WorldWideScience

Sample records for food market integration

  1. The internationalisation of the Spanish food industry: the home market effect and European market integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, R.; García-Casarejos, N.; Gil-Pareja, S.; Llorca-Vivero, R.; Pinilla, V.

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse, from a long-term perspective, the factors determining the process of the internationalisation of the Spanish agrifood industry. The paper concentrates on the empirical verification of the existence of a home market effect in the food and drink industries in Spain and on the effects on trade flows of integration into the European Union. With this aim in mind, we took into account the latest contributions to the estimation of the gravity equation for a sample of export flows from 13 agrifood subsectors between 1970 and 2012, with a destination of 175 markets. From the results of the study the existence of the “home market effect” stands out as the determining factor of the increasing process of internationalisation in the majority of the subsectors of the food industry. On this point, the presence of this effect is remarkable in the most dynamic industries, where the process of restructuring caused by the development of the internal market was more intense. Furthermore, the influence of the process of European integration has been shown by the literature to be a very important factor. Our results qualify in part the results of previous studies, since the positive effect appeared later than expected. The positive effects did not appear until the completion of the process of transition by the dismantling of the barriers established in the treaty of accession to the European Union. (Author)

  2. World market integration of Vietnamese rice markets during the 2008 food price crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luckmann, J.; Ihle, R.; Kleinwechter, U.; Grethe, H.

    2015-01-01

    World market prices of rice have been subject to large fluctuations in recent years. In mid 2008, prices reached levels never seen before. Vietnam is a major exporter of rice and rice is also the main staple food of the country. Given the importance of rice for domestic food security, the Vietnamese

  3. World market integration of Vietnamese rice markets during the 2008 food price crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luckmann, J.; Ihle, R.; Kleinwechter, U.; Grethe, H.

    2015-01-01

    World market prices of rice have been subject to large fluctuations in recent years. In mid 2008, prices reached levels never seen before. Vietnam is a major exporter of rice and rice is also the main staple food of the country. Given the importance of rice for domestic food security, the Vietnamese

  4. The impact of R&D & Marketing integration on innovation and business performance in French food processing companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemullier, A.B.; Fortuin, F.T.J.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2011-01-01

    The globalization and the rapid changes of consumers' needs make the food industry turbulent. Companies have to become more market-oriented and to implement an adequate innovation strategy to respond to these changing needs. In management literature, cross functional integration, especially between

  5. Rice market integration in the Mekong River Delta : The transition to market rules in the domestic food market in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, C.H.M.; Praagman, C.; Hai, L.T.D.

    2006-01-01

    In the last decades Vietnam has become a major supplier in the world's rice market. This position is the result of the policy reforms that have been implemented in the agricultural sector. This paper assesses the impact of the liberalization policies and focuses on the spatial price differences in t

  6. Marketing School Food Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wilma

    1990-01-01

    Marketing the food service program in an Ohio district is directed toward the students and also at the community, school administrators, teachers, and employees. Students are encouraged to follow a healthier way of eating. (MLF)

  7. Food Marketing in Irish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Colette; Clerkin, Pauline; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Mulvihill, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Schools are thought to represent a growing marketing opportunity for food advertisers in many countries. Marketing of unhealthy food to children is linked to the increased prevalence of obesity worldwide. This paper aims to explore ways in which schools respond to commercial activity around food marketing. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  8. Rice market integration in the Mekong river delta : the successful liberalisation of the domestic food market in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hai, Luu Thanh Duc; Lutz, Clemens; Praagman, Cornelis

    2004-01-01

    This article analyses the spatial price differences in the rice market of the Mekong River Delta to assess the impact of the liberalisation policies on its functioning. The results of these policies carried out during the last two decades are impressive. The rice market system in the Delta is

  9. World market or regional integration and food security in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. de Haan (Leo); A. Klaasse Bos (Andries); C. Lutz (Clemens)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe problem of food security in West Africa was put on the international agenda in 1974 at the international food conference in Rome following the Great Sahelian Drought of 1968-1973. In those years preoccupation with food security was limited mainly to the Sahel countries and concentrat

  10. The Global Food Price Crisis and China-World Rice Market Integration: A Spatial-Temporal Rational Expectations Equilibrium Model

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xianglin; Romero-Aguilar, Randall S.; Chen, Shu-Ling; Miranda, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how China, the world’s largest rice producer and consumer, would affect the international rice market if it liberalized its trade in rice and became more fully integrated into the global rice market. The impacts of trade liberalization are estimated using a spatial-temporal rational expectations model of the world rice market characterized by four interdependent markets with stochastic production patterns, constant-elasticity demands, expected-profit maximizing priva...

  11. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  12. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  13. Nutrition marketing on food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Marketing strategy, nutrient label information, if the product was fruit/or milk based, and target age. Frequency distributions were computed. Forty-nine percent of all products contained nutrition marketing and of those, 48% had both nutrition marketing and were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar (11%, 17%, and 31% respectively). Seventy-one percent of products marketed to children had nutrition marketing. Of those, 59% were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar content, with more than half being high in sugar. The most commonly used nutrition marketing statements were "good source of calcium", "reduced/low/fat free", and "food company's health symbol". Nutrition marketing is commonly used on products high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar and is more often used on products marketed toward children than products marketed toward adults. Current food industry symbols may not be helping consumers select foods low in saturated fat, sodium or sugar. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Integrated Marketing Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Integration has become a cliche in enrollment management and student services circles. The term is used to describe everything from integrated marketing to seamless services. Often, it defines organizational structures, processes, student information systems, and even communities. In Robert Sevier's article in this issue of "College and…

  15. Integrated Marketing Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Integration has become a cliche in enrollment management and student services circles. The term is used to describe everything from integrated marketing to seamless services. Often, it defines organizational structures, processes, student information systems, and even communities. In Robert Sevier's article in this issue of "College and…

  16. Athlete endorsements in food marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Yanamadala, Swati; Roberto, Christina A; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2013-11-01

    This study quantified professional athletes' endorsement of food and beverages, evaluated the nutritional quality of endorsed products, and determined the number of television commercial exposures of athlete-endorsement commercials for children, adolescents, and adults. One hundred professional athletes were selected on the basis of Bloomberg Businessweek's 2010 Power 100 rankings, which ranks athletes according to their endorsement value and prominence in their sport. Endorsement information was gathered from the Power 100 list and the advertisement database AdScope. Endorsements were sorted into 11 endorsement categories (eg, food/beverages, sports apparel). The nutritional quality of the foods featured in athlete-endorsement advertisements was assessed by using a Nutrient Profiling Index, whereas beverages were evaluated on the basis of the percentage of calories from added sugar. Marketing data were collected from AdScope and Nielsen. Of 512 brands endorsed by 100 different athletes, sporting goods/apparel represented the largest category (28.3%), followed by food/beverages (23.8%) and consumer goods (10.9%). Professional athletes in this sample were associated with 44 different food or beverage brands during 2010. Seventy-nine percent of the 62 food products in athlete-endorsed advertisements were energy-dense and nutrient-poor, and 93.4% of the 46 advertised beverages had 100% of calories from added sugar. Peyton Manning (professional American football player) and LeBron James (professional basketball player) had the most endorsements for energy-dense, nutrient-poor products. Adolescents saw the most television commercials that featured athlete endorsements of food. Youth are exposed to professional athlete endorsements of food products that are energy-dense and nutrient-poor.

  17. Integration of European Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I investigate the time variation in the integration of EU government bond markets. The integration is measured by the explanatory power of European factor portfolios for the individual bond markets for each year. The integration of the government bond markets is stronger for EMU than non-EMU memb......-EMU members and stronger for old than new EU members. For EMU countries, the integration is weaker the lower the credit rating is. During the recent crisis periods, the integration is weaker, particularly for EMU countries....

  18. INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATION IN POLITICS?

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The current study has practical applicability in politic al domain and theoretical involvement at political marketing communication level. The type of the research is a qualitative one, using as survey methods scientific observation and documentary search. The aim of the research is to prove the applicability of marketing communication concept integrated in political marketing and global marketing communication. There are also exceptions, just analyzing the industry – politics, in which integ...

  19. Food and Beverage Marketing to Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Andrew; Mejia, Pamela; Nixon, Laura; Dorfman, Lori

    2014-12-01

    After nearly a decade of concern over the role of food and beverage marketing to youth in the childhood obesity epidemic, American children and adolescents - especially those from communities of color - are still immersed in advertising and marketing environments that primarily promote unhealthy foods and beverages. Despite some positive steps, the evidence shows that the food and beverage industry self-regulation alone is not likely to significantly reduce marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to youth. A variety of research is needed to monitor industry marketing of unhealthy products to young people, and identify the most promising approaches to improve children's food marketing environments. The continued presence of unhealthy marketing toward children despite years of industry self-regulation suggests it is time for stronger action by policymakers to protect young people from harmful marketing practices.

  20. SHOPPER MARKETING STRATEGY IN FOOD RETAILING

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zoran Bogetic; Dragan Stojkovic; Sinisa Milosevic

    2016-01-01

    .... The paper considers and analyzes the characteristics of urban food retail market shoppers, and based on the findings of the conducted research concludes that adaptation of shopper marketing strategies is necessary...

  1. Market power behaviour in the danish food marketing chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and demonstrates an econometric approach to analysing food industry firms' market pricing behaviour within the framework of translog cost functions and based on firm-level accounts panel data. The study identifies effects that can be interpreted as firms' market power behaviour...... in output or input markets. The most robust indications of market power behaviour in output markets are found in the pork and poultry processing sectors, as well as for firms in the bakeries sector. On the other hand, the most robust market power behaviour indications regarding input markets are found...... for poultry processing. In general, the patterns with regard to market power behaviour seem to be more clearly identified in the processing sectors than in the distribution sectors....

  2. Evolutions in food marketing, quantifying the impact, and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Georgina

    2013-03-01

    A case study on interactive digital marketing examined the adequacy of extant policy controls and their underpinning paradigms to constrain the effects of this rapidly emerging practice. Findings were interactive digital marketing is expanding the strategies available to promote products, brands and consumer behaviours. It facilitates relational marketing; the collection of personal data for marketing; integration of the marketing mix, and provides a platform for consumers to engage in the co-creation of marketing communications. The paradigmatic logic of current policies to constrain youth-oriented food marketing does not address the interactive nature of digital marketing. The evidence base on the effects of HFSS marketing and policy interventions is based on conceptualizations of marketing as a force promoting transactions rather than interactions. Digital technologies are generating rich consumer data. Interactive digital technologies increase the complexity of the task of quantifying the impact of marketing. The rapidity of its uptake also increases urgency of need to identify appropriate effects measures. Independent analysis of commercial consumer data (appropriately transformed to protect commercial confidentiality and personal privacy) would provide evidence sources for policy on the impacts of commercial food and beverage marketing and policy controls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Food Marketing and Management of Mass Sports Games

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Wang

    2015-01-01

    It is a new development concept for the current food marketing to promote the enterprise's food marketing by means of mass sports games. In this study, with an overview of the sports marketing, it analyzes the present situation and the existed questions of Chinese sports nutrition food marketing, putting forward the implementation strategy of food marketing and management of mass sports games.

  4. The Marketing Plan: An Integrative Device for Teaching Marketing Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdine, W. R.; Petersen, James C.

    1980-01-01

    The importance of the marketing plan is stressed as an integrative device for teaching marketing management, and a structure is presented to assist students in designing a marketing plan. Components of this plan include marketing objectives, targeting market and buying motives, external environment and competition, product, price, and promotion.…

  5. The Marketing Plan: An Integrative Device for Teaching Marketing Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdine, W. R.; Petersen, James C.

    1980-01-01

    The importance of the marketing plan is stressed as an integrative device for teaching marketing management, and a structure is presented to assist students in designing a marketing plan. Components of this plan include marketing objectives, targeting market and buying motives, external environment and competition, product, price, and promotion.…

  6. Market conduct and performance of wild and semi-wild food plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Jacob Agea

    2013-06-12

    Jun 12, 2013 ... Indeed the importance and complexity of food marketing systems is normally ... Asia (Padoch, 1988; FAO, 1993). ...... Principles of marketing, 8th Edition, ... perspectives' in technical consultation on the integration of statistical.

  7. The Integration of Corporate Non-Market and Market Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Peihong; Li, Xin; Xie, Xuemei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to systematically examine the key notion of integration of non-market and market strategies in the increasingly popular study of corporate non-market strategies. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is based on a brief literature review of the non-market strategy (NMS......) research that shows the existing literature does not offer a clear and systematic account of the key notion of integration. It suggests any systematic account of integration should address at least three interrelated questions, i.e. why, what and how to integrate non-market and market strategies? Findings......: For the why question, the authors use a formal model to demonstrate that the essence of the most important type of integration synergy lies in the positive spillover or externality from non-market to market strategies. For the what question, the authors identify the contents of integration at three levels, i...

  8. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF THE MARKETING PROCESSES OF CONSUMER FOOD PRODUCT MARKETERS

    OpenAIRE

    Wadsworth, Frank Howard

    1991-01-01

    Increased rivalry in the food industry has led existing food marketers to change from a 'commodity' to a 'marketing' business orientation. This research investigates the marketing process as implemented by several consumer food product marketers. A model of the marketing process was developed using marketing literature and discussions with academicians. Field interviews with consumer food product marketers were conducted to determine their marketing processes and activities. Interview results...

  9. Vertical integration and market power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddigan, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    One of the continuing debates of industrial organization surrounds the importance of market structure in determining a firm's performance. This controversy develops naturally from the difficulties in measuring the relevant variables and the hazards of statistical analysis. The focus of this empirical study is the relationship between vertical integration, as an element of market structure, and market power, as a component of a firm's performance. The model presented in this paper differs from previous efforts because vertical integration is measured by the Vertical Industry Connections (VIC) index. VIC is defined as a function of the relative net interactions among the industries in which a firm operates, and is calculated by use of the national input-output tables. A linear regression model is estimated by means of a random sample of firms selected from the Standard and Poor's COMPUSTAT data base for 1963, 1967, and 1972. Combined cross-sectional, time-series methods are employed. The dependent variable is the price-cost margin; the independent variables include not only VIC, but also the concentration ratio, diversification index, value of assets, capital-output ratio, and sales growth. The results indicate that VIC is significant in increasing the price-cost margin, and thus support the hypothesis that vertical integration is a strategy to enhance market power. 1 figure, 3 tables.

  10. Time Varying Market Integration and Expected Rteurns in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, F.C.J.M.; de Roon, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    We use a simple model in which the expected returns in emerging markets depend on their systematic risk as measured by their beta relative to the world portfolio as well as on the level of integration in that market.The level of integration is a time-varying variable that depends on the market value

  11. PRICE ON THE ORGANIC FOOD MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE ATANASOAIE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present prices on PAE market (PAE- organic foods market. Prices are analyzed in terms of importance and the main factors that contribute to their establishment (quality of products, distribution channels, certification and eco-labeling system, customer segments and market development stage. This paper is based on the investigation of secondary sources, of specialized literature related to PAE consumers. The paper shows that are used three strategic options of prices: prices with high rigidity located in a low or high level and fluctuating prices, characterized by variations on short periods of time. Price is a very important barrier to market development but this importance can be mitigated through appropriate communication policies with the market, which are essential especially for markets in early stages of development.

  12. Predicting support for restricting food marketing to youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Amir; Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D

    2010-01-01

    To address the obesity crisis, public health experts recommend major reductions in the marketing of unhealthy food to youth. However, policies to restrict food marketing are not currently viewed as politically feasible. This paper examines attitudes and knowledge about food marketing and support for restricting unhealthy food marketing [corrected] among one group of constituents: parents. A survey of 807 parents found that those most likely to support food marketing restrictions were also more likely to have negative views of current food practices. [corrected] These findings suggest that increased public education about the harm caused by food marketing may increase public support for policy interventions.

  13. Analyzing Developing Country Market Integration using Incomplete Price Data and Cluster Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ansah, I.G.; Gardebroek, Koos; Ihle, R.; Jaletac, M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent global food price developments have spurred renewed interest in analyzing integration of local markets to global markets. A popular approach to quantify market integration is cointegration analysis. However, local market price data often has missing values, outliers, or short and incomplete s

  14. Processing Food for the Domestic Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte; McCormick, Dorothy; Kamau, Paul

    This paper addresses the domestically owned food-processing industry in Kenya and explores thesale of processed food products to the domestic ‘modern’ retail sector. Food processing represents astep up in the value chain compared to fresh food production and may thus, at least potentially, leadto...... economic development. In focusing on food-processing businesses and on domestic rather thanglobal market sales, this paper distinguishes itself from studies on Sub-Saharan African suppliers toglobal value chains. The potential importance of domestic ‘modern’ retail formats to Kenyan foodsuppliers...... and thus whether food processing – as opposed to fresh foodexports – retains importance for suppliers as well as for the Kenyan economy. This paper aims tocontribute knowledge to this subject on which very little research exists. Based on fieldwork, thepaper shows that a variety of entry barriers exist...

