories. This has created a step-change in how we view food consumption and has stimulated consumer movements that act across different products and supply chains to enable the consumption of the sustainable meal.

  20. Irradiation technique useful in food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaprakas, C.A.; Palaniswarmi, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    Application of innovative technologies to promote the production of food is indispensable to meet the demand of emerging populations. It is equally important to protect the stored products from the invasion of pests and diseases. Indiscriminate use of insecticides has now been highly discouraged, as it causes health and environmental hazards. In causes health and environmental hazards. In this juncture, an alternate method to curb the menace of pests and diseases is imperative. Irradiation technique, a gift of nuclear physics, which has been identified as an eco-friendly method to preserve food materials for long term, is now been getting wider acceptance

  1. Numerical Simulation of Non-Thermal Food Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, C.; Krauss, J.; Ertunc, Ö.; Delgado, a.

    2010-09-01

    Food preservation is an important process step in food technology regarding product safety and product quality. Novel preservation techniques are currently developed, that aim at improved sensory and nutritional value but comparable safety than in conventional thermal preservation techniques. These novel non-thermal food preservation techniques are based for example on high pressures up to one GPa or pulsed electric fields. in literature studies the high potential of high pressures (HP) and of pulsed electric fields (PEF) is shown due to their high retention of valuable food components as vitamins and flavour and selective inactivation of spoiling enzymes and microorganisms. for the design of preservation processes based on the non-thermal techniques it is crucial to predict the effect of high pressure and pulsed electric fields on the food components and on the spoiling enzymes and microorganisms locally and time-dependent in the treated product. Homogenous process conditions (especially of temperature fields in HP and PEF processing and of electric fields in PEF) are aimed at to avoid the need of over-processing and the connected quality loss and to minimize safety risks due to under-processing. the present contribution presents numerical simulations of thermofluiddynamical phenomena inside of high pressure autoclaves and pulsed electric field treatment chambers. in PEF processing additionally the electric fields are considered. Implementing kinetics of occurring (bio-) chemical reactions in the numerical simulations of the temperature, flow and electric fields enables the evaluation of the process homogeneity and efficiency connected to different process parameters of the preservation techniques. Suggestions to achieve safe and high quality products are concluded out of the numerical results.

  2. Food irradiation: a question of preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurray, C.H.; Patterson, M.F.; Stewart, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    Although it has been around for years, food irradiation has yet to make its mark in the commercial world, but scientific evidence may now be on its side Food poisoning is not a pleasant experience, and severe cases can even be fatal. Stopping your dinner from turning into a gastronomic nightmare calls for good hygiene and careful storage. Unfortunately, food does not stay fresh - bread goes stale, milk goes sour - so finding ways to prevent deterioration and control infection by microorganisms has occupied man for centuries. Controls, such as refrigeration or pasteurisation, have become commonplace, but one technique remains somewhat controversial. Food irradiation - using ionising radiation to preserve food - has been around for over 60 years and can offer a number of potential benefits. Until recently, however, concerns about the safety of this technique have left it languishing in the laboratory. But now, with approvals for use on various foodstuffs in 40 countries, and reports from groups such as the World Health Organization acknowledging it as safe,[1,2] food irradiation may at last be ready to take centre stage

  3. Natural antioxidant extracts as food preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Sánchez, Norma F; Salas-Coronado, Raúl; Valadez-Blanco, Rogelio; Hernández-Carlos, Beatriz; Guadarrama-Mendoza, Paula C

    2017-01-01

    The food industry is becoming more specialized and processing methods are continuously being developed to meet consumer needs. Consumers demand products that are safe and preferably free of synthetic additives. These additives are associated with health effects, in most cases without reasonable justification. Consequently, consumers are looking for clearly labelled products that guarantee the absence of synthetic additives. This has led to the need to search for natural additives, which the food industry claims arenatural antioxidant preservatives. The sources of natural antioxidants can be extremely varied, because practically all plants contain antioxidants that allow them to protect themselves from solar radiation and pests, as well as to regulate the production of chemical energy. However, the best alternatives for the food industry are fruits and spices, because they are already foods themselves. This article will describe fruits and spices considered as important sources of phenolic antioxidants. The main medicinal properties are related to phenolic compounds and their uses as additives, depending on their chemical structure.

  4. Food Preservation by Irradiation. Vol. II. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In the task of alleviating the distress caused by the world-wide food shortage it is essential to preserve what has been grown and harvested in the fields. Clearly all suitable methods for preserving agricultural produce and food should be made use of. In this context treatment with ionizing radiation has proved its value as an environmentally clean, physical method of food preservation which is low in its energy requirement, but the volume of food being processed in this way is still low. The introduction of food irradiation on a global basis poses certain economic, legal, regulatory and health-related questions, the solution of which requires close international collaboration. Such collaboration between many international, intergovernmental and national organizations began over a decade ago. The need for dissemination and discussion of information gained through research and development work on this subject became apparent, and a number of inter-regional meetings were held. The last international symposium on the topic was held jointly by FAO and the IAEA in 1972 in Bombay. To review progress made since then, FAO and the IAEA, together with WHO, convened the present Symposium on 21-25 November 1977. It appeared timely to hold this Symposium for the following reasons: (1) Apart from significant scientific work reported in the literature, progress in other directions between 1972 and 1977 had also been made. For example, the number of food items authorized by governments, with or without restriction, had grown from 19 to 26, and the number of countries accepting one or more irradiated foods for human consumption had increased from 11 to 19. (2) Largely on the basis of the work of the International Project in the Field of Food Irradiation (Karlsruhe), already described at the Bombay Symposium, an international expert committee, jointly convened by FAO, the IAEA and WHO in August-September 1976, had made important statements on the philosophy of wholesomeness studies

  5. Food Preservation by Irradiation. Vol. I. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In the task of alleviating the distress caused by the world-wide food shortage it is essential to preserve what has been grown and harvested in the fields. Clearly all suitable methods for preserving agricultural produce and food should be made use of. In this context treatment with ionizing radiation has proved its value as an environmentally clean, physical method o f food preservation which is low in its energy requirement, but the volume of food being processed in this way is still low. The introduction o f food irradiation on a global basis poses certain economic, legal, regulatory and health-related questions, the solution o f which requires close international collaboration. Such collaboration between many international, intergovernmental and national organizations began over a decade ago. The need for dissemination and discussion o f information gained through research and development work on this subject became apparent, and a number of inter-regional meetings were held. The last international symposium on the topic was held jointly by FAO and the IAEA in 1972 in Bombay. To review progress made since then, FAO and the IAEA, together with WHO, convened the present Symposium on 21-25 November 1977. It appeared timely to hold this Symposium for the following reasons: (1) Apart from significant scientific work reported in the literature, progress in other directions between 1972 and 1977 had also been made. For example, the number of food items authorized by governments, with or without restriction, had grown from 19 to 26, and the number of countries accepting one or more irradiated foods for human consumption had increased from 11 to 19. (2) Largely on the basis of the work of the International Project in the Field of Food Irradiation (Karlsruhe), already described at the Bombay Symposium, an international expert committee, jointly convened by FAO, the IAEA and WHO in August-September 1976, had made important statements on the philosophy of wholesomeness

  6. Food preservation and security at household level in rural Nsukka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, food insecurity at the household level can partly be attributed to poor preservation of post-harvest surpluses. This study sought to demonstrate a relationship (if any) between preservation of post harvest surpluses and food security at rural household level. Eha-Alumona and Opi-Uno, in Nsukka, Enugu State were ...

  7. Influence of volatile compounds and food preservatives in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... suppress fumonisisin B1 production to maximum extent. Camphor at a concentration of 15 mg/ml could inhibit fumonisin B1 production among different food preservatives studied. From the above results it is concluded that volatile compounds and food preservatives can be employed in the management of fumonisins (B1) ...

  8. Utilization of irradiation on food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Han Ok; Byun, Myung Woo; Kwon, Joong Ho; Kim, Suk Won; Yang, Jae Sung; Cha, Bo Sook; Park, Ki Bum

    1987-12-01

    The present project was intended to ascertain the efficacy of irradiation both in the decontamination and storeability of mixed condiments for convenience food and in the long-term preservation of a Kimchi. Based upon the preliminary studies, irradiated sample with doses at 1-3 kGy were evaluated during the storage for 30 days at 10 deg C from the points of view of microbiological (total aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds, and coliforms), physicochemical (pH, total acidity, volatile acid, reducing sugar, ascorbic acid, and texture) and organoleptic qualities. Besides, the combined effect of irradiation with heating on the storeability was investigated for five species of the lactic acid bacteria associated with the Kimchi fermentation. Under the room temperature storage conditions, physicochemical qualities of the irradiated samples were evaluated by determining pH, rancidity (TBA number), proximate composition, amino nitrogen, amino acid, and color changes. In the overall evaluation of sensory quality for the irradiated Kimchi, the nonirradiated control group was inedible after 15 days of storage, whereas 2-3 kGy irradiation could prolong the storage-life of the Kimchi over 2 times compared with the nonirradiated control, showing the good sensory quality even after 30 days of storage. In comparative effects of irradiation and ethylene oxide both treatments affected more or less rancidity, color, and amino acid content, but less than 10 kGy irradiation was shown to be safer than ethylene oxide fumigation. Form the foregoing results, it can be concluded that if a selective method could be applied to the radiation sterilization of minor ingredients capable of mainly contaminating the mixed condiments, even lower doses of irradiation should be effective for the microbial control. (Author)

  9. Technology of food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai has demonstrated that radiation processing of foods can contribute to nations food security by reducing post-harvest losses caused by insect infestation, microbial-spoilage and physiological changes. The technology has commercial potential for the conservation of cereals, pulses and their products, spices, onions, potatoes, garlic, some tropical fruits, sea foods, meat and poultry. Irradiation can ensure hygienic quality in foods including frozen foods by eliminating food borne pathogens and parasitic organisms. It offers a viable environment friendly alternative to chemical fumigants for quarantine treatment against insect pests in agricultural and horticultural products entering international trade. The safety and nutritional adequacy of irradiated foods for human consumption is well established. About 40 countries including India have regulations permitting irradiation of foods and 28 countries are irradiating foods for processing industries and institutional catering

  10. Effect of Hurdle Technology in Food Preservation: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shiv; Shalini, Rachana

    2016-01-01

    Hurdle technology is used in industrialized as well as in developing countries for the gentle but effective preservation of foods. Hurdle technology was developed several years ago as a new concept for the production of safe, stable, nutritious, tasty, and economical foods. Previously hurdle technology, i.e., a combination of preservation methods, was used empirically without much knowledge of the governing principles. The intelligent application of hurdle technology has become more prevalent now, because the principles of major preservative factors for foods (e.g., temperature, pH, aw, Eh, competitive flora), and their interactions, became better known. Recently, the influence of food preservation methods on the physiology and behavior of microorganisms in foods, i.e. their homeostasis, metabolic exhaustion, stress reactions, are taken into account, and the novel concept of multi-target food preservation emerged. The present contribution reviews the concept of the potential hurdles for foods, the hurdle effect, and the hurdle technology for the prospects of the future goal of a multi-target preservation of foods.

  11. Role of vacuum in food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongirwar, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the processing of foods using operations viz. drying, evaporation, distillation, concentration, centrifugation, filtration, irradiation, freeze drying, osmotic drying etc. to get ready to eat food, convenience food, pre cooked dried food. Vacuum technology in direct or indirect way has played a vital role in carrying out these food processing operations. The role of vacuum in getting these processes developed and its use in the development of these high quality products with respect to colour, flavour, texture and other attributes has been highlighted along with process details. (author)

  12. Alternative food-preservation technologies: efficacy and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, Beatrice H; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2002-04-01

    High-pressure processing, ionizing radiation, pulsed electric field and ultraviolet radiation are emerging preservation technologies designed to produce safe food, while maintaining its nutritional and sensory qualities. A sigmoid inactivation pattern is observed in most kinetic studies. Damage to cell membranes, enzymes or DNA is the most commonly cited cause of death of microorganisms by alternative preservation technologies.

  13. Home Food Preservation among Families with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Lorraine J.; Sawicki, Marjorie A.; Elliott, Michael; White, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine preservation practices, perceived barriers, and likelihood of parents with young children to home preserve food in the future. Implications of this research relate to family and consumer sciences professionals who endeavor to improve fruit and vegetable intake and provide resources to families and…

  14. Irradiation pilot plants and experimental facilities available for food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    With the ever-increasing world food crisis mankind has to face today, the prevention of spoilage of perishable food is gaining in momentum. The World Food Conference (Rome, November 1974) of the United Nations clearly recognized the importance of food preservation and urged action in this field. Irradiation is one of the recently discovered methods to preserve food. Its practical introduction largely depends on three main factors: (a) proof of the safety for human consumption of the irradiated product, (b) technological feasibility and (c) economic competitiveness of the process. As data on safety for consumption ('wholesomeness') continue to become available, the number of countries authorizing the irradiation of certain food items is growing (present total: 17 countries), and the same is true for the number of licensed irradiated commodities (total: 23). Under these conditions, testing of the technological and economic feasibility of food irradiation is a matter of increasing importance. Economic feasibility of any industrial operation can only be studied in larger-scale experiments. Thus, they can only be performed with radiation sources larger than those found in laboratories, i.e. in pilot irradiators, capable of handling from a few hundred to a few thousand kilograms of material within a short period of time. The Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture has attempted to collect data on the availability, for food preservation, of suitable irradiators in Member States

  15. Recent advances in the preservation of food by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vas, K.

    1976-01-01

    There are two ways in which the world food problem can be attacked: (1) by increasing food production, that is, growing more food by utilizing agricultural knowledge and material input, and (2) by preserving more of the food that is already being produced by utilizing food science and technology. While both lines of action should be followed, it is logical that preservation should play a key role not only because it would reduce wastage of existing food that is desperately needed by millions of people, but also prevent the wastage of the energy invested in growing food. The preservation of food is, therefore, a vital technology, and studies of both traditional food preservation methods and new techniques should be actively pursued. The irradiation of food, usually by gamma rays from a cobalt-60 source, offers advantages over traditional methods, irradiation not only can delay the processes that lead to the onset of undesirable physiological changes (sprouting, over-ripening), microbial spoilage (rot, mould formation) and damage caused by insects, but also can kill disease-causing organisms that will infect the food if it is left untreated. It is rather surprising to find that after 25 years of extensive studies, practical introduction of food preservation by irradiation has only recently been started in one Member State of the IAEA. The main obstacles are of a psychological nature, but a number of other problems also remains to be solved. Nevertheless, it is clear that many questions have already been settled and significant progress has been made. Some of these developments will be briefly enumerated below. However, it should be noted right at the onset that, like the conventional methods, irradiation also has its limitations and cannot be considered a cure-all for all food problems under all conditions

  16. Methods combined with irradiation for food preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Pinela, José; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, consumers have been looking for safer, higher quality foods, but also more convenient and ready-to-eat. Quality assurance through the elimination of pathogenic microorganisms has been a major concern for the food industry. However, an alarming number of diseases are still caused by different foodborne pathogens, which cause hundreds of deaths.1 Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes are food poisoning microorganisms frequently involved in microbial outb...

  17. Food preservation technologies developed at BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    Food irradiation is important as it is being used to disinfest food grains, pulses, wheat flour, rice, semolina, raisins etc; quarantining and shelf life increasing of fruits like mangoes; microbial decontamination of spices; sprout inhibition of tubers and bulbs; shelf life increasing and pathogen control of meat and fish. Category-IV type irradiators based on gamma rays exposure of food are currently being employed for this purpose. Cobalt-60 isotope is produced in the nuclear reactors. Isotope gives gamma rays as its nucleus is unstable. The gamma rays pass through the food items and inhibit sprouting of tubers and bulbs, kill bacteria, virus and the larvae of insects

  18. EPR detection of foods preserved with ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowicz, W.; Burlinska, G.; Michalik, J.

    1998-06-01

    The applicability of the epr technique for the detection of dried vegetables, mushrooms, some spices, flavour additives and some condiments preserved with ionizing radiation is discussed. The epr signals recorded after exposure to gamma rays and to beams of 10 MeV electrons from linac are stable, intense and specific enough as compared with those observed with nonirradiated samples and could be used for the detection of irradiation. However, stability of radiation induced epr signals produced in these foods depends on storage condition. No differences in shapes (spectral parameters) and intensities of the epr spectra recorded with samples exposed to the same doses of gamma rays ( 60Co) and 10 MeV electrons were observed

  19. EPR detection of foods preserved with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachowicz, W.; Burlinska, G.; Michalik, J.

    1998-01-01

    The applicability of the epr technique for the detection of dried vegetables, mushrooms, some spices, flavour additives and some condiments preserved with ionizing radiation is discussed. The epr signals recorded after exposure to gamma rays and to the beams of 10 MeV electrons from linac are stable, intense and specific enough as compared with those observed with nonirradiated samples and could be used for the detection of irradiation. However, stability of radiation induced epr signals produced in these foods depends on storage condition. No differences in shapes (spectral parameters) and intensities of the epr spectra recorded with samples exposed to the same doses of gamma rays ( 60 Co) and 10 MeV electrons were observed

  20. EPR detection of foods preserved with ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachowicz, W.; Burlinska, G.; Michalik, J

    1998-06-01

    The applicability of the epr technique for the detection of dried vegetables, mushrooms, some spices, flavour additives and some condiments preserved with ionizing radiation is discussed. The epr signals recorded after exposure to gamma rays and to the beams of 10 MeV electrons from linac are stable, intense and specific enough as compared with those observed with nonirradiated samples and could be used for the detection of irradiation. However, stability of radiation induced epr signals produced in these foods depends on storage condition. No differences in shapes (spectral parameters) and intensities of the epr spectra recorded with samples exposed to the same doses of gamma rays ({sup 60}Co) and 10 MeV electrons were observed.

  1. Bacteriocins as food preservatives: Challenges and emerging horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eldin Maliyakkal; Jung, Dr Yong-Gyun; Jin, Dr Ying-Yu; Jayabalan, Dr Rasu; Yang, Dr Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo Won

    2017-09-07

    The increasing demand for fresh-like food products and the potential health hazards of chemically preserved and processed food products have led to the advent of alternative technologies for the preservation and maintenance of the freshness of the food products. One such preservation strategy is the usage of bacteriocins or bacteriocins producing starter cultures for the preservation of the intended food matrixes. Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized smaller polypeptide molecules that exert antagonistic activity against closely related and unrelated group of bacteria. This review is aimed at bringing to lime light the various class of bacteriocins mainly from gram positive bacteria. The desirable characteristics of the bacteriocins which earn them a place in food preservation technology, the success story of the same in various food systems, the various challenges and the strategies employed to put them to work efficiently in various food systems has been discussed in this review. From the industrial point of view various aspects like the improvement of the producer strains, downstream processing and purification of the bacteriocins and recent trends in engineered bacteriocins has also been briefly discussed in this review.

  2. Essential Oils: Sources of Antimicrobials and Food Preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhay K.; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, Nijendra N.; Bajpai, Vivek K.

    2017-01-01

    Aromatic and medicinal plants produce essential oils in the form of secondary metabolites. These essential oils can be used in diverse applications in food, perfume, and cosmetic industries. The use of essential oils as antimicrobials and food preservative agents is of concern because of several reported side effects of synthetic oils. Essential oils have the potential to be used as a food preservative for cereals, grains, pulses, fruits, and vegetables. In this review, we briefly describe the results in relevant literature and summarize the uses of essential oils with special emphasis on their antibacterial, bactericidal, antifungal, fungicidal, and food preservative properties. Essential oils have pronounced antimicrobial and food preservative properties because they consist of a variety of active constituents (e.g., terpenes, terpenoids, carotenoids, coumarins, curcumins) that have great significance in the food industry. Thus, the various properties of essential oils offer the possibility of using natural, safe, eco-friendly, cost-effective, renewable, and easily biodegradable antimicrobials for food commodity preservation in the near future. PMID:28138324

  3. Workshop report: The application of technology for food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razley Mohd Nordin

    1985-01-01

    A workshop on the application of ionizing technology for food preservation is reviewed. The major aim of this workshop is to introduce this new technology to the layman and local scientists so as to promote the new treatment in the local food industry

  4. Radiation preservation of food. Efficiency and wholesomeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Lebe, Louis; Raffi, Jacques; Henon, Yves.

    1982-03-01

    This document reviews the applications of ionizing radiations in the food industry. The two first chapters feature the characteristics of the three types of ionizing radiations that can be used (gamma rays from cobalt 60 and caesium 137, X rays, electron beams) and their action on foodstuff and the food spoilage organisms. The third chapter is a review of toxicological studies based on two complementary approaches: animal assays and studies on the radiolysis products. It provides the evidences that lead the international experts to regard irradiated food as safe for human consumption. In the fourth chapter, the problems of identification of irradiated food and the possible controls are exposed. The authors conclude by suggesting the measures that would allow commercial application in France [fr

  5. Use of nuclear energy to preserve man's food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeeuw, Dick de

    1976-01-01

    Food irradiation is one of these existing technologies. It is a physical method that can be used to preserve food from microbial and insect damage and infection, as well as from physiological deterioration. In other words, this method can extend the storage life of food considerably without noticeable change of the properties of the food commodity. The impact of food irradiation can be very great especially because of its contribution to the hygienization of food. Irradiation eliminates pathogens like Salmonella and other enterobacteria and replaces potential dangerous chemicals like ethylene oxide, methylbromide, maleic hydrazide. Furthermore, irradiation is a very low energy process compared with heating, freezing etc., and saves energy by reducing the frequency of food-transports. To save on energy is becoming very important. Over the past two decades, with our cheap energy and low-cost food economy, there was little impetus to push ahead with low energy processing such as food irradiation

  6. Food irradiation: physical-chemical, technological and economical background and competing methods of food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1994-01-01

    Physical, chemical and technical as well as economical background of food preservation by irradiation have been performed. The radiation sources and the elements of radiation chemistry connected with their use in food irradiation process have been shown. The problems of dosimetry and endurance of dose uniformity for processed products have been also discussed. The other methods of food preservation and their weakness and advantages have been also presented and compared with food irradiation method

  7. Recent approaches in food bio-preservation - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Veer Pal

    2018-01-01

    Bio-preservation is a technique of extending the shelf life of food by using natural or controlled microbiota or antimicrobials. The fermentation products as well as beneficial bacteria are generally selected in this process to control spoilage and render pathogen inactive. The special interest organism or central organism used for this purpose is lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their metabolites. They are capable to exhibit antimicrobial properties and helpful in imparting unique flavour and texture to the food products. The major compounds produced by LAB are bacteriocin, organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Bacteriocin is peptides or proteins with antimicrobial activity. On the basis of size, structure and post-translational modification, bacteriocin is divided into four different classes. Due to non-toxic, non-immunogenic, thermo-resistance characteristics and broad bactericidal activity, LAB bacteriocins are considered good bio-preservative agents. The most common LAB bactriocin is nisin which has wider applications in food industry and has been Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved. Nisin and other bacteriocin are being used in vegetables products, dairy and meat industries. Apart from LAB metabolites, bacteriophages and endolysins has promising role in food processing, preservation and safety. Bacteriocins and endolysins are more suitable for DNA shuffling and protein engineering to generate highly potent variants with expanded activity spectrum. Genetically modified bacteriophages may also be helpful in bio-preservation, however; their safety issues must be addressed properly before selection as bio-preservative agent.

  8. Recent approaches in food bio-preservation - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veer Pal Singh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bio-preservation is a technique of extending the shelf life of food by using natural or controlled microbiota or antimicrobials. The fermentation products as well as beneficial bacteria are generally selected in this process to control spoilage and render pathogen inactive. The special interest organism or central organism used for this purpose is lactic acid bacteria (LAB and their metabolites. They are capable to exhibit antimicrobial properties and helpful in imparting unique flavour and texture to the food products. The major compounds produced by LAB are bacteriocin, organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Bacteriocin is peptides or proteins with antimicrobial activity. On the basis of size, structure and post-translational modification, bacteriocin is divided into four different classes. Due to non-toxic, non-immunogenic, thermo-resistance characteristics and broad bactericidal activity, LAB bacteriocins are considered good bio-preservative agents. The most common LAB bactriocin is nisin which has wider applications in food industry and has been Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved. Nisin and other bacteriocin are being used in vegetables products, dairy and meat industries. Apart from LAB metabolites, bacteriophages and endolysins has promising role in food processing, preservation and safety. Bacteriocins and endolysins are more suitable for DNA shuffling and protein engineering to generate highly potent variants with expanded activity spectrum. Genetically modified bacteriophages may also be helpful in bio-preservation, however; their safety issues must be addressed properly before selection as bio-preservative agent.

  9. Utilization of irradiation on food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, H.O.; Kwon, J.H.; Byun, M.W.; Yang, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    The research programme in 1982 was conducted not only to develop the commercial storage method of sprouting foods by irradiation combined with natural low temperature and to sterilize the E.coli of ginseng and ginseng product but also to approach the development of the long term storage method of rice and barley. (Author)

  10. Preservation of food by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, E.S.; Peterson, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    This study is presented in three volumes. Vol. I: Presents a concise description of the philosophy of radiation, protection for people working with irradiation processes, including problems associated with the design and operation of a large facility and solutions to problems encountered. Radiation dosimetry and radiolytic effects in foods are also presented. Vol. II: Effects of radiation on bacteria and viruses are discussed as well as the lethal effect on microorganisms and insects. Also presented are the effects of irradiated food on packaging materials. Vol. III: The effects of radurization on meats, poultry, fish, shellfish, fruits, vegetables, and spices. Also included are the effects of irradiation for the use of shelf-life extension

  11. Why the concern about irradiation as a food preservation technique?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Irradiation is a food preservation process that like the more traditional and alternative methods is intended to keep food safe to eat by delaying the natural decomposition processes that result from bacterial action. Preservation of foods by irradiation, although still not available in Australia, is readily accepted in some 44 countries, including France. This project is set up to examine if a sample of fresh fruits and vegetables, when irradiated to the recommended 'preservation' dose level, becomes 'radioactive'. By placing the 'irradiated' sample, together with an identical 'control' sample of the same fresh fruit and vegetables, in an x-radiography cassette in a shielded 'cave', differences in film 'blackening' over the exposure period would indicate relative radioactivity from within the respective samples. Also, using simultaneous daily photographs of both the 'irradiated' and non-irradiated 'control' samples, the delay of onset of visible decay of both can be determined

  12. Basic Thermal Parameters of Selected Foods and Food Raw Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Božiková; Ľubomír Híreš; Michal Valach; Martin Malínek; Jan Mareček

    2017-01-01

    In general, processing and manipulation with foods and food raw materials have significant influence on their physical properties. The article is focused on thermophysical parameters measurement of selected foods and food raw materials. There were examined thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of selected materials. For detection of thermal parameters was used instrument Isomet 2104, which principle of measurement is based on transient methods. In text are presented summary results of ...

  13. Beneficial Effects of Spices in Food Preservation and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, Davide; Bukvicki, Danka; Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit K.

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been used since ancient times. Although they have been employed mainly as flavoring and coloring agents, their role in food safety and preservation have also been studied in vitro and in vivo. Spices have exhibited numerous health benefits in preventing and treating a wide variety of diseases such as cancer, aging, metabolic, neurological, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the most relevant and recent findings on spices and their active compounds in terms of targets and mode of action; in particular, their potential use in food preservation and enhancement of shelf life as a natural bioingredient. PMID:27708620

  14. Food preservation : relevance of nuclear techniques to developing nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiyar, A.S.; Sundaram, K.

    1977-01-01

    The usefulness of radiation processes over conventional methods for preservation of foods has been discussed in detail. There are five distinct objectives that can be achieved by exposing food to ionising radiation, and these are : (a) total elimination of food spoilage or disease-causing organisms, thus confering indefinite stability on the pre-packaged food; (b) significant reduction of spoilage microorganisms to enable extended shelf-life; (c) inactivation of organisms that poses public health hazards; (d) elimination of losses in dry foods due to insect infestation, by killing the eggs and their insects; and (e) control of post-harvest physiological processes such as sprouting, ripening etc. For highly perishable sea foods, such as, Bombay Duck, irradiation represents the only possible soultion to the problem of its preservation in the fresh state. An evaluation of the wholesomeness of irradiated mackerel is currently underway in India as part of an international effort at obtaining such data collectively, to minimise the enormour costs involved in such experimentation. Recently, clearances have been authorised for the release of irradiated foods for human consumption. A summary of international approvals for radiation preservation processes is presented. (A.K.)

  15. Utilization of irradiation on food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Han Ok; Kwon, Joong Ho; Byun, Myung Woo

    1985-04-01

    The number of total viable bacteria in chicken meat was reduced by over 90% with irradiation treatments of 5-10 kGy, and also an irradiation dose of yeasts, molds, coliforms, and especially Salmonella for 2-4 weeks of storage. In physicochemical properties of stored chichen, such as water holding capacity, TBA number, UBN, odor, color, overall appearance, cooking quality and organoleptic characteristics, the irradiated samples were superior to the nonirradiated samples, so the freshness of irradiated chicken was retained until 30 days ofter storage at 3-4degC. Commercial fried fish paste was comtaminated by 2.2x10 3 counts in total variable bacteria, 2.8x10 2 counts in yeasts and models, and 1.0x10 2 counts in coliforms, per gram of samples, but irradiation treatment of more than 3 kGy could reduce the microbial load up to 80-90%. As the storage period increased, chemical components of the irradiated samples were better than those of the nonirradiated samples, and the self-life of irradiated groups was extended by 3-4 times as compared with that of nonirradiated groups at room(10-20degC) and low(3-4degC) temperatures without apparent changes in organoleptic properties. Some packaged dried fishes, such as dried cod, dried squid, dried file fish and dried pollack, were preserved by irradiation under the room condictions. After storage of one year the by irradiated samples with doses of 3-8 kGy were found to be marketable resulting from organoleptic observations without showing any storage loss due to microbial and insect factors. (Author)

  16. The potential of food preservation to reduce food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Martindale, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    While we state it seems unthinkable to throw away nearly a third of the food we produce, we still continue to overlook that we are all very much part of this problem because we all consume meals. The amount of food wasted clearly has an impact on our view of what we think a sustainable meal is and our research suggests food waste is a universal function that can help us determine the sustainability of diets. Achieving sustainability in food systems depends on the utilisation of both culinary ...

  17. Development of Food Preservation and Processing Technologies by Radiation Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun

    2007-07-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following: As the first cooperative venture business technically invested by National Atomic Research Development Project, institute/company's [technology-invested technology foundation No. 1] cooperative venture, Sun-BioTech Ltd., was founded and stated its business. This suggested new model for commercialization and industrialization of the research product by nation-found institute. From the notice of newly approved product list about irradiated food, radiation health related legal approval on 7 food items was achieved from the Ministry of health and wellfare, the Korea Food and Drug Administration, and this contributed the foundation of enlargement of practical use of irradiated food. As one of the foundation project for activation of radiation application technology for the sanitation and secure preservation of special food, such as military meal service, food service for patient, and food for sports, and instant food, such as ready-to-eat/ready-to-cook food, the proposal for radiation application to the major military commander at the Ministry of National Defence and the Joint Chiefs of Staff was accepted for the direction of military supply development in mid-termed plan for the development of war supply. Especially, through the preliminary research and the development of foundation technology for the development of the Korean style space food and functional space food, space Kimch with very long shelf life was finally developed. The development of new item/products for food and life science by combining RT/BT, the development of technology for the elimination/reduction of

  18. Development of Food Preservation and Processing Technologies by Radiation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun [and others

    2007-07-15

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following: As the first cooperative venture business technically invested by National Atomic Research Development Project, institute/company's [technology-invested technology foundation No. 1] cooperative venture, Sun-BioTech Ltd., was founded and stated its business. This suggested new model for commercialization and industrialization of the research product by nation-found institute. From the notice of newly approved product list about irradiated food, radiation health related legal approval on 7 food items was achieved from the Ministry of health and wellfare, the Korea Food and Drug Administration, and this contributed the foundation of enlargement of practical use of irradiated food. As one of the foundation project for activation of radiation application technology for the sanitation and secure preservation of special food, such as military meal service, food service for patient, and food for sports, and instant food, such as ready-to-eat/ready-to-cook food, the proposal for radiation application to the major military commander at the Ministry of National Defence and the Joint Chiefs of Staff was accepted for the direction of military supply development in mid-termed plan for the development of war supply. Especially, through the preliminary research and the development of foundation technology for the development of the Korean style space food and functional space food, space Kimch with very long shelf life was finally developed. The development of new item/products for food and life science by combining RT/BT, the development of technology for the elimination/reduction of

  19. Development of Food Preservation and Processing Technologies by Radiation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun (and others)

    2007-07-15

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following: As the first cooperative venture business technically invested by National Atomic Research Development Project, institute/company's [technology-invested technology foundation No. 1] cooperative venture, Sun-BioTech Ltd., was founded and stated its business. This suggested new model for commercialization and industrialization of the research product by nation-found institute. From the notice of newly approved product list about irradiated food, radiation health related legal approval on 7 food items was achieved from the Ministry of health and wellfare, the Korea Food and Drug Administration, and this contributed the foundation of enlargement of practical use of irradiated food. As one of the foundation project for activation of radiation application technology for the sanitation and secure preservation of special food, such as military meal service, food service for patient, and food for sports, and instant food, such as ready-to-eat/ready-to-cook food, the proposal for radiation application to the major military commander at the Ministry of National Defence and the Joint Chiefs of Staff was accepted for the direction of military supply development in mid-termed plan for the development of war supply. Especially, through the preliminary research and the development of foundation technology for the development of the Korean style space food and functional space food, space Kimch with very long shelf life was finally developed. The development of new item/products for food and life science by combining RT/BT, the development of technology for the elimination/reduction of

  20. High oxygen as an additional factor in food preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amanatidou, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis, the efficacy of high oxygen as an additional hurdle for food preservation is studied. At high oxygen conditions and at low temperature, significant impairment of growth and viability of bacterial cells is found to occur as the result of free

  1. Gamma irradiation for food preservation and sterilization of medical supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Abid Husain; Mohammad Said Kadis

    1981-01-01

    A new technology in food preservation by using gamma irradiation was introduced and its advantages over a number of conventional processes were discussed. The new technique is also applicable in the sterilization of medical supplies. It is relatively simple and does not require very highly skilled manpower

  2. Recent approaches in food bio-preservation - a review | Singh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from LAB metabolites, bacteriophages and endolysins has promising role in food processing, preservation and safety. Bacteriocins and endolysins are more suitable for DNA shuffling and protein engineering to generate highly potent variants with expanded activity spectrum. Genetically modified bacteriophages may ...

  3. Preserving food in Asia and the Pacific region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-15

    At this time of increasing world population there is greater need than ever before to produce more food, especially in developing countries which have the fastest growth of population. Equally important, but often overlooked by most authorities, is the need to preserve food after harvest so that losses are reduced, more food is available, and the investment and energy employed in food production is effectively used. One method of reducing losses is to use ionizing energy in the form of gamma rays, electron, or X-rays to prevent food from spoiling because of micro-organisms, insect pests or physiological factors. This method can treat food in the final package without significantly altering its physico-chemical characteristics. The technique has been much studied in many countries over the past three decades. As most countries in the Asian and Pacific region are in tropical zones which make food especially vulnerable to spoilage losses this technique has received wide attention from food and nuclear scientists. In 1979, the Agency and the Government of Japan sponsored a special mission to evaluate the state of the art of this technology in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It was evident from the mission's report that most of these countries not only have active research and development programmes in the use of ionizing energy for food preservation but also are anxious to develop their programmes to reach practical application. Moreover, most countries in Asia and the Pacific have a common interest in using this technology to preserve fishery products, tropical fruits, onions, and spices. Consequently, the Government of Japan agreed to sponsor a research programme in this field as one of the Co-ordinated Research Programmes of the Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development. Started in 1980, the project will last for three years

  4. Preserving food in Asia and the Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    At this time of increasing world population there is greater need than ever before to produce more food, especially in developing countries which have the fastest growth of population. Equally important, but often overlooked by most authorities, is the need to preserve food after harvest so that losses are reduced, more food is available, and the investment and energy employed in food production is effectively used. One method of reducing losses is to use ionizing energy in the form of gamma rays, electron, or X-rays to prevent food from spoiling because of micro-organisms, insect pests or physiological factors. This method can treat food in the final package without significantly altering its physico-chemical characteristics. The technique has been much studied in many countries over the past three decades. As most countries in the Asian and Pacific region are in tropical zones which make food especially vulnerable to spoilage losses this technique has received wide attention from food and nuclear scientists. In 1979, the Agency and the Government of Japan sponsored a special mission to evaluate the state of the art of this technology in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It was evident from the mission's report that most of these countries not only have active research and development programmes in the use of ionizing energy for food preservation but also are anxious to develop their programmes to reach practical application. Moreover, most countries in Asia and the Pacific have a common interest in using this technology to preserve fishery products, tropical fruits, onions, and spices. Consequently, the Government of Japan agreed to sponsor a research programme in this field as one of the Co-ordinated Research Programmes of the Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development. Started in 1980, the project will last for three years

  5. Estimating parameters for probabilistic linkage of privacy-preserved datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adrian P; Randall, Sean M; Ferrante, Anna M; Semmens, James B; Boyd, James H

    2017-07-10

    Probabilistic record linkage is a process used to bring together person-based records from within the same dataset (de-duplication) or from disparate datasets using pairwise comparisons and matching probabilities. The linkage strategy and associated match probabilities are often estimated through investigations into data quality and manual inspection. However, as privacy-preserved datasets comprise encrypted data, such methods are not possible. In this paper, we present a method for estimating the probabilities and threshold values for probabilistic privacy-preserved record linkage using Bloom filters. Our method was tested through a simulation study using synthetic data, followed by an application using real-world administrative data. Synthetic datasets were generated with error rates from zero to 20% error. Our method was used to estimate parameters (probabilities and thresholds) for de-duplication linkages. Linkage quality was determined by F-measure. Each dataset was privacy-preserved using separate Bloom filters for each field. Match probabilities were estimated using the expectation-maximisation (EM) algorithm on the privacy-preserved data. Threshold cut-off values were determined by an extension to the EM algorithm allowing linkage quality to be estimated for each possible threshold. De-duplication linkages of each privacy-preserved dataset were performed using both estimated and calculated probabilities. Linkage quality using the F-measure at the estimated threshold values was also compared to the highest F-measure. Three large administrative datasets were used to demonstrate the applicability of the probability and threshold estimation technique on real-world data. Linkage of the synthetic datasets using the estimated probabilities produced an F-measure that was comparable to the F-measure using calculated probabilities, even with up to 20% error. Linkage of the administrative datasets using estimated probabilities produced an F-measure that was higher

  6. Utilization of irradiation on food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Han Ok; Kwon, Joong Ho; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Suck Won; Yang, Jae Seung

    1986-12-01

    Dried marine products showed some higher microbial contaminations than dried agricultural products and the load of microorganisms was different depending on the kind of samples. In comparative effects of radiation and ethylene oxide (E.O) fumigation, total aerobic and acid tolerant bacteria were reduced by 2 to 3 log orders by gamma irradiation at 3 to 5 KGy. The sterilizing doses for coliforms, fungi and total bacterial count were shown to be 5 KGy, 5 to 7 KGy, and 7 tp 10 KGy, respectively. D values of total bacterial count in dried agricultural and marine products ranged from 0.80 to 3.99 KGy. In the meantime, E.O. treatment proved insufficient to reduce the microbial load of highly contaminated samples below the 10 per gram of the international hygienic standard, especially in total aerobic bacteria, thermophiles and gun fungi. An optimum dose of irradiation had little detrimental effect on the chemical components of the sample, but E.O. treatment brought about a significant reduction especially in amino acid and ascorbic acid contents. The values of thiobarbituric acid(TBA), PH and trimethyleamine(TMA), as quality parameters, were more stable during the storage period in the irradiated groups than the control and E.O. treatment caused changes in color, leading to deterioration of overall appearance of the samples. Sensory evaluation after three months of storage at room temperatures indicated that the irradiated samples with doses of 5 to 10 KGy were more acceptable in the overall flavor and appearance of each product than the nontreated control group as well as the E.O. fumigated samples

  7. Essential oils: extraction, bioactivities, and their uses for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-07-01

    Essential oils are concentrated liquids of complex mixtures of volatile compounds and can be extracted from several plant organs. Essential oils are a good source of several bioactive compounds, which possess antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. In addition, some essential oils have been used as medicine. Furthermore, the uses of essential oils have received increasing attention as the natural additives for the shelf-life extension of food products, due to the risk in using synthetic preservatives. Essential oils can be incorporated into packaging, in which they can provide multifunctions termed "active or smart packaging." Those essential oils are able to modify the matrix of packaging materials, thereby rendering the improved properties. This review covers up-to-date literatures on essential oils including sources, chemical composition, extraction methods, bioactivities, and their applications, particularly with the emphasis on preservation and the shelf-life extension of food products. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. The Use of Plant Antimicrobial Compounds for Food Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, Tana; Matthews, Karl K.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne disease is a global issue with significant impact on human health. With the growing consumer demand for natural preservatives to replace chemical compounds, plant antimicrobial compounds must be thoroughly investigated for their potential to serve as biopreservatives. This review paper will focus on the plant-derived products as antimicrobial agents for use in food preservation and to control foodborne pathogens in foods. Structure, modes of action, stability, and resistance to these plant compounds will be discussed as well as their application in food industries and possible technologies by which they can be delivered. Benefits as well as challenges, such as the need for further research for implementation and governmental regulation, will be highlighted. PMID:26539472

  9. Basic Thermal Parameters of Selected Foods and Food Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Božiková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, processing and manipulation with foods and food raw materials have significant influence on their physical properties. The article is focused on thermophysical parameters measurement of selected foods and food raw materials. There were examined thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of selected materials. For detection of thermal parameters was used instrument Isomet 2104, which principle of measurement is based on transient methods. In text are presented summary results of thermal parameters measurement for various foods and food raw materials as: granular materials – corn flour and wheat flour; fruits, vegetables and fruit products – grated apple, dried apple and apple juice; liquid materials – milk, beer etc. Measurements were performed in two temperature ranges according to the character of examined material. From graphical relations of thermophysical parameter is evident, that thermal conductivity and diffusivity increases with temperature and moisture content linearly, only for granular materials were obtained non‑linear dependencies. Results shows, that foods and food raw materials have different thermal properties, which are influenced by their type, structure, chemical and physical properties. From presented results is evident, that basic thermal parameters are important for material quality detection in food industry.

  10. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Soo [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cherl Ho; Park, Hyun Jin [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Il Jun [Hallym Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jung Ho [Kyungbook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following; Processing techniques of low salted and fermented fish using gamma irradiation were developed and superiority of using irradiation to conventional food processing methods was established. Processing technique of value-added functional materials for the manufacture of food or public health products using RT/BT/NT combination technology was developed. The basic theories for the technology development to reduce toxic or undesirable compounds in food such as allergy or carcinogens were established. Exterminating methods of quarantine organisms in herbs/spices was established and the quality evaluation and detection conditions in quarantine treatment were set. From the studies on 'program of public understanding' based on safety of the gamma irradiated food, the information for public relation in enlargement of consumer acceptance/implementation and the peaceful use of nuclear energy were secured. Results from the research project will contribute on improvement of competency of domestic food industry and export market. The results also expect the improvement of public health by prevention of food borne diseases and enhancement of national economy and industry by increase of direct/indirect productivity.

  11. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Hak Soo; Lee, Cherl Ho; Park, Hyun Jin; Kang, Il Jun; Kwon, Jung Ho

    2002-05-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following; Processing techniques of low salted and fermented fish using gamma irradiation were developed and superiority of using irradiation to conventional food processing methods was established. Processing technique of value-added functional materials for the manufacture of food or public health products using RT/BT/NT combination technology was developed. The basic theories for the technology development to reduce toxic or undesirable compounds in food such as allergy or carcinogens were established. Exterminating methods of quarantine organisms in herbs/spices was established and the quality evaluation and detection conditions in quarantine treatment were set. From the studies on 'program of public understanding' based on safety of the gamma irradiated food, the information for public relation in enlargement of consumer acceptance/implementation and the peaceful use of nuclear energy were secured. Results from the research project will contribute on improvement of competency of domestic food industry and export market. The results also expect the improvement of public health by prevention of food borne diseases and enhancement of national economy and industry by increase of direct/indirect productivity

  12. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Soo [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cherl Ho; Park, Hyun Jin [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Il Jun [Hallym Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jung Ho [Kyungbook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following; Processing techniques of low salted and fermented fish using gamma irradiation were developed and superiority of using irradiation to conventional food processing methods was established. Processing technique of value-added functional materials for the manufacture of food or public health products using RT/BT/NT combination technology was developed. The basic theories for the technology development to reduce toxic or undesirable compounds in food such as allergy or carcinogens were established. Exterminating methods of quarantine organisms in herbs/spices was established and the quality evaluation and detection conditions in quarantine treatment were set. From the studies on 'program of public understanding' based on safety of the gamma irradiated food, the information for public relation in enlargement of consumer acceptance/implementation and the peaceful use of nuclear energy were secured. Results from the research project will contribute on improvement of competency of domestic food industry and export market. The results also expect the improvement of public health by prevention of food borne diseases and enhancement of national economy and industry by increase of direct/indirect productivity.

  13. Food preservation experiment by irradiation in the south zone of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levit, Vladimir; Santos, Ari S.; Foes, Altair D.R.; Vaniel, Ana P.; Louzada, Ana R.; Silveira, Cristina M.; Jardim, Lisandra F.; Mesko, Marcia F.

    2000-01-01

    The south zone of the state of Rio Grande do Sul is characterized as an area of great food production as fruits, vegetables, meats, fish among others. In Brazil, the state RS is the producing greater of onion and peach. It was intended to study the use of the irradiation for the propose of preservation of peaches and onions, relating the diverse doses with the capacity of conservation of the peaches and retardation in the process of budding of onions. It was objective also to follow the changes in the properties of the peaches and onions radiated related to the physic-chemical and nutritional parameters, as well as determining the dose of radiation that is more efficient in the preservation and that provokes minor number of alterations in the sensorial and nutritional properties of these foods. In the process of preservation for irradiation the foods are submitted to a field of ionizing radiation in rigorously burst conditions in mode that the food receives the amount from necessary and enough energy for the intended handling. Different doses of gamma radiation of 60 Co had been used and the reached results show to the effectiveness of this technique in the preservation of studied foods

  14. Combination of preservation factors applied to minimal processing of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia de Daza, M S; Alzamora, S M; Chanes, J W

    1996-07-01

    Innovative technologies for producing minimally processed (MP) foods that apply the concept of combination of preservation factors are addressed in this article with special emphasis on a new combined approach that has been successfully applied in several Latin American countries for MP high-moisture fruit products (HMFP). HMFP can be regarded as a different approach to the commercially available and widely accepted MP concept for fruits and vegetables (even if developed for the same purpose of obtaining freshlike high-quality products with an extended shelf life) that is better adapted to Latin American countries in terms of independence of the chill chain and the use of simple and energy-efficient technologies. The continuous refrigeration hurdle associated with MP refrigerated fruits is not included in the preservation system of HMFP because a different combination of hurdles must be overcome to enhance the shelf stability of nonrespiring vegetable tissues while preserving freshlike character. Guidelines to obtain safe and high-quality MP fruit products are proposed. Other products preserved by combined factors technology are also discussed, as well as some other classical and new preservation factors whose application could enhance the quality of HMFP.

  15. Alternative Food Preservation Techniques, New Technology in Food Preparation and Appropriateness of Food Supply for the Permanently Manned Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Alternative food preservation techniques are defined as unique processes and combinations of currently used processes for food preservation. Food preservation is the extension of the useful shelf-life of normally perishable foods (from harvest to final consumption) by controlling micro-organisms, enzymes, chemical changes, changes in sensory characteristics and the prevention of subsequent recontamination. The resulting products must comply with all applicable food manufacturing practice regulations and be safe. Most of the foods currently used in both space and military feeding are stabilized either by dehydration or the use of a terminal sterilization process. Other available options would be formulation to reduce water activity, the refrigeration and freezing of perishable foods, chemical addition, and physical treatment (ionizing or nonionizing radiation or mechanical action). These alternatives are considered and proposals made.

