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Sample records for food poisoning outbreak

  1. How Should Staphylococcal Food Poisoning Outbreaks Be Characterized?

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    Sylviane Dragacci

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most common food-borne diseases and results from the ingestion of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs preformed in food by enterotoxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus. To date, more than 20 SEs have been described: SEA to SElV. All SEs have superantigenic activity whereas only a few have been proved to be emetic, representing a potential hazard for consumers. Characterization of staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks (SFPOs has considerably progressed compared to 80 years ago, when staphylococci were simply enumerated and only five enterotoxins were known for qualitative detection. Today, SFPOs can be characterized by a number of approaches, such as the identification of S. aureus biovars, PCR and RT-PCR methods to identify the se genes involved, immunodetection of specific SEs, and absolute quantification by mass spectrometry. An integrated gene-to-protein approach for characterizing staphylococcal food poisoning is advocated.

  2. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Want to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  3. Further Evidence for Staphylococcal Food Poisoning Outbreaks Caused by egc-Encoded Enterotoxins

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    Sophia Johler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal food poisoning represents the most prevalent foodborne intoxication worldwide. It is caused by oral intake of enterotoxins preformed by Staphylococcus aureus in food. The relevance of newly described enterotoxins in outbreaks of staphylococcal food poisoning is controversially discussed. Although the staphylococcal enterotoxins SEG, SEI, SEM, SEN, and SEO elicit emesis in a monkey feeding assay, there has been no conclusive proof of their emetic activity in humans. In this study, we provide further evidence suggesting that one of these enterotoxins or a combination of SEG, SEI, SEM, SEN, and SEO cause staphylococcal food poisoning. We investigated two outbreaks registered with the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, in which only Staphylococcus aureus strains harboring the egc cluster, including seg, sei, sem, sen, and seo linked to typical signs of staphylococcal food poisoning were isolated. The outbreaks were caused by consumption of raw goat cheese and semi-hard goat cheese, and were linked to strains assigned to CC45 (agr type I and CC9 (agr type II, respectively. These outbreaks provide further evidence that newly-described staphylococcal enterotoxins are likely to cause staphylococcal food poisoning in humans.

  4. Further evidence for staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks caused by egc-encoded enterotoxins.

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    Johler, Sophia; Giannini, Petra; Jermini, Marco; Hummerjohann, Jörg; Baumgartner, Andreas; Stephan, Roger

    2015-03-20

    Staphylococcal food poisoning represents the most prevalent foodborne intoxication worldwide. It is caused by oral intake of enterotoxins preformed by Staphylococcus aureus in food. The relevance of newly described enterotoxins in outbreaks of staphylococcal food poisoning is controversially discussed. Although the staphylococcal enterotoxins SEG, SEI, SEM, SEN, and SEO elicit emesis in a monkey feeding assay, there has been no conclusive proof of their emetic activity in humans. In this study, we provide further evidence suggesting that one of these enterotoxins or a combination of SEG, SEI, SEM, SEN, and SEO cause staphylococcal food poisoning. We investigated two outbreaks registered with the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, in which only Staphylococcus aureus strains harboring the egc cluster, including seg, sei, sem, sen, and seo linked to typical signs of staphylococcal food poisoning were isolated. The outbreaks were caused by consumption of raw goat cheese and semi-hard goat cheese, and were linked to strains assigned to CC45 (agr type I) and CC9 (agr type II), respectively. These outbreaks provide further evidence that newly-described staphylococcal enterotoxins are likely to cause staphylococcal food poisoning in humans.

  5. An outbreak of staphylococcal food poisoning in a nursing hostel, Mysore, Karnataka

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    Madhu Basavegowda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To know the clinical profile of the students affected due to food poisoning, the possible source of infection and the causative agent for food poisoning. Background: Food-borne diseases due to microbial contamination of food, represent serious threat to the health of millions of people henceforth, we investigated into the outbreak of food poisoning in a nursing hostel of urban Mysore. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted using semi-structured questionnaire to gather information on regarding time and type of food item consumed, onset of symptoms, presenting symptoms, medical care provided and time taken for recovery. A case for the outbreak was defined as any person who had consumed lunch on 9/12/12 from the implicated kitchen and had experienced vomiting or diarrhea or pain abdomen or all the three symptoms within 24 hours of eating lunch. Results: Out of 171 inmates,46 people suffered from food poisoning within a period of 3 days,thus leading to the attack rate of 26.9%.Commonest symptom reported among the students was pain abdomen (26.9% followed by diarrhea. Highest risk of food poisoning was associated with consumption of "Kerala matta rice" This association was statistically significant with relative risk of 31.49 (95% CI 10.82-95.6. Samples of 'Kerala matta rice" was subjected to bacteriological analysis, which showed colonies of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions: In the present outbreak, the results of investigation revealed that 'Kerala matta rice' was the food item responsible for occurrence of food poisoning due to Staphylococcus. Environmental factors that could have played an important role in bacterial proliferation and enterotoxin production are manual handling of cooked rice by the food handlers and storage of the rice at room temperature for a long duration between time of preparation and consumption.

  6. Outbreak of food poisoning due to Salmonella typhimurium DT4 in mayonnaise.

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    Ortega-Benito, J M; Langridge, P

    1992-05-01

    In July 1989 a large outbreak of food poisoning (68 cases) occurred at a private club in Teddington (London Borough of Richmond-upon-Thames). Initial enquiries indicated that the peak of the outbreak occurred between 20th and 26th July. An epidemiological investigation (using self-completed questionnaires) was set up to determine the probable source of infection. Two groups among those exposed were selected: club staff (129), and cricket teams playing in a club tournament (105). Response rates were 89% and 64% respectively. Overall 50% (89) had gastrointestinal symptoms, including two hospital admissions. A highly significant association was found between illness and eating sandwiches containing mayonnaise. Microbiological investigations found Salmonella typhimurium DT4 in 36 of 68 faecal samples taken. This organism is not usually associated with food poisoning outbreaks. The probable source was identified as a flock of one of the egg suppliers.

  7. Outbreak of food poisoning caused by lactose-fermenting Salmonella tuebingen.

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    Dube, S D

    1983-04-01

    An outbreak of food poisoning occurred in a cafeteria and involved 102 student nurses. A lactose-fermenting strain of Salmonella tuebingen was isolated. The source was traced to the chicken consumed. Production of H2S was not evident on triple sugar iron but was detected on lysine iron agar. Therefore, the present report emphasizes the importance of bismuth sulfite agar and lysine iron agar for routine use in the isolation of salmonellae from stool.

  8. Outbreak of food poisoning caused by lactose-fermenting Salmonella tuebingen.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    An outbreak of food poisoning occurred in a cafeteria and involved 102 student nurses. A lactose-fermenting strain of Salmonella tuebingen was isolated. The source was traced to the chicken consumed. Production of H2S was not evident on triple sugar iron but was detected on lysine iron agar. Therefore, the present report emphasizes the importance of bismuth sulfite agar and lysine iron agar for routine use in the isolation of salmonellae from stool.

  9. Large outbreak of food poisoning caused by Salmonella typhimurium definitive type 49 in mayonnaise.

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    Mitchell, E; O'Mahony, M; Lynch, D; Ward, L R; Rowe, B; Uttley, A; Rogers, T; Cunningham, D G; Watson, R

    1989-01-14

    An investigation was conducted to determine the vehicle of infection of an outbreak of food poisoning in a large metropolitan building early in 1988. A questionnaire was distributed to 700 people who had eaten in the building during the week of the outbreak, and attack rates for specific food were calculated. Food and stool samples, environmental samples, and eggs and environmental swabs from the egg suppliers were examined microbiologically. Altogether 474 questionnaires were returned, 120 people reporting gastrointestinal illness. The illness was significantly associated with foods containing mayonnaise. Salmonella typhimurium definitive type 49 was isolated from 76 of the 84 stool samples containing salmonella and from five of the eight samples taken from the chicken house of the main egg supplier. Mayonnaise was probably the vehicle of infection, which was caused by S typhimurium definitive type 49.

  10. Salmonella Weltevreden food poisoning in a tea garden of Assam: An outbreak investigation

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    L Saikia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden has been a rare cause of acute gastroenteritis occurring worldwide. Here, we report an outbreak of food poisoning in a tea garden. Objectives: To determine the aetiological agent and risk factors responsible for the outbreak and to take necessary steps for prevention of future outbreaks. Materials and Methods: Affected area was visited by a team of microbiologists for collecting stool samples/rectal swabs from affected patients. Samples were processed by culture followed by confirmation of the isolates biochemically, automated bacterial identification system, conventional serotyping and molecular typing. Water samples were also processed for detection of faecal contamination. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion technique according to the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines. Results: The isolates were confirmed as S. enterica subspecies enterica serovar Weltevreden. They were found sensitive to ampicillin, amoxycillin-clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, co-trimoxazole and doxycycline. Water samples showed high-level faecal contamination. Source of outbreak was found to be drinking water contaminated with dead livestock. House to house visit was made for early diagnosis and treatment of the cases, awareness campaigning and chlorination of drinking water. Conclusions: This report emphasises the geographical distribution of this organism in Assam. As S. Weltevreden is widely distributed in domestic animals, people should be made aware of immediate reporting of any unusual death among the livestock and their safe disposal which can significantly reduce the incidence of non-typhoidal salmonellosis in the country.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus food-poisoning outbreak associated with the consumption of ice-cream.

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    Fetsch, A; Contzen, M; Hartelt, K; Kleiser, A; Maassen, S; Rau, J; Kraushaar, B; Layer, F; Strommenger, B

    2014-09-18

    In April 2013, a food poisoning outbreak caused by staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in ice-cream occurred in Freiburg, Germany, among the 31 participants of a christening party. Of the 13 cases, seven were hospitalized or obtained ambulatory treatment. Different types of ice-cream, which was freshly produced at the hotel where the party took place, were found to contain SE and high amounts of coagulase positive staphylococci. Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from ice-cream and human cases were of the same spa-type (t127), harboured the sea gene and displayed identical phenotypic resistance-, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy- (FT-IR) and microarray-profiles. Despite the strong microbiological and epidemiological evidence of ice-cream being the incriminated food vehicle of the outbreak, a common source of S. aureus from the ice-cream could not be deduced. As none of the employees carried the outbreak strain, either the equipment used for the production of the ice-cream or a contaminated ingredient is the most likely introduction source.

  12. An outbreak of food poisoning associated with restaurant-made mayonnaise in Abha, Saudi Arabia.

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    al-Ahmadi, K S; el Bushra, H E; al-Zahrani, A S

    1998-09-01

    In May 1996, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred among customers who bought dinner from a restaurant that specialised in fried chicken in Abha city, south-west Saudi Arabia. The median incubation period was 10 hours (range: 3 to 27 hours). Of the 10 food items served, only mayonnaise (RR 2.52; 95% CI 1.71-3.73) and minced garlic (RR 1.20; 95% CI 1.02-1.41) were associated with cases. Salmonella enterica was isolated from 124 (84%) of the 159 persons with symptoms of food poisoning, and 91 (73%) were serogroup Enteritidis, phage type B 14. Mayonnaise was prepared in the restaurant using a regular blender. Minced garlic was prepared with the same blender immediately after making the mayonnaise. Unsafe storage of the mayonnaise at room temperature for a median of 6 hours could have resulted in overgrowth of bacteria and a high infective dose of bacteria per serving.

  13. Bacteriological investigation of an outbreak of Clostridium perfringens food poisoning caused by Japanese food without animal protein.

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    Miwa, N; Masuda, T; Terai, K; Kawamura, A; Otani, K; Miyamoto, H

    1999-08-01

    An outbreak of Clostridium perfringens food poisoning occurred in a senior citizen's home in Japan. Japanese food, spinach boiled with fried bean curd, was considered to be the causative food as a result of the detection of the C. perfringens enterotoxin gene by nested PCR. The number of enterotoxin-positive C. perfringens was enumerated as 4.3 x 10(5)/g in the causative food by the MPN method combined with nested PCR. By cultivation, enterotoxin-positive C. perfringens was isolated from all the fecal specimens of patients tested and the causative food. The isolates from patients were serotypable, heat-resistant and the majority produced enterotoxin, however most isolates from the causative food were nonserotypable, enterotoxin-negative and heat-sensitive.

  14. Isolation, and virulence profiles, of Aeromonas hydrophila implicated in an outbreak of food poisoning in Sweden.

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    Krovacek, K; Dumontet, S; Eriksson, E; Baloda, S B

    1995-01-01

    A case of food poisoning outbreak involving Aeromonas hydrophila is reported in this study. A group of 27 people consumed a typical Swedish food "landgång" which is a type of smörgåsbord containing shrimps with mayonnaise, liver paté, ham, sausage, and legume salad which was purchased from a food store. Twenty-two of the 27 persons became ill within 20-34 hr of consumption of the food and reported the symptoms ranging from severe acute diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, fever and vomiting. One person also fainted. The symptoms lasted for a couple of days. Of the remaining 5 healthy persons who consumed the left-over food the next day, 2 became ill with similar symptoms. The bacteriological examination of left-over food samples resulted in the isolation of A. hydrophila from shrimps with mayonnaise, smoked sausage, liver paté and boiled ham. The total number of A. hydrophila in these foods were log 10(6) to log > 10(7) organisms per gram of food sample. A. hydrophila was however, not isolated from legume/mayonnaise salad samples. All the food samples tested showed low numbers of other expected food contaminating organisms such as coliforms at 37 C and 44 C, fecal streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, fungi and yeast etc., while Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens and Salmonella spp. were not detected in the food samples. Investigations of the virulence profiles of the A. hydrophila isolates showed their capacity to produce beta-hemolysin, cytotoxins, cytotonic toxins, enterotoxins, and adhesion to and invasion of human intestinal (Henle 407) cells in culture.

  15. An outbreak of staphylococcal food poisoning in the Municipality of Passos, MG, Brazil

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    Carmo Luiz Simeão do

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of staphylococcal food poisoning involving 42 people who had eaten a meal at a restaurant in the Municipality of Passos, Minas Gerais, Brazil, is reported. Thirty-one of the individuals became ill with vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness within 30 minutes after eating the meal. The foods suspected were: chicken pancake, rice, beans, tomato sauce and mashed chick-peas. Large numbers (> 2.0x10(8 CFU/g of enterotoxigenic staphylococci were present in the chicken pancake. These strains produced enterotoxins A, B and D. Swabs from the nasal cavity and throat and from under the fingernails of food handlers were cultured for the detection of enterotoxigenic staphylococci carriers. Four out of five of them were healthy carriers of enterotoxin A, B, C and D producing Staphylococcus aureus at the sites cultured and one of them was also a nasal carrier of TSST-1 toxin producing S. aureus. These results indicate that the food handlers would have been the source of the food contamination.

  16. Food Poisoning

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    ... liver disease or AIDS — or receiving chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer reduces your immune response. Complications The most common serious complication of food poisoning is dehydration — a severe loss of water and ...

  17. Globalization, binational communities, and imported food risks: results of an outbreak investigation of lead poisoning in Monterey County, California.

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    Handley, Margaret A; Hall, Celeste; Sanford, Eric; Diaz, Evie; Gonzalez-Mendez, Enrique; Drace, Kaitie; Wilson, Robert; Villalobos, Mario; Croughan, Mary

    2007-05-01

    Although the burden of lead poisoning has decreased across developed countries, it remains the most prevalent environmental poison worldwide. Our objective was to investigate the sources of an outbreak of lead poisoning in Monterey County, California. An investigation in 3 county health department clinics in Monterey County, California, was conducted between 2001 and 2003 to identify risk factors for elevated blood lead levels (> or = 10 microg/dL) among children and pregnant women. The prevalence of elevated blood lead levels was significantly higher in 1 of the 3 clinics (6% among screened children and 13% among prenatal patients). Risk factors included eating imported foods (relative risk [RR]=3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.2, 9.5) and having originated from the Zimatlan area of Oaxaca, Mexico, compared with other areas of Oaxaca (RR=4.0; 95% CI=1.7, 9.5). Home-prepared dried grasshoppers (chapulines) sent from Oaxaca were found to contain significant amounts of lead. Consumption of foods imported from Oaxaca was identified as a risk factor for elevated blood lead levels in Monterey County, California. Lead-contaminated imported chapulines were identified as 1 source of lead poisoning, although other sources may also contribute to the observed findings. Food transport between binational communities presents a unique risk for the importation of environmental hazards [corrected

  18. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

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    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  19. Noncontiguous Finished Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus aureus KLT6, a Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B-Positive Strain Involved in a Food Poisoning Outbreak in Switzerland

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    Tobes, Raquel; Manrique, Marina; Brozynska, Marta; Stephan, Roger; Pareja, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    We present the first complete genome sequence of a Staphylococcus aureus strain assigned to clonal complex 12. The strain was isolated in a food poisoning outbreak due to contaminated potato salad in Switzerland in 2009, and it produces staphylococcal enterotoxin B. PMID:23704175

  20. Outbreak of staphylococcal food poisoning from a military unit lunch party - United States, July 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    On July 30, 2012, the emergency department at a military hospital was visited by 13 persons seeking care for gastrointestinal illness with onset 2-3 hours after a work lunch party. The hospital responded by opening up temporary evaluation and treatment capacity in primary-care clinics and a progressive-care unit and by diverting one patient to a local civilian hospital. An immediate outbreak investigation was conducted by local military public health personnel with assistance from CDC. Initial epidemiologic analysis implicated "perlo" (a chicken, sausage, and rice dish) and bacterial intoxication as the outbreak mechanism. This enabled public health personnel to 1) recommend no further consumption of perlo and 2) reassure appropriate authorities that no additional ill persons likely would be seeking care and advise that nothing more than supportive care of ill persons likely would be required. After interviewing party attendees, investigators found nine additional persons who met their case definition. Subsequent CDC laboratory analysis of a sample of perlo detected staphylococcal enterotoxin A, supporting the epidemiologic findings. Improper food handling and preparation measures were identified and addressed by the appropriate authorities, who provided additional detailed education on food preparation safety for the persons who prepared the meal.

  1. Food Poisoning

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    ... digest foods, such as soda crackers, toast, gelatin, bananas and rice. Stop eating if your nausea returns. ... food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/safe-food-handling/the-big-thaw-safe-defrosting- ...

  2. Identification and Characterization of a New Enterotoxin Produced by Clostridium perfringens Isolated from Food Poisoning Outbreaks.

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    Irikura, Daisuke; Monma, Chie; Suzuki, Yasunori; Nakama, Akiko; Kai, Akemi; Fukui-Miyazaki, Aya; Horiguchi, Yasuhiko; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Kamata, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    There is a strain of Clostridium perfringens, W5052, which does not produce a known enterotoxin. We herein report that the strain W5052 expressed a homologue of the iota-like toxin components sa and sb of C. spiroforme, named Clostridium perfringens iota-like enterotoxin, CPILE-a and CPILE-b, respectively, based on the results of a genome sequencing analysis and a systematic protein screening. In the nicotinamide glyco-hydrolase (NADase) assay the hydrolysis activity was dose-dependently increased by the concentration of rCPILE-a, as judged by the mass spectrometry analysis. In addition, the actin monomer of the lysates of Vero and L929 cells were radiolabeled in the presence of [32P]NAD and rCPILE-a. These findings indicated that CPILE-a possesses ADP-ribosylation activity. The culture supernatant of W5052 facilitated the rounding and killing of Vero and L929 cells, but the rCPILE-a or a non-proteolyzed rCPILE-b did not. However, a trypsin-treated rCPILE-b did. Moreover, a mixture of rCPILE-a and the trypsin-treated rCPILE-b enhanced the cell rounding and killing activities, compared with that induced by the trypsin-treated rCPILE-b alone. The injection of the mixture of rCPILE-a and the trypsin-treated rCPILE-b into an ileum loop of rabbits evoked the swelling of the loop and accumulation of the fluid dose-dependently, suggesting that CPILE possesses enterotoxic activity. The evidence presented in this communication will facilitate the epidemiological, etiological, and toxicological studies of C. perfringens food poisoning, and also stimulate studies on the transfer of the toxins' gene(s) among the Genus Clostridium.

  3. Investigation of a staphylococcal food poisoning outbreak combining case-control, traditional typing and whole genome sequencing methods, Luxembourg, June 2014.

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    Mossong, Joël; Decruyenaere, Frédéric; Moris, Gilbert; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Olinger, Christophe M; Johler, Sophia; Perrin, Monique; Hau, Patrick; Weicherding, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    In June 2014, a staphylococcal food poisoning outbreak occurred at an international equine sports event in Luxembourg requiring the hospitalisation of 31 persons. We conducted a microbiological investigation of patients and buffet items, a case-control study and a carriage study of catering staff. Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from patients, food and catering staff were characterised and compared using traditional typing methods and whole genome sequencing. Genotypically identical strains (sequence type ST8, spa-type t024, MLVA-type 4698, enterotoxin A FRI100) were isolated in 10 patients, shiitake mushrooms, cured ham, and in three members of staff. The case-control study strongly suggested pasta salad with pesto as the vehicle of infection (pfood item could not be tested, because there were no leftovers. Additional enterotoxigenic strains genetically unrelated to the outbreak strain were found in four members of staff. Non-enterotoxigenic strains with livestock-associated sequence type ST398 were isolated from three food items and two members of staff. The main cause of the outbreak is likely to have been not maintaining the cold chain after food preparation. Whole genome sequencing resulted in phylogenetic clustering which concurred with traditional typing while simultaneously characterising virulence and resistance traits.

  4. The Management of Food Poisoning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiTai-ran

    2001-01-01

    This article introduced the characteristics of food poisoning management in China.Food borne diseases are managed in two separate parts by the Ministry of Health in China,Based on different but related laws.Sporadic occurrence of food-borne diseases such as diarrhea,typhoid and dysentery are managed by the "Infectious Diseases Prevention and Control Law" ,while food poisoning outbreaks are managed by the "Food Hygiene Law".Some advantages and disadvantages of this management system will be discussed in the presentation.

  5. Characterization of three Bacillus cereus strains involved in a major outbreak of food poisoning after consumption of fermented black beans (Douchi) in Yunan, China.

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    Zhou, Guoping; Bester, Kai; Liao, Bin; Yang, Zushun; Jiang, Rongrong; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse

    2014-10-01

    Three Bacillus cereus strains isolated from an outbreak of food poisoning caused by the consumption of fermented black beans (douchi) containing B. cereus is described. The outbreak involved 139 persons who had nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The strains were isolated from vomit and the unprepared douchi. Two of the strains produced the emetic toxin cereulide, as evidenced by polymerase chain reaction analysis for the presence of the nonribosomal synthetase cluster responsible for the synthesis of cereulide and by chemical analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. These two strains belong to genetic group III of B. cereus, and multiple locus sequence typing revealed that the type was ST26, as a major part of B. cereus emetic strains. One of these strains produced significantly more cereulide at 37°C than the type cereulide producer (F4810/72), and it was also able to produce the toxin at 40°C and 42°C. The third strain belongs to genetic group IV, and it is a new multiple locus sequence type closely related to strains that are cytotoxic and enterotoxigenic. It possesses genes for hemolysin BL, nonhemolytic enterotoxin, and cytotoxin K2; however, it varies from the majority of strains possessing genes for hemolysin BL by not being hemolytic. Thus, two B. cereus strains producing the emetic toxin cereulide and a strain producing enterotoxins might have been involved in this food-poisoning incident caused by the consumption of a natural fermented food. The ability of one of the strains to produce cereulide at ≥37°C makes it possible that it is produced in the human gut in addition to occurring in the food.

  6. Staphylococcal food poisoning on a cruise ship.

    OpenAIRE

    Waterman, S H; Demarcus, T. A.; Wells, J G; Blake, P A

    1987-01-01

    Two waves of vomiting and/or diarrhoea affected approximately 215 of the 715 passengers on a Caribbean cruise ship. The outbreak was independently associated with eating cream-filled pastries at two separate meals. Staphylococcus aureus phage type 85/+ was isolated from cases and pastry cooks, but not from controls. This is the first well-documented outbreak of staphylococcal food poisoning on a cruise ship.

  7. An Outbreak of Foxglove Leaf Poisoning

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    Chun-Chi Lin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Comfrey (Symphytum officinale leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged “comfrey” herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Significant cardiotoxicity developed later among the 3 patients who also had mild hyperkalemia. Peak serum digoxin concentration measured by immunoassay was elevated in all patients and ranged from 4.4 ng/mL to 139.5 ng/mL. Patients with severe cardiotoxicity were treated with temporary cardiac pacing. Moreover, 40–80 mg of digoxin-specific antibody therapy was given without any effect. All patients recovered uneventfully. Our report highlights the potential risk of misidentification of herbs; in this case, D. purpurea was mistaken for S. officinale. Physicians should be aware that cardiac glycoside poisoning could arise from such misidentification. Public education about the toxicity of D. purpurea poisoning may reduce the risk of misidentification and subsequent poisoning.

  8. An Overview on Bongkrekic Acid Food Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuXiu-mei

    2001-01-01

    Bongkrekic acid(BA) is a fatal bacterial toxin which was found in poisonous fermented cocnut product in indonesia in 1934 and the molecular structure was identified as C28H33O7 in 1960,In the 1950s,food poisoning outbreak of undnown cause occurred cause in the northeast part of China.A new toxin-producing bacterium,pseudomonas cocovenans subsp.Farinofermentans.was identified as the causal pathioge,and its metabolite BA was isolated.purfied and identified in 1979 and 1984.After that ,deteriorated tremella poisoning and viegar jelly poisoning were identified as being caused by the consumption of BA-contaminated foods.About 103 food poisoning outbreaks occurred in 16 provinces in China from 1985 to 1994,A total of 301 (out of 667) patients died.The overall fatality rate(45.13%) was the highest among all microbiological food poisonings in China.Various fermented cereal foods,deteriorated fresh tremella,potato products,sticky rice flur,polished glutious rice,sweet potato starch,noodles and vinegar jelly were in volved in the outbreaks,BA Was detected form leftover fermented corn flour,deteriorated tremella and the P.Cocovenenans subsp.farinofermentans was identifed as the source bascteria.The toxigenic strains have been found not only from the leftover food samples collected from the outbreaks.but also from normal fresh cultivated tremella in Henan and corn flour products from supermarkets in Beijing,TLC,HPLC,and MaAb-ELISA were used to detect BA in the food samples,The minimum detected levels were 0.25,0.1 and 0.2mg/kg,respectively,Further studies showed that Ba could be producted at 26 C for 5 days in potato dextrose agar(PDA) medium.Exposure to ultravioled ligh significantly reduced the level of BA in fresh tremella(96.7%-97.3%) as well as the toxin-producing ability of toxigenic stains in culture medium.

  9. Food poisoning in a hospital staff canteen.

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    White, P M

    1986-09-01

    Eighty-two confirmed cases of salmonella food poisoning arose among hospital staff due to consuming contaminated tartar sauce served in the staff canteen. Many key personnel were affected and the hospital was closed to non-urgent admissions. In order to maintain the accident and trauma services, the normal policy of excluding infected persons from work had to be modified. Staff returned to work 48 h after they had become asymptomatic provided that they did not have contact with patients' mouths, food or drink. There were no secondary cases. During the investigation of the outbreak, lack of national guidelines for the preparation and handling of mayonnaise-based food products became apparent.

  10. Study on an outbreak of food poisoning caused by Salmonella blegdam%一起布利丹沙门菌食物中毒的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何凡; 祝小平; 朱保平; 马会来

    2011-01-01

    目的 查明导致本次食物中毒事件的食物种类、致病因子及传染源.方法 在临床诊断病例中,随机抽取50例作为病例组,随机选择参加宴席且无任何临床症状的50人作为对照组,开展病例对照研究,并分析导致本次事件的危险食物.结果 本次食物中毒的罹患率为43.4%(132/304),86.0%(43/50)的病例和34.0%(17/50)的对照食用过猪头肉凉拌粉条(OR=12.0,95%CI:4.4~32),进一步对食用过猪头肉凉拌粉条者分析其剂量反应关系,趋势x2=21.06,P=0.00.94.0%(47/50)的病例和68.0%(34/50)的对照食用过蘑菇炖鸡(OR=7.4,95%CI:2.0~27),不存在剂量反应关系.病例组和对照组食用其余食物的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).对猪头肉凉拌粉条和蘑菇炖鸡与发病之间的关系进行叉生分析,以两种食物均未食用者作为参照,结果 表明,单食用两种食物之一者发病危险度的点值估计均升高,但差异均无统计学意义;而两种食物均食用者发病风险大大增加(OR=38,95%CI:4.5~320),差异有统计学意义.19份标本检测肠道致病菌中3份病例肛拭子和1份猪头肉凉拌粉条检出布利丹沙门菌.结论 该事件是因参加宴席的人食用被布利丹沙门菌污染的猪头肉凉拌粉条或蘑菇炖鸡引起的细菌性食物中毒,其原因可能为食品加工过程不规范所致.%objective To identify the bacterial pathogen in food and the source of infection that might be responsible for a food poisoning outbreak.Methods All the probable cases that had attended the banquet in a villige of Sichuan province who had developed fever(≥37.5℃),diarrhea (≥3 times/dav)and vomiting since August 1,2009,were identified.A case-control study was conducted to identify the foods that might be responsible for this food poisoning event.50 cases were randomly selected from the probable cases and 50 controls were randomly selected from those without the symptoms.Results The attack rate of this food

  11. ARE THE SO-CALLED POISONOUS FOOD-COMBINATIONS REALLY POISONOUS?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libin T CHENG

    2009-01-01

    @@ The idea that to eat certain two foods simultaneously is to get poisoned has been entertained by柄Chinese people for many years. There are about 184 pairs of the so-called poisonous food-combinations, and 180 of them are mentioned in Chinese Ancient Materia Medica, Ben-Tsao-Gung-Mu (本草纲目) or other books. (1a,2a) This belief was based upon some personal sketch, old-fashioned doctors' notes, stories and other false facts. Although these statements were originated without any experimental ground, yet many of the Chinese, even at present time, still believe them firmly. Whenever any poisoning outbreak occurs accidentally after having taken the so-called poisonous food-combination, they always attribute the cause of the poisoning to the two foods served simultaneously.

  12. The Methanol Poisoning Outbreaks in Libya 2013 and Kenya 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Rostrup

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of methanol poisoning occur frequently on a global basis, affecting poor and vulnerable populations. Knowledge regarding methanol is limited, likely many cases and even outbreaks go unnoticed, with patients dying unnecessarily. We describe findings from the first three large outbreaks of methanol poisoning where Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF responded, and evaluate the benefits of a possible future collaboration between local health authorities, a Non-Governmental Organisation and international expertise.Retrospective study of three major methanol outbreaks in Libya (2013 and Kenya (May and July 2014. Data were collected from MSF field personnel, local health personnel, hospital files, and media reports.In Tripoli, Libya, over 1,000 patients were poisoned with a reported case fatality rate of 10% (101/1,066. In Kenya, two outbreaks resulted in approximately 341 and 126 patients, with case fatality rates of 29% (100/341 and 21% (26/126, respectively. MSF launched an emergency team with international experts, medications and equipment, however, the outbreaks were resolving by the time of arrival.Recognition of an outbreak of methanol poisoning and diagnosis seem to be the most challenging tasks, with significant delay from time of first presentations to public health warnings being issued. In spite of the rapid response from an emergency team, the outbreaks were nearly concluded by the time of arrival. A major impact on the outcome was not seen, but large educational trainings were conducted to increase awareness and knowledge about methanol poisoning. Based on this training, MSF was able to send a local emergency team during the second outbreak, supporting that such an approach could improve outcomes. Basic training, simplified treatment protocols, point-of-care diagnostic tools, and early support when needed, are likely the most important components to impact the consequences of methanol poisoning outbreaks in these challenging

  13. Food poisoning (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... food contaminated with organisms is ingested. The bacteria Staphylococcus aureus can commonly be found on people, but when allowed to grow in food this bacteria can produce a toxin that causes illness such as vomiting and diarrhea. ...

  14. Pattern of shedding of small, round-structured virus particles in stools of patients of outbreaks of food-poisoning from raw oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruki, K; Seto, Y; Murakami, T; Kimura, T

    1991-01-01

    The pattern of shedding of the small, round-structured virus (SRSV) particles in the stools of patients who suffered from food-poisoning due to raw oysters was investigated. The duration and concentration of fecal shedding of the SRSV particles were studied by electron microscopic examinations of stool specimens obtained during the course of illness to see a relation of viral shedding to day of illness. It was found that the fecal shedding of the SRSV particles occurred within five days of illness; thereafter, the concentration of the SRSV particles in feces rapidly decreased within a few days during the course of illness.

  15. Social ecological analysis of an outbreak of pufferfish egg poisoning in a coastal area of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Saiful; Luby, Stephen P; Rahman, Mahmudur; Parveen, Shahana; Homaira, Nusrat; Begum, Nur Har; Dawlat Khan, A K M; Sultana, Rebeca; Akhter, Shammi; Gurley, Emily S

    2011-09-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of marine pufferfish poisoning in Bangladesh highlight the need to understand the context in which the outbreaks occurred. In a recent outbreak investigation, a multidisciplinary team conducted a mixed-method study to identify the demography and clinical manifestation of the victims and to explore different uses of pufferfish, and local buying, selling, and processing practices. The outbreak primarily affected a low income household where an elderly woman collected and cooked pufferfish egg curry. Nine persons consumed the curry, and symptoms developed in 6 (67%) of these persons. Symptoms included vomiting, diarrhea, paresis, and tingling sensation; 2 (22%) persons died. The unstable income of the affected family, food crisis, and the public disposal of unsafe pufferfish byproducts all contributed to the outbreak. A multi-level intervention should be developed and disseminated with the participation of target communities to discourage unsafe discarding of pufferfish scraps and to improve the community knowledge about the risk of consuming pufferfish.

  16. [Description of a staphylococcal alimentary poisoning outbreak in Las Rosas, Santa Fe Province, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizzio, Aníbal A; Tedeschi, Fabián A; Zalazar, Fabián E

    2011-01-01

    On February 2008, a suspected foodborne outbreak was reported in Las Rosas (Santa Fe Province, Argentina). The formal procedures indicated that an undetermined number of individuals had experienced food poisoning following consumption of vegetable cannelloni bought at a local shop. The manufacturer establishment was audited. Samples from the suspected food, as well as environmental samples and swabs from food handlers were obtained and involved subjects were interviewed. Remnants of ingested food were also obtained. Routine microbiological procedures of the foodborne outbreak revealed the presence of coagulase positive S. aureus subspecies aureus in samples from ingested and raw food, and from manipulators. Indicator microorganisms did not show significant levels and no other foodborne pathogen was isolated. Presence of staphylococcal enterotoxin-producing genes was subsequently investigated, and a positive result for enterotoxin B was shown in S. aureus strains isolated from a food handler as well as from food linked to the outbreak Moreover, these isolates showed 100% similarity by SmaI-PFGE. Timely notification together with coordinated sanitary measures and the availability of appropriate laboratory tools allowed to interrupt the chain of disease transmission by identifying risk and protective factors.

  17. Seafood Cited As Biggest Cause of Food Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋允之

    2000-01-01

    选注者言:读了这篇文章,也许我们对“生猛海鲜”这四个字会产生别样的理解。海鲜之害人,可谓“生猛”也!美国是一个环境保护较好,医疗水平较高的国度,然而,下面这个事实确实让读者乍舌: The group noted that most people who become ill from food poisoning or whodie are not affected in outbreaks but in single-case incdents. It said 75 million casesof food poisoning occur in the United States each year and 5,000 people die from it.本文的另一个新信息是:蛋品也是一个不可忽视的“病源”!

  18. Outbreak of methylmercury poisoning due to consumption of contaminated grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarkson, T.W.; Amin-Zaki, L.; Al-Tikriti, S.K.

    1976-10-01

    An outbreak of methylmercury poisoning took place in the fall and winter of 1971 to 1972 in Iraq. Six thousand five hundred and thirty cases were admitted to hospitals throughout the country and 459 died in hospital. The outbreak was the result of eating homemade bread prepared from wheat treated with a methylmercury fungicide. The wheat was intended for planting purposes only. Signs and symptoms of poisonings in adults indicate that the major site of action of this form of mercury is the central nervous system. Severe brain damage also resulted from prenatal exposure when the mother ingested large amounts of the contaminated bread. The frequency of signs and symptoms in an exposed population was found to be related to the estimated maximum blood levels, i.e., the concentration in blood at the end of exposure. A small percentage of the population exhibited a significant increase in complaints of paresthesia at maximum blood levels in the range of 240 to 480 ng Hg/ml. At higher blood levels a greater proportion of the population complained of paresthesia and other signs and symptoms became apparent.

  19. Spontaneous coffee senna poisoning in cattle: report on 16 outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila M.S. Carmo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen outbreaks of Senna occidentalis (coffee senna that occurred in cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were reviewed. The great majority (75% of the outbreaks occurred in adult cattle at pasture during the autumn and winter months with 50% in May, evidencing a striking seasonality. Mortality rates varied from 4.2% to 55.2% and cattle died 2 days up to 2 weeks after showing clinical signs that included dry feces (occasionally diarrhea, muscle weakness, reluctance to move, tachypnea, instability of the hind limbs with dragging of the toes, tremors in muscles of the thighs, neck, and head, ear dropping, sternal recumbency, lateral recumbency and death. Myoglobinuria characterized by a dark red or black discolored urine was a consistent finding in cattle affected at pasture but not in those poisoned by ration contaminated with coffee senna beans. Creatine phosphokinase serum activity was marked ly elevated. Main gross changes observed in 23 necropsies involved skeletal muscles of the hind limbs. These changes consisted of varying degrees of paleness of muscle groups. Subepicardial and subendocardial hemorrhages were present in the hearts of all affected cattle. Histologically a segmental degenerative myopathy of striated muscles was present in every case and had a multifocal polyphasic or monophasic character. Myocardial (3/23, hepatic (3/13, renal (3/10, and splenic (1/6 microscopic lesions were observed occasionally. Myocardial lesions were mild and consisted of vacuolation of cardiomyocytes or focal fibrosis. Hepatic changes consisted of diffuse hepatocelular vacuolation, cytosegrosomes within hepatocytes, and individual hepatocellular necrosis. Kidneys had vacuolar degeneration of tubular epithelium associated with acidophilic casts (proteinosis within tubular lumina. In the spleen there was marked necrosis of lymphocytes of the white pulp. No histological changes were found in the brains of 13 affected cattle. The data of this

  20. Be Food Safe: Protect Yourself from Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Be Food Safe: Protect Yourself from Food Poisoning Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... illness that lasts more than 3 days. Be Food Safe: Learn the Risks and Rules Anyone can ...

  1. Fight Homemade Poisons: Home Food Care and Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about food poisoning. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it explains the various kinds of food poisoning, how people get food poisoning, and how to prevent it. (FL)

  2. Kalanchoe lanceolata poisoning in Brahman cattle in Zimbabwe : the first field outbreak : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Masvingwe

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Field outbreaks of Kalanchoe lanceolata poisoning in cattle on a commercial farm in Zimbabwe are reported. The clinical signs and pathological lesions observed in field cases resembled those reproduced in an experimental cow and were consistent with acute cardiac glycoside poisoning.

  3. Changes in plasma osmolality in food poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čanović Predrag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Changes in plasma osmolality may occur during acute intestinal infections due to dehydration (loss of water and/or electrolytes. Depending on whether the water and electrolyte deficit is primary, or a proportional loss of water and electrolytes, dehydration can be classified into three categories: hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic. Material and methods. Thirty (30 patients with food poisoning were included in this research. All patients were hospitalized because of frequent vomiting, with resultant dehydration. A diagnosis of food poisoning was made based on the clinical picture, short incubation period and positive epidemiological history. Plasma osmolality was measured by a freezing point depression with an osmometer, while effective plasma osmolality was determined by using the following formula: EPO (eff. plasma osmolality = 2 x serum sodium concentration + serum glucose level. Apart from plasma osmolality, other parameters were also measured in patients' sera: sodium, chloride, potassium, urea, glucose and hematocrit. In order to follow-up the changes in these parameters, they were also measured after treatment of the gastrointestinal disorder. Statistical analysis was performed using the equality of mean values for 2 basic groups. Results. The statistical results showed that the values of total and effective plasma osmolality (TPO and EPO among patients with gastrointestinal disorders were not significantly higher than values after the alimentary infection. Discussion. Such results suggest that food poisoning is associated with disorders of water and electrolyte metabolism, that is isotonic type of dehydration. .

  4. Thermal stability and structural changes in bacterial toxins responsible for food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenthal, Paulina; Hansen, Jesper S.; André, Ingemar

    2017-01-01

    The staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are secreted by the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and are the most common causative agent in staphylococcal food poisoning. The staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) has been associated with large staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks, but newer identified SEs, like staphylococcal enterotoxin H (SEH) has recently been shown to be present at similar levels as SEA in food poisoning outbreaks. Thus, we set out to investigate the thermo-stability of the three-dimensional structures of SEA, SEH and staphylococcal enterotoxin E (SEE), since heat inactivation is a common method to inactivate toxins during food processing. Interestingly, the investigated toxins behaved distinctly different upon heating. SEA and SEE were more stable at slightly acidic pH values, while SEH adopted an extremely stable structure at neutral pH, with almost no effects on secondary structural elements upon heating to 95°C, and with reversible formation of tertiary structure upon subsequent cooling to room temperature. Taken together, the data suggests that the family of staphylococcal enterotoxins have different ability to withstand heat, and thus the exact profile of heat inactivation for all SEs causing food poisoning needs to be considered to improve food safety. PMID:28207867

  5. Thermal stability and structural changes in bacterial toxins responsible for food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenthal, Paulina; Hansen, Jesper S; André, Ingemar; Lindkvist-Petersson, Karin

    2017-01-01

    The staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are secreted by the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and are the most common causative agent in staphylococcal food poisoning. The staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) has been associated with large staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks, but newer identified SEs, like staphylococcal enterotoxin H (SEH) has recently been shown to be present at similar levels as SEA in food poisoning outbreaks. Thus, we set out to investigate the thermo-stability of the three-dimensional structures of SEA, SEH and staphylococcal enterotoxin E (SEE), since heat inactivation is a common method to inactivate toxins during food processing. Interestingly, the investigated toxins behaved distinctly different upon heating. SEA and SEE were more stable at slightly acidic pH values, while SEH adopted an extremely stable structure at neutral pH, with almost no effects on secondary structural elements upon heating to 95°C, and with reversible formation of tertiary structure upon subsequent cooling to room temperature. Taken together, the data suggests that the family of staphylococcal enterotoxins have different ability to withstand heat, and thus the exact profile of heat inactivation for all SEs causing food poisoning needs to be considered to improve food safety.

  6. Physiology of food poisoning microorganisms and the major problems in food poisoning control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, G W; Abee, T; Granum, P E; Jones, M V

    1995-12-01

    There remains considerable public concern regarding the current high level of food poisoning disease in Europe and the fact that, year by year, it continues to rise rather than fall. At the same time, there are strong and increasing demands from consumers for foods that are more convenient, fresher, more natural, less heavily processed (e.g. 'REPFEDS' and 'Sous Vide' foods, mildly heated and distributed at chill temperatures; Lund and Notermans, 1992), less heavily preserved (e.g. less acid, less salt, less sugar; Gould, 1995) and less reliant on additive preservatives than hitherto (e.g. sulphite, nitrite, organic acids and esters; Russell and Gould, 1991). Most of these trends result in a general reduction in the intrinsic preservation of foods. Furthermore, many food poisoning microorganisms escape the attention of preservation techniques altogether, reaching the consumer more or less directly from contaminated foods, most often foods of animal origin. It has therefore been argued that a substantial reduction in food poisoning in the near future will be difficult to achieve unless we obtain a greatly improved understanding of the physiology of the most important target organisms (Knochel and Gould, 1995). This knowledge must then be exploited in ways which effectively improve our means for the control of these hazards and reduce the risk to the consumer. A three year AAIR Concerted Action Programme (PL920630: 'Physiology of Food Poisoning Microorganisms') was therefore initiated in 1992 in order to bring together research groups working on the physiology and related aspects of food poisoning microorganisms. The principal objectives of the programme were: 1. To determine the physiological, biochemical and genetical bases of the organisms' survival of and responses to food-relevant stresses; 2. to determine the physiological and genetical factors influencing infectivity and toxinogenesis; 3. to understand the physiological bases of those synergistic systems that

  7. An outbreak of horseshoe crab poisoning in Chon Buri, Thailand: clinical, toxicologic and therapeutic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanapongkul, J; Kungsuwan, A; Tantisiriwan, V; Punthawangkun, C; Krittayapoositpot, P

    1996-12-01

    In 1994-1996, an outbreak of horseshoe crab poisoning by eating toxic eggs of the horseshoe crab Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda affected over 100 persons in Chon Buri which located on the eastern coast of Thailand. We discuss clinical description and management of this first major outbreak. The responsible toxin has been partially purified by means of ultrafiltration and high performance liquid chromatography. The horseshoe crab toxin is identified as tetrodotoxin (TTX) and anhydro TTX.

  8. Tropical fish poisoning in temperate climates: food poisoning from ciguatera toxin presenting in Avonmouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, Ruth; Eastcott, Howard; Sarangi, Joyshri

    2006-12-01

    Ciguatera toxin causes a range of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neurological symptoms that occur within 1-6 h of ingesting fish with the toxin and can last for days, months or years. It is a well-recognized problem in the tropics. Avon Health Protection Team investigated food poisoning on a ship at Avonmouth, which was thought by the crew to be related to a white snapper fish from the Caribbean. The symptoms were initially thought to be scombroid fish poisoning but were consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. Cases of fish poisoning from fish imported from the Caribbean and Pacific or travellers returning from tropical countries may be ciguatera fish poisoning, but mistakenly diagnosed as scombroid fish poisoning.

  9. [Outbreak of lead poisoning associated with Ayurvedic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Sara; Pollio, Gerónimo-Antonio; Domínguez, Verónica; Nogué, Santiago; Torra, Mercè; Cardellach, Francesc

    2015-02-20

    Lead poisoning is normally caused by repeated occupational inhalation of lead. However, lead may also be absorbed through the digestive route. Some alternative medical treatments, such as Ayurvedic medicine, can also contain lead and may result in poisoning. We collected cases of lead poisoning related to Ayurvedic treatments attended at the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona. Two female patients, aged 45 and 57 years, respectively, who initiated Ayurvedic treatments which involved the ingestion of various medicaments, were included. The first patient presented with anemia and abdominal pain. The lead level was 74μg/dL and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin was 163μg/dL. She was treated with intravenous calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CaNa2EDTA) and later with oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) with a good evolution. The second patient presented with abdominal pain and a Burton's line. The lead level was 52μg/dL and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin was 262μg/dL. She was treated with oral DMSA and evolved favorably. Lead concentrations in some of the tablets supplied to the patients reached 2,003 and 19,650μg/g of tablet. Lead poisoning may result from treatments based on Ayurvedic medicine and may reach epidemic proportions. Health control of alternative medicines is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. The evaluation of forensic cases reported due to food poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyza Urazel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study it is aimed to examine forensic food poisoning cases and to evaluate the clinical presentation of food poisoning in people within the context of forensic medicine. Methods: In the study, 215 food poisoning cases are evaluated, which applied to the forensic medicine branch office in our city between 01.01.2007 and 31.12.2011. The forensic reports and forensic investigations of these cases are analyzed retrospectively. The cases are examined in terms of gender, age, the type of food consumed, the treatment applied and the result of the forensic report. Results: It is determined that in 83 cases (38.6% food poisoning was caused by chicken products, and in 178 cases (82.8% the poisoned people were students. In 3 cases (1.4% the poisoning was life threatening. For 75 cases (34.9% no forensic report was prepared in emergency service and among the 140 cases for which a forensic report was prepared, only 3 of the reports were prepared in a correct manner. Conclusions: It is determined that the demographic data of the cases complies with the city where the study was conducted. It is found out that in emergency services the food poisoning cases are usually misevaluated.

  11. 广州市首例利齐菲尔德沙门菌食物中毒的病原学分析%Analysis of the pathogenic characteristics of the first food-poisoning outbreak caused by Salmonella Litchfield in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 张欣强; 邓志爱; 侯水平; 胡肖娟

    2012-01-01

    目的 对2011年7月广州市发生的一起细菌性食物中毒进行病原学特征分析.方法 对送检病人粪便、厨工肛拭及食物等样品进行荧光PCR检测和分离培养,对分离株进行生化鉴定,血清分型、脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE)分型和药敏分析.结果 从病人粪便、肛拭和厨房抹布共分离到18株利齐菲尔德沙门菌,为相同的PFGE型别,药敏结果显示菌株对实检和定阿米卡星,庆大霉素及妥布霉素耐药,对头孢噻肟、亚胺培南、甲氧苄啶/磺胺甲恶唑等15种抗生素均敏感.结论 实验判定这是一起由同一克隆型的利齐菲尔德沙门菌污染厨房环境所引起的食物中毒事件,PFGE分型法为暴发溯源提供分子流行病学证据和支持.%Objective To study the pathogenic characteristics of Salmonella enterica serovar Litchfield isolated from a food-poisoning outbreak. Methods Real-time PCR,Biochemistry identification,serotyping,pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)and drug sensitivity test were applied to detect the pathogen and to trace the possible strains. Results Eighteen Salmonella Litchfield strains were isolated from the patients' fecal, stool and a piece of kitchen cloth, which were classified as the same PFGE type. All strains were resistant to Amikacin, Gentamicin and Toramycin, but sensitive to Cefotaxime, Imipenem, Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, et al. Conclusions One Salmonella Litchfield clone was responsible to the food poisoning outbreak. PFGE gives molecular epidemiological evidence and support for the source tracing of an outbreak.

  12. Use of Surveillance Systems in Detection of a Ciguatera Fish Poisoning Outbreak - Orange County, Florida, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klekamp, Benjamin G; Bodager, Dean; Matthews, Sarah D

    2015-10-16

    What is already known on this topic? Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), caused by the ingestion of predatory reef-dwelling fish harboring ciguatoxins is one of the most commonly reported fish-associated marine intoxications. Ciguatoxin retains toxicity regardless of freezing or cooking. Prompt treatment can reduce debilitating neurologic symptoms that are associated with CFP.What is added by this report? Syndromic surveillance systems in Florida identified six adults with CFP following consumption of black grouper. Five patients sought medical attention; health care providers did not make a diagnosis of CFP or report the cases to public health authorities, and none of the patients received treatment. Close collaboration among several investigating agencies allowed traceback efforts to link black grouper consumed by all patients to a common international distributor.What are the implications for public health practice? Syndromic surveillance systems capable of detecting CFP are essential public health tools to identify outbreaks and enhance investigations. Medical and public health practitioners should be educated to inquire about recent fish consumption when evaluating patients with clinically compatible signs and symptoms to allow for prompt treatment, and report suspected CFP cases to public health authorities to facilitate source-food traceback efforts. Public education on avoidance of consumption of relatively large predatory reef fish species known to be from ciguatoxic-endemic areas might reduce the risk for CFP.

  13. RE-PCR variability and toxigenic profile of food poisoning, foodborne and soil-associated Bacillus cereus isolates from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães,Alaíse Gil; C. A. Santos; ALMEIDA, F.S. de; Abrahão, W.M.; ARANTES, O. M. N.; Vilas-Bôas, G. T.

    2011-01-01

    texto completo: acesso restrito. p.277–283. Twenty-three Bacillus cereus isolates from food poisoning outbreaks associated with a diarrheal-type syndrome, fourteen foodborne isolates not associated with food poisoning and fifteen isolates from Brazilian soil samples were analyzed for the presence and genetic diversity (by RE-PCR) of the virulence genes ces (emetic toxin, cereulide), plcR–papR (pleiotropic regulator PlcR and peptide PapR), nheA (a component of the NHE complex), bceT (dia...

  14. Assessing the epidemiological data of Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning occurred in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Costalunga Lima

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most frequent foodborne illnesses worldwide and it is caused by the ingestion of food contaminated with enterotoxins produced by some strains of Staphylococcus (S. aureus. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Southern Brazil, S. aureus has been identified as the second most frequent agent of foodborne illnesses in the last two decades. The aim of the present study was to assess and analyse the epidemiological data of S. aureus food poisoning occurred in the State of RS during the years of 2000 to 2002. The official records of epidemiological investigations carried out by the Sanitary Surveillance Services of the State of RS were analysed. Among foodborne outbreaks for which aetiology was determined, S. aureus was identified as the responsible agent of 57 foodborne outbreaks, being 42 (74% confirmed by microbiological analyses and 15 (26% confirmed by clinical symptoms and/or epidemiological data. Staphylococcal outbreaks were responsible for the exposition of 5,991 persons, of which 1,940 (32% were interviewed by the Sanitary Surveillance officers. The most affected age group corresponded to people with 20 to 49 years old (48%, where men (48% and women (52% were affected similarly. The main involved food vehicles were meats servings (35%, followed by pastries (25%, cheese (23%, pasta (11% and potato salad with homemade mayonnaise (11%. The majority of the outbreaks occurred inside private homes (33% followed by commercial food establishments (28%. Inadequate control of temperature and failures in general hygiene practices were identified as the main factors responsible for the outbreaks. In conclusion, S. aureus was an important food poisoning etiological agent in the State of RS during 2000 to 2002 and its prevention depends on control measures involving different parts of the food chain.

  15. Food poisonings by ingestion of cyprinid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

    2014-01-28

    Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5α-cyprinol sulfate (5α-cholestane-3α, 7α, 12α, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans.

  16. [Food poisoning with marine animal toxins of invertebrate origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, E; Legnani, P; Boari, C; Forni, M C; Gennari, P

    1983-06-30

    The consumption of seafood is increasing and hence the risk of poisoning. For this reason, the study of food poisoning caused by zootoxins from marine invertebrates has become of signal importance. These toxins come from bivalve molluscs and other species. Depending on the type of toxin concerned, poisoning attributable to molluscs may give rise to paralysis, caused by saxitossin, neurotoxic effects (gimbretoxin), or haemolysis (venerupin). Poisoning caused by coelenterates, echinoderms, cephalopods, Neptunea, abalone, crabs and lobsters is less common, and its clinical pictures and pathogenesis have not been fully established. In some instances, toxins presented in the phytoplankton ingested by these animals appear to be responsible, whereas in others its would seem that they themselves elaborate the active principles directly.

  17. An outbreak of suspected solanine poisoning in schoolboys: Examinations of criteria of solanine poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, M; Thompson, J C

    1979-04-01

    Seventy eight schoolboys became ill after eating potato at lunch on the second day of the autumn term. Seventeen of the boys required admission to hospital. The gastrointestinal, circulatory, neurological and dermatological findings and the results of laboratory investigations were in keeping with solanine poisoning. The illness affected the junior boys and all the monitors but no other senior boys or staff. This pattern was compatible with the consumption of a relatively small number of toxic potatoes believed to have come from a bag (A) left in the stores since the summer term. The amount of solanine in potato waste recovered after the meal was excessive as assessed by its anticholinesterase activity. The amount of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in the flesh and peel of potatoes from a bag (B) known to have been left from the previous term was high. The anomalously narrow margin between the solanidine alkaloid content reported for normal and toxic potatoes might perhaps result from an excessive synthesis by the latter of additional, related steroids, such as sapogenins and saponins, which, by promoting gastrointestinal absorption or other means, might enhance the toxicity of solanidine alkaloid.

  18. Bacillus cereus food poisoning: international and Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Anita; Abdullah, Swaid

    2015-05-01

    Food borne illnesses result from eating food or drinking beverages that are contaminated with chemical matter, heavy metals, parasites, fungi, viruses and Bacteria. Bacillus cereus is one of the food-borne disease causing Bacteria. Species of Bacillus and related genera have long been troublesome to food producers on account of their resistant endospores. Their spores may be present on various types of raw and cooked foods, and their ability to survive high cooking temperatures requires that cooked foods be served hot or cooled rapidly to prevent the growth of this bacteria. Bacillus cereus is well known as a cause of food poisoning, and much more is now known about the toxins produced by various strains of this species, so that its significance in such episodes are clearer. However, it is still unclear why such cases are so rarely reported worldwide.

  19. Rapid detoxification of cereulide in Bacillus cereus food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Mitsutaka; Saitou, Keiko; Mizumoto, Hiroshi; Matsusaka, Masanori; Agata, Norio; Nakayama, Masahiro; Kage, Masayoshi; Tatsumi, Shinji; Okamoto, Akira; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Ohta, Michio; Hata, Daisuke

    2010-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is recognized as a major pathogenic bacterium that causes food poisoning and produces gastrointestinal diseases of 2 types: emetic and diarrheal. The emetic type, which is often linked to pasta and rice, arises from a preformed toxin, cereulide, in food. Rapid and accurate diagnostic methods for this emetic toxin are important but are limited. Here we describe 3 patients with B cereus food poisoning in which cereulide was detected and measured sequentially. Three family members began to vomit frequently 30 minutes after consuming reheated fried rice. After 6 hours, a 1-year-old brother died of acute encephalopathy. A 2-year-old sister who presented with unconsciousness recovered rapidly after plasma exchange and subsequent hemodialysis. Their mother recovered soon by fluid therapy. From leftover fried rice and the children's stomach contents, B cereus was isolated. Serum cereulide was detected in both children; it decreased to an undetected level in the sister. These cases highlight the importance of measuring the value of cereulide, which would reflect the severity of B cereus emetic food poisoning. The cases also suggest the possible role of blood-purification therapy in severe cases.

  20. A large outbreak of scombroid fish poisoning associated with eating yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) at a military mass catering in Dakar, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoncheaux, J-P; Michel, R; Mazenot, C; Duflos, G; Iacini, C; de Laval, F; Delaval, F; Saware, E M; Renard, J-C

    2012-06-01

    On 26 November 2010, an outbreak of scombroid fish poisoning occurred in the French Armed Forces in Dakar, Senegal. This chemical intoxication, due to high histamine concentration in fish, is often mistaken for an allergic reaction. A case-control study was undertaken including the 71 cases and 78 randomly selected controls among lunch attendees. The usual symptoms for scombroid fish poisoning were observed in cases, i.e. flushing (85.9%), headache (83.1%), rapid/weak pulse (59.1%) and diarrhoea (47.9%). Symptoms occurred from within a few minutes to up to 3 h following the meal. Most patients quickly recovered with antihistamine and/or symptomatic treatment. Tuna was the only food item positively associated with illness (odds ratio 36.3, 95% confidence interval 6.3-210.0), with the risk of illness increasing with the quantity of fish consumed. No bacterial contamination was found in leftover food, but histamine concentration in tuna was found to be 4900 mg/kg, almost 50-fold higher than the concentration allowed by European regulations. This report is unique because of the large size of the case series - to our knowledge, the largest event of scombroid fish poisoning ever reported - and the chemical and bacteriological analyses results obtained on leftover food.