  15. New areas in agricultural and food marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    of the laws of economics that growth in markets for food products, if any, is not in terms of quantity, but in terms of value. - Most industrialised economies are characterised by an oversupply of agricultural products. - A global tendency towards deregulation, decrease of government subsidies to producers...

  16. New areas in agricultural and food marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    of the laws of economics that growth in markets for food products, if any, is not in terms of quantity, but in terms of value. - Most industrialised economies are characterised by an oversupply of agricultural products. - A global tendency towards deregulation, decrease of government subsidies to producers...

  17. Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages and Labour Market Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages andLabour Market Performance@*In a two-country model with trade driven by comparative advantages, it is considered howimperfectly competitive labour markets are affected by lower frictions in international goodstrade. Easier goods trading...

  18. Organic food market in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Živělová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution provides partial results of the research focused on organic food, a product from organic farming. The total area of ecologically farmed areas in the Czech Republic permanently increases, however the offer of organic food is insufficient, in particular in view of their structure. Deficiency in organic food is being solved by imports. Distributors play an important role in the organic food market. In the Czech Republic the largest share from them is occupied by retail chains. Their share continues to grow to the detriment of other sales channels. One of the main factors affecting consumers’ interest in organic food is its price. The comparison of organic food prices and prices of conventional food in the selected retail chains, Globus Czech Republic, limited partnership, SPAR Czech business company Pte., Tesco Stores CZ JSC, AHOLD Czech Republic JSC, BILLA Pte., and in organic food and healthy nutrition stores showed significantly higher prices. The smallest difference in prices can be monitored in the milk and milk products. On the contrary, the largest difference is in fruits, vegetables, eggs and jams. However, the consumers’ awareness of organic food quality is at the same time increasing and the consumers are willing to pay for them a higher price.

  19. Piecemeal versus precipitous factor market integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Dellas (Harris); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractStudies the effects of speed of international factor markets integration within a general equilibrium, two country model. Variant of Diamond's overlapping generations model; Effects of an international factor market liberalization; Determination of the amount of capital needed to

  20. Halal Cat Food for the World Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H.M.S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, University Technology Malaysia (UTM is engaged with a well-known private company in Malaysia to develop halal cat food for the world. A team of scientists from UTM was formed for the development of cat food from preparing palatants to producing canned cat and kibbled cat food formulation on a commercial scale to fulfil the vast market demand, as well as to act as contract manufacturer for this private company. Financial aid is made available by the university and Malaysian government. The promising market potential of cat food is estimated to be over USD27 billion with over 7 million tonnes produced in 2013 (35% of the pet food market. It is expected to grow at 5.5% in value and 2% in volume; and this had driven the project to be initiated by UTM. The idea of halal, itself is a selling point to the Muslim consumers and the world at large.  The world’s Muslim population is estimated to be around 1.6 billion, while the world population is estimated to be at 4.6 billion. The demand for halal products is ever growing with emerging markets in India & China.  In addition, the purchasing power of the Muslims is growing, where between 1990 and 2010, the Growth Domestic Product (GDP per capita for Muslims globally had risen from a Cumulative Annual Growth Rate (CAGR of 6.8% in comparison to global GDP per capita which is only at CAGR of 5.0%. Cat food will come in human contact during feeding, handling, cleaning of feeding utensils under the same washing basin and dishwasher. Many times cat food will engage with human food storage facilities such as in the refrigerator and May to some extent affect the human food chain if it is not halal. Most of the available cat feed produce worldwide is non halal and majority are known to contain residues of porcine, dog materials and blood meal, deem unhealthy and unclean by the Muslims community.

  1. Research on Green Food Marketing Strategy of China

    OpenAIRE

    Qu Yan

    2015-01-01

    With the improvement of people's living standards, people's growing demand for green food is becoming bigger and bigger, but there are some problems in traditional marketing and at the same time, the rapid development of web marketing has impacted greatly on traditional marketing channels of the green food. The study attempts to analyze the development and the problems of green food in our country in traditional marketing, discussed the necessity and feasibility of the traditional green food ...

  2. Marketing Communication of ICT Integrator.

    OpenAIRE

    Šilhavá, Kateřina

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to recommend communication practices drawn from the analysis of the ICT organization and its marketing communication activities. The subsequent objective is to examine ICT market since 90's and to identify its future growth. The thesis studies the specifics of marketing communication whiten the B2B field. The first part appraises B2B market as such which is then compared with B2C market. Additionally, the work introduces communication activities employed to the Czech...

  3. The use of brands in food marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth; Baker, Derek; Møller, Anja Skadkær

    2005-01-01

    of brands introduced by the firm during the past year and iii) the percentage of sales obtained from production under private labels. Firms’ branding behaviour is related to structural variables including firm size, degree of vertical integration, value added as well as firms’ views on food chain......The paper tests a number of hypotheses concerning branding behaviour of the food industry found in the literature. Based on a survey of 109 Danish food industry firms conducted in 2004, three aspects of branding strategies are analysed, i)the number of brands owned by the firm, ii) the number...

  4. Research on Green Food Marketing Strategy of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Yan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the improvement of people's living standards, people's growing demand for green food is becoming bigger and bigger, but there are some problems in traditional marketing and at the same time, the rapid development of web marketing has impacted greatly on traditional marketing channels of the green food. The study attempts to analyze the development and the problems of green food in our country in traditional marketing, discussed the necessity and feasibility of the traditional green food enterprises to develop E-commerce in the Internet era, as well as ways to network marketing development and put forward countermeasures and suggestions for China green marketing.

  5. Halal Food : Thai Halal Food Products and International Market

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Noaman; Wanwang, Alisa

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to examine salient issues in the Halal food business with special focus on entering Thai Halal food products into international market. Market screening plays an important role in entering new market or setting up the business in the foreign country. In this paper we have analyzed the importance of Halal Food for the Muslims and explained the growth of Halal food in French markets. The study focuses attention on the identification of key areas in Halal food export and channel ...

  6. Integrating Ethics into the Marketing Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James H.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how John Carroll University successfully integrated ethics into existing marketing courses. Provides a summary of the current literature on marketing ethics, discusses the educational goals that are met by integrating ethics into the curriculum, examines available curricular options, and details the design and implementation of a segment…

  7. Integral marketing auditing: Basic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Mira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Instead of emphasize the "primacy of planning" in management process marketing control should be viewed as an activity that counterbalances marketing planning and strategy, and not as a "post hoc" adjunct to the planning function. Rather, it is a separate marketing function, which by continuously checking on the validity of plans, provides time and flexibility to an organization. Therefore, in this view, marketing planning and control are counterbalances processes which are performed simultaneously. The essence of feedback control is a measurement of the actual and desired states after action has been taken, and a subsequent correction of activities. In feedforward control the activities are corrected by predicting whether current activities would lead to desired states. The single most important reason why feedforward control is different from feedback control is that its use of information is prognostic. While feedback control tries to solve problems that have occurred, feedforward control tries to discover problems waiting to occur. It is also important to distinguish between financial non-financial and multiple control. Financial control of marketing activities involves control of sales revenue, profitability and return on marketing investment (ROMI. Non-financial control of marketing activities consists of control market share, customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, brand equity and customer equity. Key components of multiple control marketing activities are control of efficiency, effectiveness and marketing audit. Marketing performance measures have moved in three consistent directions over the years: from financial to non-financial output measures, from output to input measures and from undimensional to multidimensional measures.

  8. Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages and Labour Market Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we set up a two-country general equilibrium modelwhere trade unions have wage bargaining power. We show that adecrease in trade distortions inducing further product market integrationgives rise to specialization gains as well as a labour market reformeffect. The implications...... of the specialization gains are similar to anincrease in labour productivity, whereas the labour market reform effectis similar to an increase in the degree of competition in the labourmarket. Wages, employment and welfare increase as a result of furtherproduct market integration. It is interesting to note...

  9. Organic Food Market Segmentation in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tleis, Malak; Roma, Rocco; Callieris, Roberta

    2015-04-01

    Organic farming in Lebanon is not a new concept. It started with the efforts of the private sector more than a decade ago and is still present even with the limited agricultural production. The local market is quite developed in comparison to neighboring countries, depending mainly on imports. Few studies were addressed to organic consumption in Lebanon, were none of them dealt with organic consumers analysis. Therefore, our objectives were to identify the profiles of Lebanese organic consumer and non organic consumer and to propose appropriate marketing strategies for each segment of consumer with the final aim of developing the Lebanese organic market. A survey, based on the use of closed-ended questionnaire, was addressed to 400 consumers in the capital, Beirut, from the end of February till the end of March 2014. Data underwent descriptive analyses, principal component analyses (PCA) and cluster analyses (k-means method) through the statistical software SPSS. Four cluster were obtained based on psychographic characteristics and willingness to pay (WTP) for the principal organic products purchased. "Localists" and "Health conscious" clusters constituted the largest proportion of the selected sample, thus were the most critical to be addressed by specific marketing strategies emphasizing the combination of local and organic food and the healthy properties of organic products. "Rational" and "Irregular" cluster were relatively small groups, addressed by pricing and promotional strategies. This study showed a positive attitude among Lebanese consumer towards organic food, where egoistic motives are prevailing over altruistic motives. High prices of organic commodities and low trust in organic farming, remain a constraint to levitating organic consumption. The combined efforts of the public and the private sector are required to spread the knowledge about positive environmental payback of organic agriculture and for the promotion of locally produced organic goods.

  10. Food marketing on popular children's web sites: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvy, Lisa M; Calvert, Sandra L

    2008-04-01

    In 2006 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) concluded that food marketing was a contributor to childhood obesity in the United States. One recommendation of the IOM committee was for research on newer marketing venues, such as Internet Web sites. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to answer the IOM's call by examining food marketing on popular children's Web sites. Ten Web sites were selected based on market research conducted by KidSay, which identified favorite sites of children aged 8 to 11 years during February 2005. Using a standardized coding form, these sites were examined page by page for the existence, type, and features of food marketing. Web sites were compared using chi2 analyses. Although food marketing was not pervasive on the majority of the sites, seven of the 10 Web sites contained food marketing. The products marketed were primarily candy, cereal, quick serve restaurants, and snacks. Candystand.com, a food product site, contained a significantly greater amount of food marketing than the other popular children's Web sites. Because the foods marketed to children are not consistent with a healthful diet, nutrition professionals should consider joining advocacy groups to pressure industry to reduce online food marketing directed at youth.

  11. New strategies to improve food marketing to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, William H

    2013-09-01

    Federal efforts to address the impact of food marketing on children began more than thirty years ago, when the Federal Trade Commission sought comment on strategies to reduce young children's exposure to food advertising. The food, advertising, and television industries mounted a virulent response, and Congress withdrew the commission's authority to regulate unfair advertising to children. The same industries and Congress responded equally aggressively to the proposed nutrition criteria for food products marketed to children drafted by a working group of federal agencies in 2011. Although federal efforts over the past thirty years have led to modest improvements in food quality and marketing practices, commercial interests have consistently overridden the health concerns of children. Mobilization of parents as a political force to improve standards for food marketed to children, use of social media for counteradvertising, and the development of new technologies to decrease exposure to food advertisements could reduce the impact of food marketing to children.

  12. Market, Country and World Effects on Regional Equity Market Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Wooi Hooy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the fundamental driving forces of regional equity market integration in a trading bloc. The determinant factors are categorized into market attribute, economic fundamentals and world information. Our sample consists of 26 equity markets of ive regional trading blocs, namely AFTA, CER, EFTA, EU and NAFTA over the period of January 1999 to  August  2005.  We  measure  market  integration  based  on  pricing  errors  as  proposed  by Korajczyk (1996 and Levine and Zervos (1998. Using panel regressions, our results show that  equity  integration  in  these  trading  blocs  is  driven  internally,  where  only  individual-market  volatility  and  economic  fundamentals  play  a  signiicant  role  in  the  process.  Intra-bloc  trade  is  found  to  enhance  regional  equity  market  integration,  supporting  the  notion that  regional  convergence  extends  beyond  the  trade  sector  that  is  promoted  in  the  trade agreements.  We  also  document  regime  shifting  effects  during  stock  market  crises,  where most  of  these  markets  became  strongly  integrated  after  a  regional  crisis,  but  integration was signiicantly weakened during a crisis that affected the world markets. Also, the level of equity market integration differs across trading blocs, where the blocs with a smaller number of country members are relatively more integrated. ";} // -->activate javascript

  13. Sustainable food consumption in urban Thailand: an emerging market?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantamaturapoj, K.

    2012-01-01

    The food market in Bangkok has developed from a purely traditional one to a combination between traditional and modern sectors. In 1970s and earlier, fresh markets accounted for a hundred percent of food shopping in Bangkok. From that time on, the modern food retails in Bangkok has rapidly spread si

  14. Sustainable food consumption in urban Thailand: an emerging market?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantamaturapoj, K.

    2012-01-01

    The food market in Bangkok has developed from a purely traditional one to a combination between traditional and modern sectors. In 1970s and earlier, fresh markets accounted for a hundred percent of food shopping in Bangkok. From that time on, the modern food retails in Bangkok has rapidly spread si

  15. Sustainable food consumption in urban Thailand: an emerging market?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantamaturapoj, K.

    2012-01-01

    The food market in Bangkok has developed from a purely traditional one to a combination between traditional and modern sectors. In 1970s and earlier, fresh markets accounted for a hundred percent of food shopping in Bangkok. From that time on, the modern food retails in Bangkok has rapidly spread

  16. Lack of credibility in food markets - driving medium quality food out of the market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan; Graversen, Jesper Tranbjerg

    Some food markets are dominated by high quality and standard quality segments, whereas me-dium quality products are almost absent. A modeling framework with asymmetric information regard-ing true quality of the products and the resulting lack of consumer confidence is presented. Uncer...

  17. Market Competition and the Health Composition of Manufactured Food

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Réquillart, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    There has been surprisingly little research to date on the supply-side role of food manufacturers on equilibrium health outcomes for consumers. In this letter we consider an oligopoly model in which food processors choose the health composition of manufactured food. We show that price competition between food processors leads to unhealthy food composition in the market equilibrium, even under circumstances in which consumers know food composition is unhealthy. Taxes on manufactured food decre...

  18. Capital Markets Integration: The Case of Select South Asia Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Srinivasa Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In these days of globalization, liberalization and IT, nations have become mutually dependent across the globe. The volume of merchandise transactions as well as international capital mobility has been improved. The investors, both domestic and international, are able to optimize portfolio diversification through multi-country investments. Emerging market economies are removing the reins of investment and introduce investor responsive policies to draw overseas finance in the form of FDI or equity participation. Thus, free and perfect capital mobility has become the important feature of highly integrated financial markets. In this context we investigated the degree and direction of capital market integration among select South Asian countries. We found that the markets have long-run interdependency among themselves and the short-run dynamics is significant in few cases. Such findings will keep much relevance for managing international portfolios.

  19. A review on the Integrated Marketing Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, G. Santosh

    2016-01-01

    In the present world of business companies are majorly following the Integrated marketing communication when compared to the traditional marketing communications /marketing mix as a consumer oriented approach that has significantly influenced thinking and acting among all types of companies and organizations facing the realities of competition in the present open economy where the consumer decision is playing a vital role in the purchasing pattern of goods and services that lead to go for IMC...

  20. Merging Advertising and PR: Integrated Marketing Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Patricia B.; Miller, Debra A.

    1994-01-01

    Identifies and compares the perceived educational needs of advertising and public relations practitioners. Explores differences between practitioners in small versus large markets, and assesses practitioners' beliefs about integrated marketing communications (the merger of advertising and public relations under a single organizational unit). (SR)

  1. Integrating Sustainability Education into International Marketing Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Chamila Roshani; Hewege, Chandana Rathnasiri

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to extend the current knowledge of curriculum developments in international business and marketing curricula. Integrating sustainability into business and marketing curricula of the universities are widely debated in previous literature. Sustainability is a global phenomenon; however, curriculum development…

  2. Integrating Strategic Marketing on an Institutional Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sandra S.

    1998-01-01

    Higher education differs from other service enterprises in its social responsibility and the context for decision making. An integrated marketing strategy based on the identified positioning of the institution plays a crucial role in successful enrollment and long-term institutional development. Marketing can make a significant contribution to…

  3. Integrating Sustainability Education into International Marketing Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Chamila Roshani; Hewege, Chandana Rathnasiri

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to extend the current knowledge of curriculum developments in international business and marketing curricula. Integrating sustainability into business and marketing curricula of the universities are widely debated in previous literature. Sustainability is a global phenomenon; however, curriculum development…

  4. Association between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Niven, Philippa; Chapman, Kathy; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria; Morley, Belinda

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined associations between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and reported consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. A cross-sectional survey of 12,188 Australian secondary students aged 12-17 years was conducted, using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Measures included students' level of exposure to commercial television and non-broadcast types of food marketing, whether they had tried a new product or requested a product they had seen advertised, and their reported consumption of fast food, sugary drinks and sweet and salty snacks. Results indicated greater exposure to commercial television, print/transport/school food marketing and digital food marketing were all independently associated with students' food choices. High commercial television viewers (>2h/day) were more likely to report higher consumption of EDNP foods (ORs ranged from 1.31 for fast food to 1.91 for sweet snacks). Some associations between digital food marketing exposure and students' eating behaviors were found; however, print/transport/school food marketing was only related to sweet snack consumption. These study results suggest that cumulative exposure to television food advertising and other food marketing sources are positively linked to adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors. Policy changes to restrict food marketing to young people should include both television and non-broadcast media. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Globalization and internationalization of world food and agricultural product markets

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhyt, Arnabol; Nurgazina, Gulmira

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of globalization and internalization influence on the world food and agricultural product markets is examined in the article. Moreover, the global problem of food safety is also examined.