  16. Associations between sleep parameters and food reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Jessica; Cadieux, Sébastien; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John E; Doucet, Éric

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the effects of acute, isocaloric aerobic and resistance exercise on different sleep parameters, and whether changes in these sleep parameters between sessions were related to next morning food reward. Fourteen men and women (age: 21.9 ± 2.7 years; body mass index: 22.7 ± 1.9 kg m(-) ²) participated in three randomized crossover sessions: aerobic exercise; resistance exercise; and sedentary control. Target exercise energy expenditure was matched at 4 kcal kg(-1) of body weight, and performed at 70% of VO2peak or 70% of 1 repetition-maximal. Sleep was measured (accelerometry) for 22 h following each session. The 'wanting' for visual food cues (validated computer task) was assessed the next morning. There were no differences in sleep parameters and food 'wanting' between conditions. Decreases in sleep duration and earlier wake-times were significantly associated with increased food 'wanting' between sessions (P = 0.001). However, these associations were no longer significant after controlling for elapsed time between wake-time and the food reward task. These findings suggest that shorter sleep durations and earlier wake-times are associated with increased food reward, but these associations are driven by elapsed time between awakening and completion of the food reward task. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  17. Application of Bacteriocins and Protective Cultures in Dairy Food Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia C. G. Silva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the human health risk posed by the use of chemical preservatives in foods. In contrast, the increasing demand by the dairy industry to extend shelf-life and prevent spoilage of dairy products has appeal for new preservatives and new methods of conservation. Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides, which can be considered as safe since they can be easily degraded by proteolytic enzymes of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. Also, most bacteriocin producers belong to lactic acid bacteria (LAB, a group that occurs naturally in foods and have a long history of safe use in dairy industry. Since they pose no health risk concerns, bacteriocins, either purified or excreted by bacteriocin producing strains, are a great alternative to the use of chemical preservatives in dairy products. Bacteriocins can be applied to dairy foods on a purified/crude form or as a bacteriocin-producing LAB as a part of fermentation process or as adjuvant culture. A number of applications of bacteriocins and bacteriocin-producing LAB have been reported to successful control pathogens in milk, yogurt, and cheeses. One of the more recent trends consists in the incorporation of bacteriocins, directly as purified or semi-purified form or in incorporation of bacteriocin-producing LAB into bioactive films and coatings, applied directly onto the food surfaces and packaging. This review is focused on recent developments and applications of bacteriocins and bacteriocin-producing LAB for reducing the microbiological spoilage and improve safety of dairy products.

  18. Microbiological Problems in Food Preservation by Irradiation. Report of a Panel on Microbiological Problems in Food Preservation by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Irradiation is a technique that may increasingly be employed to help preserve the world's food supplies. Some countries have already given public-health clearance for particular irradiated foodstuffs, and pilot and semi-industrial irradiation plants have already been established or are under construction. Wide-spread industrial application is likely in the not too distant future. However, there are still problems to be solved; some of these are microbiological. A Panel on Microbiological Problems in Food Preservation by Irradiation was organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture on 27 June to 1 July 1966. A detailed evaluation was made of research and development needs in radicidation (i.e. destroying micro-organisms harmful to human health), in radurization (i.e. extending the shelf life of perishable foods by reducing the spoilage micro-organisms in it), in the elimination of viruses and in the inactivation of preformed toxins. The Panel also considered the unification and standardization of experimental methodology. Recommendations were drawn up for the Directors General of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and of the International Atomic Energy Agency on how these two organizations could best fulfil their roles in this field. It was considered important to continue sponsoring and co-ordinating research.. Establishing an international pilot and demonstration plant was thought essential for progress in development work, especially on radicidation. Experts on radio- and food microbiology and a representative of the World Health Organization attended the meeting. The proceedings contains the contributions of the members of the Panel together with the general conclusions and recommendations

  19. Health protection and food preservation by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Results of several major studies on food systems for space missions beginning with Apollo 12 through Apollo-Soyuz and investigations of the application of irradiation to food for manned space flight are reported. The study of flight food systems involved the application of radurization (pasteurizing levels) doses of gamma irradiation to flour and bread supplied by Pepperidge Farms in advance of the missions. All flights from Apollo 12 through 17 carried irradiated fresh bread. On Apollo 17, cooperation with Natick Laboratories permitted the introduction of a ham sandwich using irradiated bread and irradiated sterile ham. Investigations centered on irradiated bread were conducted during the course of these missions. Studies were applied to the concept of improving fresh bread from the point of view of mold inhibition. The studies considered how irradiation could best be applied at what levels and on a variety of bread types. Throughout the studies of the application of gamma irradiation the emphasis was placed upon using low levels of irradiation in the pasteurizing or radurizing doses--under a Megarad. The primary goal was to determine if a public health benefit could be demonstrated using radurization along with food preservation and food quality improvements. The public health benefit would be parallel to that of pasteurization of milk as a concept. Publications are included providing the details of these observations, one dealing with the flour characteristics and the other dealing with the influence on fresh bread types. These demonstrate the major findings noted during the period of the studies examining bread.

  20. Novel approaches in food-processing technology: new technologies for preserving foods and modifying function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, D

    1999-10-01

    Recent advances in emerging food-processing technologies, such as high hydrostatic pressure or high-intensity electric field pulses, allow targeted and sophisticated modification and preservation of foods. We are beginning to understand the mechanisms involved in pressure inactivation of bacterial spores and have been collecting considerable amounts of kinetic data regarding inactivation mechanisms of enzymes and vegetative microorganisms. We are also gaining more insight into the permeabilization of plant membranes and related biosynthetic responses, making progress in food structure engineering and food modification for function, and have been initiating process developments for gentle processing of delicate biomaterials based on pressure-assisted phase transitions of water.

  1. Nanosystems in Edible Coatings: A Novel Strategy for Food Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Zambrano-Zaragoza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, nanotechnology represents an important tool and an efficient option for extending the shelf life of foods. Reducing particle size to nanometric scale gives materials distinct and improved properties compared to larger systems. For food applications, this technology allows the incorporation of hydrophilic and lipophilic substances with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties that can be released during storage periods to increase the shelf life of diverse products, including whole and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, nuts, seeds, and cheese, among others. Edible coatings are usually prepared with natural polymers that are non-toxic, economical, and readily available. Nanosystems, in contrast, may also be prepared with biodegradable synthetic polymers, and liquid and solid lipids at room temperature. In this review, recent developments in the use of such nanosystems as nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanocomposites, and nanoemulsions, are discussed critically. The use of polymers as the support matrix for nanodispersions to form edible coatings for food preservation is also analyzed, but the central purpose of the article is to describe available information on nanosystems and their use in different food substrates to help formulators in their work.

  2. Perspectives of high power ultrasound in food preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evelyn; Silva, F. V. M.

    2018-04-01

    High Power ultrasound can be used to alter physicochemical properties and improve the quality of foods during processing due to a number of mechanical, chemical, and biochemical effects arising from acoustic cavitation. Cavitation creates pressure waves that inactivate microbes and de-agglomerate bacterial clusters or release ascospores from fungal asci. Bacterial and heat resistant fungal spores’ inactivation is a great challenge in food preservation due to their ability to survive after conventional food processing, causing food-borne diseases or spoilage. In this work, a showcase of application of high power ultrasound combined with heat or thermosonication, to inactivate bacterial spores i.e. Bacillus cereus spores in beef slurry and fungal spores i.e. Neosartorya fischeri ascospores in apple juice was presented and compared with thermal processing. Faster inactivation was achieved at higher TS (24 KHz, 0.33 W/g or W/mL) temperatures. Around 2 log inactivation was obtained for B. cereus spores after1 min (70 °C) and N. fischeri ascospores after 30 min (75 °C). Thermal treatments caused <1 log in B. Cereus after 2 min (70 °C) and no inactivation in N. Fischeri ascospores after 30 min (80 °C). In conclusion, temperature plays a significant role for TS spore inactivation and TS was more effective than thermal treatment alone. The mould spores were more resistant than the bacterial spores.

  3. Nanosystems in Edible Coatings: A Novel Strategy for Food Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Zaragoza, María L.; González-Reza, Ricardo; Miranda-Linares, Verónica; Bernal-Couoh, Tania F.; Mendoza-Elvira, Susana; Quintanar-Guerrero, David

    2018-01-01

    Currently, nanotechnology represents an important tool and an efficient option for extending the shelf life of foods. Reducing particle size to nanometric scale gives materials distinct and improved properties compared to larger systems. For food applications, this technology allows the incorporation of hydrophilic and lipophilic substances with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties that can be released during storage periods to increase the shelf life of diverse products, including whole and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, nuts, seeds, and cheese, among others. Edible coatings are usually prepared with natural polymers that are non-toxic, economical, and readily available. Nanosystems, in contrast, may also be prepared with biodegradable synthetic polymers, and liquid and solid lipids at room temperature. In this review, recent developments in the use of such nanosystems as nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanocomposites, and nanoemulsions, are discussed critically. The use of polymers as the support matrix for nanodispersions to form edible coatings for food preservation is also analyzed, but the central purpose of the article is to describe available information on nanosystems and their use in different food substrates to help formulators in their work. PMID:29494548

  4. Use of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in food preservation: Recent advances and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpenyong, Christopher E; Akpan, Ernest E

    2017-08-13

    The economic burdens and health implications of food spoilage are increasing. Contamination of food sources by fungi, bacteria, yeast, nematodes, insects, and rodents remains a major public health concern. Research has focused on developing safer natural products and innovations to meet consumers' acceptance as alternatives to synthetic food preservatives. Many recent novel preservative techniques and applications of both natural and synthetic origin continue to proliferate in food and chemical industries. In particular, some essential oils of plant origin are potent food preservatives and are thus attractive alternatives to synthetic preservatives. This paper provides an overview of recent advances and future prospects in assessing the efficacy of the use of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) essential oil in food preservation. The possible mechanisms of action and toxicological profile as well as evidence for or against the use of this essential oil as an alternative to synthetic food preservatives in domestic and industrial applications are discussed.

  5. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Yook, Hong Sun; Lee, Ju Woon and others

    2000-03-01

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamm irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in pork and chicken meats. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Pork loin ham with desirable color was also developed without using of sodium nitrite that is known as a carcinogen. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepatocarcinogenesis and the antioxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation at about 1 kGy completely eliminated the parasites in foods and drinking water. In the study of quarantine treatment of apple and pear for export by gamma irradiation, current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of apple and pear. However, irradiation doses at 1-3 kGy was suitable for controlling pests and did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. The result of the survey to assess the public understanding indicated that the irradiated food had somewhat negative impression to general public. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a public education and information program by using mass communication and by constructing communication system to obtain the enhanced impression from the general public

  6. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Yook, Hong Sun; Lee, Ju Woon and others

    2000-03-01

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamm irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in pork and chicken meats. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Pork loin ham with desirable color was also developed without using of sodium nitrite that is known as a carcinogen. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepatocarcinogenesis and the antioxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation at about 1 kGy completely eliminated the parasites in foods and drinking water. In the study of quarantine treatment of apple and pear for export by gamma irradiation, current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of apple and pear. However, irradiation doses at 1-3 kGy was suitable for controlling pests and did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. The result of the survey to assess the public understanding indicated that the irradiated food had somewhat negative impression to general public. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a public education and information program by using mass communication and by constructing communication system to obtain the enhanced impression from the general public.

  7. Status of radiation preservation of foods in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padwal-Desai, S.R.; Sharma, A.

    1994-01-01

    Food irradiation involves controlled application of radiation energy to agricultural commodities and other foodstuffs for improving hygiene, safety and shelf-life. A number of processes including hygienization of spices and condiments, disinfestation of grains, legumes, and their products, sprout inhibition of onion and potato, delay in ripening of mango and banana, radurization and radicidation of meat and fish have been studied. Collaborative studies have established the efficacy of the process. The technology offers a viable commercial proposition for food conservation and safety. The idea to use ionising radiation for preservation of foods originated almost a century ago. Though today the technology is poised for full scale commercial exploitation, it has undergone several ups and downs due mainly to the perception of users at different points of time. Even today it is difficult to eliminate completely, the fear psychosis in the public mind created by the display of devastating power of atom and radiation during World War II. The chemical revolution of 50s and 60s made all other now ecofriendly technologies appear dim. Nevertheless relentless efforts of the scientists and recognition of the hazards that chemicals posed turned the tide and the technology got its legitimate place in the service of mankind. (author). 5 refs., 6 tabs

  8. Report: Potential of nano-emulsions as phytochemical delivery system for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Zaffar; Jahangir, Muhammad; Liaquat, Muhammad; Shah, Syed Wasim Ahmad; Khan, Muhammad Mumtaz; Stanley, Roger; D'Arcy, Bruce

    2017-11-01

    Nature is a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals. These plant based compounds have rich scope as antioxidants, antimicrobial compounds and food preservatives and so for long time to be used in meat, fruits, vegetables and processed food items, either as added preservative or as coating material in various food applications, but the major limitation is their limited solubility in a food grade medium. Nano-emulsion is a best choice as a medium having vast area of application. The major advantage of nano-emulsion would be the solubility of a vast group of compounds, due to the presence of water and lipid phases. In this way, nano-emulsions can be proved to be the most suitable candidate as phytochemical delivery system for food preservation. In present article, the use of phytochemicals as potent food preservatives has been reviewed, in context of solubility of phytochemicals in nano-emulsion and applications of food grade nano-emulsions to food systems.

  9. Improved applicability of nisin in novel combinations with other food preservation factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, I.E.

    2001-01-01

    General discussion

    Modern consumers nowadays, have a preference for more natural, mildly preserved food products with a fresh appearance over traditionally preserved products. Mild preservation techniques applied singly are usually not sufficient to control microbial

  10. Application of physics technology in the preservation of food and fresh fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yaxiang; Hu Yucai; Xu Jianping

    2003-01-01

    Physics provides a new way for food storage and preservation. Experiments show that application of radiation, electrostatic fields, high voltage pulsed electric fields and microwaves to food, fruits and vegetables plays the part of insecticide, pasteurization and antisepsis without damaging nutritional structure and original flavor. Recent advances in the application of physics technology in food pasteurization and preservation are summarized, and prospects for future developments presented

  11. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Yook, Hong Sun; Lee, Ju Woon and others

    1999-03-01

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamma irradiation at 2-10 kGy is considered to be an effective method to control pathogenic bacteria in species including Escherichia coli O157:H7. Gamma irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in beef. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Gamma irradiation on pre-rigor beef shortens the aging-period, improves tenderness and enhances the beef quality. And, a new beef processing method using gamma irradiation, such as in the low salt sausage and hygienic beef patty was developed. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats(beefs: 0-5 kGy; porks: 0-30 kGy) in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepato carcinogenesis and the anti oxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide, which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export and import, some selected agricultural products, such as chestnuts, acorns, red beans and mung beans, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach.Current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfecting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of agricultural produce. However, irradiation doses suitable for controlling pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. (author)

  12. Status, Antimicrobial Mechanism, and Regulation of Natural Preservatives in Livestock Food Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the status, antimicrobial mechanisms, application, and regulation of natural preservatives in livestock food systems. Conventional preservatives are synthetic chemical substances including nitrates/nitrites, sulfites, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, and potassium sorbate. The use of artificial preservatives is being reconsidered because of concerns relating to headache, allergies, and cancer. As the demand for biopreservation in food systems has increased, new natural antimicrobial compounds of various origins are being developed, including plant-derived products (polyphenolics, essential oils, plant antimicrobial peptides (pAMPs)), animal-derived products (lysozymes, lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, ovotransferrin, antimicrobial peptide (AMP), chitosan and others), and microbial metabolites (nisin, natamycin, pullulan, ε-polylysine, organic acid, and others). These natural preservatives act by inhibiting microbial cell walls/membranes, DNA/RNA replication and transcription, protein synthesis, and metabolism. Natural preservatives have been recognized for their safety; however, these substances can influence color, smell, and toxicity in large amounts while being effective as a food preservative. Therefore, to evaluate the safety and toxicity of natural preservatives, various trials including combinations of other substances or different food preservation systems, and capsulation have been performed. Natamycin and nisin are currently the only natural preservatives being regulated, and other natural preservatives will have to be legally regulated before their widespread use.

  13. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. isolated from chicken samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Buket; Demirhan, Burak; Onurdag, Fatma Kaynak; Ozgacar, Selda Özgen; Oktem, Aysel Bayhan

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella spp. are widespread foodborne pathogens that contaminate egg and poultry meats. Attachment, colonization, as well as biofilm formation capacity of Salmonella spp. on food and contact surfaces of food may cause continuous contamination. Biofilm may play a crucial role in the survival of salmonellae under unfavorable environmental conditions, such as in animal slaughterhouses and processing plants. This could serve as a reservoir compromising food safety and human health. Addition of antimicrobial preservatives extends shelf lives of food products, but even when products are supplemented with adequate amounts of preservatives, it is not always possible to inhibit the microorganisms in a biofilm community. In this study, our aims were i) to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBIC) of selected preservatives against planktonic and biofilm forms of Salmonella spp. isolated from chicken samples and Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 standard strain, ii) to show the differences in the susceptibility patterns of same strains versus the planktonic and biofilm forms to the same preservative agent, and iii) to determine and compare antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. For this purpose, Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 standard strain and 4 Salmonella spp. strains isolated from chicken samples were used. Investigation of antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. was done according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M100-S18 guidelines and BioTimer assay, respectively. As preservative agents, pure ciprofloxacin, sodium nitrite, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, methyl paraben, and propyl paraben were selected. As a result, it was determined that MBIC values are greater than the MIC values of the preservatives. This result verified the resistance seen in a biofilm community to food

  14. Gamma irradiation as a means of food preservation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pim, L.R.

    1983-11-01

    The status of food irradiation has changed significantly in the past three years with the establishment of inter-national standards by the Codex Alimentarious Commission of the United Nations and the setting of wholesomeness guidelines for a wide variety of foods by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on Food Irradiation. This report examines: the technology of food irradiation; the biochemical, nutritional and microbiological effects on food, with special attention paid to radiolytic products and their possible toxicity; the economic feasibility of a food irradiation industry; food irradiation in Canada -experience, outlook and regulatory proposals, and consumer reaction to irradiated foods; and presents conclusions and recommendations to Health and Welfare Canada and to Consumer and Corporate Affairs Canada

  15. Fish and food preservation by radiation in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) has been engaged for the last two decades in research and development activities in food irradiation and has been actively participating in research projects under the Regional Project in Food Irradiation (RPFI) of the RCA countries since its inception. The Institute of Food and Radiation Biology (IFRB) of the Commission has been using since 1979 a 50,000 curie Cobalt-60 gamma source (Gamma beam-650) for R and D and pilot-scale studies on food irradiation. The present status of food irradiation and its prospects of commercial introduction in Bangladesh are described

  16. The Antibacterial Potential of Fermented Taro and Its Development as a Food Preservative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muller, Wayne

    2002-01-01

    ...: The antibacterial potential of the fermented taro and its development as a food preservative. In an attempt to understand the natural fermentation of taro to poi, bacteria have been isolated from freeze dried poi produced in Hawaii...

  17. 5 Steps to Food Preservation Program Meets the Needs of Idaho Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Lorie; Hoffman, Katie

    2014-01-01

    University of Idaho FCS Extension Educators in southeastern Idaho developed a five-lesson condensed version of safe food preservation classes, driven by participants' interest to meet the needs of everyday home preservers. A post-test survey revealed that participants took the course to be self-reliant, use their own produce, and be in control of…

  18. Is food irradiation an alternative to chemical preservation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1987-01-01

    The history is presented of food irradiation. The foods irradiated and the doses used are reported. The industrial use of food irradiation is restricted to a single industrial irradiation plant in Japan and several small facilities for irradiating herbs and feeds for special laboratory animal breeds. The limited application of the method is caused by high prices of radiation sources and adverse side effects (potato rotting, bad smell of meat, etc.). (M.D.). 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. Recent approaches in food bio-preservation - a review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes

    2018-03-19

    Mar 19, 2018 ... Department of Livestock Products Technology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, U.P. Pt. Deen ... bacteriophages may also be helpful in bio-preservation, however; their safety issues must be addressed properly before selection ... Fermentation process produces numbers of beneficial ...

  20. Vibro-thermal disinfestor for preservation of food grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chander, Ramesh; Dey, Chandan; Singh, Manjit

    2009-01-01

    Division of Remote Handling and Robotics (DRHR) along with Food Technology Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre has developed a simple vibro-thermal based system for disinfestations of food grains. This paper brings out the technical details of the system. (author)

  1. Application of low dose radiation for preservation of sea foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.; Nair, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Treatment of food with low doses of gamma radiation has been recognized to have two main advantages. These consist of: (1) improvement of food safety by elimination of pathogens and (2) reduction of microbial spoilage and extension of shelf life of perishable items by reducing the number of viable spoilage organisms. Studies during the last few decades have conclusively proved the beneficial effects of radiation with respect to fishery products. The three potential areas of application to fish products include: (i) radurization for shelf life extension (ii) radicidation to eliminate food borne pathogens in the products and (iii) radiation treatment to dried products to control insects

  2. Nanomaterials for fresh-keeping and sterilization in food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongfang; Gu, Ning

    2009-06-01

    Food sterilizing and antistaling technologies are very important to the public's health and safety and have been attracting more and more attentions. In the past several years, new development chance was created by the introduction of nanomaterials to this critical field. Nanomaterials possess lots of outstanding properties, such as unique quantum size effect, large surface area and catalytic properties, which jointly facilitate high effective fresh-keeping, and thus were considered as promising materials in food sterilization and antistale. This review article focuses on the patented applications of nanomaterials as food biocidal agents, bacteriostatic agents, catalysts and carriers for antistaling agents.

  3. Food Preservation Manual: A Guide for School-Community Canneries in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jasper S., Ed.; Wood, Charles B.

    The manual was intended primarily for use by lay instructors and assistants involved in the daily operation of school-community canneries under the supervision of a high school agricultural education instructor. The first half deals in detail with the fundamentals of food preparation and cannery operation. Food preservation by canning, sanitation…

  4. Economic Feasibility Study for Using Irradiation Technology in Preservation of Animalism Foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gameel, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study discus the economic feasibility for the preservation animalism foods by using irradiation technology. This study has included the technical data, regression foretelling for the throughput, determination of irradiators types and radiation sources activity. This study comprises the financial analysis for the establishment animalism foods irradiation facilities (types: tote box, pallet conveyor) and the national return

  5. Food Preservation Mini-Modules Offer Options for Learners and Extension Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Renewed interest in growing and purchasing locally grown foods quadrupled requests for food preservation classes. Economic times tightened budgets, decreasing staffing levels of Extension educators. Offering options via the Internet was a natural progression to meet the increased demand. Extension educators created 20 5-minute online video--like…

  6. Detailed process design based on genomics of survivors of food preservation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brul, S.; Klis, F.M.; Oomes, S.J.C.M.; Montijn, R.C.; Schuren, F.H.J.; Coote, P.; Hellingwerf, K.J.

    2002-01-01

    The food processing industry is faced with an ever-increasing demand for safe and minimally processed wholesome foods. In order to come to a knowledge-based rather than a mainly empirical combination of appropriate preservation hurdles, we will introduce the application of the recently booming

  7. Nuclear technology applied to food preservation and sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvez, M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation to conserve and sterilize food dates back to 1995, when the first tests were performed in USA as part of the Atoms for peace program. After much controversy, the most prestigious international organizations- OECD, code Alimentarius, FDA and EC have not only authorized but also recommended its use. It is a proven fact that food irradiation provides optimum results for inhibition treatment of tuber shoots, elimination of insects from fruits and seeds, delaying the maturing processes of fruit and elimination of alternative microorganisms and pathogens in any type of food. Food is treated in two types of plants: 1.- Radioactive isotope plants or gamma radiation plants 2.- electron accelerator plants (beta radiation plants). These two types of plants are thoroughly legislated, as are the form and doses of the treatments. Commercial food irradiation is done in 32 countries in the world but is authorized in more than 40, and the WHO recommends that the method be used on a widespread basis, as it believes that it can help to improve food-related health worldwide. (Author) 5 refs.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of coriander oil and its effectiveness as food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Filomena; Domingues, Fernanda C

    2017-01-02

    ABTRACT Foodborne illness represents a major economic burden worldwide and a serious public health threat, with around 48 million people affected and 3,000 death each year only in the USA. One of the possible strategies to reduce foodborne infections is the development of effective preservation strategies capable of eradicating microbial contamination of foods. Over the last years, new challenges for the food industry have arisen such as the increase of antimicrobial resistance of foodborne pathogens to common preservatives and consumers demand for naturally based products. In order to overcome this, new approaches using natural or bio-based products as food preservatives need to be investigated. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a well-known herb widely used as spice, or in folk medicine, and in the pharmacy and food industries. Coriander seed oil is the world's second most relevant essential oil, exhibiting antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, some yeasts, dermatophytes and filamentous fungi. This review highlights coriander oil antimicrobial activity and possible mechanisms of action in microbial cells and discusses the ability of coriander oil usage as a food preservative, pointing out possible paths for the successful evolution for these strategies towards a successful development of a food preservation strategy using coriander oil.

  9. Evaluation of the economic feasibility of radiation preservation of selected food commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balazs-Sprincz, V.

    1977-01-01

    Food preservation methods have increased in importance with the rapid increase in world population. A novel preservation method, ionizing radiation, shows promising applications. Its economic feasibility has been carefully studied for the last two decades. The article reviews the literature on the economics of food irradiation. Cost-benefit analyses on irradiation of grain for disinfestation, on potatoes and onions for sprout inhibition and on mushrooms for retarding growth are surveyed in the first part. Calculations based on data of a few food-irradiation pilot plants and non-food irradiation plants indicate the cost range of the radiation treatment of these food items. The unit cost of irradiation would be only a few per cent of the value of produce treated and would not exceed the order of cost of other conventional preservation methods. The second part surveys the economic aspects of the application of ionizing radiation to food items including strawberries, certain tropical fruits, meat and marine products. The cost levels would seem to be acceptable to food processors. A food-irradiation plant would cost US$ 10 5 -10 6 and the annual operating cost would be from US$ 20000 to US$ 2 million. The prospective benefit of food irradiation would far outweigh the cost of treatment. Improved product quality, decreased spoilage losses and extension of shelf-life are considered to constitute the main benefits of food irradiation. (author)

  10. Facets of Nanotechnology as Seen in Food Processing, Packaging, and Preservation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Neha; Singh, Surjit; Ojha, Nupur; Shrivastava, Anamika; Barla, Anil; Rai, Vivek; Bose, Sutapa

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has proven its competence in almost all possible fields we are aware of. However, today nanotechnology has evolved in true sense by contributing to a very large extent to the food industry. With the growing number of mouths to feed, production of food is not adequate. It has to be preserved in order to reach to the masses on a global scale. Nanotechnology made the idea a reality by increasing the shelf life of different kinds of food materials. It is not an entirely full-proof measure; however it has brought down the extent of wastage of food due to microbial infestation. Not only fresh food but also healthier food is being designed with the help of nano-delivery systems which act as a carrier for the food supplements. There are regulations to follow however as several of them pose serious threats to the wellbeing of the population. In coming days, newer modes of safeguarding food are going to be developed with the help of nanotechnology. In this paper, an overview has been given of the different methods of food processing, packaging, and preservation techniques and the role nanotechnology plays in the food processing, packaging, and preservation industry.

  11. Facets of Nanotechnology as Seen in Food Processing, Packaging, and Preservation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Neha; Singh, Surjit; Ojha, Nupur; Shrivastava, Anamika; Barla, Anil; Rai, Vivek; Bose, Sutapa

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has proven its competence in almost all possible fields we are aware of. However, today nanotechnology has evolved in true sense by contributing to a very large extent to the food industry. With the growing number of mouths to feed, production of food is not adequate. It has to be preserved in order to reach to the masses on a global scale. Nanotechnology made the idea a reality by increasing the shelf life of different kinds of food materials. It is not an entirely full-proof measure; however it has brought down the extent of wastage of food due to microbial infestation. Not only fresh food but also healthier food is being designed with the help of nano-delivery systems which act as a carrier for the food supplements. There are regulations to follow however as several of them pose serious threats to the wellbeing of the population. In coming days, newer modes of safeguarding food are going to be developed with the help of nanotechnology. In this paper, an overview has been given of the different methods of food processing, packaging, and preservation techniques and the role nanotechnology plays in the food processing, packaging, and preservation industry. PMID:26613082

  12. Preservation of Fish by Irradiation. Proceedings of a Panel on the Irradiation Preservation of Foods of Marine Origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    The increasing emphasis on the need for protein-rich foods to improve the nutritional status of the world’s population has stimulated research on new methods of preserving fishery products. The sea offers a source of protein that could markedly reduce the protein gap existing in many parts of the world. The major problem in attaining a more complete exploitation of these products is how to preserve them so that they can be transported from the points of origin to areas of greatest need. The use of ionizing radiation as a preservation method has been satisfactorily demonstrated in many countries. In some respects it offers advantages over conventional methods; for example, it prolongs the market life without using heat or chemicals, and what is more, the products are treated while they are sealed in commercial types of containers. Although radiation processing appears feasible, additional research is needed to improve certain quality attributes of some treated foods and to demonstrate to the satisfaction of health authorities' that no deleterious effects result. To obtain advice on the problems that need attention a Panel on Irradiation Preservation of Foods of Marine Origin was convened in Vienna, by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture, on 15—19 December 1969. The main purpose of the panel’s work was to advise the Director General of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency on how these organizations can best fulfil their roles in radiation research on fishery products. The meeting was attended by thirteen experts from various countries and one representative of the World Health Organization. Reports were presented on research performed and detailed discussions were held on work done in perfecting the radurization treatment of fishery products. Evaluations were made of the microbiology of the radurization process, with special reference to

  13. Preservation of Fish by Irradiation. Proceedings of a Panel on the Irradiation Preservation of Foods of Marine Origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1970-11-15

    The increasing emphasis on the need for protein-rich foods to improve the nutritional status of the world's population has stimulated research on new methods of preserving fishery products. The sea offers a source of protein that could markedly reduce the protein gap existing in many parts of the world. The major problem in attaining a more complete exploitation of these products is how to preserve them so that they can be transported from the points of origin to areas of greatest need. The use of ionizing radiation as a preservation method has been satisfactorily demonstrated in many countries. In some respects it offers advantages over conventional methods; for example, it prolongs the market life without using heat or chemicals, and what is more, the products are treated while they are sealed in commercial types of containers. Although radiation processing appears feasible, additional research is needed to improve certain quality attributes of some treated foods and to demonstrate to the satisfaction of health authorities' that no deleterious effects result. To obtain advice on the problems that need attention a Panel on Irradiation Preservation of Foods of Marine Origin was convened in Vienna, by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture, on 15-19 December 1969. The main purpose of the panel's work was to advise the Director General of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency on how these organizations can best fulfil their roles in radiation research on fishery products. The meeting was attended by thirteen experts from various countries and one representative of the World Health Organization. Reports were presented on research performed and detailed discussions were held on work done in perfecting the radurization treatment of fishery products. Evaluations were made of the microbiology of the radurization process, with special reference to the

  14. Judgement of irradiation-preserved food by the adult population in Hungary (preliminary publication)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolnay, P.; Szabo, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    A wide survey by questionnaires was started in 1997 in the subject area of Nutrition and Health. Part of this survey was directed toward the acceptance of preserved food by irradiation treatment by the public. The results have been evaluated here and presented. The main problem was to find out the differences of various segments of the Hungarian adult population in their judgement of irradiated food, and what is the general knowledge in relation with radiopreservation technology of food. (R.P.)

  15. The role of packaging in preserving the quality of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varsanyi, I.

    1979-01-01

    The causes of food decomposition and the different conserving methods are reviewed. Among the physical conserving procedures the ionizing gamma and electron radiations are more and more widely used. The applied radiation dose is intended to exterminate even the most resistant microorganisms, e.g. the spores of Clostridium botulinum, but it should not damage the food product. The appropiate packaging material should be chosen according to the conserving technology, as radiation may alter the consistence of modern plastics (they become more rigid or fragile) or chemical disintegration can be induced rendering the product unenjoyable. (L.E.)

  16. Chitosan-incorporated different nanocomposite HPMC films for food preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuga Priya, D.; Suriyaprabha, R.; Yuvakkumar, R.; Rajendran, V.

    2014-02-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles were synthesized by cross-linking with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) using ionic gelation method and casted into hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films. XRD, FTIR, and UV-Vis spectra showed the corresponding phase, characteristic peaks of CS-TPP functional groups, and transmittance of the films, respectively. Oleic acid, TiO2, neem powder, and Ag of equal ratio were added as an additive to the optimized 1 wt% of chitosan-HPMC films and studied for its mechanical, solubility, thermal, structural, and antimicrobial property. The better physio-chemical and biological properties are achieved in the films incorporated with TiO2 and neem. The characterized films were directly tested for the preservation of grape and plums and for their decay index. Polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activity of the preserved fruits showed that grape and plums remained unchanged, respectively, for 10 days and for 3 weeks. This study reveals that shelf life of the grape using TiO2- and neem-doped CS-HPMC films was extended up to 10 days with good sensory and textural qualities compared with other films.

  17. Application of edible coating with essential oil in food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jian; Xie, Yunfei; Guo, Yahui; Cheng, Yuliang; Qian, He; Yao, Weirong

    2018-03-26

    Compared with other types of packaging, edible coatings are becoming more and more popular because of their more environmentally friendly properties and active ingredients carrying ability. The edible coating can reduce the influence of essential oils (EOs) on the flavor of the product and also can prolong the action time of EOs through the slow-release effect, which effectively promote the application of EOs in food. Understanding the different combinations of edible coatings and EOs as well as their antimicrobial effects on different microorganisms will be more powerful and targeted to promote the application of EOs in real food systems. The review focus on the contribution of the combination of EOs and edible coatings (EO-edible coatings) to prolong the shelf life of food products, (1) specifically addressing the main materials used in the preparation of EO-edible coatings and the application of EO-edible coatings in the product, (2) systematically summarizing the main production method of EO-edible coatings, (3) discussing the antiseptic activity of EO-edible coatings on different microorganisms in food.

  18. Possible use of ionizing radiation in food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salkova, Z.

    1975-01-01

    An informative survey is presented of the application of ionizing radiation in the food industry based on experiments performed and literary data. The possibility of radiation treatment of potatoes, onions and strawberries is discussed and the positive effect of experimentally determined gamma radiation doses on the extension of storage of meat is shown

  19. Radiation Dosimetry for Quality Control of Food Preservation and Disinfestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, Arne; Uribe, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    In the use of x and gamma rays and scanned electron beams to extend the shelf life of food by delay of sprouting and ripening, killing of microbes, and control of insect population, quality assurance is provided by standardized radiation dosimetry. By strategic placement of calibrated dosimeters...

  20. Interaction of antimicrobial preservatives with blow-fill-seal packs: correlating sorption with solubility parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Aeshna; Dare, Manish; Sangamwar, Abhay; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the interaction of four commonly used ophthalmic antimicrobial preservatives [benzyl alcohol (BA), chlorbutol (CBL), benzalkonium chloride (BKC), and chlorhexidine gluconate (CG)] with Blow-Fill-Seal (BFS) packs. Effect of packaging material [low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP)], humidity (25% RH, 75% RH) and concentration (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mM BA/CBL in LDPE) was studied. BKC and CG gave negligible loss (<4%) in BFS packs over a period of 3 months. BA and CBL, however, gave marked losses in LDPE (ca. 70-90%) and PP (ca. 7-25%) packs. Humidity did not have any effect on the sorption loss of any preservative. Loss of BA switched from Case II to anomalous behavior with increasing initial concentration. A two-stage sorption behavior was inherent at all concentrations. Loss of CBL followed anomalous behavior with biphasic kinetics of loss. It was concluded that all the four preservatives were appropriate for use in PP BFS packs. However, only BKC and CG were amenable to be used in LDPE BFS packs. Lastly, an empirical expression consisting of the "solubility parameter distance" and "molar volume" of preservatives was developed to correlate the preservative loss in LDPE with the physicochemical properties of the preservatives.

  1. Preservation of food by cold chains. Part 4. Brief history of the industrial food preservation; Conservering van voedingsmiddelen door koudeketens. Deel 4. Korte historie van de industriele voedingsmiddelenconservering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Berg, C.; Berends, E.

    2011-10-01

    This is the fourth article in the series on cold chain food preservation, which describes the use of refrigeration in the food industry. Milestones were the building of cold chains for food distribution and new processes such as margarine and lager beer, and the scaling up of existing processes (e.g. for dairy, meat and fish products). By quick freezing, introduced by Clarence Birdseye in 1925, refrigeration can also be used for long term preservation of food products, as a powerful alternative for canning food. [Dutch] Dit vierde artikel in de reeks 'voedingsmiddelenconservering door koudeketens' completeert de beknopte historie van de voedingsmiddelenindustrie met een overzicht van het in gebruik nemen van de koelmachine. Mijlpalen zijn het ontstaan van koudeketens voor voedseldistributie en de nu mogelijk geworden nieuwe processen, de bereiding van pilsbier en margarine, de opschaling van bereidingsprocessen en het lange-afstandtransport van bederfelijke producten zoals zuivelproducten, vlees en vis. Door diepvriezen als methode aan te wenden, uitgevonden door Clarence Birdseye in 1925, kan koude ook worden gebruikt om voedingsmiddelen lang houdbaar te maken, een superieur alternatief voor inblikken van voedsel.

  2. Studies on the preservation of food by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.K.; Umeda, K.

    1979-01-01

    This work was conducted to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on the preservation of potato. The Irish Cobbler potato tubers were irradiated at the doses of 7 krad and 15 krad of gamma ray of Co-60 at room temperature. When the potato tubers were stored under various conditions, the freshness and preservability of irradiated potato tubers were remarkably extended by 20, June. The results of this work are summarized as follows: The potato tubers applied with 15 krad of gamma ray were observed freshness without any shrinkage and defects. The potato tubers of control rotted and sprouted completely on 3, March. All tubers of them were cured at 7 0 C and relative humidity of 90% for a month before irradiation and they were treated at 18-20 0 C and RH 80% for 2 weeks after irradiation. They were stored at the above mentioned conditions. Reducing Sugar content of irradiated potato tubers was negligibly changed such as non-irradiated potato tubers along with an extended storage period, when they, as pre-and post-irradiation, were stored at 7 0 C and RH 90%. If they were treated at 18-20 0 C and RH 80% for 2 weeks after irradiation, reducing sugar content of the potato tubers was temporarily increased and then it was decreased as much as the former. As the result of microscopic test for the wound-peridom formation of potato tubers, the dark brown cork layer of wounded tuber of control was perfectly built up at about 2 weeks of the post wound, and starch particles have disappeared almost. The cork layer of irradiated potato tuber was formed at 3-4 weeks after wounded and also starch particles were not watched. The layers irradiated potato was observed the same as cork layer of sound potato. (author)

  3. Food-processing, packaging and irradiation/preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, Jyothi

    2017-01-01

    The present talk describes the major projects being carried out in FFACS during last few years. One of the major aims of the section is development of ready-to-cook (RTC) vegetables and ready-to-eat (RTE) fruits with improved shelf life using radiation processing. RTC vegetables and fruits (French beans, ash gourd, drumstick, pumpkin, cabbage, cauliflower and pomegranate having shelf life of 2-3 days at 10 °C) with enhanced shelf life (up to 21 days at 10°C) were developed using radiation treatment. The developed products were far superior as compared to the corresponding control samples with respect to sensory and microbial quality during the intended storage period. The findings have helped the food industry in adoption of food irradiation technology. The products developed are now being taken up by HyperCITY Retail (India) Ltd. for sale on their shelves

  4. Food preservation by ionizing radiation in Nigeria. Present and future status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olorunda, A.O.; Aboaba, F.O.

    1978-01-01

    Research into the use of ionizing radiation in food preservation in Nigeria is still in its very infancy and most of the work done to date is at the exploratory stage. Such work has, however, demonstrated the potential of ionizing radiation in prolonging the shelf-life of yams and, possibly, onions. The paper reviews the present status of the use of radiation food preservation in Nigeria. The present research programme of the Faculty of Technology, University of Ibadan, which includes a wider application of ionizing radiation to fruit and vegetable preservation and grain storage, is also highlighted. The primary objectives of this programme are to establish the wholesomeness of the irradiated foods and the economics of the process. (author)

  5. Effects of food preservatives on growth and metabolism of plaque bacteria in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leikanger, S.; Bjertness, E.; Aamdal Scheie, A.

    1992-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the consumption of food preservatives during the last decades, and to study the effect of the preservatives, sorbic and benzoic acid, on growth and glycolysis of oral bacteria in vitro, and on acid formation by dental plaque in vivo. Five consumption reports from the Central Bureau of Statistics of Norway were used to estimate alterations in consumption of staple food containing the two preservatives. A modified broth dilution method was used to determine the MIC values of the preservatives against Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus sanguis. Extracellular 14 C-glycolytic metabolites were studied by HPLC analyses. Plaque-pH measurements were used to assess possible effects on acid production. The consumption reports were used to assess possible effects on acid production. The consumption reports indicated increased consumption of preservatives. The in vitro testing suggested that legal concentrations of preservatives may inhibit the growth of oral streptococci. However, the preservatives did not inhibit in vitro glycolysis at tested concentrations. In vivo testing with similar concentrations (0.4% w/v) showed a significant effect. A higher concentration (2% w/v potassium sorbate) had a tendency to inhibit acid-formation by dental plaque even more. (au)

  6. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto,; Budiyono

    2015-01-01

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration

  7. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  8. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto,; Budiyono [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof. H. Soedarto, SH, Kampus Baru Tembalang, Semarang (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  9. Role of intracanalicular volumetric and dosimetric parameters on hearing preservation after vestibular schwannoma radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massager, Nicolas; Nissim, Ouzi; Delbrouck, Carine; Devriendt, Daniel; David, Philippe; Desmedt, Francoise; Wikler, David; Hassid, Sergio; Brotchi, Jacques; Levivier, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the relationship between hearing preservation after gamma knife radiosurgery (GKR) for vestibular schwannoma (VS) and some volumetric and dosimetric parameters of the intracanalicular components of VS. Methods and Materials: This study included 82 patients with a VS treated by GKR; all patients had no NF2 disease, a Gardner-Robertson hearing class 1-4 before treatment, a marginal dose of 12 Gy, and a radiologic and audiologic follow-up ≥1 year post-GKR. The volume of both the entire tumor and the intracanalicular part of the tumor and the mean and integrated dose of these two volumes were correlated to the auditory outcomes of patients. Results: At last hearing follow-up, 52 patients had no hearing worsening, and 30 patients had an increase of ≥1 class on Gardner-Robertson classification. We found that hearing preservation after GKR is significantly correlated with the intracanalicular tumor volume, as well as with the integrated dose delivered to the intracanalicular tumor volume. Conclusions: Some volumetric and dosimetric parameters of the intracanalicular part of the tumor influence hearing preservation after GKR of VS. Consequently, we advise the direct treatment of patients with preserved functional hearing and a VS including a small intracanalicular volume

  10. Plants and mushrooms as sources of bio-based food coloring, preserving and bioactive agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2018-01-01

    Food additives have been used for thousands of years to enhance food properties, safety and appearance. Nevertheless, several of the worldwide used artificial additives have been related to potential toxic and allergenic effects to the consumers, which has been justifying the growing interest in additives of natural origin that provide colouring, preserving, and bioactive properties to foodstuff without hazardous effects [1]. In this context, several plants and mushrooms have been...

  11. The Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Microorganisms in Food Preservation

    OpenAIRE

    M. Arici

    2006-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is a new food preservation technology known for its capacity to inactivate spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. High-pressure treatments are receiving a great deal of attention for the inactivation of microorganisms in food processing, pressure instead of temperature is used as stabilizing factor. High hydrostatic pressure treatment is the most studied alternative process, many works reported successful results in inactivating a wide range of microorganisms under ...

  12. The application of nuclear track microhole membrance in food preservation through irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Defeng; Li Xianhai

    1999-01-01

    The author introduces a new practical air-seeping and germ-prevention packing container made with a combination of the 0.1-0.5 μm borediameter nuclear track microhole membrane (NTMM) and the PE food wrapper or other poisonous less PE containers of different shapes. It can be applied in the field of food preservation, especially for storage of fresh fruits through irradiation, to achieve breathing with oxygen, and thus to prolong the storage duration

  13. Potential use of Rosemary, Propolis and Thyme as Natural Food Preservatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzima, K.; Makris, D.; Nikiforidis, C.V.; Mourtzinos, I.

    2015-01-01

    The use of preservatives in food stuffs and beverages is essential in order to prevent spoilage due to microbial growth or undesirable chemical changes. However, the use of synthetic additives has been associated with various health problems. Therefore, consumers have turned suspicious and obverted

  14. Exposure assessment of food preservatives (sulphites, benzoic and sorbic acid) in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischek, Daniela; Krapfenbauer-Cermak, Christine

    2012-01-01

    An exposure assessment was performed to estimate the potential intake of preservatives in the Austrian population. Food consumption data of different population groups, such as preschool children aged 3-6 years, female and male adults aged 19-65 years were used for calculation. Levels of the preservatives in food were derived from analyses conducted from January 2007 to August 2010. Dietary intakes of the preservatives were estimated and compared to the respective acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). In the average-intake scenario, assuming that consumers randomly consume food products that do or do not contain food additives, estimated dietary intakes of all studied preservatives are well below the ADI for all population groups. Sulphite exposure accounted for 34%, 84% and 89% of the ADI in preschool children, females and males, respectively. The mean estimated daily intake of benzoic acid was 32% (preschool children), 31% (males) and 36% (females) of the ADI. Sorbic acid intakes correspond to 7% of the ADI in preschool children and 6% of the ADI in adults. In the high-intake scenario assuming that consumers always consume food products that contain additives and considering a kind of brand loyalty of consumers, the ADI is exceeded for sulphites among adults (119 and 124%, respectively). Major contributors to the total intake of sulphites were wine and dried fruits for adults. Mean estimated dietary intakes of benzoic acid exceeded the ADI in all population groups, 135% in preschool children, 124% in females and 118% of the ADI in males, respectively. Dietary intakes of sorbic acid are well below the ADI, accounting for a maximum of 30% of the ADI in preschool children. The highest contributors to benzoic and sorbic acid exposure were fish and fish products mainly caused by high consumption data of this large food group, including also mayonnaise-containing fish salads. Other important sources of sorbic acid were bread, buns and toast bread and fruit and vegetable

  15. Terminalia arjuna: A novel natural preservative for improved lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of muscle foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insha Kousar Kalem

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to explore the possibility of utilization of Terminalia arjuna as a novel natural preservative in meat products by using chevon sausages as a model system. Chevon sausages were prepared by incorporating different levels of T. arjuna viz. T1 (0.25%, T2 (0.50% and T3 (0.75% and were assessed for various lipid oxidative stability and storage quality parameters under refrigerated (4 ± 1 °C conditions. T. arjuna showed a significant (p < 0.05 effect on the lipid oxidative stability as the treated products exhibited significantly (p < 0.05 lower TBARS (mg malonaldehyde/kg values in comparison to control. A significant (p < 0.05 effect was also observed on the microbial stability as T. arjuna incorporated products showed significantly (p < 0.05 lower values for total plate count (log cfu/g, psychrophilic count (log cfu/g, yeast and mould count (log cfu/g and FFA (% oleic acid values. Significantly (p < 0.05 higher scores were observed for various sensory parameters of the products incorporated with T. arjuna during refrigerated storage. T. arjuna successfully improved the lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of the model meat product and may be commercially exploited as a novel preservative in muscle foods. Keywords: Terminalia arjuna, Chevon sausages, Natural preservative, Lipid oxidation, Storage quality

  16. Safe structural food bolus in elderly: the relevant parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenberghe-Descamps, Mathilde; Septier, Chantal; Prot, Aurélie; Tournier, Carole; Hennequin, Martine; Vigneau, Evelyne; Feron, Gilles; Labouré, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    Mastication is essential to prepare food into a bolus ready to be swallowed safely, with no choking risk. Based on food bolus properties, a masticatory normative indicator was developed by Woda et al. (2010) to identify impaired masticatory function within good oral health population. The aim of the present study was to identify relevant parameters of bolus' structure to differentiate safe to unsafe bolus among elderly contrasting by their dental status.93 elderly, 58% with at least 7 posteri...

  17. Eucalyptus essential oil as a natural food preservative: in vivo and in vitro antiyeast potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Bukvicki, Danka; Gottardi, Davide; Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Malik, Anushree; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the application of eucalyptus essential oil/vapour as beverages preservative is reported. The chemical composition of eucalyptus oil was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and solid phase microextraction GC-MS (SPME/GC-MS) analyses. GC-MS revealed that the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (80.5%), limonene (6.5%), α-pinene (5%), and γ-terpinene (2.9%) while SPME/GC-MS showed a relative reduction of 1,8-cineole (63.9%) and an increase of limonene (13.8%), α-pinene (8.87%), and γ-terpinene (3.98%). Antimicrobial potential of essential oil was initially determined in vitro against 8 different food spoilage yeasts by disc diffusion, disc volatilization, and microdilution method. The activity of eucalyptus vapours was significantly higher than the eucalyptus oil. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) varied from 0.56 to 4.50 mg/mL and from 1.13 to 9 mg/mL, respectively. Subsequently, the combined efficacy of essential oil and thermal treatment were used to evaluate the preservation of a mixed fruit juice in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest eucalyptus oil as a potent inhibitor of food spoilage yeasts not only in vitro but also in a real food system. Currently, this is the first report that uses eucalyptus essential oil for fruit juice preservation against food spoiling yeast.