  1. Foodborne norovirus outbreak: the role of an asymptomatic food handler

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    Pintó Rosa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In July 2005 an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred on a residential summer camp in the province of Barcelona (northeast of Spain. Forty-four people were affected among residents and employees. All of them had in common a meal at lunch time on 13 July (paella, round of beef and fruit. The aim of this study was to investigate a foodborne norovirus outbreak that occurred in the residential summer camp and in which the implication of a food handler was demonstrated by laboratory tests. Methods A retrospective cohort study was designed. Personal or telephone interview was carried out to collect demographic, clinical and microbiological data of the exposed people, as well as food consumption in the suspected lunch. Food handlers of the mentioned summer camp were interviewed. Ten stool samples were requested from symptomatic exposed residents and the three food handlers that prepared the suspected food. Stools were tested for bacteries and noroviruses. Norovirus was detected using RT-PCR and sequence analysis. Attack rate, relative risks (RR and its 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated to assess the association between food consumption and disease. Results The global attack rate of the outbreak was 55%. The main symptoms were abdominal pain (90%, nausea (85%, vomiting (70% and diarrhoea (42.5%. The disease remitted in 24-48 hours. Norovirus was detected in seven faecal samples, one of them was from an asymptomatic food handler who had not eaten the suspected food (round of beef, but cooked and served the lunch. Analysis of the two suspected foods isolated no pathogenic bacteria and detected no viruses. Molecular analysis showed that the viral strain was the same in ill patients and in the asymptomatic food handler (genotype GII.2 Melksham-like. Conclusions In outbreaks of foodborne disease, the search for viruses in affected patients and all food handlers, even in those that are asymptomatic, is essential. Health

  2. Egg yolk paste for determining some food poisoning bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, C; Nakamaru, E; Mita, M; Uesugi, I; Saito, J

    1988-02-01

    Egg yolk, aseptically prepared from fresh eggs, was partially dehydrated with a 40% high fructose corn syrup solution, and 10% salt was added. This salted yolk paste was added to mannitol salt agar for the detection of Staphylococcus aureus, to NaCl-glycine Kim and Goepfert medium for detection of Bacillus cereus, to Clostridium welchii agar for detection of C. perfringens, and to Gifu anaerobic medium for detection of C. botulinum. These food poisoning bacteria showed the same lecithovitellin (LV) reaction on these media as on the same media prepared with fresh egg yolk. The yolk paste could be stored at -20 C without freezing and did not show any bacterial growth after holding at 25 C for 30 days. The increased salt content resulted from the addition of salted yolk paste to the media did not inhibit the growth of the food poisoning bacteria used in these experiments. For the identification of the food poisoning bacteria used in this work, and which give a LV reaction, salted yolk paste is more convenient to use than yolk separated from fresh shell eggs.

  3. Calcium carbide poisoning via food in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Per, Hüseyin; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Yağmur, Fatih; Gümüş, Hakan; Kumandaş, Sefer; Poyrazoğlu, M Hakan

    2007-02-01

    The fast ripening of fruits means they may contain various harmful properties. A commonly used agent in the ripening process is calcium carbide, a material most commonly used for welding purposes. Calcium carbide treatment of food is extremely hazardous because it contains traces of arsenic and phosphorous. Once dissolved in water, the carbide produces acetylene gas. Acetylene gas may affect the neurological system by inducing prolonged hypoxia. The findings are headache, dizziness, mood disturbances, sleepiness, mental confusion, memory loss, cerebral edema and seizures. We report the case of a previously healthy 5 year-old girl with no chronic disease history who was transferred to our Emergency Department with an 8-h history of coma and delirium. A careful history from her father revealed that the patient ate unripe dates treated with calcium carbide.

  4. A survey of clostridium botulinum in food poisoning in Iran

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    Modarres Sh

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne botulism is one of the dangerous food poisonings in human in the world. The specimens of 115 patients (serum and stool with clinical symptoms of botulism, who were inpatient and outpatient were collected at some medical centers in Tehran and other areas of Iran, between April 1984 to August 1994. In this survey, specimens of 73 patients showed the toxin and spore of C.botulinum. Clostridium botulinum type E, was the most common causative agent in food-borne botulism, being responsible for 71.24% of all specimens; other etiologic types, in order of frequency were types A (16.43% and B (12.33%. The results of this study indicate, that the various kinds of fish, salted fish, smoked fish and canned fish, also cans of greenbeans and cucumber were causative of food-borne botulism in patients.

  5. Diagnostic real-time PCR assays for the detection of emetic Bacillus cereus strains in foods and recent food-borne outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, Martina; Messelhäusser, Ute; Busch, Ulrich; Scherer, Siegfried; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2007-03-01

    Cereulide-producing Bacillus cereus can cause an emetic type of food-borne disease that mimics the symptoms provoked by Staphylococcus aureus. Based on the recently discovered genetic background for cereulide formation, a novel 5' nuclease (TaqMan) real-time PCR assay was developed to provide a rapid and sensitive method for the specific detection of emetic B. cereus in food. The TaqMan assay includes an internal amplification control and primers and a probe designed to target a highly specific part of the cereulide synthetase genes. Additionally, a specific SYBR green I assay was developed and extended to create a duplex SYBR green I assay for the one-step identification and discrimination of the two emesis-causing food pathogens B. cereus and S. aureus. The inclusivity and exclusivity of the assay were assessed using a panel of 100 strains, including 23 emetic B. cereus and 14 S. aureus strains. Different methods for DNA isolation from artificially contaminated foods were evaluated, and established real-time assays were used to analyze two recent emetic food poisonings in southern Germany. One of the food-borne outbreaks included 17 children visiting a day care center who vomited after consuming a reheated rice dish, collapsed, and were hospitalized; the other case concerned a single food-poisoning incident occurring after consumption of cauliflower. Within 2 h, the etiological agent of these food poisonings was identified as emetic B. cereus by using the real-time PCR assay.

  6. RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF OUTBREAK OF ORGANOPHOSPH O R US POISONING IN CHILDREN, OUR EXPERIENCE IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Saif Zil

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : O rganophosphate pesticides are the most important cause of severe toxicity and death worldwide. Outbreaks of organophosphorus poisoning has increased specially in Bihar and south india after introduction of Mid - day meals schemes . AIM : To study the clinical profile of patients with organophosphorus poisoning outbreak, and efficacy of poison severity score as a triage to predict complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Thirty four students referred from primary health care to our tertiary care hospital. Medical History, physical examination and in some cases pseudocholinesterase was done. Medical records were retrospectively analysed and patients were divided into three groups (A, B, C based on poison severity score. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed. The Incidence of complications were studied in each group. Patients were also divide into those achieving early atropinisation versus late atropisation and compared . Statistical probability of each group was calculated with CHI SQUARE test. RESULTS : All patients were male children between 12 to 16 years (mean age being13.6 years. Group A, Group B, Group C had 11, 20, 3 patients respectively. Overall vomiting (88%, abdominal pain (79% and depressed mental status (55% were the commonest symptoms . The rate of complication in Group A, Group B ,Group C were 18%,35% and 100%respectively, however a p value calculated(6.84 Vs 9.49 with CHI SQUARE test was not significant. The commonest complications were cardiovascular, followed by respiratory and renal failure. Two patients developed multiple organ dysfunction and has to be referred. Retrospectively a mong 1 8 patients were atropinised early, 3 had complications and among 16 atropinised late, 9 developed complications. By using CHI SQUARE test the p value calculated was significant ( 3.94 >3.84 . CONCLUSION : Poison severity score reliably predicts the incidence of complication and help in triage of patients in outbreaks of

  7. Overview of Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... Insecticide Poisoning Iron Poisoning Lead Poisoning Overview of Food Poisoning Mushroom (Toadstool) Poisoning Plant and Shrub Poisoning ...

  8. Molecular Typing of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolate Responsible for Staphylococcal Poisoning Incident in Homemade Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellio, Alberto; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Gallina, Silvia; Adriano, Daniela; Zuccon, Fabio; Chiesa, Francesco; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Casalinuovo, Francesco; Decastelli, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    In October 2012, two persons fell ill with symptoms consistent with staphylococcal food poisoning after eating home-canned tuna fish and tomatoes. Laboratory investigation detected the enterotoxins in the home-canned tuna and molecular analysis of the isolated Staphylococcus aureus confirmed it carried toxin genes. Qualitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzime linked fluorescent assay methods and quantitative assay identified the enterotoxins in the food leftovers, specifically staphylococcal enterotoxins type A (SEA) and D (SED), respectively 0.49 and 2.04 ng/g. The laboratory results are discussed considering the relation to the fish in oil, survival and heat resistance of S. aureus, and presumptive microbial contamination due to improper handling during home-canning procedures. This is the first reported cluster of foodborne illnesses due to staphylococcal enterotoxins in tuna in Italy. In this study, we reported cases described and analysed for their spa-type. Showing a high heterogeneity of isolates, spa-type t13252 is correlated in a node of the minimum spanning tree and it has never been reported as responsible for foodborne outbreak. This case underlines the importance of risk communication and dissemination of home-canning guidelines to reduce the incidence of foodborne outbreaks caused by homemade conserves.

  9. Molecular Typing of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolate Responsible for Staphylococcal Poisoning Incident in Homemade Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macori, Guerrino; Bellio, Alberto; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Gallina, Silvia; Adriano, Daniela; Zuccon, Fabio; Chiesa, Francesco; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Casalinuovo, Francesco; Decastelli, Lucia

    2016-04-19

    In October 2012, two persons fell ill with symptoms consistent with staphylococcal food poisoning after eating home-canned tuna fish and tomatoes. Laboratory investigation detected the enterotoxins in the home-canned tuna and molecular analysis of the isolated Staphylococcus aureus confirmed it carried toxin genes. Qualitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzime linked fluorescent assay methods and quantitative assay identified the enterotoxins in the food leftovers, specifically staphylococcal enterotoxins type A (SEA) and D (SED), respectively 0.49 and 2.04 ng/g. The laboratory results are discussed considering the relation to the fish in oil, survival and heat resistance of S. aureus, and presumptive microbial contamination due to improper handling during home-canning procedures. This is the first reported cluster of foodborne illnesses due to staphylococcal enterotoxins in tuna in Italy. In this study, we reported cases described and analysed for their spa-type. Showing a high heterogeneity of isolates, spa-type t13252 is correlated in a node of the minimum spanning tree and it has never been reported as responsible for foodborne outbreak. This case underlines the importance of risk communication and dissemination of home-canning guidelines to reduce the incidence of foodborne outbreaks caused by homemade conserves.

  10. Molecular typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolate responsible for staphylococcal poisoning incident in homemade food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrino Macori

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In October 2012, two persons fell ill with symptoms consistent with staphylococcal food poisoning after eating home-canned tuna fish and tomatoes. Laboratory investigation detected the enterotoxins in the home-canned tuna and molecular analysis of the isolated Staphylococcus aureus confirmed it carried toxin genes. Qualitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzime linked fluorescent assay methods and quantitative assay identified the enterotoxins in the food leftovers, specifically staphylococcal enterotoxins type A (SEA and D (SED, respectively 0.49 and 2.04 ng/g. The laboratory results are discussed considering the relation to the fish in oil, survival and heat resistance of S. aureus, and presumptive microbial contamination due to improper handling during home-canning procedures. This is the first reported cluster of foodborne illnesses due to staphylococcal enterotoxins in tuna in Italy. In this study, we reported cases described and analysed for their spa-type. Showing a high heterogeneity of isolates, spa-type t13252 is correlated in a node of the minimum spanning tree and it has never been reported as responsible for foodborne outbreak. This case underlines the importance of risk communication and dissemination of home-canning guidelines to reduce the incidence of foodborne outbreaks caused by homemade conserves.

  11. Sawfly larval poisoning in cattle: Report on new outbreaks and brief review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Tessele

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sawfly larval poisoning (SLP is an acute hepatotoxicosis documented in livestock in Australia, Denmark and in countries of South America. It is caused by the ingestion of the larval stage of insects of the suborder Symphyta, order Hymenoptera, commonly known as "sawfly". Three species of sawfly are reportedly involved in the toxicosis. The insect involved in Australian SLP is Lophyrotoma interrupta (Pergidae, in Denmark the cause of SLP is the ingestion of the larvae Arge pullata (Argidae, and in South American countries documented outbreaks of SLP were caused by the ingestion of yet another sawfly, Perreyia flavipes (Pergidae. In all geographical areas where it occurred, SLP causes important livestock losses. In cattle, as well as in other affected species, the disease has a short clinical course and in many outbreaks affected cattle can be found dead. When observed, clinical signs include apathy, recumbence, tremors, paddling movements and death in 24-48 hours. Neurological signs such aggressiveness attributable to hepatic encephalopathy are also observed. In cases with a more protracted course icterus and photodermatitis may develop. Gross findings included ascites, petechiae and ecchymosis over serosal surfaces of thoracic and abdominal cavities, and an enlarged liver that displays accentuation of the lobular pattern and edema of the gall bladder wall. Sawfly larval body fragments and heads are consistently found in the fore stomachs and occasionally abomasum of affected cattle. Main microscopic lesions are restricted to the liver and consist of centrolobular (periacinar to massive hepatocellular necrosis. In most lobules necrotic areas extended up to the portal triads where only a few viable hepatocytes remain. Mild to moderate lymphocyte necrosis is seen in lymphatic tissues. Cases occur in the winter months when the larval stages of the sawfly are developing. D-amino acid-containing peptides have been found to be the toxic principle in

  12. [Preventive measures of food poisoning at care facilities for the elderly--current status and problems in food poisoning by noroviruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, Kumiko; Nagatomi, Hideki; Imaizumi, Iwao

    2012-08-01

    Food poisoning at care facilities for the elderly has been breaking out approximately ten cases per year nationwide from 2001 to 2010. Especially, it reflected the characteristics of food poisoning caused by noroviruses at a high rate. Usually we have been preventing from food poisoning by noroviruses working on existing measures such as temperature control of food materials, sanitary handlings of cooking tools and table wares, and so on. Additionally, the most effective measures to avoid secondary pollution at care facilities for the elderly is that all members at these facilities have to have a sense of crisis about food poisoning by noroviruses and managers at these facilities must take care of health control for all staff.

  13. Fusarium species isolated from Pennisetum clandestinum collected during outbreaks of kikuyu poisoning in cattle in South Africa

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    Christo J. Botha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Kikuyu poisoning occurs sporadically in South Africa. It is of major economic importance, as valuable dairy cows are often poisoned by it, and once affected, the mortality rate is high. Pennisetum clandestinum samples were collected during eight outbreaks of kikuyu poisoning in cattle in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa from 2008 to 2010. The kikuyu grass samples were submitted specifically for the isolation and molecular identification of Fusarium species, as it was recently suggested that mycotoxins synthesised by Fusarium torulosum could be the cause of this intoxication. Ninety-four Fusarium isolates were retrieved from the grass samples, of which 72 were members of the Fusarium incarnatum/Fusarium equiseti species complex based on morphology and phylogenetic analyses of the translation elongation factor 1α sequence data. The South African isolates from kikuyu identified as members of the F. incarnatum/F. equiseti species complex grouped together in six separate clades. The other isolates were Fusarium culmorum (n = 3, Fusarium redolens (n = 4 and Fusarium oxysporum (n = 15. Although F. torulosum could not be isolated from P. clandestinum collected during kikuyu poisoning outbreaks in South Africa, the mycotoxicosis theory is still highly plausible.

  14. Fusarium species isolated from Pennisetum clandestinum collected during outbreaks of kikuyu poisoning in cattle in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Christo J; Truter, Mariëtte; Jacobs, Adriaana

    2014-11-20

    Kikuyu poisoning occurs sporadically in South Africa. It is of major economic importance, as valuable dairy cows are often poisoned by it, and once affected, the mortality rate is high. Pennisetum clandestinum samples were collected during eight outbreaks of kikuyu poisoning in cattle in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa from 2008 to 2010. The kikuyu grass samples were submitted specifically for the isolation and molecular identification of Fusarium species, as it was recently suggested that mycotoxins synthesised by Fusarium torulosum could be the cause of this intoxication. Ninety-four Fusarium isolates were retrieved from the grass samples, of which 72 were members of the Fusarium incarnatum/Fusarium equiseti species complex based on morphology and phylogenetic analyses of the translation elongation factor 1α sequence data. The South African isolates from kikuyu identified as members of the F. incarnatum/F. equiseti species complex grouped together in six separate clades. The other isolates were Fusarium culmorum (n = 3), Fusarium redolens (n = 4) and Fusarium oxysporum (n = 15). Although F. torulosum could not be isolated from P. clandestinum collected during kikuyu poisoning outbreaks in South Africa, the mycotoxicosis theory is still highly plausible.

  15. [Other viral food poisoning (hepatitis A and E)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Kunio

    2012-08-01

    Hepatitis A and E viruses are spread via the fecal-oral route. In the endemic area, restaurant and school outbreaks due to contaminated water or food have been reported. The clinical signs and symptoms in patients with typical hepatitis A and E are similar to those seen with other forms of acute viral hepatitis. Hepatitis A tends to be more severe when acquired at older ages. Hepatitis E appears to be relatively severe compared with hepatitis A. Although both hepatitis are self-limited illness, severe hepatits are rarely observed. Hepatitis A and E can be prevented by improved sanitary conditions, handwashing, heating foods appropriately. Avoidance of water and foods from endemic areas is also effective.

  16. Foodborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Organic Foods in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, R Reid; Zakhour, Christine M; Gould, L Hannah

    2016-11-01

    Consumer demand for organically produced foods is increasing in the United States as well as globally. Consumer perception often credits organic foods as being safer than conventionally produced foods, although organic standards do not directly address safety issues such as microbial or chemical hazards. We reviewed outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System where the implicated food was reported to be organic. Information collected for each outbreak included the year, state, number of illnesses, pathogen, and implicated food. We identified 18 outbreaks caused by organic foods from 1992 to 2014, resulting in 779 illnesses, 258 hospitalizations, and 3 deaths; 56% of outbreaks occurred from 2010 to 2014. Nine outbreaks occurred in a single state, and nine outbreaks were multistate. Salmonella sp. (44% of outbreaks) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (33%) were the most commonly occurring pathogens. Eight of the outbreaks were attributed to produce items, four to unpasteurized dairy products, two to eggs, two to nut and seed products, and two to multi-ingredient foods. Fifteen (83%) outbreaks were associated with foods that were definitely or likely U.S. Department of Agriculture certified. More foodborne outbreaks associated with organic foods in the United States have been reported in recent years, in parallel with increases in organic food production and consumption. We are unable to assess risk of outbreaks due to organic foods compared with conventional foods because foodborne outbreak surveillance does not systematically collect food production method. Food safety requires focused attention by consumers, regardless of whether foods are produced organically or conventionally. Consumers should be aware of the risk of milk and produce consumed raw, including organic.

  17. Origin Detection During Food-borne Disease Outbreaks - A Case Study of the 2011 EHEC/HUS Outbreak in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitz, Juliane; Kneib, Thomas; Schlather, Martin; Helbing, Dirk; Brockmann, Dirk

    2014-04-01

    The key challenge during food-borne disease outbreaks, e.g. the 2011 EHEC/HUS outbreak in Germany, is the design of efficient mitigation strategies based on a timely identification of the outbreak's spatial origin. Standard public health procedures typically use case-control studies and tracings along food shipping chains. These methods are time-consuming and suffer from biased data collected slowly in patient interviews. Here we apply a recently developed, network-theoretical method to identify the spatial origin of food-borne disease outbreaks. Thereby, the network captures the transportation routes of contaminated foods. The technique only requires spatial information on case reports regularly collected by public health institutions and a model for the underlying food distribution network. The approach is based on the idea of replacing the conventional geographic distance with an effective distance that is derived from the topological structure of the underlying food distribution network. We show that this approach can efficiently identify most probable epicenters of food-borne disease outbreaks. We assess and discuss the method in the context of the 2011 EHEC epidemic. Based on plausible assumptions on the structure of the national food distribution network, the approach can correctly localize the origin of the 2011 German EHEC/HUS outbreak.

  18. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... team will provide additional treatment. They can use methods to get rid of the poison before it causes more harm. Some types of poison have antidotes. These work by reversing the poison’s effects and curing it. Treatment also includes measures to relieve symptoms. ...

  19. Formation of a Volunteer Harmful Algal Bloom Network in British Columbia, Canada, Following an Outbreak of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning

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    Nicola Haigh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for shellfish toxin illness in British Columbia (BC on the west coast of Canada can be traced back to 1793. For over two hundred years, domestically acquired bivalve shellfish toxin illnesses in BC were solely ascribed to paralytic shellfish poisonings caused by algal blooms of Alexandrium. This changed in 2011, when BC experienced its first outbreak of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP. As a result of this outbreak, Canada’s first DSP symposium was held in November, 2012, in North Vancouver, BC. Three of the objectives of the symposium were to provide a forum to educate key stakeholders on this emerging issue, to identify research and surveillance priorities and to create a DSP network. The purpose of this paper is to review what is known about shellfish poisoning in BC and to describe a novel volunteer network that arose following the symposium. The newly formed network was designed for industry shellfish growers to identify harmful algae bloom events, so that they may take actions to mitigate the effects of harmful blooms on shellfish morbidity. The network will also inform public health and regulatory stakeholders of potentially emerging issues in shellfish growing areas.

  20. Outbreak-associated Salmonella enterica Serotypes and Food Commodities, United States, 1998–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Brendan R.; Griffin, Patricia M.; Cole, Dana; Walsh, Kelly A.; Chai, Shua J.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica infections are transmitted not only by animal-derived foods but also by vegetables, fruits, and other plant products. To clarify links between Salmonella serotypes and specific foods, we examined the diversity and predominance of food commodities implicated in outbreaks of salmonellosis during 1998–2008. More than 80% of outbreaks caused by serotypes Enteritidis, Heidelberg, and Hadar were attributed to eggs or poultry, whereas >50% of outbreaks caused by serotypes Javiana...

  1. Outbreak-associated Salmonella enterica serotypes and food Commodities, United States, 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brendan R; Griffin, Patricia M; Cole, Dana; Walsh, Kelly A; Chai, Shua J

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella enterica infections are transmitted not only by animal-derived foods but also by vegetables, fruits, and other plant products. To clarify links between Salmonella serotypes and specific foods, we examined the diversity and predominance of food commodities implicated in outbreaks of salmonellosis during 1998-2008. More than 80% of outbreaks caused by serotypes Enteritidis, Heidelberg, and Hadar were attributed to eggs or poultry, whereas >50% of outbreaks caused by serotypes Javiana, Litchfield, Mbandaka, Muenchen, Poona, and Senftenberg were attributed to plant commodities. Serotypes Typhimurium and Newport were associated with a wide variety of food commodities. Knowledge about these associations can help guide outbreak investigations and control measures.

  2. [Control of toxicity of Sarcocystis fayeri in horsemeat by freezing treatment and prevention of food poisoning caused by raw consumption of horsemeat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Seiya; Furukawa, Masato; Tokuoka, Eisuke; Matsumoto, Kazutoshi; Yahiro, Shunsuke; Miyasaka, Jiro; Saito, Morihiro; Kamata, Yoichi; Watanabe, Maiko; Irikura, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2013-01-01

    More than 27 outbreaks per year of food poisoning caused by consuming horse meat were reported in Kumamoto Prefecture (including Kumamoto City) from January 2009 to September 2011. It was found that the causative agent of the outbreaks was a protein with a molecular weight of 15 kDa that had originated from bradyzoites of Sarcocystis fayeri parasitizing the horse meat. Rabit ileal loop tests showed that pepsin treatment of homogenates of frozen horse meat containing the cysts of S. fayeri induced loss of toxicity, presumably by digestion of the proteinous causative agent(s). Slices of horse meat containing the cysts were frozen at below -20°C for various periods. The cysts were collected after thawing the slices, then treated in an artificial stomach juice containing pepsin. The bradyzoites of the cysts kept at -20°C for 48 hr or more completely disappeared. Simultaneously, the 15 kDa protein also disappeared in the frozen cysts. After notifying the public and recommending freezing treatment of horse meat, no subsequent cases of food poisoning were reported. This indicates that freezing of horse meat is effective to prevent the occurrence of food poisoning caused by consuming raw horse meat containing S. fayeri.

  3. Poultry: the most common food in outbreaks with known pathogens, United States, 1998-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, S J; Cole, D; Nisler, A; Mahon, B E

    2017-01-01

    As poultry consumption continues to increase worldwide, and as the United States accounts for about one-third of all poultry exports globally, understanding factors leading to poultry-associated foodborne outbreaks in the United States has important implications for food safety. We analysed outbreaks reported to the United States' Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System from 1998 to 2012 in which the implicated food or ingredient could be assigned to one food category. Of 1114 outbreaks, poultry was associated with 279 (25%), accounting for the highest number of outbreaks, illnesses, and hospitalizations, and the second highest number of deaths. Of the 149 poultry-associated outbreaks caused by a confirmed pathogen, Salmonella enterica (43%) and Clostridium perfringens (26%) were the most common pathogens. Restaurants were the most commonly reported location of food preparation (37% of poultry-associated outbreaks), followed by private homes (25%), and catering facilities (13%). The most commonly reported factors contributing to poultry-associated outbreaks were food-handling errors (64%) and inadequate cooking (53%). Effective measures to reduce poultry contamination, promote safe food-handling practices, and ensure food handlers do not work while ill could reduce poultry-associated outbreaks and illnesses.

  4. Conditioned food aversion to control outbreaks of intoxication by Ipomoea carnea and Turbina cordata in goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conditioned food aversion is used to train livestock to avoid the ingestion of toxic plants. This technique was used to control Turbina cordata poisoning in goats in one farm, and to control Ipomoea carnea subsp. istulosa poisoning in another farm. The goats were penned at night and the next mornin...

  5. Contributing factors in restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks, FoodNet sites, 2006 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, L Hannah; Rosenblum, Ida; Nicholas, David; Phan, Quyen; Jones, Timothy F

    2013-11-01

    An estimated 48 million cases of foodborne illness occur each year in the United States, resulting in approximately 128,000 hospitalizations and 3,000 deaths. Over half of all foodborne disease outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are associated with eating in restaurants or delicatessens. We reviewed data from restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks to better understand the factors that contribute to these outbreaks. Data on restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks reported by sites participating in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) were analyzed to characterize contributing factors reported in foodborne disease outbreaks and the levels of evidence used to identify these factors. Of 457 foodborne disease outbreaks reported in 2006 and 2007 by FoodNet sites, 300 (66%) were restaurant associated, and of these 295 (98%) had at least one reported contributing factor. One to nine (with a median of two) contributing factors were reported per outbreak. Of the 257 outbreaks with a single etiology reported, contributing factors associated with food worker health and hygiene were reported for 165 outbreaks (64%), factors associated with food preparation practices within the establishment were reported for 88 outbreaks (34%), and factors associated with contamination introduced before reaching the restaurant were reported for 56 outbreaks (22%). The pronounced role of food workers in propagating outbreaks makes it clear that more work is needed to address prevention at the local level. Food workers should be instructed not to prepare food while ill to prevent the risk of transmitting pathogens.

  6. 1999-2014年全国重大食物中毒通报资料的汇总与分析%Analysis of the Food Poisoning in China from 1999 to 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓国兴; 姜随意; 高志贤

    2015-01-01

    分析总结食物中毒发生规律,为社会性预防食物中毒提出相应策略。利用近十六年国家重大食物中毒通报统计数据进行统计学分析。结果表明,第三季度为重大食物中毒高发季节,中毒人数占总人数的42.50%;微生物性食物中毒人数最多,化学性食物中毒为重大食物中毒高死亡类型,死亡人数占总死亡人数的42.58%;集体食堂食物中毒人数最多,家庭食物中毒为重大食物中毒死亡率最高的发病地点,死亡人数占总死亡人数的80.58%。食物中毒形势依然严峻,预防食物中毒需要加强管理、监督指导和宣传教育。%To analyze the reasons and the rules of food poisoning for puting forwad the preventive measures of food poisoning. The data of food poisoning in China from 1999 to 2014 was analyzed by epidemiology and statistics. Most of food poisoning events occurred in the third quarter , when the number of poisoning people accounted for 42.50%of the total. Most of the food poisoning was the microbial poisoning. The mortality rate of chemical food poisoning was very high, the number of deaths accounted for 42.58 % of all. Most of the food poisoning happened in the collective canteens. The numbers dying of food poisoning at home accounted for the most, the number of deaths accounted for 80.58 % of all. The food poisoning situation is still grim. Through strengthening management, supervision, guidance and educational propaganda, food poisoning outbreaks can be prevented and reduced.

  7. 9 CFR 311.16 - Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cause food poisoning. (a) All carcasses of animals so infected that consumption of the products thereof... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning. 311.16 Section 311.16 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY...

  8. An Outbreak of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Yamagata Prefecture Following the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Iseki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake, most of the areas in Yamagata prefecture experienced a serious power failure lasting for approximately 24 hours. A number of households were subsequently poisoned with carbon monoxide (CO due to various causes. In this study, we conducted a survey of CO poisoning during the disaster. Methods: A questionnaire regarding CO poisoning associated with the disaster was sent to 37 emergency hospitals in Yamagata prefecture. Results: A total of 51 patients were treated for unintentional CO poisoning in 7 hospitals (hyperbaric oxygen chambers were present in 3 of the hospitals. The patients (18 men, 33 women ranged in age from 0 to 90 years. The source of CO exposure was charcoal briquettes (23 cases; 45%, gasoline-powered electric generators (18 cases; 35%, electric generators together with oil stoves (8 cases; 16%, oil stoves (1 cases; 2%, and automobile exhaust (1 cases; 2%. Blood carboxyhemoglobin levels ranged from 0.5% to 41.6% in 49 cases. Of these, 41 patients were treated by normobaric oxygen therapy, while one was intubated for artificial respiration. Additionally, 5 patients (10% were treated by hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and 3 patients (6% experienced delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae. Conclusion: CO sources included gasoline-powered electric generators and charcoal briquettes during the disaster. Storm-related CO poisoning is well recognized as a disaster-associated accident in the United States, but not in Japan. We emphasize that public education is needed to make people aware of the dangers of CO poisoning after a disaster. In addition, a pulse CO-oximeter should be set up in hospitals.  

  9. Genetic diversity among food-borne and waterborne norovirus strains causing outbreaks in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysén, Maria; Thorhagen, Margareta; Brytting, Maria; Hjertqvist, Marika; Andersson, Yvonne; Hedlund, Kjell-Olof

    2009-08-01

    A total of 101 food-borne and waterborne outbreaks that were caused by norovirus and that resulted in more than 4,100 cases of illness were reported to the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control from January 2002 to December 2006. Sequence and epidemiological data for isolates from 73 outbreaks were analyzed. In contrast to health care-related outbreaks, no clear seasonality could be observed. Sequence analysis showed a high degree of genetic variation among the noroviruses detected. Genogroup II (GII) viruses were detected in 70% of the outbreaks, and of those strains, strains of GII.4 were the most prevalent and were detected in 25% of all outbreaks. The GII.4 variants detected in global outbreaks in health care settings during 2002, 2004, and 2006 were also found in the food-borne outbreaks. GI strains totally dominated as the cause of water-related (drinking and recreational water) outbreaks and were found in 12 of 13 outbreaks. In 14 outbreaks, there were discrepancies among the polymerase and capsid genotype results. In four outbreaks, the polymerase of the recombinant GII.b virus occurred together with the GII.1 or GII.3 capsids, while the GII.7 polymerase occurred together with the GII.6 and GII.7 capsids. Mixed infections were observed in six outbreaks; four of these were due to contaminated water, and two were due to imported frozen berries. Contaminated food and water serve as important reservoirs for noroviruses. The high degree of genetic diversity found among norovirus strains causing food-borne and waterborne infections stresses the importance of the use of broad reaction detection methods when such outbreaks are investigated.

  10. Climate change and the incidence of food poisoning in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentham, Graham; Langford, Ian H.

    1995-06-01

    In recent years there have been several spells of high temperatures providing analogues for the conditions that might become more common as a result of the enhanced greenhouse effect. Statistical models were developed of the relationship between the monthly incidence of food poisoning and temperatures and these were then used to provide estimates of the possible effects of future warmer summers. Routinely collected data on the number of reported cases of food poisoning were analysed for the years 1982 1991. Regression analysis was used to establish the relationship between the monthly incidence of food poisoning and temperatures of the same and the previous month. Published scenarios for future temperatures were applied to these statistical models to provide estimates of the possible impacts of warmer conditions. The monthly incidence of food poisoning was found to be significantly associated with the temperature of the same and of the previous month with the latter having the stronger effect. Using published data on the relationship between reported and actual numbers of cases of food poisoning, it is estimated that annually there might be an additional 179 000 cases of food poisoning by the year 2050 as a result of climate change. The observed relationship with the same month's temperature underlines the need for improvements in storage, preparation and hygiene close to the point of consumption. However, there was a much stronger relationship with the temperature of the previous month, indicating the importance of conditions earlier in the food production process. Improvements in areas such as animal husbandry and slaughtering may also be necessary to avoid the adverse effects of a warmer climate.

  11. Food poisoning due to yam flour consumption in Kano (Northwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke SI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Food poisoning is known to occur sporadically from time to time due to poor hygienic preparations. Its occurrence rarely assumes epidemic proportion. The objective was to report the occurrence of food poisoning due to yam flour among three families which occurred almost in quick succession between March and July 2007 among three families in Kano. They presented with diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, convulsion and loss of consciousness. They all recovered within 48hours of admission. Investigations indicated that the use of certain lethal preservatives for the processing of the yam flour might be responsible. Poisoning from consumption of yam flour should be a differential diagnosis of acute seizure disorders or occurrence of vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain in the tropics. It is recommended that education on proper processing of all food products in view of the public health implication

  12. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice regarding Food, and Waterborne Outbreak after Massive Diarrhea Outbreak in Yazd Province, Iran, Summer 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghi, Zahra; Okhovat, Batul; Doosti Irani, Amin; Talaei, Mojgan; Ahmadnezhad, Elham; Gooya, Mohammad Mehdi; Soroush, Mahmood; Masoumi Asl, Hossein; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This Study was conducted after a diarrhea outbreak that occurred in Yazd Province, Iran. The aim of the study was to compare knowledge, attitude, practice, and other risk factors of the affected communities regarding diarrhea outbreak (the cities of Zarch, Meybod, and Ardakan) to nonaffected communities (the cities of Yazd and Taft). Methods. A knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) survey study was conducted from August to September 2013 enrolling 505 subjects who were referred to health centers anonymously during the epidemic. The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics such as gender, education level, source of health information obtaining; (b) 12 questions on knowledge (Min = 0, Max = 36); (c) 10 questions on attitude (Min = 0, Max = 50); and (d) nine questions on practice (Min = 0, Max = 27). Results. The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude, and practice was 28.17 (SD = 4.58), 37.07 (SD = 4.39), and 21.31 (SD = 3.81), respectively. Practice on food- and waterborne outbreaks was significantly higher in females (P = 0.001) and in nonaffected communities (P = 0.031). Conclusions. Nonaffected communities had a considerably better practice score. With the increase in the score of knowledge about food- and waterborne outbreaks, the score of practice increased slightly.

  13. Enterotoxigenic profiles and polymerase chain reaction detection of Bacillus cereus group cells and B. cereus strains from foods and food-borne outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Y M; Sheu, S J; Chen, Y L; Tsen, H Y

    1999-10-01

    Bacillus cereus is one of the important food pathogens. Since B. cereus group cells, such as B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. anthracis and B. mycoides, share many phenotypical properties and a high level of chromosomal sequence similarity, it is interesting to investigate the virulence profiles for B. cereus group cells, including B. cereus strains isolated from foods and samples associated with food-poisoning outbreaks. For this investigation, the presence of enterotoxin genes, such as those of haemolysin BL, B. cereus enterotoxin T and enterotoxin FM, were assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Meanwhile, their enterotoxin activities were assayed using the BCET-RPLA kit, haemolytic patterns on sheep blood agar and their cytotoxicity to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Results showed that there were 12 enterotoxigenic profiles for the 98 B. cereus group strains collected. In addition, if any of the three types of enterotoxins was present in the B. cereus group cells, these cells were shown to be cytotoxic to the CHO cells. Similar enterotoxigenic profiles could be found among strains of B. cereus, B. mycoides and B. thuringiensis. Thus, all B. cereus group strains may be potentially toxigenic and the detection of these cells in foods is important. We thus designed PCR primers, termed Ph1/Ph2, from the sphingomyelinase gene of B. cereus cells. These primers were specific for all B. cereus group strains and could be used for the detection of B. cereus cells contaminated in food samples.

  14. Presentation of a general algorithm for effect-assessment on secondary poisoning. II Terrestrial food chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn CAFM; Luttik R; Slooff W; Canton JH

    1991-01-01

    In an earlier report, a simple algorithm for effect-assessment on secondary poisoning of birds and mammals was presented. This algorithm (MAR = NOEC/BCF) was drawn up by analyzing an aquatic food chain. In the present study it was tested whether this algorithm can be used equally well for effect-a

  15. Detection of noroviruses in foods: a study on virus extraction procedures in foods implicated in outbreaks of human gastroenteritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutjes, Saskia A; Lodder-Verschoor, Froukje; Poel, Wim H M van der; Duynhoven, Yvonne T H P van; Roda Husman, Ana Maria de

    2006-01-01

    Disease outbreaks in which foods are epidemiologically implicated as the common source are frequently reported. Noroviruses and enteric hepatitis A viruses are among the most prevalent causative agents of foodborne diseases. However, the detection of these viruses in foods other than shellfish is of

  16. Detection of noroviruses in foods: a study on virus extraction procedures in foods implicated in outbreaks of human gastroenteritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutjes, Saskia A; Lodder-Verschoor, Froukje; Poel, Wim H M van der; Duynhoven, Yvonne T H P van; Roda Husman, Ana Maria de

    2006-01-01

    Disease outbreaks in which foods are epidemiologically implicated as the common source are frequently reported. Noroviruses and enteric hepatitis A viruses are among the most prevalent causative agents of foodborne diseases. However, the detection of these viruses in foods other than shellfish is

  17. An outbreak of food-borne gastroenteritis due to sapovirus among junior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuku, Shuzo; Kumazaki, Makoto; Kitamura, Katsuhiko; Tochikubo, Osamu; Noguchi, Yuzo

    2008-11-01

    The human sapovirus (SaV) causes acute gastroenteritis mainly in infants and young children. A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with SaV occurred among junior high school students in Yokohama, Japan, during and after a study trip. The nucleotide sequences of the partial capsid gene derived from the students exhibited 98% homology to a SaV genogroup IV strain, Hu/Angelholm/SW278/2004/SE, which was isolated from an adult with gastroenteritis in Solna, Sweden. An identical nucleotide sequence was detected from a food handler at the hotel restaurant, suggesting that the causative agent of the outbreak was transmitted from the food handler. This is the first description of a food-borne outbreak associated with the SaV genogroup IV strain in Japan.

  18. Spontaneous and experimental poisoning of cattle by Palicourea aeneofusca in the region of Pernambuco and introduction of conditioned food aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and pathological aspects of Palicourea aeneofusca poisoning in cattle in the region of Pernambuco, Brazil and to determine if it is possible to induce food aversion by P. aeneofusca poisoning in cattle raised under extensive ...

  19. The impact of calicivirus mixed infection in an oyster-associated outbreak during a food festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Jinan; Shen, Zhen

    2015-12-01

    Despite calicivirus food-borne outbreaks posing major public health concern worldwide, little information is at present available about the impact of caliciviruses mixed infection in an oyster-associated outbreak in China. To investigate the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of an oyster-associated calicivirus outbreak initiated by a food festival in Shanghai, China, in April 2014. Molecular epidemiological studies based on nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of calicivirus strains from patients. A total of 65 of the 78 (83%) cases from this outbreak were associated with raw oyster consumption. Forty-six calicivirus strains were identified from 25 stool specimens with norovirus (NoV) GII.4 Sydney_2012, GII.13, GI.2, GI.5 and sapovirus (SaV) GI.2 being predominant genotypes and with a prevalence of triple-, double- and single-infection being 20%, 48% and 28%, respectively. Meanwhile, 13 putative NoV recombinants were indicated by the phylogenetic inconsistency between capsid and polymerase genotype, mainly including GII.Pe/GII.4 Sydney_2012. Molecular epidemiological investigation showed possible multiple route transmission in the field. The clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of the mixed point-source calicivirus outbreak also conformed to Kaplan's criteria. This is the first reported oyster-associated calicivirus outbreak with a high prevalence of mixed infection during a food festival described in China. Our investigation underscores the importance of early surveillance and comprehensive etiologic identification of mixed point-source outbreaks and the need for reliable standards of monitoring oysters to prevent and control calicivirus food-borne outbreaks in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigative diagnostic toxicology and the role of the veterinarian in pet food-related outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Christina R; Hooser, Stephen B

    2012-03-01

    Due to the potential implications of food-related illnesses in animals, recognition of pet food-related outbreaks is one of the many crucial roles of the veterinarian. This article describes the veterinarian’s role in investigating and reporting food-related illnesses in cats and dogs. Recommendations regarding taking thorough case histories, appropriate sample collection, effective use of veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and recommendations for reporting such illnesses are described.

  1. Genetic Relatedness among Hepatitis A Virus Strains Associated with Food-Borne Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Gilberto; Xia, Guoliang; Forbi, Joseph C.; Purdy, Michael A.; Rossi, Lívia Maria Gonçalves; Spradling, Philip R.; Khudyakov, Yury E.

    2013-01-01

    The genetic characterization of hepatitis A virus (HAV) strains is commonly accomplished by sequencing subgenomic regions, such as the VP1/P2B junction. HAV genome is not extensively variable, thus presenting opportunity for sharing sequences of subgenomic regions among genetically unrelated isolates. The degree of misrepresentation of phylogenetic relationships by subgenomic regions is especially important for tracking transmissions. Here, we analyzed whole-genome (WG) sequences of 101 HAV strains identified from 4 major multi-state, food-borne outbreaks of hepatitis A in the Unites States and from 14 non-outbreak-related HAV strains that shared identical VP1/P2B sequences with the outbreak strains. Although HAV strains with an identical VP1/P2B sequence were specific to each outbreak, WG were different, with genetic diversity reaching 0.31% (mean 0.09%). Evaluation of different subgenomic regions did not identify any other section of the HAV genome that could accurately represent phylogenetic relationships observed using WG sequences. The identification of 2–3 dominant HAV strains in 3 out of 4 outbreaks indicates contamination of the implicated food items with a heterogeneous HAV population. However, analysis of intra-host HAV variants from eight patients involved in one outbreak showed that only a single sequence variant established infection in each patient. Four non-outbreak strains were found closely related to strains from 2 outbreaks, whereas ten were genetically different from the outbreak strains. Thus, accurate tracking of HAV strains can be accomplished using HAV WG sequences, while short subgenomic regions are useful for identification of transmissions only among cases with known epidemiological association. PMID:24223112

  2. [Food poisoning by scombroid fish (tuna) in a communal dining room of a company].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedo, A; Bellido, J; Criado, J; Pérez, R; González, F; Safont, L; Monfort, G; Calvo, C

    1989-11-25

    We report a collective tuna fish poisoning which developed on June 10, 1988, in a staff dining room in Castellón. Twenty-one people were involved (attack rate 42.9%). The major symptoms were diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, facial flushing and oral burning. The mean duration of the symptoms was 15 hours. The ingestion of tuna fish was significantly associated with the illness (p less than 0.001) when the other foodstuffs were controlled. Tuna fish had been defrosted at room air temperature during 14 hours. The analysis of several foodstuffs (there were no tuna fish remains available) and the food handling staff did not disclose pathogens. We discuss the etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology and control of this type of food poisoning.

  3. [Isolation and characterization of Shewanella spp. from patients of food poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Lu; Wang, Duo-Chun; Zhan, Sheng-Wei; Zheng, Jin-Xiu; Liu, Yan; Tao, Yong; Shi, Zhi-Feng; Hao, Min; Yu, Li; Kan, Biao

    2009-08-01

    To identify the isolates of Shewanella spp. from specimens of food poisoning based on biological and biochemical analysis. Strains were obtained from the investigation on two food poisoning episodes in September and October, 2007 in Ma'anshan city, Anhui province. In accordance with the national standard protocol (GB/T 4789), all specimens were enriched and isolated on selective medium, and the suspected strains were identified by the VITEK-32 and API20E systems. For Shewanella spp. identified by the biochemical system, more characteristics were analyzed using auxiliary biochemical, growth, hemolytic and drug-resistance tests. DNAs of Shewanella spp. were extracted, 16S rDNA was PCR amplified and sequenced with universal 16S rDNA primers. Phylogenetic tree was constructed with MEGA 4.0. After enrichment, all specimens were inoculated to selective medium and Shewanella spp. strains were isolated from 8 samples with single colony on both TCBS and BP media. The characteristics of growth in the Triple Sugar Iron (TSI) agar appeared to have had hydrogen sulfide production but no gas production or positive oxidase. No Shewanella spp. strain was detected in WS, SS and EMB media. The 8 strains were identified as Shewanella algae (S. algae) or Shewanella putrefaciens (S. putrefaciens) by VITEK-32, as S. putrefaciens by API20E system. No other enteropathogenic bacteria, including Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Proteus vulgaris or Staphylococcus aureus, were detected from those 8 samples. From 16S rDNA phylogenetic trees, 7 out of 8 Shewanella spp. were identified as S. algae, 1 as S. putrefaciens. Strains of Shewanella spp. were isolated from samples of the food poisoning episodes, providing a possible clue to investigate the role of Shewanella spp. on food poisoning.

  4. Attributing human foodborne illness to food sources and water in Latin America and the Caribbean using data from outbreak investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro; Vieira, Antonio; Perez, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Foodborne pathogens are responsible for an increasing burden of disease worldwide. Knowledge on the contribution of different food sources and water for disease is essential to prioritize food safety interventions and implement appropriate control measures. Source attribution using outbreak data...... to identify sources of disease. Still, the application of this method for source attribution in the LA&C region was successful, and we concluded that this approach can be used to attribute disease to food sources and water in other regions, including developing regions with limited data on the public health......&C). Foods implicated in outbreaks were classified by their ingredients as simple foods (i.e. belonging to one single food category), or complex foods (i.e. belonging to multiple food categories). For each agent, the data from simple-food outbreaks were summarized, and the proportion of outbreaks caused...

  5. [Discovery and follow-up of a lead-poisoning outbreak in a shantytown of Le Port, Reunion Island].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solet, J-L; Renault, P; Denys, J-C; Teulé, G; Dennemont, R-M; Domonte, F; Garnier, C; Aubert, L; Filleul, L; Polycarpe, D

    2013-08-01

    A national survey conducted in 2008-2009 by the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance for detection of lead impact in childhood identified a high blood lead level in a young boy living in the town of "Le Port", Reunion Island. Previously, cases of lead-poisoning on the island had been exceptional; only a dozen cases were reported in the 1980s in adults, related to the use of lead-containing instruments for food preparations. The family of the index case was invited to participate in screening tests and an environmental investigation was conducted using a standardized questionnaire. Screening was then broadened to the neighborhood of the index case and samples of soil outside the home and in the immediate vicinity were taken. The environmental survey was then extended with soil samples taken from the entire geographical area. Information was then provided to local inhabitants (87 families and 287 people) in order to encourage lead blood testing for all children under six years and all pregnant women living in the area. The index case lived in the neighborhood of "The Oasis", a shantytown of Le Port. The results of soil analysis revealed heterogeneous pollution of superficial soils by lead throughout the area of the shantytown, the highest level recorded (5200mg/kg) reached more than 300 times the background level of the natural soils of the island. The screening identified 76 cases of childhood lead-poisoning (blood lead level greater or equal to 100μg/L) among 148 samples (51%). All cases of blood poisoning involved children under the age of 15 years. The median age of children with a positive test was 5.6 years; the median blood lead level was 196μg/L [102-392μg/L]. The main hypothesis to explain the contamination of the soil in the area of the shantytown is the presence of waste deposits (car batteries) and diffuse activities of metal recovery. The authorities managed to remove all the families from the environmental exposure to lead by

  6. Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae: Food poisoning and health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The family Enterobactericeae consists of rod-shaped, Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore forming bacteria and also includes the food-borne pathogens, Cronobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., and Yersinia spp. Illness caused by these pathogens is acquired...

  7. An outbreak of food-borne salmonellosis linked to a bread takeaway shop in Ben Tre City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuan Huu Vo

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Stuffed bread was the likely vehicle of the outbreak. The laboratory testing capacity for serotypes of Salmonella should be strengthened in Vietnam. Food-handler training in basic food safety measures should be improved.

  8. SALMONELLA FOOD POISONING IN A PATIENT WITH ASCA RIASIS & ANCYLOSTOMIASIS : BUGS AND WORMS TOGETHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupriya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This is an unusual case presentation of a patient with symptoms of food poisoning along with two parasitic infections, both mode of infection being entirely different, with ascariasis due to ingestion of food contaminated with eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and Ancylostoma duo denale due to hookworm penetration through skin ( B are - foot walking. CASE REPORT: A 48 year old female patient came with complaints of fever and loose stools for three days. Patient was an agriculturist by occupation with poor personal hygiene with a histo ry of consumption of meat two days prior to the symptoms. Laboratory test showed leukocytosis ( T otal count - 13,000 cu.mm with both neutrophilic and eosinophilic predominance and anaemia. Microscopic examination of stool revealed the presence of plenty of p us cells and the presence of eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and eggs of Ancylostoma duodenale. Also Salmonella typhimurium was isolated in the stool culture and confirmed at National Reference Centre. CONCLUSION: Food poisoning is a serious health problem. I t can cause severe illness and even death. Soil transmitted helminths are common among agriculturist. Washing hands with warm water and soap before handling foods, eating and after using toilets is mandatory to prevent food borne illness and parasitic infe ctions.

  9. [Isolation of thermostable direct hemolysin producing Vibrio parahaemolyticus from food using screening by PCR in food-borne outbreaks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Hiromi; Shimojima, Yukako; Konishi, Noriko; Monma, Chie; Yano, Kazuyoshi; Kai, Akemi; Morozumi, Satoshi; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2006-07-01

    The producibility of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) is the most important pathogenic factor in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. TDH (+) V. parahaemolyticus is usually isolated from patients having V. parahaemolyticus food-borne disease. TDH (+) V. parahaemolyticus is, however, very difficult to isolate from food and environmental samples. In the 5 years from 2000 to 2004 in Tokyo, V. parahaemolyticus was isolated from food samples related to 67 of 227 V parahaemolyticus food-borne outbreaks. In these outbreaks, TDH (+) strains were also tried to isolate using PCR as the screening methods. TDH (+) V. parahaemolyticus strains were able to isolate from enrichment broth in which toxR and tdh genes become positive in PCR. TDH (+) strains of the same serotype with patients were able to be isolated from 23 food samples related to 11 outbreaks (16.4%); 3 outbreaks in 2000, 2 in 2001, 2 in 2002, 1 in 2003, and 3 in 2004. The serotypes of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from food were O3 : K6 (10 samples), O3 : K5 (6 samples), O1 : K25 (4 samples), O3 : K29 (2 samples), O4 : K 8 (1 sample), and O4 : K11 (1 sample). The isolation rate of the TDH (+) strain from enrichment broth differed with samples. In several samples TDH (+) strains were isolated easily only by examining 3 colonies, hence no TDH (+) strains were isolated in spite of the examination of 250 colonies. No correlation was seen between the number of V. parahaemolyticus and the isolation rate of TDH (+) strains in food samples. Screening using PCR is very effective method for isolating TDH (+) V. parahaemolyticus from food samples.

  10. Contributing Factors in Restaurant-Associated Foodborne Disease Outbreaks, FoodNet Sites, 2006 and 2007†

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOULD, L. HANNAH; ROSENBLUM, IDA; NICHOLAS, DAVID; PHAN, QUYEN; JONES, TIMOTHY F.

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 48 million cases of foodborne illness occur each year in the United States, resulting in approximately 128,000 hospitalizations and 3,000 deaths. Over half of all foodborne disease outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are associated with eating in restaurants or delicatessens. We reviewed data from restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks to better understand the factors that contribute to these outbreaks. Data on restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks reported by sites participating in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) were analyzed to characterize contributing factors reported in foodborne disease outbreaks and the levels of evidence used to identify these factors. Of 457 foodborne disease outbreaks reported in 2006 and 2007 by FoodNet sites, 300 (66%) were restaurant associated, and of these 295 (98%) had at least one reported contributing factor. One to nine (with a median of two) contributing factors were reported per outbreak. Of the 257 outbreaks with a single etiology reported, contributing factors associated with food worker health and hygiene were reported for 165 outbreaks (64%), factors associated with food preparation practices within the establishment were reported for 88 outbreaks (34%), and factors associated with contamination introduced before reaching the restaurant were reported for 56 outbreaks (22%). The pronounced role of food workers in propagating outbreaks makes it clear that more work is needed to address prevention at the local level. Food workers should be instructed not to prepare food while ill to prevent the risk of transmitting pathogens. PMID:24215683

  11. Sobre um surto de envenenamento por derivado cumarínico em bovinos About an outbreak of cumarin poisoning in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene F. Brito

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se um surto de envenenamento por derivado cumarínico em bovinos confinados, ocorrido no município de Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, no qual morreram duas vacas e um touro, de um total de 43 animais. Entre as principais manifestações clínicas observaram-se apatia, anorexia, sialorréia, diarréia sanguinolenta, incoordenação e dificuldade respiratória. À necropsia observaram-se principalmente hemorragias de intensidade e formas diversas, em vários órgãos. O exame histopatológico não evidenciou alterações, além de hemorragias. A pesquisa toxicológica em conteúdos de rúmen, retículo, omaso e abomaso, em amostras de fígado e rim, bem como da cevada coletada no cocho, resultou positiva para o grupo de derivados cumarínicos que inclui warfarina, bromadiolone e bromadifacoum. Não se pode excluir uma ação intencional ou acidental, visto que os animais que não estavam se alimentando no mesmo cocho, não adoeceram.An outbreak of cumarin poisoning which occurred in feedlot cattle in the county of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, is described. Three from 43 animal died. The main manifestations included bloody diarrhea, apathy, anorexia, sialorrhoe, incoordenation and dyspnoe. At post-mortem examinations there were mainly hemorrhages of varies forms and intensity in several organs, which also were seen at histopathological examination. Analysis for cumarin derivates of rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum contents, of liver and kidney samples, as well as of food collected from the trough, resulted positive for cumarin compounds which included warfarin, bromadiolone and brodifacoum. Feeding experiments with food stored at the property resulted negative. An intentional or accidental act could not be excluded. Animals that did not feed from the same trough did not get sick.

  12. Outbreak-associated Salmonella enterica Serotypes and Food Commodities, United States, 1998- 2008

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-09

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ study, Outbreak-associated Salmonella enterica Serotypes and Food Commodities, United States, 1998- 2008.  Created: 9/9/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/9/2013.

  13. Paralytic toxins in three new gastropod (Olividae) species implicated in food poisoning in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Pai-An; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang; Lu, Ya-Hui; Hwang, Deng-Fwu

    2003-03-01

    The toxins in the new gastropods Oliva miniacea, O. mustelina and O. nirasei implicated in a food paralytic poisoning incident in South Taiwan in February 2002 were studied. It was found that the three species of gastropods contained moderate amounts of toxin in edible portion only, and the highest toxicity score was 18 MU/g for O. miniacea, 10 MU/g for O. mustelina, and 27 MU/g for O. nirasei. The toxin was partially purified from the toxic specimens of each species by ultrafiltration using a YM-1 membrane, followed by chromatography on Bio-Gel P-2 column. Analyses by HPLC, GC-MS and LC-MS showed that the toxin from O. miniacea, O. nirasei and O. mustelina contained TTX, and related compounds 4-epi TTX and anhydro-TTX. The paralytic shellfish poisons were not found.

  14. Outbreaks of aflatoxicoses in India | Reddy | African Journal of Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Mycotoxins particularly aflatoxins are gaining increasing importance due to their ... conditions during transport and marketing can also contribute to mycotoxin production.

  15. School Meal Programs: Few Instances of Foodborne Outbreaks Reported, but Opportunities Exist To Enhance Outbreak Data and Food Safety Practices. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyckman, Lawrence J.

    This report details a study by the United States General Accounting Office (GAO) of food safety in public schools. The study examined: (1) the frequency and causes of reported food-borne illness outbreaks associated with the federal school-meal programs; and (2) the practices that federal, state, and local governments, as well as other food…

  16. Detection of noroviruses in foods: a study on virus extraction procedures in foods implicated in outbreaks of human gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutjes, Saskia A; Lodder-Verschoor, Froukje; van der Poel, Wim H M; van Duijnhoven, Yvonne T H P; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2006-08-01

    Disease outbreaks in which foods are epidemiologically implicated as the common source are frequently reported. Noroviruses and enteric hepatitis A viruses are among the most prevalent causative agents of foodborne diseases. However, the detection of these viruses in foods other than shellfish is often time-consuming and unsuccessful. In this study, three virus concentration methods were compared: polyethylene glycol (PEG) plus NaCl, ultracentrifugation, and ultrafiltration. Two RNA extraction methods, TRIzol and RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen), were compared for detection of viruses in whipped cream and lettuce (as representatives of the dairy and vegetable-fruit food groups, respectively). A seeding experiment with canine calicivirus was conducted to determine the efficiency of each virus extraction procedure. The PEG-NaCl-TRIzol method was most efficient for the detection of viruses in whipped cream and the ultracentrifugation-RNeasy-Mini Kit procedure was best for detection on lettuce. Based on the seeding experiments, food items implicated in norovirus-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks were subjected to the optimal procedure for a specific composition and matrix. No noroviruses were detected in the implicated food items, possibly because the concentration of virus on the food item was too low or because of the presence of inhibitory factors. For each food group, a specific procedure is optimal. Inhibitory factors should be controlled in these procedures because they influence virus detection in food.