  6. Product market integration, rents and wage inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Sørensen, Allan

    Globalization in the form of product market integration affects labour markets and produces winners and losers. While there are aggregate gains, it is in general ambiguous how inequality is affected. We explore this issue in a Ricardian model and show that it depends on the balance between...... "protection" and "specialization" rents. In particular, wage inequality among similar workers (residual wage inequality) may be U-shaped, at first decreasing and then increasing in the process of product market integration. Consequently, there may be gains in both the efficiency and the equity dimension until...

  7. IMMIGRANTS’ LABOUR MARKET INTEGRATION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurica-Iris ALEXE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the labour immigration trends in Romania in the context of an evolving institutional, social and economic environment. It investigates the access and participation of the immigrant workforce into the Romanian labour market through the main labour market indicators and it provides an overall view on the immigrants’ labour market integration by using different migrant specific data and descriptive statistics. The paper discusses the advantages and possible socio-economic consequences related to filling labour shortages by means of immigration and the how the labour immigration in Romania is taking shape as a result of employment policies and immigration regime. Furthermore, it reflects on the relevant legislative, institutional and policy developments that impact on the immigrants’ labour market integration in Romania. This research highlights how Romania makes use of the immigrant human capital and whether the characteristics and skills of the immigrant workforce represent a competitive resource on the national labour market.

  8. Integrated marketing communications at solar energy equipment market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.L. Litovchenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article is devoted to the development of the concept of «integrated marketing communications», as well as its adaptation to a specific market of solar energy equipment. The theoretical development of foreign and domestic scholars in the field of IMC is considered. The aim of the article is to define the concept of «integrated marketing communications» and use them in the market of solar еnergy equipment in an information economy. The author's definition of the concept of IMC is given, including the achievement of synergies. The reasons for the transition to the use of modern enterprises IMC in marketing activities are explored, as well as the tendencies of their distribution. The results of the analysis. The article identified the following reasons for the transition to the concept of IMC: reducing the efficiency of the individual instruments of marketing communications policy, the rapid growth of the flow of information and the development of technology marketing communications under the influence of the Internet, and the transition to the individualization of consumption and, consequently, to a two-way interactive marketing communication; glut similar services and products. The study identified the following reasons for the transition to the concept of IMC: reducing the efficiency of the individual instruments of marketing communications policy, the rapid growth of the flow of information and the development of technology marketing communications under the influence of the Internet, and the transition to the individualization of consumption and, consequently, to a two-way interactive marketing communication; glut similar services and products. Trends of the present stage of development of the IMC are demonstrated. The factors that influence formation of the IMC complex of enterprise in the market of solar energy equipment are identified. They are the goals of the firm and its strategies are used , the type of

  9. Global challenges and perspectives of marketing of healthy food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with global trends of healthy food market growth, Serbian export potential as well as with the importance and role of positioning and other marketing strategies in this field. Secondary data will be used for identifying characteristics and range of healthy food market on a global level and key segments. In that context, the economic importance and export potential of this sector in Serbia will be discussed. Food sector accounts for high percentage of total Serbian export. Yet, those products are of low added value, neither branded nor packed. In order to position producers of healthy food on an international market successfully, strength and weaknesses of domestic production and export will be identified as well as measures for its promotion. In this paper, literature review in field of food positioning and marketing will be presented. Various positioning strategies of healthy food will be discussed from the aspect of branding, country of origin image, marketing mix instruments, with special emphasis on promotion and product labelling. Special part of paper will be dedicated to specific aspects of buying and food consumption behaviour. This behaviour is under the influence of numerous factors, both personal and sociodemographic, which will be analyzed in order to identify adequate positioning strategies. At the end, recommendations for successfully healthy food positioning on an international market will be given. We will present ways of improving marketing strategies regarding exploiting identified chances on an international market.

  10. The Role of Marketing in Local Food Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margrete Haugum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Local food producers are often advised to collaborate with other local food producers to jointly participate in marketing and sales activities. Local food producers are often small and must operate many different activities to run their company, so the idea to collaborate may help them to become more efficient. We explore the role of marketing in local food networks through an analysis of marketing strategies and marketing mix in six local food networks in central Norway. When producers participate in food networks, they disconnect from direct relationships with their consumers. The value of this relationship must be considered in addition to costs related to sales and distribution in the network. The networks rely on regional products and regional branding as the main marketing strategy and promote local and localized products.

  11. New Media but Same Old Tricks: Food Marketing to Children in the Digital Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Freeman, Becky; Jenkin, Gabrielle

    2015-03-01

    'New media' refers to digital technologies, which offer unmatched opportunities for food companies to engage with young people. This paper explores the emergence of food marketing using new media, the potential impact of this marketing on young people, and current and potential policy responses to limit exposure to these promotions. Foremost in any informed policy discussion is the need for robust evidence to demonstrate the need for intervention. In this case, such evidence relates to the extent of children's exposures to commercial food promotions via new media, and the nature of these promotions. Approaches to, and challenges of, collecting and assessing these data are discussed. There is accumulating evidence that food marketing on new media is increasing and influences children's food preferences and choices. The impact of integrated campaigns, which reinforce commercial messages across multiple platforms, and of new media, which engage personally with potential consumers, is likely to be greater than that of traditional marketing.

  12. Market Competition and the Health Composition of Manufactured Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F; Réquillart, Vincent

    2016-12-04

    There has been surprisingly little research to date on the supply-side role of food manufacturers on equilibrium health outcomes for consumers. In this letter we consider an oligopoly model in which food processors choose the health composition of manufactured food. We show that price competition between food processors leads to unhealthy food composition in the market equilibrium, even under circumstances in which consumers know food composition is unhealthy. Taxes on manufactured food decrease the healthiness of manufactured foods whenever improved consumer health increases the price elasticity of food demand. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Does food marketing need to make us fat? A review and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandon, Pierre; Wansink, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Food marketing is often singled out as the leading cause of the obesity epidemic. The present review examines current food marketing practices to determine how exactly they may be influencing food intake, and how food marketers could meet their business objectives while helping people eat healthier. Particular attention is paid to the insights provided by recently published studies in the areas of marketing and consumer research, and those insights are integrated with findings from studies in nutrition and related disciplines. The review begins with an examination of the multiple ways in which 1) food pricing strategies and 2) marketing communication (including branding and food claims) bias food consumption. It then describes the effects of newer and less conspicuous marketing actions, focusing on 3) packaging (including the effects of package design and package-based claims) and 4) the eating environment (including the availability, salience, and convenience of food). Throughout, this review underscores the promising opportunities that food manufacturers and retailers have to make profitable “win-win” adjustments to help consumers eat better. PMID:23035805

  14. Does food marketing need to make us fat? A review and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandon, Pierre; Wansink, Brian

    2012-10-01

    Food marketing is often singled out as the leading cause of the obesity epidemic. The present review examines current food marketing practices to determine how exactly they may be influencing food intake, and how food marketers could meet their business objectives while helping people eat healthier. Particular attention is paid to the insights provided by recently published studies in the areas of marketing and consumer research, and those insights are integrated with findings from studies in nutrition and related disciplines. The review begins with an examination of the multiple ways in which 1) food pricing strategies and 2) marketing communication (including branding and food claims) bias food consumption. It then describes the effects of newer and less conspicuous marketing actions, focusing on 3) packaging (including the effects of package design and package-based claims) and 4) the eating environment (including the availability, salience, and convenience of food). Throughout, this review underscores the promising opportunities that food manufacturers and retailers have to make profitable "win-win" adjustments to help consumers eat better.

  15. Marketing foods to children: are we asking the right questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Charlene

    2012-06-01

    The childhood obesity epidemic has prompted a range of regulatory initiatives that seek to reduce the impact of food marketing on children. Policy recommendations by government and public health organizations have suggested regulating the promotion of high-sugar, -fat, and/or -salt foods to children, while the food industry has created voluntary nutrition guidelines to channel child-targeted marketing toward only "better-for-you" products. This article argues that the overarching focus on the nutrient profile of foods (nutritionism) is wrong-headed: The slippage in terms from "better-for-you" foods to "healthy dietary choices" is problematic and also makes it difficult for children to identify the healthy choice. Nutritionism further works to sidestep important questions pertaining to the ethics of food marketing, not to mention the way that marketing foods as fun and entertainment works to encourage overeating in children.

  16. Integrating Renewables in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Conejo, Antonio J.; Madsen, Henrik

    This addition to the ISOR series addresses the analytics of the operations of electric energy systems with increasing penetration of stochastic renewable production facilities, such as wind- and solar-based generation units. As stochastic renewable production units become ubiquitous throughout...... electric energy systems, an increasing level of flexible backup provided by non-stochastic units and other system agents is needed if supply security and quality are to be maintained. Within the context above, this book provides up-to-date analytical tools to address challenging operational problems...... such as: • The modeling and forecasting of stochastic renewable power production. • The characterization of the impact of renewable production on market outcomes. • The clearing of electricity markets with high penetration of stochastic renewable units. • The development of mechanisms to counteract...

  17. Dynamics of Timber Market Integration in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Chandr Jaunky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the performance of the timber markets (Scots pine, Pinus silvestris L. and Norway spruce, Picea abies (L. Karst. by evaluating the order of market integration in three Swedish regions (Central, Northern, and Southern. Quarterly data of delivery prices are employed over the period 1999Q1–2012Q4. Various unit root and cointegration tests have been computed. The results indicate that the variables are integrated of first order and co-integrated, especially after controlling for structural breaks. This supports the law-of-one-price hypothesis (LOP. However, the effects of structural shocks on forestry are arguably significant and these are controlled for while performing a vector error-correction mechanism (VECM-based Granger-causality test. Bi-directional causality between the Northern and central markets is uncovered in the short-run. In the long-run, a similar causal effect is detected between Northern and Southern markets while the central market emerges as the price leader. Further investigation is carried out using variance decompositions and impulse response functions and these approaches also tend to confirm the existence of a single market well, as price interdependence between markets.

  18. Development Environmental Marketing In The Context Of Ecological-Economic Security Agri-Food Markets

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Improved methodological approaches to environmental management that take into account environmental marketing goals at all stages of product life cycle and can solve complex problems in the area of ecological-economic security of agri-food markets.

  19. Consumer response to food labels in an emerging market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Festila, Alexandra Florina; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates consumer response to food labels in an emerging market. More specifically, it measures the levels of awareness, objective and perceived understanding, perceived usefulness and perceived trustworthiness of the most prominent food labels found in the Romanian market. An onli...

  20. Consumer Market for Functional Foods in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Dutra de Barcellos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the consumer market for functional foods (FF in Porto Alegre, South Brazil. Functional food is any healthy food claimed to have a health-promoting or disease-preventing property beyond the basic function of supplying nutrients. Health has been named as the most significant trend and innovation driver in the global food and drinks market. Brazil is one of the leading countries in food production and consumption, and the market for functional foods have been growing 10% per year, three times more than the market for conventional foods. Although this food category is considered mature in some developed markets (such as in Japan, in the Nordic countries and in the U.S, it is still unknown for many consumers, especially those located in developing countries. On the other hand, functional foods has been attracting the attention of multinationals and local food industries in Brazil, since innovation can significantly impact on their competitive advantages. Therefore, in this study, first we are going to identify the availability of functional food products in the local retail market, through observation techniques. Our aim is to confront consumers’ needs with local food companies’ market supply. Secondly, we investigate consumers’ motivations, attitudes and intention to buy functional foods, since the market demands a better understanding of this trend. A survey with 450 consumers was conducted and provided quantitative insights. Results indicate that the market for functional foods in Rio Grande do Sul is incipient, but it is developing fast. There are few local functional food products in the market, but those are attractive to consumers and indicate promising opportunities. The survey shows that interviewed consumers presented positive attitudes towards functional foods and enough purchasing power to buy it. Dieticians, nutritionists and other health professionals have high credibility and could help inform

  1. Grid Integration of Electric Vehicles in Open Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presenting the policy drivers, benefits and challenges for grid integration of electric vehicles (EVs) in the open electricity market environment, this book provides a comprehensive overview of existing electricity markets and demonstrates how EVs are integrated into these different markets...

  2. The Organic Food Market and Marketing Initiatives in Europe: a Preliminary Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Nielsen, Thorkild; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria Louisa

    2003-01-01

    Kristensen NH, Nielsen T, Bruselius-Jensen M, Scheperlen-Bøgh P, Beckie M, Foster C, Midmore P, Padel S (2002): The Organic Food Market and Marketing Initiatives in Europe: a Preliminary Analysis. Final Report to the EU Commission......Kristensen NH, Nielsen T, Bruselius-Jensen M, Scheperlen-Bøgh P, Beckie M, Foster C, Midmore P, Padel S (2002): The Organic Food Market and Marketing Initiatives in Europe: a Preliminary Analysis. Final Report to the EU Commission...

  3. Correlation Analysis between Rural Tourism and Agricultural Food Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Song

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism has much economic benefits, the development of rural tourism can fully utilize rural natural resources, optimizing the agricultural structure and expanding agricultural function. In this study, we make correlation analysis between rural tourism and agricultural food marketing by using time series model. The result shows that: First, rural tourism development will promote the agricultural food marketing in short time, but this effect will reduce gradually in the long time. Second, rural tourism is the granger reason to agricultural food marketing and there exist a long-term equilibrium relationship between them. From the VAR model, we can get that rural tourism will promote agricultural food marketing growth. LnRT at lag 1 period increased 1% can drive LnFPI growth by 0.48%; LnRT at lag 2 period increased 1% can drive LnFPI growth by 0.2%, so the effect of rural tourism on agricultural food marketing is obvious.

  4. Market performance of organic food brands in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Vasilev, Boyan

    The market of organic products grows rapidly. Over the last decade, its value has more than tripled with global sales having increased from 18 billion USD in 2000 to 54.9 billion USD in 2009 (Sahota, 2011). In Denmark the organic food market is the biggest in Europe with a market share of 7...... countries. Apart from market-related conditions, a reason for this growth could be attributed to consumers’ positive attitudes toward organic food products, which prior literature has well documented (Hughner et al., 2007). Little is known however about consumers’ purchase behaviour towards organic food...... products. Such information would be useful since some researchers argue that one way to grow the organic market is by making (existing) consumers more loyal to organic food brands (Wier et al, 2008). This is true if we accept the argument that organic food brands are small and therefore behave as niche...

  5. Market performance of organic food brands in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Vasilev, Boyan

    The market of organic products grows rapidly. Over the last decade, its value has more than tripled with global sales having increased from 18 billion USD in 2000 to 54.9 billion USD in 2009 (Sahota, 2011). In Denmark the organic food market is the biggest in Europe with a market share of 7...... countries. Apart from market-related conditions, a reason for this growth could be attributed to consumers’ positive attitudes toward organic food products, which prior literature has well documented (Hughner et al., 2007). Little is known however about consumers’ purchase behaviour towards organic food...... products. Such information would be useful since some researchers argue that one way to grow the organic market is by making (existing) consumers more loyal to organic food brands (Wier et al, 2008). This is true if we accept the argument that organic food brands are small and therefore behave as niche...

  6. Food Processing and Marketing: New Directions...New Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue uses tomato processing to illustrate the new directions and opportunities available in the food market. Comparative advantage and economies of scale are discussed in relation to markets. Forecasting success in the market is attributed to studying consumer consumption trends by type and monitoring standards of living in 32 newly…

  7. Middle-class household food providers' views and experiences of food marketing in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Quynh Th; Worsley, Anthony

    2016-12-01

    Food marketing has been identified as a target for intervention in the prevention of childhood overweight and obesity within countries and globally, and promotion of healthy diets has been classified as a key strategy to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases and health inequalities. The present study aims to investigate how Vietnamese middle-class household food providers are impacted by food advertising communications, their views of food marketing and the ways they think the government can control food marketing to assist people to consume healthier diets. 810 household food providers participated in the online survey. Frequency counts were calculated using IBM SPSS version 21. Many respondents had been exposed to food marketing; 82.8% had seen food advertising in magazines at least once a month, 65.1% had received free food samples in public places, 68.0% had received food advertising information via email. Many household food providers appeared to support food marketing; 73.3% approved of nutrition education in schools or on television being provided by soft drink or fast food companies, 63.7% supported the marketing of infant formula milk. There were mixed views about what actions the government could implement to control food marketing; 88.2% supported clearer food content on food labels, 84.1% believed that children should learn how to purchase and cook foods at school. A substantial majority of Vietnamese middle-class household food providers appeared unaware of the adverse effects of food marketing. Education and policy leadership in food and nutrition are urgently required.