  18. Comparative Effects of Food Preservatives on the Production of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin I from Staphylococcus aureus Isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanying Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal enterotoxin I (SEI is associated with staphylococcal food poisoning, but little is known about different food preservatives on the production of SEI. In this study, the effect of different food preservatives (sodium nitrite, polylysine, chitosan, and tea catechin on the bacteria growth, sei gene expression, and extracellular SEI production of Staphylococcus aureus isolate H4 was detected in tryptone soya broth (TSB culture. Our results showed that all of these preservatives depressed S. aureus H4 growth and the order of inhibitory effect was 0.8 g/L tea catechin > 6 g/L chitosan > 0.25 g/L polylysine > 0.4 g/L tea catechin > 0.15 g/L sodium nitrite. Furthermore, 0.25 g/L polylysine or 0.15 g/L sodium nitrite did not significantly alter sei gene transcription, while 6 g/L chitosan obviously increased the relative mRNA level of sei gene expression. 0.4 g/L tea catechin remarkably inhibited sei gene transcription. In addition, 0.15 g/L sodium nitrite and 6 g/L chitosan significantly enhanced SEI secretion. 0.25 g/L polylysine, especially 0.4 g/L tea catechin, sharply inhibited the level of SEI secretion. The results indicated that tea catechin not only suppressed Staphylococcus aureus growth, but also inhibited SEI production and secretion, suggesting that tea catechin may be better than sodium nitrite, polylysine, or chitosan for keeping the food from the contamination of SEI. These investigations would be useful for food industry to provide safer food products due to S. aureus enterotoxins-related control strategy.

  19. Lowering of thermal stress in food preservation by reduction of the thermal resistance of microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, I.

    1981-01-01

    Preservation of foodstuffs by heat treatment is a high-energy process the intensity of which is widely determined by the high thermoresistance of microbes and spores. However, tests revealed that germ numbers can be reduced and heat sensitivity of the spores can be increased by radiation treatment of the food additives. Thus the heat load of the products and the energy consumption could be reduced. (author)

  20. Knowledge and attitudes of selected home ecnomists toward irradiation in food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, F.C.S.

    1990-01-01

    Preservation of food with ionizing radiation treatment offers many benefits to consumers. Among other factors, the lack of certainty of the acceptance of this process by the public has slowed its commercial use in the U.S. Since home economists deal with food-related issues, it is likely that they will be asked questions by the public about this process. This project was designed to obtain information using a survey method about the knowledge and attitudes of selected California home economists toward the use of irradiation to preserve food. The information was used to determine whether a need existed to provide education about the irradiation process to these professionals. The survey revealed that these home economists lacked knowledge about the irradiation process, although they had a positive attitude toward it and desired to learn more about it. Based on these findings, a 90-minute statewide teleconference was conducted and viewed by more than 300 home economists and other interested professionals. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to analyze the data. Results revealed that (a) knowledge of and a positive attitude toward food irradiation increased as a result of participation in the teleconference, (b) the information provided was helpful, and (c) the objectives of the teleconference were met. This project should be replicated using a nationwide sample of home economists to obtain information about the knowledge and attitudes of a wide range of home economists about food irradiation and, if a need is demonstrated, a nationwide teleconference should be conducted

  1. Radiation technology for preservation and hygienization of food and agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajare, Sachin N.

    2017-01-01

    Growing population demands more food for consumption. Given that the agricultural land is shrinking day by day in urban as well as rural areas, we are left with no choice but to preserve the produce in whatever way we can. In this scenario, gamma irradiation or exposure of foods or food products to high energy rays is a very effective technology in long term preservation of these products. Food Irradiation is an established and effective processing methodology that involves controlled application of energy from ionizing radiations in an irradiation chamber shielded by thick concrete walls using radioisotopes (Cobalt-60 and Caesium-137), electron beam (up to 10 MeV) and X-rays (up to 5 MeV). Presently it is being practiced in more than 60 countries for various applications. Radiation processing can achieve insect disinfestation of stored products, inhibition of sprouting in tubers, bulbs and rhizomes, delay in fruit ripening, destruction of microbes responsible for food spoilage and elimination of pathogens and parasites of public health importance

  2. Functionality of liquid smoke as an all-natural antimicrobial in food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingbeck, Jody M; Cordero, Paola; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Johnson, Michael G; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip G

    2014-06-01

    The smoking of foods, especially meats, has been used as a preservation technique for centuries. Today, smoking methods often involve the use of wood smoke condensates, commonly known as liquid smoke. Liquid smoke is produced by condensing wood smoke created by the pyrolysis of sawdust or wood chips followed by removal of the carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The main products of wood pyrolysis are phenols, carbonyls and organic acids which are responsible for the flavor, color and antimicrobial properties of liquid smoke. Several common food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus have shown sensitivity to liquid smoke in vitro and in food systems. Therefore liquid smoke has potential for use as an all-natural antimicrobial in commercial applications where smoke flavor is desired. This review will cover the application and effectiveness of liquid smoke and fractions of liquid smoke as an all-natural food preservative. This review will be valuable for the industrial and research communities in the food science and technology areas. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Food irradiation: A technique for preserving and improving the safety of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Processing of food with low levels of radiation has the potential to contribute to reducing both spoilage of food during storage - a particular problem in developing countries - and the high incidence of food-borne disease currently seen in all countries. Approval has been granted for the treatment of more than 30 products with radiation in over 30 countries but, in general, governments have been slow to authorize the use of this new technique. One reason for this slowness is a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails. This book aims to increase understanding by providing information on the process of food irradiation in simple, non-technical language. It describes the effects that irradiation has on food, and the plant and equipment that are necessary to carry it out safely. The legislation and control mechanisms required to ensure the safety of food irradiation facilities are also discussed. Education is seen as the key to gaining the confidence of the consumers in the safety of irradiated food, and to promoting understanding of the benefits that irradiation can provide

  4. Food irradiation: A technique for preserving and improving the safety of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Processing of food with low levels of radiation has the potential to contribute to reducing both spoilage of food during storage - a particular problem in developing countries - and the high incidence of food-borne disease currently seen in all countries. Approval has been granted for the treatment of more than 30 products with radiation in over 30 countries but, in general , governments have been slow to authorize the use of this new technique. One reason for this slowness is a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails. This book aims to increase understanding by providing information on the process of food irradiation in simple, non-technical language. It describes the effects that irradiation has on food , and the plant and equipment that are necessary to carry it out safely. The legislation and control mechanisms required to ensure the safety of food irradiation facilities are also discussed. Education is seen as the key to gaining the confidence of the consumers in the safety of irradiated food, and to promoting understanding of the benefits that irradiation can provide

  5. Chemical stability of astaxanthin integrated into a food matrix: Effects of food processing and methods for preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Delgado, Alejandra Anahí; Khandual, Sanghamitra; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro Josefina

    2017-06-15

    Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment found in numerous organisms ranging from bacteria to algae, yeasts, plants, crustaceans and fish such as salmon. Technological importance of this pigment emerged from various studies demonstrating that it is a powerful antioxidant, even with higher activity than alpha-tocopherol and other carotenoids. It has been included in various pharmaceutical products because of several beneficial properties. By its nature, astaxanthin is susceptible to degradation and can undergo chemical changes during food processing. Therefore, different studies have focused on improving the stability of the carotenoid under conditions such as high temperatures, pressures and mechanical force, among others. In this review, common processes involved in food processing and their effect on the stability of astaxanthin, integrated into a food matrix are discussed. Moreover, preservation techniques such as microencapsulation, inclusion in emulsions, suspensions, liposomes, etc., that are being employed to maintain stability of the product are also reviewed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lippia origanoides essential oil: an efficient and safe alternative to preserve food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, C; Pina, E S; Taleb-Contini, S H; Bertoni, B W; Cestari, I M; Espanha, L G; Varanda, E A; Camilo, K F B; Martinez, E Z; França, S C; Pereira, A M S

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Lippia origanoides essential oil as a preservative in industrial products. The composition, antimicrobial activity, mutagenic and toxic potential of L. origanoides were determined. Then, the effect of essential oil as a preservative in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products was evaluated. The essential oil of L. origanoides consisted mainly of oxygenated monoterpenes (38·13%); 26·28% corresponded to the compound carvacrol. At concentrations ranging from 0·312 to 1·25 μl ml -1 and in association with polysorbate 80, the essential oil of L. origanoides inhibited the growth of all the tested micro-organisms. The medium lethal dose in mice was 3·5 g kg -1 , which categorizes it as nontoxic according to the European Union criteria, and negative results in the Ames test indicated that this oil was not mutagenic. In combination with polysorbate 80, the essential oil exerted preservative action on orange juice, cosmetic and pharmaceutical compositions, especially in the case of aqueous-based products. Lippia origanoides essential oil is an effective and safe preservative for orange juice, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. This study allowed for the complete understanding of the antimicrobial action and toxicological potential of L. origanoides essential oil. These results facilitate the development of a preservative system based on L. origanoides essential oil. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Extensive cardinal parameter model to predict growth of pseudomonads in salt-reduced lightly preserved seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Dalgaard, Paw

    Interest in and demand for preserved seafood with reduced salt/sodium content is increasing. As a consequence of the reduced salt content potential growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads to unacceptable high concentration where they cause product spoilage is an increasing challenge. Innovation...... include the effect of temperatures and salt. However, these simple secondary models do not include the effect of a broader range of product characteristics and therefore they cannot be used to predict how the inhibiting effect of salt can be replaced by changes in other environmental factors The objective...... and including terms for temperature, pH, aw/NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acids (Martinez-Rios et al., Int. J. Food Microbiol. 216. 110-120, 2016). MIC-values for acetic-, benzoic- and citric acids were determined in broth and terms modelling their antimicrobial effect were added to the model. The new and expanded...

  8. Plant nutraceuticals as antimicrobial agents in food preservation: terpenoids, polyphenols and thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Del-Río, Ignacio; Fernández, Javier; Lombó, Felipe

    2018-05-16

    Synthetic food additives generate a negative perception in consumers. Therefore, food manufacturers search for safer natural alternatives as those involving phytochemicals and plant essential oils. These bioactives have antimicrobial activities widely proved in in vitro tests. Foodborne diseases cause thousands of deaths and millions of infections every year, mainly due to pathogenic bacteria as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes or Staphylococcus aureus. This review summarizes industrially interesting antimicrobial bioactivities, as well as their mechanisms of action, for three main types of plant nutraceuticals, terpenoids (as carnosic acid), polyphenols (as quercetin) and thiols (as allicin), which are important constituents of plant essential oils with a broad range of antimicrobial effects. These phytochemicals are widely distributed in fruits and vegetables and are really useful in food preservation as they inhibit microbial growth. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Influence of some physical treatments and natural food preservatives on the diversity of microorganisms in certain Egyptian juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu El-Naga, M.N.Z.I.

    2009-01-01

    Foods begin to lose their quality from the moment they are harvested through changes resulting from physical, chemical, enzymatic, or microbiological reactions. Food preservation prevents deteriorative reaction, extending the shelf life and assuring its safety. Microorganisms and enzymes are the main agents responsible for food spoilages and therefore the targets of preservation techniques. The i deal m ethod of food preservation has the following characteristics: It improves shelf life and safety by inactivating spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. It dose not leave residues. It is cheap and convenient to apply. It encounters no objection from consumers and legislators. One of the major advances in human history was the ability to preserve food. It was the perquisite to man setting down in one place instead of moving from place to place in the never ending hunt for fresh food. The earliest preservation technologies developed were drying, smoking, chilling and heating. The use of various compounds such as salts and spices to preserve food was also used in ancient times

  10. Effects of commonly used food preservatives on biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahmad, Ali; Wiedmann-Al-Ahmad, Margit; Auschill, Thorsten Mathias; Follo, Marie; Braun, Gabriele; Hellwig, Elmar; Arweiler, Nicole Birgit

    2008-08-01

    Sodium benzoate (SB), potassium sorbate (PS) and sodium nitrite (SN) are commonly used food preservatives. In this in vitro study, the effects of these substances on biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans were analysed. In addition to the microtiter plate test (MPT), a biofilm reactor containing bovine enamel slabs (BES) was used to study the influence of food preservatives on biofilm formation in 5 independent periods of 4 days each. These included one period with chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) as a positive control as well as a period with growth medium alone as a negative control. The vitality of the biofilm on BES was detected using live/dead staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Additionally, the number of colony forming units (CFU) was determined. In MPT 0.12% SN significantly reduced the biofilm formation. PS at a concentration of 0.4% tended to inhibit biofilm formation, whereas the inhibition for 0.8% PS was significant. Less inhibition was caused by 0.8% SB. In the biofilm reactor 0.06% of SN, 0.1% of SB and 0.1% PS significantly reduced the covering grade as well as the CFU of the biofilm. Biofilm vitality was reduced significantly by CHX to a level of 32.5% compared to the control. Only SB reduced the vitality to a level of 19.1%. SN and PS showed no influence on biofilm vitality. This study indicates the potential of food preservatives as inhibitory agents in S. mutans biofilm formation, which should be kept in mind when studying the effects of conserved food on dental plaque biofilm in situ.

  11. Eucalyptus Essential Oil as a Natural Food Preservative: In Vivo and In Vitro Antiyeast Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukvicki, Danka; Gottardi, Davide; Malik, Anushree; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the application of eucalyptus essential oil/vapour as beverages preservative is reported. The chemical composition of eucalyptus oil was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and solid phase microextraction GC-MS (SPME/GC-MS) analyses. GC-MS revealed that the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (80.5%), limonene (6.5%), α-pinene (5%), and γ-terpinene (2.9%) while SPME/GC-MS showed a relative reduction of 1,8-cineole (63.9%) and an increase of limonene (13.8%), α-pinene (8.87%), and γ-terpinene (3.98%). Antimicrobial potential of essential oil was initially determined in vitro against 8 different food spoilage yeasts by disc diffusion, disc volatilization, and microdilution method. The activity of eucalyptus vapours was significantly higher than the eucalyptus oil. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) varied from 0.56 to 4.50 mg/mL and from 1.13 to 9 mg/mL, respectively. Subsequently, the combined efficacy of essential oil and thermal treatment were used to evaluate the preservation of a mixed fruit juice in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest eucalyptus oil as a potent inhibitor of food spoilage yeasts not only in vitro but also in a real food system. Currently, this is the first report that uses eucalyptus essential oil for fruit juice preservation against food spoiling yeast. PMID:25177704

  12. Eucalyptus Essential Oil as a Natural Food Preservative: In Vivo and In Vitro Antiyeast Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Tyagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the application of eucalyptus essential oil/vapour as beverages preservative is reported. The chemical composition of eucalyptus oil was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and solid phase microextraction GC-MS (SPME/GC-MS analyses. GC-MS revealed that the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (80.5%, limonene (6.5%, α-pinene (5%, and γ-terpinene (2.9% while SPME/GC-MS showed a relative reduction of 1,8-cineole (63.9% and an increase of limonene (13.8%, α-pinene (8.87%, and γ-terpinene (3.98%. Antimicrobial potential of essential oil was initially determined in vitro against 8 different food spoilage yeasts by disc diffusion, disc volatilization, and microdilution method. The activity of eucalyptus vapours was significantly higher than the eucalyptus oil. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC varied from 0.56 to 4.50 mg/mL and from 1.13 to 9 mg/mL, respectively. Subsequently, the combined efficacy of essential oil and thermal treatment were used to evaluate the preservation of a mixed fruit juice in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest eucalyptus oil as a potent inhibitor of food spoilage yeasts not only in vitro but also in a real food system. Currently, this is the first report that uses eucalyptus essential oil for fruit juice preservation against food spoiling yeast.

  13. Food preservative potential of essential oils and fractions from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris against mycotoxigenic fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguefack, J.; Dongmo, J. B. Lekagne; Dakole, C. D.

    2009-01-01

    The food preservative potential of essential oils from three aromatic plants Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris and their fractions was investigated against two mycotoxigenic strains each of Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium expansum and P. verrucosum. The fungicidal...

  14. Development of Volatile Oil of Mustard and Vanillin as an Effective Food Preservation System for Military Bread and Baked Goods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muller, Wayne S; Sikes, Anthony; Yeomans, Walter; Anderson, Danielle; Senecal, Andy

    2006-01-01

    ...) vanillin is an effective food preservation system for molds and yeast. Four bread spoilage organisms were evaluated in the study Penicillium notatum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera...

  15. Current topics in active and intelligent food packaging for preservation of fresh foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yuan; Lee, Seung Jae; Choi, Dong Soo; Hur, Sun Jin

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current packaging systems, e.g. active packaging and intelligent packaging, for various foods. Active packaging, such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), extends the shelf life of fresh produce, provides a high-quality product, reduces economic losses, including those caused by delay of ripening, and improves appearance. However, in active packaging, several variables must be considered, such as temperature control and different gas formulations with different product types and microorganisms. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additive agents into packaging materials with the purpose of maintaining or extending food product quality and shelf life. Intelligent packaging is emerging as a potential advantage in food processing and is an especially useful tool for tracking product information and monitoring product conditions. Moreover, intelligent packaging facilitates data access and information exchange by altering conditions inside or outside the packaging and product. In spite of these advantages, few of these packaging systems are commercialized because of high cost, strict safety and hygiene regulations or limited consumer acceptance. Therefore more research is needed to develop cheaper, more easily applicable and effective packaging systems for various foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Skin manifestations and immunological parameters in childhood food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehling, A; Fernández, M; Córdoba, H; Sanz, M L

    1997-01-01

    According to Hansen's contact rule, the digestive system should be considered as the main shock organ, yet in food allergy, this is not the case. Very often specific food triggers clinical manifestations not involving the digestive system; that is, reactions are manifested either in the respiratory system, as asthma or rhinitis, or in the skin. In these cases the BALT (broncho-alveolar lymphoid tissue) and GALT (gastrointestinal lymphoid tissue) units play a basic role in the sensitizations. The purpose of this study was to determine the most frequent skin manifestations of food allergy among children, and the most frequently involved foods. We also thought it interesting to evaluate the diagnostic reliability of the different standard immunological parameters utilized by the study team in food allergy. All patients underwent intracutaneous tests with 12 groups of the most frequent food allergens, as well as serum IgE, antigen-specific IgE against foods, and antigen-specific histamine release tests. Antigen-specific IgG4 determination was performed in some cases. The results obtained confirmed previous studies, the most common manifestations being: angioedema (48%), followed by urticaria (31%) and atopic dermatitis (21%). Regarding the frequency of sensitization to different food allergens, in mono- or polisensitization, fish and egg stand out in our environment. Certain food allergens are more frequently responsible for specific skin manifestations. Thus, for fish sensitization, the most frequent skin manifestation is atopic dermatitis (50%); for egg sensitization, angioedema is the most frequent skin manifestation (50%); and for milk, urticaria (50%). Finally, and in agreement with previous works regarding the diagnostic reliability of in vitro techniques, we found that the histamine release test offered the highest percentage of diagnostic reliability. Only for sensitization to milk proteins did antigen-specific IgE demonstrate higher reliability. Once again, we

  17. Health protection and food preservation by gamma irradiation. Final report, may 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    Results of several major studies on food systems for space missions beginning with Apollo 12 through Apollo-Soyuz and investigations of the application of irradiation to food for manned space flight are reported. The study of flight food systems involved the application of radurization (pasteurizing levels) doses of gamma irradiation to flour and bread supplied by Pepperidge Farms in advance of the missions. All flights from Apollo 12 through 17 carried irradiated fresh bread. On Apollo 17, cooperation with Natick Laboratories permitted the introduction of a ham sandwich using irradiated bread and irradiated sterile ham. Investigations centered on irradiated bread were conducted during the course of these missions. Studies were applied to the concept of improving fresh bread from the point of view of mold inhibition. The studies considered how irradiation could best be applied at what levels and on a variety of bread types. Throughout the studies of the application of gamma irradiation the emphasis was placed upon using low levels of irradiation in the pasteurizing or radurizing doses--under a Megarad. The primary goal was to determine if a public health benefit could be demonstrated using radurization along with food preservation and food quality improvements. The public health benefit would be parallel to that of pasteurization of milk as a concept. Publications are included providing the details of these observations, one dealing with the flour characteristics and the other dealing with the influence on fresh bread types. These demonstrate the major findings noted during the period of the studies examining bread. (Author)

  18. Hyperbaric storage at room temperature for food preservation: A study in strawberry juice

    OpenAIRE

    Segovia-Bravo, Kharla A.; Guignon, Bérengère; Bermejo-Prada, Ana; Sanz Martínez, Pedro D.; Otero, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Hyperbaric storage at room temperature was evaluated as a new food preservation method. To do that, strawberry juices maintained at different pressure levels (0.1, 25, 100 or 220 MPa) and 20°C for 15 days were compared to raw and thermally pasteurized samples stored at atmospheric pressure and 5°C for the same period. Hyperbaric storage reduced the initial microbial load of the juices by more than 2 log units to levels below the limit of detection. Moreover, pressure was effective to attenuat...

  19. The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement -Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byeon, Myeong Uh; Cho, Han Ok; Yang, Jae Seung; Cho, Seong Ki; Kang, Il Joon

    1994-07-01

    With the increased consumption of processed food, quality control techniques are inevitably required in the food industry for its mass production and distribution. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of irradiation for solving the infrastructural problems in the food industry by developing viable alternatives to conventional technology and by improving the quality of processed foods. Even though food irradiation technology has been commercialized in 25 countries, and 18 items of irradiated foods have been approved for human consumption domestically, infrastructural studies are needed for the practical application of this technology. In order to enlarge the utilization of irradiation technology in solving the infrastructural problems of the food industry, this project was designed to investigate the efficacy of gamma irradiation for improving the process and physical properties of dried foods (corn and soybean), for preserving the reserved foods for emergency (red pepper) and for producing natural products (red polyketied pigment) using microbial immobilization with radiation-induced polymer

  20. Food preservation by irradiation. V.- Economic study of the spanish potatoe market and preservation feasibility by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas, A.; Garcia de Mateos, A.; Ortin Sune, N.; Val Cob, M. del

    1967-01-01

    A study of the spanish potatoe market is carried o nt in order to know the possibilities of preservation by irradiation. The study is initiated with a recompilation of statistical data on the production and consumption of potatoes by regions and seasons. Last years losses are then estimated. (Author) 9 refs

  1. Dyes, preservatives and salicylates in the induction of food intolerance and/or hypersensitivity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibero, M; Eseverri, J L; Barroso, C; Botey, J

    1982-01-01

    We present 25 patients, aged between 18 and 153 months, with clinical symptoms suggestive of allergy to food antigens. After undergoing exhaustive studies (including case histories, cutaneous tests for reactions to food antigen, peripheral eosinophils, secretory and humoral immunity, determination of total IgE and of specific RAST, exclusion-provocation diets) and without being able to identify an offender, patients were submitted to oral provocation with different food additives (tartrazine, sunset yellow FCF, new coccine, erythrosine, sodium benzoate, 4-methyl hydroxybenzoate and acetylsalicylic acid) after 48 hours of exclusion from their diets of dyes, preservatives and salicylates. The results obtained reflect, at a global level, 57.89% of positivities for dyes, 34.21% for the benzoates and 7.81% for acetyl-salicylic acid. The low incidence of crossed intolerance phenomena should be emphasized (32% of the patients). The disparity of our results with those of other authors could be due to the age of our patients, the clinical patterns they present and the dietary habits of different countries and regions.

  2. Application of ionizing irradiation for food preservation and for reducing microbiological contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, I.

    1992-01-01

    Ionizing irradiation can be an alternative or combinatory technique for food preservation. Several experiments proved that relatively small dosage (2-6 kGy) effectively reduces the number of microscopic fungi and bacteria in food. In addition the survivors had become more sensitive to salt and heat. No change in the quality of the treated food has been observed while their storability improved substantially. Some results of an extended experiment using Co-60 and Co-137 radioactive isotopes are listed below: (1) The storability of raw, sliced pork and beef improved 3-4 times after a 2 kGy dosage of irradiation. (2) The storability of chicken after the same treatment can be prolonged by 4-5 times. (3) 2.5 kGy dosage allowed to keep strawberries 2-3 times longer in the cold storage. (4) Wet (18-23 water) wheat's storability can be prolonged to 60 days by a 4 kGy treatment. (5) By using irradiated spices Fo=3 heat load was satisfactory instead of the usual Fo=4-5 when making canned meat

  3. Parameter selection in limited data cone-beam CT reconstruction using edge-preserving total variation algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohvithee, Manasavee; Biguri, Ander; Soleimani, Manuchehr

    2017-12-01

    There are a number of powerful total variation (TV) regularization methods that have great promise in limited data cone-beam CT reconstruction with an enhancement of image quality. These promising TV methods require careful selection of the image reconstruction parameters, for which there are no well-established criteria. This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of parameter selection in a number of major TV-based reconstruction algorithms. An appropriate way of selecting the values for each individual parameter has been suggested. Finally, a new adaptive-weighted projection-controlled steepest descent (AwPCSD) algorithm is presented, which implements the edge-preserving function for CBCT reconstruction with limited data. The proposed algorithm shows significant robustness compared to three other existing algorithms: ASD-POCS, AwASD-POCS and PCSD. The proposed AwPCSD algorithm is able to preserve the edges of the reconstructed images better with fewer sensitive parameters to tune.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of Olea europaea Linné extracts and their applicability as natural food preservative agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielmann, J; Kohnen, S; Hauser, C

    2017-06-19

    The antimicrobial activity of phenolic compounds from Olea (O.) europaea Linné (L.) is part of the scientific discussion regarding the use of natural plant extracts as alternative food preservative agents. Although, the basic knowledge on the antimicrobial potential of certain molecules such as oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol or elenolic acid derivatives is given, there is still little information regarding their applicability for food preservation. This might be primarily due to the lack of information regarding the full antimicrobial spectrum of the compounds, their synergisms in natural or artificial combinations and their interaction with food ingredients. The present review accumulates available literature from the past 40 years, investigating the antimicrobial activity of O. europaea L. derived extracts and compounds in vitro and in food matrices, in order to evaluate their food applicability. In summary, defined extracts from olive fruit or leaves, containing the strongest antimicrobial compounds hydroxytyrosol, oleacein or oleacanthal in considerable concentrations, appear to be suitable for food preservation. Nonetheless there is still need for consequent research on the compounds activity in food matrices, their effect on the natural microbiota of certain foods and their influence on the sensorial properties of the targeted products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Discrete exterior geometry approach to structure-preserving discretization of distributed-parameter port-Hamiltonian systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seslija, Marko; van der Schaft, Arjan; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    This paper addresses the issue of structure-preserving discretization of open distributed-parameter systems with Hamiltonian dynamics. Employing the formalism of discrete exterior calculus, we introduce a simplicial Dirac structure as a discrete analogue of the Stokes-Dirac structure and demonstrate

  6. A discrete exterior approach to structure-preserving discretization of distributed-parameter port-Hamiltonian systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seslija, Marko; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; van der Schaft, Arjan

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of structure-preserving discretization of open distributed-parameter systems with Hamiltonian dynamics. Employing the formalism of discrete exterior calculus, we introduce simplicial Dirac structures as discrete analogues of the Stokes-Dirac structure and demonstrate

  7. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part 1. Potatoes and other tuber crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1984-01-01

    In Part 1 of a planned series of articles on preservation of foods of plant origin by gamma irradiation, the current state of research on the technological, nutritional, and biochemical aspects of sprout inhibition of potatoes and other tuber crops are reviewed. These include varietal responses, dose effects, time of irradiation, pre- and postirradiation storage, and handling requirements; postirradiation changes in carbohydrates, ascorbic acid, amino acids, and other nutrients; respiration; biochemical mechanisms involved in sprout inhibition; wound healing and microbial infection during storage; formation of wound and light-induced glycoalkaloids and identification of irradiated potatoes. The culinary and processing qualities with particular reference to darkening of boiled and processed potatoes are discussed. The prospects of irradiation on an industrial scale as an alternative to chemical sprout inhibitors or mechanical refrigeration are considered

  8. [Various methods for the determination of preservatives in food. II. Gaschromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, TAS-method (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hild, J; Gertz, C

    1980-02-01

    For the quantitative determination of preservatives in food, analyses were carried out by means of GLC, HPLC, and TLC according to the TAS-method. Using the alkaline extract (sample preparation see part I) the preservatives can be analysed as free acid or appropriate ester out the same GLC-column without any interference from coextractives. A fast and accurate HPLC determination can be achieved by direct injection of the alkaline extract. All preservatives were well separated and detected at a wavelength of 225 resp. 232 nm. As a quick test for the qualitative estimation the TLC (TAS) method is suggested and a suitable solvent system is proposed.

  9. Unconventional methods for food preservation and recovery of phytochemicals from plant wastes: towards a science for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Pinela, José; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2016-01-01

    Plants are irreplaceable sources of food and bioactive phytochemicals. In this sense, this work has been focused on valorisation and processing of traditional plant foods, including medicinal plants (consumed in herbal beverages), leafy vegetables, and tomato farmers’ varieties, but also biowastes (source of biomolecules), using non-conventional and emerging technologies [1]. The preservation of dried medicinal plants (Tuberaria lignosa (Sweet) Samp. and Malva neglecta Wallr.) ...

  10. Marketing Study Of The Preference Of The Egyptian Consuming Family To Buy Some Dried Food Preserved By Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gameel, E.A.; Elkhateeb, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Alongside traditional methods of processing and preserving food, the technology of food irradiation is gaining more and more attention around the world. In 1997/10/22, the Egyptian government issued clearance for irradiating certain items of food such as spices, herbs and dried onion and garlic. The approval of some other items of food such as poultry, fish and dried vegetables will issue in the near future. This study aims to know the opinion and attitude of the preference of the consuming Egyptian family to buy some dried food preserved by gamma radiation such as wheat, dried onion and garlic, dried date, dried legumes and yamish Ramadan when available on the market. A pool of 1160 sheets was collected randomly. The questionnaire was supported with simplified information about the use of atomic energy and radiation for peaceful purpose and other alternative methods to save food. The results obtained from this study showed that 67% of the total sample size accepted to buy irradiated fresh vegetables if its available in the markets while the objection was 15% and convinced were 17%. The model of the multi regression analysis was carried out between independent variables (the local consumer attitude towards buying some dried food preserved by gamma radiation) and dependent variables (technical, environmental, marketing and hygienic methods. The results were R2= 0.877 and F-test = 322 (significant). The model of the multi regression analysis was also carried out between dependent variables (the local consumer attitude towards buying some dried food preserved by gamma radiation) and independent variables (income, Education, age and governorates). The results were R2 = 0.53 and F-test12.64 (significant).

  11. Influence of some physical treatments and natural food preservatives on the diversity of microorganisms in certain egyptian juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu El-Naga, M.N.Z.I.

    2009-01-01

    Foods begin to lose their quality from the moment they are harvested.Microorganisms are the main agents responsible for food spoilages . Food preservation prevents deteriorative reaction, extending the shelf life and assuring its safety. The uses of chemical preservatives have harmful effects in long term application. So, the purpose of this article is to use the natural treatments instead of chemical preservatives or application of high temperature which cause losses of some essential nutrients of the juice. In this study the following treatments were investigated: 1. Gamma irradiation . the lethal effect of ionizing radiation on the microorganisms is primarily due to DNA damage, which destroys the reproductive capabilities and other functions of the cell. 2. Pasteurized temperatures(90 degree c).Heat can damage protein, lipids, and nucleic acids of microorganisms and destabilize their membranes.3.The natural preservatives : nisin, citric acid, lactic acid, cinnamon, combination treatments : it was performed between the previous treatments.The best results obtained from our experiments for preserving the fruit juice were performed by combing the pasteurized temperature 90 degree C for 30 sec with gamma irradiation (0.2 K Gy). Or using 200 μg/ml of nisin in combination with 2% (w/v) of citric acid and pasteurized temperature 90 degree C for 30 sec.

  12. Preservation of semi-perishable food and development of convenience food using a combination of irradiation and other physicochemical treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, N.; Siddiqui, A.K.; Chowdhury, N.A.; Youssouf, Q.M.; Rashid, H.; Begum, A.A.; Alam, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the development and irradiation preservation of semi-dried fish, e.g. Labeo rohita (Ruhi) and Cirrhiuas mrigala (Mrigel), the extension of shelf-life at ambient temperature, and the improvement in the microbiological quality of sealed, ready to eat, commercially prepared fish kebabs by a combination of gamma irradiation with spices and an acidulant such as ascorbic acid. In the processing of semi-dried fish, the combination treatment of a salt dip and irradiation at a dose of 4 kGy extended the shelf-life by more than 3 months. Kebabs prepared in the laboratory and irradiated at a dose of 5 kGy were found to have a shelf-life of up to 6 months at room temperature. With commercially prepared fish kebabs collected from ordinary and sophisticated food shops, the maximum shelf-life extension was 14 days for the 5 kGy treated samples stored at ambient temperature. The microbiological quality of such kebabs indicated that the fish used was of poor quality, resulting in a limited shelf-life, even after chemical and irradiation treatments. Inoculated pack studies of Clostridium botulinum spores showed that when oil fried, the kebab size had a definite effect on heat penetration, and consequent spore reduction. No spores were recovered from the 5 kGy irradiated fried kebabs. (author)

  13. The preservation of Listeria-critical foods by a combination of endolysin and high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiou, Ourania; van Nassau, Tomas J; Lenz, Christian A; Vogel, Rudi F

    2018-02-02

    The aim of this work was to examine the combination of endolysin PlyP825 and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing against a cocktail of stationary phase Listeria monocytogenes cells in several Listeria-critical food products (i.e. milk, mozzarella and smoked salmon). In order to determine the efficacy of the combined application, both challenge-lethality tests and storage tests were performed. In milk and mozzarella, we could demonstrate that the application of PlyP825 prior to HHP processing allowed for a synergistic inactivation of cells, a reduction in the pressure level with equal antimicrobial efficacy and an enhanced eradication of L. monocytogenes during storage at abuse temperatures. For smoked salmon, no such effects were detected. Although the efficacy of the method was highly dependent on the food vehicle and parameters applied, we hereby demonstrated the potential of the combined endolysin-HHP application for complete eradication of L. monocytogenes from foods at milder processing conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Potential Applications of the Cyclic Peptide Enterocin AS-48 in the Preservation of Vegetable Foods and Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abriouel, Hikmate; Lucas, Rosario; Omar, Nabil Ben; Valdivia, Eva; Gálvez, Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria. Among them, the enterococcal bacteriocin (enterocin) AS-48 stands for its peculiar characteristics and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. AS-48 belongs to the class of circular bacteriocins and has been studied in depth in several aspects: peptide structure, genetic determinants, and mode of action. Recently, a wealth of knowledge has accumulated on the antibacterial activity of this bacteriocin against foodborne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria in food systems, especially in vegetable foods and drinks. This work provides a general overview on the results from tests carried out with AS-48 in different vegetable food categories (such as fruit juices, ciders, sport and energy drinks, fresh fruits and vegetables, pre-cooked ready to eat foods, canned vegetables, and bakery products). Depending on the food substrate, the bacteriocin has been tested alone or as part of hurdle technology, in combination with physico-chemical treatments (such as mild heat treatments or high-intensity pulsed electric fields) and other antimicrobial substances (such as essential oils, phenolic compounds, and chemical preservatives). Since the work carried out on bacteriocins in preservation of vegetable foods and drinks is much more limited compared to meat and dairy products, the results reported for AS-48 may open new possibilities in the field of bacteriocin applications.

  15. Long-term urine biobanking: storage stability of clinical chemical parameters under moderate freezing conditions without use of preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, Thomas; Montenegro-Bethancourt, Gabriela; Shi, Lijie

    2014-12-01

    To examine the long-term stability and validity of analyte concentrations of 21 clinical biochemistry parameters in 24-h urine samples stored for 12 or 15 yr at -22°C and preservative free. Healthy children's 24-h urine samples in which the respective analytes had been measured shortly after sample collection (baseline) were reanalyzed. Second measurement was performed after 12 yr (organic acids) and 15 yr (creatinine, urea, osmolality, iodine, nitrogen, anions, cations, acid-base parameters) with the same analytical methodology. Paired comparisons and correlations between the baseline and repeated measurements were done. Recovery rates were calculated. More than half of the analytes (creatinine, urea, iodine, nitrogen, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, ammonium, bicarbonate, citric & uric acid) showed measurement values after >10 yr of storage not significantly different from baseline. 15 of the 21 parameters were highly correlated (r=0.99) between baseline and second measurement. Poorest correlation was r=0.77 for oxalate. Recovery ranged from 73% (oxalate) to 105% (phosphate). Our results suggest high long-term stability and measurement validity for numerous clinical chemistry parameters stored at -22°C without addition of any urine preservative. Prospective storage of urine aliquots at -22°C for periods even exceeding 10 yr, appears to be an acceptable and valid tool in epidemiological settings for later quantification of several urine analytes. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanism of bacterial inactivation by (+-limonene and its potential use in food preservation combined processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Espina

    Full Text Available This work explores the bactericidal effect of (+-limonene, the major constituent of citrus fruits' essential oils, against E. coli. The degree of E. coli BJ4 inactivation achieved by (+-limonene was influenced by the pH of the treatment medium, being more bactericidal at pH 4.0 than at pH 7.0. Deletion of rpoS and exposure to a sub-lethal heat or an acid shock did not modify E. coli BJ4 resistance to (+-limonene. However, exposure to a sub-lethal cold shock decreased its resistance to (+-limonene. Although no sub-lethal injury was detected in the cell envelopes after exposure to (+-limonene by the selective-plating technique, the uptake of propidium iodide by inactivated E. coli BJ4 cells pointed out these structures as important targets in the mechanism of action. Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared Microspectroscopy (ATR-IRMS allowed identification of altered E. coli BJ4 structures after (+-limonene treatments as a function of the treatment pH: β-sheet proteins at pH 4.0 and phosphodiester bonds at pH 7.0. The increased sensitivity to (+-limonene observed at pH 4.0 in an E. coli MC4100 lptD4213 mutant with an increased outer membrane permeability along with the identification of altered β-sheet proteins by ATR-IRMS indicated the importance of this structure in the mechanism of action of (+-limonene. The study of mechanism of inactivation by (+-limonene led to the design of a synergistic combined process with heat for the inactivation of the pathogen E. coli O157:H7 in fruit juices. These results show the potential of (+-limonene in food preservation, either acting alone or in combination with lethal heat treatments.

  17. Mechanism of Bacterial Inactivation by (+)-Limonene and Its Potential Use in Food Preservation Combined Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Laura; Gelaw, Tilahun K.; de Lamo-Castellví, Sílvia; Pagán, Rafael; García-Gonzalo, Diego

    2013-01-01

    This work explores the bactericidal effect of (+)-limonene, the major constituent of citrus fruits' essential oils, against E. coli. The degree of E. coli BJ4 inactivation achieved by (+)-limonene was influenced by the pH of the treatment medium, being more bactericidal at pH 4.0 than at pH 7.0. Deletion of rpoS and exposure to a sub-lethal heat or an acid shock did not modify E. coli BJ4 resistance to (+)-limonene. However, exposure to a sub-lethal cold shock decreased its resistance to (+)-limonene. Although no sub-lethal injury was detected in the cell envelopes after exposure to (+)-limonene by the selective-plating technique, the uptake of propidium iodide by inactivated E. coli BJ4 cells pointed out these structures as important targets in the mechanism of action. Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared Microspectroscopy (ATR-IRMS) allowed identification of altered E. coli BJ4 structures after (+)-limonene treatments as a function of the treatment pH: β-sheet proteins at pH 4.0 and phosphodiester bonds at pH 7.0. The increased sensitivity to (+)-limonene observed at pH 4.0 in an E. coli MC4100 lptD4213 mutant with an increased outer membrane permeability along with the identification of altered β-sheet proteins by ATR-IRMS indicated the importance of this structure in the mechanism of action of (+)-limonene. The study of mechanism of inactivation by (+)-limonene led to the design of a synergistic combined process with heat for the inactivation of the pathogen E. coli O157:H7 in fruit juices. These results show the potential of (+)-limonene in food preservation, either acting alone or in combination with lethal heat treatments. PMID:23424676

  18. Direct quantitation of the preservatives benzoic and sorbic acid in processed foods using derivative spectrophotometry combined with micro dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, Tomoharu; Ikami, Takahito; Kikukawa, Koji; Kobayashi, Masato; Takai, Rina; Kozaki, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    2018-02-01

    The preservatives benzoic acid and sorbic acid are generally quantified with separation techniques, such as HPLC or GC. Here we describe a new method for determining these compounds in processed food samples based on a narrowness of the UV-visible spectral band width with derivative processing. It permits more selective identification and determination of target analytes in matrices. After a sample is purified by micro dialysis, UV spectra of sample solutions were measured and fourth order derivatives of the spectrum were calculated. The amplitude between the maximum and minimum values in a high-order derivative spectrum was used for the determination of benzoic acid and sorbic acid. Benzoic acid and sorbic acid levels in several commercially available processed foods were measured by HPLC and the proposed spectrometry method. The levels obtained by the two methods were highly correlated (r 2 >0.97) for both preservatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ways in which irradiation could improve the effectiveness of several existing food preservation processes in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, H.T.

    1982-01-01

    With the introduction of irradiation as a possible food preservation method nearly three decades ago, there was a tendency to over-emphasise the advantages to be gained with this new process to the extent that some regarded this new technique as a panacea for most of the problems experienced in the preservation of food at that time. The pendulum swung to the other extreme when irradiation did not come up to the expectations associated with a so-called 'wonder' treatment and others took a decidedly pessimistic attitude towards the future of this process. The answer obviously lies between these two extreme views and fortunately this is the attitude prevailing in many countries towards irradiation treatment at the present time. The role of irradiation can be seen as supplementary and indeed complementary to existing preservation methods instead of being regarded as directly competitive. In this paper, several preservation processes will be considered such as heat treatment, canning and refrigeration, and the effectiveness of these methods in combination with irradiation treatment will be considered with respect to shelf-life extension of several important fruits and vegetables in South Africa. The possible mechanism of the combined or synergistic effect in relation to disease control in selected biological systems will also be discussed

  20. Visual food cues decrease postprandial glucose concentrations in lean and obese men without affecting food intake and related endocrine parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brede, Swantje; Sputh, Annika; Hartmann, Ann-Christin; Hallschmid, Manfred; Lehnert, Hendrik; Klement, Johanna

    2017-10-01

    The abundance of highly palatable food items in our environment represents a possible cause of overconsumption. Neuroimaging studies in humans have demonstrated that watching pictures of food increases activation in brain areas involved in homeostatic and hedonic food cue processing. Nevertheless, the impact of food cues on actual food intake and metabolic parameters has not been systematically investigated. We tested the hypothesis that watching high-calorie food cues increases food intake and modifies anticipatory blood parameters in lean and especially in obese men. In 20 normal-weight and 20 obese healthy fasted men, we assessed the effects of watching pictures of high-calorie food items versus neutral contents on food intake measured during a standardized test buffet and subsequent snacking as well as on glucose homeostasis and endocrine parameters. Compared to neutral pictures, viewing food pictures reduced postprandial blood glucose concentrations in lean (p = 0.016) and obese (p = 0.044) subjects, without any differences in insulin or C-peptide concentrations (all p > 0.4). Viewing food pictures did not affect total calorie intake during the buffet (all p > 0.5) and snack consumption (all p > 0.4). Concentrations of ghrelin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and glucagon also remained unaffected (all p > 0.08). These data indicate that preprandial processing of food cues curbs postprandial blood glucose excursions, without immediately affecting eating behavior in normal-weight and obese men. Findings indicate that exposure to food cues does not acutely trigger calorie overconsumption but rather improves the glucoregulatory response to food intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of dietary exposure in the French population to 13 selected food colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemrah, Nawel; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Volatier, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    The results of French intake estimates for 13 food additives prioritized by the methods proposed in the 2001 Report from the European Commission on Dietary Food Additive Intake in the European Union are reported. These 13 additives were selected using the first and second tiers of the three-tier approach. The first tier was based on theoretical food consumption data and the maximum permitted level of additives. The second tier used real individual food consumption data and the maximum permitted level of additives for the substances which exceeded the acceptable daily intakes (ADI) in the first tier. In the third tier reported in this study, intake estimates were calculated for the 13 additives (colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners) according to two modelling assumptions corresponding to two different food habit scenarios (assumption 1: consumers consume foods that may or may not contain food additives, and assumption 2: consumers always consume foods that contain additives) when possible. In this approach, real individual food consumption data and the occurrence/use-level of food additives reported by the food industry were used. Overall, the results of the intake estimates are reassuring for the majority of additives studied since the risk of exceeding the ADI was low, except for nitrites, sulfites and annatto, whose ADIs were exceeded by either children or adult consumers or by both populations under one and/or two modelling assumptions. Under the first assumption, the ADI is exceeded for high consumers among adults for nitrites and sulfites (155 and 118.4%, respectively) and among children for nitrites (275%). Under the second assumption, the average nitrites dietary exposure in children exceeds the ADI (146.7%). For high consumers, adults exceed the nitrite and sulfite ADIs (223 and 156.4%, respectively) and children exceed the nitrite, annatto and sulfite ADIs (416.7, 124.6 and 130.6%, respectively).

  2. Extended safe preservation period of foods of plant origin through combined technological methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miteva, D.; Nacheva, I.; Dzhakova, A.; Tsvetkov, Tsv.

    2008-01-01

    The sublimation drying of fruits as an innovative technology for preservation their composition and enzyme activity is applied to various fruits: apricots, strawberries, plumbs, peaches and apples. The authors present the main methods of lyophilization as an original biotechnology for cryopreservation of fruits and afterwards are subjected to cold sterilization with 1.5 and 3 kGy doses of gamma irradiation. The combined application of both technologies provides safe and extended preservation of fresh fruits with high content of vitamins, mineral salts, maximum preserved enzyme system, aroma-tasty complex and microbiological purity

  3. Osteoporosis imaging: effects of bone preservation on MDCT-based trabecular bone microstructure parameters and finite element models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, Thomas; Grande Garcia, Eduardo; Burgkart, Rainer; Gordijenko, Olga; Liebl, Hans; Jungmann, Pia M.; Gruber, Michael; Zahel, Tina; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Waldt, Simone; Bauer, Jan S.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is defined as a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength due to a reduction of bone mass and deterioration of bone microstructure predisposing an individual to an increased risk of fracture. Trabecular bone microstructure analysis and finite element models (FEM) have shown to improve the prediction of bone strength beyond bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. These computational methods have been developed and validated in specimens preserved in formalin solution or by freezing. However, little is known about the effects of preservation on trabecular bone microstructure and FEM. The purpose of this observational study was to investigate the effects of preservation on trabecular bone microstructure and FEM in human vertebrae. Four thoracic vertebrae were harvested from each of three fresh human cadavers (n = 12). Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) images were obtained at baseline, 3 and 6 month follow-up. In the intervals between MDCT imaging, two vertebrae from each donor were formalin-fixed and frozen, respectively. BMD, trabecular bone microstructure parameters (histomorphometry and fractal dimension), and FEM-based apparent compressive modulus (ACM) were determined in the MDCT images and validated by mechanical testing to failure of the vertebrae after 6 months. Changes of BMD, trabecular bone microstructure parameters, and FEM-based ACM in formalin-fixed and frozen vertebrae over 6 months ranged between 1.0–5.6 % and 1.3–6.1 %, respectively, and were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). BMD, trabecular bone microstructure parameters, and FEM-based ACM as assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 month follow-up correlated significantly with mechanically determined failure load (r = 0.89–0.99; p < 0.05). The correlation coefficients r were not significantly different for the two preservation methods (p > 0.05). Formalin fixation and freezing up to six months showed no significant effects on trabecular bone microstructure

  4. Is transverse feedback necessary for the SSC emittance preservation? (Vibration noise analysis and feedback parameters optimization)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhomchuk, V.V.; Shiltsev, V.D.

    1993-06-01

    The paper considers the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) site ground motion measurements as well as data from accelerators worldwide about noises that worsen beam performance. Unacceptably fast emittance growth due to these noises is predicted for the SSC. A transverse feedback system was found to be the only satisfactory alternative to prevent emittance decay. Optimization of the primary feedback parameters was done

  5. The Research of Food Preservation by Irradiation and Its Industrialization in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Han Ok

    1987-01-01

    Since the late 1960s, radiation effects on the storage of potatoes, strawberry, grapes and rice have been investigated on an experimental basis in Korea, Based on the research results of batch scale storage for sprouting food (potatoes, onions, chestnuts) and white ginseng powder by the Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and on the recommendation. Food irradiation is a new process that may provide an alternative to existing food processes. From the extensive research in food irradiation for more than three decades by leading international organizations and advanced countries, the efficacy of a number of applications has been established, including sprout inhibition, disinfestation of insects, sterilization, delay of ripening, and improvement of organoleptic properties in food. Owing to the recommendation on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food by the Joint FAO/IAEA/W/o Expert Committee in 1980 and the adaption of the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Food by the Codex Allurements Commission in 1983, as of May 1985, thirty-two countries have officially approved 227 food items in 73 food groups as safe for human consumption. Food irradiation processing is increasingly recognized as a viable technology for reducing the overall quantity of spoiled food, reducing energy used in food storage, and reducing reliance on chemicals currently used

  6. Use of ionizing radiation for preservation of food and feed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, E.S.; Brynjolfsson, A.; Wierbicki, E.