  17. FoodChain-Lab: A Trace-Back and Trace-Forward Tool Developed and Applied during Food-Borne Disease Outbreak Investigations in Germany and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Armin A; Thöns, Christian; Filter, Matthias; Falenski, Alexander; Appel, Bernd; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    FoodChain-Lab is modular open-source software for trace-back and trace-forward analysis in food-borne disease outbreak investigations. Development of FoodChain-Lab has been driven by a need for appropriate software in several food-related outbreaks in Germany since 2011. The software allows integrated data management, data linkage, enrichment and visualization as well as interactive supply chain analyses. Identification of possible outbreak sources or vehicles is facilitated by calculation of tracing scores for food-handling stations (companies or persons) and food products under investigation. The software also supports consideration of station-specific cross-contamination, analysis of geographical relationships, and topological clustering of the tracing network structure. FoodChain-Lab has been applied successfully in previous outbreak investigations, for example during the 2011 EHEC outbreak and the 2013/14 European hepatitis A outbreak. The software is most useful in complex, multi-area outbreak investigations where epidemiological evidence may be insufficient to discriminate between multiple implicated food products. The automated analysis and visualization components would be of greater value if trading information on food ingredients and compound products was more easily available.

  18. FoodChain-Lab: A Trace-Back and Trace-Forward Tool Developed and Applied during Food-Borne Disease Outbreak Investigations in Germany and Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin A Weiser

    Full Text Available FoodChain-Lab is modular open-source software for trace-back and trace-forward analysis in food-borne disease outbreak investigations. Development of FoodChain-Lab has been driven by a need for appropriate software in several food-related outbreaks in Germany since 2011. The software allows integrated data management, data linkage, enrichment and visualization as well as interactive supply chain analyses. Identification of possible outbreak sources or vehicles is facilitated by calculation of tracing scores for food-handling stations (companies or persons and food products under investigation. The software also supports consideration of station-specific cross-contamination, analysis of geographical relationships, and topological clustering of the tracing network structure. FoodChain-Lab has been applied successfully in previous outbreak investigations, for example during the 2011 EHEC outbreak and the 2013/14 European hepatitis A outbreak. The software is most useful in complex, multi-area outbreak investigations where epidemiological evidence may be insufficient to discriminate between multiple implicated food products. The automated analysis and visualization components would be of greater value if trading information on food ingredients and compound products was more easily available.

  19. [Can solar/geomagnetic activity restrict the occurrence of some shellfish poisoning outbreaks? The example of PSP caused by Gymnodinium catenatum at the Atlantic Portuguese coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, P

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic outbreaks of accumulation of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in mussels attributed to Gymnodinium catenatum blooms displayed several of the highest inter-annual maxima coincidental with minima of the 11-year solar sunspot number (SSN) cycle. The monthly distribution of PSP was associated with low levels of the solar radio flux, a more quantitative approach than SSN for fluctuations in solar activity. A comparison between monthly distribution of PSP and other common biotoxins (okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2) and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxins) demonstrated that only PSP was significantly associated with low levels of radio flux (p radiation associated with the seasonal change in solar declination, and might play an additional role in seasonal signal-triggering. PSP distribution was also associated with low levels of the geomagnetic index Aa. A comparison between monthly distribution of PSP and other common biotoxins, also demonstrated that only PSP was significantly associated with low levels of the Aa index (p < 0.01). In some years of SSN minima no significant PSP-outbreaks in mussels were detected. This was attributed to a steady rise in geomagnetic activity that could disrupt the triggering signal. Global distribution patterns show that hotspots for G. catenatum blooms are regions with deficient crustal magnetic anomalies. In addition to the variable magnetic field mostly of solar origin, static fields related to magnetized rocks in the crust and upper mantle might play a role in restricting worldwide geographic distribution.

  20. Documented outbreaks of botulism:the impact of food-borne transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Victoria Rebagliati; Sabrina Chianelli; Mariela Tornese; Laura Rossi; Alcides Troncoso

    2008-01-01

    Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disease caused by Clostridium botulinum's toxins.Although the disease is uncommon,causes great concern due to its high rate of mortality;foodborne outbreaks of botulism occur world-wide and require immediate public health and acute care resources.This study had a review of outstanding out-breaks published;Journals articles related to the subject.From the outbreaks analysis we found the most in-volved food products were:fermented fish products in Alaska;home canning food,oil preservation and restau-rant sauce in London and USA;home canned vegetables,food airtight packed with inappropriate refrigeration and aerosols in Argentina.In conclusion,the diagnosis is based only on clinical findings matching the disease and previous exposure to suspicious food.Botulism must be immediately identified as one case suggests an epi-demic and should be treated as a public health emergency.Therefore the purpose of the following review is to recognize the associated risks with the consumption of potentially dangerous foods,to help work our way on pre-vention for every public health professional to be aware of the dangers of this potentially lethal disease.

  1. Intoxicação alimentar por queijo Minas contaminado com Staphylococcus aureus Food-poisoning from Minas-type cheese, contamined with Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Sabioni

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se surto de intoxicação alimentar ocorrido em julho de 1987, na cidade de Ouro Preto, MG (Brasil. O alimento causador foi um queijo Minas, contaminado por Staphylococcus aureus ao nível de 9,3 x 10(7 UFG/g. Detectaram-se cepas produtoras de enterotoxinas do tipo A,B,D e E. A amostra analisada revelou contaminação por coliformes fecais acima de 1,1 x 10(5/g(NMP, mas não continha Salmonella.Devido aos sintomas característicos e à elevada contaminação, concluiu-se que o Staphylococcus aureus foi o patogênico responsável pelo surto.An outbreak of food poisoning which occurred in July, 1987, in the city of Ouro Preto, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is reported. The food involved was a Minas-type cheese, contamined by Staphylococcus aureus to the level of 9.3 x 10(7 CFU/g. Enterotoxin producing strains of types A,B,D and E were detected. The sample analysed also showed contamination by fecal coliforms above 1.1 x 10(5/g (MPN, but Salmonella were not present. Due to characteristic symptoms and high contamination it was concluded that Staphylococcus aureus was the pathogene responsible for the outbreak.

  2. FoodCORE: A New Strategy in Foodborne Outbreak Response

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-06

    In this podcast, Gwen Biggerstaff, CDC's FoodCORE Coordinator, gives a general overview of the program, including successes.  Created: 11/6/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/6/2012.

  3. [Food poisoning following consumption of canned meat prepared by a butcher (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, M J; Bijker, P G

    1976-04-01

    A case of food poisoning possibly caused by the ingestion of canned meat is reported. Large numbers of micro-organisms (approximately 10(7)/gram), mainly Enterobacteriaceae and streptococci, were isolated from the contents of three cans. The contents of another can contained approximately 10(5) Bacillus spp. per gram. The meat preserves had been prepared in a butcher's shop and heated in a "cooking pot", the steam holes of which had been stopped up and the lid of which had been made heavier in order to reach a temperature above 100 degrees C. Inadequate sterilization and errors in processing are suggested as possible causes.

  4. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis identifies an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Montevideo infection associated with a supermarket hot food outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threlfall, E J; Hampton, M D; Ward, L R; Richardson, I R; Lanser, S; Greener, T

    1999-09-01

    In February 1996 Salmonella enterica serotype Montevideo infection in a patient in the North Tyneside area was attributed to consumption of cooked chicken bought from a supermarket hot food outlet. Isolates from the patient, leftover food, and environmental samples were indistinguishable by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PFGE also demonstrated that an outbreak of infection with S. Montevideo associated with the hot food outlet had occurred in late 1995 and early 1996. This study shows the importance of microbial strain discrimination in outbreak investigations and illustrates the value of close liaison between microbiologists, epidemiologists, and environmental health officers in the control of salmonella outbreaks.

  5. Staphylococcal food poisoning case and molecular analysis of toxin genes in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from food in Sicily, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Maria; Scatassa, Maria Luisa; Cardamone, Cinzia; Oliveri, Giuseppa; Piraino, Chiara; Alduina, Rosa; Napoli, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    A case of staphylococcal food poisoning was observed in two individuals of the same family after consumption of primosale, a semiripened sheep cheese produced in Sicily. Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the cheese produced enterotoxin C (SEC) and carried both the enterotoxin C (sec) and the toxic shock syndrome toxin (tsst-1) gene. Following this case, an extensive survey was conducted on 971 food samples (raw milk, cheese, meat, and food preparations). S. aureus was detected in 102 of 971 food samples, from all types of food with the exception of ricotta cheese. The tsst-1 gene was present in 42% of the strains, either alone or in combination with other toxin genes. The enterotoxin C gene was the most represented enterotoxin, but it was only found in dairy products. Six S. aureus isolates carried the sea gene alone, two isolates carried both sea and seb, and one isolate carried both sea and sec. A significant percentage (46%) of all isolates carried a toxin gene, creating significant concern that virulent S. aureus can be transmitted through food in Sicily.

  6. Food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the time, you will get better in a couple of days. The goal is to ease symptoms and make sure your body has the proper amount of fluids. Getting enough fluids and learning what to eat will help keep you comfortable. ...

  7. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-16

    to prevent recurrence. Toxic products from plants, such as white snakeroot, or solanines from the jimson weed, when ingested by cattle, may reach man...drug, 4-aminopyridine, has been tried with questionable re- A sults in Britain. A similar investigational drug, 3,4-diaminopyridine, is less toxic and... toxicity . Symptoms may begin within 10 minutes after ingestion if the mushroom contains muscarine. Peripheral anticholinergic effects include sweating

  8. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers.

  9. Foodborne Outbreaks Reported to the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service, Fiscal Years 2007 through 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kis; Green, Alice; Allen, Latasha; Ihry, Timothy; White, Patricia; Chen, Wu-San; Douris, Aphrodite; Levine, Jeoffrey

    2016-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) works closely with federal, state, and local public health partners to investigate foodborne illness outbreaks associated with its regulated products. To provide insight into outbreaks associated with meat and poultry, outbreaks reported to FSIS during fiscal years 2007 through 2012 were evaluated. Outbreaks were classified according to the strength of evidence linking them to an FSIS-regulated product and by their epidemiological, etiological, and vehicle characteristics. Differences in outbreak characteristics between the period 2007 through 2009 and the period 2010 through 2012 were assessed using a chi-square test or Mann-Whitney U test. Of the 163 reported outbreaks eligible for analysis, 89 (55%) were identified as possibly linked to FSIS-regulated products and 74 (45%) were definitively linked to FSIS-regulated products. Overall, these outbreaks were associated with 4,132 illnesses, 772 hospitalizations, and 19 deaths. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli was associated with the greatest proportion of reported outbreaks (55%), followed by Salmonella enterica (34%) and Listeria monocytogenes (7%). Meat and poultry products commercially sold as raw were linked to 125 (77%) outbreaks, and of these, 105 (80%) involved beef. Over the study period, the number of reported outbreaks definitively linked to FSIS-regulated products (P = 0.03) declined, while the proportion of culture-confirmed cases (P = 0.0001) increased. Our findings provide insight into the characteristics of outbreaks associated with meat and poultry products.

  10. Toxin and species identification of toxic octopus implicated into food poisoning in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Jung; Lin, Chun-Lan; Chen, Chien-Hung; Hsieh, Cheng-Hong; Jen, Hsiao-Chin; Jian, Shi-Jie; Hwang, Deng-Fwu

    2014-12-01

    A food poisoning incident due to ingestion of unknown octopus occurred in Taipei in December, 2010. The serum and urine from victims (male 38 and 43 years old) were collected, determined the toxicity, and identified tetrodotoxin (TTX) by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). It was found that only urine contained the trace of TTX. Then, two retained specimen (one without blue ring in the skin and another with small blue ring in the skin) were collected from victims and examined for the toxicity and toxin. Meanwhile, 6 specimens of octopus without blue ring in the skin and 4 specimens of octopus with blue ring in the skin were re-collected from the market. Both retained octopus samples were found to contain TTX. However, re-collected market's octopus without blue ring in the skin did not show to contain TTX the and was identified as Octopus aegina by using the analysis of cytochrome b gene (Cyt b) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). Only octopus with blue ring in the skin contained TTX and was identified as Hapalochlaena fasciata by using the analysis of Cyt b and COI. Therefore, this octopus food poisoning was caused by toxic octopus H. fasciata and the causative agent was TTX.

  11. An outbreak of food-borne group A Streptococcus (GAS) tonsillopharyngitis among residents of a dormitory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvghad, M R; Naderi, H R; Naderi-Nassab, M; Majdzadeh, R; Javanian, M; Faramarzi, H; Fatehmanesh, P

    2005-01-01

    Epidemics of food-borne pharyngitis due to group A Streptococcus are rarely reported. Here we present an outbreak of food-borne tonsillopharyngitis in female dormitories in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Throat swabs and cultures were performed on a number of patients, and of specimens from the nasopharynx and hands of staff who were involved in food processing. We planned a case-control study for assessing the source of epidemics. 11 out of 17 throat swabs of students were positive for Streptococcus group A and also 2 throat samples from asymptomatic cooks were positive. A DNA fingerprinting study showed that Streptococcus group A strains of 11 students and 1 cook had the same T agglutination pattern and M protein factor (M3/T13). It is suggested that group A streptococci as well as group C and G streptococci can cause epidemic food-borne pharyngitis. Regular health surveillance of food handlers and food preparation processes are important for prevention of such outbreaks.

  12. Lifesaving liver transplantation for multi-organ failure caused by Bacillus cereus food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschiedel, Eva; Rath, Peter-Michael; Steinmann, Jörg; Becker, Heinz; Dietrich, Rudolf; Paul, Andreas; Felderhoff-Müser, Ursula; Dohna-Schwake, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming, gram-positive bacterium that causes food poisoning presenting with either emesis or diarrhea. Diarrhea is caused by proteinaceous enterotoxin complexes, mainly hemolysin BL, non-hemolytic enterotoxin (NHE), and cytotoxin K. In contrast, emesis is caused by the ingestion of the depsipeptide toxin cereulide, which is produced in B. cereus contaminated food, particularly in pasta or rice. In general, the illness is mild and self-limiting. However, due to cereulide intoxication, nine severe cases with rhabdomyolysis and/or liver failure, five of them lethal, are reported in literature. Here we report the first case of life-threatening liver failure and severe rhabdomyolysis in this context that could not be survived without emergency hepatectomy and consecutive liver transplantation.

  13. An outbreak of food-borne botulism in Scotland, United Kingdom, November 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, L M; Prempeh, H; Little, C; Houston, C; Grant, K; Cowden, J M

    2011-12-08

    An investigation is currently underway to explain an outbreak of food-borne botulism in Scotland. Three children in the same family were confirmed as having botulism following consumption of a meal made with a jar of korma sauce. Residual sauce from the jar, the jar lid and a remnant of the meal, all tested positive for Clostridium botulinum type A toxin. The children are recovering, although two remain ventilated and in intensive care unit.

  14. Fatal outbreak from consuming Xanthium strumarium seedlings during time of food scarcity in northeastern Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S Gurley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An outbreak characterized by vomiting and rapid progression to unconsciousness and death was reported in Sylhet Distrct in northeastern Bangladesh following destructive monsoon floods in November 2007. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified cases presenting to local hospitals and described their clinical signs and symptoms. We interviewed patients and their families to collect illness histories and generate hypotheses about exposures associated with disease. An epidemiological study was conducted in two outbreak villages to investigate risk factors for developing illness. 76 patients were identified from 9 villages; 25% (19/76 died. Common presenting symptoms included vomiting, elevated liver enzymes, and altered mental status. In-depth interviews with 33 cases revealed that 31 (94% had consumed ghagra shak, an uncultivated plant, in the hours before illness onset. Ghagra shak was consumed as a main meal by villagers due to inaccessibility of other foods following destructive monsoon flooding and rises in global food prices. Persons who ate this plant were 34.2 times more likely (95% CI 10.2 to 115.8, p-value<0.000 than others to develop vomiting and unconsciousness during the outbreak in our multivariate model. Ghagra shak is the local name for Xanthium strumarium, or common cocklebur. CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of Xanthium strumarium seedlings in large quantities, due to inaccessibility of other foods, caused this outbreak. The toxic chemical in the plant, carboxyatratyloside, has been previously described and eating X. strumarium seeds and seedlings has been associated with fatalities in humans and livestock. Unless people are able to meet their nutritional requirements with safe foods, they will continue to be at risk for poor health outcomes beyond undernutrition.

  15. Fatal Outbreak from Consuming Xanthium strumarium Seedlings during Time of Food Scarcity in Northeastern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, Emily S.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Nahar, Nazmun; Faiz, M. Abul; Islam, Nazrul; Sultana, Rebeca; Khatun, Selina; Uddin, Mohammad Zashim; Haider, M. Sabbir; Islam, M. Saiful; Ahmed, Be-Nazir; Rahman, Muhammad Waliur; Mondal, Utpal Kumar; Luby, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Background An outbreak characterized by vomiting and rapid progression to unconsciousness and death was reported in Sylhet Distrct in northeastern Bangladesh following destructive monsoon floods in November 2007. Methods and Findings We identified cases presenting to local hospitals and described their clinical signs and symptoms. We interviewed patients and their families to collect illness histories and generate hypotheses about exposures associated with disease. An epidemiological study was conducted in two outbreak villages to investigate risk factors for developing illness. 76 patients were identified from 9 villages; 25% (19/76) died. Common presenting symptoms included vomiting, elevated liver enzymes, and altered mental status. In-depth interviews with 33 cases revealed that 31 (94%) had consumed ghagra shak, an uncultivated plant, in the hours before illness onset. Ghagra shak was consumed as a main meal by villagers due to inaccessibility of other foods following destructive monsoon flooding and rises in global food prices. Persons who ate this plant were 34.2 times more likely (95% CI 10.2 to 115.8, p-value<0.000) than others to develop vomiting and unconsciousness during the outbreak in our multivariate model. Ghagra shak is the local name for Xanthium strumarium, or common cocklebur. Conclusions The consumption of Xanthium strumarium seedlings in large quantities, due to inaccessibility of other foods, caused this outbreak. The toxic chemical in the plant, carboxyatratyloside, has been previously described and eating X. strumarium seeds and seedlings has been associated with fatalities in humans and livestock. Unless people are able to meet their nutritional requirements with safe foods, they will continue to be at risk for poor health outcomes beyond undernutrition. PMID:20305785

  16. Sources of calicivirus contamination in foodborne outbreaks, Denmark, 2005-2011 - the role of the asymptomatic food handler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franck, Kristina T.; Lisby, Morten; Fonager, Jannik;

    2015-01-01

    Background. Norovirus is the predominant cause of foodborne disease outbreaks. Virus contamination may occur during all steps of food processing from production to preparation and serving. The relative importance of these different routes of contamination is unknown. Methods. The purpose of this ......Background. Norovirus is the predominant cause of foodborne disease outbreaks. Virus contamination may occur during all steps of food processing from production to preparation and serving. The relative importance of these different routes of contamination is unknown. Methods. The purpose...... of this study was to estimate the proportions of outbreaks caused by asymptomatic and symptomatic food handlers. Reported foodborne norovirus and sapovirus outbreaks (n=191) occurring over a seven-year period were extracted, reviewed, and categorized according to the available evidence for source...... of contamination. Results. In 64 (34%) of the outbreaks, contamination from food handlers took place during preparation or serving of food. In the majority of these outbreaks (n=41; 64%), the food handlers were asymptomatic during food handling. Some had been in contact with ill household members before handling...

  17. An outbreak of Salmonella hadar associated with food consumption at a building site canteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustini, A; Sangalli, M; Fantasia, M; Manganello, R; Mattaccini, E; Trippanera, R; Spera, D; La Rosa, U; Topi, M T; Forastiere, F; Perucci, C A

    1998-01-01

    A biphasic outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella hadar affected canteen employees and workers at a construction site in central Italy in September 1994. There were 448 symptomatic cases, from 61 of whom group C Salmonella was isolated. Six cases were canteen employees. Twenty-two other individuals were asymptomatic excreters. There were 10 secondary cases. Working as a food handler at the canteen constituted an increased risk of infection, independently of ingestion of the food (odds ratio: 62.1; 95% confidence interval (CI): 9.5-406.6). Having eaten at the canteen on the 19th and 20th September was identified as risk factor for subjects symptomatic within 72 hours (relative risk (RR): 17.0, 95% CI: 2.3-124.3), and cooled meat salad was identified as the vehicle of infection (RR: 36.6, 95% CI: 14.3-93.8). The use of portable toilets was another possible route of transmission of infection for all cases (RR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0-1.6). The index case was a cook who had symptoms five days before the peak of the outbreak. From 27 individuals both symptomatic and asymptomatic excreters group B, group D and not-typed Salmonellas were isolated. This study underlines the problem of improper food handling in salmonellosis outbreaks and emphasizes the role of several vehicles in the transmission of salmonellosis in a community.

  18. A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus GII in a university located in Xiamen City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhinan Guo

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: The outbreak of gastroenteritis was caused mainly by bread products contaminated with norovirus GII. A food handler with an asymptomatic norovirus GII infection was the possible source of infection.

  19. A multi-state outbreak of Salmonella serotype Thompson infection from commercially distributed bread contaminated by an ill food handler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, A C; Palumbo, M S; Meyers, H; Abbott, S; Rodriguez, R; Werner, S B

    2005-10-01

    Foodborne transmission is estimated to account for 95% of non-typhoidal Salmonella infections reported in the United States; however, outbreaks of salmonellosis are rarely traced to food handlers. In August 2000, an increase in Salmonella serotype Thompson infection was noted in Southern California; most of the cases reported eating at a restaurant chain (Chain A) before illness onset. A case-control study implicated the consumption of burgers at Chain A restaurants. The earliest onset of illness was in a burger bun packer at Bakery B who had not eaten at Chain A but had worked while ill. Bakery B supplied burger buns to some Chain A restaurants in Southern California and Arizona. This outbreak is notable for implicating a food handler as the source of food contamination and for involving bread, a very unusual outbreak vehicle for Salmonella . Inadequate food-handler training as well as delayed reporting to the health department contributed to this outbreak.

  20. Food Safety Attitude of Culinary Arts Based Students in Public and Private Higher Learning Institutions (IPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patah, Mohd Onn Rashdi Abd; Issa, Zuraini Mat; Nor, Khamis Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Food safety issue is not new in Malaysia as problems such as unsafe food handling, doubtful food preparation, food poisoning outbreaks in schools and education institutions and spreading of infectious food borne illness has been discussed by the public more often than before. The purpose of this study is to examine the food safety knowledge and…

  1. 2002-2011年全国食物中毒情况分析%Analysis of the food poisoning in China from 2002 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷婷

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析食物中毒的原因及规律,探讨预防食物中毒的措施.方法 从食物中毒的基本情况、季节分布、致病因素和就餐场所四个方面,对2002-2011年全国食物中毒的情况进行统计分析.结果 2002-2011年,食物中毒的趋势呈曲线状,无明显规律;第三季度是食物中毒的高发时期,微生物性食物中毒人数最多,化学性食物中毒死亡率很高,集体食堂食物中毒人数最多,家庭食物中毒的死亡人数最多.结论 食物中毒的形式严峻,尤其是病死率还较高.通过加强预防食物中毒的宣传教育工作,重视有针对性的防控工作,建立饮食行业有效的监管机制,提高救治能力和检测能力,严厉处罚发生食物中毒的单位,可以最大限度地预防和降低食物中毒的发生.%Objective To investigate the reasons and the rules of food poisoning for exploring the preventive measures of food poison -ing. Methods The basic situation, seasonal distribution , pathogenic factors and dieting places of the food poisoning in China from 2002 to 2011 were analyzed. Results In 2002 -2011 ,the incidence of food poisoning showed no obvious rules . The high period of food poisoning was the third quarter in a year. Most of the food poisoning was the microbial poisoning. The mortality rate of chemical food poisoning was very high. Most of the food poisoning happened in the collective canteens . The numbers dying of food poisoning at home accounted for the most. Conclusion The food poisoning is still severe ,especially the mortality rate is higher. Through strengthening the propaganda and education of the prevention of food poisoning , paying attention to the preventive and control measures for food poisoning,establishing the effective and supervisory mechanism of the catering trade ,improving the care ability and the test level ,and stringently punishing the catering trades ,food poisoning must be prevented and reduced .

  2. Determination of histamine in milkfish stick implicated in food-borne poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chen Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An incident of food-borne poisoning causing illness in 37 victims due to ingestion of fried fish sticks occurred in September 2014, in Tainan city, southern Taiwan. Leftovers of the victims' fried fish sticks and 16 other raw fish stick samples from retail stores were collected and tested to determine the occurrence of histamine and histamine-forming bacteria. Two suspected fried fish samples contained 86.6 mg/100 g and 235.0 mg/100 g histamine; levels that are greater than the potential hazard action level (50 mg/100 g in most illness cases. Given the allergy-like symptoms of the victims and the high histamine content in the suspected fried fish samples, this food-borne poisoning was strongly suspected to be caused by histamine intoxication. Moreover, the fish species of suspected samples was identified as milkfish (Chanos chanos, using polymerase chain reaction direct sequence analysis. In addition, four of the 16 commercial raw milkfish stick samples (25% had histamine levels greater than the US Food & Drug Administration guideline of 5.0 mg/100 g for scombroid fish and/or products. Ten histamine-producing bacterial strains, capable of producing 373–1261 ppm of histamine in trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% L-histidine, were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes (4 strains, Enterobacter cloacae (1 strain, Morganella morganii (2 strains, Serratia marcescens (1 strain, Hafnia alvei (1 strain, and Raoultella orithinolytica (1 strain, by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing with polymerase chain reaction amplification.

  3. Shigella outbreak in a school associated with eating canteen food and person to person spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, H C; Seng, C; Chambers, S; Cheasty, T; Double, G; Soltanpoor, N; Morse, D

    1998-12-01

    In June 1993 an outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection at a primary school in south east England affected 42% of 327 pupils and staff. Attack rates of diarrhoea and fever were 33% for children aged 4 to 8 years, and 8% for those aged 8 to 12 years (p canteen food (relative risk 5.9; 95% confidence interval 3.4, -10.3). All strains examined were S. sonnei phage type 3, with the same antibiogram (ttSTSS), and were indistinguishable using colicin typing and biotyping (colicin type 9, E8) and pulse field gel electrophoresis. Molecular epidemiology suggested but could not confirm that the outbreak strain was introduced into the school population from the community.

  4. Surto de intoxicação por narasina em suínos An outbreak of narasin poisoning in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal G. Armién

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de intoxicação por narasina em suínos, cujo diagnóstico baseou-se no histórico, quadro clínico-patológico, na reprodução da enfermidade pela experimentação com a ração comercial originalmente oferecida aos suínos, bem como pelo exame químico posterior que detectou narasina em quantidades suficientemente elevadas para causar intoxicação. Apesar de os quadros clínico-patológicos das intoxicações natural e experimental serem da mesma natureza, houve algumas diferenças. Nos casos naturais o índice de letalidade foi elevado, enquanto que na intoxicação experimental nenhum animal morreu. Os exames histopatológicos revelaram, em parte dos casos naturais, além das lesões dos músculos estriados, também lesões nas fibras musculares cardíacas, últimas não verificadas nos casos experimentais. Sugere-se que essas diferenças poderiam ser explicadas pelo estresse ao qual os animais eram submetidos na granja pelo grande número de animais nas baias, ao contrário dos animais experimentais que eram mantidos em compartimentos individuais.An outbreak of narasin poisoning in swine is described. The diagnosis was based on the history, clinical-pathological findings, the reproduction of the disease by the administration of the feed originally given to the animals and by chemical analysis which showed doses sufficiently high to cause poisoning. Inspite that the clinical-pathological picture of the natural and experimental poisoning was of the same nature, there were some differences. In the natural outbreak lethality was high, but in the experiments none of the animals died. In the natural cases besides the lesions in the muscles, also lesions of the heart muscle fibres were seen, not detected in the esperimental animals. It is suggested that these differences could be due to the stress to which the animals were submitted in the piggery by the great number of animals per box, whereas the experimental animals were

  5. Rapid detection of foodborne botulism outbreaks facilitated by epidemiological linking of cases: implications for food defense and public health response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk, Ryan W; Hedberg, Craig W

    2012-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop an understanding of the descriptive epidemiology of foodborne botulism in the context of outbreak detection and food defense. This study used 1993-2008 data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Annual Summaries of Notifiable Diseases, 2003-2006 data from the Bacterial Foodborne and Diarrheal Disease National Case Surveillance Annual Reports, and 1993-2008 data from the Annual Listing of Foodborne Disease Outbreaks. Published outbreak investigation reports were identified through a PubMed search of MEDLINE citations for botulism outbreaks. Fifty-eight foodborne botulism outbreaks were reported to CDC between 1993 and 2008. Four hundred sixteen foodborne botulism cases were documented; 205 (49%) were associated with outbreaks. Familial connections and co-hospitalization of initial presenting cases were common in large outbreaks (>5 cases). In these outbreaks, the time from earliest exposure to outbreak recognition varied dramatically (range, 48-216 h). The identification of epidemiologic linkages between foodborne botulism cases is a critical part of diagnostic evaluation and outbreak detection. Investigation of an intentionally contaminated food item with a long shelf life and widespread distribution may be delayed until an astute physician suspects foodborne botulism; suspicion of foodborne botulism occurs more frequently when more than one case is hospitalized concurrently. In an effort to augment national botulism surveillance and antitoxin release systems and to improve food defense and public health preparedness efforts, medical organizations and Homeland Security officials should emphasize the education and training of medical personnel to improve foodborne botulism diagnostic capabilities to recognize single foodborne botulism cases and to look for epidemiologic linkages between suspected cases.

  6. Two geographically separated food-borne outbreaks in Sweden linked by an unusual Cryptosporidium parvum subtype, October 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherasim, A; Lebbad, M; Insulander, M; Decraene, V; Kling, A; Hjertqvist, M; Wallensten, A

    2012-11-15

    The number of sporadic cases of Cryptosporidium identified in the Stockholm county area increased above the expected limit during October 2010. Additionally, two food-borne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis occurred in two other Swedish cities: Umeå (4 October) and Örebro (9 October). The outbreak investigations did not reveal any responsible food item, however fresh herbs were suspected. Thirty stool samples, originating from all three events, tested positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) revealed that 27 individuals were infected with C. parvum, two with C. hominis, and one with C. felis. Using sequence analysis of the GP60 glycoprotein gene, a polymorphic marker with high intra-species diversity, we identified the same C. parvum subtype IIdA24G1 in samples from both the Umeå outbreak and the Stockholm area cases, thus indicating a possible outbreak in the Stockholm area and establishing a link between these two events. C. parvum IIdA24G1 has not previously been described in connection with a food-borne outbreak. For the outbreak in Örebro, another subtype was identified: C. parvum IIdA20G1e. These findings demonstrate that subtyping C. parvum isolates using GP60 gene amplification can be used to link cases in an outbreak investigation and we recommend its use in future similar events.

  7. Adverse Effects of Plant Food Supplements and Plants Consumed as Food: Results from the Poisons Centres-Based PlantLIBRA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüde, Saskia; Vecchio, Sarah; Sinno-Tellier, Sandra; Dopter, Aymeric; Mustonen, Harriet; Vucinic, Slavica; Jonsson, Birgitta; Müller, Dieter; Veras Gimenez Fruchtengarten, Ligia; Hruby, Karl; De Souza Nascimento, Elizabeth; Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Restani, Patrizia; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Ceschi, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    Plant food supplements (PFS) are products of increasing popularity and wide-spread distribution. Nevertheless, information about their risks is limited. To fill this gap, a poisons centres-based study was performed as part of the EU project PlantLIBRA. Multicentre retrospective review of data from selected European and Brazilian poisons centres, involving human cases of adverse effects due to plants consumed as food or as ingredients of food supplements recorded between 2006 and 2010. Ten poisons centres provided a total of 75 cases. In 57 cases (76%) a PFS was involved; in 18 (24%) a plant was ingested as food. The 10 most frequently reported plants were Valeriana officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Paullinia cupana, Melissa officinalis, Passiflora incarnata, Mentha piperita, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ilex paraguariensis, Panax ginseng, and Citrus aurantium. The most frequently observed clinical effects were neurotoxicity and gastro-intestinal symptoms. Most cases showed a benign clinical course; however, five cases were severe. PFS-related adverse effects seem to be relatively infrequent issues for poisons centres. Most cases showed mild symptoms. Nevertheless, the occurrence of some severe adverse effects and the increasing popularity of PFS require continuous active surveillance, and further research is warranted. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  9. Clinical diagnosis and chemical confirmation of ciguatera fish poisoning in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Hazel; Zammit, Anthony; Manning, Jennifer; Shadbolt, Craig; Szabo, Lisa; Harwood, D Tim; McNabb, Paul; Turahui, John A; van den Berg, Debra J

    2016-03-31

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is common in tropical and sub-tropical areas and larger fish (> 10 kg) are more susceptible to toxin accumulation with age. Although the coastal climate of northern New South Wales is considered sub-tropical, prior to 2014 there has only been 1 documented outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning from fish caught in the region. During February and March 2014, 2 outbreaks of ciguatera fish poisoning involved 4 and 9 individuals, respectively, both following consumption of Spanish mackerel from northern New South Wales coastal waters (Evans Head and Scotts Head). Affected individuals suffered a combination of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms requiring hospital treatment. At least 1 individual was symptomatic up to 7 months later. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detected the compound Pacific ciguatoxin-1B at levels up to 1.0 µg kg(-1) in fish tissue from both outbreaks. During April 2015, another outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning was reported in 4 individuals. The fish implicated in the outbreak was caught further south than the 2014 outbreaks (South West Rocks). Fish tissue was unavailable for analysis; however, symptoms were consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. To our knowledge, these cases are the southernmost confirmed sources of ciguatera fish poisoning in Australia. Educational outreach to the fishing community, in particular recreational fishers was undertaken after the Evans Head outbreak. This highlighted the outbreak, species of fish involved and the range of symptoms associated with ciguatera fish poisoning. Further assessment of the potential for ciguatoxins to occur in previously unaffected locations need to be considered in terms of food safety.

  10. Attribution of foodborne illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths to food commodities by using outbreak data, United States, 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, John A; Hoekstra, Robert M; Ayers, Tracy; Tauxe, Robert V; Braden, Christopher R; Angulo, Frederick J; Griffin, Patricia M

    2013-03-01

    Each year, >9 million foodborne illnesses are estimated to be caused by major pathogens acquired in the United States. Preventing these illnesses is challenging because resources are limited and linking individual illnesses to a particular food is rarely possible except during an outbreak. We developed a method of attributing illnesses to food commodities that uses data from outbreaks associated with both simple and complex foods. Using data from outbreak-associated illnesses for 1998-2008, we estimated annual US foodborne illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths attributable to each of 17 food commodities. We attributed 46% of illnesses to produce and found that more deaths were attributed to poultry than to any other commodity. To the extent that these estimates reflect the commodities causing all foodborne illness, they indicate that efforts are particularly needed to prevent contamination of produce and poultry. Methods to incorporate data from other sources are needed to improve attribution estimates for some commodities and agents.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils against bacterial and fungal species involved in food poisoning and/or food decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lixandru, Brînduşa-Elena; Drăcea, Nicoleta Olguţa; Dragomirescu, Cristiana Cerasella; Drăgulescu, Elena Carmina; Coldea, Ileana Luminiţa; Anton, Liliana; Dobre, Elena; Rovinaru, Camelia; Codiţă, Irina

    2010-01-01

    The currative properties of aromatic and medicinal plants have been recognized since ancient times and, more recently, the antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils has been used in several applications, including food preservation. The purpose of this study was to create directly comparable, quantitative data on the antimicrobial activity of some plant essential oils prepared in the National Institute of Research-Development for Chemistry and Petrochemistry, Bucharest to be used for the further development of food packaging technology, based on their antibacterial and antifungal activity. The essential oils extracted from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and carraway (Carum carvi L.) were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against eleven different bacterial and three fungal strains belonging to species reported to be involved in food poisoning and/or food decay: S. aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 6538, S. aureus ATCC 25913, E. coli ATCC 25922, E. coli ATCC 35218, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Cantacuzino Institute Culture Collection (CICC) 10878, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19112, Bacillus cereus CIP 5127, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404, Penicillium spp. CICC 251 and two E. coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis clinical isolates. The majority of the tested essential oils exibited considerable inhibitory capacity against all the organisms tested, as supported by growth inhibition zone diameters, MICs and MBC's. Thyme, coriander and basil oils proved the best antibacterial activity, while thyme and spearmint oils better inhibited the fungal species.

  12. Elucidation of enterotoxigenic Bacillus cereus outbreaks in Austria by complementary epidemiological and microbiological investigations, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Daniela; Rademacher, Corinna; Kanitz, Elisabeth Eva; Frenzel, Elrike; Simons, Erica; Allerberger, Franz; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2016-09-01

    Identifying Bacillus cereus as the causative agent of a foodborne outbreak still poses a challenge. We report on the epidemiological and microbiological investigation of three outbreaks of food poisoning (A, B, and C) in Austria in 2013. A total of 44% among 32 hotel guests (A), 22% among 63 employees (B) and 29% among 362 residents of a rehab clinic (C) fell sick immediately after meal consumption. B. cereus isolated from left overs or retained samples from related foods were characterized by toxin gene profiling, and molecular typing using panC sequencing and M13-PCR typing (in outbreak A and C). We identified two B. cereus strains in outbreak A, and six B. cereus strains, each in outbreak B and C; we also found Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxins in outbreak A. The panC sequence based phylogenetic affiliation of the B. cereus strains, together with findings of the retrospective cohort analyses, helped determining their etiological role. Consumption of a mashed potatoes dish in outbreak A (RR: ∞), a pancake strips soup in outbreak B (RR 13.0; 95% CI 1.8-93.0) and for outbreak C of a fruit salad (RR 1.50; 95% CI 1.09-2.00), deer ragout (RR: 1.99; 95% CI 1.23-3.22) and a cranberry/pear (RR 2.46; 95% CI 1.50-4.03)were associated with increased risk of falling sick. An enterotoxigenic strain affiliated to the phylogenetic group with the highest risk of food poisoning was isolated from the crème spinach and the strawberry buttermilk, and also from the stool samples of the one B. cereus positive outbreak case-patient, who ate both. Our investigation of three food poisoning outbreaks illustrates the added value of a combined approach by using epidemiological, microbiological and genotyping methods in identifying the likely outbreak sources and the etiological B. cereus strains.

  13. The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2013 in 32 European countries (28 Member States and four non-Member States. Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis. After several years of an increasing European Union (EU trend, the human campylobacteriosis notification rate has stabilised. In food and animals no EU trends were observed and the occurrence of Campylobacter continued to be high in broiler meat at EU level. The decreasing EU trend in confirmed human salmonellosis cases observed in recent years continued. Most Member States met their Salmonella reduction targets for poultry. In foodstuffs, the reported EU-level Salmonella non-compliance in fresh poultry meat decreased. Human listeriosis increased further, showing an increasing EU trend in 2009-2013. In ready-to-eat foods Listeria was seldom detected above the legal safety limit. Also during 2009-2013, a decreasing EU trend was observed in confirmed yersiniosis cases. Positive findings for Yersinia were mainly reported in pig meat and products thereof. The number of confirmed verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC infections in humans increased. VTEC was reported from food and animals. A total of 5,196 food-borne outbreaks, including water-borne outbreaks, were reported in the EU. Most food-borne outbreaks were caused by Salmonella, followed by viruses, bacterial toxins and Campylobacter, whereas in 28.9 % of all outbreaks the causative agent was unknown. Important food vehicles in strong-evidence food-borne outbreaks were eggs and egg products, followed by mixed food, and fish and fish products. The report further summarises trends and sources along the food chain of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Toxoplasma, rabies, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever, West Nile Virus and tularaemia.

  14. Foodborne disease in Australia: incidence, notifications and outbreaks. Annual report of the OzFoodNet network, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In 2002, OzFoodNet continued to enhance surveillance of foodborne diseases across Australia. The OzFoodNet network expanded to cover all Australian states and territories in 2002. The National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health together with OzFoodNet concluded a national survey of gastroenteritis, which found that there were 17.2 (95% C.I. 14.5-19.9) million cases of gastroenteritis each year in Australia. The credible range of gastroenteritis that may be due to food each year is between 4.0-6.9 million cases with a mid-point of 5.4 million. During 2002, there were 23,434 notifications of eight bacterial diseases that may have been foodborne, which was a 7.7 per cent increase over the mean of the previous four years. There were 14,716 cases of campylobacteriosis, 7,917 cases of salmonellosis, 505 cases of shigellosis, 99 cases of yersiniosis, 64 cases of typhoid, 62 cases of listeriosis, 58 cases of shiga toxin producing E. coli and 13 cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome. OzFoodNet sites reported 92 foodborne disease outbreaks affecting 1,819 persons, of whom 5.6 per cent (103/1,819) were hospitalised and two people died. There was a wide range of foods implicated in these outbreaks and the most common agent was Salmonella Typhimurium. Sites reported two outbreaks with potential for international spread involving contaminated tahini from Egypt resulting in an outbreak of Salmonella Montevideo infection and an outbreak of suspected norovirus infection associated with imported Japanese oysters. In addition, there were three outbreaks associated with animal petting zoos or poultry hatching programs and 318 outbreaks of suspected person-to-person transmission. Sites conducted 100 investigations into clusters of gastrointestinal illness where a source could not be identified, including three multi-state outbreaks of salmonellosis. OzFoodNet identified important risk factors for foodborne disease infection, including: Salmonella infections due to chicken and

  15. Consecutive salmonella outbreaks traced to the same bakery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M R; Tromans, J P; Dexter, E L; Ribeiro, C D; Gardner, D

    1996-04-01

    Two consecutive community outbreaks of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 (PT4) traced to the same bakery occurred in Cardiff, Wales during August-September 1992. In the first outbreak, illness was associated with eating custard slices (odds ratio 23.8, 95% confidence interval 6.5-94.4, P sponge cake retained by a case and from two fresh cream cakes and four environmental swabs obtained at the bakery. This incident illustrates the hazard of widespread environmental contamination with salmonella and the need for thorough environmental cleansing for any premises implicated in an outbreak of food poisoning.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF THE RISK OF RAW MILK CONSUMPTION RELATED TO STAPHYLOCOCCAL FOOD POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Helena Walter Santana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the risks of staphylococcal food poisoning due to the consumption of raw milk. Fifty-one farms in Londrina (PR and 50 in Pelotas (RS were analyzed, to determinethe population of coagulase-positive staphylococci (UFC/ mL, as well as to verify the ability of producing Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A (SEA by immunodifusion (OSP, the presence of the gene for the production of SEA (PCR in the cultures, and the research of enterotoxin (SEA to SEE in milk samples using ELISA commercial kit. Considering the 101 farms analyzed, 19 (18.8% presented coagulase-positive staphylococci count above 105 UFC/mL. For the evaluation of the enterotoxigenic ability (SEA by the OSP technique, six cultures coagulase-positive (5.5% were positive to the test and identified as S. aureus. From the coagualse-negative sample, one (5.5% was OSP positive. For the evaluation of the presence of the gene for EEA synthesis, 51 cultures of staphylococci were tested. From this total, 14 (27.45% presented the gene, and from that, only 5 (9.81% cultures were capable of expressing it in the technique of the OSP. The morphologiccharacteristic of the evaluated cultures that had enterotoxigenic capacity, from the 14 (33,3% cultures that presented the gene for EEA production, 05 (11.9% were characterized as typical cultures of S.aureus in Baird Parker agar. All the 12 milk samples studied for the presence of EEA to EEE in milk were negative. Thus, it can be concluded that there is extensive contamination of raw milk for staphylococci coagulase, however, most of the isolated strains were not enterotoxigenic or did not express such a characteristic. Only 9.81% of the tested colonies expressed the gene and effectivelyproduced SEA. None of the samples had sufficient counts to produce detectable amounts of SEA. The milk samples did not present risk to cause staphylococcal food poisoning if consumed in natura until the collection moment.

  17. Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak associated with a contaminated food container in a school in Sichuan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L G; Zhou, X Y; Lan, Z; Li, L; Li, Z; Chen, W; Wang, J Y; Zhang, L J

    2016-01-01

    On 13 June 2013, a fever and diarrhoea outbreak occurred in a boarding school in Sichuan Province. We conducted a field investigation and compared food exposure of 81 case students and 104 control students (years 7 and 8) in order to identify the source of infection. There were 401 cases identified (399 students and two cooks). The attack rates were 23-46% in nursery, primary, and secondary schools, but 0% in the high school. Eighty-five percent of case students, consumed cowpea salad compared to 60% of control students at lunch on 12 June (odds ratio 3·1, 95% confidence interval 1·3-7·8). The cowpeas were stored at room temperature for 3 h in a bucket previously used to store raw ingredients. The bucket was cleaned using water without a disinfectant. There were two buckets of cowpea, one for the high-school students and another for the other students. This Salmonella outbreak was likely caused by the cowpea salad due to cross-contamination via a storage bucket.

  18. Contaminated commercial dehydrated food as source of multiple Salmonella serotypes outbreak in a municipal kennel in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Selmi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a large outbreak of canine salmonellosis in a municipal kennel in Tuscany. During the outbreak, 174 samples of ‘diarrhetic’ and ‘normal’ faeces and two batches of commercial dehydrated dog food were cultured for pathogenic bacteria. The results of 25, out of a total of 41 dogs (60.9% revealed at least one faecal sample as being positive for Salmonella; incidence per sampling ranged from 12.5% to 34%. Nine of 10 samples of dehydrated food were positive. Ten totally different serotypes were isolated from dry food and faeces: the results of the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis referred to similarity between the Salmonella Montevideo, Muenster and Worthington isolates recovered from both the food and canine faecal samples.

  19. 甘肃省2004-2010年食物中毒事件分析%Analysis on food poisoning events in Gansu province ,2004-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧; 杨海霞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the food poisoning events reported in Gansu province in 2004-2010 and to provide evidence for the prevention and control of food poisoning.Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the data of food poisoning events reported through the public emergency network direct reporting system in Gansu province in 2004-2010.Results The number of food poisoning events reported was 68,the number of food poisoning patients was 2 143,and the number of death cases caused by the events was 47,with a fatality rate of 2.19%.Most of the events occurred from June to October,especially in September.Microorganism food poisoning occurred most frequently (28 cases),followed by chemical food poisoning(22 cases)and vegetal and animal food poisoning(13 cases).The death cases were mainly caused by poisonous pesticide/rodenticide poisoning (25 deaths),mushroom (7 deaths),botulinum toxin(4 deaths),nitrite (3 deaths)and other poisoning (8 deaths).Conclusion For food poisoning events reported in Gansu province,microorganisms food poisoning was most frequent and the leading causes of death due to food poisoning were pesticide/rodenticide poisoning and mushroom poisoning.%目的 分析2004-2010年甘肃省突发公共卫生事件网络报告食物中毒事件,为预防食物中毒事件发生提供相关依据.方法 对2004-2010年甘肃省突发公共卫生事件网络报告食物中毒事件进行描述性流行病学分析.结果 2004-2010年甘肃省共报告食物中毒事件68起,中毒病例2 143例,死亡47例,病死率为2.19%;事件发生时间主要集中在6-10月,其中9月中毒例数最多(720例).微生物性食物中毒为28起,有毒植物性13起,化学性22起;致死人数较多的因素依次为农药/鼠药(25例)、毒蘑菇(7例)、肉毒梭菌(4例)、亚硝酸盐(3例)和其他(8例).结论 甘肃省食物中毒事件中,微生物所导致食物中毒仍是较大的食品安全问题;而农药/鼠药中毒和蘑菇中毒

  20. Food-borne norovirus-outbreak at a military base, Germany, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoehne Marina

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Norovirus is often transmitted from person-to-person. Transmission may also be food-borne, but only few norovirus outbreak investigations have identified food items as likely vehicles of norovirus transmission through an analytical epidemiological study. During 7-9 January, 2009, 36 persons at a military base in Germany fell ill with acute gastroenteritis. Food from the military base's canteen was suspected as vehicle of infection, norovirus as the pathogen causing the illnesses. An investigation was initiated to describe the outbreak's extent, to verify the pathogen, and to identify modes of transmission and source of infection to prevent further cases. Methods For descriptive analysis, ill persons were defined as members of the military base with acute onset of diarrhoea or vomiting between 24 December 2008, and 3 February 2009, without detection of a pathogen other than norovirus in stools. We conducted a retrospective cohort study within the headquarters company. Cases were military base members with onset of diarrhoea or vomiting during 5-9 January. We collected information on demographics, food items eaten at the canteen and contact to ill persons or vomit, using a self-administered questionnaire. We compared attack rates (AR in exposed and unexposed persons, using bivariable and multivariable logistic regression modelling. Stool specimens of ill persons and canteen employees, canteen food served during 5-7 January and environmental swabs were investigated by laboratory analysis. Results Overall, 101/815 (AR 12.4% persons fell ill between 24 December 2008 and 3 February 2009. None were canteen employees. Most persons (n = 49 had disease onset during 7-9 January. Ill persons were a median of 22 years old, 92.9% were male. The response for the cohort study was 178/274 (72.1%. Of 27 cases (AR 15.2%, 25 had eaten at the canteen and 21 had consumed salad. Salad consumption on 6 January (aOR: 8.1; 95%CI: 1.5-45.4 and 7

  1. Sources of calicivirus contamination in foodborne outbreaks, Denmark, 2005-2011 - the role of the asymptomatic food handler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franck, Kristina T.; Lisby, Morten; Fonager, Jannik

    2015-01-01

    Background. Norovirus is the predominant cause of foodborne disease outbreaks. Virus contamination may occur during all steps of food processing from production to preparation and serving. The relative importance of these different routes of contamination is unknown. Methods. The purpose of this ...

  2. Analysis of a survey database of pet food-induced poisoning in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbeiha, Wilson K; Agnew, Dalen; Maxie, Grant; Hoff, Brent; Page, Connie; Curran, Paul; Powers, Barbara

    2010-06-01

    Following the outbreak of pet food-induced nephrotoxicity in March 2007, a voluntary online survey of all AAVLD-accredited laboratories, commercial laboratories, and veterinary clinics across North America was conducted. There was no information on toxicity of melamine or factors affecting the disease outcome following exposure to melamine in pets. Data were collected from affected pets to learn about the disease outcome and the affected pet population. The web-based electronic survey used the online tool, Survey Monkey™. Data were collected between April 5 and October 31, 2007. Four hundred fifty-one cases of 586 reported cases met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Most reported cases were from California, Texas, Michigan, Florida, and Ontario. Of the 451 cases, 424 were reported as affected. Of these, 278 cases (65.6%) were cats and 146 (34.4%) were dogs. A total of 278 pets (171 cats and 107 dogs) were reported to have died (a ratio of 1.6:1). However, within species, there was a higher percentage of deceased dogs (73.3%) than cats (61.5%). Of the affected pet population, older male cats with preexisting disease conditions were more likely to be deceased. Analysis of the pets in this large database of naturally affected pets yielded interesting findings. It showed that more cats than dogs were affected and also that preexisting renal diseases and old age predicted the most severe outcome (death or euthanasia) than any other factors.

  3. 2010年北京市食物中毒事故状况资料分析%The incidence of food poisoning in Beijing in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立华; 殷全喜

    2012-01-01

    Objective To grasp the regularity and popular features of food poisoning in Beijing in order to develop scientific and effective preventive measures to control food poisoning. Methods A total of 25 food poisoning accident reports received by the Beijing Food Hygiene Supervision Bureau in 2010 was analyzed. Results The number of food poisoning accidents was 25 and the number of person poisoned was 396 in 2010. Compared with the occurrence of food poisoning during the same period of time in 2009 , the number of accidents in 2010 was reduced 44. 4% and the number of injured person was decreased 30. 5% . The main pathogenic factors were microorganisms and poisonous plants. Canteens were the main responsible units for food poisoning, followed by the food service units. The third-quarter of a year is the major season for the incidence of food poisoning. Toxic plant food is the major cause of food poisoning. Improper processed food is the main reason of food poisoning. Conclusion To minimize the incidence of food poisoning, strengthening supervision and training practitioners in dinning canteens and other key units on the knowledge of food safety, and establishing early warning mechanisms of food poisoning are necessary.%目的 掌握北京市发生食物中毒事故的规律和流行特点,制定科学有效的预防措施,控制食物中毒事故的发生.方法 对2010年北京市卫生监督所接到的25起食物中毒事故进行整理分析.结果 全年共发生食物中毒事故25起,发病人数396人,与2009年同期相比,发生起数降低44.4%,发病人数减少30.5%.微生物及动植物是引起食物中毒的主要致病因素;集体食堂是发生食物中毒事故的主要责任单位,其次是饮食服务单位;第三季度是食物中毒的主要发病季节;植物类食品是引起食物中毒的主要食品;加工不当是引起食物中毒的主要原因.结论 加强对重点单位集体食堂的监管和从业人员食品安全知识

  4. An outbreak of foodborne diarrheal illness among soldiers in mina during Hajj: The role of consumer food handling behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla S Al-Joudi

    2007-01-01

    Results: A total of 50 Saudi Male Soldiers were interviewed. Out of these, 16 (39% had developed gastroenteritis, most commonly manifested by diarrhea (100%, and abdominal colic (87.5%. The mean incubation period was 12.6 ± 4.9 hours and the epidemic curve suggested a common point source outbreak. Out of three served meals, lunch was found to have a statistically significant association with illness (p=0.0230. Out of five food items served, rice was the only food item found to have a statistically significant association with illness (p=0.0230. No food remnants were found for sampling. All results of stool cultures of all diarrhea patients, and rectal swabs from all food handlers were inconclusive. Conclusions: This outbreak was most likely caused by eating contaminated rice served at lunch on 3 rd January. The most likely organisms were Bacillus cereus, and/or Clostridium perfringens. Consuming food that was kept at an unsafe temperature wihout being reheated was the most probable important factor leading to this outbreak.

  5. Large and prolonged food-borne multistate hepatitis A outbreak in Europe associated with consumption of frozen berries, 2013 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severi, E; Verhoef, L; Thornton, L; Guzman-Herrador, B R; Faber, M; Sundqvist, L; Rimhanen-Finne, R; Roque-Afonso, A M; Ngui, S L; Allerberger, F; Baumann-Popczyk, A; Muller, L; Parmakova, K; Alfonsi, V; Tavoschi, L; Vennema, H; Fitzgerald, M; Myrmel, M; Gertler, M; Ederth, J; Kontio, M; Vanbockstael, C; Mandal, S; Sadkowska-Todys, M; Tosti, M E; Schimmer, B; O Gorman, J; Stene-Johansen, K; Wenzel, J J; Jones, G; Balogun, K; Ciccaglione, A R; O' Connor, L; Vold, L; Takkinen, J; Rizzo, C

    2015-07-23

    In May 2013, Italy declared a national outbreak of hepatitis A, which also affected several foreign tourists who had recently visited the country. Molecular investigations identified some cases as infected with an identical strain of hepatitis A virus subgenotype IA. After additional European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries reported locally acquired and travel-related cases associated with the same outbreak, an international outbreak investigation team was convened, a European outbreak case definition was issued and harmonisation of the national epidemiological and microbiological investigations was encouraged. From January 2013 to August 2014, 1,589 hepatitis A cases were reported associated with the multistate outbreak; 1,102 (70%) of the cases were hospitalised for a median time of six days; two related deaths were reported. Epidemiological and microbiological investigations implicated mixed frozen berries as the vehicle of infection of the outbreak. In order to control the spread of the outbreak, suspected or contaminated food batches were recalled, the public was recommended to heat-treat berries, and post-exposure prophylaxis of contacts was performed. The outbreak highlighted how large food-borne hepatitis A outbreaks may affect the increasingly susceptible EU/EEA general population and how, with the growing international food trade, frozen berries are a potential high-risk food.

  6. Positive Regulation of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin H by Rot (Repressor of Toxin) Protein and Its Importance in Clonal Complex 81 Subtype 1 Lineage-Related Food Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato'o, Yusuke; Hisatsune, Junzo; Nagasako, Yuria; Ono, Hisaya K; Omoe, Katsuhiko; Sugai, Motoyuki

    2015-11-01

    We previously demonstrated the clonal complex 81 (CC81) subtype 1 lineage is the major staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP)-associated lineage in Japan (Y. Sato'o et al., J Clin Microbiol 52:2637-2640, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00661-14). Strains of this lineage produce staphylococcal enterotoxin H (SEH) in addition to SEA. However, an evaluation of the risk for the recently reported SEH has not been sufficiently conducted. We first searched for staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes and SE proteins in milk samples that caused a large SFP outbreak in Japan. Only SEA and SEH were detected, while there were several SE genes detected in the samples. We next designed an experimental model using a meat product to assess the productivity of SEs and found that only SEA and SEH were detectably produced in situ. Therefore, we investigated the regulation of SEH production using a CC81 subtype 1 isolate. Through mutant analysis of global regulators, we found the repressor of toxin (Rot) functioned oppositely as a stimulator of SEH production. SEA production was not affected by Rot. seh mRNA expression correlated with rot both in media and on the meat product, and the Rot protein was shown to directly bind to the seh promoter. The seh promoter sequence was predicted to form a loop structure and to hide the RNA polymerase binding sequences. We propose Rot binds to the promoter sequence of seh and unfolds the secondary structure that may lead the RNA polymerase to bind the promoter, and then seh mRNA transcription begins. This alternative Rot regulation for SEH may contribute to sufficient toxin production by the CC81 subtype 1 lineage in foods to induce SFP.

  7. Rapid detection of norovirus in naturally contaminated food: foodborne gastroenteritis outbreak on a cruise ship in Brazil, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo, Simone Guadagnucci; Luchs, Adriana; Cilli, Audrey; do Carmo Sampaio Tavares Timenetsky, Maria

    2012-09-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is a prevalent pathogen of foodborne diseases; however, its detection in foods other than shellfish is often time consuming and unsuccessful. In 2010, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred on a cruise ship in Brazil, and NoV was the etiologic agent suspected. The objectives of this study were to report that a handy in-house methodology was suitable for NoV detection in naturally contaminated food, and perform the molecular characterization of food strains. Food samples (blue cheese, Indian sauce, herbal butter, soup, and white sauce) were analyzed by ELISA, two methods of RNA extraction, TRIzol(®) and QIAamp(®), following conventional RT-PCR. The qPCR was used in order to confirm the NoV genogroups. GI and GII NoV genogroups were identified by conventional RT-PCR after RNA extraction by means of the TRIzol(®) method. Two GII NoV samples were successfully sequenced, classified as GII.4; and they displayed a genetic relationship with strains from the Asian continent also isolated in 2010. GII and GI NoV were identified in distinct food matrices suggesting that it was not a common source of contamination. TRIzol(®) extraction followed by conventional RT-PCR was a suitable methodology in order to identify NoV in naturally contaminated food. Moreover, food samples could be processed within 8 h indicating the value of the method used for NoV detection, and its potential to identify foodborne gastroenteritis outbreaks in food products other than shellfish. This is the first description in Brazil of NoV detection in naturally contaminated food other than shellfish involved in a foodborne outbreak.