  8. Global integration of European tuna markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Toribio, Ramòn; Guillotreau, Patrice; Mongruel, Rémi

    2010-07-01

    This paper evaluates the degree of integration between the world market and the major European marketplaces of frozen and canned tuna through both vertical and horizontal price relationships. Spatial linkages are investigated horizontally in order to estimate the connection between the European market and the world-wide market on the primary stage of the value chain. One of the key results is the high level of market integration at the ex-vessel stage, and the price leadership of yellowfin tuna over skipjack tuna. The same approach is applied at the ex-factory level. Basically, the European market for final goods appears to be segmented between the Northern countries consuming low-priced canned skipjack tuna imported from Asia (mainly Thailand) and the Southern countries (Italy, Spain) processing and importing yellowfin-based products sold at higher prices. France appears to be an intermediate market where both products are consumed. The former market is found to be well integrated to the world market and can be considered to be competitive, but there is a suspicion of market power being exercised on the latter. Price relationships are therefore tested vertically between the price of frozen tuna paid by the canneries and the price of canned fish in both Italy and France. The two species show an opposite pattern in prices transmission along the value chain: price changes along the chain are far better transmitted for the “global” skipjack tuna than for the more “European” yellowfin tuna. The results are discussed, along with their implications for the fishing industry.

  9. AN ANALYSIS OF MARKETING CHANNELS OF LOCAL FOOD IN SCOTLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Watts, D.; Leat, Philip M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Local food and its possibilities for addressing sustainable regional growth, food availability, accessibility and affordability has received considerable attention in the discussion on and development of the National Food Policy in Scotland. In terms of methodology, the paper continues the analysis of the local food database for Scotland constructed in Watts et al (2010) by exploring the marketing outlets used by the local food enterprises. This subject is important because it may provide inf...

  10. An assessment of food hygiene and safety at farmers' markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsfold, D; Worsfold, P M; Griffith, C J

    2004-04-01

    Farmers' markets are becoming a more significant part of the food-retailing sector. A survey of farmers' markets was conducted to assess aspects of food hygiene and safety. The views of the public using the markets were also examined. The range of farm products was wide and the methods utilised varied. The markets were usually temporary outdoor events with few facilities. Traders had received elementary food hygiene training and rated their hygiene standards highly. Less than half had risk management procedures in place, most did not perceive their produce as high-risk. They believed consumers to be mainly interested in food quality and to regard food safety issues highly. Consumers shopped at the markets because of the quality of the products sold. Their overall satisfaction with the markets was high and they raised no concerns about food safety. Given the restricted facilities at farmers' markets and the early phase of implementation of hygiene management systems by market traders, it may be precautionary to restrict the sale of farm products at farmers markets to those that are regarded as low-risk.

  11. Market Potential for Vietnamese Organic Food Products in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Dinh, Trang Thu

    2015-01-01

    Organic food product consumption has radically increased nowadays because of the benefits to both human health and environmental protection. The main issue of the thesis was to discover the possibilities for Vietnamese organic food products on the Finnish market based on analyzing subjective and objective elements of both markets. The research was carried out by quantitative research method using a survey. The survey attempts to cover all possible sections of organic food products to e...

  12. Sustainable food consumption in urban Thailand: an emerging market?

    OpenAIRE

    Kantamaturapoj, K.

    2012-01-01

    The food market in Bangkok has developed from a purely traditional one to a combination between traditional and modern sectors. In 1970s and earlier, fresh markets accounted for a hundred percent of food shopping in Bangkok. From that time on, the modern food retails in Bangkok has rapidly spread since the late 1990s. Many chain stores of the transnational supermarkets such as Carrefour, Tesco Lotus, and Casino are discovered everywhere in Bangkok. These multinational supermarkets have global...

  13. Segmentation of the Infant Food Market

    OpenAIRE

    Hrůzová, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical part covers general market segmentation, namely the marketing importance of differences among consumers, the essence of market segmentation, its main conditions and the process of segmentation, which consists of four consecutive phases - defining the market, determining important criteria, uncovering segments and developing segment profiles. The segmentation criteria, segmentation approaches, methods and techniques for the process of market segmentation are also described in t...

  14. Segmentation of the Infant Food Market

    OpenAIRE

    Hrůzová, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical part covers general market segmentation, namely the marketing importance of differences among consumers, the essence of market segmentation, its main conditions and the process of segmentation, which consists of four consecutive phases - defining the market, determining important criteria, uncovering segments and developing segment profiles. The segmentation criteria, segmentation approaches, methods and techniques for the process of market segmentation are also described in t...

  15. Market Integration, Choice of Technology and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops an international trade model where firms in a duopoly may diversify their technologies for strategic reasons. The firms face the same set of technologies given by a tradeoff between marginal costs and fixed costs, but depending on trade costs firms may choose different...... technologies. Market integration may induce a technological restructuring where firms either diversify their technologies or switch to a homogeneous technology. In general, market integration improves welfare. However, a small decrease of trade costs which induces a switch from heterogeneous technologies...

  16. Markets, Climate Change and Food Security in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Hintermann, Beat; Higgins, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    West Africa is one of the most food insecure regions of the world. Sharply increased food and energy prices in 2008 brought the role of markets in food access and availability around the world into the spotlight, particularly in urban areas. The period of high prices had the immediate consequence of sharply increasing the number of hungry people in the region without boosting farmer incomes significantly. In this article, the interaction between markets, food prices, agricultural technology and development is explored in the context of West Africa. To improve food security in West Africa, sustained commitment to investment in the agriculture sector will be needed to provide some protection against global swings in both production and world markets. Climate change mitigation programs are likely to force global energy and commodity price increases in the coming decades, putting pressure on regions like West Africa to produce more food locally to ensure stability in food security for the most vulnerable.

  17. Marketing Strategy for the International Food Shop Keidas : Marketing Strategy: Keidas Food Shop or Intercultural Corporation Limited Liability Company

    OpenAIRE

    Reh, Plyah

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This research for the study of the marketing strategy has been prepared for the Keidas food shop or Intercultural Corporation limited liability Company. This thesis aims to explore the opportunities and possibilities that the company could achieve with an effective and efficient marketing strategy in the future. The oriental food shop has great potential to serve a large Finnish customer base in the Kymenlaakso area, but due to a lack of a marketing strategy, the company has fa...

  18. International trade, regional integration and food security in the Middle East:

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Against the background of increasing interest in closer economic relations in the Middle East, the contribution that greater integration of markets might make to improving food security in the region is investigated, using a quantitative framework for gauging the reduction in instability of market supplies for cereal, meat, and dairy commodities under regional cooperation schemes versus more general policies to increase the integration of Middle East markets with markets in Western Europe and...

  19. Emerging market for sustainable food in Bangkok

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Oosterveer; Kanang Kantamaturapoj; Gert Spaargaren

    2012-01-01

    More and more food is traded all over the world, changing the general pattern of food production and consumption dramatically. This transformation includes increasing consumer demand for safe and environmentally friendly produced food. Food is no longer produced only by farmers in the vicinity where consumers can easily observe how they produce their food. Nowadays, food can be produced in Asia and presented on a supermarket’s shelf in Europe, this unknown origin makes consumers more concerne...

  20. Food Marketing to Children Online: A Content Analysis of Food Company Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Lisa B; Montague, Heather; Wartella, Ellen

    2017-03-01

    Since 2006, many U.S. food and beverage companies have pledged to market healthier foods to children to help combat the childhood obesity epidemic. Despite this, companies' expenditures on online advertising have increased of late. To explore this seemingly contradictory situation, the authors conducted a content analysis of approximately 100 food and beverage brand websites, examining a multitude of online marketing practices across a variety of different products, as well as the relationship between marketing techniques and the nutritional profile of promoted foods. This is the first study to examine if nutrition varied by marketing technique. Few brands maintained child-oriented websites, but the brands that did have child-oriented websites included a large number of games promoting particularly obesogenic food products. Somewhat surprisingly, games with many brand identifiers were paired with slightly less obesogenic foods. These findings present a mixed picture of the threat posed by online child-oriented food marketing.

  1. Integrating refugees into labor markets

    OpenAIRE

    Bevelander, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    For the first time since the Second World War, the total number of refugees amounts to more than 50 million people. Only a minority of these refugees seek asylum, and even fewer resettle in developed countries. At the same time, politicians, the media, and the public are worried about a lack of economic integration. Refugees start at a lower employment and income level, but subsequently “catch up” to the level of family unification migrants. However, both refugees and family migrants do not “...

  2. Food for Thought Man Ponders Life at the Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    IN the past, Chinese food markets were frequented only by housewives. Today, however, it is not strange to see men buying food for the household. I am one of those men. Actually, I often eat ready-made food. My wife never asks me to buy the vegetables. I have only occasionally helped her with that. At the food market, you can observeall kinds of people within a short distance. The food market provides sights hard to come by in cities. When you first go into the market, it seems like you’ve entered another world Greenery is everywhere in the form of Chinese chives, lettuce and peas, mingled with violet eggplants, red

  3. LEADING TRENDS IN THE EUROPEAN FUNCTIONAL FOOD MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kozonova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods market is changing rapidly. Now the market has the highest growth. In the European Union food producers try to fit virtually every product under the "functional" definition. In this article we will review major trends in the EU functional foods market and try to analyze them. It is well known that foods fortified with nutritional and disease-preventing qualities are invigorating the world food industry. Health-conscious consumers are driving the demand for products that aim to promote better health, increase longevity and prevent the onset of chronic diseases. With a fast-emerging middle class, more disposable income, and a greater number of working/more educated women in emerging markets, the worldwide potential for functional foods/beverages is unprecedented. Milk formula, energy drinks, probiotic yogurt, juice drinks, sports drinks, cereal, and biscuits were among the top-performing functional global health and wellness food categories in 2014. There is a breakout of the year's top trends driving the market for functional foods and beverages. A review of recent deal drivers, the fastest-growing products and innovation trends can help businesses identify the most promising entry points to this market.

  4. Consumption, Income, and International Capital Market Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald MacDonald; Tamim Bayoumi

    1995-01-01

    This paper uses consumption patterns across countries to measure capital market integration. It argues that earlier empirical tests of this type were potentially misspecified and proposes a more robust specification. The results indicate that Japan was the only industrialized country for which national consumption was fully integrated with the rest of the world over the period 1973-92. The main source of failure is excess sensitivity of consumption to home income. Particularly within the Euro...

  5. EPA Recognizes Whole Foods Market in Marietta, Ga for Reducing Food Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLANTA - Today, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Regional Administrator Heather McTeer Toney recognized the Whole Foods Market Merchant Walk Marietta Store in Georgia for the store's achievements in EPA's Food Recovery Challenge. Whole Fo

  6. Emerging market for sustainable food in Bangkok

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantamaturapoj, K.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Spaargaren, G.

    2012-01-01

    More and more food is traded all over the world, changing the general pattern of food production and consumption dramatically. This transformation includes increasing consumer demand for safe and environmentally friendly produced food. Food is no longer produced only by farmers in the vicinity where

  7. Emerging market for sustainable food in Bangkok

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantamaturapoj, K.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Spaargaren, G.

    2012-01-01

    More and more food is traded all over the world, changing the general pattern of food production and consumption dramatically. This transformation includes increasing consumer demand for safe and environmentally friendly produced food. Food is no longer produced only by farmers in the vicinity where

  8. [Marketability of food supplements - criteria for the legal assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitweg-Lehmann, Evelyn

    2017-03-01

    To be placed on the market legally, food supplements have to meet national and European food law regulations. This is true for all substances used as well as for the labeling on the packaging of and the advertising for food supplements. The food business operator is responsible for its compliance with all regulations. Therefore, in this article, a concise step-by-step assessment is presented, covering all necessary legal requirements to market food supplements. Additionally, all steps are visualized in a flow chart. All vitamins, minerals and other substances used have to meet the legal conditions. Food business operators have to make sure that their products do not contain medicinal ingredients based on their pharmacologic effect. It is prohibited to place medicinal products as food supplements on the market. Furthermore, food business operators have to make sure that their products are not non-authorized novel foods according to the novel food regulation (EC) no. 258/97. Also, food supplements have to meet the requirements of article 14 of Regulation (EC) No. 178/2002 concerning the safety of foodstuff. Food shall not be placed on the market if it is unsafe. For food supplements that fail the German food-related legal standards but are legally manufactured in another EU member state or are legally put into circulation, the importer requires the so-called general disposition, which must be applied for at the BVL according to § 54 of the German Food and Feed Act. Another possibility for food which fails to meet German food law is to apply for a certificate of exemption according to § 68 of the Food and Feed Act. The food business operator has to meet the harmonized regulations concerning maximum and minimum levels of additives, flavors and enzymes. The packaging has to meet the compulsory labeling as well the voluntary labeling, like health claims. The BVL is also the relevant authority for other tasks concerning food supplements. A figure shows all

  9. Links between energy and food markets. A preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvis, H.J.; Woltjer, G.B.

    2010-04-15

    This report addresses the links between energy and food markets, and the long-term trends and large short-term fluctuations they have undergone. The ways in which these markets are related and which feedback mechanisms must be taken into account in scenario analyses were investigated. On the basis of international studies and prognoses, three links connecting energy and food markets were identified. The first link is formed by the common drivers on the demand side, namely demographic and economic developments, the second link is related to the energy costs of agricultural and food production and distribution, and the third link comprises the role of agriculture as a producer of energy.

  10. Marketing and Distributive Education. Food Marketing Curriculum Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb. Dept. of Business Education and Administration Services.

    This document is one of four curriculum guides designed to provide the curriculum coordinator with a basis for planning a comprehensive program in the field of marketing as well as to provide marketing and distributive education teachers with maximum flexibility. Introductory information provides directions for using the guide and information on…

  11. Stumpage market integration in western national forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean M. Daniels

    2011-01-01

    This study presents results of statistical tests for stumpage market integration on 62 national forests in the Western United States. Quarterly stumpage prices from 1984 to 2007 obtained from cut and sold reports for USDA Forest Service Regions 1, 4, 5, and 6 (Northern, Intermountain, Pacific Southwest, and Pacific Northwest, respectively) were analyzed to establish...

  12. NEW DIRECTIONS IN GLOBAL FOOD MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous,; Gehlhar, Mark J.

    2005-01-01

    Although consumer diets are being upgraded globally, food purchase patterns vary across countries based on income levels. Developing countries are registering rapid increases in retail sales of high-value foods, while developed countries are seeing a rise in sales of products that meet consumer demands for variety, food safety, and quality. To meet these increasingly varied needs, multinational food retailers and manufacturers are expanding their presence in developing countries, and food ret...

  13. Stock Market Integration: Are Risk Premiums of International Assets Equal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusdhianto Setiawan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies previous research on capital market integration and applies a simple international capital asset pricing model by considering the incompleteness in market integration and heteroscedasticity of the market returns. When we disregarded those two factors, we found that stock markets were integrated and the law of one price on risk premiums prevails. However, when the factors were considered, the markets were just partially integrated.

  14. The enchained potential of the local food market

    OpenAIRE

    Blume, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    There is a rising demand for local food which traveled only short distances and is marketed directly by the producer. With growing importance of local food also the amount of literature in this field increased. Yet, literature is lacking to examine the challenges and burdens consumers face while trying to purchase local food. Evidence is shown that a gap exists between the intention of consumers who would like to purchase local food and their actual behavior. However, reasons for this gap are...

  15. African Regional Integration: Implications for Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van M.

    2011-01-01

    This report looks at the African regional trade, regional integration agreements (RIAs) and the implications for food security. An overview is presented on the present state of African regional integration and the determinants of regional trade in agriculture and food commodities. In particular the

  16. Food systems transformations, ultra-processed food markets and the nutrition transition in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Friel, Sharon

    2016-12-03

    Attracted by their high economic growth rates, young and growing populations, and increasingly open markets, transnational food and beverage corporations (TFBCs) are targeting Asian markets with vigour. Simultaneously the consumption of ultra-processed foods high in fat, salt and glycaemic load is increasing in the region. Evidence demonstrates that TFBCs can leverage their market power to shape food systems in ways that alter the availability, price, nutritional quality, desirability and ultimately consumption of such foods. This paper describes recent changes in Asian food systems driven by TFBCs in the retail, manufacturing and food service sectors and considers the implications for population nutrition. Market data for each sector was sourced from Euromonitor International for four lower-middle income, three upper-middle income and five high-income Asian countries. Descriptive statistics were used to describe trends in ultra-processed food consumption (2000-2013), packaged food retail distribution channels (1999-2013), 'market transnationalization' defined as the market share held by TFBCs relative to domestic firms (2004-2013), and 'market concentration' defined as the market share and thus market power held by the four leading firms (2004-2013) in each market. Ultra-processed food sales has increased rapidly in most middle-income countries. Carbonated soft drinks was the leading product category, in which Coca-Cola and PepsiCo had a regional oligopoly. Supermarkets, hypermarkets and convenience stores were becoming increasingly dominant as distribution channels for packaged foods throughout the region. Market concentration was increasing in the grocery retail sector in all countries. Food service sales are increasing in all countries led by McDonalds and Yum! Brands. However, in all three sectors TFBCs face strong competition from Asian firms. Overall, the findings suggest that market forces are likely to be significant but variable drivers of Asia

  17. Graduates’ integration on the labour market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palade, A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a research study about the integration of 1st cycle graduates on the labour market. Marketing research was carried out among university graduates, emphasising their career path after graduating, taking into account that graduates’ job placement has acquired great importance in higher education. The conclusion drawn in the paper is that career counselling and orientation should be fostered for students, while more weight should be given to practical placements in the study programs’ curriculum, in order to build specific competences for students, which make them capable to obtain a better job position after graduation.