    1975-01-01

    Exposing food to ionizing radiation can contribute to closing the worldwide food deficit by reducing food spoilage losses, by making available more food of higher nutritional quality (animal protein food) to more people, and by keeping prices down by reducing losses. Because ionizing radiation kills disease-causing organisms, it can reduce the incidence of food-borne diseases. It also reduces our dependence upon some of the chemical additives, such as nitrites and nitrates, now being questioned by health authorities to control food spoilage and food-borne diseases. The three basic types of ionizing radiation used for processing of food are electrons (10 MeV maximum energy), X-rays (5 MeV maximum energy) produced by electrons in an X-ray target, and gamma rays from 60 Co and 137 Cs. Electrons, X-rays, and gamma rays cause ionization in the food by either the primary electrons or by the secondary electrons resulting from gamma or X-ray interactions in the food with little rise in temperature and little total chemical change. The ionized and activated molecules form unstable secondary products that kill the organisms. Another effect is to slow down post-harvest growth and maturation in some fruits and vegetables

  7. Study on chemical, bioactive and food preserving properties of Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Jovana; Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Barros, Lillian; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2014-07-25

    Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murr. was studied to determine the nutritional value, bioactive compounds, in vitro antioxidants, and antimicrobial and antitumor activities. The studied mushroom is a rich source of carbohydrates and proteins. Mannitol and trehalose were the main free sugars. In addition, the polyunsaturated fatty acids α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols were found. Oxalic and citric acids were the most abundant organic acids; cinnamic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids were quantified in the methanolic extract and could be related to the antioxidant properties. It was the polysaccharidic extract that exhibited higher antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, indicating that the compounds present in this extract possess stronger bioactivity. Only the polysaccharidic extract revealed antiproliferative activity in human tumor cell lines. In addition, a suitable model system with chicken pâté was developed to test the antimicrobial preserving properties of L. sulphureus. The methanolic extract was used to examine in situ preserving properties against Aspergillus flavus and demonstrated excellent preserving potential.

  8. Evaluation of the efficacy of four weak acids as antifungal preservatives in low-acid intermediate moisture model food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang; Wilson, Mark; Chapman, Belinda; Hocking, Ailsa D

    2010-02-01

    The potential efficacy of four weak acids as preservatives in low-acid intermediate moisture foods was assessed using a glycerol based agar medium. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC, % wt./wt.) of each acid was determined at two pH values (pH 5.0, pH 6.0) and two a(w) values (0.85, 0.90) for five food spoilage fungi, Eurotium herbariorum, Eurotium rubrum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium roqueforti. Sorbic acid, a preservative commonly used to control fungal growth in low-acid intermediate moisture foods, was included as a reference. The MIC values of the four acids were lower at pH 5.0 than pH 6.0 at equivalent a(w) values, and lower at 0.85 a(w) than 0.90 a(w) at equivalent pH values. By comparison with the MIC values of sorbic acid, those of caprylic acid and dehydroacetic acid were generally lower, whereas those for caproic acid were generally higher. No general observation could be made in the case of capric acid. The antifungal activities of all five weak acids appeared related not only to the undissociated form, but also the dissociated form, of each acid.

  9. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production:a potential source of botanical food preservative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Negero Gemeda; Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel; Daniel Asrat; Asfaw Debella

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production.Method: In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species.Results: Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5 336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations.Conclusions:In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi.

  10. Role of radiation technology in preservation of food and agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Several technological benefits can be achieved by gamma radiation processing of agricultural commodities and food include: inhibition of sprouting in tubers, bulbs and rhizomes; disinfestation of insect pests in stored products; disinfestation of quarantine pests in fresh produce; delay in ripening and senescence in fruits and vegetables; destruction of microbes responsible for spoilage of food; elimination of parasites and pathogens of public health importance in food

  11. Ultraviolet Technology For Food Preservation [tecnologia De Ultravioleta Para Preservação De Alimentos

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes A.M.M.; Novello D.; Mendes G.M.P.; Cristianini M.

    2009-01-01

    This literature review article had as objective to gather information about ultraviolet (UV) technology utilization on the food industry, its effects and potential application. Aspects as the origin, concept and applications of the technology on the equipment industry and running mechanisms were approached. The application of UV radiation on food decontamination is still little used due its low penetration, but it is known that it can be easily applied to solid and liquid food products. The r...

  12. Purification and characterization of bacteriocin like substance produced from bacillus lentus with perspective of a new biopreservative for food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, N.; Gautam, N.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular weight of bacteriocin like substance (BLIS) of a new strain of Bacillus lentus 121 was found to be approximately 11 kDa. Purification of BLIS was attained by single step gel exclusion chromatography. BLIS was characterized by studying the inhibitory spectrum. It was active at broad pH range, high temperature and high NaCl concentration and showed sensitivity to proteolytic enzymes like trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin and papain, the characters desirable for food preservation. BLIS extended the shelf stability of milk upto 21 days as a biopreservative. (author)

  13. The response in food intake and reproductive parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Average daily feed intake (3.7 ± 0.2 kg) was unaffected by energy content as were all the reproductive parameters measured, including total eggs produced per female (45.6 ± 5.8), number of chicks hatched (21.3 ± 4.5), number of infertile eggs (11.6 ± 3.6), number of dead-in-shell eggs (7.5 ± 1.8) and egg weight (1406 ± 31 ...

  14. A preliminary assessment of two hospital food service systems using parameters of food safety and consumer opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, H; Edwards, J S

    2001-12-01

    The goal of any hospital caterer should be to provide food that meets nutritional requirements, satisfies the patient, improves morale and is microbiologically safe. Food distribution to hospital wards plays a critical role. The aim of this study was to compare two hospital food service systems using parameters of food safety and consumer opinion. An NHS hospital was selected where food delivery was due to change from a plated system to a cafeteria trolley system. Samples (50 g) of dishes (n = 27) considered to be high-risk were collected for three consecutive days from breakfast, lunch and supper meals. The samples were taken from a pre-ordered tray (similar to that of a patient) in the plated system and from the trolley on the ward in the cafeteria system of meal delivery (approximately six months after its introduction). Consumer opinions cards (n = 180) were distributed and interviews also conducted. Microbiologically, the quality of food items delivered by both systems was satisfactory. However, concern was raised with the plated system, not for hot foods cooling down but for chilled foods warming up and being sustained in ambient conditions. Overall consumer satisfaction and experience was enhanced with the trolley system. Food was hotter and generally perceived to be of a better quality. Satisfaction with cold desserts was not dependent on the delivery system.

  15. Encapsulation for preservation of functionality and targeted delivery of bioactive food components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Paul; Faas, Marijke M.; Spasojevic, Milica; Sikkema, Jan

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of food products containing bioactive components with a health promoting or disease preventing effect. Bioactive food components can be divided into bioactive molecules and bioactive living cells (probiotics). Both bioactive molecules and bioactive

  16. Essential oils as food eco-preservatives: Model system studies on the effect of temperature on limonene antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna; Flasiński, Michał; Romańczuk, Karolina

    2017-11-15

    Antimicrobial properties of essential oils predestine these substances to be used as ecological food preservatives. However, their activity is determined by variety of factors among which external conditions and food properties are highly important. Herein the influence of limonene on artificial membranes was studied to verify the effect of temperature on the incorporation of this compound into model bacterial membrane. The investigations were done on lipid monolayers and the experiments involved the surface pressure-area measurements, penetration studies and Brewster Angle Microscopy analysis. It was found that limonene incorporates into lipid monolayers causing their fluidization. However, the magnitude of alterations depends on limonene concentration, model membrane composition and, for a given composition, on system condensation. Moreover, the influence of limonene is stronger at lower temperatures and, in the light of collected data, this may be a consequence of strong volatility and evaporation of limonene increasing with temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Expression of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins under Stress Encountered during Food Production and Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelin, Jenny; Susilo, Yusak Budi; Johler, Sophia

    2017-12-15

    Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is the most prevalent cause of food-borne intoxications worldwide. Consumption of enterotoxins preformed in food causes violent vomiting and can be fatal in children and the elderly. While being repressed by competing bacteria in most matrices, Staphylococcus aureus benefits from crucial competitive advantages in foods with high osmolarity or low pH. During recent years, the long-standing belief in the feasibility of assessing SFP risk based on colony-forming units of S. aureus present in food products has been disproven. Instead, researchers and food business operators are acutely aware of the imminent threat arising from unforeseeable enterotoxin production under stress conditions. This paradigm shift led to a variety of new publications enabling an improved understanding of enterotoxin expression under stress conditions encountered in food. The wealth of data provided by these studies is extremely diverse, as it is based on different methodological approaches, staphylococcal strains, stressors, and enterotoxins. Therefore, in this review, we aggregated and critically evaluated the complex findings of these studies, to provide readers with a current overview of the state of research in the field.

  18. Combined effect of thermal sterilization and ionizing radiation on storage life of preserved foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozova, B.; Sorman, L.; Fazekasova, H.

    1986-01-01

    The effect was studied of the binary combination of preservation methods, i.e., of a reduced intensity of thermosterilization and diverse doses of ionizing radiation, on the content of microorganisms in single-component tinned products (tinned beef and gravy, tinned pickled cauliflower) and in tins containing two components (beef with cauliflower) over a period of 115 days of storage at a laboratory temperature of 20 degC ± 2 degC. The experimental results showed that the chosen combined process of preservation guaranteed sufficient storage stability to the products over several months of storage. An ionizing radiation dose of 5 kGy was sufficient for both types of model samples, this both from microbiological, nutritional aspects (some group B vitamins, vitamin C, -SH groups, etc.) and with regard to organoleptic properties (outlook, color, odor, flavor, consistence, juiciness). The problems will further be studied. (author) 2 tabs., 4 figs., 14 refs

  19. Microbiological analysis of common preservatives used in food items and demonstration of their in vitro anti-bacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohora Sultana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To quantify the microorganisms contaminating the common preservatives used in food as well as to detect their in vitro anti-bacterial traits. Methods: A total of 9 preservatives were subjected to conventional cultural and biochemical methods for microbial enumeration. Anti-bacterial activities were demonstrated through the agar well diffusion method. Results: All samples were found to be contaminated with bacteria up to 105 CFU/g and with the fungal flora within a range of 1 01-1 02 CFU/g. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp. and Staphylococcus spp. were demonstrated in most of the samples. Sodium sulfite and citric acid possessed the strongest anti-bacterial trait against all of the test bacteria. Acetic acid exhibited activity against 6 out of 8 test bacteria while vinegar exhibited the activity against 4 bacteria. Activity of salt was demonstrated only against Listeria spp. and Bacillus spp., while activity of sugar and honey was found only against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp., respectively. Conclusions: According to the current investigation, sodium sulfite and citric acid samples were found to be satisfactory preservatives both in terms of microbiological criteria and their antibacterial traits.

  20. The EPR detection of foods preserved with the use of ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowicz, W.; Burlińska, G.; Michalik, J.; Dziedzic-Gocławska, A.; Ostrowski, K.

    1995-02-01

    Solid constituents extracted from irradiated foods have been examined by the epr (esr) spectroscopy. It has been proved that some epr active species produced by radiation in foods are specific and stable enough to be used for the detection of irradiation treatment. The most promising results have been obtained with bones extracted from frozen raw meat (beef, pork, poultry and fish), with seeds of fruits (dates and figs), with dried mushrooms, gelatin and macaroni.

  1. Integrated effect of gamma radiation and biocontrol agent on quality parameters of apple fruit: An innovative commercial preservation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahari Mostafavi, Hossein; Mahyar Mirmajlessi, Seyed; Fathollahi, Hadi; Shahbazi, Samira; Mohammad Mirjalili, Seyed

    2013-10-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation and biocontrol agent (Pseudomonas fluorescens) on the physico-chemical parameters (including moisture, total soluble solids, antioxidant activity, phenolic content and firmness) of cv. Golden Delicious apples were investigated for their ability to avoid the post-harvest blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum during cold storage. Freshly harvested apples were inoculated with P. expansum. Treated fruits were irradiated at doses of 0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 Gy and then inoculated with P. fluorescens suspension. Samples were evaluated at 3 month intervals. The results demonstrated a clear link between antioxidant activity and phenolic content, so that dose range of 200-400 Gy significantly increased phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Effect of P. fluorescens was similar to irradiation at 200 and 400 Gy that could prevent lesion diameter in pathogen-treated apples. As dose and storage time increased firmness decreased but, combination of P. fluorescens as well as irradiation (at 200-400 Gy) could decrease softening apple fruits during storage. In all parameters, P. fluorescens (as biocontrol agent) inhibited P. expansum similar to irradiation at 200-400 Gy. So, integrated treatment of irradiation and biocontrol agent explored the potential dual benefit of low doses (200 and 400 Gy) as a suitable method to sustain physico-chemical quality and conclusively reduce apple fruits losses during post-harvest preservation.

  2. Integrated effect of gamma radiation and biocontrol agent on quality parameters of apple fruit: An innovative commercial preservation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahari Mostafavi, Hossein; Mahyar Mirmajlessi, Seyed; Fathollahi, Hadi; Shahbazi, Samira; Mohammad Mirjalili, Seyed

    2013-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation and biocontrol agent (Pseudomonas fluorescens) on the physico-chemical parameters (including moisture, total soluble solids, antioxidant activity, phenolic content and firmness) of cv. Golden Delicious apples were investigated for their ability to avoid the post-harvest blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum during cold storage. Freshly harvested apples were inoculated with P. expansum. Treated fruits were irradiated at doses of 0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 Gy and then inoculated with P. fluorescens suspension. Samples were evaluated at 3 month intervals. The results demonstrated a clear link between antioxidant activity and phenolic content, so that dose range of 200–400 Gy significantly increased phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Effect of P. fluorescens was similar to irradiation at 200 and 400 Gy that could prevent lesion diameter in pathogen-treated apples. As dose and storage time increased firmness decreased but, combination of P. fluorescens as well as irradiation (at 200–400 Gy) could decrease softening apple fruits during storage. In all parameters, P. fluorescens (as biocontrol agent) inhibited P. expansum similar to irradiation at 200–400 Gy. So, integrated treatment of irradiation and biocontrol agent explored the potential dual benefit of low doses (200 and 400 Gy) as a suitable method to sustain physico-chemical quality and conclusively reduce apple fruits losses during post-harvest preservation. - Highlights: • A suitable method to reduce apple quality losses during 9 month storage period. • Effects of γ radiation in combination with biocontrol agent on physico-chemical parameters of the apple fruits during cold storage. • The potential dual benefit of low irradiation dose combined with biocontrol agent. • Radiation dose determination for Penicillium expansum (postharvest pathogen) control

  3. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part IV. Subtropical fruits: citrus, grapes, and avocados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    Current information on the use of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of subtropical fruits like citrus, grapes, and avocados is reviewed. The feasibility of applying radiation either alone or in combination with other physical or chemical treatments for the control of postharvest fungal diseases is considered. Irradiation effects on the physiology of the fruits as related to respiration, ethylene evolution, changes in major chemical constituents, and quality are discussed. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation as an alternative treatment to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of citrus and avocados and the prospects for the future application of irradiation for preservation of some of these fruits are outlined. 128 references

  4. Parameter values for the long-term nuclear waste management food chain model LIMCAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, Reto.

    1982-09-01

    Eighteen parameters of LIMCAL, a comprehensive food chain model for predicting ICRP 26 50-year committed effective dose equivalents to man due to long-term nuclear waste management are reviewed. The parameters are: soil bulk density, plowlayer depth, soil surface layer depth, resusupension factor, atmospheric dust load, deposition velocity, plant interception fraction, plant environmental half-time, translocation factor, time of above-ground exposure, plant yield, holdup time, animals' feed consumption rate, animals' water consumption rate, man's water consumption rate, food type calorie conversion factors, man's total caloric intake rate and food type calorie fractions. LIMCAL has both traditional and unique parameters. The former occur in most of the currently used assessment models for nuclear installations, whereas the latter do not. For each of the parameters of LIMCAL, a suitable generic value for long-term nuclear waste management was determined. Thus, the general literature and the values currently used or recommended by various agencies were reviewed

  5. Terminalia arjuna: A novel natural preservative for improved lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of muscle foods

    OpenAIRE

    Insha Kousar Kalem; Z.F. Bhat; Sunil Kumar; Ajay Desai

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to explore the possibility of utilization of Terminalia arjuna as a novel natural preservative in meat products by using chevon sausages as a model system. Chevon sausages were prepared by incorporating different levels of T. arjuna viz. T1 (0.25%), T2 (0.50%) and T3 (0.75%) and were assessed for various lipid oxidative stability and storage quality parameters under refrigerated (4 ± 1 °C) conditions. T. arjuna showed a significant (p 

  6. 21 CFR 501.22 - Animal foods; labeling of spices, flavorings, colorings, and chemical preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products thereof. Artificial flavor includes... products, or fermentation products thereof, whose significant function in food is flavoring rather than... or retard deterioration thereof, but does not include common salt, sugars, vinegars, spices, or oils...

  7. The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and processing improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Han Ok; Jo, Sung Ki; Yook, Hong Sun; Kwon, Oh Jin; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Sung; Im, Sung Il

    1997-09-01

    This project has intended to develop alternative techniques to be used in food industry for food processing and utilization by safe irradiation methods. For improvement of rheology and processing in corn starch by irradiation, the production of modified starch with low viscosity as well as with excellent viscosity stability became feasible by the control of gamma irradiation dose levels and the amount of added inorganic peroxides to starch. Also, this project was developed the improvement methods of hygienic quality and long-term storage of dried red pepper by gamma irradiation. And, in Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield of major components. For the sanitization of health and convenience foods, gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment in decontamination of microorganisms, with minimal effect on the physicochemical properties analysed. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma-irradiated the Korean medicinal plants could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And, thirteen groups of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea Ministry of Health and Welfare. (author). 81 refs., 74 tabs.

  8. Functional genomics for food microbiology: Molecular mechanisms of weak organic acid preservative adaptation in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brul, S.; Kallemeijn, W.; Smits, G.

    2008-01-01

    The recent era of genomics has offered tremendous possibilities to biology. This concise review describes the possibilities of applying (functional) genomics studies to the field of microbial food stability. In doing so, the studies on weak-organic-acid stress response in yeast are discussed by way

  9. The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and processing improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Han Ok; Jo, Sung Ki; Yook, Hong Sun; Kwon, Oh Jin; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Sung; Im, Sung Il.

    1997-09-01

    This project has intended to develop alternative techniques to be used in food industry for food processing and utilization by safe irradiation methods. For improvement of rheology and processing in corn starch by irradiation, the production of modified starch with low viscosity as well as with excellent viscosity stability became feasible by the control of gamma irradiation dose levels and the amount of added inorganic peroxides to starch. Also, this project was developed the improvement methods of hygienic quality and long-term storage of dried red pepper by gamma irradiation. And, in Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield of major components. For the sanitization of health and convenience foods, gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment in decontamination of microorganisms, with minimal effect on the physicochemical properties analysed. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma-irradiated the Korean medicinal plants could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And, thirteen groups of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea Ministry of Health and Welfare. (author). 81 refs., 74 tabs

  10. Sorbic and benzoic acid in non-preservative-added food products in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Ruziye; Cagri-Mehmetoglu, Arzu

    2013-01-01

    Sorbic acid (SA) and benzoic acid (BA) were determined in yoghurt, tomato and pepper paste, fruit juices, chocolates, soups and chips in Turkey by using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Levels were compared with Turkish Food Codex limits. SA was detected only in 2 of 21 yoghurt samples, contrary to BA, which was found in all yoghurt samples but one, ranging from 10.5 to 159.9 mg/kg. Both SA and BA were detected also in 3 and 6 of 23 paste samples in a range of 18.1-526.4 and 21.7-1933.5 mg/kg, respectively. Only 1 of 23 fruit juices contained BA. SA was not detected in any chips, fruit juice, soup, or chocolate sample. Although 16.51% of the samples was not compliant with the Turkish Food Codex limits, estimated daily intake of BA or SA was below the acceptable daily intake.

  11. Corrosion inhibition with different protective layers in tinplate cans for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassino, Antonela Ninčević; Grabarić, Zorana; Pezzani, Aldo; Squitieri, Giuseppe; Berković, Katarina

    2010-11-01

    In this work the influence of essential onion oil (EOO) on the protection of tinplates was compared with dioctyl sebacate oil (DOS) and epoxy phenolic lacquers, which are frequently used in the food canning industry. When EOO as the protective layer instead of DOS oil was used, tinplate porosity, measured electrochemically (7.58 ± 1.97 µA cm(-2) and 23.0 ± 1.3 µA cm(-2), respectively), and iron coating mass, calculated from AAS data (1.52 ± 0.15 mg m(-2) and 3.14 ± 0.42, respectively), was much lower indicating better corrosion protection. At higher storing temperature (36 °C) the addition of EOO to canned tomato purée enhanced the formation of hydrogen with time. The increasing volume fraction of H(2) (from 34.0 to 90.9% for cans without nitrates, and from 33.8 to 89.2% for cans with nitrates) is an indicator that corrosion takes place. As the use of EOO improves the protection of tinplate compared with DOS oil, and is almost as effective as epoxy phenolic lacquer, the addition of EOO can be recommended due to lower cost of canned food production and enhanced organoleptic properties, but the storage temperature has to be lower then 36 °C. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry

  12. Occurrence of Antibiotic resistance in some bacterial strains due to gamma radiation, heavy metals or food preservatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattar, Z.A.; Bashandy, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    The susceptibility of bacterial strains (B. cereus, Staph. aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella) against 10 different antibiotics that are commonly used against food borne pathogens was studied. All the tested strains were observed to tolerate up to 100 mg/l copper sulphate or lead acetate, and there was a positive correlations between the tolerance to high levels of Cu or Pb and multiple antibiotic resistance was investigated. When the food preservatives (potassium sorbate or sodium benzoate) were added to the growth medium at different concentrations, the bacterial strains were able to tolerate up to 1000 ppm potassium sorbate or sodium benzoate (MIC). The antibiotic resistance of these strains was increased when grown on media supplemented with the MIC of sodium sorbate or potassium benzoate. When these bacterial strains were irradiated at dose levels of 1 or 3 or 5 KGy and examined for antibiotic sensitivity, a correlation was observed between the increases of radiation dose up to 5 KGy and the antibiotic resistance in all the studied strains

  13. Characterization of a noncytotoxic bacteriocin from probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 with potential as a food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Deeplina; Goyal, Arun

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to purify and characterize the bacteriocin produced by probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 in order to evaluate its potential as nutraceuticals. Lb. plantarum DM5 exhibited in vitro probiotic properties such as high resistance to gastric juice and bile salt, adherence to human adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells, bile salt hydrolase and cholesterol assimilation activity. Moreover, Lb. plantarum DM5 showed bacteriocin activity against several major food borne pathogens. Zymogram analysis of purified bacteriocin (plantaricin DM5) showed a molecular size of ∼15.2 kDa. Plantaricin DM5 was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes but stable in the pH range of 2.0-10.0, and it was heat resistant (121 °C for 15 min) and remained active upon treatment with surfactants and detergents. Cytotoxicity analysis of plantaricin DM5 on human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) and human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines revealed its nontoxic and biocompatible nature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the isolated strain expressing probiotic properties and broad antimicrobial activity without any cytotoxic effect on mammalian cells from indigenous fermented beverage Marcha from India, and thus contributes to the food industry as a novel bio-preservant.

  14. Lack of oestrogenic effects of food preservatives (parabens) in uterotrophic assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossaini, A.; Larsen, Jens-Jørgen; Larsen, John Christian

    2000-01-01

    The oestrogenic activity of the parabens, methyl-, ethyl- and propyl p-hydroxybenzoate, widely used as antimicrobials in food, and butyl p-hydroxybenzoate, which is used in cosmetic products, and their shared main metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid was investigated in a mouse uterotrophic assay......, Immature B6D2F1 mice were treated with oral or subcutaneous doses of the test compounds for three consecutive days, p-Hydroxgybenzoic acid and butyl p-hydroxybenzoate were also tested by the subcutaneous route in a rat uterotrophic assay. A significant increase in the uterus weight at day 4 was considered...... an oestrogenic effect. In the mouse assay, none of the compounds tested produced any oestrogenic response at dose levels up to 100 mg/kg body weight per day, for ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate even at a dose level of 1000 mg/kg body weight per day. In immature Wistar rats, subcutaneous administration of butyl p...

  15. An evaluation of the potential of combination processes involving heat and irradiation for food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuzzaman, K.; Payne, B.; Cole, L.; Goodwin, M.; Borsa, J.

    1989-11-01

    Effects of combined heating and gamma radiation on Clostridium sporogenes spores and Salmonella seftenberg were examined. The order in which irradiation and heat were applied had a profound effect on the survival of the organisms. Heating of C.sporogenes spores at 95 degrees Celsius had very little effect on their sensitivity to subsequent irradiation, but irradiation of the spores at 0 degrees Celsius increased their sensitivity to subsequent heat treatment and thus reduced their heat D 10 values (time required to activate the spores to 10% of their initial number). This radiation-induced heat sensitivity increased with the increase in radiation dose. The Z values (change in temperature required for a tenfold change in D 10 values) of the spores were found to increase with the increase in pre-irradiation dose. Radiation-induced heat sensitivity was found to persist for at least 35 days in spores irradiated in frozen or freeze-dried states in distilled water or in phosphate buffer suspensions, and for at least 14 days in a number of food slurries. In phosphate buffer and nutrient broth suspensions, the radiation-heat synergism decreased with increasing pH of the media from pH 4.7 to pH 7.5. However, the effect of pH on synergism was less pronounced in spores suspended in some food slurries. Preliminary results indicate that pre-irradiation of S. senftenberg at 0.5 kGy did not change the heat sensitivity of this organism at 52 degrees Celsius, but when radiation and heat were applied simultaneously, synergistic inactivation was observed even at 50 degrees Celsius. Practical implications of these results are discussed

  16. Influence of Natural Food Preservatives Combined with Gamma Radiation on Certain Microorganisms Isolated from Egyptian Juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fouly, M.Z.; Hussein, H.A.; Abu El-Naga, M.N.; Haroun, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Twelve strains were isolated from different Egyptian juices. The nine bacteria strains were identified as Micrococcus agilis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. warneri, S. epidermidis, S. auricularls, Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter frundii, and Streptococcus pedococcus while the yeast strains were Debaryomyces sp., Kluveromyces sp .and Pichia sp. Three of the previous strains were chosen in the present work according to their common contamination in all samples and their characteristics; S. aureus represented gram positive bacteria, P. aeruginosa represented gram negative bacteria and Debaryomyces sp. to represent yeast strains. S. aureus has completely annihilated by 250 μ g/ml. of nisin, or 0.2% citric acid, or 0.15% lactic acid, or 1.2 % cinnamon or 5 kGy of gamma rays.; P. aeruginosa was destroyed by 0.3 % citric acid, or 0.3 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 4 kGy of gamma rays, while Debaryomyces sp. was eliminated by 4 % citric acid, or 4.5 % lactic acid, or 2 % cinnamon or 7 kGy of gamma rays. Nisin alone has no effect on P. aeruginosa or Debaryomyces sp. Combined treatments have decreased both of natural preservatives and irradiation doses needed to eliminate the microorganisms contaminated the juices. S. aureus was completely eliminated by 3 kGy combined with only 25 μ g/ml. of nisin. The lethal dose decreased to 2 kGy by combination with citric, lactic acid and cinnamon at conc. 0.05%, 0.01% and 0.4 %, respectively .The dose level of gamma rays needed to eliminate P. aeruginosa decreased to 3 kGy in combination with citric acid 0.1% or with cinnamon 0.5 % and it decreased to 2 kGy by combination with lactic acid 0.1 %. In case of Debaryomyces sp the lethal dose decreased from 7 kGy to 4 kGy by combination with citric acid 1.5 % or cinnamon 1 % and to 3 kGy with lactic acid 1.5 %. Also, the combination treatment has activated the effect of nisin on both of P. aeruginosa and Debaryomyces sp. Dose level of 4 kGy combined with 200 μ g/ml. nisin

  17. Influence of natural food preservatives combined with gamma radiation on certain microorganisms isolated from Egyptian Juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fouly, M.Z.; Hussein, H.A.; Abu El-Naga, M.N.; Haroun, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    Twelve strains were isolated from different Egyptian juices. They were identified as Micrococcus agilis. Staphylococcus aureus, S. warneri, Debaryomyces sp., Pichia sp., S. epidermidis, S. auricularls, Kluveromyces sp., Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter frundii,and Streptococcus pedococcus. Three of the previous strains were chosen in the present work according to their common contamination in all samples and their characteristics; S. aureus represented gram positive bacteria, P. aeruginosa represented gram negative bacteria and Debaryomyces sp.to represent yeast strains. S. aureus has completely annihilated by 250 μg/ml. of nisin, or 0.2% citric acid, or 0.15% lactic acid, or 1.2 % cinnamon or 5 kGy of gamma rays. P. aeruginosa was destroyed by 0.3 % citric acid, or 0.3 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 4 kGy of gamma rays, while Debaryomyces sp. was eliminated by 4 % citric acid, or 4.5 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 7 kGy of gamma rays. Nisin alone has no effect on P. aeruginosa or Debaryomyces sp. Combined treatments have decreased both of natural preservatives and irradiation doses needed to eliminate the microorganisms contaminated the juices. S. aureus was completely eliminated by 3 kGy combined with only 25 μg/ml. of nisin. The lethal dose decreased to 2 kGy by combination with citric, lactic acid and cinnamon at conc. 0.05%, 0.01% and 0.4 %, respectively. The dose level of gamma rays needed to eliminate P. aeruginosa decreased to 3 kGy in combination with citric acid 0.1% or with cinnamon 0.5 % and it decreased to 2 kGy by combination with lactic acid 0.1 %. In case of Debaryomyces sp the lethal dose decreased from 7 kGy to 4 kGy by combination with citric acid 1.5 % or cinnamon 1 % and to 3 kGy with lactic acid 1.5 %. Also the combination treatment has activated the effect of nisin on both of P. aeruginosa and Debaryomyces sp. Dose level 4 kGy by combination with 200 μg/ml. nisin completely inhibited their growth

  18. Use of irradiation in the preservation of traditional South African foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minnaar, A.; Bester, B.H.; Shilangale, R.P.M.

    2002-01-01

    A variety of traditional African foods are prepared in the home and enjoyed by a large number of consumers. Currently, hardly any of these foods are available commercially. However, these foods are laborious to prepare, not generally available commercially and have a limited shelf life. The application of irradiation (alone) or in combination with other technologies can help solve these problems. The effect of irradiation (0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy at 5 deg. C the consumer acceptability of a traditional South African ready-to-eat (RTE) meal consisting of spinach (morogo) and sorghum porridge was investigated. The two components of the meal remained acceptable up to a dose of 10 kGy. The limiting factor for using higher doses was the porridge component, especially in terms of texture (too soft) and taste (off-flavour development). Therefore the use irradiation at 10 kGy in combination with different levels of sodium nitrite was proposed to improve the storability of the RTE-meal. Research is in progress investigating the effects of combining mild heat, sodium nitrite and irradiation on the microbiological quality, shelf-life and acceptability of a RTE- meal consisting of spinach (morogo) and sorghum porridge. Washing in chlorinated water reduced inoculated Clostridium sporogenes spores in spinach by about 2 log 10 cfu/g probably because hypochlorites are bacteriostatic. Blanching of spinach after the chlorine treatment did not effect the C. sporogenes counts. However, C. sporogenes counts increased by about 1 log 10 cfu/g during cooking, probably due to the activation of the spores by heat. On the other hand, cooking reduced C. sporogenes counts in the porridge significantly (by about 2 log 10 cfu/g). Gelatinised starch granules probably protected the spores against heat activation. In both meal components, cooking caused a significant decrease in the final nitrite levels. This may be due to the fact that nitrite can form complexes with other components during heating

  19. Partition of selected food preservatives in fish oil-water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan; Leth, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The partition coefficients (Kow) of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in systems of fish oil (sand eel)–water, fish oil–buffer solution, rape oil–water and olive oil–water were experimentally determined in a temperature range from 5 to 43 °C and pH from 4.5 to 6.5 °C. The dimerization of benzoic acid...... in fish oil–water system was observed at 25 °C. Two modifications have been made to the Nordic Food Analysis Standard for the determination of sorbic acid by HPLC. The experimental results show that the Kow of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in fish oil–buffer system is ca. 100 times lower than that in fish...... oil–water system. The Kow values of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in fish oil and water system decrease with increasing system pH values. The partition coefficients of plant origin and fish origin oils are in the same order of magnitude even though their molecular structures are very different....

  20. Functional properties of edible agar-based and starch-based films for food quality preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, The D; Debeaufort, F; Luu, D; Voilley, A

    2005-02-23

    Edible films made of agar (AG), cassava starch (CAS), normal rice starch (NRS), and waxy (glutinous) rice starch (WRS) were elaborated and tested for a potential use as edible packaging or coating. Their water vapor permeabilities (WVP) were comparable with those of most of the polysaccharide-based films and with some protein-based films. Depending on the environmental moisture pressure, the WVP of the films varies and remains constant when the relative humidity (RH) is >84%. Equilibrium sorption isotherms of these films have been measured; the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) model was used to describe the sorption isotherm and contributed to a better knowledge of hydration properties. Surface hydrophobicity and wettability of these films were also investigated using the sessile drop contact angle method. The results obtained suggested the migration of the lipid fraction toward evaporation surface during film drying. Among these polysaccharide-based films, AG-based film and CAS-based film displayed more interesting mechanical properties: they are transparent, clear, homogeneous, flexible, and easily handled. NRS- and WRS-based films were relatively brittle and have a low tension resistance. Microstructure of film cross section was observed by environmental scanning electron microscopy to better understand the effect of the structure on the functional properties. The results suggest that AG-based film and CAS-based films, which show better functional properties, are promising systems to be used as food packaging or coating instead of NRS- and WRS-based films.

  1. Application of the Ames mutagenicity test to food processed by physical preservation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooij, J.G. van; Leveling, H.B.; Schubert, J.

    1978-01-01

    An irradiated (380 krad) mixture of four fresh vegetables - leek, celery, carrot, and cauliflower - was examined for mutagenicity by the Ames mutagenicity test using four different histidine-deficient strains of Salmonellae. Water extracts were prepared from the irradiated and unirradiated vegetables - a freeze dried extract (FDE) and a boiled extract (BE). Several problems were overcome in the mutagenicity testing of a complex substance such as food which contains free histidine, different species of bacteria, and a mixture of low and high molecular weight chemicals. In addition, we eliminated an omission in the usual protocols of the Ames test by testing the positive mutagen controls in the presence and absence of the test samples, thus reducing the possible incidence of false negatives and false positives. The induction and expression of mutagenesis by sodium azide (SA) and ethidium bromide (EB) in TA 100 and TA 98 mutant strains, respectively, decreased with increasing amounts of FDE, while increasing levels of BE suppressed the number of revertants in TA 98 in the presence of EB, but exerted little influence on the mutagenicity of SA in TA 100. No difference was observed in the antimutagenic action between the irradiated and unirradiated vegetable extracts. Both the FDE and BE preparations suppressed the action of a frameshift mutagen, but with a base-pair mutagen only the FDE or uncooked vegetable extracts produced suppression. (author)

  2. Thermal and non-thermal preservation techniques of tiger nuts' beverage "horchata de chufa". Implications for food safety, nutritional and quality properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselló-Soto, Elena; Poojary, Mahesha M; Barba, Francisco J; Koubaa, Mohamed; Lorenzo, Jose M; Mañes, Jordi; Moltó, Juan Carlos

    2018-03-01

    "Horchata de chufa" is a traditional Spanish beverage produced from tiger nuts (Cyperus esculentus L.). Due to its richness in nutritional compounds, it is highly perishable and its conservation by pasteurization and/or adding preservatives is required. Although efficient, conventional thermal treatment for pasteurization induces changes in the nutritional and sensory properties. Replacing conventional pasteurization by non-thermal technologies such as pulsed electric fields, ultraviolet, and high pressure, combined with moderate temperatures (preservation of the most thermo-sensitive molecules. Accordingly, this review deals with the description of the most relevant non-thermal technologies applied to preserve "horchata" beverage in order to extend the shelf life and inactivate pathogenic microorganisms as well as to preserve the nutritional and quality properties of this food beverage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Parameter Estimation for Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Food Waste Into Ethanol Using Matlab Simulink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rebecca Anne

    The increase in waste disposal and energy costs has provided an incentive to convert carbohydrate-rich food waste streams into fuel. For example, dining halls and restaurants discard foods that require tipping fees for removal. An effective use of food waste may be the enzymatic hydrolysis of the waste to simple sugars and fermentation of the sugars to ethanol. As these wastes have complex compositions which may change day-to-day, experiments were carried out to test fermentability of two different types of food waste at 27° C using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (ATCC4124) and Genencor's STARGEN™ enzyme in batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) experiments. A mathematical model of SSF based on experimentally matched rate equations for enzyme hydrolysis and yeast fermentation was developed in Matlab Simulink®. Using Simulink® parameter estimation 1.1.3, parameters for hydrolysis and fermentation were estimated through modified Michaelis-Menten and Monod-type equations with the aim of predicting changes in the levels of ethanol and glycerol from different initial concentrations of glucose, fructose, maltose, and starch. The model predictions and experimental observations agree reasonably well for the two food waste streams and a third validation dataset. The approach of using Simulink® as a dynamic visual model for SSF represents a simple method which can be applied to a variety of biological pathways and may be very useful for systems approaches in metabolic engineering in the future.

  4. Sodium benzoate, a food preservative, affects the functional and activation status of splenocytes at non cytotoxic dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ashish; Kumar, Arvind; Das, Mukul; Tripathi, Anurag

    2016-02-01

    Sodium benzoate (SB) is a widely used food preservative due to its bacteriostatic and fungistatic properties. The acceptable daily intake of SB is 5 mg/kg-bw, however, it has been found to be used in the food commodities at relatively high levels (2119 mg/kg). Earlier studies on SB have shown its immunosuppressive properties, but comprehensive immunotoxicity data is lacking. Our studies have shown that SB was non cytotoxic in splenocytes up to 1000 μg/ml for 72 h, however at 2500 μg/ml it was found to be cytotoxic. Thus, 1000 μg/ml dose of SB was chosen for the subsequent experiments. SB significantly suppresses the proliferation of Con A and LPS stimulated splenocytes at 72 h, while allogenic response of T cells was significantly decreased after 96 h. SB did not affect the relative expression of CD3e or CD4 molecules following 72 h exposure, however, it downregulated the relative expression of CD8 co-receptor. Further, exposure of splenocytes to SB for 72 h led to reduced expression of CD28 and CD95, which play a vital role in T cell activation. SB also suppresses the relative expression of CD19, CD40 and CD95 receptors on B cells after 72 h. In addition to the functional responses, SB lowered the expression of IL4, IL6, IFNγ and IL17 cytokines in Con A stimulated splenocytes; and IL6, IFNγ and TNFα in LPS stimulated splenocytes following 48 h of exposure. Taken together, the present study is suggestive of the immunomodulatory potential of SB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners, preservatives, caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in food and pharmaceutical preparations by ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q C; Wang, J

    2001-12-07

    A novel ion chromatographic method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners (sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K), preservatives (benzoic acid, sorbic acid), caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. The separation was performed on an anion-exchange analytical column operated at 40 degrees C within 45 min by an isocratic elution with 5 mM aqueous NaH2PO4 (pH 8.20) solution containing 4% (v/v) acetonitrile as eluent, and the determination by wavelength-switching ultraviolet absorbance detection. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) for all analytes were below the sub-microg/ml level. Under the experimental conditions, several organic acids, including citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid and ascorbic acid, did not interfere with the determination. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of various food and pharmaceutical preparations, and the average recoveries for real samples ranged from 85 to 104%. The levels of all analytes determined by this method were in good agreement with those obtained by the high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. The results also indicated that ion chromatography would be possibly a beneficial alternative to conventional high-performance liquid chromatography for the separation and determination of these compounds.

  6. Parameters on the radionuclide transfer in crop plants for Korean food chain dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Lim, K. M.; Cho, Y. H.

    2001-12-01

    For more realistic assessment of Korean food chain radiation doses due to the operation of nuclear facilities, it is required to use domestically produced data for radionuclide transfer parameters in crop plants. In this report, results of last about 15 years' studies on radionuclide transfer parameters in major crop plants by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, were summarized and put together. Soil-to-plant transfer factors, parameters quantifying the root uptake of radionuclides, were measured through greenhouse experiments and field studies. In addition to traditional transfer factors, which are based on the activity in unit weight of soil, those based on the activity applied to unit area of soil surface were also investigated. Interception factors, translocation factors and weathering half lives, parameters in relation to direct plant contamination, were investigated through greenhouse experiments. The levels of initial plant contamination with HTO and I2 vapor were described with absorption factors. Especially for HTO vapor, 3H levels in crop plants at harvest were expressed with TFWT (tissue free water tritium) reduction factors and OBT (organically bound tritium) production factors. The above-mentioned parameters generally showed great variations with soils, crops and radionuclide species and application times. On the basis of summarized results, the points to be amended or improved in food chain dose assessment models were discussed both for normal operation and for accidental release

  7. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A.C.; Beyers, M.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiation can be used to eliminate harmful bacteria in frozen products without thawing them. It can also replace chemicals or extended cold storage as a means of killing insect pests in export commodities

  8. Sensitivity Analysis of Input Parameters for a Dynamic Food Chain Model DYNACON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Lee, Geun Chang; Han, Moon Hee; Cho, Gyu Seong

    2000-01-01

    The sensitivity analysis of input parameters for a dynamic food chain model DYNACON was conducted as a function of deposition data for the long-lived radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr). Also, the influence of input parameters for the short and long-terms contamination of selected foodstuffs (cereals, leafy vegetables, milk) was investigated. The input parameters were sampled using the LHS technique, and their sensitivity indices represented as PRCC. The sensitivity index was strongly dependent on contamination period as well as deposition data. In case of deposition during the growing stages of plants, the input parameters associated with contamination by foliar absorption were relatively important in long-term contamination as well as short-term contamination. They were also important in short-term contamination in case of deposition during the non-growing stages. In long-term contamination, the influence of input parameters associated with foliar absorption decreased, while the influence of input parameters associated with root uptake increased. These phenomena were more remarkable in case of the deposition of non-growing stages than growing stages, and in case of 90 Sr deposition than 137 Cs deposition. In case of deposition during growing stages of pasture, the input parameters associated with the characteristics of cattle such as feed-milk transfer factor and daily intake rate of cattle were relatively important in contamination of milk

  9. Acid-base buffering in organ preservation solutions as a function of temperature: new parameters for comparing buffer capacity and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baicu, Simona C; Taylor, Michael J

    2002-08-01

    Control of acidity and preventing intracellular acidosis are recognized as critical properties of an effective organ preservation solution. Buffer capacity and efficiency are therefore important for comparing the relative merits of preservation fluids for optimum hypothermic storage, but these parameters are not available for the variety of organ preservation solutions of interest in transplantation today. Moreover, buffer capacity is dependent upon both concentration and pH such that buffer capacity is not easily predicted for a complex solution containing multiple buffer species. Using standard electrometric methods to measure acid dissociation constants, this study was undertaken to determine the maximum and relative buffer capacities of a variety of new and commonly used hypothermic preservation solutions as a function of temperature. The reference data provided by these measurements show that comparative buffer capacity and efficiency vary widely between the commonly used solutions. Moreover, the fluids containing zwitterionic sulfonic acid buffers such as Hepes possess superior buffering for alpha-stat pH regulation in the region of physiological importance.

  10. Sensory evaluation of a highly nutritive bread, formulated for populations suffering food emergencies, preserved with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.S.; Gómez, B.; Cova, M.C.; Narvaiz, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate with sensorial analysis, the feasibility of extending the shelf life at room temperature of highly nutritive bread, specially formulated for people suffering alimentary emergencies such as floods, earthquakes, geographical isolation or malnourishment, by means of ionizing radiation. The shelf life of any bread is limited by microbial growth, so the food industry uses chemicals and /or refrigeration to control it. Twenty one breads were formulated and manufactured employing wheat and soybean flours, dehydrated whey, skim milk and egg, vegetal oil, water, and some commercial food additives as emulsifiers and water retention substances. A final formulation was chosen by means of a preliminary sensory evaluation. Bibliographic estimations were made on its nutritional quality as compared to that of a regular wheat bread; improvements were found on vitamins, minerals, proteins, lipids and fibre. Forty 450 g breads were manufactured, oven cooked at 220°C for 20 minutes, packaged with polyethylene film, 100 microns thickness, and irradiated at the semi industrial cobalt-60 facility of the Ezeiza Atomic Centre, about 600,000 Ci of activity, with doses of 0, 6 and 10 kilo Grays, dose rate: 10 kGy/h, dose uniformity: 1.1. Control and irradiated samples were stored at room temperature and relative humidity for 43 days. Sensory analysis was performed with a panel of about 50 consumers on days 3, 29 and 43, evaluating aroma, aspect, colour, flavour, texture and general acceptability with hedonic scores ranging from 1 to 9. No significant differences between control and irradiated samples were found, being the latter afforded scores close to 7 even at the end of the storage period. Control samples had to be discarded on day 6 due to visible mould growth. So this bread formulation, suitable to fulfill most of the nutritional requirements of a population under alimentary emergency, attained at least a 7 fold shelf life increase when treated

  11. Potato wound-healing tissues: A rich source of natural antioxidant molecules with potential for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Wang, Isabel; Stark, Ruth E

    2016-11-01

    The need for safe, effective preservatives is a prominent issue in the food and drug industries, reflecting demand for natural alternatives to synthetic chemicals viewed as harmful to consumers and the environment. Thus, this study determined the identities and scavenging capacities of antioxidant metabolites produced as a response to potato tuber wounding, using activity-guided fractionation of polar extracts from a Yukon Gold cultivar that had previously exhibited exceptionally high radical-scavenging activity. Activity-guided fractionation using the ABTS(+) radical scavenging assay and LC-MS with TOF-MS for compositional analysis of the most potent antioxidant fractions yielded identification of nine constituents: coumaroylputrescine; feruloylquinic acid; isoferuloylputrescine; ferulic acid; 22,25-dimethoxy-3-[[2,3,4-tri-O-methyl-6-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-(3β)-lanost-9(11)-en-24-one; 4-(2Z)-2-decen-1-yl-5-[1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)decyl]-1,2-benzenediol; 8-[(2E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-yl]-5-hydroxy-2,8-dimethyl-6-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-2H-1-benzopyran-4,7(3H,8H)-dione; 3-[(2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-20-[(6-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-dammar-24-en-19-al; (3β)-28-oxo-28-(phenylmethoxy)oleanan-3-yl 2-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-3-O-(phenylmethyl)-, butyl ester β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid. A positive correlation was observed between the scavenging activities and the polarities of the active fractions. The antioxidant capacities of the fractions were also characterised by monitoring the activity throughout a 45-minute assay period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation - Studies on the safety and consumer acceptance of gamma irradiated meats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Jun; Lee, Young Jin; Lee, Young Sook; Kim, Ha Kyung [Hallym University, Chunchon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to chickens for evaluation of their possible genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity and nutritional safety. The results were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537. Clastogenic effects of the irradiated samples tested were not shown in vivo mouse micronucleus assay and in chromosomal aberration tests with CHL cells. In an acute toxicity test, the maximal dose of 5,000 mg/kg did not change any toxic parameter examined in this study. In four-week oral toxicity study, appearance, behavior, mortality, food and water consumption of mouse of treated groups were not affected during the experimental periods(four-weeks). In urine analysis, in hematological examination as well as in serum biochemical experiment, no significant differences were found between the control and treatment groups. Although minor changes in some hematological and biochemical parameters were observed, they were in the normal range and were not dose dependent. In nutritional safety, the proximate composition of foods were not significantly changed by irradiation dose. No significant difference in the components of fatty acids were observed by gamma irradiation. In general, the amount of released free amino acid was not significantly changed by gamma irradiation. There was no difference in total amino acid content between non irradiated and irradiated samples. The SDS electrophoresis patterns of samples were not significantly different between nonirradiated and irradiated samples. The major mineral compositions of chicken were phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium. The content of mineral was not significantly changed by gamma irradiation. 58 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  13. Relationship between Dietary Fat Intake, Its Major Food Sources and Assisted Reproduction Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein

    2014-10-01

    High dietary fat consumption may alter oocyte development and embryonic development. This prospective study was conducted to determine the relation between dietary fat consumption level, its food sources and the assisted reproduction parameters. A prospective study was conducted on 240 infertile women. In assisted reproduction treatment cycle, fat consumption and major food sources over the previous three months were identified. The number of retrieved oocytes, metaphase ΙΙ stage oocytes numbers, fertilization rate, embryo quality and clinical pregnancy rate were also determined. The data were analyzed using multiple regression, binary logistic regression, chi-square and t-test. The p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Total fat intake adjusted for age, body mass index, physical activity and etiology of infertility was positively associated with the number of retrieved oocytes and inversely associated with the high embryo quality rate. An inverse association was observed between sausage and turkey ham intake and the number of retrieved oocytes. Also, oil intake level had an inverse association with good cleavage rate. The results revealed that higher levels of fat consumption tend to increase the number of retrieved oocytes and were adversely related to embryonic development. Among food sources of fat, vegetable oil, sausage and turkey ham intake may adversely affect assisted reproduction parameters.