  8. Analysis of food-poisoning events in China, 2004-2007%2004-2007年全国食物中毒事件分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金连梅; 李群

    2009-01-01

    目的 分析近年来中国(未包括香港、澳门特别行政区和台湾地区)食物中毒事件的发生情况.方法 对2004-2007年中国突发公共卫生事件报告管理信息系统收到的所有食物中毒事件进行分析.结果 2004-2007年全国共报告食物中毒事件2287起,中毒66 758例,死亡1037例,病死率为1.55%.事件发生时间主要集中在6-10月,其中9月中毒人数最多.致病因素中微生物性食物中毒为652起,植物性544起,动物性为383起,化学性为86起;致死人数较多的因素依次为毒蘑菇(298例)、农药/鼠药(247例)和河豚鱼(35例).结论 中国报告的食物中毒事件中,微生物所导致食物中毒仍是较大的食品安全问题;而蘑菇中毒和农药/鼠药中毒是导致食物中毒事件中的主要死亡原因.%Objective To analyze the food-poisoning events in China (excluded Hong Kong and Macao, Taiwan area) in order to develop the prevention strategy. Methods All the food poisoning events reported through reporting information system of public health emergency in China from 2004 to 2007 were analyzed. Results A total of 2287 food poisoning events were reported with 66 758 cases and 1037 deaths; the case fatality rate was 1.55%. The majority of food poisoning occurred during June-October, and the case number in September was highest. In all reports, 652 food poisonings events were caused by microorganism, 544 by vegetable, 383 by animal food and 86 by chemical material. The deaths were mainly caused by poisonous mushroom ( 298 cases), pesticide/raticide (247 cases) and fugu ( 35 cases ) poisoning. Conclusion For the reported food-poisoning events in China, most events were caused by rnicroorganism, and the leading causes of death in these events were poisonous mushroom and pesticide/raticide poisoning.

  9. Outbreak of staphylococcal food intoxication after consumption of pasteurized milk products, June 2007, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Daniela; Fretz, Rainer; Winter, Petra; Mann, Michaela; Höger, Gerda; Stöger, Anna; Ruppitsch, Werner; Ladstätter, Johann; Mayer, Norbert; de Martin, Alfred; Allerberger, Franz

    2009-01-01

    On June 13, 2007, the public health authority informed the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety about 40 children from two neighboring elementary schools who had fallen ill with abdominal cramps and vomiting on June 8. School milk products consumed on June 8 were suspected as the source of the outbreak. On June 8, the milk products provided by local dairy X to eight elementary schools and two nurseries. The short incubation period - all cases fell ill on the day on which the products were consumed - and the short duration of illness (1-2 days) strongly suggested intoxication. In order to identify the causative pathogen, its reservoir and the mode of transmission, a descriptive-epidemiological and microbiological investigation and a retrospective cohort study were conducted. Six of the 10 institutions served by dairy X completed questionnaires on demographics and food consumption. One school had a 79% response rate (203/258) and was chosen as the basis for our cohort study. A total of 166 of the 1025 children (16.2%) at the 10 institutions fulfilled the case definition. Consumption of milk, cacao milk or vanilla milk originating from dairy X was associated with a 37.8 times higher risk of becoming a case (95% CI: 2.3-116.5). Unopened milk products left over at the affected institutions yielded staphylococcal enterotoxins A and D. Six out of 64 quarter milk samples from three of 16 cows producing milk for dairy X tested positive for S. aureus. The isolates produced enterotoxins A and D, yielded genes encoding enterotoxins and D, and showed spa type t2953. S. aureus isolated from the nasal swab of the dairy owner harbored genes encoding enterotoxins C, G, H and I, and showed spa type t635. Our investigation revealed that the milk products produced in dairy X on June 7 were the source of the outbreak on June 8. The cows - not the dairy owner - the likely reservoir of the enterotoxin-producing S. aureus. From the risk assessment of the production process at the

  10. An outbreak of salmonella chester infection in Canada: rare serotype, uncommon exposure, and unusual population demographic facilitate rapid identification of food vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John; Galanis, Eleni; Wilcott, Lynn; Hoang, Linda; Stone, Jason; Ekkert, Judi; Quibell, Doug; Huddleston, Mark; McCormick, Rachel; Whitfield, Yvonne; Adhikari, Bijay; Grant, Christopher C R; Sharma, Davendra

    2012-04-01

    Salmonella Chester infection has rarely been reported in the literature. In 2010, 33 case patients were reported in 2 months in four Canadian provinces. We conducted an outbreak investigation in collaboration with public health agencies, food safety specialists, regulatory agencies, grocery store chains, and the product distributor. We used case patient interviews, customer loyalty cards, and microbiological testing of clinical and food samples to identify nationally distributed head cheese as the food vehicle responsible for the outbreak. The rare serotype, a limited affected demographic group, and an uncommon exposure led to the rapid identification of the source. Control measures were implemented within 9 days of notification of the outbreak.

  11. 某战区部队食物中毒回顾性调查%Retrospective investigation on food poisoning in army

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付留杰; 何瑛

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析部队食物中毒发生规律,以制定科学的防控措施.方法 采用回顾流行病学分析方法对2001-2010年某战区部队发生的食物中毒资料进行统计学分析.结果 10年共发生食物中毒12起,中毒人数251人.细菌性食物中毒发生起数占50%,连队食堂发生食物中毒占66.7%,2、3季度发生食物中毒最多,占75.0%.结论 针对食物中毒发生的特点,应加强部队卫生监督和食品知识培训的力度.%[Objective] To analyze the law of food poisoning in army, to formulate the scientific prevention and control measures. [Methods] The data of food poisoning cases occurred in a troop during 2001-2010 were analyzed by retrospective epidemiological method. [Results]There were 12 food poisoning incidents involving 251 people during ten years. The bacterial food poisoning accounted for 50%. 66. 7% of food poisoning occurred in company cafeteria and 75.0% occurred in quarter 2 and 3. [ Conclusion] According to the characteristics of food poisoning, the health surveillance and education of food knowledge should be strengthened.

  12. Development of standardized methodology for identifying toxins in clinical samples and fish species associated with tetrodotoxin-borne poisoning incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Yuan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin (TTX is a naturally occurring toxin in food, especially in puffer fish. TTX poisoning is observed frequently in South East Asian regions. In TTX-derived food poisoning outbreaks, the amount of TTX recovered from suspicious fish samples or leftovers, and residual levels from biological fluids of victims are typically trace. However, liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry methods have been demonstrated to qualitatively and quantitatively determine TTX in clinical samples from victims. Identification and validation of the TTX-originating seafood species responsible for a food poisoning incident is needed. A polymerase chain reaction-based method on mitochondrial DNA analysis is useful for identification of fish species. This review aims to collect pertinent information available on TTX-borne food poisoning incidents with a special emphasis on the analytical methods employed for TTX detection in clinical laboratories as well as for the identification of TTX-bearing species.

  13. Consumption of fresh fruit juice: how a healthy food practice caused a national outbreak of Salmonella Panama gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Harold; Hofhuis, Agnetha; De Jonge, Rob; Heuvelink, Annet E; De Jong, Aarieke; Heck, Max E O C; De Jager, Carolien; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2010-04-01

    In spring 2008, 15 Salmonella Panama laboratory-confirmed cases were reported within 2 weeks, twice the average annual number of reported cases of this infrequent serotype in The Netherlands. To identify the source responsible for this national outbreak, we carried out an epidemiological, microbiological, and trace-back investigation. In total, 33 cases were reported, and a matched case-control study (23 cases/24 controls) identified consumption of fresh (unpasteurized) fruit juice purchased from a large retailer (X) as the only significant risk factor for illness (matched odds ratio: 7.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.5-37.2). Though the bacterium could not be isolated from fruit juice, the minimal pH value for growth of the causative strain of the outbreak (3.4) was compatible with survival in fruit juice from X. The outbreak strain showed acid resistance and adaptive properties that may explain how it could have caused infection through fresh orange juice. To our knowledge, this is the first documented outbreak related to fresh fruit juice consumption in western Europe since 1922. A growing number of consumers who are seeking healthy food practices are exposed to the infectious risks related to unpasteurized fresh fruit juice. Labeling regulations should be adapted to properly indicate to the consumers that unpasteurized fresh fruit juices remain vulnerable to microbial contamination. Frequent microbiological screening and strict compliance with food safety procedures should reduce the infectious hazards of fresh fruit juices.

  14. Analysis of Food Poisoning Events in Sichuan Province, 2006 -2009%2006-2009年四川省食物中毒事件分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 吕强; 方刚; 史昭; 蒲海静

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解四川省食物中毒事件发生规律和特点,导致中毒发生原因,总结经验探索应对措施.方法 采用描述性流行病学对收集的2006 - 2009年四川省食物中毒事件报告资料,进行分析.结果 四川省2006 -2009年共发生71起食物中毒事件,中毒人数2634例,死亡51例;食物中毒事件的发生以2、3季度为主,占63.38%;细菌性食物中毒事件比重大,占82.08%;化学性、植物性食物中毒是导致死亡发生的主要原因,死亡数占78.43%;发生场所以家庭为主,占39.44%,危害程度高,死亡数占70.59%.结论 强化监督管理,切实开展预防食物中毒宣传,提高公众防范食物中毒发生的意识与能力,加强食品安全监督管理机构、疾控机构和医疗机构食物中毒处置能力建设,减少和降低危害.%Objective To understand the patterns, characteristics and causes of food poisoning events in Sichuan, and provide evidence for the prevention and control of food poisoning. Methods Descriptive epidemiological a-nalysis was conducted on the reported data of food poisoning events in Sichuan from 2006 to 2009. Results Seventy one food poisoning events occurred in Sichuan during this period with 2634 food poisoning cases, including 51 deaths. Most food poisoning events occurred during the 2nd and 3rd quarters of a year, accounting for 63. 38%. The food poisoning was mainly caused by bacteria, accounting for 82. 08% , and the major causes of death were chemical and vegetant food poisoning (78. 43% ). Up to 39.44% of the food poisoning occurred within household, and the deaths accounted for 70. 59% of the total. Conclusion It is necessary to strengthen the supervision of food safety, health education about food safety and capacity building of food safety supervision agencies, CDCs and medical institutions to response food poisoning events in order to reduce the harms induced by food poisoning.

  15. 某市2008~2012年食物中毒的流行病学分析及食物中毒预防措施%AnalysisandFoodPoisoningPreventionMeasureof2008~2012YearsFoodPoisoningEpidemiologyinACity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective Inquire into a City in 2008~2012 in 5 years the Epidemiology of food poisoning analyze the prevention measure of circumstance and food poisoning. Methods To 2008~2012 the food poisoning statement of the whole a City and relevant of the investigation report carry on gathering analysis. Results The food poisoning happens to 2008~2012 years each county of a City area totally 168, be poisoned 3284 people, die 297 people;The incidence rate in 6~8 months is the tallest, 12~2 months of incidence rate is lowest;The main food category that arouses food poisoning is a plant food;Chemistry material, microorganism and poison's moving a plant is the main reason that arouses food poisoning. Conclusion The chemistry poison food poisoning is that the main reason of food poisoning happen in a City, is secondly a germ food poisoning. The food hygiene knowledge publicity that can pass to strengthen a rightness of large masses of the people, prevent°from a food being polluted or take place to change in character, strengthen the implementation food poisoning report system and strengthen the food health measures, such as direct and ratings management...etc. to the dining sections, such as school, dining room, breakfast store and restaurant...etc. to control and guard against the occurrence of food poisoning.%  目的探讨某市2008年~2012年5年间食物中毒的流行病学分析情况及食物中毒的预防措施。方法对2008年~2012年某市各地的食物中毒报表及有关的调查报告进行汇总分析。结果2008~2012年某市各县区共发生食物中毒168起,中毒3284人次,死亡297人;在6~8月份的发生率最高,12~次年2月份的发生率最低;引起食物中毒的主要食品类别为植物性食品;化学性物质、微生物和有毒动植物是引起食物中毒的主要原因。结论化学性毒物食物中毒是某市发生食物中毒的主要原因,其次为细菌性食物中毒。可通过加强对广大人民群众

  16. Analysis of Food Poisoning in Gansu Province from 2006 to 2010%甘肃省2006-201O年食物中毒事件分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔燕

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To analyze the reasons, the occurrence and characteristics of food poisoning in Gansu province and to provide scientific basis for prevention, control and effective disposition of food poisoning. [Method] The reporting data of food poisoning from 2006 to 2010 were collected to be analyzed by descriptive epidemiological methods. [Result] During the period of 2006-2010, there were totally 47 reported food poisoning in Gansu province, 1 733 individuals involved and 24 cases died, and fatality rate was 1.38% .Food poisoning had obvious seasonal, and the ratios of second and third quarter occurred were 31.91 % and 36.17% respectively. The major poisoning locations were family and collective canteens, and the ratio were 44.68% and 34.04% respectively. The major poisoning reason was microbe, and the ratio was 46.81% .The major deaths were chemical food poisoning and the ratio was 50.00%. [Conclusion] Microbial food poisoning caused by improper food processing and storage was the main reason for food poisoning in Gansu province.Eating rat poison was the main cause of food poisoning death. The relevant departments should strengthen market supervision and promotion of food safety knowledge.%目的:分析甘肃省食物中毒的原因、发生规律和特点,为预防、控制及有效处置各类食物中毒事件提供科学依据。方法:收集甘肃省2006-2010年所发生的食物中毒资料并进行描述性流行病学分析。结果:2006-2010年发生食物中毒47起,中毒人数1735人,死亡24人,病死率为1.38%。中毒事件发生有明显的季节性,第二、三季度发生的起数分别占总数的56.17%和51.91%;中毒场所以家庭和集体食堂较多,分别占总起数的44.68%和54.04%;中毒原因以微生物性中毒为主,占总起数的46.81%;化学性食物中毒死亡人数最多,占总死亡人数的50.00%。结论:食物加工和储存不当引起的微生物性食物中

  17. Analysis on Food Poisoning Incidents of the Greater Level in Gansu Province%甘肃省较大级别食物中毒事件分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琛; 崔燕; 李俊玲; 蓝弘

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To analyze the characteristics of food poisoning incidents of the greater level in Gansu province.[Method] The reporting data of food poisoning incidents of the greater level in Gansu province from 2004 to 2011 were collected and analyzed by descriptive epidemiological methods.[Result] There were totally 32 reported food poisoning incidents of the greater level in Gansu province from 2004 to 2010,672 individuals were involved,52 cases died,and fatality rate was 7.74%.The report events peak was in 6-10 months,and August reported the most.The major poisoning locations were family,and the ratio were 75.00%.The major poisoning reason was chemical food poisoning,which its ratio was 27.68% and it was also the largest number of death,which its ratio was 65.38%.[Conclusion] Chemical and poisonous plants food poisoning incidents was the main reason for food poisoning incidents of the greater level in Gansu province.%目的:分析2004-2011年甘肃省较大级别食物中毒事件特征,为减少较大级别食物中毒事件的发生提供科学依据.方法:对甘肃省2004-2011年所报告的较大级别食物中毒事件进行描述性流行病学分析.结果:2004-2011年共报告较大级别食物中毒事件32起,中毒人数672人,死亡52人,病死率为7.74%.报告事件高峰在6-10月,其中8月份报告最多;中毒场所以家庭最多,占总起数的75.00%;中毒原因以化学性食物中毒为主,占总起数的27.68%,且化学性食物中毒死亡人数也最多,占总死亡人数的65.38%.结论:化学类和有毒植物类食物中毒是甘肃省较大级别食物中毒发生和死亡的主要原因.

  18. 2006-2010年某市食物中毒分析及防控对策%Analysis and Countermeasures of Food Poisoning in a City from 2006 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张竞; 钱宗升

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To learn the changing trend and causes of food poisoning in a city, provide the scientific basis for making the effective measures of prevention and control of food poisoning.[Methods]According to the data of food poisoning in a city from 2006 to 2010, the epidemic trend and poisoning causes were analyzed.[Results]There were 105 cases of food poisoning from 2006 to 2010, and 867 people were poisoned.42.9% of food poisoning occurred in quarter 3, and 62.9% occurred in cafeteria.The bacterial food poisoning accounted for 61.9%, and kidney bean poisoning accounted for 52.6% of food poisoning caused by plant and animal toxicants.[Conclusion]The peak season of food poisoning is quarter 3, most of food poisoning occurred in cafeteria and diet delivery enterprises, the main cause is bacterial food poisoning, and the main pathogenic factor of food poisoning caused by plant and animal toxicants is kidney bean.It is necessary to improve the propaganda of food safety and strengthen the supervision and law enforcement.%目的 了解某市食物中毒发生变化趋势及发生原因,为制订预防和控制食物中毒的有效措施提供科学依据.方法 依据某市2006-2010年食物中毒资料,对食物中毒发生的流行趋势、中毒原因等进行分析.结果 2006-2010年共发生食物中毒105起,中毒867人,第3季度食物中毒发生率占42.9%,发生在集体食堂的食物中毒占62.9%,细菌性食物中毒占61.9%,四季豆在动植物引起的食物中毒中占52.6%. 结论 第3季度为高发季节,集体食堂和集体用餐配送单位是高发场所,细菌性食物中毒是主要病因,四季豆是有毒动植物食物中毒主要致病因素.应加强中华人民共和国食品安全宣传和加大监督执法力度.

  19. Extraction of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA from food: a contribution to the elucidation of acute Chagas disease outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Trotta Barroso Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Before 2004, the occurrence of acute Chagas disease (ACD by oral transmission associated with food was scarcely known or investigated. Originally sporadic and circumstantial, ACD occurrences have now become frequent in the Amazon region, with recently related outbreaks spreading to several Brazilian states. These cases are associated with the consumption of açai juice by waste reservoir animals or insect vectors infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in endemic areas. Although guidelines for processing the fruit to minimize contamination through microorganisms and parasites exist, açai-based products must be assessed for quality, for which the demand for appropriate methodologies must be met. METHODS: Dilutions ranging from 5 to 1,000 T. cruzi CL Brener cells were mixed with 2mL of acai juice. Four Extraction of T. cruzi DNA methods were used on the fruit, and the cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB method was selected according to JRC, 2005. RESULTS: DNA extraction by the CTAB method yielded satisfactory results with regard to purity and concentration for use in PCR. Overall, the methods employed proved that not only extraction efficiency but also high sensitivity in amplification was important. CONCLUSIONS: The method for T. cruzi detection in food is a powerful tool in the epidemiological investigation of outbreaks as it turns epidemiological evidence into supporting data that serve to confirm T. cruzi infection in the foods. It also facilitates food quality control and assessment of good manufacturing practices involving acai-based products.

  20. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control analysed information submitted by 27 European Union Member States on the occurrence of zoonoses and food-borne outbreaks in 2012. Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis, with 214,268 confirmed human cases. The occurrence of Campylobacter continued to be high in broiler meat at EU level. The decreasing trend in confirmed salmonellosis cases in humans continued with a total of 91,034 cases reported in 2012. Most Member States met their Salmonella reduction targets for poultry. In foodstuffs, Salmonella was most often detected in meat and products thereof. The number of confirmed human listeriosis cases increased to 1,642. Listeria was seldom detected above the legal safety limit from ready-to-eat foods. A total of 5,671 confirmed verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC infections were reported. VTEC was also reported from food and animals. The number of human tuberculosis cases due to Mycobacterium bovis was 125 cases, and 328 cases of brucellosis in humans were reported. The prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle increased, and the prevalence of brucellosis in cattle, sheep or goats decreased. Trichinella caused 301 human cases and was mainly detected in wildlife. One domestically acquired human case and one imported human case of rabies were reported. The number of rabies cases in animals increased compared with 2011. A total of 643 confirmed human cases of Q fever were reported. Almost all reporting Member States found Coxiella burnetii (Q fever positive cattle, sheep or goats. A total of 232 cases of West Nile fever in humans were reported. Nine Member States reported West Nile virus findings in solipeds. Most of the 5,363 reported food-borne outbreaks were caused by Salmonella,bacterial toxins, viruses and Campylobacter, and the main food sources were eggs, mixed foods and fish and fishery products.

  1. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control analysed the information submitted by 27 European Union Member States on the occurrence of zoonoses and food-borne outbreaks in 2011. Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis with 220,209 confirmed human cases. The occurrence of Campylobacter continued to be high in broiler meat at EU level. The decreasing trend in confirmed salmonellosis cases in humans continued with a total of 95,548 cases in 2011. Most Member States met their Salmonella reduction targets for poultry, and Salmonella is declining in these populations. In foodstuffs, Salmonella was most often detected in meat and products thereof. The number of confirmed human listeriosis cases decreased to 1,476. Listeria was seldom detected above the legal safety limit from ready-to-eat foods. A total of 9,485 confirmed verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC infections were reported. This represents an increase of 159.4 % compared with 2010 as a result of the large STEC/VTEC outbreak that occurred in 2011 in the EU, primarily in Germany. VTEC was also reported from food and animals. The number of human yersiniosis cases increased to 7,017 cases. Yersinia enterocolitica was isolated also from pig meat and pigs; 132 cases of Mycobacterium bovis and 330 cases of brucellosis in humans were also reported. The prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle increased, and the prevalence of brucellosis decreased in cattle and sheep and goat populations. Trichinellosis and echinococcosis caused 268 and 781 human cases, respectively and these parasites were mainly detected in wildlife. The numbers of alveolar and of cystic echinococcosis respectively increased and decreased in the last five years. One imported human case of rabies was reported. The number of rabies cases in animals continued to decrease. Most of the 5,648 reported food-borne outbreaks were caused by Salmonella,bacterial toxins

  2. [Risk communication of the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment during a food-related outbreak].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, M; Epp, A; Röder, B; Böl, G-F

    2013-01-01

    Information about and explanation of risks as well as the initiation of behavioral changes and preventive actions are core tasks of risk communication. During the EHEC/HUS outbreak in spring 2011, the governmental agencies responsible for risk communication mainly focused on these tasks. In general, risk communication is understood as a continuous, long-term process that aims at an adequate handling of risks. In contrast, crisis communication is focused rather on an acute event and aims at timely information and behavioral measures. During the EHEC/HUS outbreak, risk communication partly changed over to crisis communication. The risk communication activities of the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (Bundesinstitüt für Risikobewertung, BfR) during the EHEC/HUS outbreak are presented here. The results of a representative survey that was conducted in Germany shortly after the outbreak show details of the success of these risk communication activities. Finally, the necessity of communication about scientific uncertainty is addressed and new ways in risk communication with regard to new media are highlighted.

  3. 网络直报食物中毒原因及漏报情况研究%The cause of food poisoning and the missing report of research of direct network report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝哲敏; 吴金芳

    2016-01-01

    Objective Regulate the food poisoning and food borne disease prevention and control work to protect the people's diet safety.Method The epidemiological description and comparison of the 2014 and 2013 national network direct reporting food poisoning season, month, reason, place and school.Result Food poisoning the most concentrated in September, August, July months and June months, microbial food poisoning and poisoning number most poisonous plants and animals and poisonous mushroom cause deaths,most of them happened in the family and school canteens.Conclusion Increase the management of food poisoning causes of different circumstances, to avoid food poisoning and food borne diseases.%目的:规范指导食物中毒和食源性疾病预防和控制工作,保障人民群众饮食安全。方法:通过对2014年与2013年全国网络直报食物中毒季节、月份、原因、场所和学校等进行流行病学描述比较。结果:食物中毒第三季度最多,集中在9月、8月、7月和6月,微生物性食物中毒起数和中毒人数最多,有毒动植物及毒蘑菇引起的死亡人数最多,家庭引起是食物中毒最多场所,学校食堂是学校食物中毒主要所在。结论:加大对不同情况食物中毒原因管理,避免食物中毒和食源性疾病发生。

  4. Development and Application of an Alert System to Detect Cases of Food Poisoning in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akie Maeyashiki

    Full Text Available Recent public health concerns regarding commercial food products have increased the need to develop an automated method to detect food product-related health events. We developed and verified a method for the early detection of potentially harmful events caused by commercial food products. We collected data from daily internet-based questionnaires examining the presence or absence of symptoms and information about food purchased by the respondents. Using these data, we developed a method to detect possible health concerns regarding commercialized food products. To achieve this, we combined the signal detection method used in the reporting system of adverse effects of pharmaceutical products and the Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS used by the United States Centers for Disease Control. Whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, which had odds ratio and Odds(- of 8.99 and 4.13, respectively, was identified as a possible causative food product for diarrhea and vomiting. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that food distributors can implement post-marketing monitoring of the safety of food products purchased via the internet.

  5. Deodorant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  6. Jimsonweed poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  7. Detergent poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  8. Foxglove poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  9. Nicotine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  10. Mistletoe poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Bee poison

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002847.htm Bee poison To use the sharing features on this page, ... of insect, if possible Time of the sting Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached ...

  12. Philodendron poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  13. Surtos de enfermidades transmitidas por alimentos causados por Salmonella Enteritidis Food borne disease outbreaks caused by Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline T.M. Peresi

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: São descritos surtos de salmonelose notificados no período de julho de 1993 a junho de 1997 na região Noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, tendo em vista os vários surtos de veiculação alimentar ocasionados por Salmonella nessa região. MÉTODO: Foram obtidos 19 inquéritos epidemiológicos para análise de dados, 87 amostras de fezes e 38 amostras de alimentos, incluindo 12 de ovos para análise microbiológica. Cepas de Salmonella foram submetidas a sorotipagem, fagotipagem e teste de sensibilidade a 13 agentes antimicrobianos. RESULTADOS: Foram acometidas 906 pessoas com 295 hospitalizações. Cepas de Salmonella Enteritidis Fagotipo 4 foram isoladas de 80,5% das coproculturas, de todas amostras de alimentose de 41,7% dos ovos. Em 22 (95,7% surtos os a salmonela foi veiculada por alimentos contendo ovos crus ou semicrus. Os testes de sensibilidade a antimicrobianos revelaram sensibilidade à maioria das cepas. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando os resultados obtidos, torna-se necessária a implantação e intensificação de medidas de controle na produção e armazenamento dos ovos, além da orientação à população quanto aos riscos no consumo inadequado desse alimento.OBJECTIVE: It is to describe outbreaks of salmonellosis reported from July 1993 through June 1997 in the Northwest region of S. Paulo State, Brazil, one of the areas where several foodborne outbreaks of salmonellosis have been recently detected. METHOD: Data of 19 epidemiological investigations were analysed; 87 stool specimens and 38 food samples (including 12 of shell eggs were processed for microbiological analysis. Salmonella strains were identified by serotyping, phagetyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. RESULTS: There were 906 ill persons including 295 hospitalized patients. Phage type 4 (PT 4 Salmonella Enteritidis strains were isolated from 80.5% of stool samples, from all food samples and from 41.7% of eggs. Of the outbreaks, 95.7% were

  14. A novel small acid soluble protein variant is important for spore resistance of most Clostridium perfringens food poisoning isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Li

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is a major cause of food poisoning (FP in developed countries. C. perfringens isolates usually induce the gastrointestinal symptoms of this FP by producing an enterotoxin that is encoded by a chromosomal (cpe gene. Those typical FP strains also produce spores that are extremely resistant to food preservation approaches such as heating and chemical preservatives. This resistance favors their survival and subsequent germination in improperly cooked, prepared, or stored foods. The current study identified a novel alpha/beta-type small acid soluble protein, now named Ssp4, and showed that sporulating cultures of FP isolates producing resistant spores consistently express a variant Ssp4 with an Asp substitution at residue 36. In contrast, Gly was detected at Ssp4 residue 36 in C. perfringens strains producing sensitive spores. Studies with isogenic mutants and complementing strains demonstrated the importance of the Asp 36 Ssp4 variant for the exceptional heat and sodium nitrite resistance of spores made by most FP strains carrying a chromosomal cpe gene. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNA binding studies showed that Ssp4 variants with an Asp at residue 36 bind more efficiently and tightly to DNA than do Ssp4 variants with Gly at residue 36. Besides suggesting one possible mechanistic explanation for the highly resistant spore phenotype of most FP strains carrying a chromosomal cpe gene, these findings may facilitate eventual development of targeted strategies to increase killing of the resistant spores in foods. They also provide the first indication that SASP variants can be important contributors to intra-species (and perhaps inter-species variations in bacterial spore resistance phenotypes. Finally, Ssp4 may contribute to spore resistance properties throughout the genus Clostridium since ssp4 genes also exist in the genomes of other clostridial species.

  15. A novel small acid soluble protein variant is important for spore resistance of most Clostridium perfringens food poisoning isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jihong; McClane, Bruce A

    2008-05-02

    Clostridium perfringens is a major cause of food poisoning (FP) in developed countries. C. perfringens isolates usually induce the gastrointestinal symptoms of this FP by producing an enterotoxin that is encoded by a chromosomal (cpe) gene. Those typical FP strains also produce spores that are extremely resistant to food preservation approaches such as heating and chemical preservatives. This resistance favors their survival and subsequent germination in improperly cooked, prepared, or stored foods. The current study identified a novel alpha/beta-type small acid soluble protein, now named Ssp4, and showed that sporulating cultures of FP isolates producing resistant spores consistently express a variant Ssp4 with an Asp substitution at residue 36. In contrast, Gly was detected at Ssp4 residue 36 in C. perfringens strains producing sensitive spores. Studies with isogenic mutants and complementing strains demonstrated the importance of the Asp 36 Ssp4 variant for the exceptional heat and sodium nitrite resistance of spores made by most FP strains carrying a chromosomal cpe gene. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNA binding studies showed that Ssp4 variants with an Asp at residue 36 bind more efficiently and tightly to DNA than do Ssp4 variants with Gly at residue 36. Besides suggesting one possible mechanistic explanation for the highly resistant spore phenotype of most FP strains carrying a chromosomal cpe gene, these findings may facilitate eventual development of targeted strategies to increase killing of the resistant spores in foods. They also provide the first indication that SASP variants can be important contributors to intra-species (and perhaps inter-species) variations in bacterial spore resistance phenotypes. Finally, Ssp4 may contribute to spore resistance properties throughout the genus Clostridium since ssp4 genes also exist in the genomes of other clostridial species.

  16. Analysis on status of food poisoning in China from 2006-2012%2006-2012年全国食物中毒分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东军

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过对2006-2012年全国食物中毒情况进行分析,以采取有效措施应对食物中毒的发生.方法 应用流行病学和统计学的方法对全国2006-2012年食物中毒相关资料进行分析.结果 2006-2012年全国食物中毒共发生2 386起,中毒人数77 424人.主要发生在第3季度,中毒起数和中毒人数最多,分别占总数的39.31%、40.00%.食物中毒发生起数最多和死亡人数最多的是家庭,分别占总数的40.99%、83.28%.主要致死原因是有毒动植物,占死亡人数的54.78%.结论 应针对食物中毒发生的重点时间、重点环节,开展切实可行控制措施,减少食物中毒的发生,防范食物中毒致死事件的发生.%[Objective]To analyze the status of food poisoning in China from 2006-2012,and carry out the effective measures for preventing the food poisoning.[Methods] The data of food poisoning in China from 2006-2012 were analyzed by epidemiology and statistics.[Results] During 2006-2012,there were 2386 food poisoning events in China,and 77 424 patients were involved.Most of food poisoning events occurred in the third quarter,which the events and patients respectively accounted for 39.31% and 40.00% of the total.The main place that had the largest number of event and death case was home,which accounted for 40.99% and 83.28% of the total respectively.The main cause of death was the poisonous plants and animals,the death caused by which accounted for 54.78% of the total.[Conclusion] It is necessary to carry out feasible control measures according to the high-risk time and link of food poisoning,to reduce the incidence of food poisoning and prevent the event of food poisoning that could cause death from happening.

  17. Shigellosis outbreak linked to canteen-food consumption in a public institution: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Garitano, I; Naranjo, M; Forier, A; Hendriks, R; DE Schrijver, K; Bertrand, S; Dierick, K; Robesyn, E; Quoilin, S

    2011-12-01

    On 13 November 2009, the authorities of Flemish Brabant, Belgium, received an alert concerning a potential outbreak of Shigella sonnei at a public institution. A study was conducted to assess the extent, discover the source and to implement further measures. We performed a matched case-control study to test an association between shigellosis and canteen-food consumption. Water samples and food handlers' faecal samples were tested. The reference laboratory characterized the retrospectively collected Shigella specimens. We found 52 cases distributed over space (25/35 departments) and time (2 months). We found a matched odds ratio of 3·84 (95% confidence interval 1·02-14·44) for canteen-food consumption. A food handler had travelled to Morocco shortly before detection of the first laboratory-confirmed case. Water samples and food handlers' faecal samples tested negative for Shigella. Confirmed cases presented PFGE profiles, highly similar to archived isolates from Morocco. Foodborne transmission associated with the canteen was strongly suspected.

  18. Males of a strongly polygynous species consume more poisonous food than females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bravo

    Full Text Available We present evidence of a possible case of self-medication in a lekking bird, the great bustard Otis tarda. Great bustards consumed blister beetles (Meloidae, in spite of the fact that they contain cantharidin, a highly toxic compound that is lethal in moderate doses. In addition to anthelminthic properties, cantharidin was effective against gastrointestinal bacteria that cause sexually-transmitted diseases. Although both sexes consumed blister beetles during the mating season, only males selected them among all available insects, and ingested more and larger beetles than females. The male-biased consumption suggests that males could use cantharidin to reduce their parasite load and increase their sexual attractiveness. This plausibly explains the intense cloaca display males perform to approaching females, and the meticulous inspection females conduct of the male's cloaca, a behaviour only observed in this and another similar species of the bustard family. A white, clean cloaca with no infection symptoms (e.g., diarrhoea is an honest signal of both, resistance to cantharidin and absence of parasites, and represents a reliable indicator of the male quality to the extremely choosy females. Our results do not definitely prove, but certainly strongly suggest that cantharidin, obtained by consumption of blister beetles, acts in great bustards as an oral anti-microbial and pathogen-limiting compound, and that males ingest these poisonous insects to increase their mating success, pointing out that self-medication might have been overlooked as a sexually-selected mechanism enhancing male fitness.

  19. Case Report: An Outbreak of Food-Borne Typhoid Fever Due to Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi in Japan Reported for the First Time in 16 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Ohmagari, Norio; Uryu, Hideko; Yamada, Ritsuko; Kashiwa, Naoyuki; Nei, Takahito; Ehara, Akihito; Takei, Reiko; Mori, Nobuaki; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Hayasaka, Tomomi; Kagawa, Narito; Sugawara, Momoko; Suzaki, Ai; Takahashi, Yuno; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Morita, Masatomo; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2016-02-01

    For the first time in 16 years, a food-borne outbreak of typhoid fever due to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi was reported in Japan. Seven patients consumed food in an Indian buffet at a restaurant in the center of Tokyo, while one was a Nepali chef in the restaurant, an asymptomatic carrier and the implicated source of this outbreak. The multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis showed 100% consistency in the genomic sequence for five of the eight cases. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. EHEC O104:H4 in Germany 2011: Large outbreak of bloody diarrhea and haemolytic uraemic syndrome by shiga toxin-producing E. coli via contaminated food

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In the summer of 2011 Germany experienced one of the largest outbreaks of a food-borne infection caused by enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) with the serotype O104:H4. A large number of cases with bloody diarrhea and haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) occurred. Never before was such a high rate of HUS cases observed in an outbreak caused by a food-borne pathogen. The events in Germany caused by EHEC O104:H4 in the summer of 2011 show dramatically how rapidly an infectious agent ...

  1. Exploring the diagnostic standard for animal and plant food poisoning%动、植物性食物中毒诊断标准探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林国建

    2011-01-01

    根据现行动、植物性食物中毒诊断标准,确诊条件之一须取得形态学鉴定资料,但因难以取得该资料,对依法确诊带来困难.形态学鉴定条件执行难点和问题有:缺少鉴定机构、方法和标准;无剩余中毒食物或加工后形态破坏;普通市售有毒动、植物食物及常见误食的有毒动、植物的鉴定价值小;动、植物加工品形态学鉴定困难;同一有毒成分存在不同种类生物问题.为此,提出完善诊断标准的建议:形态学鉴定应作为补充性诊断标准;实脸室诊断资料范围应扩大;对诊断标准总则表述提出建议.并探讨建议国家应出台有毒动、植物食品目录,加强毒素及人体生物样品等实脸室指标及检测方法研究.%based on existing diagnostic criteria for animal and plant food poisoning, one of the difficulties to make a confirmed diagnosis according to the law is to obtain related morphological identified information. The major difficult points and problems for the implementation of morphological identification are: lack of accreditation organizations, methods and standards; no residual poisoning food remained or the morphology of food being damaged after processing; the value of identifying ordinary commercial poisonous animal and plant food and eating common poisonous animal and plant food by mistake is small;morphological identification of processed animal and plant food was difficult; the same type of toxic components have different biological problems. For this reason, a more completed set of diagnostic criteria was proposed: morphological identification should be taken as supplementary diagnostic criteria;the scope of laboratory diagnosis should be extended; a general statement on diagnostic criteria was proposed. Suggestions of setting a national directory on poisonous animal and plant foods, and strengthening the study on laboratory diagnostic indicators and test methods for toxins and other biological samples

  2. [Surveys on the contamination of marine fish with non-O1 Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio mimicus and food poisoning cases by these organisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, H; Hayashi, M; Gyobu, Y

    1991-02-01

    The present paper describes the relationship between the contamination with non-O1 Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio mimicus of marine fish, with special reference to the seasonal variation and the concentration of contamination, and the actual cases of domestic food poisoning by these organisms. A 10 year survey revealed that non-O1 Vibrio cholerae (non-O1 V. cholerae) strains were frequently isolated from fish during the summer season with some variations from one year to another, and isolates from fish showed similar biological properties to those of isolates from diarrhea cases of over-sea travellers. Experimentally enteropathogenic strains were included among these isolates. Vibrio mimicus (V. mimicus) strains were also isolated from fish, the frequency being not so high as in the case of non-O1 V. cholerae Strains of serovar O-41 which was most predominant among strains from diarrhea cases were also detected among the isolates from fish. The viable cell counts, however, were very small with regard to both non-O1 V. cholerae and V. mimicus From these observations, factors causing food poisoning by non-O1 V. cholerae or V. mimicus seemed to be essentially similar to those by Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus); that is, the food poisoning by non-O1 V. cholerae or V. mimicus is apt to occur in the summer season and is caused by the consumption of raw fish, although the frequency might be significantly low in comparison to that of V. parahaemolyticus. The actual cases of the domestic food poisoning by non-O1 V. cholerae or V. mimicus were retrospectively surveyed by the literature.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. A centrifugal direct recombinase polymerase amplification (direct-RPA) microdevice for multiplex and real-time identification of food poisoning bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Goro; Jung, Jae Hwan; Park, Byung Hyun; Oh, Seung Jun; Seo, Ji Hyun; Choi, Jong Seob; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2016-06-21

    In this study, we developed a centrifugal direct recombinase polymerase amplification (direct-RPA) microdevice for multiplex and real-time identification of food poisoning bacteria contaminated milk samples. The microdevice was designed to contain identical triplicate functional units and each unit has four reaction chambers, thereby making it possible to perform twelve direct-RPA reactions simultaneously. The integrated microdevice consisted of two layers: RPA reagents were injected in the top layer, while spiked milk samples with food poisoning bacteria were loaded into sample reservoirs in the bottom layer. For multiplex bacterial detection, the target gene-specific primers and probes were dried in each reaction chamber. The introduced samples and reagents could be equally aliquoted and dispensed into each reaction chamber by centrifugal force, and then the multiplex direct-RPA reaction was executed. The target genes of bacteria spiked in milk could be amplified at 39 °C without a DNA extraction step by using the direct-RPA cocktails, which were a combination of a direct PCR buffer and RPA enzymes. As the target gene amplification proceeded, the increased fluorescence signals coming from the reaction chambers were recorded in real-time at an interval of 2 min. The entire process, including the sample distribution, the direct-RPA reaction, and the real-time analysis, was accomplished with a custom-made portable genetic analyzer and a miniaturized optical detector. Monoplex, duplex, and triplex food poisoning bacteria (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) detection was successfully performed with a detection sensitivity of 4 cells per 3.2 μL of milk samples within 30 min. By implementing the direct-PRA on the miniaturized centrifugal microsystem, the on-site food poisoning bacteria analysis would be feasible with high speed, sensitivity, and multiplicity.

  4. 一起山夫登堡沙门氏菌引起的食物中毒分析%Food poisoning caused by Salmonella Fort Hill Clifden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱霞; 任新红; 肖美; 李尤佳

    2015-01-01

    Objective Quickly find the cause of food poisoning, Provide the basis for food poisoning treatment. Methods Salmonella food poisoning caused by data analysis along with the city in 2014 occurred in a restaurant, The samples were collected on-site detection of suspicious pathogens.Results In 20 samples of the data collected in four samples isolated from Salmonella, Salmonella serology by checking out their mountain salmonella Clifden Castle, The other samples were not detected suspicious pathogens.Conclusion By the results of clinical manifestations and laboratory identification of patients, At the same basis "WS / T13-1996 salmonella poisoning diagnostic criteria and principles"[1] to determine the times of poisoning by Clifden Castle Hill bacterial food poisoning caused by Salmonella.%目的:快速查找食物中毒的原因,为食物中毒的处理提供依据。方法:分析2014年我市某餐厅发生的一起沙门氏菌引起的食物中毒资料,对现场采集样品进行可疑致病菌检测。结果:在本资料采集的20份样品中有4份样品分离出沙门氏菌,通过沙门氏菌血清学鉴定检查出其为山夫登堡沙门氏菌,而其他样品中未检出可疑致病菌。结论:通过患者的临床表现以及实验室鉴定结果,同时依据《WS/T13-1996沙门氏菌中毒诊断标准及处理原则》[1]确定该次中毒事件是由山夫登堡沙门氏菌引起的细菌性食物中毒。

  5. Workshop on the Application of Genomic Tools for the Rapid Molecular Characterization of Bacterial Isolates in Food-borne Disease Outbreak Investigations Ottawa, ON, February 24-25, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    pathogens by WGS is leading to a shift in paradigm. At the CDC, WGS began with the investigation of the Haiti cholera outbreak in 2010. The CDC is...Workshop on the Application of Genomic Tools for the Rapid Molecular Characterization of Bacterial Isolates in Food-borne Disease Outbreak ...Characterization of Bacterial Isolates in Food-borne Disease Outbreak Investigations Ottawa, ON, February 24-25, 2014

  6. PCR primers for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins K, L, and M and survey of staphylococcal enterotoxin types in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from food poisoning cases in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Li-Tung; Lin, Chia-Wei; Yang, Chi-Yea; Tsen, Hau-Yang

    2006-05-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are important causative agents in gastroenteritidis and food poisoning cases. They are serologically grouped into five major classical types, i.e., SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, and SEE. In addition, new SEs, such as SEG through SEM, have recently been identified and characterized. In an attempt to survey the distribution of classical and new SEs in organisms responsible for staphylococcal infections in Taiwan, we developed PCR primers for the genes that define the SEK, SEL, and SEM types. Bacterial strains other than sek, sel, and sem Staphylococcus aureus, including strains of other Staphylococcus species, did not generate any false-positive results when examined with these primers. The expression potential for the sek, sel, and sem types were also determined by reverse transcription-PCR. Together with the PCR primers specific for the classical SEs and other new SEs, including SEG, SEH, SEI, and SEJ, we surveyed the SE genes in S. aureus strains isolated from food poisoning cases. For 147 S. aureus isolates originating from food poisoning cases, 109 (74.1%) were positive for one or more SE genes. Of them, the major classical enterotoxin type was sea (28.6%), followed by seb (20.4%), sec (8.2%), and sed (2.0%). For the new SE types, sei (30.6%) was detected the most often, followed by sek (18.4%), sem (12.9%), and sel (8.2%). Also, 64 (43.5%) of the total bacterial strains had more than one enterotoxin gene.

  7. Structure of the food-poisoning Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin reveals similarity to the aerolysin-like pore-forming toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, David C; Naylor, Claire E; Smedley, James G; Lukoyanova, Natalya; Robertson, Susan; Moss, David S; McClane, Bruce A; Basak, Ajit K

    2011-10-14

    Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is a major cause of food poisoning and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Upon its release from C. perfringens spores, CPE binds to its receptor, claudin, at the tight junctions between the epithelial cells of the gut wall and subsequently forms pores in the cell membranes. A number of different complexes between CPE and claudin have been observed, and the process of pore formation has not been fully elucidated. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of the soluble form of CPE in two crystal forms by X-ray crystallography, to a resolution of 2.7 and 4.0 Å, respectively, and found that the N-terminal domain shows structural homology with the aerolysin-like β-pore-forming family of proteins. We show that CPE forms a trimer in both crystal forms and that this trimer is likely to be biologically relevant but is not the active pore form. We use these data to discuss models of pore formation.

  8. Role of Food Insecurity in Outbreak of Anthrax Infections among Humans and Hippopotamuses Living in a Game Reserve Area, Rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Mark W; Craig, Allen S; Malama, Constantine; Kapina-Kany'anga, Muzala; Malenga, Philip; Munsaka, Fanny; Muwowo, Sergio; Shadomy, Sean; Marx, Melissa A

    2017-09-01

    In September 2011, a total of 511 human cases of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) infection and 5 deaths were reported in a game management area in the district of Chama, Zambia, near where 85 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) had recently died of suspected anthrax. The human infections generally responded to antibiotics. To clarify transmission, we conducted a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered household survey in villages where human anthrax cases and hippopotamuses deaths were reported. Among 284 respondents, 84% ate hippopotamus meat before the outbreak. Eating, carrying, and preparing meat were associated with anthrax infection. Despite the risk, 23% of respondents reported they would eat meat from hippopotamuses found dead again because of food shortage (73%), lack of meat (12%), hunger (7%), and protein shortage (5%). Chronic food insecurity can lead to consumption of unsafe foods, leaving communities susceptible to zoonotic infection. Interagency cooperation is necessary to prevent outbreaks by addressing the root cause of exposure, such as food insecurity.

  9. Detection of Kudoa septempunctata 18S ribosomal DNA in patient fecal samples from novel food-borne outbreaks caused by consumption of raw olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tetsuya; Kawai, Takao; Jinnai, Michio; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Kumeda, Yuko

    2012-09-01

    Kudoa septempunctata is a newly identified myxosporean parasite of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and a suspected causative agent of several food-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks in Japan. Here, we report the detection of K. septempunctata 18S ribosomal DNA in fecal samples of outbreak patients using an efficient method based on real-time PCR. We first performed a spiking experiment to assess whether our previously developed real-time PCR assay was applicable to detect K. septempunctata in feces. Simultaneously, we compared the relative extraction efficacy of K. septempunctata DNA using three commercial kits. Finally, our detection method was validated by testing 45 clinical samples obtained from 13 food-borne outbreaks associated with the consumption of raw flounder and 41 fecal samples from diarrhea patients epidemiologically unrelated to the ingestion of raw fish. We found that the FastDNA Spin Kit for Soil (MP Biomedicals) was the most efficient method for extracting K. septempunctata DNA from fecal samples. Using this kit, the detection limit of our real-time PCR assay was 1.6 × 10(1) spores per g of feces, and positive results were obtained for 21 fecal and 2 vomitus samples obtained from the food-borne outbreaks. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the detection of K. septempunctata DNA in patient fecal samples. We anticipate that our detection method will be useful for confirming food-borne diseases caused by K. septempunctata in laboratory investigations.

  10. Bacterial food poisoning in Xuchang City from 2006-2010%2006-2010年许昌市细菌性食物中毒分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仝玉平; 贾桂华; 毛斐

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解许昌市近年来细菌性食物中毒发生概况,尤其是流行特征及实验室检测情况,为食物中毒的判定、治疗、预防和控制提供依据.方法 根据GB/T 4789标准和常规食物中毒检验程序操作,对疑似食物中毒的样品进行检验.结果 5年共发生疑似食物中毒事件59起,送检标本574份;其中38起检出致病菌,检出致病菌69株.由单一致病菌引起的食物中毒35起,由混合菌株引起的食物中毒3起.共检出致病菌6种,检出率最高的是沙门菌(25.42%),其次是副溶血性弧菌(13.56%),变形杆菌(10.17%).各菌对样品的污染情况是:沙门菌以污染肉类为主,副溶血性弧菌以污染水产品为主,变形杆菌以污染肉类和米菜为主.发生细菌性食物中毒的场所以餐饮业最多,其次是学校餐厅.结论 该市细菌性食物中毒以沙门菌和副溶血性弧菌为主,多发生在第3和第2季度,应重点加强餐饮业和学校食堂的卫生监管工作,预防和减少细菌性食物中毒的发生.%[Objective] To understand the prevalence of bacterial food poisoning in Xuchang City in recent years, especially the epi-demiological characteristics and laboratory testing results, and provide evidence for judgment, treatment, prevention and control of food poisoning. [ Methods] The detection on samples of suspected food poisoning was based on GB / T 4789 standard and conventional food poisoning testing procedures. [Results] A total of 59 incidents of food poisoning occurred in S years, with 574 detected samples, 38 incidents were detected with pathogens (69 strains). Thirty-five incidents caused by single pathogen, while 3 caused by mixed strains. Six kinds of pathogens were detected, the major was Salmonella (25.42% ) , followed by Vibrio parahaemolytic-us (13.56% ), Proteus (10.17% ). The pollution characteristics were Salmonella contamination of meat, Vibrio parahaemolytic-us contamination of aquatic products, Proteus

  11. [Mercury poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

    2011-07-01

    Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication.

  12. Analysis on Food Poisoning Incidents in Gansu Province from 2004 to 2011%甘肃省2004-2011年食物中毒事件流行特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海霞; 李慧

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析2004-2011年甘肃省突发并网络报告的食物中毒事件,为预防食物中毒事件发生提供相关依据.方法:对2004-2011年甘肃省网络报告的食物中毒事件进行描述性流行病学分析.结果:2004-2011年甘肃省共报告食物中毒事件73起,中毒2 311例、死亡53例,病死率为2.3%.事件发生时间主要集中在4-10月,其中9月中毒人数最多.致病因素中微生物性食物中毒为30起、植物性和动物性13起、化学性为25起;致死人数较多的因素依次为农药/鼠药(30例)、毒蘑菇(7例)、肉毒毒素(4例)、亚硝酸盐(4例)和其它(8例).结论:报告的食物中毒事件中,微生物所导致食物中毒仍是较大的食品安全问题;而农药/鼠药中毒和蘑菇中毒是导致食物中毒事件中的主要死亡原因.农村是食物中毒的防范重点.%[Objective] To analyze the food poisoning incidents reported through the public emergency network direct reporting system in Gansu province from 2004 to 2011 and provide evidence for the prevention and control of food poisoning incidents.[Method] Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the data of the food poisoning incidents reported through the public emergency network direct reporting system in Gansu Province from 2004 to 2011.[Result] The number of food poisoning events reported in Gansu province from 2004 to 2011 was 73,the number of the patients was 2 311,the number of death cases caused by the events was 53,and the rate of fatality was 2.3%.Most of the incidents occurred from Apirl to October,especially in September.Microorganism food poisoning incidents occurred most frequently (30 cases),followed by chemical food poisoning (25 cases),the last were vegetal and animal food poisoning (13 cases).The death cases were mainly caused by poisonous pesticide/rodenticide poisoning (30 cases),mushroom (7 cases),botulinum toxin (4 cases),nitrite (4 cases) and other poisoning (8 cases).[Conclusion] In all

  13. Surveillance of acute infectious gastroenteritis (1992-2009) and food-borne disease outbreaks (1996-2009) in Italy, with a focus on the Piedmont and Lombardy regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, L; Graziani, C; Biorci, F; Pavan, A; Magliola, R; Ricci, A; Gilli, G; Carraro, E; Busani, L

    2012-02-23

    We describe trends in the occurrence of acute infectious gastroenteritis (1992 to 2009) and food-borne disease outbreaks (1996 to 2009) in Italy. In 2002, the Piedmont region implemented a surveillance system for early detection and control of food-borne disease outbreaks; in 2004, the Lombardy region implemented a system for surveillance of all notifiable human infectious diseases. Both systems are internet based. We compared the regional figures with the national mean using official notification data provided by the National Infectious Diseases Notification System (SIMI) and the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), in order to provide additional information about the epidemiology of these diseases in Italy. When compared with the national mean, data from the two regional systems showed a significant increase in notification rates of non-typhoid salmonellosis and infectious diarrhea other than non-typhoid salmonellosis, but for foodborne disease outbreaks, the increase was not statistically significant. Although the two regional systems have different objectives and structures, they showed improved sensitivity regarding notification of cases of acute infectious gastroenteritis and, to a lesser extent, food-borne disease outbreaks, and thus provide a more complete picture of the epidemiology of these diseases in Italy.

  14. Cyanide and the human brain: perspectives from a model of food (cassava) poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshala-Katumbay, Desire D; Ngombe, Nadege N; Okitundu, Daniel; David, Larry; Westaway, Shawn K; Boivin, Michael J; Mumba, Ngoyi D; Banea, Jean-Pierre

    2016-08-01

    Threats by fundamentalist leaders to use chemical weapons have resulted in renewed interest in cyanide toxicity. Relevant insights may be gained from studies on cyanide mass intoxication in populations relying on cyanogenic cassava as the main source of food. In these populations, sublethal concentrations (up to 80 μmol/l) of cyanide in the blood are commonplace and lead to signs of acute toxicity. Long-term toxicity signs include a distinct and irreversible spastic paralysis, known as konzo, and cognition deficits, mainly in sequential processing (visual-spatial analysis) domains. Toxic culprits include cyanide (mitochondrial toxicant), thiocyanate (AMPA-receptor chaotropic cyanide metabolite), cyanate (protein-carbamoylating cyanide metabolite), and 2-iminothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (seizure inducer). Factors of susceptibility include younger age, female gender, protein-deficient diet, and, possibly, the gut functional metagenome. The existence of uniquely exposed and neurologically affected populations offers invaluable research opportunities to develop a comprehensive understanding of cyanide toxicity and test or validate point-of-care diagnostic tools and treatment options to be included in preparedness kits in response to cyanide-related threats. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. 肉毒毒素引发一起食物中毒的检测%Detection of food poisoning caused by botulinum toxin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦丽云; 李云; 王晓丽; 徐保红; 柳连顺; 吕国平

    2014-01-01

    目的 对因食入自制臭豆腐后,引起家庭内食物中毒的病因进行检测.方法 按中华人民共和国国家标准GB/T 4789·12-2003《食品卫生微生物学检验肉毒梭菌及肉毒毒素检验》方法,对食物中毒的样品用小白鼠进行肉毒毒素检测.结果 测定自制臭豆腐中存在B型肉毒毒素,毒力大致为1 000 ~ 10 000 MLD/ml的范围.结论 根据试验结果查明了中毒原因,为事故的调查提供了依据.%Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the cause of a food poisoning case in a family after consuming homemade stinky tofu.Methods The botulinum toxin was examined by mice virulence test according to GB/T 47890.12-2003 microbiological examination of food hygiene (examination of Clostridium botulinum and botulinum toxin).Results The type B botulinum toxin was identified in homemade stinky tofu,and the virulence of the toxin was approximately 1000-10000 MLD/g.Conclusion The cause of this food poisoning incidence was quickly identified by the test results,and the study provided the basis for investigating food poisoning.

  16. Outbreak of thiamine deficiency in cats associated with the feeding of defective dry food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Pei; Chiu, Po-Yu; Lin, Chung-Tien; Liu, I-Hsuan; Liu, Chen-Hsuan

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to determine disease progression, association between neurological signs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and long-term outcome in feline thiamine deficiency associated with defective dry food. Methods The clinical records of 17 cats diagnosed with thiamine deficiency related to a defective dry food were examined and data collected. The thiamine level in the food was analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results The thiamine level in the food was below the recommendation of the National Research Council. Fifteen cats were fed the food exclusively. Prior to the acute development of neurological signs, most cats displayed non-specific signs such as anorexia, lethargy or vomiting. Vestibular signs of varying severity were observed in 94% of the cats, and all but one of these presented with bilateral dysfunction. Other main neurological signs included altered mentation (76%), blindness (59%) and seizures (59%). Moreover, 80% of the cats with seizures presented with cluster seizures or status epilepticus. MRI abnormalities consistent with findings reported in the previous literature were detected in five cases. MRI was unremarkable in one cat with ongoing severe neurological signs even though thiamine had been administered. Most surviving cats recovered rapidly within 2 weeks of treatment and had either returned to normal or had minimal neurological signs at the 2 month follow-up. One cat recovered slowly over 6 months. Most cats with seizures in the initial stage of the disease remained seizure free at the 24 month follow-up. Conclusions and relevance This study documented the association between feline thiamine deficiency and defective dry food. MRI examination provided valuable information in the diagnosis. However, normal MRI findings do not exclude the diagnosis of feline thiamine deficiency, especially once thiamine has been supplemented. MRI findings also may not always reflect the

  17. Insecticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002832.htm Insecticide poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Insecticide is a chemical that kills bugs. Insecticide poisoning ...

  18. Methylmercury poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grain that was treated with this from of mercury. Poisoning from eating fish from water that is contaminated ... into the body. Many of the symptoms of mercury poisoning are similar to symptoms of cerebral palsy . In ...

  19. Starch poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  20. Copper poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 75. Holland MG. Pulmonary toxicology. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 9. Jones AL, Dargan PI. ...

  1. Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  2. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play On ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help ...

  3. Ethanol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002644.htm Ethanol poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ...