  18. Emerging market for sustainable food in Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Oosterveer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available More and more food is traded all over the world, changing the general pattern of food production and consumption dramatically. This transformation includes increasing consumer demand for safe and environmentally friendly produced food. Food is no longer produced only by farmers in the vicinity where consumers can easily observe how they produce their food. Nowadays, food can be produced in Asia and presented on a supermarket’s shelf in Europe, this unknown origin makes consumers more concerned about the safety of their food. Food scandals such as mad cow disease, bird flu, and GMOs make consumers concerned, uncertain and worried about their food. In response to these concerns, modern retailers in many countries improve their sustainable development policy and actively increase the provision of sustainable food. As a newly industrialized country in Southeast Asia, Thailand can be expected to witness a similar increasing domestic demand for sustainable food products, particularly in its urban areas. The general patterns of global change affect Thailand as well, but the specific processes of change differ due to specific conditions of urban Thailand. This paper analyzes the process of change towards sustainable food provision in Bangkok by investigating how consumers and the system of provision interact in retail outlets.

  19. Gluten-free food - possible market potential

    OpenAIRE

    Kamil Pícha

    2006-01-01

    Food intolerance touches no small part of people. These people have one more care when buying food. They have to find appropriate food product and it is sometimes quite difficult. This group of consumers could be potentially an interesting segment to target. This article shows basic needs of consumers with gluten intolerance and explores potential solution on the part of producers and services providers.

  20. Labeling in Food Industries – a Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Neacºu Nicoleta Andreea

    2012-01-01

    The objective of foodstuff labeling is to guarantee that consumers have access to complete information on the content and composition of products, in order to protect their health and their interests. Other information may provide details on a particular aspect of the product, such as its origin or production method. Marketers use food labeling as a strategy to attract customers and promote products. In this paper we present role of food labeling for consumers, but also in marketing.

  1. The effects of banning advertising in junk food markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois, Pierre; Griffith, Rachel; O'Connell, Martin

    2017-01-01

    There are growing calls to restrict advertising of junk foods. Whether such a move will improve diet quality will depend on how advertising shifts consumer demands and how firms respond. We study an important and typical junk food market { the potato chips market. We exploit consumer level exposure to adverts to estimate demand, allowing advertising to potentially shift the weight consumers place on product healthiness, tilt demand curves, have dynamic effects and spillover effects across bra...

  2. The Serbian functional food market: Does regulation make a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Žaklina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on empirical analysis of the Serbian functional food market and its comparison with those in other Western Balkan countries (WBC. The purpose is to examine whether the existence of regulation, as an institutional precondition, makes a difference on the operating of the functional food market. This market is a new, fast developing segment, based on health claims made for food. Consumers in Serbia cannot verify health claims either before or after the purchase/consumption, since the property rights on information are extremely weak. Additionally, with successful innovation the free-rider problem usually occurs. Thus, strong institutional support is necessary to ensure regular market functioning. In order to identify the effects of regulation and some other factors with crucial influence on the differences between Serbian and other WBC functional food markets, pooled cross sectional analysis is conducted. The fixed-group effects model is estimated based on data of product categories observed across WBC. Differences in the current level of WBC market development could be explained by the existence of legal regulation, competition, and other factors. All results implicate the necessity of regulatory supervision as well as closer cooperation between government, the private sector, consumer groups, academics, and the research community in further functional food market development in Serbia.

  3. Marketing innovation in rural small food industries in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Soltani, S.; Azadi, H.; Hosseini, S.J.F.; Witlox, F.; Van Passel, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Marketing innovation is essential for small industries to transform products into profit; therefore, understanding its nature and determinants is of utmost importance. This study aimed at understanding marketing innovation and its determinants in the 60 small food industries in the rural areas of Tehran province, Iran. Using a census sampling method, 111 managers of these firms were interviewed. Results showed that the firms’ performance in marketing innovation is generally weak, and a higher...

  4. China: Between Social Stability and Market Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni B. Andornino; Russell G. Wilcox

    2006-01-01

    China's gradual integration with the global market is responsible for exceptional rates of economic growth and for the substantial sociopolitical stability enjoyed by the country over the past decades. Nevertheless, the choice to increasingly adhere to the competitive dynamic of the market has thrown up a battery of problems for China's leadership, as increasing affluence has favored the pluralization and diversification of social interests. In a country where the existence of divergent and competing social claims has traditionally been regarded as a grave threat to stability, marketization, whereas on the one hand acting as a source of political legitimacy, has, on the other, paved the way for a potentially more strained relationship between relevant corporative interests and the central government. By studying China's recent development from the complementary perspectives of the "horizontal" and "vertical" forms of decentralization and devolution, this paper aims to highlight the tensions with which China has had to contend since its adoption of reform and opening-up policies in the late 1970s. It aims also to suggest how the Chinese leadership's instinct for continued social control has cut against market reform just enough to effect a process of controlled macroeconomic integration that has been more successful than wholesale resistance or immediate unquestioning acceptance would have been.

  5. Nutritional quality of foods marketed to children in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Matthew D; Clements, Dennis; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E

    2014-02-01

    Evidence suggests that exposure to advertising of unhealthy foods may contribute to increased rates of obesity in children. This study examined the extent to which television stations marketed unhealthy foods to children during after-school programming aired over one week in La Ceiba, Honduras. Content analysis was performed on four television stations, including one broadcast station and three cable networks. Eighty hours of programming were recorded and analyzed. Advertised products were categorized as food or non-food items, with food items further classified as healthy or unhealthy. Advertisements were coded as those aimed at children, adults, or both, and chi-square tests were used to compare the proportion of unhealthy advertisements by target audience. A total of 2271 advertisements aired during the observation period, with 1120 marketing products (49.3%). Of those, 397 (35.4%) promoted foods-30.2% were for healthy foods and 69.8% for unhealthy foods. The unhealthy foods were all advertised on cable networks and not the broadcast station. Children appeared to be targeted more than adults in advertisements for unhealthy foods (92.1%, p<0.001). Cable television programming during after-school hours advertised primarily unhealthy foods. Exposure to these advertisements may promote consumption of unhealthy foods by children, increasing their risk of obesity.

  6. Strategic Orientation and Order of Market Entry of Food Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rasoul ghollamzadeh

    2011-12-01

    One of the strategic launch decisions is the order of market entry. Adoption of a suitable competitive strategy is dependent on firm's decision on market entry earlier or later than competitors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between order of market entry and firms’ strategic orientation. For this purpose, three strategies have been defined as cost leadership strategy, innovation differentiation strategy and marketing differentiation strategy. In this study, the essential question is whether firms use a different strategy based on their order of market entry? The proposed model has been examined on a sample of 102 manufacturing companies in the food industry using Structural Equation Modeling based on the methodology of Partial Least Squares (PLS. Findings indicate a direct influence of order of market entry on adopting a particular strategy by the firms, so that pioneer companies tend more to use differentiation strategy at two levels of marketing and innovation, while cost leadership is more common among followers.

  7. Strategic Orientation and Order of Market Entry of Food Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Ghollamzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the strategic launch decisions is the order of market entry. Adoption of a suitable competitive strategy is dependent on firm's decision on market entry earlier or later than competitors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between order of market entry and firms’ strategic orientation. For this purpose, three strategies have been defined as cost leadership strategy, innovation differentiation strategy and marketing differentiation strategy. In this study, the essential question is whether firms use a different strategy based on their order of market entry? The proposed model has been examined on a sample of 102 manufacturing companies in the food industry using Structural Equation Modeling based on the methodology of Partial Least Squares (PLS. Findings indicate a direct influence of order of market entry on adopting a particular strategy by the firms, so that pioneer companies tend more to use differentiation strategy at two levels of marketing and innovation, while cost leadership is more common among followers.

  8. Market surveillance for the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen

    1993-01-01

    Executive Summary: 1. We define market surveillance as the collection of information about variables which will allow inferences about the attractiveness of a company's present and future offerings. The attractiveness, in turn, will depend on the value customers perceive in a product relative...... to competing products and relative to its price. Such information on determinants of value perception and costs can be used in the strategy formulation of the company. 2. We define a market surveillance system as a set of methods/instruments to regularly select, collect, and process data about a market and its...... actors, with the aim of detecting changes in those long-term trends, which are expected to influence the attractiveness of a company's present an future offerings. 3. Different types of market surveillance systems can be distinguished based on the actors it covers (distributors/end users...

  9. Analysis of marketing instruments used by domestic organic food producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vehapi Semir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The overview of previous research results points out to the fact that the majority of the sources related to the organic food marketing belong to the literature based on the research of consumers, with the lack of extensive research of organic food producers. Thus, the results obtained by the quantitative research of organic food producers on the territory of the Republic of Serbia, are presented in this paper. The main marketing mix instruments (4P are in the focus of analysis, as the most beneficial way of determining the success of marketing activities of the organic food producers in Serbia. In order to get a comprehensive idea of the success of the market activity of the producers, the obtained results are explained in regard to the theoretical knowledge of consumer behavior, acquired by an extensive overview of the relevant literature. The research results are significant, both for the producers of organic food, as well as for traders, because they indicate the key elements to improve the placement of organic food products originating in Serbia. As an important contribution of the paper to the topic, recommendations for the development of an appropriate marketing strategy are given in the conclusion.

  10. Market Integration Dynamics and Asymptotic Price Convergence in Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. García-Hiernaux (Alfredo); D.E. Guerrero (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes the market integration process of nominal prices, develops a model to analyze market integration, and presents a test of increasing market integration. A distinction is made between the economic concepts of price conver- gence in mean and variance. When both types of

  11. Market Integration Dynamics and Asymptotic Price Convergence in Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. García-Hiernaux (Alfredo); D.E. Guerrero (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we analyse the market integration process of the relative price distribution, develop a model to analyze market integration, and present a formal test of increasing market integration. We distinguish between the economic concepts of price convergence in mean and in

  12. Targeted Food Marketing to Youth: Engaging Professionals in an Online Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katras, Mary Jo; Kunkel, Kelly; Croymans, Sara R.; Routh, Brianna; Schroeder, Mary; Olson, Carrie Ann

    2014-01-01

    The use of technology provides unique ways to create an engaged online community of learning for professionals that can be integrated into existing and future Extension programming. The Targeted Food Marketing to Youth online professional development course uses strategies and tools to create and support an engaged online community.

  13. Milking drylands : gender networks, pastoral markets and food security in stateless Somalia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nori, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Milking Drylands research initiative addresses the critical issues of food security, market integration, gender roles and governance matters in a peculiar area of the world, the Somali ecosystem. The research aims at exploring interesting dynamics of ongoing social change, in order to stimulate

  14. Integrating protection into food aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Bizzarri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Food Programme (WFP does not have a specific protection mandate but its activities are increasingly shaped by awareness of the need to protect women and girls from sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV.

  15. Wastewater irrigation, unobservable food quality and the efficiency of local food markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gengenbach, M.F.; Weikard, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    Food irrigated with untreated wastewater is considered low quality because of health hazards that they can produce. When consumers cannot distinguish food qualities, asymmetric information threatens the efficiency of local food markets. We examine in a sequential game whether prices can credibly

  16. Presence of nitrates in baby foods marketed in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Sebastião Rebelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the current levels of nitrates in baby foods marketed in Lisbon, Portugal to estimate the toxicological risk associated with their intake. The nitrate content was determined in bottled baby foods of four varieties: vegetable-based foods, meat-based foods, fish-based foods, and fruit-based foods. A total of 39 samples were analyzed over the period 2010–2011. Average and median levels of nitrate in baby foods were lower than the maximum limits established by European Union legislation (200 mg kg−1. Median nitrate values in baby foods were 61, 30, 39, and 15 mg kg−1 w/w for vegetable-based baby foods, meat-based baby foods, fish-based baby foods, and fruit-based baby foods, respectively. The estimated nitrate daily intake through bottled baby foods for infants indicate that individually, these foods are not able to induce nitrate toxicity in the children population.

  17. Observations of marketing on food packaging targeted to youth in retail food stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Moise, Imelda K; Geiger, Sarah D

    2011-09-01

    There is growing evidence that exposure to food marketing influences dietary preferences among youth. Few studies exploring this association, however, have focused on the retail food store environment where families negotiate the influence of food and beverage marketing on purchasing practices. Consequently, we sought to examine: (i) the extent to which foods marketed on the internet and television to youth are also available and marketed in retail food stores, and (ii) whether differences exist in the marketing practices across store types and by neighborhood racial composition. In 2008, a cross-sectional survey of 118 food stores was conducted in four Midwestern cities in the United States. Results showed that 82% of stores assessed carried items commonly marketed to youth via television or the internet. The items most likely to have some type of marketing technique were noncarbonated drinks (97.7%), fruit and cereal bars (76.9%), and soda (62.2%). Grocery stores were significantly more likely than convenience stores to have marketing for breads and pastries (34.6% vs. 17.9%), breakfast cereals (52.0% vs. 22.9%), cookies and crackers (54.2% vs. 25.3%), dairy (70.8% vs. 42.7%), and ice cream (23.8% vs. 9.8%). Stores located in black neighborhoods were significantly more likely to have marketing, in comparison to white neighborhoods, for breads and pastries (35.7% vs. 17.1%), breakfast cereals (44.4% vs. 25.0%), and cookies and crackers (48.1% vs. 26.3%). Our results highlight the importance of examining food marketing techniques in the retail food store environment, where visual cues from television and the internet may be reinforced.

  18. DEEPENING SERVICES MARKET INTEGRATION - A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Pelkmans

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The greatest asset of the European Union is undoubtedly its internal market. However, the internal market is not completed: it suffers from a giant hole with respect to many services. The present contribution addresses the status of services in the internal market and, in particular, the horizontal liberalisation (or, the lack of it of services outside the two large sectors which greatly deepened market integration (6 modes of transport and 3 financial services markets. Because a horizontal perspective on services in the EU is still little understood, it is briefly summarized what services really are and how their regulatory logic in the internal market can help to classify them. The (strong economic case for deepening services market integration is built on recent empirical economic analysis as well as simulation. This is followed by a discussion, with flowchart, of the Bolkestein draft directive, against the backdrop of the frustrating lack of, or at best, selective progress on services for decades. A survey of economic impact studies of the draft directive is provided, too, underpinning its importance even when the infamous origin principle is taken out. Some light is subsequently shed on the tumultuous politicisation of the services debate. Emphasis is laid on the socio-economic context (which, it is submitted, sharpened the discussion at times into polarisation and a series of other factors such as the diversity of the national regulatory frameworks of services and the labour employed, the complexity of the draft directive, the potentially radical nature of the origin principle (especially for those not aware of the case law of the ECJ, the dominant role of the EP and the opportunism of leading national politicians. Finally, directive 2006/123 –meanwhile in force – is explained and briefly assessed. Apart from the conspicuous manifestation of 'Angst' in drafting the directive, the (de merits are set out. The conclusion is that a badly

  19. Politics in food markets: alternative modes of qualification and engaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Carvalho de Rezende

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are increasingly practicing an alternative model of politics when they make food choices influenced by civic concerns. The new markets that emerge in this context carry specific modes of qualification that makes food products valuable not only for their intrinsic properties, but also for features associated with their production and distribution. This paper aims to describe the different modes of political qualification and consumer engagement that operate in food markets based on secondary data collected in papers, books, certification norms, and websites. Three distinct "political food markets" are identified: a Fair Trade; b sustainable agriculture; and c vegetarian. Whilst the latter is based on a boycott of "bad" products, the other two focus on "good" alternatives. Different types of political engagement are associated to these markets, ranging from a delegation form in Fair Trade, empowered consumption in sustainable agriculture, to a lifestyle engagement regarding vegetarianism. Market devices such as certification play a major role in the growth of these markets, but also affect the type of engagement that is solicited from consumers.