  14. Parameter values for the estimation of radionuclide transfer to major food crops in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Jun, In; Keum, Dong-Kwon; Lee, Chang-Woo

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the radiotracer experiments and field studies performed in Korea for the past 20 years to obtain parameter values for estimating the environmental transfer of radionuclides to food crops. With regards to direct plant contamination, the interception fractions, weathering half-lives and translocation factors of Cs, Sr, Mn, Co and Ru were measured for depositions at different growth stages of selected food crops. In order to investigate an indirect contamination pathway, the soil-to-plant transfer factors (TF m , dimensionless) of Cs, Sr, Mn, Co and/or Zn were measured for rice, Chinese cabbage, radish, soybean, barley, lettuce and so on in one or more soils. In addition, the transfer factors (TF a , m 2 kg -1 ) based on a deposition density were also measured following depositions at different times during the growth periods of several food crops. Particularly for rice and Chinese cabbage, tritium experiments were also carried out for the TF a . The obtained parameter values varied considerably with the soils, crops, radionuclides and deposition times. These data would be applicable to both normal and acute releases not only in Korea but also in many other countries. (author)

  15. A new parameter to simultaneously assess antioxidant activity for multiple phenolic compounds present in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Xue, Xuejia; Li, Huan; Tay-Chan, Su Chin; Ong, Seng Poon; Tian, Edmund Feng

    2017-08-15

    In this work, we established a new methodology to simultaneously assess the relative reaction rates of multiple antioxidant compounds in one experimental set-up. This new methodology hypothesizes that the competition among antioxidant compounds towards limiting amount of free radical (in this article, DPPH) would reflect their relative reaction rates. In contrast with the conventional detection of DPPH decrease at 515nm on a spectrophotometer, depletion of antioxidant compounds treated by a series of DPPH concentrations was monitored instead using liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QTOF). A new parameter, namely relative antioxidant activity (RAA), has been proposed to rank these antioxidants according to their reaction rate constants. We have investigated the applicability of RAA using pre-mixed standard phenolic compounds, and also extended this application to two food products, i.e. red wine and green tea. It has been found that RAA correlates well with the reported k values. This new parameter, RAA, provides a new perspective in evaluating antioxidant compounds present in food and herbal matrices. It not only realistically reflects the antioxidant activity of compounds when co-existing with competitive constituents; and it could also quicken up the discovery process in the search for potent yet rare antioxidants from many herbs of food/medicinal origins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Heat and Mass Transfer of Vacuum Cooling for Porous Foods-Parameter Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory of heat and mass transfer, a coupled model for the porous food vacuum cooling process is constructed. Sensitivity analyses of the process to food density, thermal conductivity, specific heat, latent heat of evaporation, diameter of pores, mass transfer coefficient, viscosity of gas, and porosity were examined. The simulation results show that the food density would affect the vacuum cooling process but not the vacuum cooling end temperature. The surface temperature of food was slightly affected and the core temperature is not affected by the changed thermal conductivity. The core temperature and surface temperature are affected by the changed specific heat. The core temperature and surface temperature are affected by the changed latent heat of evaporation. The core temperature is affected by the diameter of pores. But the surface temperature is not affected obviously. The core temperature and surface temperature are not affected by the changed gas viscosity. The parameter sensitivity of mass transfer coefficient is obvious. The core temperature and surface temperature are affected by the changed mass transfer coefficient. In all the simulations, the end temperature of core and surface is not affected. The vacuum cooling process of porous medium is a process controlled by outside process.

  17. Food hygienics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Yeong Gyun; Lee, Gwang Bae; Lee, Han Gi; Kim, Se Yeol

    1993-01-01

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  18. Mathematical model of solid food pasteurization by ohmic heating: influence of process parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurization of a solid food undergoing ohmic heating has been analysed by means of a mathematical model, involving the simultaneous solution of Laplace's equation, which describes the distribution of electrical potential within a food, the heat transfer equation, using a source term involving the displacement of electrical potential, the kinetics of inactivation of microorganisms likely to be contaminating the product. In the model, thermophysical and electrical properties as function of temperature are used. Previous works have shown the occurrence of heat loss from food products to the external environment during ohmic heating. The current model predicts that, when temperature gradients are established in the proximity of the outer ohmic cell surface, more cold areas are present at junctions of electrodes with lateral sample surface. For these reasons, colder external shells are the critical areas to be monitored, instead of internal points (typically geometrical center) as in classical pure conductive heat transfer. Analysis is carried out in order to understand the influence of pasteurisation process parameters on this temperature distribution. A successful model helps to improve understanding of these processing phenomenon, which in turn will help to reduce the magnitude of the temperature differential within the product and ultimately provide a more uniformly pasteurized product.

  19. Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models: Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Fellows, Robert J.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Gilmore, Tyler J.

    2004-12-02

    This Annual Progress Report describes the work performed and summarizes some of the key observations to date on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report describes activities undertaken to collect samples of soils from three regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and perform analyses to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Section 3 summarizes information gathered regarding agricultural practices and common and unusual crops grown in each of these three areas. Section 4 describes progress in studying radionuclide uptake in several representative crops from the three soil types in controlled laboratory conditions. Section 5 describes a range of international coordination activities undertaken by Project staff in order to support the underlying data needs of the Project. Section 6 provides a very brief summary of the status of the GENII Version 2 computer program, which is a “client” of the types of data being generated by the Project, and for which the Project will be providing training to the US NRC staff in the coming Fiscal Year. Several appendices provide additional supporting information.

  20. Alanine-EPR dosimetry in 10 MeV electron beam to optimize process parameters for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, B.; Kumar, S.; Kumar, M.; Mittal, K.C.; Sharma, A.

    2011-01-01

    Absorbed dose in a food product is determined and controlled by several components of the LINAC irradiation facility as well as the product. Standardization of the parameters characterizing the facility components, process load and the irradiation conditions collectively termed as 'process parameters' are of paramount importance for successful dose delivery to the food products. In the present study alanine-EPR dosimetry system was employed to optimize the process parameters of 10 MeV electron beam of a LINAC facility for commercial irradiation of food. Three sets of experiments were carried out with different food commodities namely, mango, potato and rawa with the available product conveying system of different irradiation geometry like one sided or both sided mode of irradiation. Three dimensional dose distributions into the process load for low dose requiring food commodities (0.25 to 1 kGy) were measured in each experiment. The actual depth dose profile in food product and useful scan width of the electron beam were found out to be satisfactory for commercial radiation processing of food. Finally a scaled up experiment with commercial food product (packets of Rawa) exhibited adequate dose uniformity ratio of 3 proving the feasibility of the facility for large scale radiation processing of food commodities. (author)

  1. Parameter Data on the Radiocesium Transfer to Korean Staple Food Crops Following a Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Jun, In; Kim, Byung-Ho; Keum, Dong-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    In order to decide an optimum countermeasure against farmland contaminations following a severe NPP accident, it is necessary to have a reliable tool for predicting the concentrations of radiocesium in crop plants. For the estimation of radionuclide concentrations in crop plants, various transfer parameters, which quantify the radionuclide transfer from one compartment to the next, are used in general. Some amount of transfer parameter data has been produced at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) over the last 30 years. The present work was conducted to collate the KAERI data on radiocesium in staple food crops and to suggest effective ways of using them for assessing the environmental impact of a nuclear accident. The transfer parameter values of radiocesium for rice, Chinese cabbage and radish varied considerably with soils and times of its deposition. The proposed representative values were mostly based on a limited amount of data so they cannot be considered to have a high representativeness. Accordingly, they are intended for provisional use and a continuous improvement should be made. It is necessary to produce a sufficient amount of additional domestic data on the indirect pathway by conducting root-uptake experiments with as many types of soil as possible

  2. Parameter Data on the Radiocesium Transfer to Korean Staple Food Crops Following a Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Jun, In; Kim, Byung-Ho; Keum, Dong-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In order to decide an optimum countermeasure against farmland contaminations following a severe NPP accident, it is necessary to have a reliable tool for predicting the concentrations of radiocesium in crop plants. For the estimation of radionuclide concentrations in crop plants, various transfer parameters, which quantify the radionuclide transfer from one compartment to the next, are used in general. Some amount of transfer parameter data has been produced at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) over the last 30 years. The present work was conducted to collate the KAERI data on radiocesium in staple food crops and to suggest effective ways of using them for assessing the environmental impact of a nuclear accident. The transfer parameter values of radiocesium for rice, Chinese cabbage and radish varied considerably with soils and times of its deposition. The proposed representative values were mostly based on a limited amount of data so they cannot be considered to have a high representativeness. Accordingly, they are intended for provisional use and a continuous improvement should be made. It is necessary to produce a sufficient amount of additional domestic data on the indirect pathway by conducting root-uptake experiments with as many types of soil as possible.

  3. Preservation of Bioactive Compounds and Quality Parameters of Watermelon Juice Enriched with L-Citrulline through Short Thermal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha P. Tarazona-Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available L-citrulline is a nonessential amino acid with demonstrated health benefits for humans, and watermelon is a fruit rich in this amino acid. The juice industry is developing functional beverages through the enrichment with external bioactive compounds; this kind of industry uses conventional pasteurization because of its efficiency and simplicity. In this experiment, the effects of pasteurization (80°C for 40 s or 90 s and storage (4°C for 30 days on different parameters were evaluated in a watermelon juice (3.68 g kg−1 of natural L-citrulline enriched with external L-citrulline (12 g kg−1. Enzymatic activity (peroxidase, pectin methyl esterase, and polygalacturonase was inactivated (74 to 89%, 89 to 90%, and 11 to 15%, resp. with the pasteurization treatment, obtaining the highest degradation with the longest heating time. According to the rheology study, the juice’s elasticity was mainly affected by type of heat treatment while its viscosity was more stable and affected by storage time. A reduction in bioactive compounds content, around 10–16% for lycopene and 19–20% for L-citrulline, was observed after the pasteurization treatments, with a higher decrease with increased treatment time. Storage time also induced a reduction in lycopene and L-citrulline. The shelf life was limited by sensorial parameters.

  4. Gamma radiation effects on physico-chemical parameters of apple fruit during commercial post-harvest preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafavi, Hossein Ahari; Mirmajlessi, Seyed Mahyar; Mirjalili, Seyed Mohammad; Fathollahi, Hadi; Askari, Hadi

    2012-01-01

    The physico-chemical parameters (including moisture, total soluble solids, antioxidant activity, phenolic content and firmness) of cv. Red Delicious apple subjected to γ radiation were evaluated for their ability to avoid the post-harvest blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum during cold storage. Freshly harvested apples were inoculated with P. expansum. Treated fruits were irradiated at doses of 0, 300, 600, 900 and 1200 Gy and stored at 1 °C. Apples were evaluated at three month intervals. The results showed that there was a clear link between phenolic content and antioxidant activity, so that dose range of 900 Gy and higher significantly decreased phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The moisture percent of stored apples was more responsive to irradiation (at doses of 900–1200 Gy) than storage time and pathogen. Lesion diameter of pathogen-treated non-irradiated apples was significantly increased after three months. This means that storage at low temperature is not enough to avoid blue mold growth. As dose and storage time increased firmness decreased; also pathogen accelerated softening of stored apples. This study showed conclusively that low irradiation doses (300 and 600 Gy) combined with cold storage is a way to minimize apple quality losses during nine month storage period. - Highlights: ► A suitable method to reduce apple quality losses during nine month storage period. ► Effects of γ radiation and cold storage on physico-chemical parameters of the apple. ► Potential dual benefit of low irradiation dose combined with cold storage. ► Radiation dose determination for Penicillium expansum control.

  5. Science, practice, and human errors in controlling Clostridium botulinum in heat-preserved food in hermetic containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflug, Irving J

    2010-05-01

    The incidence of botulism in canned food in the last century is reviewed along with the background science; a few conclusions are reached based on analysis of published data. There are two primary aspects to botulism control: the design of an adequate process and the delivery of the adequate process to containers of food. The probability that the designed process will not be adequate to control Clostridium botulinum is very small, probably less than 1.0 x 10(-6), based on containers of food, whereas the failure of the operator of the processing equipment to deliver the specified process to containers of food may be of the order of 1 in 40, to 1 in 100, based on processing units (retort loads). In the commercial food canning industry, failure to deliver the process will probably be of the order of 1.0 x 10(-4) to 1.0 x 10(-6) when U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations are followed. Botulism incidents have occurred in food canning plants that have not followed the FDA regulations. It is possible but very rare to have botulism result from postprocessing contamination. It may thus be concluded that botulism incidents in canned food are primarily the result of human failure in the delivery of the designed or specified process to containers of food that, in turn, result in the survival, outgrowth, and toxin production of C. botulinum spores. Therefore, efforts in C. botulinum control should be concentrated on reducing human errors in the delivery of the specified process to containers of food.

  6. Analytical Parameters of an Amperometric Glucose Biosensor for Fast Analysis in Food Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margalida Artigues

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Amperometric biosensors based on the use of glucose oxidase (GOx are able to combine the robustness of electrochemical techniques with the specificity of biological recognition processes. However, very little information can be found in literature about the fundamental analytical parameters of these sensors. In this work, the analytical behavior of an amperometric biosensor based on the immobilization of GOx using a hydrogel (Chitosan onto highly ordered titanium dioxide nanotube arrays (TiO2NTAs has been evaluated. The GOx–Chitosan/TiO2NTAs biosensor showed a sensitivity of 5.46 μA·mM−1 with a linear range from 0.3 to 1.5 mM; its fundamental analytical parameters were studied using a commercial soft drink. The obtained results proved sufficient repeatability (RSD = 1.9%, reproducibility (RSD = 2.5%, accuracy (95–105% recovery, and robustness (RSD = 3.3%. Furthermore, no significant interferences from fructose, ascorbic acid and citric acid were obtained. In addition, the storage stability was further examined, after 30 days, the GOx–Chitosan/TiO2NTAs biosensor retained 85% of its initial current response. Finally, the glucose content of different food samples was measured using the biosensor and compared with the respective HPLC value. In the worst scenario, a deviation smaller than 10% was obtained among the 20 samples evaluated.

  7. Analytical Parameters of an Amperometric Glucose Biosensor for Fast Analysis in Food Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Amperometric biosensors based on the use of glucose oxidase (GOx) are able to combine the robustness of electrochemical techniques with the specificity of biological recognition processes. However, very little information can be found in literature about the fundamental analytical parameters of these sensors. In this work, the analytical behavior of an amperometric biosensor based on the immobilization of GOx using a hydrogel (Chitosan) onto highly ordered titanium dioxide nanotube arrays (TiO2NTAs) has been evaluated. The GOx–Chitosan/TiO2NTAs biosensor showed a sensitivity of 5.46 μA·mM−1 with a linear range from 0.3 to 1.5 mM; its fundamental analytical parameters were studied using a commercial soft drink. The obtained results proved sufficient repeatability (RSD = 1.9%), reproducibility (RSD = 2.5%), accuracy (95–105% recovery), and robustness (RSD = 3.3%). Furthermore, no significant interferences from fructose, ascorbic acid and citric acid were obtained. In addition, the storage stability was further examined, after 30 days, the GOx–Chitosan/TiO2NTAs biosensor retained 85% of its initial current response. Finally, the glucose content of different food samples was measured using the biosensor and compared with the respective HPLC value. In the worst scenario, a deviation smaller than 10% was obtained among the 20 samples evaluated. PMID:29135931

  8. Analytical Parameters of an Amperometric Glucose Biosensor for Fast Analysis in Food Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigues, Margalida; Abellà, Jordi; Colominas, Sergi

    2017-11-14

    Amperometric biosensors based on the use of glucose oxidase (GOx) are able to combine the robustness of electrochemical techniques with the specificity of biological recognition processes. However, very little information can be found in literature about the fundamental analytical parameters of these sensors. In this work, the analytical behavior of an amperometric biosensor based on the immobilization of GOx using a hydrogel (Chitosan) onto highly ordered titanium dioxide nanotube arrays (TiO₂NTAs) has been evaluated. The GOx-Chitosan/TiO₂NTAs biosensor showed a sensitivity of 5.46 μA·mM -1 with a linear range from 0.3 to 1.5 mM; its fundamental analytical parameters were studied using a commercial soft drink. The obtained results proved sufficient repeatability (RSD = 1.9%), reproducibility (RSD = 2.5%), accuracy (95-105% recovery), and robustness (RSD = 3.3%). Furthermore, no significant interferences from fructose, ascorbic acid and citric acid were obtained. In addition, the storage stability was further examined, after 30 days, the GOx-Chitosan/TiO₂NTAs biosensor retained 85% of its initial current response. Finally, the glucose content of different food samples was measured using the biosensor and compared with the respective HPLC value. In the worst scenario, a deviation smaller than 10% was obtained among the 20 samples evaluated.

  9. Changes in lipids and in the sensoric properties of foods due to combined preservation (thermosterilization + ionizing radiation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajniakova, A.; Sorman, L.; Hozova, B.; Salkova, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical changes in lipids were examined in ''Beef with Cauliflower'' model samples prepared by combined preservation, consisting in thermosterilization at 121 degC for 30 min and exposure to ionizing radiation doses of 3 to 5 kGy immediately after preparation and during storage (115 days at 20±2 degC). The acid, peroxide and carbonyl values increased with increasing radiation dose. The sensoric characteristics of the samples were examined as well, and no changes were observed in the 115 days of storage. Various preservation modes were tested, and the combination of steady sterilization at 121 degC for 30 min with subsequent exposure to a 5 kGy dose emerged as optimal; the nutrition value of the beef was higher and energy demands lower than in the application of conventional thermosterilization. (author). 6 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  10. Ecological and energy-saving technology for fish food preservation at positive temperatures and a method of checking the freshness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, Maria; Popescu, G.M.; Dobrin, D.N.; Cristescu, T.M.; Stefanescu, I.; Steflea, D.; Titescu, Gh.; Tamaian, R.

    2002-01-01

    The procedure of maintaining eviscerated fish and fish fillet freshness is based on dilutions osmotic shock produced by deuterium depleted water with D/(D+H) concentration ratio of about 30 ppm. The studies evidenced the blocking of alteration enzymatic activities in tissues at positive temperatures within 0 - 30 deg. C. The procedure is completed with the method for evaluating the fish freshness. Its advantages are as follows; - the technology is ecologic and energy - saving as it uses natural ingredients and contributes to the ozone layer protection; - the flesh of fish can be preserved, in its natural state, immersed in deuterium depleted water with no salt addition or other metabolic blocking agents as smoke, polyphosphates or nitrides, known as carcinogenic; - the costs of technological applications are lower as compared with those of classical refrigeration; - the technology increases by 2 - 6 times the freshness period and preservation duration, respectively; - deuterium depleted water used as fish flesh preservative is a product with excellent therapeutical qualities. The procedure can be tested by a freshness checking method. Indeed by measuring the non-conventional tissue energies evidenced by the molecular electronic spectra of sample of tissue immersed in salty solution as compared with specific spectra of control samples one can establish the alteration degree from the relative maximal absorption spectra

  11. Preservation of food of the vegetable origin in the way of the radiation The selected technological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taczanowski, M.

    1997-01-01

    The review of the selected applications of the radiation of the food of vegetable origin and targets which may be achieved dependently on the amount of energy absorbed by the radiated product. (author)

  12. Utilization of Industrial Waste for the Production of Bio-Preservative from Bacillus licheniformis Me1 and Its Application in Milk and Milk-Based Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithya, Vadakedath; Prakash, Maya; Halami, Prakash M

    2018-06-01

    The bio-preservative efficacy of a partially purified antibacterial peptide (ppABP) produced by Bacillus licheniformis Me1 in an economical medium developed using agro-industry waste was evaluated by direct application in milk and milk-based food products. The addition of ppABP in milk samples stored at 4 ± 2 °C and 28 ± 2 °C resulted in the growth inhibition of pathogens Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, and Staphylococcus aureus FRI 722. The shelf life of milk samples with added ppABP increased to 4 days at 28 ± 2 °C, whereas curdling and off-odor were noticed in samples without ppABP. Furthermore, the milk samples with ppABP were sensorily acceptable. Antilisterial effect was also observed in cheese and paneer samples treated with ppABP. These results clearly indicate that the ppABP of B. licheniformis Me1 can be utilized as a bio-preservative to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, thereby reducing the risk of food-borne diseases.

  13. Nuclear technology applied to food preservation and sterilization; La tecnologia nuclear aplicada a la conservacion y esterilizacion de alimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvez, M.

    2011-07-01

    The use of ionizing radiation to conserve and sterilize food dates back to 1995, when the first tests were performed in USA as part of the Atoms for peace program. After much controversy, the most prestigious international organizations- OECD, code Alimentarius, FDA and EC have not only authorized but also recommended its use. It is a proven fact that food irradiation provides optimum results for inhibition treatment of tuber shoots, elimination of insects from fruits and seeds, delaying the maturing processes of fruit and elimination of alternative microorganisms and pathogens in any type of food. Food is treated in two types of plants: 1.- Radioactive isotope plants or gamma radiation plants 2.- electron accelerator plants (beta radiation plants). These two types of plants are thoroughly legislated, as are the form and doses of the treatments. Commercial food irradiation is done in 32 countries in the world but is authorized in more than 40, and the WHO recommends that the method be used on a widespread basis, as it believes that it can help to improve food-related health worldwide. (Author) 5 refs.

  14. Food spoilage - interactions between food spoilage bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Flodgaard, Lars; Rasch, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Food spoilage is a complex process and excessive amounts of foods are lost due to microbial spoilage even with modem day preservation techniques. Despite the heterogeneity in raw materials and processing conditions, the microflora that develops during storage and in spoiling foods can be predicted...... based on knowledge of the origin of the food, the substrate base and a few central preservation parameters such as temperature, atmosphere, a(w) and pH. Based on such knowledge, more detailed sensory, chemical and microbiological analysis can be carried out on the individual products to determine...... the actual specific spoilage organism. Whilst the chemical and physical parameters are the main determining factors for selection of spoilage microorganisms, a level of refinement may be found in some products in which the interactive behavior of microorganisms may contribute to their growth and/or spoilage...

  15. Cariogenic potential of foods. II. Relationship of food composition, plaque microbial counts, and salivary parameters to caries in the rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundorff-Shrestha, S A; Featherstone, J D; Eisenberg, A D; Cowles, E; Curzon, M E; Espeland, M A; Shields, C P

    1994-01-01

    A series of rat caries experiments was carried out to test the relative cariogenic potential and to identify the major carcinogenic elements of 22 popular snack foods. Parameters that were measured included rat caries, number of cariogenic bacteria in plaque, salivary parameters including flow rate, buffering capacity, total protein, lysozyme and amylase content, and composition of test foods including protein, fat, phosphorus, calcium, fluoride, galactose, glucose, total reducing sugar, sucrose, and starch. Many interesting relationships were observed between food components, numbers of plaque bacteria, salivary components, and specific types of carious lesions. Protein, fat, and phosphorus in foods were all associated with inhibition of both sulcal and buccolingual (smooth-surface) caries. Food fluoride was associated with inhibition of buccolingual caries, whereas calcium was related to inhibition of sulcal caries. Glucose, reducing sugar, and sucrose in foods were all related to promotion of both sulcal and smooth-surface caries. The numbers of Streptococcus sobrinus in plaque were associated with promotion of smooth-surface caries only, whereas lactobacilli, non-mutans bacteria, and total viable flora were related to promotion of both smooth-surface and sulcal caries. The salivary flow rate was associated with inhibition of both buccolingual and sulcal caries. Salivary buffering capacity (at pH 7) and salivary lysozyme delivery were associated with inhibition of number and severity of sulcal caries, while the salivary amylase content was related to the promotion of the number of sulcal lesions.

  16. Optimization of helical acquisition parameters to preserve uniformity of mouse whole body using multipinhole collimator in single-photon emission computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Ukon

    Full Text Available Focusing on whole-body uniformity in small-animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, we examined the optimal helical acquisition parameters using five-pinhole collimators for mouse imaging. SPECT images of an 80-mm-long cylindrical phantom with 99mTc solution were acquired using an Inveon multimodality imaging platform. The bed travels used in this study were 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mm, and the numbers of revolutions traversed during the SPECT scan were 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 7.0, respectively. Artifacts that degrade uniformity in reconstructed images were conspicuous when the bed travel was smaller than the object length. Regarding the distal-to-center ratio (DCR of SPECT values in the object’s axial direction, the DCR nearest to the ideal ratio of 1.00 was 1.02 in the optimal uniformity with 4.0 revolutions and a bed travel of 120 mm. Moreover, the helical acquisition using these parameters suppressed the formation of artifacts. We proposed the optimal parameters in whole-body helical SPECT; the bed travel was sufficiently larger than the object length; the 4.0 or more revolutions were required for a pitch of approximately 30 mm/revolution. The optimal acquisition parameters in SPECT to preserve uniformity would contribute to the accurate quantification of whole-body biodistribution. Keywords: Helical acquisition, Multipinhole collimator, Computed tomography, SPECT

  17. An exceptionally preserved Eocene shark and the rise of modern predator-prey interactions in the coral reef food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Federico; Minelli, Daniela; Conte, Gabriele Larocca; Miyashita, Tetsuto

    2016-01-01

    Following extreme climatic warming events, Eocene Lagerstätten document aquatic and terrestrial vertebrate faunas surprisingly similar to modern counterparts. This transition in marine systems is best documented in the earliest teleost-dominated coral reef assemblage of Pesciara di Bolca, northern Italy, from near the end of the Eocene Climatic Optimum. Its rich fauna shows similarities with that of the modern Great Barrier Reef in niche exploitation by and morphological disparity among teleost primary consumers. However, such paleoecological understanding has not transcended trophic levels above primary consumers, particularly in carcharhiniform sharks. We report an exceptionally preserved fossil school shark (Galeorhinus cuvieri) from Pesciara di Bolca. In addition to the spectacular preservation of soft tissues, including brain, muscles, and claspers, this male juvenile shark has stomach contents clearly identifiable as a sphyraenid acanthomorph (barracuda). This association provides evidence that a predator-prey relationship between Galeorhinus and Sphyraena in the modern coral reefs has roots in the Eocene. A growth curve of the living species of Galeorhinus fitted to G. cuvieri suggests that all specimens of G. cuvieri from the lagoonal deposits of Bolca represent sexually and somatically immature juveniles. The modern trophic association between higher-degree consumers (Galeorhinus and Sphyraena) has a counterpart in the Eocene Bolca, just as Bolca and the Great Barrier Reef show parallels among teleost primary consumers. Given the age of Bolca, trophic networks among consumers observed in modern coral reefs arose by the exit from the Climatic Optimum. The biased representation of juveniles suggests that the Bolca Lagerstätte served as a nursery habitat for G. cuvieri. Ultraviolet photography may be useful in probing for exceptional soft tissue preservation before common acid preparation methods.

  18. Foodstuffs preservation by ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains all the papers presented at the meeting on foodstuffs preservation by ionization. These papers deal especially with the food ionization process, its development and the view of the food industry on ionization. Refs and figs (F.M.)

  19. preservative activities parkia biglobosa ervative activities of aqueous

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    The general idea of preserving food is to incre its shelf life ... volatile oil and resinous matter (David, 197. Development in ... extracts of P. biglobosa as plant based food preservatives with. ,Preservative ..... activity of essential oils obtained from.

  20. Preserving Food by Drying. A Math/Science Teaching Manual. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual No. M-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Cynthia; And Others

    This manual presents a design for teaching science principles and mathematics concepts through a sequence of activities concentrating on weather, solar food dryers, and nutrition. Part I focuses on the effect of solar energy on air and water, examining the concepts of evaporation, condensation, radiation, conduction, and convection. These concepts…

  1. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes -The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Han Ok; Cho, Sung Kee; Kang, Il Joon; Yang, Jae Seung; Yook, Heung Sun

    1995-07-01

    The project was designed to solve the infra structural problem required for commercialization of food irradiation. In improvement of physical properties of corn starch, gamma irradiation was effective for increasing glucose productivity and for substituting traditional modified starches (acid modified starch, oxidized starch). In immobilization of microorganisms, the mass production method of natural red pigment was developed by using immobilized mold pellets. In Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma irradiated red ginseng could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And also, six items of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea ministry of health and welfare in May 19, 1995. 30 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author)

  2. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes -The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Han Ok; Cho, Sung Kee; Kang, Il Joon; Yang, Jae Seung; Yook, Heung Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    The project was designed to solve the infra structural problem required for commercialization of food irradiation. In improvement of physical properties of corn starch, gamma irradiation was effective for increasing glucose productivity and for substituting traditional modified starches (acid modified starch, oxidized starch). In immobilization of microorganisms, the mass production method of natural red pigment was developed by using immobilized mold pellets. In Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma irradiated red ginseng could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And also, six items of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea ministry of health and welfare in May 19, 1995. 30 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author).

  3. Beneficial bread without preservatives

    OpenAIRE

    Denkova, Zapryana; Denkova, Rositsa

    2014-01-01

    Besides their inherent nutritional value functional foods contain substances that have beneficial impact on the functioning of organs and systems in the human body and reduce the risk of disease. Bread and bakery goods are basic foods in the diet of contemporary people. Preservatives are added to the composition of foods in order to ensure their microbiological safety, but these substances affect directly the balance of microflora in the tract. A great problem is mold and bacterial spoilage (...

  4. Radiation preservation of sea-foods : development of dehydro-irradiation processes for shrimp (Penaeus indicus) and Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, N.F.

    1978-01-01

    Bombay duck which comprises more than 10% of India's annual fish catch is not amenable to freezing and canning mainly due to the high content of free water and extreme lability of its proteins. The commercially available sun-dried product is suspect to rapid spoilage by mould leading to impairment of organoleptic qualities. The dehydro-irradiation process using heat and gamma radiation has been developed to stabilise sea foods and is studied with Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus) and shrimp (Penaeus indicus). The process has been found to preserve Bombay duck laminates for a period of four months at ambient temperature and the products are more superior in organoleptic qualities to those prepared by the conventional sun-drying method. (M.G.B.)

  5. Experimental parameters differentially affect the humoral response of the cholera-toxin-based murine model of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroghsbo, S.; Christensen, Hanne Risager; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have developed a murine model of IgE-mediated food allergy based on oral coadministration of antigen and cholera toxin (CT) to establish a maximal response for studying immunopathogenic mechanisms and immunotherapeutic strategies. However, for studying subtle...... interested in characterizing the individual effects of the parameters in the CT-based model: CT dose, antigen type and dose, and number of immunizations. Methods: BALB/c mice were orally sensitized weekly for 3 or 7 weeks with graded doses of CT and various food antigens (soy-trypsin inhibitor, ovalbumin...... of the antibody response depended on the type of antigen and number of immunizations. Conclusions: The critical parameters of the CT-based murine allergy model differentially control the intensity and kinetics of the developing immune response. Adjustment of these parameters could be a key tool for tailoring...

  6. Multi-response optimization of process parameters in biogas production from food waste using Taguchi – Grey relational analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deepanraj, B.; Sivasubramanian, V.; Jayaraj, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Influence of process parameters on biogas production was experimentally investigated. • The optimum conditions were determined using Taguchi based Grey relational analysis. • Percentage contribution of chosen parameters were determined using ANOVA. • Empirical relationship between the input and output variables were derived. - Abstract: In the present study, the influence of process parameters and pretreatment on biogas production, volatile solid degradation and COD degradation during anaerobic digestion of food waste were experimentally investigated. Using Taguchi based Grey relational analysis, the optimum condition for anaerobic digestion was found. Taguchi technique was coupled with grey relational analysis to obtain a grey relational grade for evaluating multiple outputs. A L_1_6 orthogonal array was selected and designed for five parameters varied through four levels by applying Taguchi’s design of experiments. The optimum level values of parameters obtained for anaerobic digestion of food waste is solid concentration of 7.5% TS, pH of 7, temperature of 50 °C, C/N ratio of 20.19 and ultrasonication pretreatment. Percentage contribution of input parameters on output was determined using ANOVA. The results showed that pretreatment is the prominent parameter that contributes towards output responses followed by pH, solid concentration, temperature and C/N ratio.

  7. Preservation of cocoa antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, flavan-3-ols, and procyanidin content in foods prepared with cocoa powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, L; Miller, K B; Apgar, J; Sweigart, D S; Stuart, D A; McHale, N; Ou, B; Kondo, M; Hurst, W J

    2009-08-01

    Little is known about the effects of common cooking processes on cocoa flavanols. Antioxidant activity, total polyphenols (TP), flavanol monomers, and procyanidin oligomers were determined in chocolate frosting, a hot cocoa drink, chocolate cookies, and chocolate cake made with natural cocoa powder. Recoveries of antioxidant activity, TP, flavanol monomers, and procyanidins ranged from 86% to over 100% in the chocolate frosting, hot cocoa drink, and chocolate cookies. Losses were greatest in the chocolate cake with recoveries ranging from 5% for epicatechin to 54% for antioxidant activity. The causes of losses in baked chocolate cakes were investigated by exchanging baking soda with baking powder or combinations of the 2 leavening agents. Use of baking soda as a leavening agent was associated with increased pH and darkening color of cakes. Losses of antioxidant activity, TP, flavanol monomers, and procyanidins were associated with an increased extractable pH of the baked cakes. Chocolate cakes made with baking powder for leavening resulted in an average extractable pH of 6.2 with essentially complete retention of antioxidant activity and flavanol content, but with reduced cake heights and lighter cake color. Commercially available chocolate cake mixes had final pHs above 8.3 and contained no detectable monomeric flavanols after baking. These results suggest that baking soda causes an increase in pH and subsequent destruction of flavanol compounds and antioxidant activity. Use of an appropriate leavening agent to moderate the final cake pH to approximately 7.25 or less results in both good leavening and preservation of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins.

  8. Using a concentrate of phenols obtained from olive vegetation water to preserve chilled food: two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Fasolato

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenols are plant metabolites characterised by several interesting bioactive properties such as antioxidant and bactericidal activities. In this study the application of a phenols concentrate (PC from olive vegetation water to two different fresh products – gilt-head seabream (Sparus aurata and chicken breast – was described. Products were treated in a bath of PC (22 g/L; chicken breast or sprayed with two different solutions (L1:0.75 and L2:1.5 mg/mL; seabream and then stored under refrigeration conditions. The shelf life was monitored through microbiological analyses – quality index method for seabream and a specific sensory index for raw breast. The secondary products of lipid-peroxidation of the chicken breast were determined using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs test on cooked samples. Multivariate statistical techniques were adopted to investigate the impact of phenols and microbiological data were fitted by DMfit software. In seabream, the levels of PC did not highlight any significant difference on microbiological and sensory features. DMfit models suggested an effect only on H2S producing bacteria with an increased lag phase compared to the control samples (C: 87 h vs L2: 136 h. The results on chicken breast showed that the PC bath clearly modified the growth of Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae. The phenol dipping was effective in limiting lipid-peroxidation (TBARs after cooking. Treated samples disclosed an increase of shelf life of 2 days. These could be considered as preliminary findings suggesting the use of this concentrate as preservative in some fresh products.

  9. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Archer; Stan Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood preservation can be interpreted to mean protection from fire, chemical degradation, mechanical wear, weathering, as well as biological attack. In this chapter, the term preservation is applied more restrictively to protection from biological hazards.

  10. Review of the ecological parameters of radionuclide turnover in vertebrate food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchings, T.; DiGregorio, D.; Van Voris, P.

    1975-01-01

    Ecological studies of radionuclides in the environment have a long tradition in developing the capability to identify and predict movement and concentration of nuclides in agronomic food chains leading to man. Food chain pathways and transfer coefficients for the non-agronomic portions of natural and managed ecosystems characteristic of affected habitats adjacent to nuclear facilities have not been adequately characterized to establish reliable dispersion models for radionuclide releases. This information is necessary in order to assess the impact that such installations will have on the biota of natural ecosystems. Since food chains are the major processes transferring elements from one trophic level to another in terrestrial ecosystems, information is needed on the food-chain transfer pathways, bioconcentration by each trophic component, and turnover rates by receptor organisms. These data are prerequisite inputs for food-chain transport models and can be correlated with species characteristics (e.g., body weight and feeding habitats), to provide indices for predictive dispersion calculations. Application of these models for radionuclide transfer can aid in the assessment of radioactive releases from nuclear reactor facilities to terrestrial non-agronomic food chains. (U.S.)

  11. Review of the ecological parameters of radionuclide turnover in vertebrate food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchings, T.; DiGregorio, D.; Van Voris, P.

    1976-01-01

    Ecological studies of radionuclides in the environment have a long tradition in developing the capability to identify and predict movement and concentration of nuclides in agricultural food chains leading to man. Food chain pathways and transfer coefficients for the nonagricultural portions of natural and managed ecosystems characteristic of affected habitats adjacent to nuclear facilities have not been adequately characterized to establish reliable models for radionuclide releases. This information is necessary in order to assess the impact that such installations will have on the biota of natural ecosystems. Since food chains are the major processes transferring elements from one trophic level to another in terrestrial ecosystems, information is needed on the (a) food-chain transfer pathways, (b) bioconcentration by each trophic component and (c) turnover rates by receptor organisms. These data are prerequisite inputs for food-chain transport models and can be correlated with species characteristics (e.g., body weight and feeding habits), to provide indices for predictive calculations. Application of these models for radionuclide transfer can aid in the assessment of radioactive releases from nuclear reactor facilities to terrestrial nonagricultural food chains

  12. Recent changes in sociodemographic characteristics, dietary behaviors and clinical parameters of adults receiving food assistance in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Castetbon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2004–2005, a survey carried out on food recipients in France revealed an alarming nutritional situation. In 2011–2012, and using a protocol similar to that of 2004–2005, our objective was to update the description of sociodemographic characteristics, dietary behaviors and clinical parameters of food assistance recipients and to analyze changes since 2004–2005. Methods Both surveys included multistage random sampling of adults benefitting from structures that supply food pantries and charitable grocery stores. Data on sociodemographic characteristics and dietary behaviors were collected along with weight, height and blood pressure measurements. Comparisons between the 2004–2005 (n = 883 and 2011–2012 (n = 1,058 survey observations were made, adjusting for socio-demographic changes which had occurred in the meantime. Results Since 2004–2005, proportions of food recipients ≥55 years (13.1–19.1 %, born in France (29.2–36.8 % and employed (5.5–11.7 % have increased; food insufficiency has decreased (95–74 %. For over half of the recipients, canned (52.4 % and non-perishable (50.9 % foods were obtained only from food assistance. Frequency of consumption significantly increased even after adjustment for socio-demographic changes; this was the case for dairy products (for twice a day consumption, 30.2–36.4 %, fruits and vegetables (three times a day, 7.8–13.9 %, and meat, eggs and fish (twice a day, 9.4–19.2 %. In 2011–2012, 15.6 % of men and 36.0 % of women were obese, while 44.5 and 35.1 % had high blood pressure, respectively. Conclusions Between 2004–2005 and 2011–2012 in France, consumption of staple foods has been slightly improved in food assistance recipients. However, prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors remains high, which underlines the need for long-term efforts at better quality of foods delivered.

  13. Food intake, nutritional anthropometry and blood chemical parameters in 3 selected Dutch schoolchildren populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, van der F.; Kromhout, D.

    1978-01-01

    The major health problems in populations of economically developed countries at the present time are of a chronic nature with, as their main clinical characteristic, the frequently occurring premature coronary heart disease. When food intake data are to be evaluated, it would be incorrect

  14. Evaluation of the Zootechnical Parameters of Broiler Chickens Providing Different Percentages of Saccharomyces cerevisiae In the Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Cárdenas Neita

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (PcSc belongs to the family of probiotics and is considered to be one of the most promising alternatives to replace the use of antibiotic growth promoters (APC in animal feed, as these have not been used properly in causing microbial resistance to antibiotic therapies in animals and in humans. The new systems of broiler production must adapt to the growing demands of a population increasingly critical of products of animal origin. For this reason, the implementation of different alternatives to the APC can be used in feeding chickens, and doesn’t create a risk to animal or human health. In this study the zootechnical parameters were evaluated: weight gain, and feed conversion efficiency in broilers, providing a dose of 1 % and 2 % commercial yeast product in total daily food; 90 mixed breed Cobb chickens day old to 42 days old were used. They were randomized into three groups: control: food without adding yeast; Treatment 1: 1 % yeast PcSc in food; Treatment 2: 2 % yeast PcSc on food, diet of the three groups was based on a commercial concentrate that met the nutritional requirements for the breed, the birds were subjected to the same management conditions and sanitation. Using simple random sampling; each group of 30 individuals and 3 replicates of 10 individuals per treatment were administered. The experimental group with 1 % PcSc finished with more weight relative to the other groups, while feed conversion was better for the animals of treatment 1, and increased the feed efficiency obtained in the group with 2 % yeast (P <0.05. These results demonstrate that the inclusion of yeast PcSc in food, increase the production parameters of broilers and thereby the gains poultry farmers.

  15. Preservation and storage of food using natural gas as an energy source; Preservacao e armazenamento de alimentos usando gas natural como fonte de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Gabriel F. da; Lira, Moema de Lima; Carnelossi, Marcelo A.G.; Sousa, Mabel R [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Jesus, Marcos Fabio de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Campos, Michel Fabianski; Martins, Ronaldo M; Furini Filho, Roberto [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, Sara Macedo dos [Centro de Tecnologias do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In this work a study on preservation and storage of agricultural products was undertaken in chambers cooled through an absorption system, which used natural gas in the power plant and the results were compared with the compression system using electric energy. For the study a refrigeration pilot unit was mounted which consisted of chiller through water/ammonia absorption with direct natural gas burning, having a maximum consumption of 2,7{sup 3}/ h and capacity of 5 TR's, three refrigerating chambers with isopanel walls polyurethane, dimensions 2mx3mx2m with maximum capacity of storage of 2.000 kg each, control panel, a system of compressed natural gas supplying two carts each containing three cylinders with capacity of 71,4{sup 3} and a compression system connected to a chamber of same characteristics. Optimization studies in the storage of some fruits and vegetables were undertaken. A program was established which takes in account the food properties and characteristics of refrigeration systems to estimate the operational cost with the two systems. A techno-economic feasibility study was carried out on the two system of absorption and compression. This project was developed in the UFS, and is part of RedeGasEnergia, support for the financial aid was provided by PETROBRAS and FINEP/CTPETRO programs. (author)

  16. Preservation and storage of food using natural gas as an energy source; Preservacao e armazenamento de alimentos usando gas natural como fonte de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Gabriel F. da; Lira, Moema de Lima; Carnelossi, Marcelo A.G.; Sousa, Mabel R. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Jesus, Marcos Fabio de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Campos, Michel Fabianski; Martins, Ronaldo M.; Furini Filho, Roberto [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, Sara Macedo dos [Centro de Tecnologias do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In this work a study on preservation and storage of agricultural products was undertaken in chambers cooled through an absorption system, which used natural gas in the power plant and the results were compared with the compression system using electric energy. For the study a refrigeration pilot unit was mounted which consisted of chiller through water/ammonia absorption with direct natural gas burning, having a maximum consumption of 2,7{sup 3}/ h and capacity of 5 TR's, three refrigerating chambers with isopanel walls polyurethane, dimensions 2mx3mx2m with maximum capacity of storage of 2.000 kg each, control panel, a system of compressed natural gas supplying two carts each containing three cylinders with capacity of 71,4{sup 3} and a compression system connected to a chamber of same characteristics. Optimization studies in the storage of some fruits and vegetables were undertaken. A program was established which takes in account the food properties and characteristics of refrigeration systems to estimate the operational cost with the two systems. A techno-economic feasibility study was carried out on the two system of absorption and compression. This project was developed in the UFS, and is part of RedeGasEnergia, support for the financial aid was provided by PETROBRAS and FINEP/CTPETRO programs. (author)

  17. Self-preserving cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvaresou, A; Papageorgiou, S; Tsirivas, E; Protopapa, E; Kintziou, H; Kefala, V; Demetzos, C

    2009-06-01

    Preservatives are added to products for two reasons: first, to prevent microbial spoilage and therefore to prolong the shelf life of the product; second, to protect the consumer from a potential infection. Although chemical preservatives prevent microbial growth, their safety is questioned by a growing segment of consumers. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. In these formulations traditional/chemical preservatives have been replaced by other cosmetic ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to the Annex VI of the Commission Directive 76/768/EEC and the amending directives (2003/15/EC, 2007/17/EC and 2007/22/EC). 'Hurdle Technology', a technology that has been used for the control of product safety in the food industry since 1970s, has also been applied for the production of self-preserving cosmetics. 'Hurdle Technology' is a term used to describe the intelligent combination of different preservation factors or hurdles to deteriorate the growth of microorganisms. Adherence to current good manufacturing practice, appropriate packaging, careful choice of the form of the emulsion, low water activity and low or high pH values are significant variables for the control of microbial growth in cosmetic formulations. This paper describes the application of the basic principles of 'Hurdle Technology' in the production of self-preserving cosmetics. Multifunctional antimicrobial ingredients and plant-derived essential oils and extracts that are used as alternative or natural preservatives and are not listed in Annex VI of the Cosmetic Directive are also reported.

  18. The impact of parameters of store illumination on food shopper response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berčík, Jakub; Horská, Elena; Wang, Regina W Y; Chen, Ying-Chun

    2016-11-01

    Customer behavior in sales areas is strongly influenced by the perception of surroundings and feelings of well-being. By using dynamic retail solutions of basic, accent and dramatic lighting it is possible to attract attention, create a unique in-store environment and give customers a reason to stay and return to the store. The simplest and also the most successful method to reach customer attention in food selection (buying) process is through eye-catchingly illuminated visuals of products. Visual senses has evolved to top ranks in the sensory hierarchy, therefore visual stimuli have a tendency to overcome all other senses. The paper deals with a comprehensive interdisciplinary research of the influence of light and color on the emotional state of consumers (valence) on the food market. It integrates the measurement of light intensity, color temperature or emitted color spectrum in grocery stores, recognition of emotional response and the time of its occurrence among respondents due to different lighting types and color in simulated laboratory conditions. The research is focused on accent lighting in the segment of fresh unpackaged food. Using a mobile 16-channel electroencephalograph (EEG equipment) from EPOC company and a mini camera we observed the response time and the emotional status (valence), in order to reveal true consumer preferences in different lighting conditions (color temperature and color rendering index) and their non-traditional color (yellow, purple, red, blue and green) for the selected food type. The paper suggests possibilities for rational combination of the effective, efficient and energy-saving accent lighting, by which the retailer can achieve not only an eye-catching and attractive presentation of merchandised products, but also significant savings within operating their stores. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Software preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Vodopivec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comtrade Ltd. covers a wide range of activities related to information and communication technologies; its deliverables include web applications, locally installed programs,system software, drivers, embedded software (used e.g. in medical devices, auto parts,communication switchboards. Also the extensive knowledge and practical experience about digital long-term preservation technologies have been acquired. This wide spectrum of activities puts us in the position to discuss the often overlooked aspect of the digital preservation - preservation of software programs. There are many resources dedicated to digital preservation of digital data, documents and multimedia records,but not so many about how to preserve the functionalities and features of computer programs. Exactly these functionalities - dynamic response to inputs - render the computer programs rich compared to documents or linear multimedia. The article opens the questions on the beginning of the way to the permanent digital preservation. The purpose is to find a way in the right direction, where all relevant aspects will be covered in proper balance. The following questions are asked: why at all to preserve computer programs permanently, who should do this and for whom, when we should think about permanent program preservation, what should be persevered (such as source code, screenshots, documentation, and social context of the program - e.g. media response to it ..., where and how? To illustrate the theoretic concepts given the idea of virtual national museum of electronic banking is also presented.

  20. Site-specific parameter values for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's food pathway dose model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamby, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    Routine operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Western South Carolina result in radionuclide releases to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. The resulting radiation doses to the off-site maximum individual and the off-site population within 80 km of the SRS are estimated on a yearly basis. These estimates are currently generated using dose models prescribed for the commercial nuclear power industry by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC provides default values for dose-model parameters for facilities without resources to develop site-specific values. A survey of land- and water-use characteristics for the Savannah River area has been conducted to determine site-specific values for water recreation, consumption, and agricultural parameters used in the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 (1977) dosimetric models. These site parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk, and vegetable production; recreational and commercial activities on the Savannah River; and meat, milk, vegetable, and seafood consumption rates. This paper describes how parameter data were obtained at the Savannah River Site and the impacts of such data on off-site dose. Dose estimates using site-specific parameter values are compared to estimates using the NRC default values

  1. Recommended food chain parameter values and distributions for use around CANDU sites in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S R

    1996-07-01

    Site-specific parameter values should be used whenever possible to increase the accuracy of dose predictions. Parameter values specific to agricultural practices and human lifestyles in southern Ontario are presented for use in CSA-N288.1-M87 (Canadian Standards Association Guidelines for Calculating Derived Release Limits for Radioactive Material in Airborne and Liquid Effluents for Normal Operation of Nuclear Facilities) and CHERPAC (Chalk River Environmental Research Pathways Analysis Code). Use of these values in place of the default parameter values in CSA-N288.1-M87 is shown to reduce the predicted dose by nearly a factor of 2. (author). 27 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig.