  4. Outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis infection in humans linked to dry dog food in the United States and Canada, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanishi, Maho; Rotstein, David S; Reimschuessel, Renate; Schwensohn, Colin A; Woody, Dillard H; Davis, Samuel W; Hunt, April D; Arends, Katherine D; Achen, Maya; Cui, Jing; Zhang, Yan; Denny, Lynn F; Phan, Quyen N; Joseph, Lavin A; Tuite, Carla C; Tataryn, Joanne R; Behravesh, Casey Barton

    2014-03-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION--In April 2012, Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis was detected in an unopened bag of dry dog food collected during routine retail surveillance. PulseNet, a national bacterial subtyping network, identified humans with Salmonella Infantis infection with the same genetic fingerprint as the dog food sample. CLINICAL FINDINGS--An outbreak investigation identified 53 ill humans infected with the outbreak strain during January 1 to July 5, 2012, in 21 states and 2 provinces in Canada; 20 (38%) were children ≤ 2 years old, and 12 of 37 (32%) were hospitalized. Of 21 ill people who remembered the dog food brand, 12 (57%) reported a brand produced at a plant in Gaston, SC. Traceback investigations also identified that plant. The outbreak strain was isolated from bags of dry dog food and fecal specimens obtained from dogs that lived with ill people and that ate the implicated dry dog food. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME--The plant was closed temporarily for cleaning and disinfection. Sixteen brands involving > 27,000 metric tons (> 30,000 tons) of dry dog and cat food were recalled. Thirty-one ill dogs linked to recalled products were reported through the FDA consumer complaint system. CLINICAL RELEVANCE-- A one-health collaborative effort on epidemiological, laboratory, and traceback investigations linked dry dog foods produced at a plant to illnesses in dogs and humans. More efforts are needed to increase awareness among pet owners, health-care professionals, and the pet food industry on the risk of illness in pets and their owners associated with dry pet foods and treats.

  5. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t be awakened is at risk of dying. Alcohol poisoning is an emergency If you suspect that someone has alcohol poisoning — even if you don't see the ... immediately. Never assume the person will sleep off alcohol poisoning. Be prepared to provide information. If you ...

  6. RESULT ANALYSIS OF 68 CASES OF FOOD POISONING IN BAIYUN DISTRICT OF GUAN-GZHOU%广州市白云区68起食物中毒结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘恕安; 李荔; 谭伟煊; 徐建华; 温月珍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the result of 68 cases of food poisoning in Baiyun District of Guangzhou, so as to provide evidences for the prevention and control of food poisoning.Methods Comprehensive analysis of pathogenic factors, places of food poisoning, sample types from the data of food poisoning events selected in Baiyun District of Guangzhou from 2006 to 2013.Results 68 cases of food poisoning were detected with pathogenic factors in the Baiyun District, resulting in 660 persons involved, and 89.71% of whom suffered bacterial food poisoning, mainly to Foodborne Vibrio parahaemolyticus intoxication.6 cases of nitrite poisoning were found in the total of 7 cases of chemical food poisoning.The common places of food poisoning were factory canteens, followed by catering industry and families.The positive rate of anal swab samples was the highest among all samples of bacterial food poisoning .The positive rate of vomit samples was the highest among all sam-ples of chemical food poisoning.There were statistical significances in positive rates of different types of samples.Conclusion The food poisoning in Baiyun District is mainly caused by bacteria.So we should reinforce the management of food safety in factory canteens and catering industry to prevent food poisoning.%目的:对广州市白云区68起食物中毒结果进行分析,为预防和控制食物中毒的发生提供依据。方法选取2006~2013年间在广州市白云区发生的食物中毒资料进行致病因素、中毒发生场所、样品类型等综合分析。结果广州市白云区2006~2013年共检出致病因素的食物中毒68起,中毒人数660人,细菌性食物中毒占总数的89.71%,以副溶血性弧菌引起的食物中毒最多。化学性食物中毒共7起,其中亚硝酸盐中毒占6起。食物中毒多发生在工厂食堂,其次为餐饮业、家庭。细菌性食物中毒中肛拭子样品阳性率最高,化学性食物中毒中呕吐物样品阳性率最高

  7. Application of foodborne disease outbreak data in the development and maintenance of HACCP systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panisello, P J; Rooney, R; Quantick, P C; Stanwell-Smith, R

    2000-09-10

    Five-hundred and thirty general foodborne outbreaks of food poisoning reported in England and Wales between 1992 and 1996 were reviewed to study their application to the development and maintenance of HACCP systems. Retrospective investigations of foodborne disease outbreaks provided information on aetiological agents, food vehicles and factors that contributed to the outbreaks. Salmonella spp. and foods of animal origin (red meat, poultry and seafood) were most frequently associated with outbreaks during this period. Improper cooking, inadequate storage, cross-contamination and use of raw ingredients in the preparation of food were the most common factors contributing to outbreaks. Classification and cross tabulation of surveillance information relating to aetiological agents, food vehicles and contributory factors facilitates hazard analysis. In forming control measures and their corresponding critical limits, this approach focuses monitoring on those aspects that are critical to the safety of the product. Incorporation of epidemiological data in the documentation of HACCP systems provides assurance that the system is based on the best scientific information available.

  8. Effect of the food production chain from farm practices to vegetable processing on outbreak incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yangjin; Jang, Hyein; Matthews, Karl R

    2014-11-01

    The popularity in the consumption of fresh and fresh-cut vegetables continues to increase globally. Fresh vegetables are an integral part of a healthy diet, providing vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and other health-promoting compounds. The diversity of fresh vegetables and packaging formats (spring mix in clamshell container, bagged heads of lettuce) support increased consumption. Unfortunately, vegetable production and processing practices are not sufficient to ensure complete microbial safety. This review highlights a few specific areas that require greater attention and research. Selected outbreaks are presented to emphasize the need for science-based 'best practices'. Laboratory and field studies have focused on inactivation of pathogens associated with manure in liquid, slurry or solid forms. As production practices change, other forms and types of soil amendments are being used more prevalently. Information regarding the microbial safety of fish emulsion and pellet form of manure is limited. The topic of global climate change is controversial, but the potential effect on agriculture cannot be ignored. Changes in temperature, precipitation, humidity and wind can impact crops and the microorganisms that are associated with production environments. Climate change could potentially enhance the ability of pathogens to survive and persist in soil, water and crops, increasing human health risks. Limited research has focused on the prevalence and behaviour of viruses in pre and post-harvest environments and on vegetable commodities. Globally, viruses are a major cause of foodborne illnesses, but are seldom tested for in soil, soil amendments, manure and crops. Greater attention must also be given to the improvement in the microbial quality of seeds used in sprout production. Human pathogens associated with seeds can result in contamination of sprouts intended for human consumption, even when all appropriate 'best practices' are used by sprout growers. © 2014 The

  9. Epidemiological analysis on a food poisoning by staphylococcal enterotoxin%一起金黄色葡萄球菌肠毒素食物中毒的流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪国忠

    2013-01-01

    Objective To do epidemiological investigation and pathogen test for a suspected food poisoning, so as to determine the pathogenic factor. Method Do epidemiological investigation and analysis on the poisoning event, and test the patients'vomit, anus swab, remaining food and kitchen appliances. Results Poisoning place, times of eating and poisoning food were related to the disease in epidemiology. Staphylococcus aureus was detected from the collected vomits of patients and the remaining food. Enterotoxin detection was positive. Conclusion This food poisoning was caused by meatballs polluted by staphylococcal enterotoxin.%目的 对一起疑似食物中毒事件进行流行病学调查分析和病原菌检验以确定致病因子.方法 对患者呕吐物、肛拭子、剩余食物以及厨房用具进行实验检测.结果 中毒场所、中毒餐次、中毒食品与发病在流行病学上存在强关联,采集的病人吐泻物和剩余食物中4件样品检出金黄色葡萄球菌,且肠毒素检测均为阳性.结论 该起食物中毒事件为金黄色葡萄球菌肠毒素污染肉圆食品所致.

  10. Photographic fixative poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... Quinones Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfite/bisulfite Boric acid Photographic fixative can also break down (decompose) to form ...

  11. 沙门氏菌食物中毒的三种鉴定方法比较%Comparison of three identification methods of Salmonella food poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林杰

    2016-01-01

    目的:采用三种方法对一起食物中毒事件进行微生物检测,确定其致病因子并比较鉴定结果.方法:采用国标法,简化国标法,mini VIDAS与VITEK 2联用法对抽取的样品进行检测.结论:此次食物中毒原因为沙门氏菌感染引起,采用mini VIDAS与VITEK 2联用法可以提高食品突发事件的应急响应速度跟效率.%Object:To investigate a food poisoning with microbiological testing by using three methods,determine their viru-lence factors and compare the results of the identification. Methods:Using national standard method,simplified national standard method,mini VIDAS and VITEK 2 to detect the sample. Conclusions:This food poisoning was caused by the sal-monella. mini VIDAS and VITEK 2 can improve the emergency response speed and efficiency of food emergencies.

  12. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) Panel; Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 1 (outbreak data analysis and risk ranking of food/pathogen combinations)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    shelf life. Shortcomings in the approach using outbreak data were discussed. The top ranking food/pathogen combination was Salmonellaspp. and leafy greens eaten raw followed by (in equal rank) Salmonellaspp. and bulb and stem vegetables, Salmonellaspp. and tomatoes, Salmonellaspp. and melons...

  13. Analysis on food poisoning events in Yaoan county of Yunnan from 2000-2010%云南省姚安县2000-2010年食物中毒事件分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏发旺; 白光平

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To analyze the food poisoning events in Yao'an county from 2000-2010, provide scientific basis for effective control and prevention of food poisoning event. [Methods] The food poisoning events in Yao'an county from 2000-2010 were analyzed statistically by retrospective epidemiological study. [ Results] During 2000-2010, a total of 44 food poisoning events were reported in Yao'an county, there were 274 patients with the attack rate of 55. 35% and 2 death cases with the mortality of 0. 7%. 84.08% of food poisoning events occurred in the second and third quarter, and 70.45% of food poisoning events occurred in family. 15.9% were chemical food poisoning. 79.55% were caused by toxic animal or plant foods, and 47.73% were caused by eating wild mushroom. The main reason of poisoning was incorrect machining, which accounted for 77.26%. [ Conclusion] The poisoning events in rural families are the key of control and prevention in Yao'an county.%目的 对姚安县2000-2010年食物中毒事件进行分析,为有效预防和控制食物中毒事件的发生提供科学依据.方法 用回顾性流行病学方法对姚安县2000-2010年食物中毒事件进行统计分析.结果 2000-2010年姚安县共报告食物中毒事件44起,中毒人数274人,罹患率为55.35%;死亡人数2人,病死率为0.7%.食物中毒主要发生在第2、3季度,占84.08%;发生在家庭的食物中毒事件最多,占70.45%;化学性食物中毒占15.9%,有毒动植物中毒占79.55%,其中野生菌食物中毒占47.73%;中毒原因主要为加工不当,占77.26%.结论 农村家庭食物中毒是该县预防和控制的重点.

  14. 江阴市2006-2010年食物中毒流行病学分析%Epidemiological analysis of food poisoning in Jiangyin city from 2006 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪国忠

    2011-01-01

    Objective To grasp the epidemiological characteristics and epidemic reasons of food poisoning in our city ,and provide scientific hasis for taking pointed control countermeasures. Method Food poisoning reports and investigation reports of 2006 to 2010 in Jiangyin were statistical analyzed. Results During 2006 to 2010, incidence rate of communality food poisoning were at low level in Jiangyin city, and mainly were bacterial food poisoning. The bacterial which caused food poisoning were vibrio pcrahaemolyticus, proteusbacillus vulgaris, vibrio alginnolyficus. The food poisoning incidence numbers of people were more in collective canteens, and accounting for 42. 24%. The incidence rate of catering industry and delicatessen were higher than other professions, poisoning mainly caused by meat and meat products. 7 ~9 months of every year were the high - frequency time of bacterial food poisoning. Conclusions We should accelerate and improvement the food safety system, establish food safety warning mechanism and ensure food hygiene and protection people's health%目的 为掌握我市食物中毒流行病学特点及其流行原因,为采取针对性防治对策提供科学依据.方法 对2006-2010年江阴市食物中毒报表与专题调查报告进行统计分析.结果 2006~2010年江阴市集体性食物中毒发生率维持在较低水平,主要以细菌性食物中毒为主,中毒细菌以副溶血性弧菌、变形杆菌、溶藻性弧菌为主;集体食堂引起的食物中毒发病人数最多,占42.24%.行业以餐饮业和熟食店为主,引起中毒的食品主要为肉类及其制品.每年7~9月是细菌性食物中毒的高发季节.结论 应加快完善食品安全保障体制,建立食品安全预警机制,保证食品卫生安全和人民身体健康.

  15. 四起农村宴席食物中毒的实验室检测和分析%Laboratory detection and analysis of four cases of food poisoning in rural banquet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张汉菊

    2011-01-01

    目的:对四起农村宴席食物中毒的原因进行分析和实验室确认,提供预防和控制农村宴席食物中毒的科学依据.方法:通过收集近年农村宴席食物中毒的流行病学调查报告和实验室检验记录,回顾性分析引发当地宴席食物中毒的常见菌株.结果:引起四起农村宴席食物中毒的病原菌分别是金黄色葡萄球菌、致泻大肠埃希菌、沙门菌.结论:农村宴席食物中毒需引起足够重视,食品安全监督部门]应加强农村自办宴席的卫生质量监督监测.%Objective: To analyze the cause of four cases of food poisoning in rural banquet and conduct laboratory confirmation, providing scientific basis for control and prevention of food poisoning in rural banquet. Methods: By collecting epidemiolog-ical investigation and laboratory test records of food poisoning in rural banquet, a retrospective analysis of food poisoning caused by common strains in local banquet was conducted. Results: Four rural banquet food poisoning were mainly caused by Staphylo-coccus aureus, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, salmonella. Conclusion: Rural banquet food poisoning need to cause enough attention , food safety supervision departments should strengthen the health quality supervision and monitoring of the rural banquet.

  16. Oliva vidua fulminans, a marine mollusc, responsible for five fatal cases of neurotoxic food poisoning in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, S K; Singh, N; Chan, M K

    1986-01-01

    This is the first report in which a marine mollusc, Oliva vidua fulminans (olives), generally not known to be poisonous, was responsible for death in five children after consuming boiled olives with tamarind. The onset of symptoms was rapid 10 to 20 min after consumption of the olives. Signs and symptoms included nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, tingling sensation around the lips, numbness around the mouth, drowsiness, lethargy and generalized weakness with paraesthesia in the limbs. The five deaths occurred within 3 to 4 hours after eating the poisoned olives and resulted from respiratory failure. Left-over olives from the affected household and freshly collected live olives had a toxicity of 14,200 mouse units (M.U.) and 15,000 M.U. per 100 g meat respectively. No other common chemical poison and organophosphorus insecticides were detected. The neurotoxic agent was acid and heat stable and was toxic at pH less than 4. Its action was similar to that of paralytic shellfish poisoning which was caused by toxins from certain dinoflagellates.

  17. Intoxicação em ovinos por Nierembergia veitchii: observações em quatro surtos Poisoning in sheep by Nierembergia veitchii: observations in four outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ricardo Rissi

    2007-10-01

    chronic disease were observed in sheep from four herds in three cities from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, between June 2001 and May 2006. From a total population at risk of 460 sheep of various ages 43 were affected, 29 died spontaneously and 10 were euthanatized. Thirteen sheep from outbreaks 1 and 4 had sudden death with large amount of froth in oral and nasal cavities; thirty sheep from outbreaks 2 and 3 had a chronic course of loss of weight, reluctance to move, stiff gait, tucked abdomen and kyphosis. A total of 12 sheep were necropsied. Gross changes included poor body condition with depletion of fat deposits and mineralization of several tissues. The large arteries were rigid and had a hard and irregular intimal surface due to irregular prominent whitish opaque plaques. Mineralization was also observed in valvar and mural endocardium and in the uterine, omasal, ruminal and reticular serosa and in the renal parenchyma. Moderate to severe lung edema was observed in six sheep and multifocal to coalescing hard white areas were observed in the subpleural lung parenchyma of seven sheep. Histologically there was systemic tissue mineralization characterized by fine basophilic granules deposited in several tissues. In the arteries mineralization was mainly in the subintimal media and frequently there was intimal proliferation and occasional chondroid and osseous metaplasia of the media. Mineralization of the carotid rete mirabile was observed in seven cases. Foci of mineralization and osseous metaplasia were also observed in the myocardium and alveolar septa. In each of the farms where the outbreaks occurred Nierembergia veitchii was found in the pastures.

  18. Analysis on Epidemiological Characteristics of Food Poisoning in Qingcheng District of Qingyuan City during 2004-2010%2004-2010年清远市清城区食物中毒流行特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎晓鸿; 黎智怡; 王国彬

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of food poisoning in Qingcheng district of Qingyuan city during 2004- 2010, provide the basis for further prevention and control of food poisoning. [ Methods] The food poisoning occurred in Qingcheng district of Qingyuan city during 2004 - 2010 were analyzed by retrospective epidemiology. [ Results] There were 45cases of food poisoning in Qingcheng district of Qingyuan city during 2004 - 2010, 759 people were poisoned, the annual morbidity was 19. 30/lakh, and the fatality rate was 0. The quarter 1 and 2 were the peak season. The main pathogenic cause was bacteria, which accounted for 48.8%, followed by unexplained food poisoning ( 28.89% ). The places of food poisoning were mainly cafeteria, which accounted for 35.56%, followed by restaurants (33.33% ). [ Conclusion] The food poisoning occurred in Qingcheng district of Qingyuan city during 2004 - 2010 were mainly bacterial food poisoning in cafeteria. Most of food poisoning occurred in family were caused by plant and animal toxicants, which were severe. The effective ways of prevention and control of food poisoning include enhancing the propaganda of food hygiene, strengthening the health management in factory cafeteria and improving the public consciousness of food hygiene.%目的 对清远市清城区2004-2010年食物中毒的流行特征进行分析,为进一步预防和控制食物中毒提供依据.方法 用回顾性流行病学方法 对清远市清城区2004-2010年发生的食物中毒进行分析.结果 清远市清城区2004-2010年共发生食物中毒45起,中毒人数759人,年均发病率为19.30/10万,病死率为0;中毒多发生在第2、3季度;致病因素以细菌性为主,占48.89% ,其次是原因不明的食物中毒,占28.89% ;中毒发生场所以集体食堂为主,占35.56% ,其次是饮食服务单位,占33.33%.结论 清远市清城区食物中毒以集体食堂发生的细菌性食物中毒为主,家庭发生的食

  19. Continuity of Business Plans for Animal Disease Outbreaks: Using a Logic Model Approach to Protect Animal Health, Public Health, and Our Food Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Allen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Foreign animal diseases can have a devastating impact on the American economy and agriculture system, while significantly disrupting the food supply chain, and affecting animal health and public health. Continuity of business during an animal disease outbreak aims to mitigate these agriculture-related losses by facilitating normal business operations through the managed movement of non-infected animals and non-contaminated animal products. During a foreign animal disease outbreak, there are competing objectives of trying to control and contain the outbreak while allowing non-infected premises to continue normal business operations to the greatest extent possible. Using a logic model approach, this article discusses the importance of continuity of business planning during an animal disease outbreak, providing a detailed and transparent theoretical framework for continuity of business planning for animal agriculture stakeholders. The logic model provides a basis for continuity of business planning, which is rapidly gaining focus and interest in the animal emergency management community. This unique logic model offers a framework for effective planning and subsequent evaluation of continuity of business plans and processes, by identifying explicit stakeholders, inputs, and activities, alongside the desired outputs and outcomes of such planning.

  20. Poison Ivy Rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Poison ivy rash By Mayo Clinic Staff Poison ivy rash is caused by an allergic reaction to an oily resin ... is in the leaves, stems and roots of poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac. Wash your ...

  1. Malathion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) ... to kill and control insects on crops and in gardens. The government also uses it to kill mosquitoes in large ...

  2. Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird-Gunning, Jonathan; Lea-Henry, Tom; Hoegberg, Lotte C G

    2017-01-01

    is required. The cause of lithium poisoning influences treatment and 3 patterns are described: acute, acute-on-chronic, and chronic. Chronic poisoning is the most common etiology, is usually unintentional, and results from lithium intake exceeding elimination. This is most commonly due to impaired kidney...... function caused by volume depletion from lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or intercurrent illnesses and is also drug-induced. Lithium poisoning can affect multiple organs; however, the primary site of toxicity is the central nervous system and clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic...... supratherapeutic drug concentrations to clinical toxicity such as confusion, ataxia, or seizures. Lithium poisoning has a low mortality rate; however, chronic lithium poisoning can require a prolonged hospital length of stay from impaired mobility and cognition and associated nosocomial complications. Persistent...

  3. Outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis linked to the consumption of frozen beefburgers received from a food bank and originating from Poland: northern France, December 2014 to April 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gabrielle; Pihier, Nathalie; Vanbockstael, Caroline; Le Hello, Simon; Cadel Six, Sabrina; Fournet, Nelly; Jourdan-da Silva, Nathalie

    2016-10-06

    A prolonged outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis occurred in northern France between December 2014 and April 2015. Epidemiological investigations following the initial notification on 30 December 2014 of five cases of salmonellosis (two confirmed S. Enteritidis) in young children residing in the Somme department revealed that all cases frequented the same food bank A. Further epidemiological, microbiological and food trace-back investigations indicated frozen beefburgers as the source of the outbreak and the suspected lot originating from Poland was recalled on 22 January 2015. On 2 March 2015 a second notification of S. Enteritidis cases in the Somme reinitiated investigations that confirmed a link with food bank A and with consumption of frozen beefburgers from the same Polish producer. In the face of a possible persistent source of contamination, all frozen beefburgers distributed by food bank A and from the same origin were blocked on 3 March 2015. Microbiological analyses confirmed contamination by S. Enteritidis of frozen beefburgers from a second lot remaining in cases' homes. A second recall was initiated on 6 March 2015 and all frozen beefburgers from the Polish producer remain blocked after analyses identified additional contaminated lots over several months of production.

  4. Outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis linked to the consumption of frozen beefburgers received from a food bank and originating from Poland: northern France, December 2014 to April 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gabrielle; Pihier, Nathalie; Vanbockstael, Caroline; Le Hello, Simon; Cadel Six, Sabrina; Fournet, Nelly; Jourdan-da Silva, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    A prolonged outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis occurred in northern France between December 2014 and April 2015. Epidemiological investigations following the initial notification on 30 December 2014 of five cases of salmonellosis (two confirmed S. Enteritidis) in young children residing in the Somme department revealed that all cases frequented the same food bank A. Further epidemiological, microbiological and food trace-back investigations indicated frozen beefburgers as the source of the outbreak and the suspected lot originating from Poland was recalled on 22 January 2015. On 2 March 2015 a second notification of S. Enteritidis cases in the Somme reinitiated investigations that confirmed a link with food bank A and with consumption of frozen beefburgers from the same Polish producer. In the face of a possible persistent source of contamination, all frozen beefburgers distributed by food bank A and from the same origin were blocked on 3 March 2015. Microbiological analyses confirmed contamination by S. Enteritidis of frozen beefburgers from a second lot remaining in cases’ homes. A second recall was initiated on 6 March 2015 and all frozen beefburgers from the Polish producer remain blocked after analyses identified additional contaminated lots over several months of production. PMID:27748250

  5. Together by the Ingestion of Rhizoma Arisaematis Seeds Cause of Food Poisoning Investigation Report%一起由误食天南星籽引起的食物中毒调查报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈碧勇

    2016-01-01

    目的探讨食物中毒发生的原因,预防此类食物中毒的发生。方法采用现场调查法,对食用天南星花籽的学生和周围学生、老师进行调查,对剩余的天南星花籽进行辩认。结果此次调查共调查了58人,其中42人中毒,中毒学生均食用过天南星花籽。结论本次食物中毒确认为误食天南星花籽中毒建议有关部门加强对学生食物安全教育,防止类似事件再次发生。%Objective To investigate the causes of food poisoning,and to prevent the occurrence of such food poisoning.Methods The methods of on-the-spot investigation,investigation on edible seeds Araceae students and around the student,the teacher,the surplus of Arisaema seeds were recognizable.Results The survey investigated a total of 58 people,including 42 people were poisoned,poisoning students were eating Tian Nanxing seeds.Conclusion The food poisoning confirmation for eating seeds Arisaema poisoning suggest the relevant departments strengthen food safety education in students,to prevent similar incidents from happening again.

  6. 2005-2011年广西食物中毒事件流行病学特征分析%Epidemiological characteristics of food poisoning events in Guangxi during 2005-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永红; 蒋玉艳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics of food poisoning events in Guangxi and provide scientific basis for developing prevention and control strategies. Methods Descriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze the characteristics of food poisoning events from 2005 to 2011 in Guangxi. Results 256 food poisoning events, 6099 poisoning cases and 99 fatalities were reported during 2005-2011. Most events (75.39%) were caused by microorganism, toxic plants and animals. The second and third quarters were at the peak during a year when food poisoning events frequently occurred (61. 33% ). The numbers of reported food poisoning events were significantly different among regions in Guangxi, more from the western and northern and fewer from the eastern and southern. The rural households, schools and catering service units were the main places (78. 13% ). Conclusion The supervision and management of food safety for school canteens and social catering service units is one key to reduce the food poisoning events in Guangxi, and the other is propaganda and education of food safety in rural areas.%目的 了解广西食物中毒事件的流行病学特征,为制定防控策略提供科学依据.方法 应用描述性流行病学方法分析2005-2011年广西食物中毒事件的流行病学特征.结果 2005-2011年广西共报告食物中毒事件256起、中毒6099例、死亡99例,中毒原因以微生物性和有毒动植物为主(75.39%),第二、三季度为高发季节(61.33%),存在明显地区差异(桂西、桂北较多,桂南、桂东较少),中毒场所以农村家庭、学校和餐饮服务单位为主(78.13%).结论 加强学校食堂与社会餐饮服务单位食品安全监督与管理及农村地区食品安全知识宣传教育,是减少广西食物中毒事件的关键.

  7. Countermeasure study of emergency nursing about mass food poisoning%群体食物中毒的急救护理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李常乐

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨群体食物中毒的急救护理对策。方法:选择群体食物中毒事件4起(91例),分为研究组2起(45例)与对照组2起(46例)。对照组采取常规急救护理,研究组采取优化急救护理。结果:研究组经过优化急救护理干预后,抢救时间明显短于对照组,护理满意度高于对照组,且焦虑情况改善明显,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:针对群体食物中毒事件,采取积极有效的优化抢救护理,可以有效缩短抢救时间,改善患者的情绪状态,提升护理满意度,适于临床推广应用。%Objective:To explore the countermeasure of emergency nursing about mass food poisoning.Methods:We selected 4 groups of mass food poisoning(91cases),which were divided into study group with two groups(45 cases) and control group with two groups(46 cases).The control group received routine emergency nursing,while the study group received optimizing emergency nursing.Results:In the study group,after the optimizing emergency nursing intervention,the rescue time was shorter than the control group,nursing satisfaction was higher than that of the control group,and the anxiety situation was improved significantly. There was significant difference between two groups(P<0.05).Conclusion:For mass food poisoning,using optimizing emergency nursing can effectively shorten the rescue time,improve the patient's emotional state,and improve nursing satisfaction,so it is worthy of clinical application.

  8. Salmonella Alachua: causative agent of a foodborne disease outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Aparecida Zago Castanheira de Almeida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study is to report the occurrence of the first outbreak of food poisoning caused by SalmonellaAlachua in Brazil, as well as the antimicrobial susceptibility and the genetic relatedness of SalmonellaAlachua strains isolated from clinical and food samples.Material and methods: To elucidate the outbreak, an epidemiological investigation was carried out, and two samples of common food were tested - mayonnaise salad and galinhada(a traditional Brazilian dish of chicken and rice - according to the Compendium of methods for the microbiological examination of foods. Five stool samples were tested employing classic methods for the isolation and identification of enterobacteria. Strains of Salmonella were characterized for antibiotic susceptibility according to the Clinical and Laboratory Stan- dards Institute guidelines (2013, and submitted to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis, performed according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention PulseNet protocol.Results: A total of 94 people were interviewed after ingesting the food, 66 of whom had become ill. A 60-year old female patient who was hospitalized in a serious condition, developed septic shock and died two days after consuming the food. The presence of SalmonellaAlachua was confirmed in all the analyzed stool samples, and in the two types of food. The five strains showed higher than minimum inhibitory concentration values of nalidixic acid (≥256 µg/mL and reduced ciprofloxacin susceptibility (minimum inhibitory concentration = 0.5 µg/mL. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed indistinguishable patterns in SalmonellaAlachua strains isolated from clinical and food samples.Conclusion: The data presented herein confirm the foodborne disease outbreak. They also allowed for the identification of the source of infection, and suggest that products from poultry are potential reservoirs for this serotype, reinforcing the importance of warning

  9. Pathogenesis, clinical signs and epidemiology of the poisoning by cyanogenic plants in the Brazilian northwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Lopes Câmara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the mechanisms of action of cyanogenic plants and provides clinical signs and distribution of outbreaks in Northeastern Brazil. Cyanogenic plants causing reported outbreaks of poisoning are Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (Piptadenia macrocarpa, Cnidoscolus quercifolias (C. phyllacanthus, M. carthaginensis var glaziovii, Passiflora foetida, Piptadenia viriflora, Sorghum halepense and S. bicolor. Findings summarized herein emphasize the great importance and wide distribution of cyanogenic plant poisoning in the Northeastern Brazil. Displaying information of animal poisoning outbreaks in cities with little knowledge of the species causing cyanogenic poisoning is primordial as a preventive measure.

  10. International epidemiological and microbiological study of outbreak of Salmonella agona infection from a ready to eat savoury snack--I: England and Wales and the United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Killalea, D; Ward, L R; Roberts, D; de Louvois, J.; Sufi, F.; Stuart, J. M.; Wall, P. G.; SUSMAN, M.; Schwieger, M.; Sanderson, P J; Fisher, I. S.; Mead, P. S.; Gill, O. N.; Bartlett, C L; Rowe, B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify the source of an international outbreak of food poisoning due to Salmonella agona phage type 15 and to measure how long the underlying cause persisted. DESIGN: Case-control study of 16 primary household cases and 32 controls of similar age and dietary habit. Packets of the implicated foodstuff manufactured on a range of days were examined for salmonella. All isolates of the epidemic phage type were further characterised by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: 27 ...

  11. Propane poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seek medical help right away. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air. If the person does not improve rapidly after moving to fresh air, call your local emergency number (such as ...

  12. Menthol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menthol is used to add peppermint flavor to candy and other products. It is also used in certain skin lotions and ointments. This article discusses menthol poisoning from swallowing pure menthol. This article is ...

  13. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lead is of microscopic size, invisible to the naked eye. More often than not, children with elevated ... majority of the childhood lead poisoning cases we see today. Children and adults too can get seriously ...

  14. Shellac poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in shellac that can be harmful are: Ethanol Isopropanol Methanol Methyl isobutyl ketone ... Isopropanol and methanol are extremely poisonous. As little as 2 tablespoons (14.8 mL) of methanol can ...

  15. Gasoline poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002806.htm Gasoline poisoning To use the sharing features on this ... This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing gasoline or breathing in its fumes. This article is ...

  16. Iodine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of iodine poisoning include: Abdominal pain Coughing Delirium Diarrhea , sometimes bloody Fever Gum and tooth soreness Loss of appetite Metallic taste in mouth Mouth and throat pain and burning No urine output Rash Salivation (producing saliva) Seizures ...

  17. Zinc poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hill; 2006. Hall AH, Shannon MW. Other heavy metals. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ,eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA. Elsevier ...

  18. Paraffin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax poisoning - paraffin ... Paraffin ... Eating a lot of paraffin can lead to intestinal obstruction, which can cause abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and possible constipation. If the paraffin contains a ...

  19. Naphthalene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... 147. Levine MD, Zane R. Chemical injuries. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  20. Ammonia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... 147. Levine MD, Zane R. Chemical injuries. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  1. Emergency treatment of botulism food poisoning:one case report%肉毒杆菌食物中毒急诊救治一例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周航亮; 邓腊明

    2014-01-01

    肉毒杆菌食物中毒是由肉毒杆菌释放的肉毒毒素引起严重的神经肌肉中毒症状。该病初期常因临床表现为急性胃肠道中毒症状引起误诊而耽误治疗,严重者导致患者死亡。及早明确诊断和临床对症治疗是成功救治该病的关键。该文总结分析1例肉毒杆菌食物中毒患者的急诊救治过程。经过详细询问该患者的发病史和进食史,进行全面的体格检查、常规检验、影像辅助检查和实验室血浆肉毒毒素检测分析并结合临床症状,该患者确诊为肉毒毒素中毒。在未明确肉毒毒素亚型情况下,对患者大剂量注射A、B型抗肉毒毒素,辅助抗感染和营养恢复神经功能的综合治疗取得较好的治疗效果。患者发病第7日症状好转,救治26 d后康复出院。%Botulism food poisoning is characterized with severe neurotoxic symptoms induced by botu-linum toxin released by botulinum. Constantly,patients with botulism food poisoning could be misdiagnosed or receive delayed treatment due to gastrointestinal symptoms as early clinical manifestations,even leading to death. Therefore,early diagnosis and effective treatment determine the success of fighting against this disease. In this article,the diagnosis and treatment of one case of botulism food poisoning were retrospectively reviewed. After detail inquiry of onset and dietary habit,comprehensive physical examination,routine and imaging test, plasma botulinum toxin detection and combined with clinical symptoms,the patient was diagnosed as botulinum toxin poisoning. In the absence of the exact subtype of botulinum toxin,combined therapy of a large-dose injec-tion of types A and B anti-botulinum toxin,anti-infection therapy and nutritional recovery of neurological func-tion can achieve desirable therapeutic effect. The symptoms were improved at 7th days after treatment. The pa-tient was discharged after 26 days treatment.

  2. Effect of the cortex-lytic enzyme SleC from non-food-borne Clostridium perfringens on the germination properties of SleC-lacking spores of a food poisoning isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Sarker, Mahfuzur R

    2010-11-01

    The hallmark of bacterial spore germination is peptidoglycan cortex hydrolysis by cortex-lytic enzymes. In spores of Clostridium perfringens wild-type strain SM101, which causes food poisoning, the sole essential cortex-lytic enzyme SleC is activated by a unique serine protease CspB. Interestingly, the non-food-borne wild-type strain F4969 encodes a significantly divergent SleC variant (SleCF4969) and 3 serine proteases (CspA, CspB, and CspC). Consequently, in this study we evaluated the functional compatibility of SleCF4969 and SleCSM101 by complementing the germination phenotypes of SM101ΔsleC spores with sleCF4969. Our results show that although pro-SleCF4969 was processed into mature SleCF4969 in the SM101ΔsleC spores, it partially restored spore germination with nutrient medium, with a mixture of ʟ-asparagine and KCl, or with a 1:1 chelate of Ca2+ and dipicolinic acid. While the amount of dipicolinic acid released was lower, the amount of hexosamine-containing material released during germination of SM101ΔsleC(sleCF4969) spores was similar to the amount released during germination of SM101 wild-type spores. The viability of SM101ΔsleC(sleCF4969) spores was 8- and 3-fold lower than that of SM101 and F4969 spores, respectively. Together, these data indicate that the peptidoglycan cortex hydrolysis machinery in the food poisoning isolate SM101 is functionally divergent than that in the non-food-borne isolate F4969.

  3. Suspected outbreak of riboflavin deficiency among populations reliant on food assistance: a case study of drought-stricken Karamoja, Uganda, 2009-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K Nichols

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2009, a humanitarian response was launched to address a food security and livelihoods crisis in Karamoja, Uganda. During a polio immunization campaign in mid-August 2009, health workers in Nakapiripit District reported a concern about an increase in mouth sores, or angular stomatitis (AS and gum ulcerations, among children in one village, and an investigation was launched. OBJECTIVE: This article describes the investigation, lessons learned, and provides guidance for monitoring micronutrient deficiencies among populations receiving food assistance. DESIGN: An investigation into a suspected outbreak of riboflavin (vitamin B2 deficiency was initiated, including a rapid assessment, mass screening, a convenience sample collection of blood specimens (n = 58 symptomatic cases and n = 18 asymptomatic individuals, and analysis of the general food ration (70% ration. RESULTS: Findings showed signs of AS in only 399 (0.2% of 179,172 screened individuals, including adults and children. Biochemical analysis confirmed riboflavin deficiency in 84.5% of specimens from symptomatic individuals and 94.4% of specimens from asymptomatic individuals. Ration distribution data showed that 55% of distributions provided less than half the riboflavin RDA. CONCLUSION: Evidence was insufficient to confirm an actual outbreak of riboflavin deficiency, though the present investigation adds further documentation that micronutrient deficiencies continue to persist among populations in emergency settings. This article describes challenges, lessons learned, and guidance for monitoring micronutrient deficiencies among food assistance recipients, including: ongoing nutrition monitoring and surveillance; training and sensitization about micronutrient deficiencies, sensitization of the population about locally-available food, and identifying ways to improve micronutrient interventions.

  4. [A relational database to store Poison Centers calls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelli, Alessandro; Biondi, Immacolata; Tafani, Chiara; Pellegrini, Aristide; Soave, Maurizio; Gaspari, Rita; Annetta, Maria Giuseppina

    2006-01-01

    Italian Poison Centers answer to approximately 100,000 calls per year. Potentially, this activity is a huge source of data for toxicovigilance and for syndromic surveillance. During the last decade, surveillance systems for early detection of outbreaks have drawn the attention of public health institutions due to the threat of terrorism and high-profile disease outbreaks. Poisoning surveillance needs the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of harmonised data about poisonings from all Poison Centers for use in public health action to reduce morbidity and mortality and to improve health. The entity-relationship model for a Poison Center relational database is extremely complex and not studied in detail. For this reason, not harmonised data collection happens among Italian Poison Centers. Entities are recognizable concepts, either concrete or abstract, such as patients and poisons, or events which have relevance to the database, such as calls. Connectivity and cardinality of relationships are complex as well. A one-to-many relationship exist between calls and patients: for one instance of entity calls, there are zero, one, or many instances of entity patients. At the same time, a one-to-many relationship exist between patients and poisons: for one instance of entity patients, there are zero, one, or many instances of entity poisons. This paper shows a relational model for a poison center database which allows the harmonised data collection of poison centers calls.

  5. Three simultaneous, food-borne, multi-country outbreaks of hepatitis A virus infection reported in EPIS-FWD in 2013: what does it mean for the European Union?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossner, C M; Severi, E

    2014-10-30

    Between March and May 2013, three multi-country outbreaks of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection were reported through the Epidemic Intelligence Information System for Food- and Water-borne diseases (EPIS-FWD) of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). The aim of this work is to put these outbreaks into a European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) perspective and highlight opportunities for improving detection and investigation of such outbreaks. Although HAV outbreaks are not unusual in the EU/EEA, having three large food-borne multi-country outbreaks declared within three months is an unexpected event, particularly when at least two of these outbreaks are associated with frozen berries. Factors influencing the occurrence of these events include the increased number of susceptible Europeans, the limited coverage of HAV vaccination, the global trade of potentially contaminated products introduced in the EU/EEA, and the 'awareness chain effect' leading to a wave of notifications. Further studies should be conducted to understand the risk posed by frozen berries. Laboratory capacity and surveillance of viral infections in the EU/EEA, as well as HAV vaccination recommendations to travellers to endemic countries should be strengthened. Finally, timely reporting food-borne events through EPIS-FWD, to ensure timely response.

  6. Risk ranking of pathogens in ready-to-eat unprocessed foods of non-animal origin (FoNAO) in the EU: Initial evaluation using outbreak data (2007-2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Silva Felício, M. T.; Hald, Tine; Liebana, E.

    2015-01-01

    Foods of non-animal origin (FoNAO) are consumed in a variety of forms, being a major component of almost all meals. These food types have the potential to be associated with large outbreaks as seen in 2011 associated with VTEC O104. In order to identify and rank specific food/pathogen combination...... processed, stored and prepared as part of the above data collection exercises....

  7. Ciguatera poisoning: a global issue with common management problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, J Y; Brown, A F

    2001-12-01

    Ciguatera poisoning, a toxinological syndrome comprising an enigmatic mixture of gastrointestinal, neurocutaneous and constitutional symptoms, is a common food-borne illness related to contaminated fish consumption. As many as 50000 cases worldwide are reported annually, and the condition is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific Basin, Indian Ocean and Caribbean. Isolated outbreaks occur sporadically but with increasing frequency in temperate areas such as Europe and North America. Increase in travel between temperate countries and endemic areas and importation of susceptible fish has led to its encroachment into regions of the world where ciguatera has previously been rarely encountered. In the developed world, ciguatera poses a public health threat due to delayed or missed diagnosis. Ciguatera is frequently encountered in Australia. Sporadic cases are often misdiagnosed or not medically attended to, leading to persistent or recurrent debilitating symptoms lasting months to years. Without treatment, distinctive neurologic symptoms persist, occasionally being mistaken for multiple sclerosis. Constitutional symptoms may be misdiagnosed as chronic fatigue syndrome. A common source outbreak is easier to recognize and therefore notify to public health organizations. We present a case series of four adult tourists who developed ciguatera poisoning after consuming contaminated fish in Vanuatu. All responded well to intravenous mannitol. This is in contrast to a fifth patient who developed symptoms suggestive of ciguatoxicity in the same week as the index cases but actually had staphylococcal endocarditis with bacteraemia. In addition to a lack of response to mannitol, clinical and laboratory indices of sepsis were present in this patient. Apart from ciguatera, acute gastroenteritis followed by neurological symptoms may be due to paralytic or neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, scombroid and pufferfish toxicity, botulism, enterovirus 71, toxidromes and

  8. THE EFFECT OF FOOD-SAFETY RELATED INFORMATION ON CONSUMER PREFERENCE: THE CASE OF THE BSE OUTBREAK IN JAPAN

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Hyun Joung; Sun, Changyou; Koo, Won W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses a nonparametric approach for testing whether there is a structural change in the meat demand of Japanese consumers due to the BSE (mad-cow disease) outbreak in the country. The axiom of revealed preference is utilized to test the stability of preference in Japanese meat consumption. The matrix of weak form of revealed preference (WARP) is partitioned and Kruskal-Wallis statistics are derived to evaluate whether the switches of preference are transitory or due to a structural c...

  9. Staphylococcal food poisoning from cream-filled cake in a metropolitan area of South-Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Maria Lúcia

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve people became ill with vomiting and diarrhoea approximately four hours after eating cake with a cream filling at a birthday party and on the day following. The cake had been prepared by a food handler who had long experience in preparing foods for such functions. Staphylococcus aureus that produced enterotoxin A was isolated from the nose, the fingernails, and a healed infection on the neck of the food handler, and from the cake. Enterotoxin A was detected in the remaining portion of the cake. The cake, while still warm, had been refrigerated for one hour after it was prepared before it was removed for the party; it was refrigerated after the party. The cake was large (6 kg and hence it was not adequately cooled in the hour during wich it was refrigerated before the party. The conclusion is that the cake was accidentally contaminated by the food handler and inadequately cooled before it was eaten.

  10. 江阴市2004-2011年化学性食物中毒情况分析%Analysis on chemical food poisoning in Jiangyin City from 2004 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪国忠

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the reason and epidemic characteristics of chemical food poisoning in Jingyin City in recent years, and provide basis for formulating effective control measures. Method Collect all the case related to chemical food poisoning from the documents in Jiangyin City from 2004 to 2011, and do statistics and analysis according to years, seasons, urban and rural, places and causes. Results There were 16 chemical food poisoning events from 2004 to 2011 in Jingyin city, with 153 persons poisoned and 1 died, which accounting for 15. 69% , 9. 36% and 100.00% of food poisoning events of the same period respectively. The main poisoning factors were organophosphorus (50.00% ) and nitrite (18.75% ) . The main place was in family (50.00% ), followed by collective cateen (37. 50% ) , and taking wrong food (68. 75% ) was the leading reason for chemical food poisoning. Rural areas (81. 25% ) had more cases than that of urban areas. The occurrence of poisoning dropped significantly from 2009 to 2011. Conclusions Furtherly strengthening the monitoring of organophosphorus pesticide, nitrite and other toxic chemicals, and improving the moral and legal concepts, sanitary awareness and self - protection ability of public were the effective methods to reduce chemical food poisoning.%目的 了解近年来江阴市化学性食物中毒事件发生的原因和流行特征,为制订有效控制措施提供依据.方法 从2004-2011年江阴市食物中毒报表资料中收集有关化学性食物中毒的全部个案报表,按年度、季节、城乡、场所及发生原因等方面进行统计和分析.结果 2004-2011年江阴市发生化学性食物中毒事件16起,中毒153人,死亡1人,分别占江阴市同期食物中毒报告总数的15.69%、9.36%和100.00%.主要中毒因子是有机磷(50.00%)和亚硝酸盐(18.75%);中毒场所以家庭为主(50.00%),其次是集体食堂(37.50%);误食(68.75%)是化学性食物中毒的主要原

  11. Utility of Combining Whole Genome Sequencing with Traditional Investigational Methods To Solve Foodborne Outbreaks of Salmonella Infections Associated with Chicken: A New Tool for Tackling This Challenging Food Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Samuel J; Green, Alice; Hernandez, Kimberly; Peralta, Vi; Bottichio, Lyndsay; Defibaugh-Chavez, Stephanie; Douris, Aphrodite; Gieraltowski, Laura; Hise, Kelley; La-Pham, Karen; Neil, Karen P; Simmons, Mustafa; Tillman, Glenn; Tolar, Beth; Wagner, Darlene; Wasilenko, Jamie; Holt, Kristin; Trees, Eija; Wise, Matthew E

    2017-04-01

    High consumption rates and a multitude of brands make multistate foodborne outbreaks of Salmonella infections associated with chicken challenging to investigate, but whole genome sequencing is a powerful tool that can be used to assist investigators. Whole genome sequencing of pathogens isolated from clinical, environmental, and food samples is increasingly being used in multistate foodborne outbreak investigations to determine with unprecedented resolution how closely related these isolates are to one another genetically. In 2014, federal and state health officials investigated an outbreak of 146 Salmonella Heidelberg infections in 24 states. A follow-up analysis was conducted after the conclusion of the investigation in which 27 clinical and 24 food isolates from the outbreak underwent whole genome sequencing. These isolates formed seven clades, the largest of which contained clinical isolates from a subcluster of case patients who attended a catered party. One isolate from a chicken processed by a large producer was closely related genetically (zero to three single-nucleotide polymorphism differences) to the clinical isolates from these subcluster case patients. Chicken from this large producer was also present in the kitchen of the caterer on the day before the event, thus providing additional evidence that the chicken from this producer was the outbreak source. This investigation highlights how whole genome sequencing can be used with epidemiologic and traceback evidence to identify chicken sources of foodborne outbreaks.

  12. The Presence of Norovirus and Adenovirus on Environmental Surfaces in Relation to the Hygienic Level in Food Service Operations Associated with a Suspected Gastroenteritis Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunula, Leena; Rönnqvist, M; Åberg, R; Lunden, J; Nevas, M

    2017-03-15

    Norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis outbreaks appear frequently in food service operations (FSOs), such as in restaurants and canteens. In this study the presence of NoV and adenovirus (AdV) genomes was investigated on the surfaces of premises, especially in kitchens, of 30 FSOs where foodborne gastroenteritis outbreaks were suspected. The objective was to establish a possible association between the presence of virus genomes on surfaces and a visual hygienic status of the FSOs. NoV genome was found in 11 and AdV genome in 8 out of 30 FSOs. In total, 291 swabs were taken, of which 8.9% contained NoV and 5.8% AdV genome. The presence of NoV genomes on the surfaces was not found to associate with lower hygiene level of the premises when based on visual inspection; most (7/9) of the FSOs with NoV contamination on surfaces and a completed evaluation form had a good hygiene level (the best category). Restaurants had a significantly lower proportion of NoV-positive swabs compared to other FSOs (canteens, cafeteria, schools etc.) taken together (p = 0.00014). The presence of a designated break room for the workers was found to be significantly more common in AdV-negative kitchens (p = 0.046). Our findings suggest that swabbing is necessary for revealing viral contamination of surfaces and emphasis of hygiene inspections should be on the food handling procedures, and the education of food workers on virus transmission.

  13. 广西2007~2011年有毒动植物食物中毒现状分析%Food poisoning due to toxic plant and control measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋玉艳; 唐振柱; 刘展华; 黄立嵘; 姚雪婷

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of toxic plant food poisoning events in Guangxi from 2007 to 2011 so as to provide evidences for the prevention and control of food poisoning. Methods The data of toxic plant food poisoning events in Guangxi reported on network system of China sudden public health events were collected and analyzed. Results There were 64 toxic plant food poisoning events in Guangxi from 2007 to 2011, resulting in 805 persons involved and 43 persons died with the average of 12.58 people per case. The peak season occurred mainly in Autumn. Place distribution of food poisoning events were at family (46.88%) and cafeterias (31.25%). There were largest number of food poisoning at the cafeterias (60.37%); however, the highest mortality was at families (88.37%) with the fatality of 31.40%. The main fatal foods were poisonous mushrooms, fake wine, wild honey and improper processing of kidney bean were Conclusion Health education on the knowledge related to the prevention of toxic plant food poisoning be strengthened.%目的 分析广西有毒动植物食物中毒事件流行病学特征,为预防和控制有毒动植物食物中毒的发生提供科学依据.方法 收集广西2007~ 2011年中国突发公共卫生事件报告管理信息系统上报的有毒动植物食物中毒档案资料,建立数据库,归类统计分析.结果 2007~ 2011年广西共发生有毒动植物食物中毒事件64起,中毒人数805人,死亡43人,平均中毒规模为12.58人/起;中毒高发季节为第3季度;中毒场所主要发生在家庭占46.88%,其次是集体食堂占31.25%;中毒人数以集体食堂为最高,占60.37%,而死亡人数以家庭最高,占88.37%,病死率达31.40%.致死人数较多的因素主要为误食毒蘑菇、自制药酒、野生蜂蜜及菜豆加工不当等.结论 加强预防食物中毒宣教工作将有效控制误食有毒动植物中毒死亡事件的发生.

  14. A food-borne outbreak of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in a secondary school in Upper Normandy, France, in November 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, N G; Revillion, M; Roque-Afonso, A M; Dussaix, E; Giraud, M; Liberpre, C; Couturier, E; Delarocque Astagneau, E

    2008-05-29

    In November 2006, six symptomatic cases of hepatitis A in pupils of a secondary school in Upper Normandy, France, were reported to the district health service. This paper describes the outbreak investigation undertaken with the aim to identify the vehicle and source of infection, implement control measures and estimate the size of the outbreak. A primary case at the secondary school was defined as a pupil or a member of the staff with IgM anti-HAV detected in the serum and with onset of symptoms between 12 and 21 November 2006; a secondary case was defined as a contact to a primary case and who developed symptoms and had IgM anti-HAV two to seven weeks later. We performed a case control study of primary cases, controls being pupils visiting the same school (cases/controls 1:4) and inspected the canteen facilities. All 13 canteen employees were examined for anti-HAV IgM antibodies. A phylogenetic analysis of HAV of cases was performed. We identified 10 primary and 5 secondary cases. Among primary cases 90% reported eating liver pate at the canteen compared to 62% among controls (OR 5.5, 95% CI 0.62-256.9). One liver pate sample contained markers of faecal contamination. HAV genotypes were of one identical type. All 13 canteen employees were negative for IgM anti-HAV while four had anti-HAV total antibodies. We found deficiencies regarding food preparing procedures and insufficient hand washing facilities. The vehicle of the outbreak was believed to be the liver pate but the source of HAV could not be identified. Insufficient facilities in the canteen hindered staff from maintaining a high hygiene standard and were subsequently improved.

  15. From poison to remedy: the chequered history of botulinum toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbguth, F J

    2008-01-01

    Botulinum toxin poisoning has afflicted mankind through the mists of time. However, the first incident of food-borne botulism was documented as late as the 18th century, when the consumption of meat and blood sausages gave rise to many deaths throughout the kingdom of Württemberg in South Western Germany. The district medical officer Justinus Kerner (1786--1862), who was also a well-known German poet, published the first accurate and complete descriptions of the symptoms of food-borne botulism between 1817 and 1822 and attributed the intoxication to a biological poison. Kerner also postulated that the toxin might be used for treatment purposes. In 1895, an outbreak of botulism in the small Belgian village of Ellezelles led to the discovery of the pathogen "Clostridium botulinum" by Emile Pierre van Ermengem. Modern botulinum toxin treatment was pioneered by Alan B. Scott and Edward J. Schantz in the early 1970s, when the type-A serotype was used in medicine to correct strabismus. Other preparations of the type-A toxin were developed and manufactured in the United Kingdom, Germany, and China, whereas a therapeutic type-B toxin was prepared in the United States. To date, the toxin has been used to treat a wide variety of conditions associated with muscular hyperactivity, glandular hypersecretions and pain.

  16. Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unsafe food can also spread foodborne illnesses like salmonellosis and Campylobacter (pronounced: kam-pye-low-BAK-tur) ... Why Should I Care About Germs? Food Poisoning Salmonellosis Cooking Tips and Resources Contact Us Print Resources ...

  17. 贵州省一起钩吻引起的食物中毒调查%Investigation on a food poisoning incident caused by graceful jesamine in Guizhou province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张成宇; 王良周

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify the cause and process of the food poisoning incident and take effective measures to deal with.Methods The dinners,associated personnel and risk factors were investigated.Samples of suspicious poisoning food were analyzed and identified.Results 11 men were all poisoned by plant medicinal liquor with alcohol consumption ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 kg.The incubation period was 10-20 min,and the attack rate was 100%.Five cases died,and the death rate was 45.46%.Cases without drinking were unaffected.The more alcohol consumption would lead to a shorter incubation period and more serious symptom.The plant steeped in wine was identified as Graceful Jesamine.Conclusion This case of food poisoning was caused by poisonous plant Graceful Jesamine.In order to avoid similar accidents emerging in the future,the local government should put poisonous plant into the food safety education to enhance the consciousness.%目的 查明引起本次食物中毒的原因,有针对性地采取有效措施.方法 对参加聚餐者及事故相关人员以及引起食物中毒的危险因素进行调查,采集可疑中毒物样品进行分析鉴定.结果 饮用过植物泡制药酒的男性11人全部发病,饮酒量为0.1~0.2 kg/人,潜伏期为10 ~ 20 min,饮酒量多者发病更快、病情更重.死亡5例,病死率为45.46%,未饮酒者无人发病.经鉴定,泡制药酒的原料为钩吻.结论 此次为有毒植物钩吻引起的食物中毒事故.

  18. A Family Outbreak of Foodborne Botulism Following Consumption of Home-Canned Doogh in Hamadan, West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Food-borne botulism is one of the potentially fatal forms of food poisoning, usually caused by ingestion of home-canned vegetables, fruits and fish products. Objectives The aim of this study was to report an outbreak of botulism due to homemade doogh in Hamadan, Iran. Patients and Methods During an outbreak, 10 members of a family referred to the hospital because of food poisoning. All patients had a history of consumption of doogh, a traditional drink. After careful physical examination, all of them were hospitalized. Botulism was suspected in all patients except for the first patient. Results The first patient was a 76-year-old man who died after 12 hours of admission due to respiratory distress. Nine subsequent patients were diagnosed as botulism with the following symptoms: diplopia (90%, dizziness (70%, nausea and vomiting (80%, ptosis (60%, symmetric weakness of extremities (60%, dysarthria (30%, chest discomfort (30%, mydriasis (20%, dysphasia (20% and dry mouth (20%. All of the nine patients received botulinum antitoxin and improved during 5-15 days of hospitalization. Conclusions Immediate diagnosis based on careful history and physical examination are essential for management of botulism. People should be notified about proper food handling and preparation of traditional homemade foods.

  19. Stem Bark Extract and Fraction of Persea americana (Mill. Exhibits Bactericidal Activities against Strains of Bacillus cereus Associated with Food Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Akinpelu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the in vitro antibacterial potentials of stem bark extracts of Persea americana on strains of Bacillus cereus implicated in food poisoning. The crude stem bark extracts and butanolic fraction at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively, exhibited antibacterial activities against test isolates. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the crude extract and the fraction ranged between 10 mm and 26 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged between 0.78 and 5.00 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged between 3.12 mg/mL–12.5 mg/mL and 1.25–10 mg/mL for the extract and the fraction, respectively. The butanolic fraction killed 91.49% of the test isolates at a concentration of 2× MIC after 60 min of contact time, while a 100% killing was achieved after the test bacterial cells were exposed to the butanolic fraction at a concentration of 3× MIC after 90 min contact time. Intracellular protein and potassium ion leaked out of the test bacterial cells when exposed to certain concentrations of the fraction; this is an indication of bacterial cell wall disruptions by the extract’s butanolic fraction and, thus, caused a biocidal effect on the cells, as evident in the killing rate test results.

  20. Stem bark extract and fraction of Persea americana (Mill.) exhibits bactericidal activities against strains of bacillus cereus associated with food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinpelu, David A; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A; Akinpelu, Oluseun F; Okoh, Anthony I

    2014-12-30

    The study investigates the in vitro antibacterial potentials of stem bark extracts of Persea americana on strains of Bacillus cereus implicated in food poisoning. The crude stem bark extracts and butanolic fraction at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively, exhibited antibacterial activities against test isolates. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the crude extract and the fraction ranged between 10 mm and 26 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged between 0.78 and 5.00 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged between 3.12 mg/mL-12.5 mg/mL and 1.25-10 mg/mL for the extract and the fraction, respectively. The butanolic fraction killed 91.49% of the test isolates at a concentration of 2× MIC after 60 min of contact time, while a 100% killing was achieved after the test bacterial cells were exposed to the butanolic fraction at a concentration of 3× MIC after 90 min contact time. Intracellular protein and potassium ion leaked out of the test bacterial cells when exposed to certain concentrations of the fraction; this is an indication of bacterial cell wall disruptions by the extract's butanolic fraction and, thus, caused a biocidal effect on the cells, as evident in the killing rate test results.

  1. Detection of pathogens in simulated food poisoning samples%模拟食物中毒样品中致病菌的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林吉年

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To understand the ability of pathogenic bacteria detection in the laboratory of Danyang Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) , and constantly improve the ability of pathogens detection. [Methods]The laboratory comparison test was performed between 5 CDC of Yang Tong Xu Zhen Tai City. The simulated food poisoning samples were detected for pathogenic bacteria. [Results] Two kinds of pathogenic bacteria (Yersinia enterocolitica and Proteus ) were detected in simulated samples. [Conclusion]The laboratory has the ability of pathogens detection.%目的 为了解丹阳市疾病预防控制中心实验室检测致病菌的能力,不断提高检测致病菌的能力.方法 参加了扬通徐镇泰五市疾病预防控制机构实验室间比对试验,对发放的模拟食物中毒样品进行了致病菌检测.结果 在模拟样品中检出2种致病菌:小肠结肠炎耶尔森菌和变形杆菌.结论 该实验室具备检测致病菌的能力.