  20. Evaluating Industry Self-Regulation of Food Marketing to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Dale L; Castonguay, Jessica S; Filer, Christine R

    2015-08-01

    Concern has grown about the role of televised food advertising as a contributor to childhood obesity. In response, the food industry adopted a program of self-regulation, with participating companies pledging to limit child-targeted advertising to healthier products. The implicit promise of the industry initiative is a significant improvement in the overall nutritional quality of foods marketed to children, thereby negating the need for governmental regulation to accomplish that objective. This study assesses the efficacy of industry self-regulation by comparing advertising content on children's TV programs before and after self-regulation was implemented. A systematic content analysis of food advertisements (n=625 in 2007, n=354 in 2013) appearing in children's TV programs on the most popular cable and broadcast channels was conducted. All analyses were conducted in 2014. Findings indicated that no significant improvement in the overall nutritional quality of foods marketed to children has been achieved since industry self-regulation was adopted. In 2013, 80.5% of all foods advertised to children on TV were for products in the poorest nutritional category, and thus pose high risk for contributing to obesity. The lack of significant improvement in the nutritional quality of food marketed to children is likely a result of the weak nutritional standards for defining healthy foods employed by industry, and because a substantial proportion of child-oriented food marketers do not participate in self-regulation. The lack of success achieved by self-regulation indicates that other policy actions are needed to effectively reduce children's exposure to obesogenic food advertising. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sustainable Food Governance by Governments and Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The environmental consequences of the increasing global seafood production and consumption are substantial and drive a search for providing more adequate governance responses. In recent years, market-based approaches to sustainable seafood governance have gained considerable traction. Born in part

  2. Review Study on Main Models of Market Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Feng

    2008-01-01

    With the endless strengthening of the economic globalization trend, the world market gradually steps into a new turn of the market integration period. Market integration in China is always the key study field of academic communities, but it is developed late, whatever content system or methodology shall be greatly improved as expected. This paper aims at summarizing and reviewing the study on the content system and main demonstrations of market integration in order to provide theoretical guide and methodological basis for related studies.

  3. Food Marketing to Children - Introduction to Ethical Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Květa Olšanová

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The working paper provides an overview of key stakeholders involved in the food marketing to children in Europe and in the Czech Republic. It analyzes the role of the legislation as well as of voluntary codes of conduct in the food industry. The industry part of the issue is also covered by explanation of their role and position in the obesity issue. The form of food industry cooperation at the Food Chamber through a working group of involved companies is analyzed and an example of the corporate responsibility program is shown. The paper is going to serve as a review of the issue for further exploration needs.

  4. Are South East Europe stock markets integrated with regional and global stock markets?

    OpenAIRE

    Guidi, Francesco; Ugur, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses whether stock markets of South East Europe (SEE) have become more integrated with regional and global stock markets during 2000s. Using a variety of co integration methodologies we show that SEE stock markets have no long-run relationship with their mature counterparts. This means that SEE markets might be immunized to external shocks. We also model time varying correlations among these markets by using Multivariate Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroschedastic (...

  5. Determinants influencing consumer behaviour in organic food market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Frýdlová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a treatise of consumer behaviour in the Czech foods market, respectively, organic food market. This concerns comprehensive analysis of consumer behaviour, which places great emphasis on the motivating factors and barriers, which substantially influence the individual consumers when deciding between conventional foods and organic foods and are operationally broken down into a set of empirical indicators. The database comes from a questionnaire survey to ascertain the trends in the development of the consumption of conventional foods and organic foods including the shopping behaviour of the individual consumers. The results of the questionnaire survey were evaluated by analysis of the qualitative features and other sophisticated statistical methods were also used. Based on the results obtained, the influence of the individual factors on the decision-making behaviour of the consumers when purchasing foods. The main factors that influence consumer behaviour were considered to be the income of the consumers, price of the foods, attitudes that influence the purchase of foods.

  6. Market Definition in Grocery Retailing: The Whole Foods Case

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Jódar-Rosell; Jordi Gual

    2008-01-01

    As in many other antitrust cases, the delineation of the relevant product market was the critical issue in the Whole Foods and Wild Oats merger. Setting the market boundaries containing the set of products in direct competition with those of the merging parties is a very difficult task in the presence of product differentiation. The varieties produced by each of the firms differ in several dimensions.

  7. Food marketing to children in the context of a marketing maelstrom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Susan E

    2004-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health problem in the United States, yet US children are targeted as never before with marketing for foods high in sugar, fat, salt, and calories. Food marketing to children is highly sophisticated, increasingly well-funded, and takes place within the context of a barrage of other kinds of child-targeted marketing. The proliferation and sophistication of electronic media, the escalation of marketing in schools, changing families, and a political climate that favors deregulation have allowed marketers unprecedented access to children, including babies and toddlers. The notion--promulgated by the food industry--that parents can "just say no" to requests for highly marketed snacks and junk food is simplistic at best and cynical at worst. Instead of being viewed as a familial problem, the current marketing maelstrom should be viewed as a societal issue and addressed as such. Restriction of advertising to children is common in industrial democracies other than the United States--and is just one of many corrective actions that could be taken by our governments.

  8. The role of market orientation on market chaos: A case study fast food industry

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of market orientation on small businesses active in fast food industry. Using a simple random method, the study selects a sample 278 fast food units out of approximately 1000 existing restaurants in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among regular fast food consumers. Using structural equation modeling, the study has detected that there were positive and meaningful relationships between continu...

  9. The role of market orientation on market chaos: A case study fast food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Hosseinzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of market orientation on small businesses active in fast food industry. Using a simple random method, the study selects a sample 278 fast food units out of approximately 1000 existing restaurants in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among regular fast food consumers. Using structural equation modeling, the study has detected that there were positive and meaningful relationships between continuous changes on consumer preferences on products and services on one side and market orientation on the other side.

  10. Digital junk: food and beverage marketing on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise; Chapman, Kathy; Chapman, Simon; Gill, Tim; King, Lesley

    2014-12-01

    We assessed the amount, reach, and nature of energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) food and beverage marketing on Facebook. We conducted a content analysis of the marketing techniques used by the 27 most popular food and beverage brand Facebook pages in Australia. We coded content across 19 marketing categories; data were collected from the day each page launched (mean = 3.65 years of activity per page). We analyzed 13 international pages and 14 Australian-based brand pages; 4 brands (Subway, Coca-Cola, Slurpee, Maltesers) had both national and international pages. Pages widely used marketing features unique to social media that increase consumer interaction and engagement. Common techniques were competitions based on user-generated content, interactive games, and apps. Four pages included apps that allowed followers to place an order directly through Facebook. Adolescent and young adult Facebook users appeared most receptive to engaging with this content. By using the interactive and social aspects of Facebook to market products, EDNP food brands capitalize on users' social networks and magnify the reach and personal relevance of their marketing messages.

  11. Digital Junk: Food and Beverage Marketing on Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise; Chapman, Kathy; Chapman, Simon; Gill, Tim; King, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the amount, reach, and nature of energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) food and beverage marketing on Facebook. Methods. We conducted a content analysis of the marketing techniques used by the 27 most popular food and beverage brand Facebook pages in Australia. We coded content across 19 marketing categories; data were collected from the day each page launched (mean = 3.65 years of activity per page). Results. We analyzed 13 international pages and 14 Australian-based brand pages; 4 brands (Subway, Coca-Cola, Slurpee, Maltesers) had both national and international pages. Pages widely used marketing features unique to social media that increase consumer interaction and engagement. Common techniques were competitions based on user-generated content, interactive games, and apps. Four pages included apps that allowed followers to place an order directly through Facebook. Adolescent and young adult Facebook users appeared most receptive to engaging with this content. Conclusions. By using the interactive and social aspects of Facebook to market products, EDNP food brands capitalize on users’ social networks and magnify the reach and personal relevance of their marketing messages. PMID:25322294

  12. Low-calorie sweeteners in food and food supplements on the Italian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, Steven; Goscinny, Séverine; Le Donne, Cinzia; Van Loco, Joris

    2015-01-01

    This study determines the occurrence and concentration levels of artificial low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) in food and food supplements on the Italian market. The analysed sample set (290 samples) was representative of the Italian market and comprised of beverages, jams, ketchups, confectionery, dairy products, table-top sweeteners and food supplements. All samples were analysed via UPLC-MS/MS. The method was in-house validated for the analysis of seven LCSs (aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, neotame and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone) in food and for five LCSs (aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate and sucralose) in food supplements. Except for cyclamate in one beverage which exceeded the maximum level (ML) with 13%, all concentrations measured in food were around or below the ML. In food supplements, 40 of the 52 samples (77%) were found to be above the ML, with exceedances of up to 200% of the ML.

  13. Integrated Marketing in Higher Education. Research Report 01-01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, L. Michelle; Cejda, Brent D.

    Integrated marketing deals with aspects often referred to as the "4 Ps": product, price, place, and promotion. These aspects have also been described as the "4 Cs": customer, cost, convenience, and communication. Integrated marketing has been defined as "a listening-first, database-dependent approach to marketing that includes both a willingness…

  14. Flexible reserve markets for wind integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Alisha R.

    The increased interconnection of variable generation has motivated the use of improved forecasting to more accurately predict future production with the purpose to lower total system costs for balancing when the expected output exceeds or falls short of the actual output. Forecasts are imperfect, and the forecast errors associated with utility-scale generation from variable generators need new balancing capabilities that cannot be handled by existing ancillary services. Our work focuses on strategies for integrating large amounts of wind generation under the flex reserve market, a market that would called upon for short-term energy services during an under or oversupply of wind generation to maintain electric grid reliability. The flex reserve market would be utilized for time intervals that fall in-between the current ancillary services markets that would be longer than second-to-second energy services for maintaining system frequency and shorter than reserve capacity services that are called upon for several minutes up to an hour during an unexpected contingency on the grid. In our work, the wind operator would access the flex reserve market as an energy service to correct for unanticipated forecast errors, akin to paying the generators participating in the market to increase generation during a shortfall or paying the other generators to decrease generation during an excess of wind generation. Such a market does not currently exist in the Mid-Atlantic United States. The Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection (PJM) is the Mid-Atlantic electric grid case study that was used to examine if a flex reserve market can be utilized for integrating large capacities of wind generation in a lowcost manner for those providing, purchasing and dispatching these short-term balancing services. The following work consists of three studies. The first examines the ability of a hydroelectric facility to provide short-term forecast error balancing services via a flex

  15. Analytical Approaches to Verify Food Integrity: Needs and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Richard H; Tran, Lien-Anh; Cavin, Christophe; Zbinden, Pascal; Konings, Erik J M

    2016-09-01

    A brief overview of the main analytical approaches and practices to determine food authenticity is presented, addressing, as well, food supply chain and future requirements to more effectively mitigate food fraud. Food companies are introducing procedures and mechanisms that allow them to identify vulnerabilities in their food supply chain under the umbrella of a food fraud prevention management system. A key step and first line of defense is thorough supply chain mapping and full transparency, assessing the likelihood of fraudsters to penetrate the chain at any point. More vulnerable chains, such as those where ingredients and/or raw materials are purchased through traders or auctions, may require a higher degree of sampling, testing, and surveillance. Access to analytical tools is therefore pivotal, requiring continuous development and possibly sophistication in identifying chemical markers, data acquisition, and modeling. Significant progress in portable technologies is evident already today, for instance, as in the rapid testing now available at the agricultural level. In the near future, consumers may also have the ability to scan products in stores or at home to authenticate labels and food content. For food manufacturers, targeted analytical methods complemented by untargeted approaches are end control measures at the factory gate when the material is delivered. In essence, testing for food adulterants is an integral part of routine QC, ideally tailored to the risks in the individual markets and/or geographies or supply chains. The development of analytical methods is a first step in verifying the compliance and authenticity of food materials. A next, more challenging step is the successful establishment of global consensus reference methods as exemplified by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals initiative, which can serve as an approach that could also be applied to methods for contaminants and adulterants in food. The food

  16. Local Food Marketing as a Development Opportunity for Small UK Agri-Food Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hingley

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available  The study explores local food as a marketing opportunity for small food producers and identifies barriers to development. Research was conducted primarily through depth interviews, supplemented by a survey of food marketing group members in North-West England. The results of this local study were consistent with national survey data showing increasing consumer interest in food provenance, traceability and support for the local economy. Lack of an official and recognised definition of the term "local food" hindered marketing. Restricted access to finance and the burden of regulations were identified as barriers. Further, small business success was subjective and difficult to identify, since goals may be based on sustaining a lifestyle rather than profit.

  17. Nutrition marketing on processed food packages in Canada: 2010 Food Label Information Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermel, Alyssa; Emrich, Teri E; Arcand, JoAnne; Wong, Christina L; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2013-06-01

    The current study describes the frequency of use of different forms of nutrition marketing in Canada and the nutrients and conditions that are the focus of nutrition marketing messages. Prepackaged foods with a Nutrition Facts table (N = 10,487) were collected between March 2010 and April 2011 from outlets of the 3 largest grocery chains in Canada and 1 major western Canadian grocery retailer. The nutrition marketing information collected included nutrient content claims, disease risk reduction claims, and front-of-pack nutrition rating systems (FOPS). We found that nutrition marketing was present on 48.1% of Canadian food packages, with nutrient content claims being the most common information (45.5%), followed by FOPS on 18.9% of packages. Disease risk reduction claims were made least frequently (1.7%). The marketing messages used most often related to total fat and trans fat (15.6% and 15.5% of nutrient content claims, respectively). Limiting total and trans fats is a current public health priority, as recommended by Health Canada and the World Health Organization. However, other nutrients that are also recommended to be limited, including saturated fats, sodium, and added sugars, were not nearly as prominent on food labels. Thus, greater emphasis should be placed by the food industry on these other important nutrients. Repeated data collection in the coming years will allow us to track longitudinal changes in nutrition marketing messages over time as food marketing, public health, and consumer priorities evolve.

  18. Nutrition Recommendations for Foods Marketed to Children

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-25

    In this audio podcast, listen to Michigan State University authors Lorraine J. Weatherspoon, PhD, RD, and Elizabeth Taylor Quilliam, PhD, talk about the impact food advertising may have on children’s eating behaviors.  Created: 9/25/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/25/2013.

  19. Integrated marketing communications in educational sphere

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The article investigates the paradigm of Integrated Marketing Communication and their main features. The author explains concept of Integrated Marketing Communication on the practical example in educational sphere. В статье рассказывается о понятии и основных чертах интегрированных маркетинговых коммуникаций. Автор поясняет положения концепции интегрированных маркетинговых коммуниакций на конкретном примере в образовательной сфере....

  20. The convenience food market in Great Britain: convenience food lifestyle (CFL) segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Marie; Cowan, Cathal; McCarthy, Mary

    2007-11-01

    Convenience foods enable the consumer to save time and effort in food activities, related to shopping, meal preparation and cooking, consumption and post-meal activities. The objective of this paper is to report on the attitudes and reported behaviour of food consumers in Great Britain based on a review of their convenience food lifestyle (CFLs). The paper also reports the development and application of a segmentation technique that can supply information on consumer attitudes towards convenience foods. The convenience food market in Great Britain is examined and the key drivers of growth in this market are highlighted. A survey was applied to a nationally representative sample of 1000 consumers (defined as the persons primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking in the household) in Great Britain in 2002. Segmentation analysis, based on the identification of 20 convenience lifestyle factors, identified four CFL segments of consumers: the 'food connoisseurs' (26%), the 'home meal preparers' (25%), the 'kitchen evaders' (16%) and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' (33%). In particular, the 'kitchen evaders' and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' are identified as convenience-seeking segments. Implications for food producers, in particular, convenience food manufacturers are discussed. The study provides an understanding of the lifestyles of food consumers in Great Britain, and provides food manufacturers with an insight into what motivates individuals to purchase convenience foods.

  1. Beyond Television: Children's Engagement with Online Food and Beverage Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Brady

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Food and beverage marketing has been implicated in the childhood obesity “pandemic.” Prior studies have established the negative impact of television advertising on children's dietary intake, yet few have considered the role of online food and beverage marketing, particularly within the Canadian context. Objective This study explores children's engagement in online marketing and investigates the potential impact on their dietary intake. Methods Participants were recruited from the Ryerson University Summer Day Camp to participate in a single one-on-one semi-structured interview. Results A total of 83 children (age 7 to 13 years; mean 9.99 years; 56.3% boys, 43.8% girls participated in the study. Fewer children thought that there is food, drink, or candy advertising on the internet (67.7% than on television (98.8% (p > 0.001. Awareness of online marketing increased with age: 7 to 8 year olds (23.67%; 4, 9 to 10 years (63.89%; 23, 11 to 12 years (86.96%; 20; 13 years (100%; 9. Over one-third of children had visited a website after seeing the address advertised on television (n = 32; 38.55% or on product package (n = 29; 34.94%. Conclusions Branded internet sites, commonly featured on television and product packaging, offer new opportunities for marketers to reach children with messages promoting commercial food and beverage items. These websites are subsequently spread via word-of-mouth through children's peer networks. The independent impact of web-based food, drink and candy marketing, as well as the synergistic effect of multi-channel product promotion, on children's dietary intake merits further investigation.

  2. City Marketing: Towards an Integrated Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Braun (Erik)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis PhD thesis deals with city marketing: cities making use of marketing ideas, concepts and tools. Marketing has proved its value in the business environment, but what about applying marketing in the context of cities? How can cities make effective use of the potential of marketing?