  2. Recommended food chain parameter values and distributions for use around CANDU sites in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.R.

    1996-07-01

    Site-specific parameter values should be used whenever possible to increase the accuracy of dose predictions. Parameter values specific to agricultural practices and human lifestyles in southern Ontario are presented for use in CSA-N288.1-M87 (Canadian Standards Association Guidelines for Calculating Derived Release Limits for Radioactive Material in Airborne and Liquid Effluents for Normal Operation of Nuclear Facilities) and CHERPAC (Chalk River Environmental Research Pathways Analysis Code). Use of these values in place of the default parameter values in CSA-N288.1-M87 is shown to reduce the predicted dose by nearly a factor of 2. (author). 27 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  3. Hemodialysis duration impairs food intake and nutritional parameters in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekki, Khedidja; Remaoun, Mustapha; Belleville, Jacques; Bouchenak, Malika

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hemodialysis (HD) duration on food intake and nutritional markers in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Twenty CKD patients received maintenance HD over a 9-year period. At the beginning of the study (T0) and at 3-year intervals (T1, T2, and T3) during the 9-year follow-up, a nutritional survey using the 24-h recall and record method was repeated for 4 days, and the blood samples were drawn. The results from T0 were used as references. Nutritional status was assessed through food intake, nutritional markers (urea, uric acid, creatinine, cholesterol, total protein, and albumin), and anthropometric measurements (height, dry weight, and body mass index). HD duration was correlated with energy intake (r = -0.89, P protein intake (r = -0.50, P intakes were noted in patients at T1 (-8%), T2 (-38%), and T3 (-59%) with decreased fiber intakes. Lipid intake was diminished by 11, 17, and 25% in patients, respectively, at T1, T2, and T3. The consumption of milk and dairy products, meats, fish, eggs, fruits, vegetables, and fat was reduced at T1, T2, and T3. In conclusion, long-term HD fails to correct undernutrition caused by CKD. Long-term dialysis complications could be reduced with preventive measures, including the use of biocompatible membranes and high-dose dialysis. Consequently, patients could experience a decreased prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition.

  4. Digital preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Deegan, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Digital preservation is an issue of huge importance to the library and information profession right now. With the widescale adoption of the internet and the rise of the world wide web, the world has been overwhelmed by digital information. Digital data is being produced on a massive scale by individuals and institutions: some of it is born, lives and dies only in digital form, and it is the potential death of this data, with its impact on the preservation of culture, that is the concern of this book. So how can information professionals try to remedy this? Digital preservation is a complex iss

  5. Effect of Ramadan fasting on anthropometric parameters and food consumption in 276 type 2 diabetic obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Boumédiène Méghit; Belbraouet, Slimane

    2009-04-01

    To assess the effect of Ramadan fasting on body weight and food consumption in type 2 diabetic obese women. A total of 276 outpatient women receiving oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) (BMI = 34.63 +/- 3.29 kg/m(2)), aged 49 (+/-6 years), were selected. The study was carried out over three periods - before (T1: prefasting), during (T2: fasting), and after (T3: postfasting) Ramadan - in three towns located in the northwestern region of Algeria. During the course of 3 days, the daily food intake and anthropometric parameters weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, body mass index (BMI), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were recorded. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA test was used to compare the groups. The main effect of fasting during Ramadan was a significant weight loss (-3.12 kg i.e. 3.70%; P Fasting during the month of Ramadan causes weight loss and decrease in calorie intake, which is correlated with a decrease in meal frequency. However, more foods rich in fat and dietary cholesterol were consumed during this period. The latter could constitute a high risk for diabetics who are fasting, in particular when medication advice and/or health care control are insufficient or ignored.

  6. Urine Preservative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  7. Food preservation by irradiation. V.- Economic study of the spanish potatoe market and preservation feasibility by irradiation; Conservacion de alimentos por irradiacion. V.- Estudio economico del mercado de patatas en Espana y posibilidades de su conservacion por irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, A; Garcia de Mateos, A; Ortin Sune, N; Val Cob, M del

    1967-07-01

    A study of the spanish potatoe market is carried o nt in order to know the possibilities of preservation by irradiation. The study is initiated with a recompilation of statistical data on the production and consumption of potatoes by regions and seasons. Last years losses are then estimated. (Author) 9 refs.

  8. Effect of spirulina food supplement on blood morphological parameters, biochemical composition and on the immune function of sportsmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Milasius

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Of highest biological value are natural concentrates of optimally combined substances produced by nature. One of food supplements of this kind is dietary Spirulina produced by the Tianshi firm (China. It is a most rationally balanced food supplement of a high biological value; it satisfies the needs of the whole body, including its immune system. The aim of the current work was to assess the effect of the multicomponent natural food supplement Spirulina on the physical development, blood morphological, biochemical picture and immune function of sportsmen. Materials and Methods: The study cohort comprised 12 high performance sportsmen (age 20-22 years. They were using tablets of Spirulina, a dietary product for 14 days. Physical development was determined with the aid of standard methods. The general blood picture was analyzed with the aid of a Micros-60 hematological analyzer (company ABX DIAGNOSTICS, France. Lymphocytes and their subsets were analysed by flow cytometery (FACSCalibur, Becton Dickinson Immunocytometry Systems (BDIS, USA and the absolute and percentage values were calculated. To evaluate immune function lymphocyte blasttransformation response to mitogens was studied. Results: Investigations carried out on endurance-training sportsmen showed that a 14-d administration of Spirulina exerted a positive effect on blood morphological composition indices and its biochemical changes. The results of our study confirm the positive effect of Spirulina food supplement on the quantitative parameters of immune system. Part of the study cohort after weeks showed a tendency of normalizing CD3 , CD3 CD4 lympocite count: positive changes were still present two weeks following the interruption of Spirulina intake

  9. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters in adolescents and their relationship with eating habits and household food availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso Chaves, Otaviana; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Machado Rocha Ribeiro, Sônia; Ferreira Rocha Sant Ana, Luciana; Garçon de Faria, Carlos; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the per capita availability of energy and macronutrients in the home and frequency of food consumption by adolescents and to relate them with anthropometric and biochemical variables, as well as verify if the eating habits of parents are associated to the children. We evaluated the weight, height, body fat (%BF), glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC) and fractions of 120 adolescents. We evaluated also the eating habits of adolescents and their parents. Adolescents with more than 35% of available lipids had 9.1-fold higher chances of presenting alterations in TC. Those who replaced the main meals for snacks had 3.66, 4.66 and 2.82 higher chances of presenting alterationsin %BF, insulin and triglycerides, respectively. The daily consumption of fruit was considered as a protective factor in relation to hyperinsulinemia. There was a similar feeding behavior among adolescents and their mothers. The results suggest the importance of specific attention to adolescent health, focused on family education. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Emittance preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kain, V; Arduini, G; Goddard, B; Holzer, B J; Jowett, J M; Meddahi, M; Mertens, T; Roncarolo, F; Schaumann, M; Versteegen, R; Wenninger, J [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Emittance measurements during the LHC proton run 2011 indicated a blow-up of 20 % to 30 % from LHC injection to collisions. This presentation will show the emittance preservation throughout the different parts of the LHC cycle and discuss the current limitations on emittance determination. An overview of emittance preservation through the injector complex as function of bunch intensity will also be given. Possible sources for the observed blow-up and required tests in 2012 will be presented. Possible improvements of emittance diagnostics and analysis tools for 2012 will be shown.

  11. The influence of a whole food vegan diet with Nori algae and wild mushrooms on selected blood parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Joachim; Dschietzig, Thomas; Schwarz, Jens; Dura, Andreas; Nelle, Esther; Watanabe, Fumio; Wintgens, Karl Florian; Reich, Michael; Armbruster, Franz Paul

    2014-01-01

    Vegan and vegetarian diets could overcome many diseases of civilization. This study examines whether a whole food vegan diet with Nori algae and wild mushrooms can provide a sufficient quantity of critical nutrients. Five blood samples (Baseline to Time 5) were taken over eight months from 75 subjects (10 vegans without B12 supplementation who consumed Nori algae and wild mushrooms, 20 vegans with supplementation, 40 vegetarians, 5 meat-eaters). Blood was analyzed for blood cell counts, total vitamin B12, holotranscobalamin, homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, vitamin B6, folic acid, ferritin, TSH, zinc, creatinine, vitamin D2 and D3. In the vegan group without supplementation, all means were within the tolerance (holotranscobalamin, homocystein) or normal, except for elevated methylmalonic acid and diminished vitamin D. This group developed significantly higher vitamin D2 levels. The vegan group with B12 supplementation and the vegetarian group showed normal values for all parameters. Vegans following a whole food diet had a borderline supply of vitamin B12. Folic acid, vitamin B6, TSH, iron metabolism, and the blood count were in the normal range. Vegans taking dietary supplements demonstrated satisfactory overall results. An ingestion of sundried mushrooms can contribute to the supply of vitamin D.

  12. Role of Bifidobacterium bifidum and plant food extracts in improving microflora and biochemical and cytogenetic parameters in adjuvant arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.; Mohamed, D. A.; Donya, S. M.; Abd El Khalek, A. B.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present research was to discover plant food extracts and probiotics that may have bioactivity towards chronic inflammation. Three plant food extract mixtures expected to be rich in phenolic compounds, carotenoids and tocopherols were prepared. The anti-inflammatory activity of the different mixtures as well as probiotic bacteria (Bifidobacterium bifidum) were evaluated in adjuvant arthritis in rats. The anti-inflammatory effect, mechanism of action and safety of the three mixtures and Bifidobacterium bifidum were studied by measuring the size of inflammation and the determination of inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, colonic bacteria profile and specific cytogenetic parameters. The contents of tocopherols, {beta}-carotene and phenolic compounds in the mixtures were determined. The results show that the tested mixtures and Bifidobacterium bifidum possess promising anti-inflammatory effects. The mechanism of action seems to involve a reduction in oxidative stress and inflammatory bio markers and an effect on colonic microflora. Genotoxicity and DNA fragmentation induced by adjuvant arthritis were prevented after supplementation with the tested mixtures. (Author) 61 refs.

  13. Cultural Preservation Program for Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaran, Francisco Ramon

    2011-01-01

    In this technical report, an innovative cultural preservation program for implementation in Athabascan villages is presented. The parameters for success in implementing such a project is discussed based on a workshop with Athabascan elders.

  14. Food Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Food engineering is a rapidly changing discipline. Traditionally, the main focus was on food preservation and stabilization, whereas trends now are on diversity, health, taste, and sustainable production. Next to a general introduction of the definition of food engineering, this article gives a

  15. Food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... safety URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002434.htm Food safety To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Food safety refers to the conditions and practices that preserve the quality of food. These practices prevent contamination and foodborne ...

  16. Determination of the Effect of the Elimination Diet Applied for Overweight and Obese People with Food Intolerance on Body Composition and Biochemical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Gubur

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Food Intolerance, is a reaction against food, but not immunological manner, and may be confused with real food allergies. In this study, effects of special weight-loss diet together with an elimination diet on body composition and biochemical parameters of overweight and obese people who were diagnosed with food intolerance were investigated. The study group consists of 20 patients in total who were followed-up and treated in Yorktest Turkey Laboratory; who were diagnosed with food intolerance, and whose BMI was > 26kg/m2. Bloodletting for these patients was executed with Lancet from their fingertips, and the blood drawn from these patients was assessed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELİSA method, and food reactions of patients were determined for each food. Biochemical parameters of these patients are routine tests, which are necessary for food intolerance tests, and they are analyzed at Yorktest Turkey Laboratory for two times: before and after elimination diet plus special weight-loss diet. It has been determined that, the most common sensivity is obtained against yeast, egg yolk and white, cranberry, cow’s milk, chicken, lentils and parsley. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters before and after elimination diet plus special weight-loss diet applied to participants, were significantly improved in statistical manner. Due to positive changes in body composition and biochemical parameters obtained through application of special weight-loss diets together with elimination diet applied to fat and obese people, we think that this diet might be used for medical nutrition treatment of obesity as a treatment option.

  17. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products.

  18. Influence of relative humidity in the preservation of irradiated avocados. Part of a coordinated programme on insect disinfestation of food and agricultural products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmelic, V.J.

    1985-02-01

    Avocados were irradiated with gamma rays (Cs-137) and subjected to thermal treatment. Relative humidity (RH) is an important factor in this preservation; the higher the RH the longer the shelf-life. PVC was used to maintain the humidity of the fruits

  19. Combined effect of workplace noise and smoking on some hematological parameters on workers in a food manufacturing plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Alimohammadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Generally, no industry can be found to be safe in terms of noise pollution. Noise is the wide- spread form of environmental stressor in the industrialized urban areas. Aim: the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the combined effect of workplace noise and smoking on some hematological parameters on employing work in a food manufacturing plant. This is a retrospective study before and after for five years since starting of the work. In this study, 50 male subjects participated: smokers (n=11 and nonsmokers (n=39, for further individual information and certain specific points, a developed standard questionnaire, were filled out by participants. For the past 4-year’s details, blood tests and medical records of persons since initially hired, were used. The details of the fifth year were measured by the presenters. Using the ISO protocol 1999 and 9612, workplace noise was measured and the noise map was drawn using arc-view GIS software. Statistical analysis SPSS software version 18 was investigated. Due to the nature of the study, the significance level was set at a P value ≤0.1. Statistical findings and laboratory data showed that the effect of noise and smoking on red blood cells and white blood cells of smokers and nonsmokers was significant (p<0.1, so that the amount of red blood cells in smokers who are exposed to noise exceeding 88.83 dB, is higher than nonsmokers, and the white blood cells are lower in nonsmokers in compared with smokers. Our findings showed that combined of workplace noise and smoking has severe adverse effects on hematological parameters, and these alterations might be associated with a greater risk for more diseases. It is notable that results are from a research effort of its researchers and it is not completely certain so further investigation will be needed.

  20. Effectiveness of Gamma Irradiated Chitosan for Fresh Meat Preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a food preservative of natural origin that has drawn the attention of scientists working in the field of radiation processing and natural polymer products development. The effectiveness of 1% chitosan (CS) and chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) (chitosan subjected to γ irradiation, 50 or 100 kGy) dipping to preserve fresh beef slices during refrigerated storage was investigated. The microbiological quality, lipid and color stability were evaluated. The results revealed that dipping in 1% CS, COS 50 and COS 100 significantly (Ρ< 0.05) improved the microbiological quality and reduced lipid oxidation in beef samples compared to the control samples. On day 7, control samples were considered rejected from the microbiological and lipid oxidation point of view. Dipping in 1% COS 100 significantly (p< 0.05) influenced color properties compared with the other groups. It could be concluded that dipping in 1% COS improved quality parameters of fresh beef and could be used in preservation.

  1. Effects of Junk Foods on Brain Neurotransmitters (Dopamine and Serotonin) and some Biochemical Parameters in Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Elmonem, H.A.; Ali, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional Habits have changed significantly and junk foods have become widely popular, in recent years. The present study aimed to shed the light on the effect of potato chips and / or ketchup consumption on some biochemical parameters. Sixty four male and female albino rats were used in the study. Animals were maintained on 0.25 g potato chips/ rat and / or 0.125 g ketchup / rat, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Potato chips showed the lowest body wt gain in the male rats after 4 weeks but, ketchup modulated this negative effect of the potato chips in the group of male animals fed on potato chips plus ketchup. Potato chips significantly decreased brain serotonin, liver glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) in both sexes; brain dopamine, serum total proteins, albumin, total globulins, α 2 - and β 1 -globulins in the females and serum thyroxine (T 4 ) in the male rats. Ketchup apparently affected serum T 4 and A / G ratio in both sexes, brain dopamine and liver GSH in the males in addition to brain serotonin, serum total globulins and ?1-globulin in the female rats. Potato chips plus ketchup significantly changed T 4 , dopamine, GSH, CAT, α 1 and α 2 -globulins in both sexes; serotonin and β 1 -globulin in the male rats, total proteins and albumin in the females. It could be concluded that potato chips consumption might induce numerous adverse effects in various body organs

  2. Zinc fixation preserves flow cytometry scatter and fluorescence parameters and allows simultaneous analysis of DNA content and synthesis, and intracellular and surface epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe Birk; Owens, David; Pedersen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Zinc salt-based fixation (ZBF) has proved advantageous in histochemical analyses conducted on intact tissues but has not been exploited in flow cytometry procedures that focus on quantitative analysis of individual cells. Here, we show that ZBF performs equally well to paraformaldehyde in the pre......Zinc salt-based fixation (ZBF) has proved advantageous in histochemical analyses conducted on intact tissues but has not been exploited in flow cytometry procedures that focus on quantitative analysis of individual cells. Here, we show that ZBF performs equally well to paraformaldehyde...... allowing subsequent quantitative PCR analysis or labeling for incorporation of the thymidine analog EdU following surface and intracellular epitope staining. Finally, ZBF treatment allows for long-term storage of labeled cells with little change in these parameters. Thus, we present a protocol for zinc...... salt fixation of cells that allows for the simultaneous analysis of DNA and intracellular and cell surface proteins by flow cytometry....

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The article explains what radiation does to food to preserve it. Food irradiation is of economic importance to Canada because Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is the leading world supplier of industrial irradiators. Progress is being made towards changing regulations which have restricted the irradiation of food in the United States and Canada. Examples are given of applications in other countries. Opposition to food irradiation by antinuclear groups is addressed

  4. Role of Bifidobacterium bifidum and plant food extracts in improving microflora and biochemical and cytogenetic parameters in adjuvant arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donya, S. M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was to discover plant food extracts and probiotics that may have bioactivity towards chronic inflammation. Three plant food extract mixtures expected to be rich in phenolic compounds, carotenoids and tocopherols were prepared. The anti-inflammatory activity of the different mixtures as well as probiotic bacteria (Bifidobacterium bifidum were evaluated in adjuvant arthritis in rats. The anti-inflammatory effect, mechanism of action and safety of the three mixtures and Bifidobacterium bifidum were studied by measuring the size of inflammation and the determination of inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, colonic bacteria profile and specific cytogenetic parameters. The contents of tocopherols, β-carotene and phenolic compounds in the mixtures were determined. The results show that the tested mixtures and Bifidobacterium bifidum possess promising anti-inflammatory effects. The mechanism of action seems to involve a reduction in oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers and an effect on colonic microflora. Genotoxicity and DNA fragmentation induced by adjuvant arthritis were prevented after supplementation with the tested mixtures.El objetivo de la presente investigación fue encontrar extractos de alimentos vegetales y probióticos que puedan tener bioactividad hacía la inflamación crónica. Mezclas de tres extractos de alimentos vegetales conocidos por su riqueza en compuestos fenólicos, carotenoides y tocoferoles han sido preparadas. La actividad anti-inflamatoria de las diferentes mezclas y de bacterias probióticas (Bifidobacterium bifidum fue evaluada en artritis adyuvante en ratas. El efecto anti-inflamatorio, mecanismo de acción y salubridad de las tres mezclas y de Bifidobacterium bifidum ha sido estudiado mediante la medida del tamaño de la inflamación y la determinación de biomarcadores de inflamación y estrés oxidativo, del perfil de bacterias del colón y de parámetros citogen

  5. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is added...

  6. A Functional Food Mixture “Protector” Reinforces the Protective Immune Parameters against Viral Flu Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenza A. Mansoor

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Viral influenza infection causes serious health issues especially when an outbreak occurs. Although influenza virus vaccines are available and each year manufactures modify the vaccine depending on the expected mutated strain, it is still far from satisfactory, mainly in young children and older adults. Therefore, a product that can support and shape the immune system to protect against viral flu infections is highly essential. Methods: A functional food water-soluble mixture of pomegranate, red grape, dates, olive fruit, figs, and ginger extracts, termed herein “Protector”, was prepared and tested in stimulating/modulating the production of specific cytokines, and hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI antibodies following viral flu vaccination in mice. Results: A single intraperitoneal or multiple oral administration for 1–7 days of “Protector” significantly increased the production of interferon (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-12 in blood, spleen, and lungs of mice. When “Protector” was orally administered for one week following a single vaccine injection (primary immunization or for two weeks (one week apart following double vaccine injections (secondary immunization, mice significantly produced higher titers of HAI antibodies. This increase in HAI antibodies was associated with Pillow-inducing significant and different changes in vaccine-induced IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-6 and IL-22 following primary and secondary immunizations. Conclusions: “Protector” administration reinforces the protective immune parameters against viral flu infection. Therefore, after performing preclinical toxicology studies and ensuring its safety, “Protector” should be considered a potential product to be tested in clinical trials to conclude its efficacy in reducing the devastating effects of flu infection in humans and its outbreaks.

  7. Title: Microbiological quality and preservative capacity of commonly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Mwambete

    in self-pressurized containers, are usually self- preserved and are ... preparations were not included in the study. Due to limited time ... Determination of preservative capacity by cup- plate technique ..... [12] Cosmetic handbook-US. Food and.

  8. Feasibility of gamma irradiation for coffee beans preservation. Part of a coordinated programme on technological and economic feasibility of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias Filho, M.

    1978-09-01

    No abstract is needed as most of the work under this contract was presented at the International Symposium on Food Irradiation, Wageningen, the Netherlands in November 1977. The proceedings of this symposium including a paper on this study has already been published by the Agency

  9. Validation of reference genes for normalization of qPCR mRNA expression levels in Staphylococcus aureus exposed to osmotic and lactic acid stress conditions encountered during food production and preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihto, Henna-Maria; Tasara, Taurai; Stephan, Roger; Johler, Sophia

    2014-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus represents the most prevalent cause of food-borne intoxications worldwide. While being repressed by competing bacteria in most matrices, this pathogen exhibits crucial competitive advantages during growth at high salt concentrations or low pH, conditions frequently encountered in food production and preservation. We aimed to identify reference genes that could be used to normalize qPCR mRNA expression levels during growth of S. aureus in food-related osmotic (NaCl) and acidic (lactic acid) stress adaptation models. Expression stability of nine housekeeping genes was evaluated in full (LB) and nutrient-deficient (CYGP w/o glucose) medium under conditions of osmotic (4.5% NaCl) and acidic stress (lactic acid, pH 6.0) after 2-h exposure. Among the set of candidate reference genes investigated, rplD, rpoB,gyrB, and rho were most stably expressed in LB and thus represent the most suitable reference genes for normalization of qPCR data in osmotic or lactic acid stress models in a rich medium. Under nutrient-deficient conditions, expression of rho and rpoB was highly stable across all tested conditions. The presented comprehensive data on changes in expression of various S. aureus housekeeping genes under conditions of osmotic and lactic acid stress facilitate selection of reference genes for qPCR-based stress response models. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Survey of postharvest handling, preservation and processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey of postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices along the camel milk chain in Isiolo district, Kenya. ... Despite the important contribution of camel milk to food security for pastoralists in Kenya, little is known about the postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices. In this study, existing ...

  11. Optimization of mass spectrometry acquisition parameters for determination of polycarbonate additives, degradation products, and colorants migrating from food contact materials to chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignardi, Chiara; Cavazza, Antonella; Laganà, Carmen; Salvadeo, Paola; Corradini, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    The interest towards "substances of emerging concerns" referred to objects intended to come into contact with food is recently growing. Such substances can be found in traces in simulants and in food products put in contact with plastic materials. In this context, it is important to set up analytical systems characterized by high sensitivity and to improve detection parameters to enhance signals. This work was aimed at optimizing a method based on UHPLC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry to quantify the most common plastic additives, and able to detect the presence of polymers degradation products and coloring agents migrating from plastic re-usable containers. The optimization of mass spectrometric parameter settings for quantitative analysis of additives has been achieved by a chemometric approach, using a full factorial and d-optimal experimental designs, allowing to evaluate possible interactions between the investigated parameters. Results showed that the optimized method was characterized by improved features in terms of sensitivity respect to existing methods and was successfully applied to the analysis of a complex model food system such as chocolate put in contact with 14 polycarbonate tableware samples. A new procedure for sample pre-treatment was carried out and validated, showing high reliability. Results reported, for the first time, the presence of several molecules migrating to chocolate, in particular belonging to plastic additives, such Cyasorb UV5411, Tinuvin 234, Uvitex OB, and oligomers, whose amount was found to be correlated to age and degree of damage of the containers. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Prevalence of food neophobia in pre-school children from southern Poland and its association with eating habits, dietary intake and anthropometric parameters: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozioł-Kozakowska, Agnieszka; Piórecka, Beata; Schlegel-Zawadzka, Małgorzata

    2018-04-01

    The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of food neophobia in pre-school children and its association with eating habits, dietary intake and anthropometric parameters. Cross-sectional survey performed in 2012-2013. The Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS) adapted by Wardle, Carnell and Cooke was used to assess the level of food neophobia. Dietary intake was measured using an FFQ and dietary records from three days. Anthropometric measurements were taken to determine children's nutritional status and BMI was computed based on Polish growth charts. Wilcoxon's rank test and Pearson's rank-correlation coefficient were applied to compare the level of food neophobia and frequency of consumption of food products and nutrient intakes. Kindergartens in southern Poland located in or near Cracow. Three hundred and twenty-five pre-school children and their parents. Low neophobia was observed in 12·3 % and high neophobia in 10·8 % of the children examined. Children with a high level of neophobia were significantly less likely (Pfood neophobia were observed. High levels of neophobia are associated with diet variation and may enhance the risk of nutritional deficiencies in children.

  13. Growth and membrane fluidity of food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in the presence of weak acid preservatives and hydrochloric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis eDiakogiannis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses a major issue in microbial food safety, the elucidation of correlations between acid stress and changes in membrane fluidity of the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. In order to assess the possible role that membrane fluidity changes play in L. monocytogenes tolerance to antimicrobial acids (acetic, lactic, hydrochloric acid at low pH or benzoic acid at neutral pH, the growth of the bacterium and the gel-to-liquid crystalline transition temperature point (Tm of cellular lipids of each adapted culture was measured and compared with unexposed cells. The Tm of extracted lipids was measured by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. A trend of increasing Tm values but not of equal extent was observed upon acid tolerance for all samples and this increase is not directly proportional to each acid antibacterial action. The smallest increase in Tm value was observed in the presence of lactic acid, which presented the highest antibacterial action. In the presence of acids with high antibacterial action such as acetic, hydrochloric acid or low antibacterial action such as benzoic acid, increased Tm values were measured. The Tm changes of lipids were also correlated with our previous data about fatty acid changes to acid adaptation. The results imply that the fatty acid changes are not the sole adaptation mechanism for decreased membrane fluidity (increased Tm. Therefore, this study indicates the importance of conducting an in-depth structural study on how acids commonly used in food systems affect the composition of individual cellular membrane lipid molecules.

  14. Natural Food Additives and Preservatives for Fish-Paste Products: A Review of the Past, Present, and Future States of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khawaja Muhammad Imran Bashir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish-paste products, also known as fish cakes or surimi-based products, are worldwide favorites. Surimi, a wet protein concentrate of fish muscle, is used as an intermediate raw material to produce surimi seafood. The flavor, texture, taste, shelf-life, and market value of surimi-based products depend on the source of the fish meat, type of applied heat treatment, and additives used to prepare the surimi. While preparing surimi with chemical additives, several problems have been observed, such as a lack of unique characteristics, inferior acceptability, and poor functionality. Various types of fish-paste products have been developed by using different ingredients (e.g., vegetables, seafood, herbs and oriental medicines, grains and roots including carrots, and functional food materials. However, a systematic review of fish-paste products prepared using natural food additives has not yet been performed. Therefore, the quality characteristics of fish-paste products and their functionalities were elucidated in this study. With the increasing demand for surimi seafood products, the functional properties, physiochemical properties, and shelf-life of surimi-based products need to be improved. This review will aid the preparation of new value-added products in the surimi industry.

  15. Effects of water activity on the performance of potassium sorbate and natamycin as preservatives against cheese spoilage moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín P.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the effects of the food preservatives potassium sorbate and natamycin, combined with different levels of ionic (sodium chloride and non-ioinic (glycerol water activity (aw, on growth of fungi involved in cheese spoilage. In general, the combined effect of water stress and presence of preservatives enhanced fungal inhibition. However, some doses of potassium sorbate (0.02% and natamycin (1, 5 and 10 ppm were able to stimulate growth of Aspergillus varians, Mucor racemosus, Penicillium chrysogenum and P. roqueforti at aw values in the range of 0.93–0.97. P. solitum was the only species whose growth was consistently reduced by any doses of preservative. The results also showed that sodium chloride and glycerol differentially affected the efficacy of preservatives. This study indicates that aw of cheese is a critical parameter to be considered in the formulation of preservative coatings used against fungal spoilage.

  16. The underexposed role of food matrices in probiotic products: reviewing the relationship between carrier matrices and product parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, J.; van der Waal, M.B.; van den Nieuwboer, M.; Claassen, H.J.H.M.; Larsen, O.F.A.

    2017-01-01

     Full Article  Figures & data References  Supplemental  Citations Metrics  Reprints & Permissions  PDF ABSTRACT Probiotic microorganisms are increasingly incorporated into food matrices in order to confer proposed health benefits on the consumer. It is important that the health benefits,

  17. Brain Activation by Visual Food-Related Stimuli and Correlations with Metabolic and Hormonal Parameters: A fMRI Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakobsdottir, S.; de Ruiter, M.B.; Deijen, J.B.; Veltman, D.J.; Drent, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Regional brain activity in 15 healthy, normal weight males during processing of visual food stimuli in a satiated and a hungry state was examined and correlated with neuroendocrine factors known to be involved in hunger and satiated states. Two functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) sessions

  18. Is the kisspeptin system involved in responses to food restriction in order to preserve reproduction in pubertal male sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Sebastián; Felip, Alicia; Zanuy, Silvia; Carrillo, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Previous works on European sea bass have determined that long-term exposure to restrictive feeding diets alters the rhythms of some reproductive/metabolic hormones, delaying maturation and increasing apoptosis during gametogenesis. However, exactly how these diets affect key genes and hormones on the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis to trigger puberty is still largely unknown. We may hypothesize that all these signals could be integrated, at least in part, by the kisspeptin system. In order to capture a glimpse of these regulatory mechanisms, kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA expression levels and those of their kiss receptors (kiss1r, kiss2r) were analyzed in different areas of the brain and in the pituitary of pubertal male sea bass during gametogenesis. Furthermore, other reproductive hormones and factors as well as the percentage of males showing full spermiation were also analyzed. Treated fish fed maintenance diets provided evidence of overexpression of the kisspeptin system in the main hypophysiotropic regions of the brain throughout the entire sexual cycle. Conversely, Gnrh1 and gonadotropin pituitary content and plasma sexual steroid levels were downregulated, except for Fsh levels, which were shown to increase during spermiation. Treated fish exhibited lower rates of spermiation as compared to control group and a delay in its accomplishment. These results demonstrate how the kisspeptin system and plasma Fsh levels are differentially affected by maintenance diets, causing a retardation, but not a full blockage of the reproductive process in the teleost fish European sea bass. This suggests that a hormonal adaptive strategy may be operating in order to preserve reproductive function in this species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Shelf-Stable Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bulk quantities and are used by food manufacturers (noodle makers, bakers, etc.) or by institutional food service ( ... to preserve such food as dried soup mixes, instant coffee, fruits, and vegetables. To freeze dry, frozen ...

  20. The use of sub-critical water hydrolysis for the recovery of peptides and free amino acids from food processing wastes. Review of sources and main parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcet, Ismael; Álvarez, Carlos; Paredes, Benjamín; Díaz, Mario

    2016-03-01

    Food industry processing wastes are produced in enormous amounts every year, such wastes are usually disposed with the corresponding economical cost it implies, in the best scenario they can be used for pet food or composting. However new promising technologies and tools have been developed in the last years aimed at recovering valuable compounds from this type of materials. In particular, sub-critical water hydrolysis (SWH) has been revealed as an interesting way for recovering high added-value molecules, and its applications have been broadly referred in the bibliography. Special interest has been focused on recovering protein hydrolysates in form of peptides or amino acids, from both animal and vegetable wastes, by means of SWH. These recovered biomolecules have a capital importance in fields such as biotechnology research, nutraceuticals, and above all in food industry, where such products can be applied with very different objectives. Present work reviews the current state of art of using sub-critical water hydrolysis for protein recovering from food industry wastes. Key parameters as reaction time, temperature, amino acid degradation and kinetic constants have been discussed. Besides, the characteristics of the raw material and the type of products that can be obtained depending on the substrate have been reviewed. Finally, the application of these hydrolysates based on their functional properties and antioxidant activity is described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Retention of aroma compounds: an interlaboratory study on the effect of the composition of food matrices on thermodynamic parameters in comparison with water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopjar, Mirela; Andriot, Isabelle; Saint-Eve, Anne; Souchon, Isabelle; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2010-06-01

    Partition coefficients give an indication of the retention of aroma compounds by the food matrix. Data in the literature are obtained by various methods, under various conditions and expressed in various units, and it is thus difficult to compare the results. The aim of the present study was first to obtain gas/water and gas/matrix partition coefficients of selected aroma compounds, at different temperatures, in order to calculate thermodynamic parameters and second to compare the retention of these aroma compounds in different food matrices. Yogurts containing lipids and proteins induced a higher retention of aroma compounds than model gel matrices. The observed effects strongly depend on hydrophobicity of aroma compounds showing a retention for ethyl hexanoate and a salting out effect for ethyl acetate. A small but noticeable decrease in enthalpy of affinity is observed for ethyl butyrate and ethyl hexanoate between water and food matrices, suggesting that the energy needed for the volatilization is lower in matrices than in water. The composition and complexity of a food matrix influence gas/matrix partition coefficients or aroma compounds in function of their hydrophobicity and to a lower extent enthalpy of vaporization. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luecher, O.

    1979-01-01

    Limitations of existing preserving methods and possibilities of improved food preservation by application of nuclear energy are explained. The latest state-of-the-art in irradiation technology in individual countries is described and corresponding recommendations of FAO, WHO and IAEA specialists are presented. The Sulzer irradiation equipment for potato sprout blocking is described, the same equipment being suitable also for the treatment of onions, garlic, rice, maize and other cereals. Systems with a higher power degree are needed for fodder preserving irradiation. (author)

  3. Analysis of water sorption isotherms of amorphous food materials by solution thermodynamics with relevance to glass transition: evaluation of plasticizing effect of water by the thermodynamic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Eriko; Tashiro, Akiko; Kumagai, Hitomi; Kumagai, Hitoshi

    2017-04-01

    Relation between the thermodynamic parameters obtained from water sorption isotherms and the degree of reduction in the glass transition temperature (T g ), accompanied by water sorption, was quantitatively studied. Two well-known glassy food materials namely, wheat gluten and maltodextrin were used as samples. The difference between the chemical potential of water in a solution and that of pure water ([Formula: see text]), the difference between the chemical potential of solid in a solution and that of a pure solid ([Formula: see text]), and the change in the integral Gibbs free energy ([Formula: see text]) were obtained by analyzing the water sorption isotherms using solution thermodynamics. The parameter [Formula: see text] correlated well with ΔT g (≡T g  - T g0 ; where T g0 is the glass transition temperature of dry material), which had been taken to be an index of plasticizing effect. This indicates that plasticizing effect of water on foods can be evaluated through the parameter [Formula: see text].

  4. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of optional...

  5. 21 CFR 178.3800 - Preservatives for wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Preservatives for wood. 178.3800 Section 178.3800... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3800 Preservatives for wood. Preservatives may be safely used... to accomplish the technical effect of protecting the wood from decay, mildew, and water absorption...

  6. Use of electron accelerators in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar

    2013-01-01

    Preservation of food by ionizing radiations involves controlled application of energy of radiation to agricultural commodities, foods and food ingredients, for improving storage life, hygiene and safety. Insects and microbes cause major economic losses to stored crops. Many of our food products are contaminated with diseases causing germs and toxin producing molds. Without improvement in microbial quality and getting properly treated to overcome quarantine barriers our agricultural products cannot get international markets. In this respect electron accelerators have immense potential in commercial radiation processing of foods. Both low and high dose applications with increased process rates can be achieved using accelerators to cover a wide spectrum of food commodities approved for commercial radiation processing as per the recent gazette notification under Atomic Energy (Radiation Processing of Food and Allied Products) Rule, 2012. The effectiveness of processing of food by ionizing radiation depends on proper delivery of absorbed dose and its reliable measurement. For food destined for international trade, it is important that the dosimetry used for dose determination is carried out accurately and that the process is monitored in accordance with the internationally accepted procedures. Experiments using alanine-EPR system were carried out to optimize the process parameters of 10 MeV electron beam for commercial irradiation of food. Different food commodities namely, mango, potato and rawa (semolina) were irradiated to measure the absorbed dose distribution. The actual depth dose profile in food products and useful scan width of the electron beam were determined for commercial radiation processing of food using electron beam. (author)

  7. High energy units in food and pharmaceutical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadat, T.

    1988-01-01

    Linear accelerators for industrial uses and for preservation of food are discussed. The advantages and limits of ionizing technique are outlined and a detailed description of CGR MeV's two industrial accelerator lines is provided with a description of the facility, description of treatment parameters and performances also discussed

  8. PENGGUNAAN PENGAWET DAN PEMANIS BUATAN PADA PANGAN JAJANAN ANAK SEKOLAH (PJAS DI WILAYAH KABUPATEN KULON PROGO-DIY (The Use of Preservatives and Artificial Sweeteners in Elementary School-Food in Kulon Progo District of DIY Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatarina Wariyah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available School-food (SF is processed-foods sold by vendor in the elementary school. Recently, many SF has been found to contain excessive food additives and used hazardous substances those are prohibited i.e. formalin, boric acid and rhodamin. The prebious survey showed that the considerations for buying food of most people in Kulon Progo District of DIY province were price, taste, appearance, and were not of the quality and nutrition. The purpose of this research was to determine the SF profile in Kulon Progo District, especially those used excessive food additive (preservative and artificial sweetener, SF with hazardous substances, and the relation between SF condition and the education level of the vendor. The sampling method used Proportionate Random Sampling consists of two stages, namely: 1 sampling to determine the sub-district samples and 2 sampling to determine the amount of the elementary-school of each sub-district for SF sampling. The data were collected by direct observation, interview and experimental method. Analysis of sodium benzoat and sorbic acid, saccharin, sodium cyclamate, and unrecommended/hazardous substances were conducted in BBPOM Laboratory and BLK of Yoyakarta. The data were statistically analyzed by statistic-descriptive and processed with microsoft excell and SPSS for window version 13 for Spearman correlative test.The research showed that SF at the elementary school in Kulon Progo District indicated to contain excessive food additives and hazardous substances. There were 4% samples containing excessive sodium benzoat, sorbic acid and 8% samples containing excessive artificial sweetener of sodium cyclamate. SF with boric acid was 3% samples (cilok, sosis, kerupuk rambak and with formalin was 1% samples (burjo,cimol. There was a significant correlation between the education level of the SF vendor with knowledge about formalin, boric acid and artificial sweetener. Keywords: School-food, food-additives, unrecommended

  9. Effect of radiation on preservation of convenient dish 'bowl-shape packed pig elbow'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Keqin; Chen Jingping; Li Wenge; Peng Weizheng

    2005-01-01

    The suitable parameters for radiation processing were investiqated by analyzing the microload of material and product, and radiation effect on the preservation of convenient dish 'bowl-shape packed pig elbow'. The results showed the store period of the product could be extended 2-6 month by 4.0-6.0 kGy radiation at different storage temperature. The sensory, physical and chemical index of the products met the requirement of relevant national standard of food hygiene. (authors)

  10. Perspectives of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miettinen, J.K.

    1974-01-01

    Food preservation by means of ionizing radiation has been technically feasible for more than a decade. Its utilization could increase food safety, extend the transport and shell life of foods, cut food losses, and reduce dependence upon chemical additives. The prime obstacles have been the strict safety requirements set by health authorities to this preservation method and the high costs of the long-term animal tests necessary to fulfil these requirements. An International Food Irradiation Project, expected to establish the toxicological safety of 10 foods by about 1976, is described in some detail. (author)

  11. Case studies on the physical-chemical parameters' variation during three different purification approaches destined to treat wastewaters from food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimpusan, Marieta; Nechifor, Gheorghe; Nechifor, Aurelia-Cristina; Dima, Stefan-Ovidiu; Passeri, Piero

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents a set of three interconnected case studies on the depuration of food processing wastewaters by using aeration & ozonation and two types of hollow-fiber membrane bioreactor (MBR) approaches. A secondary and more extensive objective derived from the first one is to draw a clearer, broader frame on the variation of physical-chemical parameters during the purification of wastewaters from food industry through different operating modes with the aim of improving the management of water purification process. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), total nitrogen, specific nitrogen (NH 4 + , NO 2 - , NO 3 - ) total phosphorous, and total surfactants were the measured parameters, and their influence was discussed in order to establish the best operating mode to achieve the purification performances. The integrated air-ozone aeration process applied in the second operating mode lead to a COD decrease by up to 90%, compared to only 75% obtained in a conventional biological activated sludge process. The combined purification process of MBR and ozonation produced an additional COD decrease of 10-15%, and made the Total Surfactants values to comply to the specific legislation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the food chain: development, validation, and application of a new HPLC-ESI-MS/MS sum parameter method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Luise; Schiebel, Hans-Martin; Ernst, Ludger; Beuerle, Till

    2013-11-27

    Contamination of food and feed with pyrrolizidine alkaloids is currently discussed as a potential health risk. Here, we report the development of a new HPLC-ESI-MS/MS sum parameter method to quantitate the pyrrolizidine alkaloid content in complex food matrices. The procedure was validated for honey and culinary herbs. Isotopically labeled 7-O-9-O-dibutyroyl-[9,9-(2)H2]-retronecine was synthesized and utilized as an internal standard for validation and quantitation. The total pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of a sample is expressed as a single sum parameter: retronecine equivalents (RE). Ld/Lq for honey was 0.1 μg RE/kg/0.3 μg RE/kg. For culinary herbs, 1.0 μg RE/kg/3.0 μg RE/kg (dry weight, dw) and 0.1 μg RE/kg/0.3 μg RE/kg (fresh weight, fw) were determined, respectively. The new method was applied to analyze 21 herbal convenience products. Fifteen products (71%) were pyrrolizidine alkaloid positive showing pyrrolizidine alkaloid concentrations ranging from 0.9 to 74 μg RE/kg fw.

  13. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of Laurus nobilis L. and Myrtus communis L. essential oils from Morocco and evaluation of their antimicrobial activity acting alone or in combined processes for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrat, Lamia; Espina, Laura; Bakkali, Mohammed; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael; Laglaoui, Amin

    2014-04-01

    This study describes the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Laurus nobilis L. and Myrtus communis L. essential oils (EOs). This is the first report of the synergistic antimicrobial effect of these EOs in combination with physical food preservation treatments. EOs obtained by steam distillation from aerial parts of Laurus nobilis and Myrtus communis were analysed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main compounds were 1,8-cineole and 2-carene (L. nobilis EO); and myrtenyl acetate, 1,8-cineole and α-pinene (M. communis EO). L. nobilis EO showed higher antioxidant activity than M. communis EO in three complementary antioxidant tests. Although antimicrobial activity tests demonstrated the effectiveness of L. nobilis EO and the lack of bactericidal effect of M. communis EO, synergistic lethal effects were observed when combining each EO (0.2 µL mL(-1)) with mild heat (54°C for 10 min) or high hydrostatic pressure (175-400 MPa for 20 min). In contrast, combination of EOs with pulsed electric fields (30 kV cm(-1) for 25 pulses) showed no additional effects. This study shows the great potential of these EOs in combined treatments with mild heat and high hydrostatic pressure to obtain a higher inactivation of foodborne pathogens, which might help in the design of safe processes applied at low intensity. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Some observations on plutonium transfers in human and animal food-chains and Gi tract: plutonium complexation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittel, R.

    1986-06-01

    Although many data have been accumulated concerning the distribution of Pu in waters, soils, and foodchains, recent studies have raised the question of the Pu physico-chemical species and their differential availability. Accordingly, we reviewed published data on the transfer of Pu in foodchains and in the gastrointestinal tracts. Dietetic, physico-chemical, biochemical and microbiological parameters have been studied and their incidence on the intestinal transfer factor f 1 of Pu in man briefly discussed: the transfer in the trophic chains often increases Pu mobility and perhaps f 1 . Experimental research is needed to obtain quantitative data [fr

  15. Polonium-210 and Lead-210 in food and tobacco products: transfer parameters and normal exposure and dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    Food-chain transport of Pb-210 and Po-210 from soil to edible plant parts and from animal feed to meat and milk was evaluated from a review of literature. The degree of transfer was characterized by estimating concentration factors as well as the transfer coefficients B/sub v/, B/sub r/, f/sub m/, and f/sub f/. Global dietary intake of Pb-210 and Po-210 was also summarized, and 50-y dose estimates to target organs were calculated. The greatest estimated ingestion doses were those to populations with large dietary complements of animal protein in the form of seafood (Japan) or caribou/reindeer muscle and organ meats (Arctic Eskimos and Lapps). The origin and magnitude of inhalation exposure and dose from tobacco products were also assessed. For the majority of internal organs evaluated, the dose resulting from smoking commercially available tobacco products is comparable with or greater than the dose estimates for ingestion of naturally occurring dietary Pb-210 and Po-210. 79 refs

  16. Determination of parameters used to prevent ignition of stored materials and to protect against explosions in food industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Alvaro; García-Torrent, Javier; Aguado, Pedro J

    2009-08-30

    There are always risks associated with silos when the stored material has been characterized as prone to self-ignition or explosion. Further research focused on the characterization of agricultural materials stored in silos is needed due to the lack of data found in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the ignitability and explosive parameters of several agricultural products commonly stored in silos in order to assess the risk of ignition and dust explosion. Minimum Ignition Temperature, with dust forming a cloud and deposited in a layer, Lower Explosive Limit, Minimum Ignition Energy, Maximum Explosion Pressure and Maximum Explosion Pressure Rise were determined for seven agricultural materials: icing sugar, maize, wheat and barley grain dust, alfalfa, bread-making wheat and soybean dust. Following characterization, these were found to be prone to producing self-ignition when stored in silos under certain conditions.

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Food preservation by irradiation is one part of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program that is enjoying renewed interest. Classified as a food additive by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 instead of a processing technique, irradiation lost public acceptance. Experiments have not been done to prove that there are no health hazards from gamma radiation, but there are new pressures to get Food and Drug Administration approval for testing in order to make commercial use of some radioactive wastes. Irradiation causes chemical reactions and nutritional changes, including the destruction of several vitamins, as well as the production of radiolytic products not normally found in food that could have adverse effects. The author concludes that, lacking epidemiological evidence, willing buyers should be able to purchase irradiated food as long as it is properly labeled

  18. Food nanoscience and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscience and nanotechnology have had a great impact on the food industry. They have increased the nutritional and functional properties of a number of food products and have aided in food preservation through the addition of antimicrobials or the reduction of water activity. These and many other applications have emerged in recent years to transform food science and technology. This book proposes to look at some of these applications and their effect on food production and innovation.