  2. Survey of a food poisoning case cause by Salmonella enteritidis%一起由肠炎沙门氏菌引起的食物中毒的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴嘉志; 陈应坚; 甘丽萍; 金玉娟; 杨慧

    2013-01-01

    Objective To detect the pathogen of bacterial food poisoning in order to provide basis for food poisoning investigation and emergency treatment.Method A total of 36 samples of patients' swabs and leftover food were detected according to WS/T 9-2003,WS 271-2007 and national standard methods in microbiological examination of food hygiene (GB/T4789-2003,GB/T4789-2008,GB/T4789-2010).Result Salmonella enteritidis were found in leftover food,patients' and kitchen workers' anal swabs.A total of 21 Salmonella spp.were detected from 36 samples.Conclusion Combining the epidemiological survey,clinical symptoms and the laboratory test results,this food poisoning was caused by Salmonella enteritidis.%目的 对一起细菌性食物中毒进行病原体检测,为食物中毒调查和应急处理提供依据.方法 参照《食品卫生微生物学检验》国标法(GB/T4789-2003、GB/T4789-2008、GB/T4789-2010适时版本)、WS/T9-2003和WS 271-2007规定的检验方法对患者和厨工肛拭子及剩余食品等36份样品进行病原菌检测.结果 36份样品共检出21株沙门氏菌.结论 结合流行病学调查资料、临床资料和实验室检测结果,证实此次细菌性食物中毒事件是由肠炎沙门氏菌引起的.

  3. 一起由鼠伤寒沙门氏菌引起食物中毒的实验室检测%Laboratory detection of food poisoning caused by salmonella typhimurium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任军霞; 李巧改

    2013-01-01

    Objective To confirm the pathogen of food poisoning by doing relevant microbiological examination for the collected samples, and provide scientific basis for treatment of food poisoning. Method Choose suspected pathogens according to epidemiological investigation and clinical manifestations, and do pathogen isolation and identification according to National Food Safety Standards Food Microbiological Examination. Results Salmonella typhimurium were detected from the 2 samples of remaining food. The antibody level of salmonella typhimurium of the 2 patients in convalescence was four times higher than that in acute phase. Conclusions The food poisoning was caused by salmonella typhimurium.%目的 对一起食物中毒的采集样本进行相关微生物学检验,确定引起食物中毒的病原菌,为食物中毒的处理提供科学依据.方法 根据流行病学调查及临床表现,选择疑似的病原菌,依据《食品安全国家标准食品微生物检验》,对采集的样品进行病原菌分离与鉴定.结果 从采集的2份剩余食物中检出鼠伤寒沙门氏菌,2位患者恢复期血清比急性期血清中的鼠伤寒沙门氏菌抗体水平有4倍以上的增高.结论 该次食物中毒由鼠伤寒沙门氏菌污染所致.

  4. 一起可疑食物中毒样品中克百威的检测分析%Analysis on suspected food poison case caused by carbofuran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学琴; 高贵桃; 胡建英; 赵玉婷; 陈涛

    2013-01-01

    目的 快速、准确地检测出引起化学性食物中毒的有毒物质及其含量,为化学食物中毒应急处置提供科学依据.方法 根据食物中毒调查及处理原则,采用NY/T 761-2008的方法中气相色谱(GC/FPD)和高效液相色谱柱后衍生法、荧光光度法,对基层疾控中心送检的2份可疑食物进行农药残留量测定.结果 分别在浸泡的粉条和鸡蛋炒粉条中检测出高浓度的克百威27.0和5.4 g/kg.结论 本次化学性食物中毒由克百威引起.%Objective To determine chemical toxins in food poisoning and its contents fast and accurately,and provide a scientific basis for emergency response.Methods According to the investigation and processing principles for food poisoning,HPLC with column derivatization reaction and fluorescence detection were used for 2 suspected food poisoning samples sent by local CDC following NY/T 761-2008.Results High concentrations of carbofuran (27.0 and 5.4 g/kg) were detected in white noodles and fried egg noodles vermicelli.Conclusion This chemical poisoning case was caused by carbofuran.

  5. Risk ranking of pathogens in ready-to-eat unprocessed foods of non-animal origin (FoNAO) in the EU: initial evaluation using outbreak data (2007-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva Felício, M T; Hald, T; Liebana, E; Allende, A; Hugas, M; Nguyen-The, C; Johannessen, G Skoien; Niskanen, T; Uyttendaele, M; McLauchlin, J

    2015-02-16

    Foods of non-animal origin (FoNAO) are consumed in a variety of forms, being a major component of almost all meals. These food types have the potential to be associated with large outbreaks as seen in 2011 associated with VTEC O104. In order to identify and rank specific food/pathogen combinations most often linked to human cases originating from FoNAO in the EU, a semi-quantitative model was developed using seven criteria: strength of associations between food and pathogen based on the foodborne outbreak data from EU Zoonoses Monitoring (2007-2011), incidence of illness, burden of disease, dose-response relationship, consumption, prevalence of contamination and pathogen growth potential during shelf life. The top ranking food/pathogen combination was Salmonella spp. and leafy greens eaten raw followed by (in equal rank) Salmonella spp. and bulb and stem vegetables, Salmonella spp. and tomatoes, Salmonella spp. and melons, and pathogenic Escherichia coli and fresh pods, legumes or grains. Despite the inherent assumptions and limitations, this risk model is considered a tool for risk managers, as it allows ranking of food/pathogen combinations most often linked to foodborne human cases originating from FoNAO in the EU. Efforts to collect additional data even in the absence of reported outbreaks as well as to enhance the quality of the EU-specific data, which was used as input for all the model criteria, will allow the improvement of the model outputs. Furthermore, it is recommended that harmonised terminology be applied to the categorisation of foods collected for different reasons, e.g. monitoring, surveillance, outbreak investigation and consumption. In addition, to assist future microbiological risk assessments, consideration should be given to the collection of additional information on how food has been processed, stored and prepared as part of the above data collection exercises.

  6. Marijuana poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    The plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries for the effects of its psychoactive resins. The term "marijuana" typically refers to tobacco-like preparations of the leaves and flowers. The plant contains more than 400 chemicals but the cannabinoid δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major psychoactive constituent. "Hashish" is the resin extracted from the tops of flowering plants and generally has a much higher THC concentration. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States. Currently, several states have passed legislation to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana for both medical and personal use and several other states have similar legislation under consideration. The most common form of marijuana use in humans is inhalation of the smoke of marijuana cigarettes, followed by ingestion. In animals, although secondhand smoke inhalation is possible, the most common source of exposure is through ingestion of the owner's marijuana supply. The minimum lethal oral dose for dogs for THC is more than 3 g/kg. Although the drug has a high margin of safety, deaths have been seen after ingestion of food products containing the more concentrated medical-grade THC butter. There are two specific cannabinoid receptors in humans and dogs, CB1 (primarily in central nervous system) and CB2 (peripheral tissues). In animals, following oral ingestion, clinical effects begin within 60 minutes. All of the neuropharmacologic mechanisms by which cannabinoids produce psychoactive effects have not been identified. However, CB1 activity is believed to be responsible for the majority of cannabinoid clinical effects. Highly lipid soluble, THC is distributed in fat, liver, brain, and renal tissue. Fifteen percent of THC is excreted into the urine and the rest is eliminated in the feces through biliary excretion. Clinical signs of canine intoxication include depression, hypersalivation, mydriasis, hypermetria, vomiting, urinary incontinence

  7. Recognizing the Toxicodendrons (poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guin, J D; Gillis, W T; Beaman, J H

    1981-01-01

    Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac are now classified in the genus Toxicodendron which is readily distinguished from Rhus. In the United States, there are two species of poison oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum (western poison oak) and Toxicodendron toxicarium (eastern poison oak). There are also two species of poison ivy, Toxicodendron rydbergii, a nonclimbing subshrub, and Toxicodendron radicans, which may be either a shrub or a climbing vine. There are nine subspecies of T. radicans, six of which are found in the United States. One species of poison sumac, Toxicodendron vernix, occurs in the United States. Distinguishing features of these plants and characteristics that separate Toxicodendron from Rhus are outlined in the text and illustrated in color plates.

  8. Economic impact of a nationwide outbreak of salmonellosis: cost-benefit of early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J A; Sockett, P N; Gill, O N

    1989-05-06

    The recognition and investigation of an outbreak of food poisoning in 1982 due to chocolate contaminated with Salmonella napoli enabled the food that carried the salmonella to be identified and four fifths of the implicated consignment of chocolate to be withdrawn. The economic benefits of prompt intervention in the outbreak have been assessed. The cost of the outbreak was over 0.5 pounds m. It is estimated that five deaths were prevented by the intervention and that 185 admissions to hospital and 29,000 cases of S napoli enteritis were avoided. This successful investigation yielded a 3.5-fold rate of return to the public sector and a 23.3-fold return to society on an investment in public health surveillance. A methodology is described that can be used to estimate the benefits of early intervention in outbreaks of foodborne illness and topics for further research are suggested. It is concluded that public health authorities and industry have much to gain by collaborating in the research into the design of cost effective programmes to prevent foodborne infections.

  9. Lead poisoning by contaminated flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershko, C; Eisenberg, A; Avni, A; Grauer, F; Acker, C; Hamdallah, M; Shahin, S; Moreb, J; Richter, E; Weissenberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Between October 1982 and June 1983, 43 patients were identified with symptomatic lead poisoning in three Arab villages of the Nablus district. Because of the clustering of clinical poisoning by household units, investigation was focussed on potential sources common to all members of the households. After excluding water, olive oil and a variety of foodstuff, lead in high concentrations was discovered in locally ground flour in all affected households. The source of poisoning was lead poured into the fissures between the metal housing and the driveshaft of the millstone. Significant lead contamination of freshly ground flour was demonstrated in 23% of the 146 community flour mills operating in West Bank villages. Since the completion of these studies, similar outbreaks of lead poisoning caused by contaminated flourmills have been identified in the Upper Galilee and in Spain. As the methods of milling in the Mediterranean area are similar, a coordinated international effort is needed in order to eliminate this health hazard from countries where similar community stone mills are still in use.

  10. 食源性疾病暴发风险模型的构建及预测方法研究%The risk model construction and prediction method of food-borne disease outbreaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建跃; 楼江红; 吴铭宇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish the models and evaluate the epidemiological risks of food-borne disease outbreaks.Methods Risk of food-borne disease outbreaks would be graded by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation.The food security experts in Zhejiang were organized to determine the weights of evaluation factors by Delphi method.The risk model of food-borne disease outbreaks should be constructed by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation,and to be discussed and verified.Results All of food-borne disease outbreaks risk level was the security level in four counties in Zhoushan.The score in 4 counties were 48(Dinghai),66(Putuo),41(Daishan) and 47(Shengsi),respectively.Conclusions Risk model of food-bome disease outbreaks is not only suitable for the food-borne disease outbreaks risk,but also to guide the residents food intake and avoid significant suffering from food-borne disease.%目的 构建评价食源性疾病暴发流行病学风险的模型.方法 采用模糊综合评判法对食源性疾病暴发的风险进行量化分级,组织浙江省内食品安全方面的专家通过德尔菲法确定评价因子的权重.利用模糊数学综合评判法构建食源性疾病暴发的风险模型构建,并对该模型进行验证和讨论.结果 舟山市4个县(区)均属于“安全”区域,食源性疾病暴发风险评价分值分别为:定海区48分、普陀区66分、岱山县41分、嵊泗县47分.结论 食源性疾病暴发的风险模型不仅适合食源性疾病暴发风险的评价,而且对指导居民食品摄入并且避免患食源性疾病有重要意义.

  11. A multi-country Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 14b outbreak associated with eggs from a German producer: 'near real-time' application of whole genome sequencing and food chain investigations, United Kingdom, May to September 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inns, T; Lane, C; Peters, T; Dallman, T; Chatt, C; McFarland, N; Crook, P; Bishop, T; Edge, J; Hawker, J; Elson, R; Neal, K; Adak, G K; Cleary, P

    2015-04-23

    We report an outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 14b (PT14b) in the United Kingdom (UK) between May and September 2014 where Public Health England launched an investigation to identify the source of infection and implement control measures. During the same period, outbreaks caused by a Salmonella Enteritidis strain with a specific multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) profile occurred in other European Union Member States. Isolates from a number of persons affected by the UK outbreak, who had initially been tested by MLVA also shared this particular profile. Cases were defined as any person infected with S. Enteritidis PT14b, resident in England or Wales and without history of travel outside of this geographical area during the incubation period, reported from 1 June 2014 onwards, with a MLVA profile of 2–11–9-7–4-3–2-8–9 or a single locus variant thereof. In total, 287 cases met the definition. Food traceback investigations in the UK and other affected European countries linked the outbreaks to chicken eggs from a German company. We undertook whole genome sequencing of isolates from UK and European cases, implicated UK premises, and German eggs: isolates were highly similar. Combined with food traceback information, this confirmed that the UK outbreak was also linked to a German producer.

  12. 食物中毒事件的病原学检测及结果分析1例%Analysing the Results of the determining Pathogen of Food Poisoning in MaShan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾世培; 古廷思

    2015-01-01

    Objective To isolate of the pathogen rapidly and tracing the source of the food-borne diseases,then Provide the scien-tific and accurate data for disease control and prevention. Methods Collecting the rest food,vomit,Anal swabs and bloods of the food poisoning to determining pathogen. Result Detection of Salmonella Beta in 1 food and 9 anal swabs. Conclusion The food poisoning incidents was Salmonella Beta caused.%目的:快速分离病原菌,追溯其食源性疾病的来源,为采取有效控制措施和预防措施提供科学准确的依据。方法采集食物中毒事故中剩下的食物、呕吐物、肛拭子、血液等进行病原学检测。结果在1份食物、9份肛拭标本中检出贝塔沙门氏菌。结论该事件是一起被贝塔沙门氏菌污染的食物引起的食物中毒事件。

  13. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw JC de; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This review on ciguatera fish poisoning contains information on the ciguatera intoxication syndrome and the provoking ciguatoxins (CTXs) and gambiertoxin-4b (GTX-4B), of which CTX-1 is a major component at the end of food chain (the carnivore fish). Data on chemical structures and detection methods

  14. Salmonella infections in food workers identified through routine Public Health Surveillance in Minnesota: impact on outbreak recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Medus, Carlota; Smith, Kirk E; Bender, Jeffrey B; Leano, Fe; Hedberg, Craig W

    2010-01-01

    The frequency of Salmonella-infected food workers identified through routine surveillance from 1997 to 2004 in Minnesota was determined in order to evaluate the impact of surveillance on the detection...

  15. 青海省2005-2011年食物中毒事件流行特征分析%Analysis on epidemiological characteristics of food poisoning in Qinghai province during 2005 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭学斌

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of food poisoning in Qinghai province during 2005 to 2011, provide basis for further prevention and control. Method Epidemiological and medical statistics methods was applied to analyzed the food poisoning cases in Qinghai province during 2005 to 2011. Results There were 14 cases of food poisoning in Qinghai province during 2005 to 2011 and 280 people were poisoned, the annual morbidity was 0. 75 /lakh and the fatality rate was 6.43%. The second and third quarter were the peak seasons. The places of food poisoning were mainly in households, which accounted for 64. 29% , followed by building sites (28. 57% ) . The main causative agent was botulism, which accounted for 42. 86% , the second was beans ( 28. 57% ) . Conclusions The food poisoning in Qinghai province were mainly occurred in households and building sites, the mainly causative agents were botulism and beans. Enhancing the food hygiene health promotion, strengthening the health management in building sites and improving the public consciousness were the effective ways to prevention and control of food poisoning.%目的 对近年青海省食物中毒事件流行特征进行分析,为预防与控制食物中毒提供科学依据.方法 应用流行病学和医学统计学方法对2006-2011年青海省发生的食物中毒事件进行分析.结果 青海省2005-2011年共发生食物中毒14起,中毒人数280人,年均发病率为0.75/10万,病死率为6.43%;中毒多发生在第二、三季度;中毒发生场所以家庭为主,占64.29%,其次是工地食堂,占28.57%.致病因素以肉毒中毒为主,占42.86%,其次是豆角加工不当引起的食物中毒,占28.57%.结论 青海省食物中毒以藏区家庭发生的肉毒中毒及建筑工地食堂集体发生的豆角加工不当引起的食物中毒为主;加大食品卫生宣传力度、加强工地食堂卫生监管、提高人们群众卫生意识是预防及控制食物中毒的有效途径.

  16. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1222 immediately. Name State American Association of Poison Control Centers Address AAPCC Central Office NOT A POISON ... not for emergency use. Arkansas ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Address 1717 S. Philo Road, Suite 36 Urbana, ...

  17. Mercuric oxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of mercury salt. There are different types of mercury poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric oxide. ... Disinfectants Fungicides There have been reports of inorganic mercury poisoning from the use of skin-lightening creams. Note: ...

  18. Poison ivy - oak - sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002886.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac To use the sharing features ... the plant, if known Amount swallowed (if swallowed) Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached ...

  19. Nail polish poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The time it was swallowed The amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  20. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was swallowed or inhaled Amount swallowed or inhaled Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  1. Outbreak of mass sociogenic illness in a school feeding program in northwest Bangladesh, 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhana Haque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2010, an acute illness outbreak was reported in school students eating high-energy biscuits supplied by the school feeding programme in northwest Bangladesh. We investigated this outbreak to describe the illness in terms of person, place and time, develop the timeline of events, and determine the cause and community perceptions regarding the outbreak. METHODS: We defined case-patients as students from affected schools reporting any two symptoms including abdominal pain, heartburn, bitter taste, and headache after eating biscuits on the day of illness. We conducted in-depth interviews and group discussions with students, teachers, parents and community members to explore symptoms, exposures, and community perceptions. We conducted a questionnaire survey among case-patients to determine the symptoms and ascertain food items eaten 12 hours before illness onset, and microbiological and environmental investigations. RESULTS: Among 142 students seeking hospital care, 44 students from four schools qualified as case-patients. Of these, we surveyed 30 who had a mean age of 9 years; 70% (21/30 were females. Predominant symptoms included abdominal pain (93%, heartburn (90%, and bitter taste (57%. All students recovered within a few hours. No pathogenic Vibrio cholerae, Shigella or Salmonella spp. were isolated from collected stool samples. We found no rancid biscuits in schools and storage sites. The female index case perceived the unusually darker packet label as a "devil's deed" that made the biscuits poisonous. Many students, parents and community members reported concerns about rumors of students dying from biscuit poisoning. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid onset, followed by rapid recovery of symptoms; female preponderance; inconsistent physical, microbiological and environmental findings suggested mass sociogenic illness rather than a foodborne or toxic cause. Rumours of student deaths heightening community anxiety apparently propagated this

  2. Outbreak of Mass Sociogenic Illness in a School Feeding Program in Northwest Bangladesh, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Farhana; Kundu, Subodh Kumar; Islam, Md Saiful; Hasan, S. M. Murshid; Khatun, Asma; Gope, Partha Sarathi; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat; Alamgir, A. S. M.; Islam, M. Sirajul; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2010, an acute illness outbreak was reported in school students eating high-energy biscuits supplied by the school feeding programme in northwest Bangladesh. We investigated this outbreak to describe the illness in terms of person, place and time, develop the timeline of events, and determine the cause and community perceptions regarding the outbreak. Methods We defined case-patients as students from affected schools reporting any two symptoms including abdominal pain, heartburn, bitter taste, and headache after eating biscuits on the day of illness. We conducted in-depth interviews and group discussions with students, teachers, parents and community members to explore symptoms, exposures, and community perceptions. We conducted a questionnaire survey among case-patients to determine the symptoms and ascertain food items eaten 12 hours before illness onset, and microbiological and environmental investigations. Results Among 142 students seeking hospital care, 44 students from four schools qualified as case-patients. Of these, we surveyed 30 who had a mean age of 9 years; 70% (21/30) were females. Predominant symptoms included abdominal pain (93%), heartburn (90%), and bitter taste (57%). All students recovered within a few hours. No pathogenic Vibrio cholerae, Shigella or Salmonella spp. were isolated from collected stool samples. We found no rancid biscuits in schools and storage sites. The female index case perceived the unusually darker packet label as a “devil’s deed” that made the biscuits poisonous. Many students, parents and community members reported concerns about rumors of students dying from biscuit poisoning. Conclusions Rapid onset, followed by rapid recovery of symptoms; female preponderance; inconsistent physical, microbiological and environmental findings suggested mass sociogenic illness rather than a foodborne or toxic cause. Rumours of student deaths heightening community anxiety apparently propagated this outbreak. Sharing

  3. Neurological Complications Resulting from Non-Oral Occupational Methanol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Keun; Gil, Young-Eun; Kim, Hyunjoo; Choi, Jun Young

    2017-01-01

    Methanol poisoning results in neurological complications including visual disturbances, bilateral putaminal hemorrhagic necrosis, parkinsonism, cerebral edema, coma, or seizures. Almost all reported cases of methanol poisoning are caused by oral ingestion of methanol. However, recently there was an outbreak of methanol poisoning via non-oral exposure that resulted in severe neurological complications to a few workers at industrial sites in Korea. We present 3 patients who had severe neurological complications resulting from non-oral occupational methanol poisoning. Even though initial metabolic acidosis and mental changes were improved with hemodialysis, all of the 3 patients presented optic atrophy and ataxia or parkinsonism as neurological complications resulting from methanol poisoning. In order to manage it adequately, as well as to prevent it, physicians should recognize that methanol poisoning by non-oral exposure can cause neurologic complications. PMID:28049252

  4. 2009-2013年大理市食物中毒流行特征分析%Analysis of food poisoning epidemiologicai characteristics in Dali City from 2009 to 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦金屏; 刘继政; 陈宏伟

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解大理市食物中毒发生的规律、特点及原因,并提出有针对性的预防控制措施.方法 食物中毒确认依据为GB 14938-1994《食物中毒诊断标准及技术处理总则》;采用描述性流行病学方法对2009-2013年大理市食物中毒事件进行统计、分析.结果 2009-2013年大理市共报告63起食物中毒事件,中毒1 272人,死亡3人,年均发病率41.63/10万,年均病死率0.24%,各年度发病率比较差异有统计学意义(x2=506.296,P<0.01).第三、四季度是发病高峰期;主要发生在农村,场所以农村家庭自办宴席和建筑工地食堂为主;男性病例居多;致病因素以有毒动植物引起的起数最多(占63.49%),主要为毒蕈中毒;微生物类导致的食物中毒人数最多(占51.42%).结论 以第三、四季度作为防治食物中毒的重点时段;以家庭、集体食堂,特别是农村和建筑工地食堂作为防制重点场所,加强对农村自办宴席和建筑工地食堂的卫生监管,并加强对农民、建筑工人的健康教育,不断改善农民、建筑工人的卫生意识和卫生习惯;发现食物中毒事件及时报告、及时治疗,是控制食物中毒的重要措施.%Objectives Understanding the the rules,characteristics and reasons of food poisoning in Dali,and propose a highly individualized approach to prevent and control.Methods Food poisoning is diagnosed based on GB 14938-1994 "food poisoning diagnostic criteria and technical management General".Analysed the reported cases of food poisoning from 2009 to 2013 in Dali with descriptive epidemiological methods.Results There were totally 63 food poisoning events reported from 2009 to 2013 in Dali,involved 1 272 cases,and 3 died.The yearly average incidence rate was 41.63/100 000,and the yearly case fatality rate was 0.24%.Compared the incidence rate of each year,the difference was statistical significant (x2 =506.296,P < 0.01).The peak period of food poisoning were the third

  5. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 9. Washing and drying of hands to reduce microbial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Smith, Debra; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A

    2010-10-01

    During various daily activities at home and work, hands quickly become contaminated. Some activities increase the risk of finger contamination by pathogens more than others, such as the use of toilet paper to clean up following a diarrheal episode, changing the diaper of a sick infant, blowing a nose, or touching raw food materials. Many foodborne outbreak investigation reports have identified the hands of food workers as the source of pathogens in the implicated food. The most convenient and efficient way of removing pathogens from hands is through hand washing. Important components of hand washing are potable water for rinsing and soaps to loosen microbes from the skin. Hand washing should occur after any activity that soils hands and certainly before preparing, serving, or eating food. Antimicrobial soaps are marginally more effective than plain soaps, but constant use results in a buildup of the antimicrobial compound on the skin. The time taken to wash hands and the degree of friction generated during lathering are more important than water temperature for removing soil and microorganisms. However, excessive washing and scrubbing can cause skin damage and infections. Drying hands with a towel removes pathogens first by friction during rubbing with the drying material and then by wicking away the moisture into that material. Paper rather than cloth towels should be encouraged, although single-use cloth towels are present in the washrooms of higher class hotels and restaurants. Warm air dryers remove moisture and any surface microorganisms loosened by washing from hands by evaporation while the hands are rubbed together vigorously; however, these dryers take too long for efficient use. The newer dryers with high-speed air blades can achieve dryness in 10 to 15 s without hand rubbing.

  6. Outbreaks of food poisoning in adults due to Escherichia coli O111 and campylobacter associated with coach trips to northern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, J P; Rhodes, P; Chapman, P A; Lee, S M; Finner, P

    1997-08-01

    Thirty-seven out of 48 people on a coach excursion to northern France developed gastrointestinal symptoms within 4 days of the trip. Twenty-six had stool samples positive for Escherichia coli O111, 8 were also positive for Campylobacter species, and 1 was positive for campylobacter alone. Strains of E. coli were positive for the effacing and attaching protein (eaeA) gene, but negative for other E. coli virulence genes, and therefore belonged to the enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) group. Twenty-two out of 37 people in a second party which followed the same itinerary 2 weeks later also became ill. One had a stool sample positive for E. coli O111. Analytical epidemiology suggested that the source of infections was a restaurant in northern France at which both parties had eaten.

  7. Research advances on toxicological screening techniques for chemical food poisoning accidents%化学性食物中毒因子检测技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵兵; 张晶; 高馥蝶; 郭娟

    2013-01-01

      Toxicological screening for chemical food poisoning accident is always a big challenge in the field of analytical chemistry, due to not only the unknown non-target poisoning substance but also the complex sample matrix. This article summarized the main research advance on target toxin detection (nitrites, pesticides, rodenticides, narcotics and psychotropic drugs, biological toxins and other drugs) and non-target toxin screen-ing techniques (sample pretreatment technologies and instrument analytical methodologies) for chemical food poisoning accident. Principles, applications, limitations as well as possible tendency have been discussed. It will provide useful information for the response of poisoning incident and relevant study in future.%  化学性食物中毒因子的确证因其毒物的不确定性和基质的复杂性一直是卫生检验领域的一个难题。本文从目标毒物分析(亚硝酸盐、农药、杀鼠剂、麻醉品及精神药品、生物毒素以及其它药物等)和非目标毒物筛查(样本前处理技术和仪器筛查技术)两个方面综述了当前化学性毒物检测技术的的主要研究进展,介绍了相关方法的原理、应用、不足及发展方向,以期为化学性食物中毒事件处置及未来研究提供借鉴。

  8. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poison oak, and poison sumac. Protectants such as baking soda or colloidal oatmeal relieve minor irritation and ... Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content ...

  9. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  10. Pesticide Poisoning of Honeybees: A Review of Symptoms, Incident Classification, and Causes of Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiljanek Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2000s, the problem of pesticide poisoning of honeybees seemed to be almost solved. The number of cases has decreased in comparison to the 1970s. The problem of acute honeybee poisoning, however, has not disappeared, but instead has transformed into a problem of poisoning from ‘traditional’ pesticides like organophosphorus pesticides or pyrethroids, to poisoning from additional sources of ‘modern’ systemic neonicotinoids and fipronil. In this article, the biological activity of pesticides was reviewed. The poisoning symptoms, incident definitions, and monitoring systems, as well as the interpretation of the analytical results, were also reviewed. The range of pesticides, and the detected concentrations of pesticides in poisoned honeybee samples, were reviewed. And, for the first time, cases of poisoning related to neonicotinoids were reviewed. The latter especially is of practical importance and could be helpful to analysts and investigators of honeybee poisoning incidents. It is assumed that secondary poisoning induced by plant collected materials contaminated with systemic pesticides occurs. Food stored in a hive and contaminated with systemic pesticides consumed continuously by the same generation of winter bees, may result in sub-lethal intoxication. This leads to abnormal behaviour identified during acute intoxication. The final result is that the bees discontinue their social role in the honeybee colony super organism, and colony collapse disorder (CCD takes place. The process described above refers primarily to robust and strong colonies that were able to collect plenty of food due to effective plant protection.

  11. 一次升学宴所致沙门菌食物中毒来源的实验室追踪调查%Laboratory investigation on a food poisoning event due to Salmonella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    母永贵; 曾文海; 李登华; 熊华玉; 蒋德勇

    2013-01-01

    目的:查明食物中毒发生的原因及中毒的来源.方法:对一次农村升学宴食物中毒进行流行病学调查和实验室采样检测,判断食物中毒的原因和追踪致病菌的来源.结果:累计发病122例,罹患率为34.86%;除泡鸡脚外,在其余10种剩余食物、病人肛拭、鸡舍地面泥土和使用过的作为佐料的豆瓣样中均检出肠炎沙门菌;在一只公鸡的肛拭加涂抹样、猪舍中新鲜猪粪和一头猪的肛拭样中培养出肠炎沙门菌;11株分别来自于病人、食物、外环境和动物的肠炎沙门菌PFGE型别完全一致.结论:该次食物中毒是一起因肠炎沙门菌污染食物引起的细菌性食物中毒,肠炎沙门菌可能来源于宴席主人家饲养的猪.%Objective:To find out the reason and source of this food poisoning.Methods:Epidemiological investigation and laboratory sampling were employed to judge the reason of poisoning and trace the source of pathogen.Results:There were 122 sufferers in this food poisoning event(34.86%).In addition to soak chicken feet,Salmonella enteritidis was detected in other 10 remaining food,patients anal swab,coop ground soil and used bean sampies,and cultured in a cock anal swab sample,fresh pig manure in piggery and a pig anal swab sample.Eleven Salmonella enteritidis strains from patients,food,external environment and animal showed identical PFGE type.Conclusion:The food poisoning is caused by Salmonella enteritidis,possibly derived from pigs of banquet-holding site.

  12. Food Poisioning Typicality in Food Safety Vulnerable Area of Indonesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AdilBasukiAhza

    2001-01-01

    Food poisoning characteristics and patterns were studied in six vulnerable provinces of Indonesia to identify the typicality of food poisonings.Units of analysis were district level,gender,type of food,and place of events,using the data of incidence of food poisoning from 1987to 1998 period(ten year),Multivariate analysis and bi-plot technique were used to characterize the vulnerability of the areas based on the following variables:(1) time of symptom perceived,(2) number of cases for each kind of poison,(3) incidence of chemicals poisoning,and (4)incidence the microbial poisonings,It was found that the three provinces most vulnerable to food poisoning are Central Java,West Java and Jogyakarta.The causes of food poisoning incidence are microbial poisonings(49.36%),chemicals(24.50%),natural toxicant(4.66%),and other causes or indications(21.37%),The poisoning symptoms were perceived within 1.0-144 hrs with incubation time of 0.08 to 33.00 hrs after food intake,depedn on the type of poison.The type of foods that caused poisoning are family prepared foods(30.57%),preserved food(industrial products) (29.94%),food from catering services(21.66%),traditional foods(10.83%) and street foods(7.00%),WOmen are more vulnerable(67.84)than men(32.16%),The most vulnerable places for food poisoning are respectively at home(family)(44.16%),at workplaces (16.23%),party venue(14.29%),school(12.99%),and in public places(12.34%).The results lead to the urgent needs of a better formulation,more stringent food control policy and regulation at district levels,the use of different approach towards a more locally oriented food poisoning safety measures and actions.

  13. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine.

  14. Epidemiological characteristic of food poisoning caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Futian District of Shenzhen City%深圳市福田区副溶血性弧菌食物中毒的流行病学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨梅; 蒋立新; 王永刚; 黄慧萍; 李玥

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the epidemiological characteristic of food poisoning caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Futian District of Shenzhen City, and provide evidence for Vibrio parahaemolyticus related food poisoning control. [Methods] The data of food poisoning caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus from 2007 were accessed, The Vibrio parahaemolyticus was separated according to GB/4789.7-2003, and biochemically identified by GNID, and the serotype was determined by serum slide agglutination. The bioMérieux France ATB Fungs method was used to perform microbial sensitivity test. [Results] The peak season of Vibrio parahaemolyticus related food poisoning was August and September. The major of the poisoning foods were vegetable salad and cooked meat products which were not heated thoroughly. 03 : K6 was the predominant serotypes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains (50.0% ). Most strains showed resistance to ampicillin (61.5%), ticarcillin (50.0%) and cefazolin (42. 3% ). [Conclusion] It is important to control food poisoning caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus of 03 : K6 serotypes. The rational administration should be applied in the treatment of related disease.%目的 了解深圳市福田区副溶血性弧菌食物中毒的流行病学特征,为该类食物中毒的预防控制提供依据.方法 查阅2007年以来副溶血性弧菌食物中毒的档案资料,副溶血性弧菌食物中毒样品的分离根据国标GB/T 4789.7 - 2003进行,用GNID革兰阴性菌鉴定板进行生化鉴定,用血清玻片凝集实验进行血清学分型,用法国梅里埃ATB Fungs酵母菌药敏反应板进行药敏实验.结果 副溶血性弧菌食物中毒主要发生在8、9月,中毒食物以凉拌菜和未彻底加热的熟肉食品为主.血清型主要以03∶K6型为主,占50.0%.副溶血性弧菌对氨苄西林(AMP)、替卡西林(TIC)、头孢唑啉(KZ)的耐药率分别为61.5%、50.0%和42.3%.结论 要重点防制03∶K6型副溶血性弧菌食物中毒,在治疗时应合理用药.

  15. Mania following organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyakam Mohapatra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

  16. Mania following organophosphate poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Satyakam Mohapatra; Neelmadhav Rath

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

  17. Mania following organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Satyakam; Rath, Neelmadhav

    2014-11-01

    Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

  18. 一起小学蜡样芽孢杆菌食物中毒的调查报告%INVESTIGATION REPORT ON ONE CASE OF FOOD POISONING CAUSED BY BACILLUSCEREUS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙锐莲

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] Through die epidemiologicai investigation of food poisoning in a primary school, to discuss the prevalence factors and etiology of ihe epidemic. [Methods] Collected rice, rice pastry, sauce, milk curd, vomit to conduct bacteriological laboratory test and deleclion of organophosphprus pesticides. [Results] 81 patients with food poisoning ate rice pastry. The main clinical manifestations were nausea, dizziness, vomiting, abdominal pain; etiology check showed the pathological germ was bacillus cereus. [Conclusion] At the appropriate temperature, bacillus cercus grows, reproduces, produces toxins that can cause food poiwmng, it should be paid attention to.%[目的]通过对一起小学食物中毒流行病学调查探讨流行因素及病原学.[方法]采集大米、米粑粑、酱、乳腐、呕吐物进行实验室细菌学和有机磷农药检测.[结果]81例食用米粑粑中毒患者,临床表理以恶心、头晕、呕吐、腹痛为主;病原学检查为蜡样芽孢杆菌.[结论]蜡样芽孢杆菌在适宜温度下生长繁殖,污染食品,产生毒素,引起食物中毒.

  19. Salmonella serovars in food poisoning episodes recorded in Brazil from 1982 to 1991 Sorovares de Salmonella em episódios de toxinfecção alimentar ocorridos no período de 1982 - 1991, no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Hofer

    1994-02-01

    Full Text Available The Salmonella serovars involved in 25 food poisoning episodes which occurred in the Southeast and South of Brazil from 1982 to 1991 were identified. The most frequently detected serotype was S. Typhimurium (13/25, 52%, and the food most frequently involved in the transmission of Salmonella was homemade mayonnaise. The need to set up a permanent program of epidemiologic alert for food poisoning is emphasized.Em 25 episódios caracterizados como toxinfecção alimentar, ocorridos no período de 1982 a 1991 nas regiões sudeste e sul do país, foram identificados os sorovares de Salmonella envolvidos no processo. O sorotipo mais incidente foi S. Typhimurium presente em 13 oportunidades (52%, assim como dentre os alimentos responsabilizados na veiculação de Salmonella, a maionese caseira ocupou posição destacada. Ressalta-se a necessidade de instituir a nível nacional um programa permanente de vigilância epidemiológica sobre o problema da toxinfecção alimentar.

  20. Laboratory Test on Food Poisoning Event Caused by London Salmonella%一起伦敦沙门氏菌食物中毒的实验室检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑悦康; 叶志英; 刘绮明

    2014-01-01

    目的:对一起食物中毒的采集样本进行相关微生物学检验,并应用脉冲场凝胶电泳( PFGE)技术对检出的菌株进行溯源检测,确定引起食物中毒的病原菌(同源性)。方法依据GB4789方法对采集的样品进行病原菌分离、鉴定及药敏试验( K-B法),应用PFGE检测技术对检出的伦敦沙门氏菌进行分子分型,通过BioNumerics软件进行聚类分析。结果所检出5株菌株的生化试验、血清学试验和药敏试验结果一致,PFGE图谱有4株为相同菌株,1株菌株与其他菌株相似率为96%。结论该起食物中毒与伦敦沙门氏菌分离株为相同克隆群, PFGE可有效应用于食物中毒溯源分析及分子流行病学研究。%Objective To conduct a microbiological test on samples collected from a food poisoning event, in which PFGE was applied for the detection of strains to identify the pathogens which caused food poisoning. Method According to GB4789,the isolation,identification and K-B test were conducted on collected samples, and the isolated London salmonella strains were detected by PFGE molecular typing ( grouping ) and were analyzed by Bio-numerics software to perform clustering. Results The biochemical test,serological identification test and susceptibility test results of 5 strains of London salmonella were identical. The cluster analysis showed that 4 strains of London salmonella were the same strain,while 1 strain with 96% similarity. Conclusion The food poisoning event was caused by the same clone group of London salmonella. PFGE can be used in the source tracing and molecular epidemiological study of food poisoning.

  1. 一起花生引起沙门氏菌食物中毒检验与分析%Inspection and analysis of a salmonella food poisoning caused by peanut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锐; 王英; 高志彬

    2012-01-01

    目的准确分析一起细菌性食物中毒的原因,为食物中毒的处理提供依据.方法按照《食品卫生微生物学检验》GB 4789.4-2010,GB/T 4789.5-2003,GB 4789.10-2010,GB/T 4789.7-2008,WS/T 9-1996方法进行检验,分析中毒原因.结果通过对所检食物样本,刀具砧板涂抹物,呕吐物及粪便样本共计14份样本的肠道致病菌检验,其中2份剩余盐水花生和粪便样品中检出了沙门氏菌,病原菌的菌落形态、镜检、分离培养、生化反应特点,都符合沙门氏菌的特征,所有样品未检出其它致病菌.结论病原学结果证实本起食物中毒是由摄入了受沙门氏菌污染的盐水花生而引起的.%Objective Accurate analyze the reason of a bacterial food poisoning, and provide the basis for the handling of food poisoning. Methods Under the GB 4789.4-2010,GB/T 4789.5-2003,GB 4789.10-2010,GB/T 4789.7-2008,WS/T 9-1996 for inspection, analysing the cause of poisoning. Results Through the test of enteric pathogens from food samples, tool cutting board of smearing, vomitus and faeces sample total sample, In 2 surplus brine peanuts and fecal samples have picked out the salmonella. Pathogenic bacteria conforms to salmonella 's characteristic in colony shape, microscopy, isolated culture, biochemistry response characteristic,and all samples have not picked out other pathogenic bacterias. Conclusion Aetiology results have confirmed that the food poisoning is caused by the intake of Salmonella contamination of brine peanut.

  2. 2008-2010年全国突发公共卫生事件网络报告食物中毒流行病学分析%Analysis on the reported food poisoning incidents in public health emergency events surveillance system in china, 2008 -2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚发军; 冉陆; 马莉; 林羡华

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析2008-2010年我国“突发公共卫生事件报告管理信息系统”报告的食物中毒.方法 对2008-2010年中国突发公共卫生事件报告管理信息系统收到的所有食物中毒事件进行描述性分析.结果 2008-2010年全国共报告食物中毒1 218起,中毒35 672例,死亡518例,病死率为1.45%.报告事件高峰在6-10月,其中9月最多.致病因素依次为不明原因480起,微生物类320起,植物类279起,化学类122起,动物类17起.结论 全国突发公共卫生事件报告的食物中毒中,中毒起数和发病人数最多的是微生物所导致食物中毒;而毒蘑菇、农药/鼠药是导致食物中毒事件中中毒者死亡的主要原因.%Objective To analyze the reported food poisoning incidents in public health emergency events surveillance system in china, 2008-2010. Methods Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the food poisoning incidents in public health emergency events surveillance system in 2008-2010. Results There were 1218 food poisoning incidents were reported, which included 35 672 poisoning cases ,518 death cases and 1. 45% of fatality rate. The reported events peaked during June-October, and the highest peak was September. The classification of pathogenic factors which included 480 unknown events, 320 events caused by microbiology, 279 events caused by vegetable, 122 events caused by chemical, and 17 events caused by animal. Conclusion The highest numbers of food poisoning events were caused by micro-organism in reported food poisoning incidents in public health emergency events surveillance system in china. Poisonous mushrooms, pesticides, rat poison are the main reason caused by poisoning deaths in food poisoning events.

  3. Ciguatera poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaibar, Kira C; Moore, Simon; Bain, Peter G

    2007-10-01

    Ciguatera is a form of poisoning that occurs after eating tropical and subtropical ciguatoxic fish. The ciguatoxins are a family of heat stable, lipid soluble cyclic polyether compounds that bind to and open voltage-sensitive Na(+) channels at resting membrane potential, resulting in neural hyperexcitability, as well as swelling of the nodes of Ranvier. The authors describe a 45-year-old man who developed acute gastrointestinal symptoms in Antigua soon after eating red snapper and grouper, potentially "ciguatoxic fish". This was followed by neurological symptoms 24-48 hours later, including temperature reversal (paradoxical dysaesthesia), intense pruritus and increased nociception as a result of a small fibre peripheral neuropathy. The patient's symptoms and small fibre neuropathy improved over a period of 10 months.

  4. Epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2014-10-20

    In the present review, the main objective was to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong. From 1989 to 2008, the annual incidence of ciguatera varied between 3.3 and 64.9 (median 10.2) per million people. The groupers have replaced the snappers as the most important cause of ciguatera. Pacific-ciguatoxins (CTX) are most commonly present in reef fish samples implicated in ciguatera outbreaks. In affected subjects, the gastrointestinal symptoms often subside within days, whereas the neurological symptoms can persist for weeks or even months. Bradycardia and hypotension, which can be life-threatening, are common. Treatment of ciguatera is primarily supportive and symptomatic. Intravenous mannitol (1 g/kg) has also been suggested. To prevent ciguatera outbreaks, the public should be educated to avoid eating large coral reef fishes, especially the CTX-rich parts. A Code of Practice on Import and Sale of Live Marine Fish for Human Consumption for Prevention and Control of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning was introduced from 2004 to 2013. The Food Safety Ordinance with a tracing mechanism came into full effect in February 2012. The Government would be able to trace the sources of the fishes more effectively and take prompt action when dealing with ciguatera incidents.

  5. Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, the main objective was to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong. From 1989 to 2008, the annual incidence of ciguatera varied between 3.3 and 64.9 (median 10.2 per million people. The groupers have replaced the snappers as the most important cause of ciguatera. Pacific-ciguatoxins (CTX are most commonly present in reef fish samples implicated in ciguatera outbreaks. In affected subjects, the gastrointestinal symptoms often subside within days, whereas the neurological symptoms can persist for weeks or even months. Bradycardia and hypotension, which can be life-threatening, are common. Treatment of ciguatera is primarily supportive and symptomatic. Intravenous mannitol (1 g/kg has also been suggested. To prevent ciguatera outbreaks, the public should be educated to avoid eating large coral reef fishes, especially the CTX-rich parts. A Code of Practice on Import and Sale of Live Marine Fish for Human Consumption for Prevention and Control of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning was introduced from 2004 to 2013. The Food Safety Ordinance with a tracing mechanism came into full effect in February 2012. The Government would be able to trace the sources of the fishes more effectively and take prompt action when dealing with ciguatera incidents.

  6. 关于1564次旅客列车疑似食物中毒的调查分析%The Analysis of 1564 Passenger Train Suspected Food Poisoning Investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇

    2015-01-01

    目的:查清一起旅客列车疑似食物中毒的原因,分析旅客列车食物中毒处理的特点及其规律,为旅客列车食物中毒的预防控制和处理提供科学依据。方法采用现场流行病学、卫生学调查方法,同时采集相关样品送实验室检测。结果该次旅客列车疑似食物中毒6例病人有共同的就餐史,发病急,短时间内同时发病,临床表现类似,以恶心、呕吐、脐周腹痛、腹泻等消化系统感染症状为主,血象检查均有白细胞、中性粒细胞比例偏高,经对列车供餐套餐盒饭1份、餐车后厨末梢生活饮用水1份、食饮具10份、厨师手涂抹采样2份、厨师肛试子4份、患者呕吐物采样2人份样品进行增菌培养、平板分离,可疑菌落进行革兰氏染色、生化实验和血清学实验,检验结果为:呕吐物2号标本检出蜡样芽孢杆菌。结论该次旅客列车食物中毒系一起乘车前因食用被蜡样芽孢杆菌污染食品,导致发生在旅客列车上的腹泻型蜡样芽孢杆菌食物中毒。%Objective To find out with the passenger train suspected cause of food poisoning,analysis of the characteristics and laws of food poisoning treatment of passenger train,passenger train to provide the scientific basis for preventing and controlling food poisoningand treatment. Methods Field epidemiology,hygiene investigation method, and collect samplessent to the laboratory test-ing. Results The passenger train of suspected food poisoning 6 patientshave a common history of eating, acute onset, short period of time at the same time, the similar clinical manifestations, the symptoms of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea and other umbilicus digestive system infection, high blood examination showed white blood cells, neutrophils, the meal on the train package 1 copies of lunch, the dining car kitchendrinking water 1, peripheral tableware 10, chef hands daub 2 samples, 4 samples, chef

  7. Enhanced surveillance on food-borne disease outbreaks: dynamics of cross-contamination in biocidal wash procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munther, Daniel; Wu, Jianhong

    2013-03-21

    Understanding the geographic and temporal spread of food-borne diseases associated with fresh produce is crucial for informing adequate surveillance and control. As a first step towards this goal, we develop and analyze a novel three stage model at the processing/sanitization juncture in the fresh produce supply chain. The key feature of our model is its ability to describe the dynamics of cross-contamination during commercial wash procedures. In general, we quantify the degree of cross-contamination in terms of model parameters. Applying these results in the case of Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of fresh-cut romaine lettuce, we identify the mean wash time and free chlorine concentration as critical parameters. In addition to showing how these parameters affect contamination levels, we recommend that in order to prevent potential source misidentification, at least 2.2 mg/L of free chlorine should be used during a wash lasting at least 30s.

  8. Brachiaria spp. poisoning of ruminants in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Riet-Correa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. is their toxicity. Most outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization are caused by B. decumbens; however B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. ruziziensis can also cause poisoning. The poisoning affects cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. There are differences in susceptibility among animals of the same species and it has been suggested that this resistance is genetic. Also has been suggested that buffalo and probably some sheep are resilient, i.e. when poisoned these animals have histologic lesions and high GGT serum concentrations, but do not show clinical signs. In general, saponin concentrations are higher in growing plants, but outbreaks occur all over the year, probably due to unexplained rise in saponin concentration in the plant. A clinical syndrome of progressive weight loss and death, without photosensitization, has been reported in cattle poisoned by B. decumbens. Main preventive measures are based on the selection of resistant or resilient animals and on the development of Brachiaria species or varieties with low saponin concentration.

  9. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) in Margarita Island, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    La Barbera-Sánchez, Amelia; Franco Soler, Jose; Rojas de Astudillo, Luisa; Chang-Yen, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    A severe outbreak of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) occurred in Manzanillo and Guayacán, northwestern coast of Margarita Island, Venezuela, between August and October 1991. A bloom of dinoflagellates including Prorocentrum gracile, Gymnodinium catenatum and Alexandrium tamarense seemed to be responsible for this outbreak. Levels of PSP toxins in mussels (Perna perna) exceeded the international safety limit of saxitoxin, 80 µg STX/100 g meat. PSP toxin values varied between 2 548 and 115 ...

  10. Features of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning Cases in Hong Kong 2004-2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHUN-KWAN WONG; PATRICIA HUNG; KELLIE L.H.LEE; TINA MOK; THOMAS CHUNG; KAI-MAN KAM

    2008-01-01

    To review the clinical features and laboratory investigations of ciguatera patients in Hong Kong between 2004 and 2007 in order to show the timely sampling of implicated fish from ciguatera victims and application of validated mouse bioassay for confirming suspected clinical cases of ciguatera.Methods Diagnosis of the ciguatera victims was based on history of coral fish consumption and clinical presentations stated in official guidelines for clinical diagnosis of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong.Food remnants of coral fish samples were collected swiftly from ciguatera victims between 2004 and 2007 for ciguatoxins (CTXs) analysis.Results Major clinical symptoms in ciguatera patients included gastrointestinal and neurological effects including limb numbness and diarrhoea,which developed at 0.5 to 15 hours after consumption of fish.In most cases,neurological symptoms were more common than gastrointestinal symptoms.A broad range of attack rate (10%-100%) was observed in each ciguatera outbreak.Validated mouse bioassay on ether extracts of the food remnant samples confirmed that all were CTXs-positive (<0.5-4.3 MU/20 mg ether extract) and directly linked to the corresponding ciguatera cases.Conclusion Consistency between clinical and laboratory analysis for ciguatera poisoning illustrates the application of laboratory mouse bioassay in a timely fashion for confirming ciguatera poisoning cases and implementing effective public health measures.With further improvement in laboratory techniques,features of ciguatera fish poisoning cases can be better defined.Further studies are needed to determine the risk of each class of CTXs (Pacific-,Indian-and Caribbean-CTXs) in Hong Kong.

  11. Investigation and analysis of a food poisoning caused by pathogenic vibrio%一起致病性弧菌引起的食物中毒的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢俊; 袁冬梅

    2013-01-01

    目的 江汉区疾病预防控制中心对发生在武汉市某自助餐厅的一起食物中毒事件展开调查,寻找事故原因.方法 采用流行病学调查,现场卫生学调查,实验室病原微生物检测的方法进行调查取证.结果 现场卫生学调查中发现食品加工环节存在交叉污染,在实验室病原检测中,从食品,病例和加工环节中均分离出病原菌.结论 经过综合分析判断,认定该事件为一起由副溶血性弧菌和致病性嗜水气单胞菌引起的食物中毒.%OBJECTIVE To investigate a food poisoning which occurred in one such cafeteria in Wuhan to find the cause of the accident. METHODS Used epidemiological investigation, on-site hygienic investigation, laborator pathogenic microorganism detection for investigation and evidence collection. RESULTS During the on-site hygienic investigation, we found cross contamination in the food processing, we also found pathogenic vibrio in food, patient and food processing equipment by laborator pathogenic microorganism detection. CONCLUSION After comprehensive analysis, we judge the incident is a food poisoning caused by vibrio parahaemolyticus and pathogenic aeromonas hydrophila.

  12. Analysis of major food-poisoning incidents in schools between 2005 and 2009%2005~2009年学校重大食物中毒事件分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉娟; 姚应水

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the features and regular patterns of major food-poisoning in schools throughout China for the countermeasure against these incidents. Methods: We gathered the official data of major food poisoning events in schools released by the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China between 2005 and 2009 for this study regarding the incidence, number of victims, deaths and causes and effects.Results:From 2005 to 2009, the number of poisoning incidents, victims and deaths were 543, 20 541 and 17, respectively, resulting in case fatality rate of 0.83%. The major toxicants were associated with microbial pollution and toxic agents from the food of animal or plant origin, which accounted for respectiveness of 53.59% and 21.66%. Particularly, the frequencies, victims and deaths involved in the public refectories of schools represented with 72.01%, 75.95 % and 29.41%, respectively,of the total food poisoning events in a five-year period. Conclusion: Microbial contamination and toxins from foods of animal or plant origin are the important causes of food poisoning, and these incidents frequently occur in school refectories, accordingly, administrations should attach importance to the supervision.%目的:了解全国2005~2009年学校重大食物中毒特点及发生规律,探讨防止食物中毒发生的对策和措施.方法:根据2005~2009年中国卫生部重大食物中毒通报资料,对历年学校食物中毒的发生数、中毒人数、死亡人数以及发生原因进行分析.结果:2005~2009年全国通报学校重大食物中毒起数、中毒人数及死亡人数分别为543起、20541人和17人,病死率为0.83‰.其中微生物性、有毒动植物性食物中毒人数分别占总中毒人数53.59%和21.66%.5年间发生在学校集体食堂的食物中毒起数、中毒人数和死亡人数分别占总起数、总中毒人数及总死亡人数的72.01%、75.95%和29.41%.结论:微生物和有毒动植物是学

  13. Norovirus: Food Handlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology For Food Workers Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... trabajadores del sector alimentario Norovirus and Working With Food CDC Vital Signs Report Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks, Food ...

  14. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Hammond

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented.

  15. The organizational managing methods in the medical - nursing first aid for group food poisoning events%集体食物中毒事件急救医疗护理组织管理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓亚军; 王义亮; 潘代明

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the organizational managing methods for strengthening the medical - nursing first aid for group food poisoning events.Methods The measures included starting emergency plan promptly, optimizing the first aid routine, allocating human resources rationally, strengthening the management of emergency supplies and rationalizing macro - control.Results All the 252 cases of patients were clinically cured.The survival rate was 100.00% and patient satisfaction was 98.00%.No nursing errors and issues happened.Conclusion Efficient organizational management is the powerful guarantee to the successful rescue of group food poisoning patients.%目的 探讨加强集体食物中毒事件急救医疗护理组织管理方法.方法 迅速启动应急预案、优化急救流程、合理调配人力资源、强化急救物资管理、合理宏观调控等.结果 252例患者全部临床治愈出院,抢救成功率100.00%,患者满意度98.00%,无护理差错及纠纷发生.结论 高效的急救医疗护理组织管理工作是集体食物中毒事件救治成功的有力保障.

  16. Bacillus cereus contamination of rice caused by the investigation and analysis of food poisoning%蜡样芽胞杆菌污染米饭引起食物中毒的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓红; 严军; 陈秀兰; 姜洁

    2013-01-01

    Objectiveanalysis the reason of poisoning by through the epidemiological investigation and laboratory test results.Methods epidemiological investigation at the scene、Manifestations in clinical and laboratory testing.Results etiology inspection results for bacillus cereus,the number of bacillus cereus in rice 1.8×106cfU/g.Conclusion Bacillus cereus to grow in the appropriate temperature, contaminated food, produce toxins that cause food poisoning.%目的:根据流行病学调查及实验室检验结果分析中毒原因。方法现场流行病学调查、临床表现及实验室检验。结果病原学检验结果为蜡样芽胞杆菌,米饭中的蜡样芽胞杆菌菌数1.8×106cfU/g。结论蜡样芽胞杆菌在适宜的温度下生长繁殖,污染食品,产生毒素,引起食物中毒。

  17. Prevention of food poisoning due to pesticide residues in vegetables of Guangdong province%广东省预防蔬菜农残中毒工作研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟雄; 邓峰; 江月碧; 罗建波; 梁春穗; 戴昌芳

    2001-01-01

    为预防蔬菜农药中毒的发生和提高蔬菜食用的安全性,广东省卫生防疫站开展了预防蔬菜农残引起食物中毒的系统工作,包括:加强部门间合作,研究消除蔬菜中农药残留物的方法,提高监测技术水平。结果表明,此系统的工作是科学的、有效的,广东省因农药引起的食物中毒呈逐年下降趋势。%A prevention system in Guangdong province was developed by the Station of Health and Anti|epidemic to prevent the food poisoning due to pesticide residues in vegetables.It includes the reinforcement of the cooperation between departments,research on the method for removing pesticide residues in vegetables and improvement of the level of inspection.The work indicated the scientific and efficient of the system,and the downtrend of food poisoning due to pesticide residues.

  18. Complexity of the international agro-food trade network and its impact on food safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Ercsey-Ravasz

    Full Text Available With the world's population now in excess of 7 billion, it is vital to ensure the chemical and microbiological safety of our food, while maintaining the sustainability of its production, distribution and trade. Using UN databases, here we show that the international agro-food trade network (IFTN, with nodes and edges representing countries and import-export fluxes, respectively, has evolved into a highly heterogeneous, complex supply-chain network. Seven countries form the core of the IFTN, with high values of betweenness centrality and each trading with over 77% of all the countries in the world. Graph theoretical analysis and a dynamic food flux model show that the IFTN provides a vehicle suitable for the fast distribution of potential contaminants but unsuitable for tracing their origin. In particular, we show that high values of node betweenness and vulnerability correlate well with recorded large food poisoning outbreaks.

  19. Foodborne outbreaks in Canada linked to produce: 2001 through 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, G K; MacDonald, D; Landry, L; Farber, J M

    2013-01-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh fruits and vegetables have been increasing in occurrence worldwide. Canada has one of the highest per capita consumption rates of fresh fruits and vegetables in the world. In this article, we review the foodborne disease outbreaks linked to produce consumption in Canada from 2001 through 2009. The 27 produce-related outbreaks included an estimated 1,549 cases of illness. Bacterial infection outbreaks represented 66% of the total. Among these, Salmonella was the most frequent agent (50% of outbreaks) followed by Escherichia coli (33%) and Shigella (17%). Cyclospora cayetanensis was the only parasite detected and was associated with seven outbreaks. Among the foodborne viruses, only hepatitis A was implicated in two outbreaks. The food vehicles most commonly implicated in outbreaks were leafy greens and herbs (26% of outbreaks), followed by seed sprouts (11%). Contamination sources and issues related to the future control of fresh produce-related foodborne disease outbreaks also are discussed.