  3. City Marketing: Towards an Integrated Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Braun (Erik)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis PhD thesis deals with city marketing: cities making use of marketing ideas, concepts and tools. Marketing has proved its value in the business environment, but what about applying marketing in the context of cities? How can cities make effective use of the potential of marketing? T

  4. City Marketing: Towards an Integrated Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Braun (Erik)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis PhD thesis deals with city marketing: cities making use of marketing ideas, concepts and tools. Marketing has proved its value in the business environment, but what about applying marketing in the context of cities? How can cities make effective use of the potential of marketing? T

  5. International Commodity Markets, Local Food Prices and Environment in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. E.; Hintermann, B.; Higgins, N.

    2008-12-01

    The recent massive increase in food and energy prices in the past five years, coupled with the awareness of the long term challenges of climate change to small holder agriculture in Africa has brought the issue of food security for the world's poorest people to the forefront once again. Asymmetric and limited integration of local commodity markets in West Africa highlights the weak position of Africa's rural countries in the face of climate change and demographic expansion. This paper will describe the functioning of local informal food markets in West African over the past twenty years and evaluate the impact of their limited integration with each other and with global commodity markets. Satellite remote sensing of vegetation has been used as a proxy for agricultural production in economic models to improve prediction of large swings in prices from year to year due to differences in supply. As demand increases, improvements in market functioning will be necessary to counter likely increases in production variability. Increasing Africa's stability in the face of climate change will require investment in agricultural production and transportation infrastructure in order to ensure an affordable flow of food to people in these extremely poor, landlocked countries.

  6. Rebalancing the Market Power. Manufacturer and Retailer Brands in the German Food Retail Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielig Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The German food retail market is considered to be one of the most competitive markets worldwide. A narrow oligopoly of domestic retail chains dominates competition at the national and regional levels, driven mostly by price competition and extensive market coverage. As a result, market entrance for potential newcomers is highly restricted, even for such global players like Wal-Mart, which retreated in 2006 after nine years of substantial financial losses in Germany. There have been discernable attempts by the domestic incumbents to rebalance the traditional “task division”, affecting the range of customers choices as well as retail brands. However, within ten years the share of large retailers brands earnings in the total food retail market increased from 21.8 percent to 38.8 percent in 2012, as “house brands” optimized their assortment, increased their independence from main suppliers and squeezed out competitors. The empirical analysis presented below describes the role played by different retail brands in German food retail market as measured by their market power, and considers its political implications.

  7. Integrating Bioregenerative Foods into the Exploration Spaceflight Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Grace L.

    2017-01-01

    Food, the nutrition it provides, and the eating experiences surrounding it, are central to performance, health, and psychosocial wellbeing on long duration spaceflight missions. Exploration missions will require a spaceflight food system that is safe, nutritious, and acceptable for up to five years, possibly without cold storage. Many of the processed and packaged spaceflight foods currently used on the International Space Station will not retain acceptable quality or required levels of key nutrients under these conditions. The addition of bioregenerative produce to exploration missions may become an important countermeasure to the nutritional gaps and a resource to support psychosocial health. Bioregenerative produce will be central to establishment of Earth-independence as exploration extends deeper into space. However, bioregenerative foods introduce food safety and scarcity risks that must be eliminated prior to crew reliance on these systems. The pathway to Earth independence will require small-scale integration and validation prior to large scale bioregenerative dependence. Near term exploration missions offer the opportunity to establish small scale supplemental salad crop and fruit systems and validate infrastructure reliability, nutritional potential, and the psychosocial benefits necessary to promote further bioregenerative integration.

  8. Food Marketing: Cashier-Checker. Student Material. Competency Based Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelich, Larry; And Others

    This curriculum for food marketing (cashier-checking) is designed to provide entry-level employment skills. It is organized into 13 units which contain one to ten competencies. A student competency sheet provided for each competency is organized into this format: unit and competency number and name, learning steps, learning activities, and…

  9. Whole Foods Market Group, Inc. Nationwide RCRA Administrative Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today announced an agreement with the grocery chain Whole Foods Market Group, Inc., to implement a state-of-the-art electronic system at its stores throughout the U.S. for identifying and classifying consumer

  10. Whole Foods Market Retrofits Multiple Building Systems for Big Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    Whole Foods Market partnered with U.S. the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to reduce annual energy consumption in existing stores by at least 30% versus pre-retrofit energy use at its store in Edgewater, New Jersey, as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  11. Whole Foods Market Improves Energy Efficiency in New Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    Whole Foods Market partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to reduce annual energy consumption in new stores by at least 50% versus requirements set by ASHRAE/ANSI/IESNA Standard 90.1-20041 as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  12. Sustainability of Marketing Food Crops through the Internet in Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdulaphyz

    ii. what are the push and pull factors towards the sustainability of marketing and ... consumers from buying their preferred food crops through the medium, while pull was seen as ... The internet is perceived to be a fast medium and a ... consumers have had the opportunity of making choice from different available products.

  13. On market integration of renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeer, Sebastian

    2014-12-05

    Since the liberalization of electricity and gas markets in Europe, the energy sector has changed in every respect with one constant: most actors have underestimated renewable energies with regard to their growth, their economies of scale and their impact on existing energy markets. If that trend continues, the urgency for policy measures will increase. Given the security of supply, integration of renewables into energy markets is necessary to replace fossil and nuclear capacities. However, the further development of renewable energies plays a crucial role in the ability to meet the energy and climate policy targets. Thus, it increases the need for regulation to achieve societally desirable outcomes. This thesis has examined the effects of renewable energies on existing energy markets. It has also investigated the various other cost-efficient options that policy makers have in striving to reach energy and climate policy targets. We assumed that cost efficiency is a relevant side condition. In the past, this has not always been the case. Today, cost efficiency is definitely relevant and might also be an essential target in the future (see Bundesregierung 2013, p. 50). We contributed to the analysis of power prices as a result of increasing shares of renewables by showing that shutting down conventional capacities will have a merit order effect. This is necessary if renewable energies are to replace fossil and nuclear capacities. Any discussion of a change of market design should make mention of this effect, since spot market revenues impact a company's behaviour within potential capacity markets. From a consumer perspective, we have shown that there is a substantial need for secured capacity with low marginal costs to keep spot prices stable. This outcome has important implications for policy makers if they are to provide consumers with low-cost renewable market integration. Policy makers have numerous ways to reach policy targets than rapidly expanding

  14. Organic food provision strategies of a niche market in Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantamaturapoj, K.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Any increase in the level of sustainable food consumption in Bangkok requires both providers and consumers to change their behavior and strategies in a more sustainable direction. This paper focuses on provider’s side and examines the strategies that food providers in Bangkok use to reach the Thai consumers with their sustainable food offers. This paper looks at the “niche” specialized shops which are the first group of organic food provider and currently provide organic food to consumers in Bangkok. A focus group discussion was organized with representatives of the specialized shops in order to discuss and to assess a number of different strategies that could be applied when trying to sell organic food to consumers in Bangkok. The study found that the specialized shops in Bangkok are “small, specialized and beautiful”. The specialized shops in Bangkok form the “Green Market Network” to work together and empower individual shop owners. The major tasks of the network are to procure sufficient sustainable food from reliable sources for the individual shops, to improve their businesses by learning from each other’s experiences and to expand the market for their products. The specialized shops are not so much focused on certification but, instead rely on trust. The specialized shops communicate with consumers in an informal and friendly way, talking directly to them in the shop and organizing activities with them.

  15. Model instruments of effective segmentation of the fast food market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mityaeva Tetyana L.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of optimisation step-type calculations of economic effectiveness of promotion of fast food with consideration of key parameters of assessment of efficiency of the marketing strategy of segmentation. The article justifies development of a mathematical model on the bases of 3D-presentations and three-dimensional system of management variables. The modern applied mathematical packages allow formation not only of one-dimensional and two-dimensional arrays and analyse links of variables, but also of three-dimensional, besides, the more links and parameters are taken into account, the more adequate and adaptive are results of modelling and, as a result, more informative and strategically valuable. The article shows modelling possibilities that allow taking into account strategies and reactions on formation of the marketing strategy under conditions of entering the fast food market segments.

  16. To quell obesity, who should regulate food marketing to children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Ben

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The global hegemony of the United States in the production and marketing of food, while a marvel of economic success, has contributed to the epidemic of obesity that is particularly afflicting children. So far the U.S. government has declined to regulate the aggressive ways in which food producers market high-energy, low-nutrition foods to young people. That public-health responsibility has been left to an industry-created scheme of self-regulation that is deeply flawed; there is a compelling need for government involvement. The issue is certain to be raised by health advocates at a U.S. Federal Trade Commission meeting in mid-July to discuss the self-regulatory approach, but the outlook for remedies to emerge from the meeting is not encouraging.

  17. [Food supplements on the Hungarian market: regulations of marketing and of the composition of the products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugasi, Andrea; Horacsek, Márta; Martos, Eva

    2010-09-26

    According to recent legislation, food supplements are foodstuffs with the purpose of supplementing normal diet. Food supplements are concentrated sources of nutrients such as vitamins and minerals and other substances with a physiological or nutritional effect. In Hungary, marketing of food supplements has not been bound to pre-market authorization since joining to the European Union. The food business operator, who is responsible for production or distribution of the product, must notify it at National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science latest at the time when the product has been placed on the market and it can be distributed simultaneously. Distribution, ingredients, and all those information which appear on the label are determined by numerous regulations and prescriptions but at the same time the lack of harmonized legislation at certain places may cause a lot of problems on Community level. The first part of the study shows the laws and regulations influencing the distribution and ingredients of food supplements, while the main target of the second part is to introduce the evaluation process of components from nutritional and physiological point of view, and the role played by the food supplements in nutrition.

  18. Are Pakistan’s Rice Markets Integrated Domestically and With the International Markets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan Ahmad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze whether Pakistan has become one domestically integrated rice market and whether Pakistan’s rice markets are integrated with the international markets, using monthly data from 1994 to 2011. During this period, major policy shifts took place. In 2002, Pakistan terminated the price support policy; in 2002-2004 export subsidies were introduced, and in 2008, a minimum export price policy was adopted. We compare the degree of integration before and after 2002. We find that most of the regional rice markets in Pakistan are integrated domestically. Pakistan’s rice markets are also integrated with the international markets, using prices in Thailand and Vietnam as benchmarks. The price support policy abolition seems to have contributed to greater domestic integration, while the subsequent export policies seem to have decreased the extent of Pakistan’s integration with the international markets. However, although Pakistan’s rice markets generally are domestically integrated as well as integrated with the international market, price adjustments are quite slow. Thus, only 3% to 11% of deviations from long-run equilibrium are adjusted on a monthly basis, indicating that a shock in international markets takes several months to be fully transferred to prices in Pakistan.

  19. Digital marketing of unhealthy foods to Australian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelsen-Robinson, Tara; Backholer, Kathryn; Peeters, Anna

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of new media-including branded websites, social media and mobile applications-has created additional touch points for unhealthy food and beverage companies to target children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to perform an audit of new media for three top selling food and beverage brands in Australia. The top selling brand in three of the most advertised food and beverage categories was identified. Facebook, websites and mobile phone applications from these three brands were assessed using a combination of descriptive analyses and structured data collection during June and July 2013. Information on target audience, main focus of the activity, marketing strategies employed and connectivity were collected. Promotional activities were assessed against industry self-regulatory codes. McDonald's, Coca-Cola and Cadbury Dairy Milk were audited, with 21 promotional activities identified. These promotional activities appeared to use a number of marketing strategies, with frequent use of indirect product association, engagement techniques and branding. We identified strategic targeting of both children and adolescents. We found that while all promotional activities technically met self-regulatory codes (usually due to media-specific age restrictions) a number appeared to employ unhealthy food or beverage marketing directed to children. Brands are using engaging content via new media aimed at children and adolescents to promote unhealthy food and beverages. Given the limitations of self-regulatory codes in the context of new media, strategies need to be developed to reduce exposure of children and adolescents to marketing of unhealthy food and beverage products via these avenues.

  20. Grid Integration of Electric Vehicles in Open Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presenting the policy drivers, benefits and challenges for grid integration of electric vehicles (EVs) in the open electricity market environment, this book provides a comprehensive overview of existing electricity markets and demonstrates how EVs are integrated into these different markets...... and power systems. Unlike other texts, this book analyses EV integration in parallel with electricity market design, showing the interaction between EVs and differing electricity markets. Future regulating power market and distribution system operator (DSO) market design is covered, with up-to-date case...... companies with the knowledge they need when facing the challenges introduced by large scale EV deployment, and demonstrates how transmission system operators (TSOs) can develop the existing system service market in order to fully utilize the potential of EV flexibility. With thorough coverage...

  1. International Product Market Integration, Rents and Wage Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan

    International product market integration enhances both export possibilities through easier access to foreign markets, but also the import threat arising from foreign firms penetrating into the domestic market. These mechanisms affect wage formation and employment creation through many channels...... including product market rents and the possibility that jobs may be relocated across national labour markets. Possibilities and threats, however, will not in general be uniformly distributed across firms and therefore groups in the labour market. These issues are explored in a Ricardian trade model...... with imperfect competition, heterogeneity in the labour market, and decentralized wage-bargaining. The Paper analyses how product market integration affects wage formation, and identifies characteristics of winners and losers in the integration process....

  2. Children's magazines: reading resources or food marketing tools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Reid, Amanda

    2010-03-01

    Magazines targeted at children under 12 years old are growing in popularity; past studies have asserted that food items are rarely exposed, but methodological issues may have covered the true extent of covert promotion. The primary purpose of the present study was to quantify the nature and extent of the promotion of branded food products in Australian children's magazines. We conducted a content analysis of possible food promotions in seven top-selling Australian children's magazines published in 2005. In addition to regular food advertisements, the number of advertisements for premiums, editorials, puzzles or games, competitions and branded non-food promotions by food companies was recorded. Category frequencies are reported with a detailed description of the promotions present during September 2005. Only fifty-eight out of the 444 items identified could be classed as regular food advertisements. Several advertisements appeared to be in breach of codes regarding advertising to children and premiums. The pervasiveness of covert food marketing in the present study was contrary to previous findings and raises questions about the effectiveness of legal restrictions and self-regulation of advertising in protecting children from commercial food messages that may not be regarded as advertising.

  3. Market integration of cold and warmwater shrimp in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah-Yeboah, Isaac; Ståhl, Lisa; Nielsen, Max

    2017-01-01

    This study examines market integration between the cold and warmwater shrimp value chain in the UK, Denmark, Italy, Sweden, and Norway using cointegration methods. For all countries, market integration exists between cold and warmwater unprocessed shrimp imports, where the law of one price (LOP......) holds in three of the five cases. For processed shrimp, the LOP holds in three of four integrated cases, and for retail sales in the UK and Denmark, the LOP fails to hold in the presence of market integration. Unprocessed coldwater shrimp leads the market in northern Europe. Downstream, prices adjust...

  4. ASPECTS REGARDING THE ORGANIC FOOD MARKET IN SEVERAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUELA-DORA ORBOI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The global organic market is increasing constantly, organic sales reaching over USD 5 billion per year. Organic Monitor estimates that international sales amounted to about USD 38.6 billion in 2006, more than the double of USD 18 billion in 2000. The organic demand is concentrated in North America and Europe, these two regions comprising 97% of the global revenues. The European organic food and beverage market is the largest and most complex in the world, evaluated at USD 20 billion in 2006. Many European countries offer grants to organic farms to support organic production. This production-oriented strategy will have guaranteed success if the market structures and the marketing channels will be able to face the rapidly increasing demand and if the sellers adapt their products, sales channels and prices to the consumers’ demand.

  5. Functional Food Market Development in Serbia: Motivations and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žaklina Stojanović

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present main findings obtained from the empirical analysis of the functional food market in Serbia. The analysis is based on the in-depth interviews with relevant processors and retailers present on the market. The following set of topics are considered: (1 motivations (driving forces and barriers to offer products with nutrition and health (N&H claim and (2 perception of consumer demand toward N&H claimed products. Differences between Serbia and other Western Balkan Countries (WBC are explored by using nonparametric techniques based on the independent samples. Results support overall conclusion that this market segment in Serbia is underdeveloped and rather producer than consumer driven compared to more developed WBC markets.

  6. Integration Policies and Immigrants’ Labor Market Outcomes in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kogan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses whether two integration policy measures (labor market training and counseling reach the immigrants who need them and whether these policies improve immigrants' labor market situations. We first examine the comprehensiveness of integration policies by linking Migration Integration Policy Index scores of immigrants' labor market mobility with levels of immigrant participation in labor market training and counseling in 15 European countries. We find that provision with labor market training does not entirely correspond to policy intentions, whereas labor market counseling more closely achieves policies' proclaimed aims. Second, we carry out propensity score matching analysis to estimate the effectiveness of immigrants' integration policies. We find that labor market training and counseling do not improve immigrants' employability or job status in three of the four analyzed countries, which lends weak support to the productivity skills argument, emphasizing instead the validity of the signaling and selection perspectives.