  19. Food irradiation - now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basson, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Food irradiation technology in South Africa is about to take its rightful place next to existing food preservation methods in protecting food supplies. This is as a result of several factors, the most important of which is the decision by the Department of Health and Population Development to introduce compulsory labelling of food irradiation. The factors influencing food irradiation technology in South Africa are discussed

  20. Food chemistry. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltes, W.

    1989-01-01

    This second edition of the textbook deals with all essential aspects of food chemistry. The revision improved in particular the chapters on food preservation, including irradiation of food, food additives, and pollutants and residues, including radionuclides. The chapter on the German legal regime for foodstuffs has been updated to cover the recent amendments of the law, and the information on processes applied in food technology has been largely enhanced. (VHE) With 153 figs., 78 tabs [de

  1. Perspective on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsome, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief review summarizes current scientific information on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of foods. Attention is focused on: specifics of the irradiation process and its effectiveness in food preservation; the historical development of food irradiation technology in the US; the response of the Institute of Food Technologists to proposed FDA guidelines for food irradiation; the potential uses of irradiation in the US food industry; and the findings of the absence of toxins and of unaltered nutrient density (except possibly for fats) in irradiated foods. The misconceptions of consumers concerning perceived hazards associated with food irradiation, as related to consumer acceptance, also are addressed

  2. Food irradiation: contaminating our food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccioni, R.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry has promoted food irradiation as an effective and safe means of preserving food at minimum risk to the public. However, wide-scale food irradiation programmes such as that approved in the United States of America would have an adverse impact on public health in the following ways: through the consumption of carcinogenic substances generated in irradiated foods, through the use of irradiation to mask bacteriological contamination of spoiled food, through the replacement of fresh foods with nutritionally depleted foods, through accidents with leaks or mishandling of the radiation sources used and through the environmental damage resulting from reactor operation or spent fuel reprocessing necessary to produce the required isotopes for food irradiation. The food irradiation market is potentially enormous, requiring a large number of facilities and isotopes, some, such as caesium-137, would come from the production of nuclear weapons. Evidence of the presence of carcinogenic or mutagenic activity in irradiated foods is discussed. Although the US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a food irradiation programme it would actually be against the FDA's legal obligation which is to protect the health and safety of the American people. (UK)

  3. Containers in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolumen, S.; Espinosa, R.

    1997-01-01

    The preservation of food by irradiation is promising technology which increases industrial application. Packaging of irradiated foods is an integral part of the process. Judicious selection of the package material for successful trade is essential. In this paper is presented a brief review of important aspects of packaging in food irradiation [es

  4. Key Variables Screening of Near-Infrared Models for Simultaneous Determination of Quality Parameters in Traditional Chinese Food “Fuzhu”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahua Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional Chinese food Fuzhu is a dried soy protein-lipid film formed during the heating of soymilk. This study investigates whether a simple and accurate model can nondestructively determine the quality parameters of intact Fuzhu. The diffused reflectance spectra (1000–2499 nm of intact Fuzhu were collected by a commercial near-infrared (NIR spectrometer. Among various preprocessing methods, the derivative by wavelet transform method optimally enhanced the characteristic signals of Fuzhu spectra. Uninformative variable elimination based on Monte Carlo (MC-UVE, random frog (RF, and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS were proposed to select key variables for partial least squares (PLS calculation. The strong performance of the developed models is attributed to the high ratios of prediction to deviation values (3.32–3.51 for protein, 3.62–3.89 for lipid, and 4.27–4.55 for moisture. The prediction set was used to assess the performances of the best models of protein (CARS-PLS, lipid (RF-PLS, and moisture (CARS-PLS, which resulted in greater coefficients of determination of 0.958, 0.966, and 0.976, respectively, and lower root mean square errors of prediction of 0.656%, 0.442%, and 0.123%, respectively. Combined with chemometrics methods, the NIR technique is promising for simultaneous testing of quality parameters of intact Fuzhu.

  5. Preserving Digital Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a single-volume introduction to the principles, strategies and practices currently applied by librarians and recordkeeping professionals to the critical issue of preservation of digital information. It incorporates practice from both the recordkeeping and the library communities, taking stock of current knowledge about digital preservation and describing recent and current research, to provide a framework for reflecting on the issues that digital preservation raises in professional practice.

  6. New trends in food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Señorans, Javier; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    In this work some of the newest trends in food processing are reviewed. This revision intends to provide an updated overview (including works published until February 2001) on the newest food processes, including food manufacturing, preservation, and control. Modern processes for food and food ingredients manufacturing based on membrane technology, super-critical fluid technology, and some applications of biotechnology are presented, mainly applied to obtain functional foods, "all-natural" enriched foods, probiotics and prebiotics. Also included is a critical assessment concerning non-thermal preservation techniques used for food preservation, such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields, ultrasound, pulsed light, hurdle systems, etc. Finally, a group of new analytical techniques (i.e., molecular techniques such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), food image analysis, and biosensors) and their use for food and process control is reviewed.

  7. Food irradiation: Gamma processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunstadt, P [MDS Nordion International, 447 March Road. Kanata, Ontario, K2K148 (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    The number of products being radiation processed is constantly increasing and today include such diverse items as medical disposable, fruits and vegetables, bulk spices, meats, sea foods and waste effluents. Not only do the products differ but also many products, even those within the same groupings, require different minimum and maximum radiation doses. These variations create many different requirements in the irradiator design. The design of Cobalt-60 radiation processing facilities is well established for a number of commercial applications. Installations in over 40 countries, with some in operation since the early 1960s, are testimony to the fact that irradiator design, manufacture, installation and operation is a well established technology. However, in order to design gamma irradiators for the preservation of foods one must recognize those parameters typical to the food irradiation process as well as those systems and methods already well established in the food industry. This paper discusses the basic design concepts for gamma food irradiators. They are most efficient when designed to handle a limited product density range at an established dose. Safety of Cobalt-60 transport, safe facility operation principles and the effect of various processing parameters on economics, will also be discussed. (Author)

  8. Food irradiation: Gamma processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.

    1997-01-01

    The number of products being radiation processed is constantly increasing and today include such diverse items as medical disposable, fruits and vegetables, bulk spices, meats, sea foods and waste effluents. Not only do the products differ but also many products, even those within the same groupings, require different minimum and maximum radiation doses. These variations create many different requirements in the irradiator design. The design of Cobalt-60 radiation processing facilities is well established for a number of commercial applications. Installations in over 40 countries, with some in operation since the early 1960s, are testimony to the fact that irradiator design, manufacture, installation and operation is a well established technology. However, in order to design gamma irradiators for the preservation of foods one must recognize those parameters typical to the food irradiation process as well as those systems and methods already well established in the food industry. This paper discusses the basic design concepts for gamma food irradiators. They are most efficient when designed to handle a limited product density range at an established dose. Safety of Cobalt-60 transport, safe facility operation principles and the effect of various processing parameters on economics, will also be discussed. (Author)

  9. Food irradiation: Gamma processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunstadt, P. [MDS Nordion International, 447 March Road. Kanata, Ontario, K2K148 (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The number of products being radiation processed is constantly increasing and today include such diverse items as medical disposable, fruits and vegetables, bulk spices, meats, sea foods and waste effluents. Not only do the products differ but also many products, even those within the same groupings, require different minimum and maximum radiation doses. These variations create many different requirements in the irradiator design. The design of Cobalt-60 radiation processing facilities is well established for a number of commercial applications. Installations in over 40 countries, with some in operation since the early 1960s, are testimony to the fact that irradiator design, manufacture, installation and operation is a well established technology. However, in order to design gamma irradiators for the preservation of foods one must recognize those parameters typical to the food irradiation process as well as those systems and methods already well established in the food industry. This paper discusses the basic design concepts for gamma food irradiators. They are most efficient when designed to handle a limited product density range at an established dose. Safety of Cobalt-60 transport, safe facility operation principles and the effect of various processing parameters on economics, will also be discussed. (Author)

  10. Environmental education on wood preservatives and preservative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development and use of wood preservatives in Nigeria should address not only the cost and demand functions but also the potential hazards in environmental equations. Forest products specialists are often asked about the perceived risks and environmental costs of treated wood products. Evidently, the civil society is ...

  11. Summary of the preservation techniques and the evolution of the anammox bacteria characteristics during preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2017-06-01

    The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process is a promising wastewater treatment method for biological nitrogen removal. A sufficient amount of active anammox sludge as a seed is crucial to the fast establishment and stability of the anammox process. Anammox bacteria is a kind of microorganism which is sensitive to the environmental conditions, e.g., oxygen, temperature. The optimum temperature and pH for the growth of the anammox bacteria are 30-40 °C and 6.7-8.3. A proper preservation technique allows fast start-up of the anammox process, overcoming the long doubling time of anammox biomass. The preservation of the anammox sludge is influenced by various factors, e.g., preservation techniques, duration, temperature, substrates, and protective agents. During preservation, the characteristics of the anammox biomass, including the bioactivity, heme c content, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and sludge morphology, change with time. The optimum preservation technique is not invariable and it depends on the purpose of preservation (precedence of bioactivity or quantity), the bacterial community, and other parameters. It is important for the preserved anammox biomass to achieve reactivation so that stable anammox reactors can be established as soon as possible. However, because the preservation process is complicated, the knowledge regarding preservation is far from complete, and much future work will be required to increase the understanding of preservation.

  12. Mass preserving image registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results the mass preserving image registration method in the Evaluation of Methods for Pulmonary Image Registration 2010 (EMPIRE10) Challenge. The mass preserving image registration algorithm was applied to the 20 image pairs. Registration was evaluated using four different...

  13. Modes of fossil preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  14. Food irradiation: Activities and potentialities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doellstaedt, R.; Huebner, G.

    After the acceptance of food irradiation up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy recommended by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food in October 1980, the G.D.R. started a programme for the development of techniques for food irradiation. A special onion irradiator was designed and built as a pilot plant for studying technological and economic parameters of the irradiation of onions. The new principle of bulk-cargo irradiation allows the integration of this technology into the usual harvest technology for onions on the way from field to storage. Scientific and applied research work has been carried out in the past 3 yr on the irradiation of spices, potatoes, eviscerated chicken, animal feeds, fodder yeast, drugs and vaccines. In connection with the irradiation of eviscerated chicken, fodder yeast and animal feeds the basis of an antisalmonella programme has been discussed. Germ-count-reduced spices were employed for the production of test charges of preserves and tinned products. The results have led to the decision to design and build a new multipurpose irradiator for food irradiation. In order to cover the legal aspects of food irradiation the Ministry of Health issued regulations concerning the recommendation of irradiated food in the G.D.R.

  15. The effect of process parameters and microstructural changes on a new convenience food - quick-frozen paste-coated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su-Wen; Chang, Xue-Dong; Liu, Xiu-Feng; Jiang, Wen-Hong; Ma, Xiao-Feng

    2015-03-01

    The technology of quick-freezing paste-coated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) was studied and optimized. The best microwave pretreatment condition for 1 cm slices, regarding color protection, was 5.4 W/g, for 55, 55-60 and 60 s for mushrooms with 3, 4 and 5 cm diameter caps respectively. For a batch of paste (668.2-1034.6 g), the process parameters considered were oil content (46.6-63.4 g), water content (381-562.6 g) and flour content (166-334 g) with a constant additional content of 30 g starch, 9 g baking powder, 2.6 g carrageenan, 30 g salt and 3 g pepper. These parameters were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite design. The optimal levels of the major paste components were 300 g flour, 432.5 g water and 50 g oil. The freezing time and sensory acceptability for paste-coated Agaricus bisporus(PCAB) under the optimized conditions were 7.49 min and 6.2 respectively. The freezing curves of PCAB were established at different temperatures and the freezing rates were calculated to find the freezing characteristics. In addition, the cell structure of PCAB, frozen at -75 °C, the lowest freezing temperature, and studied using transmission electron microscopy, was similar in quality to that of fresh Agaricus bisporus. The results suggested that Agaricus bisporus can be quick-frozen with a paste coating to produce an acceptable and nutritious convenience food.

  16. 21 CFR 1305.17 - Preservation of DEA Forms 222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preservation of DEA Forms 222. 1305.17 Section... II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.17 Preservation of DEA Forms 222. (a) The purchaser must retain Copy 3 of each executed DEA Form 222 and all copies of unaccepted or defective forms with each...

  17. 21 CFR 1305.27 - Preservation of electronic orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preservation of electronic orders. 1305.27 Section... II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Electronic Orders § 1305.27 Preservation of electronic orders. (a) A... two years. (c) If electronic order records are maintained on a central server, the records must be...

  18. Chilled storage of foods - principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilled storage is the most common method for preserving perishable foods. The consumers’ increasing demand for convenient, minimally processed foods has caused food manufacturers to increase production of refrigerated foods worldwide. This book chapter reviews the development of using low tempera...

  19. Food microbiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain); Moss, M. O; Adams, M. R

    2008-01-01

    ... is directed primarily at students of Microbiology, Food Science and related subjects up to Master's level and assumes some knowledge of basic microbiology. We have chosen not to burden the text with references to the primary literature in order to preserve what we hope is a reasonable narrative flow. Some suggestions for further reading for each chapter are included in Chapter 12. These are largely review articles and monographs which develop the overview provided and can also give access to...

  20. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  1. ADDITIVES USED TO OBTAIN FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of food additives in food is determined by the growth of contemporary food needs of the world population. Additives used in food, both natural and artificial ones, contribute to: improving the organoleptic characteristics and to preserve the food longer, but we must not forget that all these additives should not be found naturally in food products. Some of these additives are not harmful and human pests in small quantities, but others may have harmful effects on health.

  2. Sensory properties of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plestenjak, A.

    1997-01-01

    Food irradiation is a simple and effective preservation technique. The changes caused by irradiation depend on composition of food, on the absorbed dose, the water content and temperature during and after irradiation. In this paper the changes of food components caused by irradiation, doses for various food irradiation treatments, foods and countries where the irradiation is allowed, and sensory properties of irradiated food are reviewed

  3. Chronopolis Digital Preservation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Minor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chronopolis Digital Preservation Initiative, one of the Library of Congress’ latest efforts to collect and preserve at-risk digital information, has completed its first year of service as a multi-member partnership to meet the archival needs of a wide range of domains.Chronopolis is a digital preservation data grid framework developed by the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC at UC San Diego, the UC San Diego Libraries (UCSDL, and their partners at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR in Colorado and the University of Maryland's Institute for Advanced Computer Studies (UMIACS.Chronopolis addresses a critical problem by providing a comprehensive model for the cyberinfrastructure of collection management, in which preserved intellectual capital is easily accessible, and research results, education material, and new knowledge can be incorporated smoothly over the long term. Integrating digital library, data grid, and persistent archive technologies, Chronopolis has created trusted environments that span academic institutions and research projects, with the goal of long-term digital preservation.A key goal of the Chronopolis project is to provide cross-domain collection sharing for long-term preservation. Using existing high-speed educational and research networks and mass-scale storage infrastructure investments, the partnership is leveraging the data storage capabilities at SDSC, NCAR, and UMIACS to provide a preservation data grid that emphasizes heterogeneous and highly redundant data storage systems.In this paper we will explore the major themes within Chronopolis, including:a The philosophy and theory behind a nationally federated data grid for preservation. b The core tools and technologies used in Chronopolis. c The metadata schema that is being developed within Chronopolis for all of the data elements. d Lessons learned from the first year of the project.e Next steps in digital preservation using Chronopolis: how we

  4. Optimization of preservation activities and preservation engineering (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki; Mimaki, Hidehito; Oda, Mitsuyuki

    2004-01-01

    In order to deal with the optimization of preservation activities and 'preservation engineering' which makes it possible, the relation between general society and preservation, the content and the structure of preservation activities, and the viewpoint and the approach of the optimization of the preventive preservation are described. The optimization of the preventive preservation is shown respectively in the four stages of planning, implementation, result evaluation and countermeasure. (K. Kato)

  5. VT Historic Preservation Grant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The State-funded Historic Preservation Grant Program helps municipalities and non-profit organizations rehabilitate the historic buildings that are a vital part of...

  6. Preservation of Built Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    When built environments and recently also cultural environments are to be preserved, the historic and architectural values are identified as the key motivations. In Denmark the SAVE system is used as a tool to identify architectural values, but in recent years it has been criticized for having...... architectural value in preservation work as a matter of maintaining the buildings -as keeping them "alive" and allowing this to continue in the future. The predominantly aesthetic preservation approach will stop the buildings' life process, which is the same as - "letting them die". Finnebyen in Aarhus...... is an example of a residential area, where the planning authority currently has presented a preservational district plan, following guidelines from the SAVE method. The purpose is to protect the area's architectural values in the future. The predominantly aesthetic approach is here used coupled to the concept...

  7. Radiation preservation of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasito.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation preservation of maize was carried out. Radiation doses and sources, shielding materials, packaging materials, chemical radiation effects, biological radiation effects, were discussed. Experimental methods, samples and accessories were also presented. (SMN)

  8. Digital preservation for heritages

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    ""Digital Preservation for Heritages: Technologies and Applications"" provides a comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of digital technologies in the area of cultural heritage preservation, including digitalization, research aiding, conservation aiding, digital exhibition, and digital utilization. Processes, technical frameworks, key technologies, as well as typical systems and applications are discussed in the book. It is intended for researchers and students in the fields of computer science and technology, museology, and archaeology. Dr. Dongming Lu is a professor at College of Computer Sci

  9. Indiana Pavement Preservation Program

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Ghim Ping (Raymond); Nantung, Tommy E.; Sinha, Kumares C.

    2010-01-01

    State highway agencies are facing immense pressure to maintain roads at acceptable levels amidst the challenging financial and economic situations. In recent years, pavement preservation has been sought as a potential alternative for managing the pavement assets, believing that it would provide a cost-effective solution in maintaining infrastructural conditions and meeting user expectations. This study explores the potential of pavement preservation concepts in managing the agency‘s pavement ...

  10. Food Processing: Technology and Nutritive Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbouin-Rerolle, Pascale

    1993-01-01

    This booklet examines the principles of food preservation, food preservation techniques, and nutrition-related consequences of food processing. All foodstuffs in their natural state will deteriorate and become unfit for human consumption due to internal factors, such as enzyme activity, or external factors, such as insects, rodents, and…

  11. Introduction of a novel food processing technology- food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    The treatment of food with ionizing radiation for its preservation is a resurging technology which was lying dormant since its introduction after the discovery on the use of x-ray as an effective way to kill bacteria in food. Large research programmes were initiated on the use of gamma rays for food preservation in many countries and some of the conclusions derived are discussed. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  12. Brief concept of hip preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev S. Madan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of the anatomy of the hip joint and biomechanics across it, carry the immense importance to prevent future osteoarthritis of the joint. The aim of this review is to provide the brief concept of the methods to preserve the hip, especially in young adults. Attempts to preserve the hips start with the intense preoperative planning of the corrective procedure. Different parameters regarding the femur and acetabulum in all 3 dimensions need to be assessed. Especially, measurement of the anteversion of the femur and acetabulum is a significant step to avoid osteoarthritis. In addition, the suprapelvic and infrapelvic (spine and lower limb lengths alignment needs to be considered in the planning. Correction of the femoral side of the hip needs the understanding of the blood supply of the proximal femur which carries the risk of avascular necrosis more so with intracapsular osteotomies. Acetabular reorientation, to re-distribute the forces over the weight bearing part, can be carried out with re-directional osteotomy such as periacetabular osteotomy. It needs the understanding of the acetabular anatomy and the force distribution in it. To conclude, correction of both femoral and acetabular side parameters need to be considered in decision making depending on the alterations due to various etiologies causing the hip disorders.

  13. Using Power Ultrasound to Accelerate Food Freezing Processes: Effects on Freezing Efficiency and Food Microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peizhi; Zhu, Zhiwei; Sun, Da-Wen

    2018-05-31

    Freezing is an effective way of food preservation. However, traditional freezing methods have the disadvantages of low freezing efficiency and generation of large ice crystals, leading to possible damage of food quality. Power ultrasound assisted freezing as a novel technique can effectively reduce the adverse effects during freezing process. This paper gives an overview on recent researches of power ultrasound technique to accelerate the food freezing processes and illustrates the main principles of power ultrasound assisted freezing. The effects of power ultrasound on liquid food, model solid food as well as fruit and vegetables are discussed, respectively, from the aspects of increasing freezing rate and improving microstructure. It is shown that ultrasound assisted freezing can effectively improve the freezing efficiency and promote the formation of small and evenly distributed ice crystals, resulting in better food quality. Different inherent properties of food samples affect the effectiveness of ultrasound application and optimum ultrasound parameters depend on the nature of the samples. The application of ultrasound to the food industry is more likely on certain types of food products and more efforts are still needed to realize the industrial translation of laboratory results.

  14. Trends in Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  15. Agriculture and food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Lebai Juri

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discuss the application of nuclear technology in agriculture sector. Nuclear Technology has help agriculture and food processing to develop tremendously. Two techniques widely use in both clusters are ionization radiation and radioisotopes. Among techniques for ionizing radiation are plant mutation breeding, SIT and food preservation. Meanwhile radioisotopes use as a tracer for animal research, plant soil relations water sedimentology

  16. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author) [es

  17. Sensory evaluation of a highly nutritive bread, formulated for populations suffering food emergencies, preserved with ionizing radiation; Evaluación sensorial de un panificado de alto valor nutricional formulado para poblaciones en emergencia alimentaria, preservado por radiaciones ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, G. S.; Gómez, B., E-mail: gabygon22@yahoo.com.ar, E-mail: bgomez@fb.uner.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de Entre Ríos, Gualeguaychú (Argentina); Cova, M. C.; Narvaiz, Patricia [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Ezeiza (Argentina). Gerencia de Área Aplicaciones de la Tecnología Nuclear, Gerencia de Aplicaciones y Tecnología de Radiaciones, Sector Irradiación de Alimentos

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate with sensorial analysis, the feasibility of extending the shelf life at room temperature of highly nutritive bread, specially formulated for people suffering alimentary emergencies such as floods, earthquakes, geographical isolation or malnourishment, by means of ionizing radiation. The shelf life of any bread is limited by microbial growth, so the food industry uses chemicals and /or refrigeration to control it. Twenty one breads were formulated and manufactured employing wheat and soybean flours, dehydrated whey, skim milk and egg, vegetal oil, water, and some commercial food additives as emulsifiers and water retention substances. A final formulation was chosen by means of a preliminary sensory evaluation. Bibliographic estimations were made on its nutritional quality as compared to that of a regular wheat bread; improvements were found on vitamins, minerals, proteins, lipids and fibre. Forty 450 g breads were manufactured, oven cooked at 220°C for 20 minutes, packaged with polyethylene film, 100 microns thickness, and irradiated at the semi industrial cobalt-60 facility of the Ezeiza Atomic Centre, about 600,000 Ci of activity, with doses of 0, 6 and 10 kilo Grays, dose rate: 10 kGy/h, dose uniformity: 1.1. Control and irradiated samples were stored at room temperature and relative humidity for 43 days. Sensory analysis was performed with a panel of about 50 consumers on days 3, 29 and 43, evaluating aroma, aspect, colour, flavour, texture and general acceptability with hedonic scores ranging from 1 to 9. No significant differences between control and irradiated samples were found, being the latter afforded scores close to 7 even at the end of the storage period. Control samples had to be discarded on day 6 due to visible mould growth. So this bread formulation, suitable to fulfill most of the nutritional requirements of a population under alimentary emergency, attained at least a 7 fold shelf life increase when treated

  18. Training for Preservation Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam M. Foot

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available In August 1997 the first of a series of summer schools in Preservation Management was held at the Archivschule in Marburg (Germany. The school was organised by the ECPA, the LIBER Division on Preservation, ICA and the Archivschule itself and was aimed at archivists and librarians in management positions from European institutions. It dealt with managerial, organisational and financial aspects of preservation and required active participation by those attending. Apart from introductory sessions by the teaching staff at the Archivschule, a large part of the course took the form of working groups, discussions, assignments and role play, to which participants were expected to take their own experience and problems. The school was conducted in German. Topics, spread over five days, ranged from preservation in the context of the core activities of libraries and archives; planning of preservation projects; general management issues, such as resource management, budgeting, priority setting, communication and effecting change; to more detailed considerations of day-to-day issues, such as storage, disaster control, microfilming and digitising, mass conservation processes, and moulds and fungi.

  19. Cancer and fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertini, Matteo; Del Mastro, Lucia; Pescio, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, thanks to the improvement in the prognosis of cancer patients, a growing attention has been given to the fertility issues. International guidelines on fertility preservation in cancer patients recommend that physicians discuss, as early as possible, with all patients...... of reproductive age their risk of infertility from the disease and/or treatment and their interest in having children after cancer, and help with informed fertility preservation decisions. As recommended by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society for Medical Oncology, sperm...... data have become available, and several issues in this field are still controversial and should be addressed by both patients and their treating physicians.In April 2015, physicians with expertise in the field of fertility preservation in cancer patients from several European countries were invited...

  20. Optimization of preservation activities and preservation engineering (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki; Mimaki, Hidehito; Oda, Mitsuyuki

    2004-01-01

    In order to deal with the optimization of preservation activities and 'preservation engineering' which makes it possible, the viewpoint and the approach of the optimization of the ex post facto preservation and the content to be possessed in 'preservation engineering' are described. The optimization of the ex post facto preservation is shown respectively in the four stages of planning, implementation, result evaluation and countermeasure. (K. Kato)

  1. Preservation of potatoes by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouani, A.; Boussaha, A.

    1987-01-01

    In Algeria, potatoes are a major food item in nutrition habits. Because of lack of cold storage facilities, losses can reach up to 40% of the total output of summer harvest. This paper describes the first experiments on the application of gamma irradiation for the preservation of local varieties of potatoes. Losses are strongly reduced by inhibition sprouting effect of irradiation and reduction of sugars content has no significant influence on the acceptability of irradiated potatoes

  2. Advanced Digital Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Giaretta, David

    2011-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the need to address the fragility of digital information, on which our society heavily depends for smooth operation in all aspects of daily life. This has been discussed in many books and articles on digital preservation, so why is there a need for yet one more? Because, for the most part, those other publications focus on documents, images and webpages -- objects that are normally rendered to be simply displayed by software to a human viewer. Yet there are clearly many more types of digital objects that may need to be preserved, such as databases, scientific da

  3. Ionization of food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    After general remarks on foods preservation, on international works and on ionization future prospects, main irradiation sources are described. Recalls on radioactivity, on radiation-matter interaction, on toxicology of ionized foods and on ionized foods detection are given. Ionization applications to various products are reviewed, especially in: - Poultry meat - Fishing products - Fresh fruits and vegetables - Dry fruits and vegetables - spices, tea, infusion - prepacked products... An evaluation of economics and sociocultural impacts is presented in connection with recent experiments [fr

  4. Radioactivity and food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references

  5. Central Puget Sound Ecopath/Ecosim model biological parameters - Developing food web models for ecosystem-based management applications in Puget Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is developing food web models for ecosystem-based management applications in Puget Sound. It is primarily being done by NMFS FTEs and contractors, in...

  6. Joint location, inventory, and preservation decisions for non-instantaneous deterioration items under delay in payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Yu-Chung

    2016-02-01

    This study models a joint location, inventory and preservation decision-making problem for non-instantaneous deteriorating items under delay in payments. An outside supplier provides a credit period to the wholesaler which has a distribution system with distribution centres (DCs). The non-instantaneous deteriorating means no deterioration occurs in the earlier stage, which is very useful for items such as fresh food and fruits. This paper also considers that the deteriorating rate will decrease and the reservation cost will increase as the preservation effort increases. Therefore, how much preservation effort should be made is a crucial decision. The objective of this paper is to determine the optimal locations and number of DCs, the optimal replenishment cycle time at DCs, and the optimal preservation effort simultaneously such that the total network profit is maximised. The problem is formulated as piecewise nonlinear functions and has three different cases. Algorithms based on piecewise nonlinear optimisation are provided to solve the joint location and inventory problem for all cases. Computational analysis illustrates the solution procedures and the impacts of the related parameters on decisions and profits. The results of this study can serve as references for business managers or administrators.

  7. A compilation of correlation parameters for predicting the enthalpy and thermal conductivity of solid foods within the temperature range of -40 C to +40 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amos, N.D. [Comvita New Zealand Limited, Private Bag 1, Te Puke 3153 (New Zealand); Willix, J.; North, M.F. [AgResearch Limited, MIRINZ Centre, Ruakura Campus, East Street, Private Bag 3123, Hamilton (New Zealand); Chadderton, T. [Crop and Food Research Ltd, PO Box 5114, Nelson (New Zealand)

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents thermal conductivity data for 40 foods, enthalpy data for 58 foods and density data for nine foods, along with the compositions of the foods. Measurements cover a range of solid food types (including meats, fats, offal, fish, dairy products and horticultural products). Some measurements reported are for foods that have never before been studied, others have been published elsewhere, but are included here for convenience. Thermal conductivity was measured using a guarded hot-plate apparatus, enthalpy using an adiabatic calorimeter and density using a water displacement meter. Thermal conductivity and enthalpy values were measured within the temperature range of -40 C to +40 C. (author) [French] Cette publication presente des donnes sur la conductivite thermique, l'enthalpie et la densite respectivement de 40, 58 et 9 produits alimentaires, ainsi que leurs compositions. Les mesures couvrent une variete de types de produits alimentaires (viande, matieres grasses, abats, poisson, produits laitiers, produits horticoles). Certaines sont rapportees pour des produits qui n 'ant jamais ete etudie auparavant, d'autres ant ete publie ailleurs mais sont aussi inclues pour plus de commodite. La conductivite thermique a ete mesure avec un appareil a plaque electrique protegee, l'enthalpie avec un calorimetre adiabatique et la densite avec un appareil mesurant Ie deplacement d'eau. La conductivite thermique et l'enthalpie ont ete toutes les mesures pour une fourchette de temperatures allant de -40 C a 40 C. (orig.)

  8. Integral-preserving integrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, D I; Quispel, G R W

    2004-01-01

    Ordinary differential equations having a first integral may be solved numerically using one of several methods, with the integral preserved to machine accuracy. One such method is the discrete gradient method. It is shown here that the order of the method can be bootstrapped repeatedly to higher orders of accuracy. The method is illustrated using the Henon-Heiles system. (letter to the editor)

  9. Preserve America News

    Science.gov (United States)

    phone number. Whether or not you're able to let us know ahead of time, however, we hope you can join us Amache Preservation Society in Colorado and the Friends of Mount Hope Cemetery in New York. This brings Places: Breathing New Life into Our Communities." Read about this informative session. National

  10. POLARISATION PRESERVING OPTICAL FIBRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    . This cladding structure provides polarisation preserving properties to the optical fibre. Optical fibres using this technology may have claddings with elements placed non-periodically as well as in a two-dimensional periodic lattice - such as cladding providing Photonic Band Gap (PBG) effects....

  11. Wood preservative testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Ibach; Stan T. Lebow

    2012-01-01

    Most wood species used in commercial and residential construction have little natural biological durability and will suffer from biodeterioration when exposed to moisture. Historically, this problem has been overcome by treating wood for outdoor use with toxic wood preservatives. As societal acceptance of chemical use changes, there is continual pressure to develop and...

  12. Preservation in New Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kitching

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In the United Kingdom (as in many other countries increasing attention is being paid to the importance of each library and archive having a written preservation strategy endorsed by its governing body. So increasingly we are asking: where does „preservation“ begin and what are its top priorities? Some would say preservation begins with the definition of collecting policies to ensure that only relevant items are acquired in the first place, and therefore that no unnecessary costs are incurred on the long-term care of unwanted and unconsulted items. Others might argue that the first priority must be the careful appraisal of existing holdings to determine their preservation and conservation requirements and to prioritise their treatment. Or should preservation begin with damage-limitation: restricting the physical handling of books and documents, on the one hand by providing whenever possible surrogate copies in digital formats or microform, and on the other hand by offering at least basic protection through appropriate boxing and packaging? This, surely, goes hand-in-hand with the education of staff and readers about the importance of treating rare or unique materials with proper respect.

  13. Preserving the Seminar Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, David; Evans, Jocelyn; Levy, Meyer

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a new approach to online graduate education. With hopes of recruiting a larger cohort in order to preserve a graduate program struggling with low enrollment, we began offering a limited number of seats to students who would attend class in real time but from remote locations, using a videoconferencing platform. Unlike…

  14. Food irradiation nears commercial development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    One person out of eight in the world today suffers from chronic undernourishment. This problem is likely to get worse as the world's population doubles during the next thirty to forty years. Since about 25% or more of our harvested food is lost due to various kinds of wastage and spoilage, food preservation is no less important than food production. To supply the world's demand for food, it is more reasonable to conserve what is produced than to produce more to compensate for subsequent losses. Thus, it is obvious that all methods of preserving food and agricultural produce should be examined to see if their use might alleviate the world's food shortage, and that to develop better and safer techniques of food preservation will improve food supplies. Food preservation is an ever greater problem for the developing countries, not only because of their chronic problems of undernourishment, but also because most of them are in tropical or sub-tropical regions where food spoilage is rapid. The IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) held a symposium on food irradiation at Colombo in Sri Lanka. The symposium paid special attention to the use of food irradiation in preserving tropical fruits as well as fish and fish products. It also examined the cost of the food irradiation process and compared it with those of conventional processes. Food irradiation is one field in which advance is most likely to be achieved through international co-operation. This co-operation has been supported by the IAEA and FAO in a number of ways. During the last 15 years three previous symposia (Karlsruhe, 1966; Bombay, 1972; Wageningen, 1977), numerous panel meetings, and training courses, have been held on this subject and many nations' food irradiation projects have been supported by technical assistance and co-ordinated research programmes

  15. DNA preservation in silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yawen; Zheng, Zhaozhu; Gong, He; Liu, Meng; Guo, Shaozhe; Li, Gang; Wang, Xiaoqin; Kaplan, David L

    2017-06-27

    The structure of DNA is susceptible to alterations at high temperature and on changing pH, irradiation and exposure to DNase. Options to protect and preserve DNA during storage are important for applications in genetic diagnosis, identity authentication, drug development and bioresearch. In the present study, the stability of total DNA purified from human dermal fibroblast cells, as well as that of plasmid DNA, was studied in silk protein materials. The DNA/silk mixtures were stabilized on filter paper (silk/DNA + filter) or filter paper pre-coated with silk and treated with methanol (silk/DNA + PT-filter) as a route to practical utility. After air-drying and water extraction, 50-70% of the DNA and silk could be retrieved and showed a single band on electrophoretic gels. 6% silk/DNA + PT-filter samples provided improved stability in comparison with 3% silk/DNA + filter samples and DNA + filter samples for DNA preservation, with ∼40% of the band intensity remaining at 37 °C after 40 days and ∼10% after exposure to UV light for 10 hours. Quantitative analysis using the PicoGreen assay confirmed the results. The use of Tris/borate/EDTA (TBE) buffer enhanced the preservation and/or extraction of the DNA. The DNA extracted after storage maintained integrity and function based on serving as a functional template for PCR amplification of the gene for zinc finger protein 750 (ZNF750) and for transgene expression of red fluorescence protein (dsRed) in HEK293 cells. The high molecular weight and high content of a crystalline beta-sheet structure formed on the coated surfaces likely accounted for the preservation effects observed for the silk/DNA + PT-filter samples. Although similar preservation effects were also obtained for lyophilized silk/DNA samples, the rapid and simple processing available with the silk-DNA-filter membrane system makes it appealing for future applications.

  16. Preserving information in neural transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincich, Lawrence C; Horton, Jonathan C; Sharpee, Tatyana O

    2009-05-13

    Along most neural pathways, the spike trains transmitted from one neuron to the next are altered. In the process, neurons can either achieve a more efficient stimulus representation, or extract some biologically important stimulus parameter, or succeed at both. We recorded the inputs from single retinal ganglion cells and the outputs from connected lateral geniculate neurons in the macaque to examine how visual signals are relayed from retina to cortex. We found that geniculate neurons re-encoded multiple temporal stimulus features to yield output spikes that carried more information about stimuli than was available in each input spike. The coding transformation of some relay neurons occurred with no decrement in information rate, despite output spike rates that averaged half the input spike rates. This preservation of transmitted information was achieved by the short-term summation of inputs that geniculate neurons require to spike. A reduced model of the retinal and geniculate visual responses, based on two stimulus features and their associated nonlinearities, could account for >85% of the total information available in the spike trains and the preserved information transmission. These results apply to neurons operating on a single time-varying input, suggesting that synaptic temporal integration can alter the temporal receptive field properties to create a more efficient representation of visual signals in the thalamus than the retina.

  17. Introduction to Innovative Food Processing and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Tokusoglu, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    Consumers, the food industry and the regulatory agencies demand the innovative technologies to provide safe and stable foods. Nonthermal processing technologies offer unprecedented opportunities and challenges for the food industry to market safe, high quality health-promoting foods. Those innovative food processing is often perceived as an alternative to thermal food processing, yet there are many nonthermal preparatory unit operations as well as food processing and preservation opportunitie...

  18. Need of Reactor Dosimetry Preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilieva, Krassimira

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear safety requirements and philosophy have changed by the development of new nuclear systems and this imposes special research and development activity. Reactor dosimetry which is applied for determination of neutron field parameters and neutron flux responses in different regions of the reactor system plays an important role in determining of radiation exposure on reactor system elements as reactor vessel, internals, shielding; dose determination for material damage study; for conditioning of irradiation; dose determination for medicine and industry application; induced activity determination for decommissioning purposes. The management of nuclear knowledge has emerged as a growing challenge in recent years. The need to preserve and transfer nuclear knowledge is compounded by recent trends such as ageing of the nuclear workforce, declining student numbers in nuclear related fields, and the threat of losing accumulated nuclear knowledge. (author)

  19. Radiation processing of food - safety and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Pratap

    2007-01-01

    Food is vital for human existence. Conservation and preservation of food is a prerequisite for food security and it provides economic stability and self-reliance to a nation. The need to preserve food has been felt by mankind since time immemorial. The seasonal nature of production, long distances between production and consumption centres and rising gap between demand and supply have made this need even more relevant today

  20. Preservation and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramiere, R.

    1991-01-01

    The paper reviews briefly the application of gamma radiation to preservation of cultural objects for disinsectization, disinfection and strengthening of materials such as wood or stone by impregnation with a liquid resin and in situ polymerization. As heavy equipment is required two facilities are specialized a 1000 T Bq cobalt 60 source at Grenoble (France) and 100 T Bq one at Rostoky (Czechoslovakia). Examples of treated objects are given [fr

  1. Fertility preservation 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Michel; Smitz, Johan; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced long-term survival rates of young women with cancer and advances in reproductive medicine and cryobiology have culminated in an increased interest in fertility preservation methods in girls and young women with cancer. Present data suggest that young patients with cancer should be referred for fertility preservation counselling quickly to help with their coping process. Although the clinical application of novel developments, including oocyte vitrification and oocyte maturation in vitro, has resulted in reasonable success rates in assisted reproduction programmes, experience with these techniques in the setting of fertility preservation is in its infancy. It is hoped that these and other approaches, some of which are still regarded as experimental (eg, ovarian tissue cryopreservation, pharmacological protection against gonadotoxic agents, in-vitro follicle growth, and follicle transplantation) will be optimised and become established within the next decade. Unravelling the complex mechanisms of activation and suppression of follicle growth will not only expand the care of thousands of women diagnosed with cancer, but also inform the care of millions of women confronted with reduced reproductive fitness because of ageing. PMID:25283571

  2. Grain preservation in SSSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trisviatski, L.A.

    1973-01-01

    First the importance of cereals collected in the S.S.S.R., the reason why the government had to put in practice a storage chain, composed of large capacity store houses (200 000 metric tonnes, or more) is reminded. When climatic conditions result in wet harvested grains, cereals are dried either in state enterprise dryers (32 to 50 tonnes/hour) or in kolkhozes' dryers (2 to 16 tonnes/hour). A new type of drying with recycling, has been developped, economizing 10 to 15 p. 100. Then the possibilities offered by the technique of partial drying of very wet grains are studied and the preservation processes using fresh ventilation, or hot ventilation with drying effect are described. The question of silage of wet grains destined to animal consumption is then examined as well as preservation by sodium pyrosulfide; the use of propionic acid, little developped in SSSR, is studied now, just as storage with inert gas. The struggle technics against insects, either with chemical agents, or with irradiation are described. Finally the modalities of technicians formation, specialized in preservation, are discussed [fr

  3. Food physics and radiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    In the lecture information is given about food physics, which is a rather new, interdisciplinary field of science, connecting food science and applied physics. The topics of radioactivity of foodstuffs and radiation techniques in the food industry are important parts of food physics detailed information will be given about the main fields (e.g. radio stimulation, food preservation) of radiation techniques in the agro-food sector. Finally some special questions of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in hungary and applicability of radioanalytical techniques (e.g. Inaa) for food investigation will be analyzed and discussed

  4. Novel approaches in food microbiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montijn, R.; Schuren, F.; Spek, H.D. van; Keijser, B.; Brul, S.

    2004-01-01

    The development of genomics technologies for guiding the predictive modeling of microorganism behavior to make food preservation treatments effective, are discussed. A fully genomewide description of cellular response to environmental conditions lies in the combination of a transcriptome and

  5. Smart storage technologies applied to fresh foods: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyu; Zhang, Min; Gao, Zhongxue; Adhikari, Benu

    2017-06-30

    Fresh foods are perishable, seasonal and regional in nature and their storage, transportation, and preservation of freshness are quite challenging. Smart storage technologies can online detection and monitor the changes of quality parameters and storage environment of fresh foods during storage, so that operators can make timely adjustments to reduce the loss. This article reviews the smart storage technologies from two aspects: online detection technologies and smartly monitoring technologies for fresh foods. Online detection technologies include electronic nose, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), hyperspectral imaging and computer vision. Smartly monitoring technologies mainly include some intelligent indicators for monitoring the change of storage environment. Smart storage technologies applied to fresh foods need to be highly efficient and nondestructive and need to be competitively priced. In this work, we have critically reviewed the principles, applications, and development trends of smart storage technologies.

  6. Training development for pavement preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This research project strives to help the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT) fully achieve the full benefits of pavement : preservation through training on proper selection, design, and application of pavement preservation treatments. In some ca...

  7. ACHP | Tribal Historic Preservation Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    preservation of significant historic properties. Those functions include identifying and maintaining Working with Section 106 Federal, State, & Tribal Programs Training & Education Publications Search skip specific nav links Home arrow Historic Preservation Programs & Officers arrow THPOs

  8. Food irradiation in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wet, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    The article indicates the necessity for additional methods of food preservation and emphasises that food irradiation is developing into an important method of food preservation because it has been proved scientifically and practically that food irradiation can be applied effectively; also that there is absolute certainty that radiation-processed products are safe and nutritious and that such food is acceptable to the consumer and food trade, also with a view to costs. It discusses the joint food irradiation programme of the AEB and Department of Agriculture and Fisheries and points out that exemption for the irradiation of potatoes was already obtained in 1977 and later for mango's, paw-paws, chicken, onions, garlic and strawberries. Conditional exemption was obtained for avocado's and dried bananas. Other food-kinds on which research is being continued are grapes, melons, mushrooms, stone fruit and spices

  9. Food irradiation in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wet, W J

    1982-01-01

    The article indicates the necessity for additional methods of food preservation and emphasises that food irradiation is developing into an important method of food preservation because it has been proved scientifically and practically that food irradiation can be applied effectively; also that there is absolute certainty that radiation-processed products are safe and nutritious and that such food is acceptable to the consumer and food trade, also with a view to costs. It discusses the joint food irradiation programme of the AEB and Department of Agriculture and Fisheries and points out that exemption for the irradiation of potatoes was already obtained in 1977 and later for mangos, paw-paws, chicken, onions, garlic and strawberries. Conditional exemption was obtained for avocado's and dried bananas. Other food-kinds on which research is being continued are grapes, melons, mushrooms, stone fruit and spices.

  10. Methods to preserve potentially toxigenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Costa Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are a source of many high-value compounds which are useful to every living being, such as humans, plants and animals. Since the process of isolating and improving a microorganism can be lengthy and expensive, preserving the obtained characteristic is of paramount importance, so the process does not need to be repeated. Fungi are eukaryotic, achlorophyllous, heterotrophic organisms, usually filamentous, absorb their food, can be either macro or microscopic, propagate themselves by means of spores and store glycogen as a source of storage. Fungi, while infesting food, may produce toxic substances such as mycotoxins. The great genetic diversity of the Kingdom Fungi renders the preservation of fungal cultures for many years relevant. Several international reference mycological culture collections are maintained in many countries. The methodologies that are most fit for preserving microorganisms for extended periods are based on lowering the metabolism until it reaches a stage of artificial dormancy . The goal of this study was to analyze three methods for potentially toxigenic fungal conservation (Castellani's, continuous subculture and lyophilization and to identify the best among them.

  11. Preservative treatments for building components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Lebow

    2007-01-01

    The wood species most commonly used in construction have little natural durability Thus, they are treated with preservatives when used in conditions that favor biodeterioration. The type of preservative used varies with the type of wood product, exposure condition, and specific agent of deterioration. This paper discusses the characteristics of several preservative...

  12. Ban irradiation of food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Hatijah bt; Gnanamuthu, E

    1986-12-31

    Irradiation of food has been promoted as a new technology in the preservation of food. Several countries have already introduced the technology for selected food items. However, there remain several questions that have yet to be answered. Foremost is the question of its safety. Proponents have argued that it is safe. Others cast doubts on these studies and the interpretations of their results. Second is the question of the nutritive value of the food that is irradiated. These and many other questions related to safety will be discussed in this paper

  13. Ban irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, Hatijah bt; Gnanamuthu, E.

    1985-01-01

    Irradiation of food has been promoted as a new technology in the preservation of food. Several countries have already introduced the technology for selected food items. However, there remain several questions that have yet to be answered. Foremost is the question of its safety. Proponents have argued that it is safe. Others cast doubts on these studies and the interpretations of their results. Second is the question of the nutritive value of the food that is irradiated. These and many other questions related to safety will be discussed in this paper

  14. Active food packaging technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Murat; Floros, John D

    2004-01-01

    Active packaging technologies offer new opportunities for the food industry, in the preservation of foods. Important active packaging systems currently known to date, including oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide emitters/absorbers, moisture absorbers, ethylene absorbers, ethanol emitters, flavor releasing/absorbing systems, time-temperature indicators, and antimicrobial containing films, are reviewed. The principle of operation of each active system is briefly explained. Recent technological advances in active packaging are discussed, and food related applications are presented. The effects of active packaging systems on food quality and safety are cited.

  15. Food processing with linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmer, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    The application of irradiation techniques to the preservation of foods is reviewed. The utility of the process for several important food groups is discussed in the light of work being done in a number of institutions. Recent findings in food chemistry are used to illustrate some of the potential advantages in using high power accelerators in food processing. Energy and dosage estimates are presented for several cases to illustrate the accelerator requirements and to shed light on the economics of the process

  16. Radium-226 in drinking water and terrestrial food chains: a review of parameters and an estimate of potential exposure and dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, A.P.; Etnier, E.L.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M.

    1983-04-01

    Environmental transport of 226 Ra from geological formations to drinking water and from soil to vegetation, meat and milk were quantitatively analyzed following a review of literature. Both natural and industrial sources were investigated. Particular attention was given to references specific for the phosphate-mining region of southwestern Florida. Literature sources have been interpreted to develop concentration factors describing terrestrial food-chain transport. Unweighted means and associated ranges of concentration factor values, representing averages of data collected over a variety of environmental conditions, soil types, and chemical forms, are also provided. Annual human exposure and 50-year dose commitments to bone, lung, liver, kidney and whole body were estimated by assuming mean concentration factors as well as annual food and water consumption rates

  17. Radium-226 in drinking water and terrestrial food chains: a review of parameters and an estimate of potential exposure and dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.; Etnier, E.L.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M.

    1983-04-01

    Environmental transport of /sup 226/Ra from geological formations to drinking water and from soil to vegetation, meat and milk were quantitatively analyzed following a review of literature. Both natural and industrial sources were investigated. Particular attention was given to references specific for the phosphate-mining region of southwestern Florida. Literature sources have been interpreted to develop concentration factors describing terrestrial food-chain transport. Unweighted means and associated ranges of concentration factor values, representing averages of data collected over a variety of environmental conditions, soil types, and chemical forms, are also provided. Annual human exposure and 50-year dose commitments to bone, lung, liver, kidney and whole body were estimated by assuming mean concentration factors as well as annual food and water consumption rates.

  18. Preserving the Manhattan Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    2014-03-01

    When future generations look back on the 20th century, few events will rival the harnessing of nuclear energy as a turning point in world history, science and society. Yet, the Department of Energy has not always embraced its Manhattan Project origins. The presentation will focus on the progress made over the last 20 years to preserve the properties and first-hand accounts that for decades have been threatened with demolition and indifference. Since the mid-1950s, most remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos National Laboratory had been abandoned. Among them was a cluster of wooden buildings called the ``V Site.'' This is where scientists assembled the ``Gadget,'' the world's first atomic device tested on July 16, 1945. Regardless of its significance, the ``V Site'' buildings like all the rest were slated for demolition. The Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) toured the properties in November 1998. Most could not believe that the world's first atomic bomb was designed in such humble structures. The properties were declared to be ``monumental in their lack of monumentality.'' A Save America's Treasures grant for 700,000 was awarded to restore the properties. To raise the required matching funds, I left the Federal government and soon founded the Atomic Heritage Foundation. The presentation will trace the progress made over the last decade to generate interest and support nationwide to preserve the Manhattan Project heritage. Saving both the physical properties and first-hand accounts of the men and women have been a priority. Perhaps our most significant achievement may be legislation now under consideration by Congress to create a Manhattan Project National Historical Park. Seventy years later, the Manhattan Project is finally getting the recognition it deserves.

  19. The relationships between sixteen perfluorinated compound concentrations in blood serum and food, and other parameters, in the general population of South Korea with proportionate stratified sampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Young; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Kang, Dong-Mug; Hwang, Yong-Sik; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2014-02-01

    Serum samples were collected from volunteers of various ages and both genders using a proportionate stratified sampling method, to assess the exposure of the general population in Busan, South Korea to perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). 16 PFCs were investigated in serum samples from 306 adults (124 males and 182 females) and one day composite diet samples (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) from 20 of the serum donors, to investigate the relationship between food and serum PFC concentrations. Perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid were the dominant PFCs in the serum samples, with mean concentrations of 8.4 and 13 ng/mL, respectively. Perfluorotridecanoic acid was the dominant PFC in the composite food samples, ranging from studies. We confirmed from the relationships between questionnaire results and the PFC concentrations in the serum samples, that food is one of the important contribution factors of human exposure to PFCs. However, there were no correlations between the PFC concentrations in the one day composite diet samples and the serum samples, because a one day composite diet sample is not necessarily representative of a person's long-term diet and because of the small number of samples taken. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fertility Preservation in Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennia Michaeli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Children that undergo treatment for cancer are at risk of suffering from subfertility or hormonal dysfunction due to the detrimental effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapeutic agents on the gonads. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue prior to treatment offers the possibility of restoring gonadal function after resumption of therapy. Effective counseling and management of pediatric patients is crucial for preserving their future reproductive potential. The purpose of this article is to review recent literature and to revise recommendations we made in a 2007 article. Pediatric hemato-oncology, reproductive endocrinology, surgery, anesthesia and bioethics perspectives are discussed and integrated to propose guidelines for offering ovarian cryopreservation to premenarcheal girls with cancer.