  20. Epidemiology of restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks, United States, 1998-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, K M; Nisler, A L; Hall, A J; Brown, L G; Gould, L H

    2017-02-01

    Although contamination of food can occur at any point from farm to table, restaurant food workers are a common source of foodborne illness. We describe the characteristics of restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks and explore the role of food workers by analysing outbreaks associated with restaurants from 1998 to 2013 reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System. We identified 9788 restaurant-associated outbreaks. The median annual number of outbreaks was 620 (interquartile range 618-629). In 3072 outbreaks with a single confirmed aetiology reported, norovirus caused the largest number of outbreaks (1425, 46%). Of outbreaks with a single food reported and a confirmed aetiology, fish (254 outbreaks, 34%) was most commonly implicated, and these outbreaks were commonly caused by scombroid toxin (219 outbreaks, 86% of fish outbreaks). Most outbreaks (79%) occurred at sit-down establishments. The most commonly reported contributing factors were those related to food handling and preparation practices in the restaurant (2955 outbreaks, 61%). Food workers contributed to 2415 (25%) outbreaks. Knowledge of the foods, aetiologies, and contributing factors that result in foodborne disease restaurant outbreaks can help guide efforts to prevent foodborne illness.

  1. Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from a wide variety of ready-to-eat foods and their relationship to clinical strains from listeriosis outbreaks in Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eMontero

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen transmitted through food that can cause severe infections in high-risk groups such as pregnant women, elderly, young children and immunocompromised individuals. It is a ubiquitous bacterium that can survive in harsh conditions, such as dry environments, at low temperatures, in brine conditions and at low pH values. It also has the capacity to form biofilms, which makes it particularly successful even in colonizing surfaces within food processing plants. This study analyzed the presence of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat food (RTE such as sausage, cheese, fresh salads and other types of raw food. 850 samples of refrigerated and packaged food collected in 2008 and 2009 were analyzed. It was found that 25% of these samples were contaminated with L. monocytogenes strains. Serotyping and virulence genes detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR identified that strains belonging to serotype 4b, and containing one or more genes encoded by LIPI-1, were significantly associated with specific food types. Furthermore, using pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, it was possible to associate isolates from cheese with strains from clinical cases of listeriosis outbreaks that occurred during the same time period within the same geographic regions. In addition, a strong correlation was observed between isolates from frozen seafood and from clinical strains obtained from sporadic cases of listeriosis. In agreement with reports described in other countries, our results shown that Chilean strains of L. monocytogenes from food products include the most virulent serotypes, encoding for the main virulence genes of the LIPI-1 pathogenicity island, and were clonally related to clinical isolates from sporadic cases and outbreaks of listeriosis. In conclusion, we show that Chilean isolates of L. monocytogenes from RTE and raw food products can cause disease in humans, representing a public health risk that justifies permanent

  2. Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from a wide variety of ready-to-eat foods and their relationship to clinical strains from listeriosis outbreaks in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, David; Bodero, Marcia; Riveros, Guillermina; Lapierre, Lisette; Gaggero, Aldo; Vidal, Roberto M.; Vidal, Maricel

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen transmitted through food that can cause severe infections in high-risk groups such as pregnant women, elderly, young children and immunocompromised individuals. It is a ubiquitous bacterium that can survive in harsh conditions, such as dry environments, at low temperatures, in brine conditions and at low pH values. It also has the capacity to form biofilms, which makes it particularly successful even in colonizing surfaces within food processing plants. This study analyzed the presence of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat food (RTE) such as sausage, cheese, fresh salads, and other types of raw food. 850 samples of refrigerated and packaged food collected in 2008 and 2009 were analyzed. It was found that 25% of these samples were contaminated with L. monocytogenes strains. Serotyping and virulence genes detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identified that strains belonging to serotype 4b, and containing one or more genes encoded by pathogenicity island (LIPI-1), were significantly associated with specific food types. Furthermore, using pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), it was possible to associate isolates from cheese with strains from clinical cases of listeriosis outbreaks that occurred during the same time period within the same geographic regions. In addition, a strong correlation was observed between isolates from frozen seafood and from clinical strains obtained from sporadic cases of listeriosis. In agreement with reports described in other countries, our results shown that Chilean strains of L. monocytogenes from food products include the most virulent serotypes, encoding for the main virulence genes of the LIPI-1, and were clonally related to clinical isolates from sporadic cases and outbreaks of listeriosis. In conclusion, we show that Chilean isolates of L. monocytogenes from RTE and raw food products can cause disease in humans, representing a public health risk that justifies permanent surveillance. PMID

  3. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and diarrhea. These symptoms are followed by short-term memory loss, and other less common nervous system symptoms. ... the summer months. If you are poisoned, your long-term outcome is usually quite good. Scombroid poisoning symptoms ...

  4. Hair straightener poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  5. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  6. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it ... has a longer stem than the other two. Poison ivy clings to tree trunks and other vertical ...

  7. [Cyclospora cayetanensis outbreak in travelers to Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Olivencia, Germán; Herrero, Maria Dolores; Subirats, Mercedes; Rivas González, Pablo; Puente, Sabino

    2008-11-01

    Initially described in travelers, outbreaks of cyclosporiasis were soon linked to imported food products. An outbreak of cyclosporiasis in Spanish travelers is described. After identification of Cyclospora cayetanensis in stool analyses, a specific questionnaire was completed. Pyrosis was described in 57% of cases (4/7). Peptic symptoms can be a useful clue to indicate the diagnosis of cyclosporiasis in patients with travelers' diarrhea.

  8. A survey of a mistake of food poisoning caused by tannic acid iron%一起鞣酸铁误判食物中毒的调查报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠惠; 叶绿; 赛斌

    2013-01-01

    Objective An investigation of a misjudgment of food chemical reaction to be a food poison-ing was studied and the value of reference for clinicians and public health practitioners was suggested. Meth-ods Based on the on-site survey, the following experiment was practised: the sauerkrautsoup was made by mixing the similarly block of pickled cabbage and noodles, and was heated with pans made of different materi-als; the tea was made by boiling water and was put into different pans. Results Only the soup heated in wok became dark, which is because of the iron in the sauerkraut and the tannic acid in tea generating the tannin iron as precipitation, that made the lips, teeth, and tongue dark, and stomach feeling discomfort and having a burn-ing sensation. Conclusion This event was a mistake for a food poisoning which was actually a food chemical reaction caused by the tannic acid iron.%  目的对一起因食物化学反应误判为食物中毒的事件进行调查,以期对临床医师和公共卫生医师提供临床处理经验。方法根据事件现场调查,设计同等过程实验,将相同的酸菜和面块混合,用不同材质锅加热制成酸菜面块汤;把茶叶用开水泡成茶水,分别加入不同的锅内,进行实验室检验。结果用铁锅加热制作的汤颜色变黑,其他的不变色,即酸菜中的铁与茶叶中的鞣酸生成鞣酸铁沉淀,并导致人体口唇、牙齿、舌苔发黑,引起胃部不适和烧灼感。结论此次疑似食物中毒事件实质上是属于鞣酸铁引起的食物中毒误判。

  9. Establishment and application of Real- Time PCR with probe in detection of salmonella in food poisoning%Real - Time PCR探针法检测食物中毒中沙门菌方法建立及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋士利; 檀薇; 张丽

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To establish a real - time PCR method for direct amplification of the invA gene of Salmonella in food poisoning. Methods:A representative primer and probe were designed based on invA gene of Salnwnella spp. . Reaction condition was optimized constantly to test sensitivity and specificity for establishment of Real - Time PCR method. Results; With this PCR method, the sensitivity of salmonella detection in DNA and lysate were 56 fg/PCR system and 9 CFU/ml respectively, the specificity was 100%. 15 strains of salmonella were found in the detection of four food poisoning cases, 2000 swab anal and 80 food samples. Conclusion: This method had high sensitivity and specificity, which can be used for rapid detection of food poisoning caused by salmonella.%目的:建立食物中毒中沙门菌Real - Time PCR检测方法并将其应用.方法:选取沙门菌侵袭蛋白A基因(invA)进行引物和探针设计,并对反应条件不断优化,进行灵敏度和特异度测试,建立检测沙门菌的Real - Time PCR方法.结果:DNA灵敏度检测沙门菌达到56 fg/PCR体系,菌液灵敏度检测沙门菌达到9 CFU/ml,特异度100%.用建立的方法对四起食物中毒、2000份健康从业人员体检肛拭样品、80份食品监测样品进行了检测,共检出沙门菌15株.结论:该方法具有高灵敏性和高特异性的特点,可以应用在沙门菌引起的食物中毒的快速检测中.

  10. Effect of a lead-expelling food on lead poisoning in mice%排铅食品对铅中毒小鼠的排铅作用及对矿物质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞; 陈玉柱; 张惠英

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a lead-expelling food on expelling mineral matters and expelling lead from lead poisoning mice induced by acetate lead. Methods Seventy-five Kuming male mice weighted 18 - 22 g were randomly divided into five groups: negative control group, lead poisoning model group and three intervention groups fed with low, medium and high dosage of lead-expelling food. Deionized water was provided for the negative control group and 1.00 g/L lead acetate solution was provided for the lead-poisoning model group and three intervention groups freely. The lead-expelling food for the low, medium and high dose intervention groups was administrated intragastrically with 5-, 10- or 20-fold of the recommended dosage for human use (0. 60 g/kg BW). The general situation and body weight changes were observed in 30 days. The content of lead, calcium, iron, zinc and copper in blood, liver, femur, kidney and brain were determined. Results The lead content of liver, kidney and brain in low, medium and high-dose intervention groups were lower than those in the lead-poisoning model group (P < 0. 05 or P < 0. 01 ). The lead content of blood and femur in medium and high-dose intervention group were lower than those in lead-poisoning model group ( P < 0. 05 or P < 0. 01 ). The calcium of liver, zinc of brain, copper of kidney in low-, medium- and high-dose intervention group were higher than those in the lead-poisoning model group (P <0. 05or P < 0. 01 ). The calcium of blood, kidney and brain, the iron, zinc and copper of blood, the blood and copper of brain in middle- and high-dose intervention groups were higher than those in lead-poisoning model group (P < 0. 05 or P < 0. 01 ). Iron of femur in high-dose intervention group was higher than that in lead-poisoning model group ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion The lead-expelling food plays a role in promoting lead elimination from mice, and can improve calcium, iron, zinc and copper metabolism

  11. CDC Vital Signs: Recipe for Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... VitalSigns RSS Error processing SSI file Recipe for Food Safety Protecting people from deadly Listeria food poisoning Recommend ... for food production, like those included in the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) , so that food doesn't ...

  12. Experimental poisoning by Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii in buffalo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira-Filho, José C.; Carmo, Priscila M.S.; Iversen, Anita

    2012-01-01

    on a farm where a recent spontaneous outbreak of poisoning caused by such plant had occurred. Clinical signs appeared 4-20 hours and 4 buffaloes died 18-49 hours after the ingestion of the plant. Clinical signs were apathy, anorexia, and watery diarrhea, fever, colic, drooling, muscle tremors, restlessness...

  13. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  14. A food borne outbreak of cholera O139 after mass dinner%一起群体聚餐引起的O139型霍乱疫情分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵江义; 付小强; 李莎; 赵敏; 曾春桂

    2013-01-01

    2012年10月湖北省内发生的一起群体聚餐引起的O139型霍乱疫情,经过流行病学调查、临床表现及实验室检查结果进行分析判断,共确诊26例霍乱感染者,无死亡病例.通过黄石、鄂州和武汉等地的联防联控,及时有效地控制了疫情.%In October 2012,a food borne outbreak of cholera O139 after mass dinner occurred in Hubei province.Twenty six cases were confirmed according to the clinical manifestations,epidemiological survey results and laboratory detection findings,no death occurred.The outbreak was effectively controlled by the multi sectoral cooperation on prevention and control in Huangshi,Ezhou and Wuhan.

  15. Study on biological traits and molecular types of salmonella anatum from food poisoning%食物中毒鸭沙门菌的生物学特性及分子分型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪永禄; 沈荣柴; 王多春; 陶勇; 王利; 王艳; 刘力彰; 娄静; 闫梅英

    2013-01-01

    目的 对一起食物中毒分离的鸭沙门菌进行生物学特性和分子分型研究.方法 菌株分离、生化鉴定和血清型确定参照GB/T4789.4-2010方法进行,用VITEK-32全自动微生物鉴定系统检测菌株药物敏感性,鲎试验检测内毒素、PCR检测沙门菌侵袭相关基因invA和invE,用脉冲场凝胶电泳(pulsed field gel electrophoresis,PFGE)方法进行分子分型.结果 11份样品检出8株肠炎沙门菌;其中5株菌内毒素为阳性;所有菌株均携带侵袭相关基因invA和invE;该次食物中毒样品中分离得到的8株鸭沙门菌PFGE图谱完全相同,但有别于其它地区分离的鸭沙门菌.结论 PFGE可有效用于沙门菌食物中毒细菌同源性的分析.本次食物中毒有相同的鸭沙门菌克隆系来源.%Objective To study the biological traits and molecular types of salmonella anatin from a food poisoning.Method Do strains isolation,biochemical identification and serotypes according to GB/T4789.4-2010.Detect the drug sensitivity by VITEK-32 automated microbial identification system,detect endotoxin by limulus test,detect salmonella invasion-related gene invA and invE by PCR,and type the moleculars pulsedfield gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method.Results Eight salmonella were isolated from the 11 samples,among which,5 strains of bacteria endotoxin iwere positive,and all of them were salmonella anatis.All the strains carried invasion-related gene (invA and invE).The PFGE maps of the 8 strains were the same,but different from that of other regions.Conclusions PFGE could be effectively used for homology analysis of salmonella food poisoning.This food poisoning had the same salmonella anatis clone source system.

  16. 21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison... SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS AND DECISIONS Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. For the purpose of determining whether an article containing...

  17. Dieldrin poisoning in dogs: relation to obesity and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, William T.; Zavon, Mitchell R.; Witherup, Samuel H.

    1969-01-01

    Keane, William T., Zavon, Mitchell R., and Witherup, Samuel H. (1969).Brit. J. industr. Med.,26, 338-341. Dieldrin poisoning in dogs: relation to obesity and treatment. The time interval required for poisoning to result in mammals from the prolonged absorption of a relatively constant amount of dieldrin, a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide, is directly related to obesity. This relationship should be applicable regardless of the route of absorption of dieldrin (ingestion, inhalation, or percutaneous). Forced feeding of a high calorific value food appears to have a place in the treatment of dieldrin poisoning and, by extension, in the treatment of poisoning from many other chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides. PMID:5346832

  18. Food Safety Challenges towards Safe, Healthy, and Nutritious Street Foods in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuzzaman, Md; Chowdhury, Fatema Moni; Zaman, Sharmin; Al Mamun, Arafat; Bari, Md Latiful

    2014-01-01

    The street foods play an important socioeconomic role in meeting food and nutritional requirements of city consumers at affordable prices to the lower and middle income people. The number of food poisoning notifications rose steadily worldwide since the inception of E. coli O157:H7 outbreak in the 1980s to date. This may be partly attributed to improved surveillance, increased global trade and travel, changes in modern food production, the impact of modern lifestyles, changes in food consumption, and the emergence of new pathogens. Consumer's knowledge and attitude may influence food safety behavior and practice. For the sake of public health, it is important to understand the epidemiology of foodborne illnesses that help in prevention and control efforts, appropriately allocating resources to control foodborne illness, monitoring and evaluation of food safety measures, development of new food safety standards, and assessment of the cost-effectiveness of interventions. This review paper described the sociodemographic characteristics, common hazards, and occupational hazards of street food vendors, microbial risk associated with street food, food safety interventions and control measures, regulatory aspects and legal requirements, financial constraints, and attitudes.

  19. Food Safety Challenges towards Safe, Healthy, and Nutritious Street Foods in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Khairuzzaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The street foods play an important socioeconomic role in meeting food and nutritional requirements of city consumers at affordable prices to the lower and middle income people. The number of food poisoning notifications rose steadily worldwide since the inception of E. coli O157:H7 outbreak in the 1980s to date. This may be partly attributed to improved surveillance, increased global trade and travel, changes in modern food production, the impact of modern lifestyles, changes in food consumption, and the emergence of new pathogens. Consumer’s knowledge and attitude may influence food safety behavior and practice. For the sake of public health, it is important to understand the epidemiology of foodborne illnesses that help in prevention and control efforts, appropriately allocating resources to control foodborne illness, monitoring and evaluation of food safety measures, development of new food safety standards, and assessment of the cost-effectiveness of interventions. This review paper described the sociodemographic characteristics, common hazards, and occupational hazards of street food vendors, microbial risk associated with street food, food safety interventions and control measures, regulatory aspects and legal requirements, financial constraints, and attitudes.

  20. The pathology of methylmercury poisoning (Minamata disease): The 50th Anniversary of Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Komyo; Marumoto, Masumi; Takeya, Motohiro

    2010-10-01

    Methylmercury (Me-Hg) poisoning (Minamata disease: MD) is one of the most severe types of disease caused by humans to humans in Japan. The disease is a special class of food-borne methylmercury intoxication in humans as typified by the outbreak that began in 1953 in Minamata and its vicinity in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. There are 450 autopsy cases in Kumamoto and 30 autopsy cases in Niigata Prefecture related to MD in Japan. Two hundred and one cases in Kumamoto and 22 cases in Niigata showed pathological changes of MD. This report provides a brief research history and overview of the pathological changes of MD, and also presents representative cases of adult, infantile and fetal forms of MD among the 450 MD-related autopsy cases in Kumamoto Prefecture.

  1. Etiology Detection of A Food-borne Disease Outbreak%一起食源性疾病暴发的病原学检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恒芹; 郎中凯

    2012-01-01

    目的 查明一起细菌性食源性疾病暴发的病原学,为突发公共卫生事件处置提供科学依据.方法 按照GB/T4789-2008进行沙门菌等肠道病原菌检测.结果 12份样品中检出7株沙门菌,检出率为58.33%,5份病人肛拭子中分别检出3株丙型副伤寒沙门菌、2株婴儿沙门菌;剩余混合凉菜中检出婴儿沙门菌1株;餐碗物表样中检出丙型副伤寒沙门菌1株;其余样品中均未检出致病菌.结论 此次食源性疾病暴发系聚餐者误食被丙型副伤寒沙门菌或婴儿沙门菌污染的食物或餐具所致.%OBJECTIVE To provide the scientific basis for public health emergency's handlement from finding out the etiology of a bacterial foodborne disease. METHODS We dectected the enteric patheogenic bacteria, including salmonella according to the GB/T4789-2008. RESULTS 7 salmonella were detected from 12 samples and the positive rate was 58.33%. 3 Salmonella paratyphi C and 2 Salmonella infantis were detected from 5 patients' analswab and 1 Salmonella infantis was detected from the remainder of cold dish and 1 Salmonella paratyphi C was detected from used tableware and no pathogenic bacteria was detectde from the other samples. CONCLUSION The foodborne disease outbreak was caused by eating the food, polluted by Salmonella paratyphi C and Salmonella infantis, or using the tableware, polluted by Salmonella paratyphi C and Salmonella infantis.

  2. Outbreaks and Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and save lives. Recent Fungal Outbreaks and Investigations Histoplasmosis in the Dominican Republic Histoplasmosis outbreak among tunnel ... please visit the Fungal Rhizopus Investigation web page. Histoplasmosis in an Illinois Prison Histoplasmosis outbreak at a ...

  3. Disease Outbreak News

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MERS-CoV) Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza at the Human-Animal Interface (HAI) Related documents WHO outbreak communication guide 2008 WHO outbreak communications guidelines Outbreak communication: ...

  4. Outbreak of Mysterious Illness Among Hospital Staff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hospitals are rarely reported as settings for mass psychogenic illness (MPI). The present report scrutinizes an outbreak of probable MPI among hospital staff, with medical intervention reinforcing the course of the illness. CASE REPORT: Four of seven staff members in an emergency depa....... Outbreaks of illness in a group of symptomatic victims without indication of significant physical disease should be managed by observation and limited intervention.......BACKGROUND: Hospitals are rarely reported as settings for mass psychogenic illness (MPI). The present report scrutinizes an outbreak of probable MPI among hospital staff, with medical intervention reinforcing the course of the illness. CASE REPORT: Four of seven staff members in an emergency...... the following 9 days, 14 possible poisoning victims were identified, 6 of whom were transferred for HBO. After hospital stays with repeated HBO treatment and examinations without identification of significant physical disease, the majority of the 10 HBO-treated victims remained symptomatic, some on prolonged...

  5. Intoxicação de bovinos por aflatoxina B1 presente em polpa cítrica: relato de um surto Aflatoxin B1 poisoning in bovines: an outbreak report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Melo

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho relata um surto de intoxicação pela aflatoxina B1 em 150 bovinos machos mestiços, provenientes de um rebanho de 1774 animais, em sistema de confinamento, ingerindo polpa cítrica peletizada comercial, 5kg por animal. Todos os animais foram avaliados clinicamente, e os 18 animais que morreram foram necropsiados e submetidos a exames histopatológicos. A intoxicação foi confirmada pela presença da aflatoxina B1 (5ppm em amostras da polpa cítrica peletizada utilizada na propriedade e em fragmentos de fígado dos animais que morreram.The present work reports an outbreak of intoxication by aflatoxin B1 in 150 adult bovine male, males from a herd of 1774 animals, in confinement system, fed on commercial citrus pellet. All animals were evaluated clinicaly, and ones that died were necropsied and tissues submitted to histopathotology. The intoxication was confirmed by aflatoxin B1 presence in samples of the citrus pellet and in fragments of liver of the animals which died.

  6. B group Flexneri V-type Shigella Bacteria Cause Food Poisoning Investigation%B群福氏V型志贺氏菌致食物中毒的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付凯; 修建国

    2012-01-01

      Shigella food-poisoning is the result of the result of Shigella a into intestines of human beings.Shigella copying thousands of themselves in polluted meat or other food.When human beings were infected,they kept excreting overmuch poison in the intestines of human body and thus caused severe enteritis.Shigella Montevideo is not commonly seen,but its clinical manifestation resembles with common Shigella. Our success in discovering and separating Shigella Montevideo has greatly promoted our ability in medical examination.%  志贺氏菌食物中毒是由于志贺氏菌在食品中大量繁殖,侵入肠道后继续繁殖释放出大量毒素所引起的剧烈肠胃炎,常因肉食品或其它食品的污染而引起人类志贺氏菌感染和中毒.B群福氏V型志贺氏菌属于不常见志贺氏菌型,它的中毒表现为恶心、呕吐、剧烈腹痛、频繁腹泻水样便、里急后重、高热、便带绿色粘液等症状,与常见志贺氏菌表现基本相似,该菌的检出大大提高了分离致病菌的检验水平.

  7. Consumer contribution to food contamination in Brazil: modelling the food safety risk in the home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Paulo Olinto da Motta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne diseases are among the most widespread public health issues, killing about 2.2 million people annually, and costing hundreds of billions of US dollars for governments, companies, families and consumers (WHO, 2007. In Brazil, foodborne diseases acquired in the home account for 55% of notified outbreaks (BRASIL, 2012. Several studies have investigated aspects of consumer behaviour concerning food poisoning, mapping practices in the home, but it remains a challenge to obtain a full picture of the consumer contribution to food contamination (REDMOND and GRIFFITH, 2003. This study aimed to assess the risks of food contamination in the home. A questionnaire containing 140 questions concerning food safety knowledge, handling practices, personal hygiene and basic health care, covering the stages when the food is under the control of the consumer, was developed and used to gather data for analysis. Appropriate scores were attributed to the questions (consequences to food safety and answers (likelihood of food contamination. A risk estimate algorithm and an appropriate risk ranking scale were used to assess the results. From August 2011 to March 2012, survey questionnaires were collected from 2,775 consumers in Brazil across 19 out of 27 state capitals. The study found risky practices with the potential to lead to food poisoning occurrences in the domestic environment in the following handling steps: food transportation, food preparation, cooking and the handling of leftovers. The personal hygiene, age, formal education, family income and basic health care habits represented the factors most related to the risky practices of consumers, which could orientate food safety educational campaigns for the Brazilian population.

  8. Using Poison Center Data for Postdisaster Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H.; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:25205009

  9. 食品供应链突发事件风险分析与应急策略研究%Study on Risk Analysis and Emergency Response of Outbreak Events in Food Supply Chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琳; 杜松华

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, in view of the frequent occurrence of public food safety issues caused by outbreak events in the food supply chain, we proposed the food supply chain risk management framework model intended for the structural risks, technical risks and management risks. Then through analyzing the Shanghai Husi incident, we expounded the important role of the model for the safety management and outbreak event prevention in the food supply chain, then based on the theoretical model established, discussed the emergency response of the government and enterprises, and relied on the big data technology to realize the dynamic monitoring of food safety.%针对现今食品供应链突发事件频发所引起的严重公共安全问题及供应链危机,从结构风险、技术风险及管控风险三个层面,提出了食品供应链风险管理框架模型。通过对上海福喜事件的案例分析,阐述了该模型对食品供应链安全管理、防止突发事件发生的重要作用,并根据所建立的理论模型,对政府及企业应急策略进行探讨,借助大数据技术实现对食品安全的动态监测,以期减少或避免食品供应链突发事件,推动食品安全有效治理,为提升我国食品安全监管效率、创新食品安全管理模式提供理论依据。

  10. 21 CFR 2.25 - Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color identification to prevent adulteration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color identification to prevent adulteration of human and animal food. 2.25 Section 2.25 Food and Drugs... RULINGS AND DECISIONS Human and Animal Foods § 2.25 Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color...

  11. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella that caused foodborne disease outbreaks: United States, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A C; Grass, J E; Richardson, L C; Nisler, A L; Bicknese, A S; Gould, L H

    2017-03-01

    Although most non-typhoidal Salmonella illnesses are self-limiting, antimicrobial treatment is critical for invasive infections. To describe resistance in Salmonella that caused foodborne outbreaks in the United States, we linked outbreaks submitted to the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System to isolate susceptibility data in the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Resistant outbreaks were defined as those linked to one or more isolates with resistance to at least one antimicrobial drug. Multidrug resistant (MDR) outbreaks had at least one isolate resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes. Twenty-one per cent (37/176) of linked outbreaks were resistant. In outbreaks attributed to a single food group, 73% (16/22) of resistant outbreaks and 46% (31/68) of non-resistant outbreaks were attributed to foods from land animals (P foodborne Salmonella outbreaks can help determine which foods are associated with resistant infections.

  12. Short-term evolution of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 between two food-borne outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 is a public health threat and outbreaks occur worldwide. STEC O157 has a mosaic genome with extensive prophage integration, including bacteriophage-encoded Shiga toxins. Here, we investigate genomic differences in a strain of STEC O157 t...

  13. Clinical studies on mercury poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, M.; Nakamura, R.; Too, K.; Matsuhashi, A.; Ishimoto, H.; Sasaki, R.; Ishida, K.; Takahashi, M.

    1956-01-01

    A sporadic outbreak of an unknown disease occurred among dairy cattle, from early February to late May 1955, in Japan. The characteristic symptoms of this disease were dyspnea and depilation; out of 29 cases, 8 died while 2 were slaughtered. Clinical studies have disclosed that the symptoms were similar to those found in cases of mercury poisoning as described by others. So the animals' feed was suspected of being the cause of the sickness. It was confirmed that the incident was due to poisoning resulting from ingestion of linseed meal treated with a mercurial fungicide. From the results of the testing anamnesis, it was found that 171 cattle were fed with the meal and 29 cases were affected. In veiw of the wide use of mercurial preparations for treating seed grains against fungi infection, a further experimental study was made on the effects of the feed and fungicide upon calves.

  14. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  15. Disease surveillance and nonprescription medication sales can predict increases in poison exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzelok, Edward; MacPherson, Erma; Mrvos, Rita

    2008-03-01

    Real-time Outbreak and Disease Surveillance (RODS) is a national real-time syndromic surveillance system that classifies hospital registration chief complaints into one of seven syndromic categories. The National Retail Data Monitor (NRDM) is a public health surveillance tool that is designed to collect and analyze the daily sales of 18 categories of nonprescription medications. The goal of RODS and NRDM is to provide early warning of disease outbreaks, such as biological terrorism. The purpose of this study was to determine whether peak syndromic activity and the consequential purchase of nonprescription medications could predict an increase in poisoning exposures involving NRDM-monitored medications. Data from the RODS and NRDM databases were plotted graphically to portray activity that occurred during 2003. Data from a regional poison information center electronic medical record system that involved all human exposure calls related to NRDM monitored medications in 2003 were extracted and graphed. Analysis included comparisons between the data sets. Poison center exposure volume correlated predictably and simultaneously with the peak activity in both the RODS and NRDM databases. There was no delay between the onset of an influenza outbreak in December 2003, the sale of nonprescription palliative mediations, and the increase in poison center exposure call volume. Increased availability of and access to nonprescription medications resulted in more poisoning exposure calls. Real-time surveillance using other databases can help to forecast poison center activity. This knowledge allows the poison center to provide anticipatory guidance to the residents of its region.

  16. 快速检验法分析食物中毒与致病微生物的情况%Food poisoning and caused microorganisms situation with rapid test method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾德兴; 林凯平; 杨志强; 黄思思; 谢丽婷; 徐袁兴

    2014-01-01

    目的:探究利用快速检验法分析食物中毒和致微生物的有效性。方法:总结了几种检验食物中致病微生物的快速检验方式,并对介绍的方法进行逐一分析。结果:我国食品中致病微生物的检验已经取得了突破性进展,利用快速检验法能够在第一时间内检测出食物中的致病微生物。结论:虽然我国在该领域取得了一定的成就,但随着科技的发展,相关技术人员还应不断努力,研究出更为简便的检验方式。%Objective: To explore and analyze the effectiveness of food poisoning and caused microorganisms using rapid test method. Methods: Several fast food inspection and testing methods of pathogenic microorganisms were summarized, and the method were described one by one. Results: Our examination of pathogenic microorganisms in food has made a breakthrough, and the implementation of rapid test can detect pathogenic microorganisms in the food in the first time. Conclusion: Although China has made some achievements in this field, but with the development of technology, relevant technical staff should continue efforts to work out a more convenient way to test.

  17. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.

    HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae......HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae...

  18. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.

    HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae......HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae...

  19. DRUG POISONING IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2008-01-01

    Poisoning by drugs for the nervous system, particularly benzodiazepines, is the most commonform of poisoning by drugs in Slovenia. It would be necessary to report all acutelypoisoned patients to the Register of Intoxications, since we need data about all poisoningin Slovenia to improve their prophylaxis and treatment

  20. Cartap Hydrochloride Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Abhilash, Kpp; Victor, Peter John

    2016-08-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a moderately hazardous nereistoxin insecticide that is increasingly used for deliberate self-harm in India. It can cause neuromuscular weakness resulting in respiratory failure. We report a patient with 4% Cartap hydrochloride poisoning who required mechanical ventilation for 36-hours. He recovered without any neurological deficits. We also review literature on Cartap hydrochloride poisoning.

  1. Investigation on a Food-borne Cholera O139 Outbreak in a Rural Banquet and the Turtle Markets%一起聚餐所致O139霍乱疫情和甲鱼市场调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱兴庆; 吴家兵; 高永军; 施国庆

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cause of a food - borne cholera outbreak so as to provide a scientific basis for the effective prevention and control of cholera. Methods Case definition was established. Case search, hygienic investigation and laboratory testing were carried out. A hypothesis was developed and a retrospective cohort study was conducted to determine the risk factors. Results Two cases of cholera were searched out and both of them were the lunch diners of a rural banquet. The attack rate was 3.4%. Epidemiological survey supported point source exposed pattern, and eating Hami melon was the risk factor (RR = +∞, Ρ<0.05). The homologous O139 Vibrio cholerae was detected in the same batch of turtles. Cross contamination through using the same equipments to process raw and cooked foods in the restaurant by the kitcheners was the main cause of the outbreak. The alkaline and unsterilized well water, hot and humid environment and nutritious food provided conditions for the proliferation of Vibrio cholerae. Conclusions A food- borne cholera outbreak occurs in the rural banquet. Fruit contamination by processing equipments of turtles carrying Vibrio cholerae is the leading cause of the outbreak. Supervision of rural banquets and kitcheners, management and monitoring of aquatic product markets, especially the turtle market, need to be further strengthened. Vibrio cholerae infection differs in various kinds of turtles. Turtle species should be concerned when the samples are collected. The rural household well water should be disinfected in summer and autumn so as to prevent the outbreak of intestinal infectious diseases.%目的 通过一起O139霍乱疫情调查,分析发病原因,为霍乱防控提供科学依据.方法 建立病例定义,开展病例搜索、卫生学调查和实验室检测.提出假设,开展回顾性队列研究,确定危险因素.结果 2名霍乱病例全部为午餐就餐者,罹患率3.4%.流行病学调查支持点源暴露的流行

  2. Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of molecular typing methods for major food-borne microbiological hazards and their use for attribution modelling, outbreak investigation and scanning surveillance: Part 1 (evaluation of methods and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of molecular typing methods that can be applied to the food-borne pathogens Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes is presented. This evaluation is divided in two parts. Firstly, commonly used molecular typing methods are assessed against a set of predefined criteria relating to discriminatory capacity, reproducibility, repeatability and current or potential suitability for international harmonisation. Secondly, the methods are evaluated for their appropriateness for use in different public health-related applications. These applications include outbreak detection and investigation, attribution modelling, the potential for early identification of food-borne strains with epidemic potential and the integration of the resulting data in risk assessment. The results of these evaluations provide updated insights into the use and potential for use of molecular characterisation methods, including whole genome sequencing technologies, in microbial food safety. Recommendations are also made in order to encourage a holistic and structured approach to the use of molecular characterisation methods for food-borne pathogens; in particular, on the importance of structured co-ordination at international level to help overcome current limitations in harmonisation of data analysis and interpretation.

  3. 'I don't think I ever had food poisoning'. A practice-based approach to understanding foodborne disease that originates in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Wendy J; Meah, Angela; Dickinson, Angela M; Short, Frances

    2015-02-01

    Food stored, prepared, cooked and eaten at home contributes to foodborne disease which, globally, presents a significant public health burden. The aim of the study reported here was to investigate, analyse and interpret domestic kitchen practices in order to provide fresh insight about how the domestic setting might influence food safety. Using current theories of practice meant the research, which drew on qualitative and ethnographic methods, could investigate people and material things in the domestic kitchen setting whilst taking account of people's actions, values, experiences and beliefs. Data from 20 UK households revealed the extent to which kitchens are used for a range of non-food related activities and the ways that foodwork extends beyond the boundaries of the kitchen. The youngest children, the oldest adults and the family pets all had agency in the kitchen, which has implications for preventing foodborne disease. What was observed, filmed and photographed was not a single practice but a series of entangled encounters and actions embedded and repeated, often inconsistently, by the individuals involved. Households derived logics and principles about foodwork that represented rules of thumb about 'how things are done' that included using the senses and experiential knowledge when judging whether food is safe to eat. Overall, food safety was subsumed within the practice of 'being' a household and living everyday life in the kitchen. Current theories of practice are an effective way of understanding foodborne disease and offer a novel approach to exploring food safety in the home.

  4. Salmonellosis outbreak due to chicken contact leading to a foodborne outbreak associated with infected delicatessen workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedican, Erin; Miller, Ben; Ziemer, Brian; LeMaster, Pam; Jawahir, Selina; Leano, Fe; Smith, Kirk

    2010-08-01

    Salmonella is the most common bacterial cause of foodborne outbreaks in the United States. Starting in June 2007, investigation of a cluster of Salmonella Montevideo cases with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns resulted in the identification of an outbreak associated with contact with chickens purchased from a single hatchery. Nine Minnesota cases from May through August 2007 were part of this outbreak. Cases with the outbreak PFGE pattern of Salmonella Montevideo continued to occur in Minnesota after August, but none of these cases reported chicken contact. The majority of these cases resided in the same town in rural Minnesota. Routine interviews revealed that all cases from these counties purchased groceries from the same local grocery store, with two specifically reporting consuming items from the grocery store delicatessen in the week before illness. As a result, an investigation into the delicatessen was initiated. Illness histories and stool samples were collected from all delicatessen employees, and food and environmental samples were collected. None of the employees reported experiencing recent gastrointestinal symptoms, but the outbreak PFGE subtype of Salmonella Montevideo was identified from stool from two food workers. Food and environmental samples collected tested negative for Salmonella. One of the positive employees reported having chickens at home, but the animals did not test positive for Salmonella. The positive food workers were excluded from work until they had two consecutive negative stool cultures for Salmonella. There was no evidence of ongoing transmission thereafter. This was an outbreak of Salmonella Montevideo infections that began as an animal-contact-associated outbreak which subsequently resulted in a foodborne outbreak associated with infected food workers. These outbreaks illustrate the complex epidemiology of salmonellosis.

  5. Arsenic – Poison or medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kulik-Kupka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. Med Pr 2016;67(1:89–96

  6. Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Elizabeth, Day

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

  7. Theory of microbe motion in a poisoned environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut

    2011-10-01

    The motility of a microorganism which tries to avoid a poisoned environment by chemotaxis is studied within a simple model which couples its velocity to the concentration field of the poison. The latter is time independent but inhomogeneous in space. The presence of the poison is assumed to irreversibly reduce the propulsion speed. The model is solved analytically for different couplings of the total poison dose experienced by the microbe to the propulsion mechanism. In a stationary poison field resulting from a constant emission of a fixed point source, we find a power law for the distance traveled by the microbe as a function of time with a nonuniversal exponent which depends on the coupling in the model. With an inverted sign in the couplings, the acceleration of microbe motion induced by a food field can also be described.

  8. 金黄色葡萄球菌食物中毒菌株肠毒素检测及基因分析%Enterotoxin detection and gene analysis in food poisoning strains of Staphylococcus aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金芳; 陈棋炯; 丁水军; 孙永祥; 傅丹青

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To detect Staphylococcus aureus isolated from a food poisoning, then analyse biological characteristics and characterize enterotoxin genotype of the isolates. Methods; Biochemical characteristics and drug sensitive test were conducted by VITEK - 32 automated microbial identification/susceptibility analysis system, then enterotoxin genes were detected by mini - VIDAS and characterized genotype by PCR. Results; 19 strains of S. aureus were isolated from samples. All S. aureus were resistant to penicillin G and can secrete β- lactamase. The enterotoxin gene types were SEA and SEE. Conclusion: The enterotoxin gene type of S. aureus isolates was mixed type of SEA and SEE. That is a better explanation about food poisoning.%目的:了解一起食物中毒中分离到的金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus,SA)的生物学特性及其肠毒素基因检测.方法:采用VITEK-32全自动微生物鉴定/药敏分析系统对分离到的金黄色葡萄球菌菌株进行生化鉴定和药敏试验,并采用mini-VIDAS全自动荧光酶标免疫仪对菌株进行肠毒素检测,再采用PCR技术对产肠毒素的菌株进行基因分型.结果:总共分离到的19株金黄色葡萄球菌,所有分离株均对青霉素G耐药,均分泌β-内酰胺酶,肠毒素基因分型检测均为SEA与SEE.结论:19株分离株均携带肠毒素,经鉴定均为SEA与SEE肠毒素混合型,由此对食物中毒的原因有一个较圆满的解释.

  9. Characterization of a variant strain of Norwalk virus from a food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis on a cruise ship in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwaldt, B L; Lew, J F; Moe, C L; Lewis, D C; Humphrey, C D; Monroe, S S; Pon, E W; Glass, R I

    1994-04-01

    A gastroenteritis outbreak affecting at least 217 (41%) of 527 passengers on a cruise ship was caused by a variant strain of Norwalk virus (NV) that is related to but distinct from the prototype NV strain. Consumption of fresh-cut fruit served at two buffets was significantly associated with illness (P < or = 0.01), and a significant dose-response relationship was evident between illness and the number of various fresh-cut fruit items eaten. Seven (58%) of 12 paired serum specimens from ill persons demonstrated at least fourfold rises in antibody response to recombinant NV capsid antigen. A 32-nm small round-structured virus was visualized by electron microscopy in 4 (29%) of 14 fecal specimens, but none of the 8 specimens that were examined by an enzyme immunoassay for NV antigen demonstrated antigen. Four (40%) of 10 fecal specimens were positive by reverse transcriptase-PCR by using primer pairs selected from the polymerase region of NV. In a 145-bp region, the PCR product shared only 72% nucleotide sequence identity with the reference NV strain and 77% nucleotide sequence identity with Southampton virus but shared 95% nucleotide sequence identity with UK2 virus, a United Kingdom reference virus strain. In addition, the outbreak virus was serotyped as UK2 virus by solid-phase immune electron microscopy. The genetic and antigenic divergence of the outbreak strain from the reference NV strain highlights the need for more broadly reactive diagnostic assays and for improved understanding of the relatedness of the NV group of agents.

  10. Food safety through the meat supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenborough, M; Matthews, K R

    2000-01-01

    Food poisoning in humans can be caused by many different bacterial genera. While the incidence of food poisoning in England, Wales and Scotland from Salmonella has reached a plateau, there has been an increase in the incidence from Campylobacter. The incidence from Escherichia coli O157:H7 rose to 1997 but declined slightly in 1998 (data from the Public Health Laboratory Service and the Scottish Centre for Infection and Environmental Health). This organism has a high virulence in humans and a very low infective dose. Infection can produce a wide range of responses, including death. The low infective dose presents a major threat. The organism is relatively heat-sensitive and the cooking of food products to achieve a centre core temperature of 70 degrees C for 2 min is sufficient to destroy it. It is relatively acid-tolerant and will survive for several weeks at pH 4.2. Several foodstuffs, as well as water, have been implicated in world-wide outbreaks. The E. coli O157:H7 food-borne outbreak in Lanarkshire in 1996 led to 21 fatalities. The Pennington Group report, issued in April 1997, reported on the circumstances leading to this outbreak, the implications for food safety and the lessons to be learnt. Four areas covered within the Pennington Group report specific to meat hygiene are reviewed in this paper. On-farm practices must ensure the presentation of clean animals for slaughter. There is a requirement for the development and introduction of risk assessment techniques based upon Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points in abattoirs, and the Meat and Livestock Commission (MLC) is producing a manual for use by the abattoir sector. The Pennington report stated that there was a need for research into the potential use of end-process treatments such as steam pasteurization. The MLC is involved in evaluating such a system. Meat production premises and butchers' shops in England are introducing HACCP through an MLC scheme funded by the Department of Health. At the

  11. Animal poisoning in Italy: 10 years of epidemiological data from the Poison Control Centre of Milan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloni, F; Cortinovis, C; Rivolta, M; Davanzo, F

    2012-04-21

    From 2000 to 2010, the Poison Control Centre of Milan (CAV), in collaboration with the University of Milan, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Sciences and Technologies for Food Safety, Toxicology Section, collected epidemiological information related to animal poisoning and classified it in an organised and computerised data bank. Data recorded were predominantly related to small animals and to some extent to horses, ruminants and other food-production animals. Few calls were registered involving exotics and no information was recorded on wildlife. The dog was reported to be the most common species involved in animal poisoning, and pesticides constituted the primary group of toxicants. In the case of pets, 'drugs' including veterinary parasiticide and drugs for human use constituted the second class of toxicants responsible for poisoning followed by household products, plants, zootoxins and metals. With regard to horses and farm animals, the second group consisted of phytotoxins, even if only episodically. In Italy, published data on this subject are scarce but this information is crucial for better management of the poisoning of domestic animals in an effort to reduce mortality.

  12. Poisonous or non-poisonous plants? DNA-based tools and applications for accurate identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzasalma, Valerio; Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Galimberti, Andrea; Cornara, Laura; Ferri, Emanuele; Labra, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Plant exposures are among the most frequently reported cases to poison control centres worldwide. This is a growing condition due to recent societal trends oriented towards the consumption of wild plants as food, cosmetics, or medicine. At least three general causes of plant poisoning can be identified: plant misidentification, introduction of new plant-based supplements and medicines with no controls about their safety, and the lack of regulation for the trading of herbal and phytochemical products. Moreover, an efficient screening for the occurrence of plants poisonous to humans is also desirable at the different stages of the food supply chain: from the raw material to the final transformed product. A rapid diagnosis of intoxication cases is necessary in order to provide the most reliable treatment. However, a precise taxonomic characterization of the ingested species is often challenging. In this review, we provide an overview of the emerging DNA-based tools and technologies to address the issue of poisonous plant identification. Specifically, classic DNA barcoding and its applications using High Resolution Melting (Bar-HRM) ensure high universality and rapid response respectively, whereas High Throughput Sequencing techniques (HTS) provide a complete characterization of plant residues in complex matrices. The pros and cons of each approach have been evaluated with the final aim of proposing a general user's guide to molecular identification directed to different stakeholder categories interested in the diagnostics of poisonous plants.

  13. Investigating a large outbreak of salmonellosis in the US involving fresh produce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, M. A.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Fresh produce is an important part of a healthy diet. However, produce is susceptible to contamination with pathogens. Identifying the food vehicle responsible for an outbreak is critical to minimizing the public health and economic impacts of an outbreak. Identifying the food vehicle and its sou...... source may also help prevent future outbreaks. The case study describes an especially challenging investigation of an outbreak of salmonellosis that occurred in the US in 2008....

  14. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2014. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Helle

    -borne outbreaks. In 2012, the notification rate and confirmed number of cases of human campylobacteriosis in the European Union decreased compared with 2011. Human campylobacteriosis, however, continued to be the most commonly reported zoonosis with 214,268 confirmed cases. The number of confirmed cases...

  15. Review Over a 3-Year Period of European Union Proficiency Tests for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in Food Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nia, Yacine; Mutel, Isabelle; Assere, Adrien; Lombard, Bertrand; Auvray, Frederic; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine

    2016-04-13

    Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks are a major cause of foodborne illnesses in Europe and their notifications have been mandatory since 2005. Even though the European regulation on microbiological criteria for food defines a criterion on staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) only in cheese and dairy products, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) data reported that various types of food matrices are involved in staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. The European Screening Method (ESM) of European Union Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (EURL CPS) was validated in 2011 for SE detection in food matrices and is currently the official method used for screening purposes in Europe. In this context, EURLCPS is annually organizing Inter-Laboratory Proficiency Testing Trials (ILPT) to evaluate the competency of the European countries' National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) to analyse SE content in food matrices. A total of 31 NRLs representing 93% of European countries participated in these ILPTs. Eight food matrices were used for ILPT over the period 2013-2015, including cheese, freeze-dried cheese, tuna, mackerel, roasted chicken, ready-to-eat food, milk, and pastry. Food samples were spiked with four SE types (i.e., SEA, SEC, SED, and SEE) at various concentrations. Homogeneity and stability studies showed that ILPT samples were both homogeneous and stable. The analysis of results obtained by participants for a total of 155 blank and 620 contaminated samples allowed for evaluation of trueness (>98%) and specificity (100%) of ESM. Further to the validation study of ESM carried out in 2011, these three ILPTs allowed for the assessment of the proficiency of the NRL network and the performance of ESM on a large variety of food matrices and samples. The ILPT design presented here will be helpful for the organization of ILPT on SE detection by NRLs or other expert laboratories.

  16. Review Over a 3-Year Period of European Union Proficiency Tests for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in Food Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacine Nia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks are a major cause of foodborne illnesses in Europe and their notifications have been mandatory since 2005. Even though the European regulation on microbiological criteria for food defines a criterion on staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE only in cheese and dairy products, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA data reported that various types of food matrices are involved in staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. The European Screening Method (ESM of European Union Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (EURL CPS was validated in 2011 for SE detection in food matrices and is currently the official method used for screening purposes in Europe. In this context, EURLCPS is annually organizing Inter-Laboratory Proficiency Testing Trials (ILPT to evaluate the competency of the European countries’ National Reference Laboratories (NRLs to analyse SE content in food matrices. A total of 31 NRLs representing 93% of European countries participated in these ILPTs. Eight food matrices were used for ILPT over the period 2013–2015, including cheese, freeze-dried cheese, tuna, mackerel, roasted chicken, ready-to-eat food, milk, and pastry. Food samples were spiked with four SE types (i.e., SEA, SEC, SED, and SEE at various concentrations. Homogeneity and stability studies showed that ILPT samples were both homogeneous and stable. The analysis of results obtained by participants for a total of 155 blank and 620 contaminated samples allowed for evaluation of trueness (>98% and specificity (100% of ESM. Further to the validation study of ESM carried out in 2011, these three ILPTs allowed for the assessment of the proficiency of the NRL network and the performance of ESM on a large variety of food matrices and samples. The ILPT design presented here will be helpful for the organization of ILPT on SE detection by NRLs or other expert laboratories.

  17. Modeling cholera outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Dennis L; Longini, Ira M; Morris, J Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating models and the need to tailor models for different outbreak scenarios.

  18. Modeling cholera outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longini, Ira M.; Morris, J. Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating models and the need to tailor models for different outbreak scenarios. PMID:23412687

  19. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  20. Bracken fern poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) has worldwide distribution and in some areas dominated plant communities replacing desirable forages. Poisoning is identified as enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews updates new information on the plant, the various poi...

  1. Poison plants (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by poor circulation, even stress. An example of contact dermatitis is the reaction of a sensitive person's skin to poison ivy, oak or sumac. Contact with these plants, which contain a chemical called ...

  2. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  3. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... debilitating (Miller, 1991). To date there is no antidote or effectivc treatment, so supportive care and medications ... Diagnosis, Management and Treatment, Chemical Structure, and Molecular Mechanism of Action. Additional Resources Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, ...

  4. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  5. Jerusalem cherry poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002871.htm Jerusalem cherry poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The Jerusalem cherry is a plant that belongs to the ...

  6. Oximes in organophosphorus poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherian M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organic insecticide poisoning is a major health problem all over the world, particularly in the developing countries, where organophosphates (OPs are the most common suicidal poisons with high morbidity and mortality and account for a large proportion of patients admitted to intensive care units. Other insecticides less commonly used are organocarbamates, organochlorides, and pyrethroids, which are less toxic and are associated with less morbidity and mortality. Patients with poisoning present with a wide spectrum of gastrointestinal, neurological, and cardiac manifestations. A strong clinical suspicion is necessary to make an early diagnosis and to start appropriate therapy. Treatment is primarily supportive and includes decontamination, anticholinergics, protection of the airway, and cardiac and respiratory support. The use of oximes has been controversial and may be associated with higher mortality owing to a higher incidence of type-II paralysis. They may have other toxic side effects. This paper reviews the literature on OP poisoning.

  7. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and smokers. Carbon monoxide can harm a fetus (unborn baby still in the womb). Symptoms of carbon ... symptoms Outlook (Prognosis) Carbon monoxide poisoning can cause death. For those who survive, recovery is slow. How ...

  8. [Suicidal poisoning with benzodiazepines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Z; Sein Anand, J

    1997-01-01

    In the period from 1987 to 1996, 103 patients with suicidal benzodiazepines poisoning were treated, including 62 women and 41 men from 16 to 79 (mean 34) years old. 23 persons were poisoned only by benzodiazepines, in 80 remaining cases intoxications were mixed eg. including benzodiazepines and alcohol, tricyclic antidepressants, barbiturates, opioids, phenothiazines. The main causes of suicides were mainly depression, drug addiction and alcoholism. Nobody died in the benzodiazepines group, while mortality rate in the group of mixed poisoning was 4%. Prescribing benzodiazepines by physicians was quite often not justified and facilitated, among others, accumulation of the dose sufficient for suicide attempt. Flumazenil was efficient for leading out from coma in 86% of cases with poisoning only by benzodiazepines and 13% of cases with mixed intoxications mainly containing benzodiazepines and alcohol or carbamazepine.

  9. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  10. Hand lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lotion or cream can be harmful if swallowed: Dimethicone Mineral oil Paraffins (waxes) Petrolatum Various alcohols Where ... Hand cream poisoning References Caraccio TR, McFee RB. Cosmetics and toilet articles. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, ...

  11. Pine oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... Mosby; 2013:chap 147. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  12. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organs and tissues that need it, thus causing anemia. Most lead ends up in the bone, where it causes ... vomiting or nausea constipation pallor (pale skin) from ... look for lead poisoning or other health problems. Treatment Treatment for ...

  13. Improving Food Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The government takes a tougher stance on processors and producers violating food safety standards Awave of recent contaminated food incidents,exemplified by an E.coli outbreak in Germany and the discovery of industrial plasticizers in

  14. Hydroxocobalamin in cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John P; Marrs, Timothy C

    2012-12-01

    On theoretical grounds, hydroxocobalamin is an attractive antidote for cyanide poisoning as cobalt compounds have the ability to bind and detoxify cyanide. This paper reviews the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of hydroxocobalamin, its efficacy in human cyanide poisoning and its adverse effects. PubMed was searched for the period 1952 to April 2012. A total of 71 papers were identified in this way; and none was excluded. PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS: Pharmacokinetic studies in dogs and humans suggest a two-compartment model, with first order elimination kinetics. Pharmacodynamic studies in animals suggest that hydroxocobalamin would be a satisfactory antidote for human cyanide poisoning. EFFICACY IN HUMAN POISONING: There is limited evidence that hydroxocobalamin alone is effective in severe poisoning by cyanide salts. The evidence for the efficacy of hydroxocobalamin in smoke inhalation is complicated by lack of evidence for the importance of cyanide exposure in fires and the effects of other chemicals as well as confounding effects of other therapeutic measures, including hyperbaric oxygen. Evidence that hydroxocobalamin is effective in poisoning due to hydrogen cyanide alone is lacking; extrapolation of efficacy from poisoning by ingested cyanide salts may not be valid. The rate of absorption may be greater with inhaled hydrogen cyanide and the recommended slow intravenous administration of hydroxocobalamin may severely limit its clinical effectiveness in these circumstances. Both animal and human data suggest that hydroxocobalamin is lacking in clinically significant adverse effects. However, in one human volunteer study, delayed but prolonged rashes were observed in one-sixth of subjects, appearing 7 to 25 days after administration of 5 g or more of hydroxocobalamin. Rare adverse effects have included dyspnoea, facial oedema, and urticaria. Limited data on human poisonings with cyanide salts suggest that hydroxocobalamin is an effective

  15. Pyopneumothorax following kerosene poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Sawlani, Kamal Kumar; Yathish, B E; Singh, Ambukeshwar; Kumar, Suresh; Parihar, Anit

    2014-01-01

    Kerosene poisoning is a common poisoning in India especially in childhood, and clinical spectrum can range from meager chemical pneumonitis to grave complications such as hypoxia, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and emphysema. Pyopneumothorax that may require aggressive management in the form of thoracotomy has not been reported in literature. We hereby report a 22-year young female who had developed series of respiratory complications including pyopneumothorax following ingestion of kerosene with suicidal intent and was treated successfully.

  16. Occupational lead poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez, Augusto V; Médico del Trabajo. American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.

    2013-01-01

    Lead, a ubiquitous heavy metal, has been found in places as unlikely as Greenland’s fossil ice. Egyptians and Hebrews used it. In Spain, Phoenicians c. 2000 BC worked ores of lead. At the end of the XX century, occupational lead’s poisoning became a public health problem in developed countries. In non-developed countries occupational lead poisoning is still frequent. Diagnosis is directed to recognize lead existence at the labor environment and good clinical and occupational documentation. Di...

  17. International epidemiological and microbiological study of outbreak of Salmonella agona infection from a ready to eat savoury snack--I: England and Wales and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killalea, D; Ward, L R; Roberts, D; de Louvois, J; Sufi, F; Stuart, J M; Wall, P G; Susman, M; Schwieger, M; Sanderson, P J; Fisher, I S; Mead, P S; Gill, O N; Bartlett, C L; Rowe, B

    1996-11-02

    To identify the source of an international outbreak of food poisoning due to Salmonella agona phage type 15 and to measure how long the underlying cause persisted. Case-control study of 16 primary household cases and 32 controls of similar age and dietary habit. Packets of the implicated foodstuff manufactured on a range of days were examined for salmonella. All isolates of the epidemic phage type were further characterised by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. 27 cases were identified, of which 26 were in children. The case-control study showed a strong association between infection with S agona phage type 15 and consumption of a peanut flavoured ready to eat kosher savoury snack imported from Israel. S agona phage type 15 was isolated from samples of this snack. The combined food sampling results from the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States, and Israel showed that contaminated snacks were manufactured on at least seven separate dates during a four month period between October 1994 and February 1995. Voluntary recalls of the product successfully interrupted transmission. Rapid international exchanges of information led to the identification of the source of a major outbreak of S agona in Israel and of associated cases in North America. The outbreak showed the value of the Salm-Net surveillance system and its links outside Europe, both for increasing case ascertainment and for improving the information on the duration of the fault at the manufacturing plant.

  18. Epidemiology of foodborne Norovirus outbreaks in Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godoy Pere

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses are one of the principal biological agents associated with the consumption of contaminated food. The objective of this study was to analyse the size and epidemiological characteristics of foodborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Catalonia, a region in the northeast of Spain. Methods In all reported outbreaks of gastroenteritis associated with food consumption, faecal samples of persons affected were analysed for bacteria and viruses and selectively for parasites. Study variables included the setting, the number of people exposed, age, sex, clinical signs and hospital admissions. The study was carried out from October 2004 to October 2005. Results Of the 181 outbreaks reported during the study period, 72 were caused by Salmonella and 30 by norovirus (NoV; the incidence rates were 14.5 and 9.9 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. In 50% of the NoV outbreaks and 27% of the bacterial outbreaks (p = 0.03 the number of persons affected was ≥10; 66.7% of NoV outbreaks occurred in restaurants; no differences in the attack rates were observed according to the etiology. Hospitalizations were more common (p = 0.03 in bacterial outbreaks (8.6% than in NoV outbreaks (0.15%. Secondary cases accounted for 4% of cases in NoV outbreaks compared with 0.3% of cases in bacterial outbreaks (p Conclusion Norovirus outbreaks were larger but less frequent than bacterial outbreaks, suggesting that underreporting is greater for NoV outbreaks. Food handlers should receive training on the transmission of infections in diverse situations. Very strict control measures on handwashing and environmental disinfection should be adopted in closed or partially-closed institutions.

  19. [First ciguatera outbreak in Germany in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedemann, Miriam

    2016-12-01

    In November 2012, 23 cases of ciguatera with typical combinations of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occurred in Germany after consumption of imported tropical fish (Lutjanus spp.). A questionnaire was used to gather information on the disease course and fish consumption. All patients suffered from pathognomonic cold allodynia. Aside from two severe courses of illness, all other cases showed symptoms of moderate intensity. During a three-year follow-up, seven patients reported prolonged paresthesia for more than one year. Two of them reported further neuropathies over almost three years. This is the first time that long-term persistence of symptoms has been documented in detail. Outbreak cases were allocated to eight clusters in seven German cities. A further cluster was prevented by the successful recall of ciguatoxic fish. Three clusters were confirmed by the detection of ciguatoxin in samples of suspicious and recalled fish. An extrapolation on the basis of ciguatoxic samples revealed twenty prevented cases of ciguatera. Further officially unknown cases should be assumed. During the outbreak investigations, inadvertently falsely labelled fish species and fishing capture areas on import and retail level documents were observed. The ascertainment of cases and the outbreak investigations proved to be difficult due to inconsistent case reports to poisons centers, local health and veterinary authorities. In Germany, many physicians are unaware of the disease pattern of ciguatera and the risks caused by tropical fish. The occurrence of further outbreaks during the following years emphasizes the increasing significance of ciguatera in Germany.