  1. Radiation preservation of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badshah, A.; Tasnim, A.; Khan, M.; Sattar, A.; Khan, I.

    1989-01-01

    The use of gamma irradiation for preservation of red hot pepper has been explained in report, as it can kill the harmful organisms without altering the organolpetic properties. The sample were dried and reduced to pass through 20 mesh. The samples were irradiated at different dose levels of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 KGy and results have been shown after different time intervals. Radiation and packaging treatments resulted normaly no effect on the color of dry fruits. (A.B)

  2. Preserving Transactional Data

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Day Thomson

    2017-01-01

    This paper is an adaptation of a longer report commissioned by the UK Data Service. The longer report contributes to on-going support for the Big Data Network – a programme funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC). The longer report can be found at doi:10.7207/twr16-02. This paper discusses requirements for preserving transactional data and the accompanying challenges facing the companies and institutions who aim to re-use these data for analysis or research. It present...

  3. Development of radiation preservation technique in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongdi; Li Guixiang; Pang Mei

    1990-12-01

    The 60 Co radiation preservation technique which was used to preserve persimmons, green peppers and four varieties of apple was studied. Apples and persimmons were irradiated with 0.1 ∼ 0.7kGy and 0.1 ∼ 1.0kGy respectively, then they were stored under a constant environmental temperature. Green peppers were treated with heat, irradiated with low dose and stored at low temperature. After a certain time of storing, the results showed that the quality of irradiated groups was better than control group, and there was no difference of main nutrient components between the irradiated groups and the control group. Finally, the radiation processing does not cause radioactivity increasing and microelements decreasing in the food

  4. Mutual preservation of entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veitia, Andrzej; Jing, Jun; Yu, Ting; Wong, Chee Wei

    2012-01-01

    We study a generalized double Jaynes–Cummings (JC) model where two entangled pairs of two-level atoms interact indirectly. We show that there exist initial states of the qubit system so that two entangled pairs are available at all times. In particular, the minimum entanglement in the pairs as a function of the initial state is studied. Finally, we extend our findings to a model consisting of multi-mode atom–cavity interactions. We use a non-Markovian quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to obtain the steady-state density matrix for the qubits. We show that the multi-mode model also displays dynamical preservation of entanglement. -- Highlights: ► Entanglement dynamics is studied in a generalized double Jaynes–Cummings model. ► We show that for certain initial states, the atoms remain entangled at all times. ► We extend the results to the case of multi-mode atom–cavity interactions. ► The model suggest that indirect interaction may help to preserve entanglement.

  5. Food glowing with freshness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desautels, L.

    1984-01-01

    Irradiation is gaining ground as a food preservation technique in Canada. Some fears remain among members of the public about the safety of irradiated foods, but government standards are being met. Two radiation sources can be used in food irradiation: gamma radiation from a cobalt 60 source, or electrons from an accelerator. The radiation affects the DNA of cells within food such as potatoes, preventing sprouting. It also causes changes within lipids, producing an undesirable rancid flavour. As a result, radiation processing is used primarily on fruits, vegetables, cereals and lean meats. The dose required for preservation is around 0.3 kGy, but higher doses are required for sterilization: 1 to 10 kGy, or even as high as 50 kGy for complete sterilization

  6. Positivity Preserving Interpolation Using Rational Bicubic Spline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsul Ariffin Abdul Karim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the positivity preserving interpolation for positive surfaces data by extending the C1 rational cubic spline interpolant of Karim and Kong to the bivariate cases. The partially blended rational bicubic spline has 12 parameters in the descriptions where 8 of them are free parameters. The sufficient conditions for the positivity are derived on every four boundary curves network on the rectangular patch. Numerical comparison with existing schemes also has been done in detail. Based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, our partially blended rational bicubic spline is on a par with the established methods.

  7. Food problems and food irradiation, recent trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Food irradiation is to contribute to the stable security of foodstuffs which is the fundamental condition of human survival by improving the preservation of foodstuffs and food sanitation utilizing the biological effect due to irradiation. The research and development have been carried out internationally since 1950s, but after the safety declaration of irradiated foods in 1980 by the international organ concerned, the permission and practical use for foods in various foreign countries, the technology transfer to developing countries and so on have been advanced. At present, food irradiation is permitted in 38 countries, and the practical irradiation is carried out in 24 countries. In Japan, the irradiation of potatoes to prevent germination was permitted in 1972, and the practical irradiation on potatoes of yearly 15,000 t is carried out. In the near future, irradiated foods will appear in international foodstuff market, and Japan which imports foodstuffs must cope with them. Foodstuffs and the safety, food irradiation, the soundness of irradiated foods, food irradiation in various foreign countries and Japan, the trend of international organs and the criticism of food irradiation are reported. (K.I.)

  8. Normothermic perfusion: a new paradigm for organ preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Jens; Reddy, Srikanth; Coussios, Constantin; Pigott, David; Guirriero, Dino; Hughes, David; Morovat, Alireza; Roy, Debabrata; Winter, Lucy; Friend, Peter J

    2009-07-01

    Transplantation of organs retrieved after cardiac arrest could increase the donor organ supply. However, the combination of warm ischemia and cold preservation is highly detrimental to the reperfused organ. Our objective was to maintain physiological temperature and organ function during preservation and thereby alleviate this injury and allow successful transplantation. We have developed a liver perfusion device that maintains physiological temperature with provision of oxygen and nutrition. Reperfusion experiments suggested that this allows recovery of ischemic damage. In a pig liver transplant model, we compared the outcome following either conventional cold preservation or warm preservation. Preservation periods of 5 and 20 hours and durations of warm ischemia of 40 and 60 minutes were tested. After 20 hours preservation without warm ischemia, post-transplant survival was improved (27%-86%, P = 0.026), with corresponding differences in transaminase levels and histological analysis. With the addition of 40 minutes warm ischemia, the differences were even more marked (cold vs. warm groups 0% vs. 83%, P = 0.001). However, with 60 minutes warm ischemia and 20 hours preservation, there were no survivors. Analysis of hemodynamic and liver function data during perfusion showed several factors to be predictive of posttransplant survival, including bile production, base excess, portal vein flow, and hepatocellular enzymes. Organ preservation by warm perfusion, maintaining physiological pressure and flow parameters, has enabled prolonged preservation and successful transplantation of both normal livers and those with substantial ischemic damage. This technique has the potential to address the shortage of organs for transplantation.

  9. Preserving reptiles for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.; Zug, George R.; Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    What are voucher specimens and why do we collect them? Voucher specimens are animals and/or their parts that are deposited in a research museum to document the occurrence of a taxon at a specific location in space and time (Pleijel et al., 2008; Reynolds and McDiarmid, 2012). For field biologists, vouchers are the repeatable element of a field study as they allow other biologists, now and in the future, to confirm the identity of species that were studied. The scientific importance of a voucher specimen or series of specimens is that other people are afforded the opportunity to examine the entire animal and confirm or correct identifications. A photographic record is somewhat useful for recording the occurrence of a species, but such records can be insufficient for reliable confirmation of specific identity. Even if a photo shows diagnostic characters of currently recognized taxa, it may not show characters that separate taxa that may be described in the future. Substantial cryptic biodiversity is being found in even relatively well-known herpetofaunas (Crawford et al., 2010), and specimens allow researchers to retroactively evaluate the true diversity in a study as understanding of taxonomy evolves. They enable biologists to study the systematic relationships of populations by quantifying variation in different traits. Specimens are also a source of biological data such as behaviour, ecology, epidemiology, and reproduction through examination of their anatomy, reproductive and digestive tracts, and parasites (Suarez and Tsutsui, 2004). Preserving reptiles as vouchers is not difficult, although doing it properly requires care, effort, and time. Poorly preserved vouchers can invalidate the results and conclusions of your study because of the inability to confirm the identity of your study animals. Good science requires repeatability of observations, and the absence of vouchers or poorly preserved ones prevents such confirmation. Due to space restrictions, we are

  10. Polonium-210 and lead-210 in food and tobacco products: a review of parameters and an estimate of potential exposure and dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.

    1983-07-01

    Food-chain transport of Pb-210 and Po-210 from soil to edible plant parts and from animal feed to meat and milk were evaluated from a review of literature. The degree of transfer was characterized by estimating concentration factors (unweighted arithmetic means) as well as the transfer coefficients B/sub v/, B/sub r/ (unweighted geometric means, f/sub m/ and f/sub f/ (unweighted arithmetic means). Global dietary intake of Pb-210 and Po-210 was also summarized, and 50-year dose estimates to target organs calculated. The greatest estimated ingestion doses were those to populations with large dietary complements of animal protein in the form of seafood (Japan) or caribou/reindeer muscle and organ meats (Arctic Eskimos and Lapps). The magnitude of this latter source illustrates the importance of simple food chains in generating significant exposures to populations dependent upon them. The origin and magnitude of inhalation exposure and dose from tobacco products was also assessed. For the majority of internal organs evaluated, the dose resulting from smoking commercially available tobacco products is comparable to or greater than the dose estimates for ingestion of naturally occurring dietary Pb-210 and Po-210.

  11. Polonium-210 and lead-210 in food and tobacco products: a review of parameters and an estimate of potential exposure and dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, A.P.

    1983-07-01

    Food-chain transport of Pb-210 and Po-210 from soil to edible plant parts and from animal feed to meat and milk were evaluated from a review of literature. The degree of transfer was characterized by estimating concentration factors (unweighted arithmetic means) as well as the transfer coefficients B/sub v/, B/sub r/ (unweighted geometric means, f/sub m/ and f/sub f/ (unweighted arithmetic means). Global dietary intake of Pb-210 and Po-210 was also summarized, and 50-year dose estimates to target organs calculated. The greatest estimated ingestion doses were those to populations with large dietary complements of animal protein in the form of seafood (Japan) or caribou/reindeer muscle and organ meats (Arctic Eskimos and Lapps). The magnitude of this latter source illustrates the importance of simple food chains in generating significant exposures to populations dependent upon them. The origin and magnitude of inhalation exposure and dose from tobacco products was also assessed. For the majority of internal organs evaluated, the dose resulting from smoking commercially available tobacco products is comparable to or greater than the dose estimates for ingestion of naturally occurring dietary Pb-210 and Po-210

  12. Effect of food azo dyes tartrazine and carmoisine on biochemical parameters related to renal, hepatic function and oxidative stress biomarkers in young male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, K A; Abdel Hameid, H; Abd Elsttar, A H

    2010-10-01

    Tartrazine and carmoisine are an organic azo dyes widely used in food products, drugs and cosmetics. The present study conducted to evaluate the toxic effect of these coloring food additives; on renal, hepatic function, lipid profile, blood glucose, body-weight gain and biomarkers of oxidative stress in tissue. Tartrazine and carmoisine were administered orally in two doses, one low and the other high dose for 30 days followed by serum and tissue sample collection for determination of ALT, AST, ALP, urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose in serum and estimation of GSH, catalase, SOD and MDA in liver tissue in male albino rat. Our data showed a significant increase in ALT, AST, ALP, urea, creatinine total protein and albumin in serum of rats dosed with tartrazine and carmoisine compared to control rats and these significant change were more apparent in high doses than low, GSH, SOD and Catalase were decreased and MDA increased in tissue homogenate in rats consumed high tartrazine and both doses of carmoisine. We concluded that tartrazine and carmoisine affect adversely and alter biochemical markers in vital organs e.g. liver and kidney not only at higher doses but also at low doses. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultrasensitive, simple and solvent-free micro-assay for determining sulphite preservatives (E220-228) in foods by HS-SDME and UV-vis micro-spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Otero, E; Costas, M; Lavilla, I; Bendicho, C

    2014-03-01

    A new method based on headspace single-drop microextraction in combination with UV-vis micro-spectrophotometry has been developed for the ultrasensitive determination of banned sulphite preservatives (E220-228) in fruits and vegetables. Sample acidification was used for SO2 generation, which is collected onto a 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) microdrop for spectrophotometric measurement. A careful study of this reaction was necessary, including conditions for SO2 generation from different sulphating salts, drop pH, 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) concentration and potential interference effects. Variables influencing mass transfer (stirring, sample volume and addition of salt) and microextraction time were also studied. A simple sulphite extraction was carried out, and problems caused by oxidation during the extraction process were addressed. A high enrichment factor (380) allows the determination of low levels of free SO2 in fruits and vegetables (limit of detection 0.06 μg g(-1), limit of quantification 0.2 μg g(-1)) with an adequate precision (repeatability, relative standard deviation 5 %). In addition, the sulphiting process was studied through the monitoring of residual SO2 in a vegetal sample, thus showing the importance of a sensitive tool for SO2 detection at low levels.

  14. Commercial implementation of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welt, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent positive developments in regulatory matters involving food irradiation appear to be opening the door to commercial implementation of the technology. Experience gained over five years in operating multi-purpose food irradiation facilities in the United States have demonstrated the technical and economic feasibility of the radiation preservation of food for a wide variety of purposes. Public education regarding food irradiation has been intensified especially with the growing favorable involvement of food trade associations, the USDA, and the American Medical Association. After 41 years of development effort, food irradiation will become a commercial reality in 1985. (author)

  15. Plasma Technology as a New Preservation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, R.; Calzada, M. D.

    The preliminary results of using the surface wave discharge at the atmospheric pressure on groups of lentils and sherry Fino wine samples are presented. In this research, the capability of active species and UV radiation from the plasma, has been assessed on preservation of food. Besides, the generation and emission of both excited molecules in a metastable state N2}(B3Π {g-> A3}Σ u{+) and the de-excitation of species NO(A2}Σ {+) producing UV radiation have been also studied.

  16. Radiation preservation of fruits and vegetables in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Ismail.

    1975-01-01

    The storage problem of fruits and vegetables is explained. The effect of gamma radiation on storage properties, organoleptic characteristics and chemical constituents of various fruits and vegetables has been discussed. The wholesomeness and clearance of various irradiated products is reviewed and the cost economics of the radiation technology calculated. It is concluded that since the problem of food spoilage is acute in Pakistan, radiation technique should be used commercially for food preservation

  17. Topology-preserving quantum deformation with non-numerical parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukhadiev, Marat; Grigoryan, Suren; Lipacheva, Ekaterina

    2013-11-01

    We introduce a class of compact quantum semigroups, that we call semigroup deformations of compact Abelian qroups. These objects arise from reduced semigroup -algebras, the generalization of the Toeplitz algebra. We study quantum subgroups, quantum projective spaces and quantum quotient groups for such objects, and show that the group is contained as a compact quantum subgroup in the deformation of itself. The connection with the weak Hopf algebra notion is described. We give a grading on the -algebra of the compact quantum semigroups constructed.

  18. Fertility preservation in young cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Revel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of advances in treatment, almost 80% of children and adolescents who receive a diagnosis of cancer become long-term survivors. The increased survival rate of children and adolescents with cancer has resulted in a major interest in the long-term effects of cancer treatment on the possibility for future fertility. Currently established methods for the preservation of fertility are available only for pubertal males and females. Pubertal male cancer patients should be encouraged to freeze numerous sperm samples even when sperm count and motility are poor. In these cases, intracytoplasmic sperm injection is a powerful technique compared with intrauterine insemination since thawed sperm samples with poor parameters can produce relatively high fertilization rates resulting in normal pregnancies and deliveries. Married pubertal women should be proposed ovulation induction, follicular aspiration, and fertilization with husband sperm. Single women could benefit from vitrification of oocytes. This requires a delay of about 3 weeks in the commencement of chemotherapy to enable follicular growth. Fertility preservation for prepubertal patients is more of a problem. Young girls could be offered cryopreservation of gametes in the gonadal tissue. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue was suggested for fertility preservation for young boys, but this method is totally experimental and not currently offered. Discussing future fertility is part of the consultation of young female and male patients facing potentially gonadotoxic cancer therapy. It is the role of reproductive specialists to create various options in their laboratory to preserve fertility potential of cancer patients.

  19. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Provider Pocket Guides Provider Guides Fertility Preservation for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed ... Patient Pocket Guides Patient Guides Fertility Preservation for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed ...

  20. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ...

  1. 21 CFR 150.161 - Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams. 150.161 Section 150.161 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... karaya, gum tragacanth, algin (sodium alginate), sodium carboxymethylcellulose (cellulose gum...

  2. Supplement: Why Colour Foods? Colouring Food Products with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today, the food industry is the kitchen of the world. It has revolutionised nutrition. Never before have standards of purity, stability, and physiological harmlessness been as high as they are today. New raw materials and new methods of refining and preserving, however, often alter the natural appearance of fresh foods.

  3. Prevention of ischemia-reperfusion lung injury during static cold preservation by supplementation of standard preservation solution with HEMO2life® in pig lung transplantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorion, M; Polard, V; Favereau, F; Hauet, T; Zal, F; Fadel, E; Sage, E

    2017-10-25

    We describe the results of adding a new biological agent HEMO 2 life ® to a standard preservation solution for hypothermic static lung preservation aiming to improve early functional parameters after lung transplantation. HEMO 2 life ® is a natural oxygen carrier extracted from Arenicola marina with high oxygen affinity developed as an additive to standard organ preservation solutions. Standard preservation solution (Perfadex ® ) was compared with Perfadex ® associated with HEMO 2 life ® and with sham animals after 24 h of hypothermic preservation followed by lung transplantation. During five hours of lung reperfusion, functional parameters and biomarkers expression in serum and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. After five hours of reperfusion, HEMO 2 life ® group led to significant improvement in functional parameters: reduction of graft vascular resistance (p preservation improves early graft function after prolonged cold ischemia in lung transplantation.

  4. Bacteria and archaea communities in full-scale thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digesters treating food wastewater: Key process parameters and microbial indicators of process instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonyeob; Shin, Seung Gu; Han, Gyuseong; Koo, Taewoan; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2017-12-01

    In this study, four different mesophilic and thermophilic full-scale anaerobic digesters treating food wastewater (FWW) were monitored for 1-2years in order to investigate: 1) microbial communities underpinning anaerobic digestion of FWW, 2) significant factors shaping microbial community structures, and 3) potential microbial indicators of process instability. Twenty-seven bacterial genera were identified as abundant bacteria underpinning the anaerobic digestion of FWW. Methanosaeta harundinacea, M. concilii, Methanoculleus bourgensis, M. thermophilus, and Methanobacterium beijingense were revealed as dominant methanogens. Bacterial community structures were clearly differentiated by digesters; archaeal community structures of each digester were dominated by one or two methanogen species. Temperature, ammonia, propionate, Na + , and acetate in the digester were significant factors shaping microbial community structures. The total microbial populations, microbial diversity, and specific bacteria genera showed potential as indicators of process instability in the anaerobic digestion of FWW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ginger consumption enhances the thermic effect of food and promotes feelings of satiety without affecting metabolic and hormonal parameters in overweight men: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Muhammad S.; Ni, Yu-Ming; Roberts, Amy L.; Kelleman, Michael; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Objective Evidence suggests that ginger consumption has anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, glucose-sensitizing, and stimulatory effects on the gastrointestinal tract. This study assessed the effects of a hot ginger beverage on energy expenditure, feelings of appetite and satiety and metabolic risk factors in overweight men. Methods Ten men, age 39.1 ± 3.3 y and body mass index (BMI) 27.2 ± 0.3 kg/m2, participated in this randomized crossover study. Resting state energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry and for 6 h after consumption of a breakfast meal with or without 2 g ginger powder dissolved in a hot water beverage. Subjective feelings of satiety were assessed hourly using visual analog scales (VAS) and blood samples were taken fasted and for 3 h after breakfast consumption. Results There was no significant effect of ginger on total resting energy expenditure (P = 0.43) or respiratory quotient (P = 0.41). There was a significant effect of ginger on thermic effect of food (ginger vs control = 42.7 ± 21.4 kcal/d, P = 0.049) but the area under the curve was not different (P = 0.43). VAS ratings showed lower hunger (P = 0.002), lower prospective food intake (P = 0.004) and greater fullness (P = 0.064) with ginger consumption versus control. There were no effects of ginger on glucose, insulin, lipids, or inflammatory markers. Conclusions The results, showing enhanced thermogenesis and reduced feelings of hunger with ginger consumption, suggest a potential role of ginger in weight management. Additional studies are necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:22538118

  6. A comparative study of the effect on irradiation and chemical preservatives on fresh-cut mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasu, E.K.

    2011-01-01

    The quest for ready-to-eat fruits has resulted in cut-fruits such as pawpaw, watermelon and pineapple in the local market. However the safety and quality these products cannot be guaranteed due to the mode of preparation and packaging. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits are consumed, among other reasons, for their pleasant flavour. They are rich sources of vitamins A, B6 and C. Mango fruits are being increasingly processed into ready-to-eat products such as fresh-cut mango slices. These products have longer shelf life when properly preserved and, therefore, assure all year round availability of mango in different forms. In order to produce fresh-cut mango slices of acceptable quality, determination of the most appropriate stage of ripening of fruits for fresh-cut slices production should be known. This study determined the effects of irradiation and chemical preservatives on the safety and shelf life quality of fresh-cut mango products. The effects of gamma irradiation and chemical preservatives on physicochemical, microbiological and sensory qualities of fresh-cut mango products were evaluated. Questionnaires were administered to evaluate public perception of cut-fruits and irradiated foods. Well matured half-ripe with peel of green and a little yellow intact fruits were sampled for laboratory analysis using 2x2x5 factorial experiment. The fruits were sanitized, peeled and sliced into cubes and packaged in two sets of 30 PET jars. One set was subjected to various radiation dose levels (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5) kGy and a control. The second set was chemically preserved with various chemicals (sucrose, citric acid, sodium benzoate and a combination of these chemicals in equal proportions. The treated cut-mangoes were stored at 6 degrees Celsius and 10 degrees Celsius for 15 days and samples taken at 3 days interval for analysis. The pH, titratable acidity (TTA), vitamins C content, total soluble solids (TSS), microbial quality and sensory evaluations were carried out

  7. Novel natural food antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Dwivedi, Hari P; Yan, Xianghe

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds could be applied as food preservatives to protect food quality and extend the shelf life of foods and beverages. These compounds are naturally produced and isolated from various sources, including plants, animals and microorganisms, in which they constitute part of host defense systems. Many naturally occurring compounds, such as nisin, plant essential oils, and natamycin, have been widely studied and are reported to be effective in their potential role as antimicrobial agents against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Although some of these natural antimicrobials are commercially available and applied in food processing, their efficacy, consumer acceptance and regulation are not well defined. This manuscript reviews natural antimicrobial compounds with reference to their applications in food when applied individually or in combination with other hurdles. It also reviews the mechanism of action of selected natural antimicrobials, factors affecting their antimicrobial activities, and future prospects for use of natural antimicrobials in the food industry.

  8. Pricing policy for declining demand using item preservation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedlekar, Uttam Kumar; Shukla, Diwakar; Namdeo, Anubhav

    2016-01-01

    We have designed an inventory model for seasonal products in which deterioration can be controlled by item preservation technology investment. Demand for the product is considered price sensitive and decreases linearly. This study has shown that the profit is a concave function of optimal selling price, replenishment time and preservation cost parameter. We simultaneously determined the optimal selling price of the product, the replenishment cycle and the cost of item preservation technology. Additionally, this study has shown that there exists an optimal selling price and optimal preservation investment to maximize the profit for every business set-up. Finally, the model is illustrated by numerical examples and sensitive analysis of the optimal solution with respect to major parameters.

  9. Preserving Employee Privacy in Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Paul E

    2017-07-01

    The proposed "Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act" states that the collection of information about the manifested disease or disorder of a family member shall not be considered an unlawful acquisition of genetic information. The bill recognizes employee privacy protections that are already in place and includes specific language relating to nondiscrimination based on illness. Why did legislation expressly intending to "preserve wellness programs" generate such antipathy about wellness among journalists? This article argues that those who are committed to preserving employee wellness must be equally committed to preserving employee privacy. Related to this, we should better parse between discussions and rules about commonplace health screenings versus much less common genetic testing.

  10. Radiation preservation and test marketing of fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhicheng, Xu; Dong, Cai; Fuying, He; Deyao, Zhao

    1993-07-01

    To develop the technology for radiation preservation of fruits and vegetables, many varieties of fruits and vegetables had been researched. Results showed that the low dose irradiation is useful to preservation of fruits and vegetables. On the besis of research, 1900 tons garlic, 950 tons onion, 500 tons potatoes, 710 tons apples and 1000 kg litchi had been irradiated in commercial scale. The quality control standards of irradiated garlic, onion and potato had been established and used for commercial scale irradiation. In order to collect consumers in store response to irradiated foods, a special counter was set up for selling irradiated apples in Nan Jing Road (W), Shanghai. 634 sheets of consumer in-store respense investigation forms have been returned and analysed. These results showed that when consumer understands the benefit of irradiation preservation such as higher quality, greater safety, longer shelf-live, wide product availability, or good prices for value, consumer would willingly buy irradiated food.

  11. Radiation preservation and test marketing of fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhicheng; Cai Dong; He Fuying; Zhao Deyao

    1993-01-01

    To develop the technology for radiation preservation of fruits and vegetables, many varieties of fruits and vegetables had been researched. Results showed that low dose irradiation is useful to preserve fruits and vegetables. On the basis of research, 1900 tons of garlic, 950 tons onion, 500 tons potatoes, 710 tons apples and 1000 kg litchi had been irradiated on a commercial scale. The quality control standards of irradiated garlic, onion and potato had been established and used for commercial scale irradiation. In order to collect consumers in-store response to irradiated foods, a special counter was set up for selling irradiated apples in Nan Jing Road (W), Shanghai. 634 sheets of consumer in-store response investigation forms have been returned and analysed. These results showed that when consumer understands the benefit of irradiation preservation such as higher quality, greater safety, longer shelf-life, wide product availability, or good prices for value, consumer would willingly buy irradiated food. (author)

  12. The influence of early life interventions on olfactory memory related to palatable food, and on oxidative stress parameters and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb of female adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noschang, Cristie; Krolow, Rachel; Arcego, Danusa M; Laureano, Daniela; Fitarelli, Luiza D; Huffell, Ana Paula; Ferreira, Andréa G K; da Cunha, Aline A; Machado, Fernanda Rossato; Wyse, Angela T S; Dalmaz, Carla

    2012-08-01

    The effects of neonatal handling and the absence of ovarian hormones on the olfactory memory related to a palatable food in adulthood were investigated. Oxidative stress parameters and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb of adult pre-puberty ovariectomized female rats handled or not in the neonatal period were also evaluated. Litters were non-handled or handled (10 min/day, days 1-10 after birth). Females from each litter were divided into: OVX (subjected to ovariectomy), sham, and intact. When adults, olfactory memory related to a palatable food (chocolate) was evaluate using the hole-board olfactory task. Additionally, oxidative stress parameters and Na+/K+-ATPase activity were measured in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. No difference between groups was observed considering olfactory memory evaluation. Neonatal handled rats presented an increase in Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the hippocampus and in the olfactory bulb, compared to non-handled ones. Considering the surgical procedure, there was a decrease in Na+/K+-ATPase and catalase activities in sham and OVX groups, compared to intact animals in the olfactory bulb. We concluded that olfactory memory related to a palatable food in adulthood was not affected by neonatal handling or by pre-puberty surgery, with or without removal of ovaries. The difference observed between groups in catalase and Na+/K+-ATPase activity does not seem to be related to the olfactory memory. Additionally, the increase in Na+/K+-ATPase activity (an enzyme that maintains the neurochemical gradient necessary for neuronal excitability) induced by neonatal handling may be related to neuroplastic changes in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb.

  13. Physiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    The physiological characteristics of man depend on the intake, metabolism and excretion of stable elements from food, water, and air. The physiological behavior of natural radionuclides and radionuclides from nuclear weapons testing and from the utilization of nuclear energy is believed to follow the pattern of stable elements. Hence information on the normal physiological processes occurring in the human body plays an important role in the assessment of the radiation dose received by man. Two important physiological parameters needed for internal dose determination are the pulmonary function and the water balance. In the Coordinated Research Programme on the characterization of Asian population, five participants submitted data on these physiological characteristics - China, India, Japan, Philippines and Viet Nam. During the CRP, data on other pertinent characteristics such as physical and dietary were simultaneously being collected. Hence, the information on the physiological characteristics alone, coming from the five participants were not complete and are probably not sufficient to establish standard values for the Reference Asian Man. Nonetheless, the data collected is a valuable contribution to this research programme

  14. Evaluation of fresh and preserved herbaceous field crops for biogas and ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakarinen, A

    2012-07-01

    In the future, various forms of bioenergy will be increasingly required to replace fossil energy. Globally, transportation uses almost one third of fossil energy resources, and it is thus of great importance to find ethically, economically, and environmentally viable biofuels in near future. Fieldgrown biomass, including energy crops and crop residues, are alternatives to supplement other non-food biofuel raw materials. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of five crops, maize (Zea mays L.), fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), faba bean (Vicia faba L.), white lupin (Lupinus albus L.), and Jerusalem artichoke (Heliantus tuborosus L.) cultivated in boreal conditions as raw materials for methane and ethanol. Climate, cultivation requirements, chemical composition, and recalcitrance are some of the parameters to be considered when choosing energy crops for cultivation and for efficient conversion into biofuels. Among the studied crops, protein-rich legumes (faba bean and white lupin) were attractive options for methane, while hemp and Jerusalem artichoke had high theoretical potential for ethanol. Maize was, however, equally suitable for production of both energy carriers. Preservation of crop materials is essential to preserve and supply biomass material throughout the year. Preservation can be also considered as a mild pretreatment prior to biofuel production. Ensiling was conducted on maize, hemp, and faba bean in this work and additionally hemp was preserved in alkali conditions. Ensiling was found to be most beneficial for hemp when converted to methane, increasing the methane yield by more than 50%, whereas preservation with urea increased the energy yield of hemp as ethanol by 39%. Maize, with a high content of water-soluble carbohydrates (20% of DM), required an acid additive in order to preserve the sugars. Interestingly, hydrothermal pretreatment for maize and hemp prior to methane production was less efficient than ensiling. Enzymatic hydrolysis

  15. Evaluation of presenting conserved foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asl Soleimani H

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Food, it's production and preserving has been one of the most important problems in human life. Limitation of production due to climatic, geographic and papulational situations and conservation due to providance and prosecting for solution of one of the most fundamental human needs, has been discussed much. Difference between the lands, temperature, humidity and rainfall on one hand and texture and accumulation of papulation on the other hand, not only has limited the amount and kind of food production but also has improved the preserving methods as much as possible. Extra production in fertile lands and confirmed need for receiving food in deserts and dry areas, makes the need of exchanging and transfer of food inevitable because of economic and ethical matters and sanitation of food. Avoidance of being contaminated and resistance against decay seems very important and vital. So process of preserving and conserving of eaw or cooked food became a fundamental problem. In previous 200 years, many advanced methods have been designed for preserving food in which the role of conserving and packing in vital often. Because of industrial production, conserved food have a great influence on sanitation of people nutrition, and herefor the rate of diseases from consumption of contaminated food has been reduced in industrial countries and the tensancy of people to use conventional food has been decreased gradually. Because of high cost of industrial conserved food production some people produce conserved foods in the way which is not hygienic. That may have a high risk when ingested. In this article we discuss about unwarranted conserved foods productions.

  16. Preservation technologies for fresh meat - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G H; Xu, X L; Liu, Y

    2010-09-01

    Fresh meat is a highly perishable product due to its biological composition. Many interrelated factors influence the shelf life and freshness of meat such as holding temperature, atmospheric oxygen (O(2)), endogenous enzymes, moisture, light and most importantly, micro-organisms. With the increased demand for high quality, convenience, safety, fresh appearance and an extended shelf life in fresh meat products, alternative non-thermal preservation technologies such as high hydrostatic pressure, superchilling, natural biopreservatives and active packaging have been proposed and investigated. Whilst some of these technologies are efficient at inactivating the micro-organisms most commonly related to food-borne diseases, they are not effective against spores. To increase their efficacy against vegetative cells, a combination of several preservation technologies under the so-called hurdle concept has also been investigated. The objective of this review is to describe current methods and developing technologies for preserving fresh meat. The benefits of some new technologies and their industrial limitations is presented and discussed.

  17. [Determination of deuterium concentration in foods and influence of water with modified isotopic composition on oxidation parameters and heavy hydrogen isotopes content in experimental animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basov, A A; Bykov, I M; Baryshev, M G; Dzhimak, S S; Bykov, M I

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of the study of the deuterium (D) content in food products as well as the influence of deuterium depleted water (DDW) on the concentration of heavy hydrogen isotopes in the blood and lyophilized tissues of rats. The most significant difference in the content of D was found between potato and pork fat, which indexes the standard delta notation (δ) D in promille, related to the international standard SMOW (Standard Mean Ocean of Water) amounted to -83,2 per thousand and -250,7 per thousand, respectively (phydrogen atoms in the body. The data obtained in the experimental modeling of the diet of male Wistar rats in the age of 5-6 mo (weight 235 ± 16 g) using DDW (δD = -743,2 per thousand) instead of drinking water (δD = -37,0 per thousand) with identical mineral composition showed that after 2 weeks significant (p tissue") is due to different rates ofisotopic exchange reactions in plasma and tissues (liver, kidney, heart), which can be explained by entering into the composition of a modified diet of organic substrates with more than DDW concentration D, which are involved in the construction of cellular structures and eventually lead to a redistribution of D and change direction of D/H gradient "plasmafood consumed by the population, and if

  18. Preservation of stability and synchronization in nonlinear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Anaya, G. [Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Iberoamericana, Prol. Paseo de la Reforma 880, Lomas de Santa Fe, Mexico, D.F. 01210 (Mexico)], E-mail: guillermo.fernandez@uia.mx; Flores-Godoy, J.J. [Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Iberoamericana, Prol. Paseo de la Reforma 880, Lomas de Santa Fe, Mexico, D.F. 01210 (Mexico)], E-mail: job.flores@uia.mx; Femat, R. [Division de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas Computacionales, IPICyT, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a. seccion, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi 78216 (Mexico)], E-mail: rfemat@ipicyt.edu.mx; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.J. [Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Mexico, D.F. 09340 (Mexico)], E-mail: jjar@xanum.uam.mx

    2007-11-12

    Preservation of stability in the presence of structural and/or parametric changes is an important issue in the study of dynamical systems. A specific case is the synchronization of chaos in complex networks where synchronization should be preserved in spite of changes in the network parameters and connectivity. In this work, a methodology to establish conditions for preservation of stability in a class of dynamical system is given in terms of Lyapunov methods. The idea is to construct a group of dynamical transformations under which stability is retained along certain manifolds. Some synchronization examples illustrate the results.

  19. Preservation of stability and synchronization in nonlinear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Anaya, G.; Flores-Godoy, J.J.; Femat, R.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Preservation of stability in the presence of structural and/or parametric changes is an important issue in the study of dynamical systems. A specific case is the synchronization of chaos in complex networks where synchronization should be preserved in spite of changes in the network parameters and connectivity. In this work, a methodology to establish conditions for preservation of stability in a class of dynamical system is given in terms of Lyapunov methods. The idea is to construct a group of dynamical transformations under which stability is retained along certain manifolds. Some synchronization examples illustrate the results

  20. Sheep milk yogurt from a short food supply chain: study of the microbiological, chemico-physical and organoleptic parameters in relation to shelf-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicla Marri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this work was to analyse some microbiological, chemico-physical and organoleptic parameters of sheep milk yogurt during and after its declared shelf-life. Five samples of a sheep’s milk yogurt of the same lot, collected from a short supply chain ovine dairy farm of the Roman province, were analysed. Declared shelf-life of the product was 30 days. The products were examined at 2, 14, 30, 35 and 40 days from the production date, performing the following microbiological analyses: enumeration of i colony-forming units characteristic of the yogurt, ii Enterobacteriaceae, iii yeasts and/or moulds at 25°C. Microbiological identification was performed by miniature biochemical tests and for the lactic acid bacteria also by PCR. At every test interval, evaluation of organoleptic parameters and pH was also performed. The analysed product maintained an almost constant amount of lactic acid bacteria until the end of the declared shelf-life. Concerning lactic acid bacteria, a 100% concordance of the results observed by using biochemical identification methods and PCR assays was obtained. After 14 days from the production, the presence of yeasts (Candida famata was revealed, while the presence of moulds was detected after 30 days. Ralstonia picketii, an environmental microorganism, was also isolated. The results obtained in this study indicate that yogurt spoilage is mainly due to the growth of specific microorganisms of spoilage, such as yeasts and moulds.

  1. Robust Discontinuity Preserving Optical Flow Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Monzón

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present an implementation of discontinuity-preserving strategies in TV-L1 optical flow methods. These are based on exponential functions that mitigate the regularization at image edges, which usually provide precise flow boundaries. Nevertheless, if the smoothing is not well controlled, it may produce instabilities in the computed motion fields. We present an algorithm that allows three regularization strategies: the first one uses an exponential function together with a TV process; the second one combines this strategy with a small constant that ensures a minimum isotropic smoothing; the third one is a fully automatic approach that adapts the diffusion depending on the histogram of the image gradients. The last two alternatives are aimed at reducing the effect of instabilities. In the experiments, we observe that the pure exponential function is highly unstable while the other strategies preserve accurate motion contours for a large range of parameters.

  2. Nuclear knowledge preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettencourt, Marcia Pires da Luz

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear technology has encouraged the world development and brought a number of benefits to society. These benefits occurred in important social sectors such as Agriculture, Industry, Health Sciences, Environmental Sciences and the production of energy. The research in the nuclear area is justified, accordingly, as an important factor for science development, technology and innovation. Despite the importance of nuclear energy, there is a collapse in the generation, transmission and sharing of nuclear knowledge. The threat of regression in this area is evidenced by the difficulty of generating new knowledge and practices regarding the maintenance of some critical areas. This project focuses its attention on studying, specifically, the lack of young engineers and technical professionals to replace the older, considered this, an alarming situation. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and record the key skills of experienced workers, through a set of tools to elicitation (capture) this knowledge, as expertise is mainly with people, and is lost when they leave the organization. Against, the Knowledge Management provides methodologies for the process of stimulating the creation, collection and knowledge dissemination process, in order to achieve strategic objectives. This study aims to contribute to the building of a model for the Brazilian nuclear knowledge preservation and, therefore, contributes to the maintenance and innovation of activities in this area. (author)

  3. Bacterial food-borne pathogens in Indian food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandekar, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Food technology and food processing techniques have made tremendous advances in preservation of food and ensuring safety of food by killing food-borne pathogens. In addition to old techniques such as pasteurization, canning, dehydration, fermentation and salting, a number of new techniques such as radiation processing, high pressure technology and pulsed electric field technology are being applied for preservation of food and to ensure food safety. Total Quality Management (TQM) concepts have been developed to take care of food safety from farm to table. Hazard Analysis at Critical Control Points (HACCP) is being applied for mass scale production of food to make food free from pathogens. Despite these advances, food-borne diseases have become one of the most widespread public health problems in the world. About two thirds of all the outbreaks are traced to microbial contaminated food. According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, food-borne and waterborne diarrhoeal diseases kill an estimated 2 million people annually, including many children. Food safety is a major concern not only for developing countries but also for the developed countries. A number of factors such as emergence of new food-borne pathogens, development of drug resistance in pathogens, changing life style, globalization of the food supply etc. are responsible for the continuous persistence of food-borne diseases. The food-borne disease outbreaks due to E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and Campylobacter, are responsible for recall of many foods resulting in heavy losses to food industry. Due to consumer demand, a number of Ready-To-Eat (RTE) minimally processed foods are increasingly marketed; however, there is increased risk of foodborne diseases with these products. Food Technology Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, has been working on food-borne bacterial pathogens particularly Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio and Aeromonasf

  4. User Experience and Heritage Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfield, Steven J.; Chapman, J. Wesley; Davis, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    In considering the heritage preservation of higher education campus buildings, much of the attention gravitates toward issues of selection, cost, accuracy, and value, but the model for most preservation projects does not have a clear method of achieving the best solutions for meeting these targets. Instead, it simply relies on the design team and…

  5. Effect of tartarate and citrate based food additives on the micellar properties of sodium dodecylsulfate for prospective use as food emulsifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banipal, Tarlok S; Kaur, Harjinder; Kaur, Amanpreet; Banipal, Parampaul K

    2016-01-01

    Citrate and tartarate based food preservatives can be used to enhance the emulsifying properties of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) based micellar system and thus making it appropriate for food applications. Exploration of interactions between the two species is the key constraint for execution of such ideas. In this work various micellar and thermodynamic parameters of SDS like critical micellar concentration (CMC), standard Gibbs free energy of micellization (ΔG(0)mic.) etc. have been calculated in different concentrations of disodium tartarate (DST) and trisodium citrate (TSC) in the temperature range (288.15-318.15)K from the conductivity and surface tension measurements. The parameters obtained from these studies reveal the competitive nature of both the additives with SDS for available positions at the air/water interface. TSC is found to be more effective additive in order to make SDS micellar system better for its potential applications as food emulsifier. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Status of food irradiation in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, M.; Sattar, A.; Khan, I.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation preservation of various foods was studied. Optimum radiation-doses were established for controlling insect infestation, reducing microbial spoilage, extending storage life, delaying ripening of fresh fruits or vegetables and increasing nutritional value through sprouting of seeds. Influence of radiation physico-chemical properties and nutrients as well as antinutrients of foods was studied. Technical feasibility of radiation preservation of several food materials was established. Commercial trials on radiation preservation of potatoes were completed and cost economics calculated. The results of these findings have briefly been described. (authors)

  7. Pulsed Electric Field treatment of packaged food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, B.

    2011-01-01

    Food manufacturers are looking for new preservation techniques that don’t influence the fresh-like characteristics of products. Non-thermal pasteurisation of food with Pulsed Electric Fields (often referred to as PEF) is an emerging technology, where the change of the food is less than with thermal

  8. Current applications of probiotic foods in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... Natural Food Preservation Systems. In: Wood BJB (Ed). The Lactic. Acid Bacteria. Vol. 1 Elsevier Science Publishers, London. FAO/WHO (2001).Health and nutritional properties of probiotics in food including powder milk with live Lactic acid bacteria. Cordoba,. Argentina: Food and Agriculture Organization ...

  9. ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE FROM PROCESSING AND PRESERVING OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLES

    OpenAIRE

    APOSTOL CIPRIAN

    2017-01-01

    Given that the world population is increasing continuously in recent years, and natural resources are becoming increasingly scarce, ensuring healthy food problem is a global challenge. Nutritional value, palatability, and high degree of assimilation by the body makes fruits and vegetables are recommended and widely used in food, both fresh and preserved. The study aims at comparing the activity of manufacturing fruit and vegetable juices with the processing and preservation of ...

  10. Development and validation of a stochastic model for potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in naturally contaminated lightly preserved seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Bøknæs, Niels; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-01-01

    added acetic and/or lactic acids. The stochastic model was developed from an existing deterministic model including the effect of 12 environmental parameters and microbial interaction (O. Mejlholm and P. Dalgaard, Food Microbiology, submitted for publication). Observed maximum population density (MPD...... of the least and most preserved sample of CSGH and CSS were used as input for the existing deterministic model. For both modelling approaches, it was shown that lag time and the effect of microbial interaction needs to be included to accurately predict MPD values of L. monocytogenes. Addition of organic acids...... to CSGH and CSS was confirmed as a suitable mitigation strategy against the risk of growth by L. monocytogenes as both types of products were in compliance with the EU regulation on ready-to-eat foods....

  11. Microbiological Spoilage of Canned Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evancho, George M.; Tortorelli, Suzanne; Scott, Virginia N.

    Nicolas Appert (1749-1841) developed the first commercial process that kept foods from spoiling in response to an offer from the French government for a method of preserving food for use by the army and navy. Appert, a confectioner and chef, began to experiment in his workshop in Massy, near Paris, but since little was known about bacteriology and the causes of spoilage (Louis Pasteur had yet to formulate the germ theory), much of his work involved trial and error. In 1810, after years of experimenting, he was awarded the prize of 12,000 francs for his method of preservation, which involved cooking foods in sealed jars at high temperatures. He described his method of preserving food in a book published in 1811, "L'Art De Conserver, Pendant Plusiers Annes, Toutes les Substances Animales et Végétales," which translated means "The Art of Preserving All Kinds of Animal and Vegetable Substances for Several Years." He later built a bottling factory and began to produce preserved foods for the people of France and is credited with being the "Father of Canning."

  12. Radioactivity and foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszyna Marzys, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food-on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods. 14 refs, 4 tabs

  13. Radioactivity and foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods

  14. Irradiation of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Although irradiation is being investigated for the last more than 50 years for the application in preservation of food, it has not yet been exploited commercially in some countries like India. No other food processing technique has undergone such close scrutiny. There are many advantages to this process, which few others can claim. The temperature remains ambient during the process and the form of the food does not change resulting in very few changes in the sensory and nutritive quality of the food product. At the same time the microorganisms are effectively destroyed. Most of the spoilage and pathogenic organisms are sensitive to irradiation. Fortunately, most governments are supportive for the process and enacting laws permitting the process for foods

  15. The contribution of food irradiation to food safety and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeferstein, F.K.

    1992-01-01

    One of the objectives of the World Health Organization (WHO) is to assist efforts throughout the world to provide safe and nutritious food supplies. However, the safety and nutritional quality, as well as the mere availability of our food, is constantly threatened by contamination, infestation and deterioration. The most recent addition to the list of food preserving methods is irradiation, i.e., processing of food to carefully measured amounts of ionizing radiation. The paper will highlight the contribution this technology is expected to make with regard to the prevention of foodborne diseases and food losses. (orig.) [de

  16. Food-drug interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars E; Dalhoff, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Interactions between food and drugs may inadvertently reduce or increase the drug effect. The majority of clinically relevant food-drug interactions are caused by food-induced changes in the bioavailability of the drug. Since the bioavailability and clinical effect of most drugs are correlated......, the bioavailability is an important pharmacokinetic effect parameter. However, in order to evaluate the clinical relevance of a food-drug interaction, the impact of food intake on the clinical effect of the drug has to be quantified as well. As a result of quality review in healthcare systems, healthcare providers...... are increasingly required to develop methods for identifying and preventing adverse food-drug interactions. In this review of original literature, we have tried to provide both pharmacokinetic and clinical effect parameters of clinically relevant food-drug interactions. The most important interactions are those...

  17. C2-rational cubic spline involving tension parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    preferred which preserves some of the characteristics of the function to be interpolated. In order to tackle such ... Shape preserving properties of the rational (cubic/quadratic) spline interpolant have been studied ... tension parameters which is used to interpolate the given monotonic data is described in. [6]. Shape preserving ...

  18. Modelling microbial interactions and food structure in predictive microbiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malakar, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: modelling, dynamic models, microbial interactions, diffusion, microgradients, colony growth, predictive microbiology.

    Growth response of microorganisms in foods is a complex process. Innovations in food production and preservation techniques have resulted in adoption of

  19. Contamination versus preservation of cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Moesby, Lise; Zachariae, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Cosmetics with high water content are at a risk of being contaminated by micro-organisms that can alter the composition of the product or pose a health risk to the consumer. Pathogenic micro-organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are frequently found in contaminated...... cosmetics. In order to avoid contamination of cosmetics, the manufacturers add preservatives to their products. In the EU and the USA, cosmetics are under legislation and all preservatives must be safety evaluated by committees. There are several different preservatives available but the cosmetic market...

  20. Food irradiation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Ghazali Hj Abd Rahman.

    1985-01-01

    Food irradiation has recently been visited as a technology that can contribute to the solution of problems associated with food preservation of Malaysia's agriculture produce and products thereby improving the economic status of the rural sector. However, the history of food irradiation in Malaysia is very recent. Research carried out on food irradiation only began in 1974 as a result of the installation of a 60 Co facility (initially 10,000 Ci) at the National University of Malaysia. Since its installation several studies have been carried out pertaining to the food irradiation. Presently its development has been slow. Research in this area has been confined to laboratory scale and purely academic. This limitation is due to a number of reasons, among others are: a) limited number of facilities; b) lack of expertise to conduct its research; c) other preservation methods can be improved with lower capital output. An important step towards its development was made when Malaysia actively participated in the RCA/IAEA food irradiation project, viz. the irradiation of pepper which was carried out at the National University of Malaysia in the 80's. As a result of this venture, research and development activities in food irradiation have been geared toward semi-plot scale with the view ot commercialization in the future. In 1982, a group of researchers was formed to conduct feasibility studies using irradiation techniques in trying to overcome several problems associated with our local paddy and rice. Another group is being organized by the National University of Malaysia to look into the problems associated with the preservation of frozen shrimps. (author)