  20. Allium species poisoning in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BS Salgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs and cats are the animals that owners most frequently seek assistance for potential poisonings, and these species are frequently involved with toxicoses due to ingestion of poisonous food. Feeding human foodstuff to pets may prove itself dangerous for their health, similarly to what is observed in Allium species toxicosis. Allium species toxicosis is reported worldwide in several animal species, and the toxic principles present in them causes the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, consequently resulting in hemolytic anemia with Heinz body formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the clinicopathologic aspects and therapeutic approach of this serious toxicosis of dogs and cats in order to give knowledge to veterinarians about Allium species toxicosis, and subsequently allow them to correctly diagnose this disease when facing it; and to educate pet owners to not feed their animals with Allium-containg food in order to better control this particular life-threatening toxicosis.

  1. Four-Year Study on Acute Poisoning Cases Admitted to a Tertiary Hospital in Bangladesh: Emerging Trend of Poisoning in Commuters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shafiqul Bari

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion:Commuter or travel-related poisoning is an emerging public health threat in this part of Bangladesh. Public awareness should be raised and school-based educational programs should be emphasized regarding the commuter poisoning and the consequence of accepting and eating food from strangers.

  2. Analysis of enterotoxin of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from food and food poisoning samples%日常食品及食物中毒样本中金黄色葡萄球菌肠毒素的分型检测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 王菊光; 孙晓华; 谢利军; 纪黎黎

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the distribution and difference of the enterotoxin type of Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) isolated from food and food poisoning samples in Haidian district.Methods Bacteria strains of S.aureus were isolated from food and food poisoning samples in Haidian district of Beijing from 2007 to 2012.The type of Enterotoxin was determined based on GB 4789.10 2010,A-E staphylococcal enterotoxin-producting assay by ELISA (SEA SEE).Results Enterotoxin was found in 108 out of 127 strains of S.aureus with the overall positive rate of 85%,including 76 strains from 93 S.aureus isolated from food samples (81.7%) and 32 strains from 34 S.aureus isolated from food poisoning samples (94.1%).There were 47 strains (43.5%) in which only one type of enterotoxin was identified,while 37 strains (34.3%) were found to be able to produce 3 types of enterotoxins.Enterotoxin SEA and SED were mainly found in strains isolated from food poisoning samples (65.6% and 65.6%).98 strains were found to produce SEE,accounting for 90.7% of total enterotoxin positive strains,which was the most common type identified in the study,followed by A,D,C and B.Conclusions Food-borne S.aureus has higher ability to produce enterotoxin and the types of enterotoxin produced by S.aureus isolated from food samples are different from those isolated from food poisoning samples.%目的 通过对北京市海淀区日常食品及食物中毒样本检出的金黄色葡萄球菌进行肠毒素分型检测,比较两种分离菌株的肠毒素分布差异.方法 实验所用的金黄色葡萄球菌为2007-2012年海淀区日常食品和食物中毒样本中分离检出的菌株,依据GB 4789.10-2010采用ELISA方法测定金黄色葡萄球菌肠毒素(SEA-SEE).结果 127株金黄色葡萄球菌中有108株肠毒素阳性,产肠毒素阳性率为85.0%.日常食品检出金黄色葡萄球菌93株,76株菌产肠毒素,产肠毒素阳性率为81.7%;食物中毒样

  3. Accidental dapsone poisoning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P M; Philip, E

    1984-12-01

    Accidental poisoning in children shows a trend towards poisoning with various newer drugs and chemicals used in the household. Sixty-one cases of accidental poisoning in children were seen in Sree Avittam Thirunal Hospital, (S.A.T.H.), Trivandrum, South India during the year 1982, constituting 0.61% of the total pediatric admissions. Dapsone poisoning constituted 9.8% of the total accidental poisonings, emphasising the need for safe storage of drugs out of the reach of young children. Dapsone poisoning with resultant methaemoglobinaemia responded well to intravenous ascorbic acid and other supportive measures.

  4. Investigation on a case of food poisoning caused by mixed infection of two food-borne pathogens%一起由两种食源性致病菌混合感染引致食物中毒的调查报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤晨

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to identify the epidemic factors and the cause of a food poisoning in a restaurant through epidemiological investigation.Methods Three surplus food samples from the restaurant,two surplus food samples from the guests,nine anal swab samples (five from the patients and four from the cooks),and two swab samples from chopping block and refrigerator storing cold dishes were collected for bacteriological examinations in laboratory.Results All of the 12 patients were clinically manifested with diarrhea,abdominal pain,and nausea.The swab samples from the chopping block in cold dish room and five anal swab samples from patients were associated with hemolytic Vibrio parahemolyticus.And staphylococcus aureus was detected in samples of salt-and-pepper-shrimp.Conclusion It was the Vibrio parahemolyticus and staphylococcus aureus,which was able to grow in the appropriate temperature,contaminated the food and caused the food poisoning.%目的 通过对一起饭店食物中毒流行病学调查探讨流行因素及病原学.方法 采集饭店剩余食品样品3份和主家打包的剩余食品样品2份、5名患者和4名厨师共9份肛拭子样品、凉菜间砧板和冰箱拭子各1份进行实验室细菌学检测.结果 12名患者临床表现以腹泻、腹痛、恶心为主;在凉菜间砧板拭子和5名患者的肛拭子中均检出副溶血性弧菌;在椒盐基围虾样品中检出金黄色葡萄球菌.结论 副溶血性弧菌、金黄色葡萄球菌在适宜温度下生长繁殖,污染食品,引起食物中毒.

  5. 一起食物中毒患者粪便与可疑食品中副溶血性弧菌血清分型与毒力基因检测分析%Serotyping and detection of virulence genes in Vibrio parahaemolyticus from feces of a food poisoning patient and suspected food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张少华; 沈飚; 王忠发

    2013-01-01

    目的 进一步了解副溶血弧菌性食物中毒患者粪便与可疑食物中的副溶血弧菌血清型和毒力基因分布.方法 细菌分离改用L棒推涂其余参照GB/T4789.7-2003方法,对鉴定为副溶血性弧菌菌株做血清分型和毒力基因(tdh和trh)检测.结果 从4份粪便样品和2份从可疑食品中共检出副溶血弧菌28株可分15个血清型,来源于粪便样本的17株副溶血弧菌tdh阳性、trh阴性,来源于可疑食品中的11株副溶血弧菌tdh与trh均阴性.结论 该次食物中毒是由一组携带tdh毒力基因多种血清型混合的副溶血弧菌污染引起.%OBJECTIVE To further understand the serotypes and virulence genes in Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from feces of an food poisoning patient and suspected food. METHODS Bacteria were isolated through petri dish by bent glass rods, the rest isolation steps followed the GB/T4789. 7-2003. Serotyping and virulence genotyping (tdh and trh) were performed for the identified V. parahaemolyticus strains. RESULTS From four feces specimens and two suspected food specimens, totally 28 V. parahaemolyticus strains with 15 serotypes were identified. Seventeen strains were from feces specimens, all of them were tdh positive and trh negative. The rest 15 strains from the suspected food specimens were both tdh and trh negative. CONCLUSION The contamination of a group of tdh -positive V. parahaemolyticus with mixed serotypes leads to the food poisoning incidence.

  6. CIGUATERA POISONING: PACIFIC DISEASE, FOODBORNE POISONING FROM FISH IN WARM SEAS AND OCEANS. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezha Zlateva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The review is provoked because of lack of awareness of the medical practitioners in Bulgaria concerning of the ethnology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms and treatment of the ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP. This can be a source of prolonged diagnostic delays, as some cases reporting in another country in Europe, for example Germany, Spain and UK. Varna is the sea town with many sailor crews returning from tropical and subtropical regions, or CFP can affect people who travel to the Pacific and Caribbean or ate exotic fish from supermarket. The information of this fish food-borne poisoning is part of student’s education in discipline “Marine medicine” in Medical University, Varna. Materials and methods: To present better information from different authors and last scientific data, we made review of published materials of 58 issues to construct definition, history, etiology, pathogenesis (toxins and mechanisms of action, clinical symptoms, treatment and prevention of the Ciguatera or ichtyosarcotoxicosis, a wide spread food-born poisoning. Results: Ciguatera poisoning is ichtyosarcotoxicosis, a wide-spread foodborne poisoning in people after consumption of flesh of different kinds of fishes in which toxins produced by poisonous microorganisms (Dinoflagellates have accumulated. The poisoning develops by accumulating toxins higher up the food chain starting with toxin producing dinoflagellates (species: Gambierdiscus toxicus, Prorocentrum concavum, Pr. lima, Ostreoposis lenticularis, Ostr. Siamensis and others, continuing with the poisoned algae (species: Portieria, Halymenia, Turbinaria, Sargassum, and after that involving small crustacea and small fishes to greater fishes (vector fishes, genus Herbivores and Carnivores, in which the toxins have been stored in amount, great enough to cause foodborne poisoning in humans. This poisoning is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, but because of its delayed toxic effects, lasting

  7. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukcević, Natasa Perković; Ercegović, Gordana Vuković; Segrt, Zoran; Djordjević, Snezana; Stosić, Jasmina Jović

    2016-03-01

    Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender), benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old), middle aged (41-65-year old) and elderly (older than 65). During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  8. Epidemiology of bacterial toxin-mediated foodborne gastroenteritis outbreaks in Australia, 2001 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Fiona J; Polkinghorne, Benjamin G; Fearnley, Emily J

    2016-12-24

    Bacterial toxin-mediated foodborne outbreaks, such as those caused by Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, are an important and preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. Due to the short incubation period and duration of illness, these outbreaks are often under-reported. This is the first study to describe the epidemiology of bacterial toxin-mediated outbreaks in Australia. Using data collected between 2001 and 2013, we identify high risk groups and risk factors to inform prevention measures. Descriptive analyses of confirmed bacterial toxin-mediated outbreaks between 2001 and 2013 were undertaken using data extracted from the OzFoodNet Outbreak Register, a database of all outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease investigated by public health authorities in Australia. A total of 107 laboratory confirmed bacterial toxin-mediated outbreaks were reported between 2001 and 2013, affecting 2,219 people, including 47 hospitalisations and 13 deaths. Twelve deaths occurred in residents of aged care facilities. Clostridium perfringens was the most commonly reported aetiological agent (81 outbreaks, 76%). The most commonly reported food preparation settings were commercial food preparation services (51 outbreaks, 48%) and aged care facilities (42 outbreaks, 39%). Bacterial toxin outbreaks were rarely associated with food preparation in the home (2 outbreaks, 2%). In all outbreaks, the primary factor contributing to the outbreak was inadequate temperature control of the food. Public health efforts aimed at improving storage and handling practices for pre-cooked and re-heated foods, especially in commercial food preparation services and aged care facilities, could help to reduce the magnitude of bacterial toxin outbreaks.

  9. Antidotes for poisoning by alcohols that form toxic metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMartin, Kenneth; Jacobsen, Dag; Hovda, Knut Erik

    2016-03-01

    The alcohols, methanol, ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol, have many features in common, the most important of which is the fact that the compounds themselves are relatively non-toxic but are metabolized, initially by alcohol dehydrogenase, to various toxic intermediates. These compounds are readily available worldwide in commercial products as well as in homemade alcoholic beverages, both of which lead to most of the poisoning cases, from either unintentional or intentional ingestion. Although relatively infrequent in overall occurrence, poisonings by metabolically-toxic alcohols do unfortunately occur in outbreaks and can result in severe morbidity and mortality. These poisonings have traditionally been treated with ethanol since it competes for the active site of alcohol dehydrogenase and decreases the formation of toxic metabolites. Although ethanol can be effective in these poisonings, there are substantial practical problems with its use and so fomepizole, a potent competitive inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, was developed for a hopefully better treatment for metabolically-toxic alcohol poisonings. Fomepizole has few side effects and is easy to use in practice and it may obviate the need for haemodialysis in some, but not all, patients. Hence, fomepizole has largely replaced ethanol as the toxic alcohol antidote in many countries. Nevertheless, ethanol remains an important alternative because access to fomepizole can be limited, the cost may appear excessive, or the physician may prefer ethanol due to experience.

  10. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  11. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  12. OCCUPATIONAL CARBAMATE POISONING IN THAILAND

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tongpoo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-01-01

    Carbamate insecticide is a leading cause of poisoning in Thailand. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical manifestations and modes of occupational exposure in carbamate poisoning cases...

  13. Competency-Based Modules in Food Sanitation and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Ilagan-Manzano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess the food safety practices among food service establishments in order to increase awareness among students the dangers of food poisoning. The output of this study may serve as a tool for information dissemination. The study used the descriptive method research. The respondents of the study were the supervisors of selected fast-food chains and deluxe hotels in Manila. Descriptive Statistics was used to describe the basic features of the data in the study and to validate the data gathered. The safety of consumers is the paramount responsibility of any food service establishment. Standards, procedures and guidelines are developed to prevent the outbreak of food borne illnesses and intoxication. However, these standards, procedures and guidelines as food sanitation and safety will be meaningless if they are not study implemented through education, information, dissemination, and training among the personnel. Food safety is everybody’s concern. It is in this context that the researcher tried in her own lifestyle way to help by proposing these competency-based modules.

  14. An outbreak of Vero cytotoxin producing Escherichia coli O157 infection associated with takeaway sandwiches.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R J

    1997-12-12

    An outbreak of food poisoning due to Escherichia coli O157 phage type 2 Vero cytotoxin 2 affected 26 people in southern counties of England in May and June 1995. The organism was isolated from faecal specimens from 23 patients, 16 of whom lived in Dorset and seven in Hampshire. Isolates were indistinguishable by phage typing, Vero cytotoxin gene typing, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Three associated cases, linked epidemiologically to the outbreak, were confirmed serologically by detection of antibodies to E. coli O157 lipopolysaccharide. Twenty-two of the 26 patients were adults: four were admitted to hospital with haemorrhagic colitis. Four cases were children: two were admitted to hospital with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). There were no deaths. Although E. coli O157 was not isolated from any food samples, illness was associated with having eaten cold meats in sandwiches bought from two sandwich producers, in Weymouth and in Portsmouth. Both shops were supplied by the same wholesaler, who kept no records and obtained cooked meats from several sources in packs that did not carry adequate identification marks. It was, therefore, impossible to trace back to the original producer or to investigate further to determine the origin of contamination with E. coli O157. To protect the public health it is essential that all wholesale packs of ready-to-eat food carry date codes and the producer\\'s identification mark. Detailed record keeping should be part of hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) systems and should be maintained throughout the chain of distribution from the producer to retail outlets.

  15. Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Nolin, Thomas D; Goldfarb, David S

    2012-01-01

    The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl).......The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl)....

  16. [Electronic poison information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  17. Cholera outbreaks in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Martin A; Delrieu, Isabelle; Heyerdahl, Leonard; Gessner, Bradford D

    2014-01-01

    an infectious dose of Vibrio cholerae and on the virulence of the implicated strain. Cholera transmission can then be amplified by several factors including contamination of human water- or food sources; climate and extreme weather events; political and economic crises; high population density combined with poor quality informal housing and poor hygiene practices; spread beyond a local community through human travel and animals, e.g., water birds. At an individual level, cholera risk may increase with decreasing immunity and hypochlorhydria, such as that induced by Helicobacter pylori infection, which is endemic in much of Africa, and may increase individual susceptibility and cholera incidence. Since contaminated water is the main vehicle for the spread of cholera, the obvious long-term solution to eradicate the disease is the provision of safe water to all African populations. This requires considerable human and financial resources and time. In the short and medium term, vaccination may help to prevent and control the spread of cholera outbreaks. Regardless of the intervention, further understanding of cholera biology and epidemiology is essential to identify populations and areas at increased risk and thus ensure the most efficient use of scarce resources for the prevention and control of cholera.

  18. Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) KidsHealth > For Parents > Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) Print A A A What's in ... result of taking the drugs. This is called ototoxicity or " ear poisoning ." Ototoxicity damages the inner ear — ...

  19. Black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  20. Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac Print A A A The oil in poison ivy /oak/sumac plants (called urushiol ) can cause ...

  1. Study on homology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from the food poisoning in Yuhang%余杭区8起副溶血弧菌食物中毒的同源性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明强; 汪皓秋; 郑伟; 徐云龙

    2011-01-01

    目的:应用PFGE分型技术,对食物中毒事件分离的副溶血弧菌株进行基因分型,分析各菌株间的同源性关系.方法:19株食物中毒来源的副溶血弧菌基因组DNA经限制性内切酶酶切,用脉冲场凝胶电泳方法获得电泳图谱,用BioNumerics软件进行聚类分析.结果:19株副溶血弧菌的DNA指纹图谱,可大致分为9种PFGE图谱,按90%的相似度水平可分为2个群,其它菌株的相似性较低.结论:余杭区存在遗传谱系密切相关的副溶血弧菌流行克隆.%Objective:To apply pulsed - field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to investigating genotype of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated from food poisoning, and to determine relationship among the strains. Methods: Chromosomal DNAs from 19 isolates in agarose were digested with the restriction enzyme Not 1, and then were analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Using Bio Numerics software clustered PFGE patterns. Results: There were 9 distractive PFGE patterns. Taking 90% similitude as criterion, these strains were divided into 2 clusters. Conclusion: There were closely related epidemic clones of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Yuhang.

  2. [Salmonellosis outbreaks in the Czech Republic in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myšková, Petra; Karpíšková, Renáta; Dědičová, Daniela

    2013-07-01

    In 2012, the Brno laboratory of the National Institute of Public Health investigated 143 human and 10 food-borne Salmonella strains. All strains were linked to salmonellosis outbreaks in various areas or represented rare serotypes that had emerged more often in some periods. These strains were matched to 22 outbreaks reported in the Czech Republic. Phenotyping and genotyping revealed that the cause of most outbreaks (82%) was the serotype Enteritidis, but other serotypes that are rare in the Czech Republic (S. Mikawasima, S. 9,12:l,v:-, S. Indiana, or S. Stanley) were also involved in some outbreaks.

  3. Cow dung powder poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaja Mohideen Sherfudeen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.

  4. Cow dung powder poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfudeen, Khaja Mohideen; Kaliannan, Senthil Kumar; Dammalapati, Pavan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.

  5. Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of molecular typing methods for major food-borne microbiological hazards and their use for attribution modelling, outbreak investigation and scanning surveillance: Part 2 (surveillance and data management activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance programmes based on active and harmonised sampling are considered the most suitable for food-borne outbreak investigations, hypothesis generation, early detection of emerging pathogen subtypes, attribution modelling and genetic studies of bacterial populations. Currently, prototype molecular databases are not widely linked and contain limited epidemiological data, therefore development of linkage mechanisms is a priority. A key technical requirement is determination of an agreed threshold value for the level of genetic variation amongst isolates that can still be regarded as epidemiologically-related. Molecular typing data should be coupled with a minimum required set of epidemiological data and datasets should be comparable to facilitate joint analyses in conjunction with human case data. Rules for assembling strain collections and associated provenance data should be agreed and introduced as EU standards. The data collection process and the characteristics of the data repository should ensure reproducibility and maximise compatibility and interoperability between different datasets. Molecular bacterial characterisation developments, particularly Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS, should be harmonised with those used for surveillance in the human population and food industry. Reference methods and materials, including sequence data, should be adopted for typing of food-borne pathogens. Upload of molecular data should only be allowed for approved laboratories and should be subject to External Quality Assessment. Ongoing international oversight is required to ensure a consensual ‘one-health’ approach. The establishment of a joint EFSA-ECDC-EU-RLs committee for the support of cross-sectoral molecular surveillance, with a balance of public health and veterinary expertise and including both epidemiologists and microbiologists is strongly recommended. Revision of the legal basis of programmes for pathogen reduction based on historic

  6. Modeling cholera outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Dennis L.; Ira M Longini; Morris, J. Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating mo...

  7. Modeling cholera outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis L Chao; Longini, Ira M.; Morris, J. Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating mo...

  8. E. Coli: Preventing Outbreaks at Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Mary D.

    1996-01-01

    One strain of E. coli is not usually found in foods, but has been related to consumption of undercooked ground beef. Symptoms are stomach cramps and diarrhea, and 2-7% of infections lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome, which is life threatening. Camps can prevent outbreaks by avoiding uncooked meat on overnight campouts and requiring appropriate…

  9. E. Coli: Preventing Outbreaks at Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Mary D.

    1996-01-01

    One strain of E. coli is not usually found in foods, but has been related to consumption of undercooked ground beef. Symptoms are stomach cramps and diarrhea, and 2-7% of infections lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome, which is life threatening. Camps can prevent outbreaks by avoiding uncooked meat on overnight campouts and requiring appropriate…

  10. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  11. Poisoning of domestic animals with heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velev Romel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term heavy metal refers to a metal that has a relatively high density and is toxic for animal and human organism at low concentrations. Heavy metals are natural components of the Earth's crust. They cannot be degraded or destroyed. To a small extent they enter animal organism via food, drinking water and air. Some heavy metals (e.g cooper, iron, chromium, zinc are essential in very low concentrations for the survival of all forms of life. These are described as essential trace elements. However, when they are present in greater quantities, like the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury which are already toxic in very low concentrations, they can cause metabolic anomalies or poisoning. Heavy metal poisoning of domestic animals could result, for instance, from drinking-water contamination, high ambient air concentrations near emission sources, or intake via the food chain. Heavy metals are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate in a biological organism over time. Manifestation of toxicity of individual heavy metals varies considerably, depending on dose and time of exposure, species, gender and environmental and nutritional factors. Large differences exist between the effects of a single exposure to a high concentration, and chronic exposures to lower doses. The aim of this work is to present the source of poisoning and toxicity of some heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, thallium, arsenic, as well as new data about effects of those heavy metals on the health of domestic animals. .

  12. Biomedical applications of poisonous plant research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lynn F; Panter, Kip E; Gaffield, William; Molyneux, Russell J

    2004-06-01

    Research designed to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds responsible for the toxicity of plants to livestock that graze them has been extremely successful. The knowledge gained has been used to design management techniques to prevent economic losses, predict potential outbreaks of poisoning, and treat affected animals. The availability of these compounds in pure form has now provided scientists with tools to develop animal models for human diseases, study modes of action at the molecular level, and apply such knowledge to the development of potential drug candidates for the treatment of a number of genetic and infectious conditions. These advances are illustrated by specific examples of biomedical applications of the toxins of Veratrum californicum (western false hellebore), Lupinus species (lupines), and Astragalus and Oxytropis species (locoweeds).

  13. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment.

  14. Kerosene poisoning in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, L.; Al-Rahim, K.

    1970-01-01

    The epidemiological and clinical aspects of 100 cases of kerosene poisoning have been studied. The use of gastric lavage is discussed, and it is considered that this measure is probably valuable in treatment. The importance of preventive measures is stressed. PMID:5416507

  15. A new method for rapid and quantitative detection of the Bacillus cereus emetic toxin cereulide in food products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Mizuka; Kawai, Takao; Kitagawa, Mikiya; Kumeda, Yuko

    2013-05-01

    The Bacillus cereus emetic toxin cereulide causes foodborne intoxication, which may occasionally result in severe disease, and even death. To differentially diagnose the emetic-type of foodborne disease caused by B. cereus and assess the safety of commercial food, we developed a rapid method to quantitate cereulide. This method was combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis for the extraction of cereulide from food using a normal-phase silica gel cartridge. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.1 and 0.5 ng of cereulide ml(-1), respectively. Spiked cereulide was reproducibly recovered with over 67% efficiency from nine diverse foods implicated in cereulide food poisoning. The recovery rate, reproducibility, and intermediate precision for this single laboratory validation using boiled rice were 87.1%, 4.4%, and 7.0%, respectively. Further, we detected a wide range of cereulide concentrations in leftover food and vomitus samples from two emetic foodborne outbreaks. LC-MS/MS analysis correlated closely with those acquired using the HEp-2 cell assay, and quantitated cereulide from 10 food samples at least five times faster than the bioassay. This new method will provide clinicians with an improved tool for more rapidly and quantitatively determining the presence of cereulide in food and diagnosing food poisoning caused by cereulide.

  16. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  17. Identification and characterization of toxicity of contaminants in pet food leading to an outbreak of renal toxicity in cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Roy L M; Motlagh, Safa; Quijano, Mike; Cambron, R Thomas; Baker, Timothy R; Pullen, Aletha M; Regg, Brian T; Bigalow-Kern, Adrienne S; Vennard, Thomas; Fix, Andrew; Reimschuessel, Renate; Overmann, Gary; Shan, Yuching; Daston, George P

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes research relating to the major recall of pet food that occurred in Spring 2007 in North America. Clinical observations of acute renal failure in cats and dogs were associated with consumption of wet pet food produced by a contract manufacturer producing for a large number of companies. The affected lots of food had been formulated with wheat gluten originating from China. Pet food and gluten were analyzed for contaminants using several configurations of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS), which revealed a number of simple triazine compounds, principally melamine and cyanuric acid, with lower concentrations of ammeline, ammelide, ureidomelamine, and N-methylmelamine. Melamine and cyanuric acid, have been tested and do not produce acute renal toxicity. Some of the triazines have poor solubility, as does the compound melamine cyanurate. Pathological evaluation of cats and dogs that had died from the acute renal failure indicated the presence of crystals in kidney tubules. We hypothesized that these crystals were composed of the poorly soluble triazines, a melamine-cyanuric acid complex, or a combination. Sprague dawley rats were given up to 100 mg/kg ammeline or ammelide alone, a mixture of melamine and cyanuric acid (400/400 mg/kg/day), or a mixture of all four compounds (400 mg/kg/day melamine, 40 mg/kg/day of the others). Neither ammeline nor ammelide alone produced any renal effects, but the mixtures produced significant renal damage and crystals in nephrons. HPLC-MS/MS confirmed the presence of melamine and cyanuric acid in the kidney. Infrared microspectroscopy on individual crystals from rat or cat (donated material from a veterinary clinic) kidneys confirmed that they were melamine-cyanuric acid cocrystals. Crystals from contaminated gluten produced comparable spectra. These results establish the causal link between the contaminated gluten and the adverse effects and provide a mechanistic explanation

  18. Enterovirus 71 Outbreak, Brunei

    OpenAIRE

    AbuBakar, Sazaly; Sam, I-Ching; Yusof, Jaliha; Lim, Meng Keang; Misbah, Suzana; ,; Hooi, Poh-Sim

    2009-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) outbreaks occur periodically in the Asia-Pacific region. In 2006, Brunei reported its first major outbreak of EV71 infections, associated with fatalities from neurologic complications. Isolated EV71 strains formed a distinct lineage with low diversity within subgenogroup B5, suggesting recent introduction and rapid spread within Brunei.

  19. Food safety aspects on ethnic foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fusco, Vincenzina; Besten, den H.M.W.; Logrieco, Antonio F.; Rodriguez, Fernando Perez; Skandamis, Panagiotis N.; Stessl, Beatrix; Teixeira, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic foods are becoming popular worldwide. Nevertheless, foodborne outbreaks and food recalls due to the contamination of these foods with pathogenic agents, toxins, undeclared allergens and hazardous chemical compounds are increasing in recent years together with their growing popularity. In t

  20. Survey of a food poisoning outbreak caused by Salmonella enteritidis in a kindergarten%一起幼儿园肠炎沙门菌食物中毒事件的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑文龙; 杨溢联; 赵帅; 马洁; 彭立昌; 董杰; 江国虹

    2015-01-01

    本次事件共有81名儿童患病,罹患率为48.2%,主要症状为发热(100%)、腹泻(98.8%)、腹痛(97.5%)、呕吐(69.1%);从患者粪便和食物蛋炒饭中分离的肠炎沙门菌PFGE图谱完全一致,且与生鸡蛋涂抹样品中分离株的相似度为96.2%,提示为一起由鸡蛋中的肠炎沙门菌污染导致的食物中毒事件.

  1. An epidemiological study on the predictors of health status of food handlers in food establishments of teaching hospitals of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (USDHHS-CDC 1996 revealed that the outbreaks of food borne diseases include inadequate cooking, heating, or re-heating of foods consumption of food from unsafe sources, cooling food inappropriately and allowing too much of a time lapse. As we all know that the food handlers have been working in various types of community kitchen and their health status can affect the status of food hygiene which can lead to contamination of foods attributing to acute gastroenteritis and food poisoning in various subgroups of the population e.g., medical/dental/nursing students. The background characteristics of these food handlers may have important role to affect health status of these handlers. Methods: The indexed study was carried out among the food handlers working in the food establishments the 5 teaching hospitals of Bareilly city in U.P. India during one year i.e., from August 2013 to July 2014. The survey method using schedule was conducted to get information about the background characteristics and food handlers and each food handler was examined clinically for assessing health status. Chi-Square test was used as test of significance and regression analysis was also done to nullifying the effect of confounders. Results: The health status of the mess workers was found to be significantly associated with use of gloves, hand washing after toilet and hand washing before cooking and serving food. Conclusion: The rationale of this study was that though many studies have been carried out to show the health status of the food handlers and their background characteristics, no study has highlighted the association of these background characteristics and personal hygiene practices with the health status of food handlers.

  2. Biosurveillance in outbreak investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaydos-Daniels, S Cornelia; Rojas Smith, Lucia; Farris, Tonya R

    2013-03-01

    Following the terrorist attacks of September 11 and the anthrax attacks in 2001, public health entities implemented automated surveillance systems based on disease syndromes for early detection of bioterror events and to increase timeliness of responses. Despite widespread adoption, syndromic surveillance systems' ability to provide early notification of outbreaks is unproven, and there is little documentation on their role in outbreak response. We hypothesized that biosurveillance is used in practice to augment classical outbreak investigations, and we used case studies conducted in 2007-08 to determine (1) which steps in outbreak investigations were best served by biosurveillance, and (2) which steps presented the greatest opportunities for improvement. The systems used in the case studies varied in how they functioned, and there were examples in which syndromic systems had identified outbreaks before other methods. Biosurveillance was used successfully for all steps of outbreak investigations. Key advantages of syndromic systems were sensitivity, timeliness, and flexibility and as a source of data for situational awareness. Limitations of biosurveillance were a lack of specificity, reliance on chief complaint data, and a lack of formal training for users. Linking syndromic data to triage notes and medical chart data would substantially increase the value of biosurveillance in the conduct of outbreak investigations and reduce the burden on health department staff.

  3. Ciguatera poisoning in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Williams, Thomas N; Maitland, Kathryn

    2003-02-01

    Ciguatera poisoning is endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. We conducted a retrospective study of admissions to two hospitals on the islands of Vanuatu in the southwestern Pacific region. We estimated the annual hospital admission rate for fish poisoning to be 65 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 55-75)/100,000 population on the island of Santo and 29 (95% CI = 19-43)/100,000 population on the island of Ambae. Hospital admission was more common in males 20-29 years old. Death was a rare complication. In the face of increases in both tourism and in the global trade in tropical and exotic fish, physicians in both endemic and non-endemic areas should be familiar with the epidemiology and clinical features of this important condition.

  4. Arsenic poisoning in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Bahri, L; Ben Romdane, S

    1991-06-01

    Arsenic is an important heavy metal intoxicant to livestock. Arsenical pesticides present significant hazards to animal health. The toxicity of arsenic varies with several factors--its chemical form, oxidation states, solubility. The phenylarsonic compounds are the least toxic and are used as feed additives in swine and poultry rations. However, roxarsone has a higher absolute toxicity than arsanilic acid. The mechanism of action is related to its reaction with sulfhydryl groups values to enzyme function and to its ability to uncouple oxydative phosphorylation. Most animals excrete arsenic quite readily. Toxicoses caused by inorganic and aliphatic organic arsenicals result in a different clinical syndrome than that from the phenylarsonic compounds. Arsenic poisoning may be confused with other types of intoxication. The specific antidote for inorganic arsenical poisoning is dimercaprol (BAL).

  5. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  6. Food Safety and Raw Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Food Safety Food Safety Modernization Act Raw Milk Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir RAW MILK ... Decide? Questions & Answers Outbreak Studies Resources & Publications Raw Milk Infographic [PDF – 1 page] More Resources 5 Raw ...

  7. Homicidal arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Andrew; Taylor, Andrew; Leese, Elizabeth; Allen, Sam; Morton, Jackie; McAdam, Julie

    2015-07-01

    The case of a 50-year-old man who died mysteriously after being admitted to hospital is reported. He had raised the possibility of being poisoned prior to his death. A Coroner's post-mortem did not reveal the cause of death but this was subsequently established by post-mortem trace element analysis of liver, urine, blood and hair all of which revealed very high arsenic concentrations.

  8. Methaemoglobinemia in nitrobenzene poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongtham D

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A young girl with nitrobenzene induced methaemoglobinaemia was saved by the timely use of mechanical ventilator, administration of oral methylene blue and parenteral ascorbic acid. Though parenteral methylene blue is the antidote of choice, due to its non-availability, the laboratory preparation of methylene blue have been utilized orally. The rare occurrence of such cases, and the efficacy of oral methylene blue and other supportive measures in evading death due to Nitrobenzene poisoning have been highlighted.

  9. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  10. nsect poisons in museums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eirik Granqvist

    2015-01-01

    Since natural history museums existed, there have been problems concerning how to protect the collections from damages caused by insects. In 1740s', French Chemist Becoeur started to use arsenic-soap to protect his taxidermy specimens against insects. But in the years of 1770s', it was discovered the terrible strong arsenic poison which was dangerous to human beings. Finally taxidermy specimens leave the use of ar- senic and borax to history and use Eulan in their place.

  11. Fresh Produce-Associated Listeriosis Outbreaks, Sources of Concern, Teachable Moments, and Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Danisha; Kathariou, Sophia

    2016-02-01

    Foodborne transmission of Listeria monocytogenes was first demonstrated through the investigation of the 1981 Maritime Provinces outbreak involving coleslaw. In the following two decades, most listeriosis outbreaks involved foods of animal origin, e.g., deli meats, hot dogs, and soft cheeses. L. monocytogenes serotype 4b, especially epidemic clones I, II, and Ia, were frequently implicated in these outbreaks. However, since 2008 several outbreaks have been linked to diverse types of fresh produce: sprouts, celery, cantaloupe, stone fruit, and apples. The 2011 cantaloupe-associated outbreak was one of the deadliest foodborne outbreaks in recent U.S. history. This review discusses produce-related outbreaks of listeriosis with a focus on special trends, unusual findings, and potential paradigm shifts. With the exception of sprouts, implicated produce types were novel, and outbreaks were one-time events. Several involved serotype 1/2a, and in the 2011 cantaloupe-associated outbreak, serotype 1/2b was for the first time conclusively linked to a common-source outbreak of invasive listeriosis. Also in this outbreak, for the first time multiple strains were implicated in a common-source outbreak. In 2014, deployment of whole genome sequencing as part of outbreak investigation validated this technique as a pivotal tool for outbreak detection and speedy resolution. In spite of the unusual attributes of produce-related outbreaks, in all but one of the investigated cases (the possible exception being the coleslaw outbreak) contamination was traced to the same sources as those for outbreaks associated with other vehicles (e.g., deli meats), i.e., the processing environment and equipment. The public health impact of farm-level contamination remains uncharacterized. This review highlights knowledge gaps regarding virulence and other potentially unique attributes of produce outbreak strains, the potential for novel fresh produce items to become unexpectedly implicated in outbreaks

  12. Global perspectives on poisonous plants: the 9th international symposium on poisonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, Russell J; Panter, Kip E; Zhao, Mengli

    2014-07-30

    The 9th International Symposium on Poisonous Plants (ISOPP9) was held July 15-21, 2013, at the Inner Mongolia Agricultural University in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. The symposium consisted of three days of oral and poster presentations, followed by a tour of the Xilinhot Region of the Mongolian Grasslands, encompassing grazing conditions consisting of desert, grassland, and steppes. This was the first time that an ISOPP meeting has been held in Asia and provided an opportunity for visitors from outside China to become aware of livestock poisonings caused by plant species with which they were previously not familiar while at the same time demonstrating that many of the problems experienced around the world have a common etiology. Presentations focused on botany, veterinary science, toxicology, mechanism of action, and chemistry. As is appropriate for the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, this cluster of papers consists of selected oral and poster presentations in which the chemistry of the toxins played a significant role. The symposium revealed that there is considerable scope for isolation, structural elucidation, and analysis of the toxins from the numerous poisonous plant species that have been identified in China. It became apparent that there are abundant opportunities for chemists both within China and abroad to collaborate with Chinese scientists working on biological aspects of livestock poisonings.

  13. Chronic arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alan H

    2002-03-10

    Symptomatic arsenic poisoning is not often seen in occupational exposure settings. Attempted homicide and deliberate long-term poisoning have resulted in chronic toxicity. Skin pigmentation changes, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia, and liver disease are common. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension with bleeding esophageal varices, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism may occur. A metallic taste, gastrointestinal disturbances, and Mee's lines may be seen. Bone marrow depression is common. 'Blackfoot disease' has been associated with arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Taiwan; Raynaud's phenomenon and acrocyanosis also may occur. Large numbers of persons in areas of India, Pakistan, and several other countries have been chronically poisoned from naturally occurring arsenic in ground water. Toxic delirium and encephalopathy can be present. CCA-treated wood (chromated copper arsenate) is not a health risk unless burned in fireplaces or woodstoves. Peripheral neuropathy may also occur. Workplace exposure or chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water or arsenical medications is associated with development of skin, lung, and other cancers. Treatment may incklude the use of chelating agents such as dimercaprol (BAL), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and dimercaptopanesulfonic acid (DMPS).

  14. Organophosphate poisoning : A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmod K. Sinha

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate pesticides are used extensively worldwide, and poisoning by these agents, particularly in developing nations is a public health problem. Organophosphorous nerve agents are still considered as potential threat in both military or terrorism situations. The mechanism of toxicity is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, resulting in accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and continued stimulation of acetylcholine receptors both in central and peripheral nervous systems. Beside acute cholinergic crisis, organophosphates are capable of producing several subacute or chronic neurological syndromes. The well described intermediate syndrome (IMS emerges 1-4 days after an apparently well treated cholinergic crisis. The standard treatment consists of reactivation of inhibited acetylcholinesterase with an oxime antidote (pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6 and Hlo7 and reversal of the biochemical effects of acetylcholine with atropine. The newer oximes HI-6 and Hlo& are much more suitable and efficacious acetylcholinesterase reactivator for severe acute nerve agent induced poisoning than currently used pralidoxime or obidoxime. Patients who receive treatment promptly usually recover from acute toxicity but may suffer from neurologic sequelae. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 120-6 Keywords: poisoning, insecticide, organophosphate (OP, carbamates, acetylcholinesterase, oxime, pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6, HLo7

  15. Fragmentation Considered Poisonous

    CERN Document Server

    Herzberg, Amir

    2012-01-01

    We present practical poisoning and name-server block- ing attacks on standard DNS resolvers, by off-path, spoofing adversaries. Our attacks exploit large DNS responses that cause IP fragmentation; such long re- sponses are increasingly common, mainly due to the use of DNSSEC. In common scenarios, where DNSSEC is partially or incorrectly deployed, our poisoning attacks allow 'com- plete' domain hijacking. When DNSSEC is fully de- ployed, attacker can force use of fake name server; we show exploits of this allowing off-path traffic analy- sis and covert channel. When using NSEC3 opt-out, attacker can also create fake subdomains, circumvent- ing same origin restrictions. Our attacks circumvent resolver-side defenses, e.g., port randomisation, IP ran- domisation and query randomisation. The (new) name server (NS) blocking attacks force re- solver to use specific name server. This attack allows Degradation of Service, traffic-analysis and covert chan- nel, and also facilitates DNS poisoning. We validated the attac...

  16. Increase in outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to bathing water in Finland in summer 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ari; Al-Hello, Haider; Zacheus, Outi; Kilponen, Jaana; Maunula, Leena; Huusko, Sari; Lappalainen, Maija; Miettinen, Ilkka; Blomqvist, Soile; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska

    2017-01-01

    An increased number of suspected outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to bathing water were reported to the Finnish food- and waterborne outbreak (FWO) registry in July and August 2014. The investigation reports were assessed by a national outbreak investigation panel. Eight confirmed outbreaks were identified among the 15 suspected outbreaks linked to bathing water that had been reported to the FWO registry. According to the outbreak investigation reports, 1,453 persons fell ill during these outbreaks. Epidemiological and microbiological data revealed noroviruses as the main causative agents. During the outbreaks, exceptionally warm weather had boosted the use of beaches. Six of eight outbreaks occurred at small lakes; for those, the investigation strongly suggested that the beach users were the source of contamination. In one of those eight outbreaks, an external source of contamination was identified and elevated levels of faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were noted in water. In the remaining outbreaks, FIB analyses were insufficient to describe the hygienic quality of the water. Restrictions against bathing proved effective in controlling the outbreaks. In spring 2015, the National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) and the National Supervisory Authority for Welfare and Health (Valvira) published guidelines for outbreak control to prevent bathing water outbreaks. PMID:28251888

  17. Epidemiology of foodborne norovirus outbreaks, United States, 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Aron J; Eisenbart, Valerie G; Etingüe, Amy Lehman; Gould, L Hannah; Lopman, Ben A; Parashar, Umesh D

    2012-10-01

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States. To better guide interventions, we analyzed 2,922 foodborne disease outbreaks for which norovirus was the suspected or confirmed cause, which had been reported to the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during 2001-2008. On average, 365 foodborne norovirus outbreaks were reported annually, resulting in an estimated 10,324 illnesses, 1,247 health care provider visits, 156 hospitalizations, and 1 death. In 364 outbreaks attributed to a single commodity, leafy vegetables (33%), fruits/nuts (16%), and mollusks (13%) were implicated most commonly. Infected food handlers were the source of 53% of outbreaks and may have contributed to 82% of outbreaks. Most foods were likely contaminated during preparation and service, except for mollusks, and occasionally, produce was contaminated during production and processing. Interventions to reduce the frequency of foodborne norovirus outbreaks should focus on food workers and production of produce and shellfish.

  18. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Guan; Han Dai

    2009-01-01

    Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role o...

  19. Dinoflagellate Toxins Responsible for Ciguatera Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-20

    conspicuous epiphytic, benthic and planktonic species were isolated and brought into unialgal culture, harvested, and subjected to our standard...Media and prospects for the cultivation of marine algae, in Proceedings, Fourth International Seaweed Symposium, DeVirville, D. and Feldman, J., Eds

  20. Dinoflagellate Toxins Responsible for Ciguatera Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-30

    and labeled for shipment. The vial is then encased ip a plastic container with absorbant material. The plastic container is then packed into a metal ...and Pesado , D., (1985) Production and toxicity of Gambierdiscus tcxicas, Adacbh and Fukuyo (Dinophyceae), Phycologia, 24, 2 17-223. 96. Durand, M

  1. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Poison Data System Our Work Alerts Keep Up-to-Date on the Latest Poison News The AAPCC works ... the latest poison safety and prevention news! Sign Up! Save the Date! Medication Safety 101 Twitter Chat Medication Safety 101: ...

  2. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2015. The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte; Porsbo, Lone Jannok; Boysen, Louise

    reported zoonosis with an increase in confirmed human cases in the European Union (EU) since 2008. In food the occurrence of Campylobacter remained high in broiler meat. The decreasing EU trend for confirmed human salmonellosis cases since 2008 continued. More human Salmonella Enteritidis cases were...

  3. Quantification and molecular characterization of Salmonella isolated from food samples involved in salmonellosis outbreaks in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Quantificação e perfil molecular de Salmonella isolada de alimentos envolvidos em surtos de salmonelose no Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandra Mürmann

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Data concerning the prevalence and populations of Salmonella in foods implicated in outbreaks may be important to the development of quantitative microbial risk assessments of individual food products. In this sense, the objective of the present study was to assess the amount of Salmonella sp. in different foods implicated in foodborne outbreaks in Rio Grande do Sul occurred in 2005 and to characterize the isolated strains using phenotypic and genotypic methods. Nineteen food samples involved in ten foodborne outbreaks occurred in 2005, and positive on Salmonella isolation at the Central Laboratory of the Health Department of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, were included in this study. Food samples were submitted to estimation of Salmonella using the Most Probable Number (MPN technique. Moreover, one confirmed Salmonella colony of each food sample was serotyped, characterized by its XbaI-macrorestriction profile, and submitted to antimicrobial resistance testing. Foods containing eggs, mayonnaise or chicken were contaminated with Salmonella in eight outbreaks. Higher counts (>10(7 MPN.g-1 of Salmonella were detected mostly in foods containing mayonnaise. The isolation of Salmonella from multiple food items in five outbreaks probably resulted from the cross-contamination, and the high Salmonella counts detected in almost all analyzed samples probably resulted from storing in inadequate temperature. All strains were identified as S. Enteritidis, and presented a unique macrorestriction profile, demonstrating the predominance of one clonal group in foods involved in the salmonellosis outbreaks. A low frequency of antimicrobial resistant S. Enteritidis strains was observed and nalidixic acid was the only resistance marker detected.Dados sobre a prevalência e a população de Salmonella em alimentos implicados em surtos podem contribuir na condução de análises de risco. Dessa forma, o objetivo desse estudo foi determinar a quantidade de Salmonella

  4. National Outbreak Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) is a web-based platform designed to support reporting to CDC by local, state, and territorial health departments in the...

  5. THE IMPORTANCE OF PLANNING, ADMINISTRATION AND ORGANIZATION IN THE ESTABLISHMENT AND EXPANSION OF FOOD HYGIENE SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Neshat

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Since in the last decade, tremendous progress has been achieved in developed countries in all branches of technology including food technology, such to new ideas and techniques should be partially conveyed to the developing countries to create closer relationship between these two sectors of the world. The preventive measures should be seriously taken to avoid the food poisoning outbreak which usually happens through contamination of foods and distribution of such foods by quickest contact (Jet food borne diseases. Food hygiene is a multidisciplinary science in which different scientific discipline is involved and the problem within the subject would be of nationa1, regional on international interest. The organization and management of food hygiene program in each country should be based upon the socio-economic development of the country and the direct complete imitation of such a program of a developed country in a developing country is not always successful. The Lab/field relationship should be strengthened in an adequate food hygiene program as a safeguard of Public health. Food Hygiene specialists are recently defined by WHO expert committee on food hygiene as fol1ows.1. General Food Hygienists: Those who have graduate study on biochemistry, anatomy and physiology of animals, animal pathology, microbiology etc.2. Special Food Hygienists: Who have passed post-graduate courses and are specialized either by the type of foods, as specialist in fish, milk meat, etc., or by the scientific disciplines as food chemist, food microbiologist, food virologist, etc.3. Technician and Auxiliaries: Those who are trained for two years are called technicians. For Auxiliaries 9 months courses should be recommended.

  6. Outbreaks of virulent diarrheagenic Escherichia coli - are we in control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werber Dirk

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC are the most virulent diarrheagenic E. coli known to date. They can be spread with alarming ease via food as exemplified by a large sprout-borne outbreak of STEC O104:H4 in 2011 that was centered in northern Germany and affected several countries. Effective control of such outbreaks is an important public health task and necessitates early outbreak detection, fast identification of the outbreak vehicle and immediate removal of the suspected food from the market, flanked by consumer advice and measures to prevent secondary spread. In our view, opportunities to improve control of STEC outbreaks lie in early clinical suspicion for STEC infection, timely diagnosis of all STEC at the serotype-level and integrating molecular subtyping information into surveillance systems. Furthermore, conducting analytical studies that supplement patients' imperfect food history recall and performing, as an investigative element, product tracebacks, are pivotal but underutilized tools for successful epidemiologic identification of the suspected vehicle in foodborne outbreaks. As a corollary, these tools are amenable to tailor microbiological testing of suspected food. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/12

  7. Cholera outbreak--southern Sudan, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-10

    Vibrio cholerae causes cholera, an acute infectious diarrheal disease that can result in death without appropriate therapy, depending on the severity of the disease. War, poverty, inadequate sanitation, and large numbers of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are major precursors to cholera outbreaks. In 2005, Southern Sudan ended its 22-year civil war with North Sudan; as a result, IDPs and refugees are returning to the south. During April--June 2007, investigators from the Southern Sudan Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (SS-FELTP) and CDC investigated a cholera outbreak in the town of Juba, Southern Sudan. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which found that 3,157 persons were diagnosed with suspected cholera during January--June 2007, with 74 deaths resulting from the disease. An environmental investigation revealed suboptimal hygiene practices and a lack of water and sanitation infrastructure in Juba. A case-control study indicated that persons less likely to have cholera were more likely to have consumed hot meals containing meat during the outbreak. Contaminated food or water were not identified as possible sources of the cholera outbreak in Juba. However, this might be attributed to limitations of the study, including small sample size. Cholera can reach epidemic proportions if adequate control measures are not implemented early. Mass media campaigns are important for current and new residents in Juba to understand the importance of proper food handling, clean water, and optimal hygiene practices to prevent the spread of cholera.

  8. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers.

  9. Treatment of toxicodendron dermatitis (poison ivy and poison oak).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guin, J D

    2001-04-01

    Toxicodendron dermatitis results from a reaction to an oil soluble oleoresin that is present in many parts of the poison ivy and poison oak plants. Prophylactic measures include avoidance, protective clothing, barrier creams and hyposensitization. Treatments include washing the area immediately with a solvent suitable for lipids and the use of anti-inflammatory agents, especially corticosteroids.

  10. OCCUPATIONAL CARBAMATE POISONING IN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongpoo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-07-01

    Carbamate insecticide is a leading cause of poisoning in Thailand. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical manifestations and modes of occupational exposure in carbamate poisoning cases. We retrospectively studied all the cases of carbamate poisoning due to occupational exposure recorded in the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance system during 2005 to 2010. Demographic data, clinical manifestations and severity were analyzed statistically. During the study period, 3,183 cases were identified, of which 170 (5.3%) were deemed to be due to occupational exposure. Ninety-six cases (56.5%) and 35 cases (20.6%) were poisoned by carbofuran and methomyl, respectively. Carbofuran is sold as a 3% grain and applied by sowing; methomyl is sold as a liquid and is applied by spraying. The majority of poisoned patients did not wear personal protective equipment (PPE) while applying the carbamates. The clinical manifestations of occupational carbofuran poisoning recorded were nausea and vomiting (82.3%), headaches (56.3%) and miosis (19.8%). The clinical manifestations of methomyl poisoning were nausea and vomiting (74.3%), headaches (57.1%) and palpitations (11.4%). Most patients in both groups had mild symptoms. Only one case in each group required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation support. There were no deaths and the lengths of hospitalization ranged from 2 hours to 2 days. Occupational carbamate poisoning cases in our series were mostly mild and the patients recovered quickly. There were only rare cases of serious symptoms. Lack of knowledge and inadequate PPE were the major factors contributing to occupational poisoning. Educating agricultural workers about correct precautions and pesticide use could minimize this type of poisoning.

  11. Foodborne illness outbreaks from microbial contaminants in spices, 1973-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doren, Jane M; Neil, Karen P; Parish, Mickey; Gieraltowski, Laura; Gould, L Hannah; Gombas, Kathy L

    2013-12-01

    This review identified fourteen reported illness outbreaks attributed to consumption of pathogen-contaminated spice during the period 1973-2010. Countries reporting outbreaks included Canada, Denmark, England and Wales, France, Germany, New Zealand, Norway, Serbia, and the United States. Together, these outbreaks resulted in 1946 reported human illnesses, 128 hospitalizations and two deaths. Infants/children were the primary population segments impacted by 36% (5/14) of spice-attributed outbreaks. Four outbreaks were associated with multiple organisms. Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica was identified as the causative agent in 71% (10/14) of outbreaks, accounting for 87% of reported illnesses. Bacillus spp. was identified as the causative agent in 29% (4/10) of outbreaks, accounting for 13% of illnesses. 71% (10/14) of outbreaks were associated with spices classified as fruits or seeds of the source plant. Consumption of ready-to-eat foods prepared with spices applied after the final food manufacturing pathogen reduction step accounted for 70% of illnesses. Pathogen growth in spiced food is suspected to have played a role in some outbreaks, but it was not likely a contributing factor in three of the larger Salmonella outbreaks, which involved low-moisture foods. Root causes of spice contamination included contributions from both early and late stages of the farm-to-table continuum.

  12. EFSA and ECDC (European Food Safety Authority and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2015. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte

    This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2013 in 32 European countries (28 Member States and four non-Member States). Campylobacter iosis was the most comm...... chain of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Toxoplasma , rabies, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), West Nile Virus and tularaemia....

  13. SAFE HANDLING OF FOODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial food-borne illnesses pose a significant health problem in Japan. In 1996 the world's largest outbreak of Escherichia coli food illness occurred in Japan. Since then, new regulatory measures were established, including strict hygiene practices in meat and food processi...

  14. POISONOUS PLANTS – TWO CASES OF POISONING WITH THORN APPLE (DATURA STRAMONIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuba Gangl-Žvikart

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available   Background. In attempt to provoke hallucinations two adolescents were poisoned with thorn apple. This plant could be easily found near urban and rural areas such as fields and dykes. It spreads around as a weed and its seeds are found even in bird’s food. In nowadays these seeds could be found in seedman’s shops offered for sale as decorative plants. While free acces to the internet enables the targeted population, in this case mostly adolescents, to gather large amount of information on hallucinogenic effects of seeds described above. It does not provide them with information on negative side effects which causes urgent visits at intensive care units of hospitals. The fact that the abuse of thorn apple’s seeds causes intoxications is more and more often described in scientific literature. In 1997/98 the paediatricians from Maribor described three cases of accidental poisoning of adolescents. In Slovenia there are only four out of twelve pediatric departments which haven’t had any case of poisoning of that kind yet.Results. Clinical data – simptoms of central and peripherial anticholinergic syndrom and the history (heteroanamnesy showed the possibility of poisoning with plant’s alkaloids with anticholinergic activity which was comfirmed by doctor on duty. She provided me in person with exact, specific and detailed description of seeds consumed by two young men. Physostigmine salicilate is the drug of choice and it is used in cases of serious poisoning.Conclusions. After serious clinical simptoms at the beginning both adolescents recovered well and after three days of medical supervision they were released from the hospital without any consequences harmful to their health.   

  15. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a first epidemic in Germany highlights an increasing risk for European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, César; Vetter, Irina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Krock, Bernd; Ebbecke, Martin; Desel, Herbert; Zimmermann, Katharina

    2014-12-01

    Toxin-producing microalgae are thriving worldwide due to coral reef destruction and global warming with major consequences on ecosystems, international trade and human health. Microalgae belonging to the family of flagellate protists, in particular dinoflagellates, secrete a variety of high-molecular-weight polyether toxins that accumulate through the marine food chain to cause disease in humans by acting as sodium channel activator toxins; ciguatera is the most frequent seafood-borne illness worldwide with 50,000 to 500,000 global incidences per annum and is usually limited to endemic areas located between 35° northern and 35° southern latitude. The rising global incidence frequency renders it a major human health problem, because no curative treatment is available yet and reliable detection assays are lacking. During the last decade ciguatera has increasingly become endemic in previously unaffected areas for two reasons: first global warming has contributed to the emergence of dinoflagellate species in subtropical and even temperate regions that previously had been constrained to tropical areas and second: in Europe globalization of fishing industry and tourism has led to a progressive increase in the number of ciguatera cases and a lack of awareness among medical personnel contributes to under-reporting. We review, through a recent ciguatera outbreak in Germany, the risk for ciguatera poisoning in Europe and highlight characteristic symptoms, current knowledge about disease pathomechanisms and treatment options.

  16. Extracorporeal Treatment for Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Brian S; Goldfarb, David S; Dargan, Paul I

    2015-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxico......The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical...... extraction of patient-level data. The workgroup concluded that lithium is dialyzable (Level of evidence=A) and made the following recommendations: Extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe lithium poisoning (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is recommended if kidney function is impaired and the [Li...... treatment (1D), but continuous RRT is an acceptable alternative (1D). The workgroup supported the use of extracorporeal treatment in severe lithium poisoning. Clinical decisions on when to use extracorporeal treatment should take into account the [Li(+)], kidney function, pattern of lithium toxicity...

  17. Neurology of acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gagandeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphate (OP poisoning is one of the most common poisonings in emergency medicine and toxicological practice in some of the less-developed nations in South Asia. Traditionally, OP poisoning comes under the domain of emergency physicians, internists, intensivists, and toxicologists. However, some of the complications following OP poisoning are neurological and involve neurologists. The pathophysiological basis for the clinical manifestations of OP poisoning is inactivation of the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase at the peripheral nicotinic and muscarinic and central nervous system (CNS nerve terminals and junctions. Nicotinic manifestations occur in severe cases and late in the course; these comprise of fasciculations and neuromuscular paralysis. There is a good correlation between the electrophysiological abnormalities and the severity of the clinical manifestations. Neurophysiological abnormalities characteristic of nicotinic junctions (mainly neuromuscular junction dysfunction include: (1 single, supramaximal electrical-stimulus-induced repetitive response/s, (2 decrement-increment response to high frequency (30 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS, and (3 decremental response to high frequency (30 Hz RNS. Atropine ameliorates muscarinic manifestations. Therapeutic agents that can ameliorate nicotinic manifestations, mainly neuromuscular, are oximes. However, the evidence for this effect is inconclusive. This may be due to the fact that there are several factors that determine the therapeutic effect of oximes. These factors include: The OP compound responsible for poisoning, duration of poisoning, severity of poisoning, and route of exposure. There is also a need to study the effect of oximes on the neurophysiological abnormalities.

  18. Amnesic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO; CSR

    1999-01-01

    This review reports information on the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) syndrome and the ASP toxins causing this poisoning, of which domoic acid is the major component. Data includes chemical structures and detection methods of ASP toxins, sources of ASP toxins, marine organisms associated with ASP

  19. Amnesic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO; CSR

    This review reports information on the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) syndrome and the ASP toxins causing this poisoning, of which domoic acid is the major component. Data includes chemical structures and detection methods of ASP toxins, sources of ASP toxins, marine organisms associated with

  20. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsiun Cho

    2008-08-01

    Conclusion: Children with CO poisoning had good outcomes in this series. Although improperly vented exhaust from water heaters and house fires were the most common causes, intentional poisoning by parents through charcoal burning was also an important factor. Early identification of DNS risk factors might help to provide better care.