  7. The EU pledge for responsible marketing of food and beverages to children: implementation in food companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J D; Ronit, K

    2015-08-01

    Increasing political pressure on the food industry's marketing activities stimulated the formation of the collective EU Pledge for responsible marketing of foods and beverages to children. The objective of the study is to evaluate the commitments made by companies in joining the pledge for the purpose of assessing its effectiveness in regulating signatory companies' marketing activities. Data on company commitments in relation to the EU Pledge were collected, analyzed and recalculated in order to enable comparison across companies and with general nutritional recommendations. Data on companies' product portfolio and market orientation were collected from their most recent available annual reports. Data on the companies' product profiles were generated via review of the companies' main websites. Similar data were generated for a reference group of companies outside the EU Pledge. Compared with a reference group of large food and beverage companies, EU Pledge signatory companies have a public image strongly based on products with appeal to children. The EU Pledge sets common standards for regulating signatory companies' marketing behaviour towards children. Further scrutiny of the companies' stated commitments revealed considerable variation in their actual content and in their de facto bindingness on the companies' marketing behavior--for example, in the definition of target audience for advertising or in nutritional characteristics making products eligible for advertising to children. In order for voluntary self-regulation schemes such as the EU Pledge to be a credible alternative to public regulation of marketing behaviour, more transparency and stringency are needed.

  8. City Marketing: Towards an Integrated Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Erik

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis PhD thesis deals with city marketing: cities making use of marketing ideas, concepts and tools. Marketing has proved its value in the business environment, but what about applying marketing in the context of cities? How can cities make effective use of the potential of marketing? The first contribution of this study is the development of a clear concept of city marketing that is based on a customer-oriented perspective, acknowledges the important of perceptions of places in t...

  9. Capital Market Integration. New Challenges in an Enlarged Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia-Elena Diaconaşu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse the linkages between Emerging European stock markets and the developed ones, in relatively stable times that followed the global economic crisis. One of the main reasons that served as an argument in studying stock market integration relies in the prior contradictory results regarding the regional versus international interdependencies. Using a Vector Error Correction Model we tested if the Central and Eastern European markets are more internationally or regional integrated. Our findings suggest that the stock exchanges from CEE react mainly to the arrival of price innovations from the most mature market in the EU perimeter. The main contribution of this paper is that it provides further evidence on stock market integration and correlations in emerging stock markets, emphasizing new connections between London Stock Exchange and the other CEE stock markets. The results are of particular interest for both portfolio managers and policymakers.

  10. Certification of Markets, Markets of Certificates: Tracing Sustainability in Global Agro-Food Value Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur P. J. Mol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a blossoming of voluntary certification initiatives for sustainable agro-food products and production processes. With these certification initiatives come traceability in supply chains, to guarantee the sustainability of the products consumed. No systematic analysis exists of traceability systems for sustainability in agro-food supply chains. Hence, the purpose of this article is to analyze the prevalence of four different traceability systems to guarantee sustainability; to identify the factors that determine the kind of traceability systems applied in particular supply chains; and to assess what the emergence of economic and market logics in traceability mean for sustainability. Two conclusions are drawn. Globalizing markets for sustainable agro-food products induces the emergence of book-and-claim traceability systems, but the other three systems (identity preservation, segregation and mass balance will continue to exist as different factors drive traceability requirements in different supply chains. Secondly, traceability itself is becoming a market driven by economic and market logics, and this may have consequences for sustainability in agro-food supply chains in the future.

  11. [Radioactive contamination of foods marketed in saitama prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Terumitsu; Nagahama, Yoshiyuki; Takekuma, Mikiko; Miyake, Sadaaki; Nomoto, Kahoru; Takano, Mariko

    2013-01-01

    Up to October 31, 2012, a total of 170 food samples marketed in Saitama Prefecture were examined following the setting of provisional regulatory limits for radioactivity in drinking water and foodstuffs by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare on 1 April 2012. No sample exceeded the regulatory limits as determined by gamma ray spectrometry with a germanium semiconductor detector. However the radioactive cesium concentrations of food samples such as raw wood-shiitake and maccha (powdered green tea) produced in Saitama were nearly at the regulatory limits, being 74 Bq/kg and 84 Bq/kg, respectively.

  12. An Integrated Architecture for Enhanced Structuring of Mobile Market Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Ali Sallam

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting an integrated architecture for mobile marketplace for efficient transaction and marketing using mobile devices and related infrastructure. This architecture deals with different components of mobile marketplace and it considering a new way of integrating different functionalities of mobile market place. .

  13. An Integrated Architecture for Enhanced Structuring of Mobile Market Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Ali Sallam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting an integrated architecture for mobile marketplace for efficient transaction and marketing using mobile devices and related infrastructure. This architecture deals with different components of mobile marketplace and it considering a new way of integrating different functionalities of mobile market place. .

  14. The Underreported Use of Integrated Marketing Communication by Smaller Businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ed

    This research suggests integrated marketing communication (IMC) is widely used by small business. In a survey of Midwest businesses, it was found that smaller business tend to integrate their marketing communication to the same extent as do larger businesses. Their advertising, P.R., and sales promotion are as likely to present a unified message,…

  15. Enhancing the Interdisciplinary Perspective in the Marketing Management Decision Process through an Applied, Integrated, Client Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askim-Lovseth, Mary K.; O'Keefe, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    Businesses function within a cross-functional, integrative setting, and this necessitates providing a learning environment for students that is comparable to real-life work projects. Two upper-level university classes in marketing and information systems worked collaboratively with a snack food business to design and build a Web site based on a…

  16. The Effect Of IFRS Adoption On Global Market Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Francis Cai; Hannah Wong

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of the adoption of international financial accounting standards (IFRS) on global capital market integration, measure by correlation matrix of the stock market index returns. We investigate a sample of countries that have adopted IFRS as their accounting standards for listed companies.  Our results are consistent with the suggestion that these markets will have a higher degree of integration among them after their IFRS adoption as compared to the period before th...

  17. Bringing Produce to the People: Implementing a Social Marketing Food Access Intervention in Rural Food Deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, A Susana; Diaz Rios, Lillian K; Valdez, Zulema; Estrada, Erendira; Ruiz, Ariana

    2017-02-01

    This study describes and evaluates the process of implementing a social marketing food access intervention for food desert communities in rural California. A case study approach used mixed-methods data from nationwide market comparisons, environmental assessment, and community informants. Lessons learned demonstrate room for improvement in implementing such strategies and underscore the importance of involving community in decision making; the strategic importance of operational decisions relating to intervention design, site and product selection, and distribution models; and the need to reconsider the problem of access in rural areas. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving market oriented product development in Danish food companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Hanne

    1994-01-01

    One of the factors that has been strongly associated with successful new product development is a profound knwledge of customers' needs and wants as well as the ability to transform this knowledge into specific product characteristics and benefits there is a general agreement on the importance...... of this factor, it is a fact that the average company does not undertake marketing related activities in a way even close to that prescribed. This paper describes a research project undertaken with th of describing and later increasing the market orientation of the development fucntion in a number of Danish food......-processing companies. Preliminary results show that the companies have improved their market orientation, but also that the change pro has been difficult and time-consuming and improvements rather incremental....

  19. 76 FR 51308 - Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... unfair or deceptive act or practice for ``retail food stores'' to advertise ``food, grocery products or... CFR Part 424 Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade... impact of the FTC's rule for ``Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices'' (``Unavailability...

  20. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food and feed on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, Bart; Callebaut, Alfons

    2015-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widely distributed plant toxins with species dependent hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, genotoxic and pneumotoxic risks. In a recent European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) opinion, only two data sets from one European country were received for honey, while one feed data set was included. No data are available for food or feed samples from the Belgian market. We developed an LC-MS/MS method, which allowed the detection and quantification of 16 PAs in a broad range of matrices in the sub ng g(-1) range. The method was validated in milk, honey and hay and applied to honey, tea (Camellia sinensis), scented tea, herbal tea, milk and feed samples bought on the Belgian market. The results confirmed that tea, scented tea, herbal tea and honey are important food sources of pyrrolizidine alkaloid contamination in Belgium. Furthermore, we detected PAs in 4 of 63 commercial milk samples. A high incidence rate of PAs in lucerne (alfalfa)-based horse feed and in rabbit feed was detected, while bird feed samples were less contaminated. We report for the first time the presence of monocrotaline, intermedine, lycopsamine, heliotrine and echimidine in cat food.

  1. The environmental factors effect on the task vectors of holistic marketing of retail-networks on the food market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Shubin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The purpose of the article is to develop evaluation criteria and testing their determination in the interaction of sellers and consumers. It is shown that formation of a single market space forcing the participants to consider the requirements and environmental factors in the formation of significant competitive advantage. Such factors as general environment and factors of entourage are taken into consideration. The results of the analysis. The paper deals with the study of marketing environment factors and their impact on marketing task vectors of trading networks. The authors propose to use holistic marketing principles for strategy building on the basis of identifying and benchmarking assessments through the interaction of all components of the network elements. It is highlighted that the largest value in the system interact of domestic partnerships is their perception and commitment to specific factors interact. Conducted testing, for example retail network «glutton», gives opportunity to develop vectors` objectives. The hypothesis of the need to study the specific results of business and interpersonal communication internal and external partners is proposed. The mentioned results of diagnostics through perception model interact of participants in marketing business system can be useful in the sphere of retail network in the food market. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The designated development strategy forms the basis metavalue by establishing and maintaining of sustainable business interactions. The authors proposed the basic differentiators: customer satisfaction, convenience, value of use, commitment, feedback. The main results of the development and the use of differentiators should increase the efficiency of firm contacts with the client, seller or buyer through attracting of customers to the business of commercial enterprises. The key advantages of system vectors tasks were marked. In order

  2. MASCEM: EPEX SPOT Day-Ahead market integration and simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Gabriel; Fernandes, Ricardo; Pinto, Tiago

    2015-01-01

    emerged. Decision support tools that facilitate the study and comprehension of these markets became extremely useful, providing players with competitive advantage. MASCEM (Multi-Agent Simulator of Competitive Electricity Markets) arises in this context, modeling and simulating real electricity markets......The energy sector restructuring process in industrialized countries had the aim of reducing electricity prices by increasing competitiveness, and facilitate the integration of distributed energy resources. However, the complexity in market players' interactions has increased, and new problems have....... It is crucial to MASCEM to have the ability to simulate as many market models and player types as possible, thus enhancing the ability to recreate the electricity markets reality in its maximum possible extent. This paper presents the EPEX Spot Day-Ahead market integration in MASCEM. EPEX Spot SE's mission...

  3. (Non)regulation of marketing of unhealthy food to children in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Caroline

    2009-01-23

    Three and a half years ago an editorial in the NZMJ called for restrictions on marketing of unhealthy food to New Zealand children. This paper discusses progress since then. There has been a seemingly relentless documentation of adverse health consequences of the obesity epidemic in the intervening years, increasing evidence that marketing of unhealthy food contributes to the epidemic, growing knowledge about New Zealand children's exposure to marketing of unhealthy food, and evidence of public support to decrease children's exposure to marketing of unhealthy food. Yet there is still a lack of substantive action on the restriction of marketing of unhealthy food to children in New Zealand.

  4. Market integration of Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Kirschmeyer; Hansen, Lars Henrik; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2013-01-01

    We consider a direct control Virtual Power Plant, which is given the task of maximizing the profit of a portfolio of flexible consumers by trading flexibility in Energy Markets. Spot price optimization has been quite intensively researched in Smart Grid literature lately. In this work, however, we...... develop a three stage market model, which includes Day-Ahead (Spot), Intra-Day and Regulating Power Markets. This allows us to test the hypothesis that the Virtual Power Plant can generate additional profit by trading across several markets. We find that even though profits do increase as more markets...... are penetrated, the size of the profit is strongly dependent on the type of flexibility considered. We also find that penetrating several markets makes profits surprisingly robust to spot price prediction errors....

  5. Innovative Positioning as a Marketing Tool of Retailers on the Food Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Śmigielska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the paper is to develop the theory of retail business positioning as a part of marketing innovation-based strategy. It is proposed that innovative retail formats and business models should be included in it. Research Design & Methods: The critical literature review on the existing dimensions of business positioning as well as the new, suggested dimensions is made. General trends in food retailers’ positioning in Poland and the positioning strategy development of Carrefour are analysed in the form of examples and a short case study. They are based on the secondary sources like academic papers, retail magazines and companies’ web sites. Findings: On the fragmented food markets retailers position themselves by introducing format innovations and stressing low price. Then they have to reposition themselves by attributes other than price. Big mass merchandisers are now segmenters. Implications & Recommendations: In Poland the tendencies for buying natural, Fair Trade, diabetics, organic or functional products, as well as the focus on the elderly segment are opportunities for retailers. Yet, trading up creates new opportunities for discounters. Contribution & Value Added: The paper contributes to the theory of retail positioning by linking elements of the marketing and the entrepreneurship approaches. It also develops knowledge about the Polish retail food market.

  6. Measuring Integration and Efficiency in Maize Grain Markets: The Case of South Africa and Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Traub, Lulama Ndibongo; Myers, Robert J.; Jayne, Thomas S.; Meyer, Ferdinand H.

    2010-01-01

    Price transmission between the South African market and other regional markets is not as straightforward, despite South Africa’s role of a surplus producer for the region. There appears to be a host of local factors that must be taken into account in order to anticipate the likely level of regional food prices. This article assesses the degree of market integration and the speed of price adjustment to spatial price differentials between the SAFEX maize price in South Africa and maize grain an...

  7. The role of food culture and marketing activity in health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jerome D; Crockett, David; Harrison, Robert L; Thomas, Kevin D

    2012-11-01

    Marketing activities have attracted increased attention from scholars interested in racial disparities in obesity prevalence, as well as the prevalence of other preventable conditions. Although reducing the marketing of nutritionally poor foods to racial/ethnic communities would represent a significant step forward in eliminating racial disparities in health, we focus instead on a critical-related question. What is the relationship between marketing activities, food culture, and health disparities? This commentary posits that food culture shapes the demand for food and the meaning attached to particular foods, preparation styles, and eating practices, while marketing activities shape the overall environment in which food choices are made. We build on prior research that explores the socio-cultural context in which marketing efforts are perceived and interpreted. We discuss each element of the marketing mix to highlight the complex relationship between food culture, marketing activities, and health disparities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Science Meets Reality: Economic Efficiency, Markets, Institutions and Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Reynolds Pacheco de Carvalho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Food still is, and will continue to be, a basic issue at every day decision process in human behaviour. Food consumption has been a problematic issue in human history and today is also recognized as a basic pillar for human health and welfare/quality of life. From a global problem up to the middle of the eighties, right now food security is mainly a local issue (however a macro-level approach continued to be necessary for long run perspective and food safety concerns in trade and commercialization. Food and nutritional concerns today still are unforgetable issues on a local base perspective in many regions: the most common problems are related to the access and consumption to achieve the minimum nutritional requirements, but also other dimensions such as production, transformation, distribution and logistical aspects of the “food equation”, mainly in less developed countries, are crucial aspects to be taken into consideration.Economic effciency from a production perspective in the food sector, measured in terms of output per unit of input (technical and technological innovation achieved one of the best performances in terms of development in the last 30 years globally and in most regions in the world (few exceptions, like Sub-Sahara countries and some others. The same can not be refered in regard to markets and institutional innovations. In fact, looking at institutions including markets and governments, it is necessary to explore and identify the several observed failures (institutional and governance failures: markets, governmental and others were science can make a contribution. This is the main purpose of the current research, which is starting based on observed problems and applied solutions with good results in many situations, but also pointing out many other situations were solutions are needed based on the old instruments, but also based on innovative procedures. The method followed explores the basic theoretical approach in

  9. Policy insights from the nutritional food market transformation model: the case of obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struben, Jeroen; Chan, Derek; Dubé, Laurette

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a system dynamics policy model of nutritional food market transformation, tracing over-time interactions between the nutritional quality of supply, consumer food choice, population health, and governmental policy. Applied to the Canadian context and with body mass index as the primary outcome, we examine policy portfolios for obesity prevention, including (1) industry self-regulation efforts, (2) health- and nutrition-sensitive governmental policy, and (3) efforts to foster health- and nutrition-sensitive innovation. This work provides novel theoretical and practical insights on drivers of nutritional market transformations, highlighting the importance of integrative policy portfolios to simultaneously shift food demand and supply for successful and self-sustaining nutrition and health sensitivity. We discuss model extensions for deeper and more comprehensive linkages of nutritional food market transformation with supply, demand, and policy in agrifood and health/health care. These aim toward system design and policy that can proactively, and with greater impact, scale, and resilience, address single as well as double malnutrition in varying country settings. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Educational Blogging: Integrating Technology into Marketing Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Melike Demirbag; Piskin, Burak; Bol, Beste

    2010-01-01

    The major challenge of marketing education is that the discipline continually reinvents itself. Marketing approaches and practices once new rapidly become old and many texts grow outdated in a short period of time, increasing the pressure on the instructors to provide the students with the latest knowledge. The changing environment of business…

  11. Educational Blogging: Integrating Technology into Marketing Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Melike Demirbag; Piskin, Burak; Bol, Beste

    2010-01-01

    The major challenge of marketing education is that the discipline continually reinvents itself. Marketing approaches and practices once new rapidly become old and many texts grow outdated in a short period of time, increasing the pressure on the instructors to provide the students with the latest knowledge. The changing environment of business…

  12. [Brazilian guidelines for marketing baby food: history, limitations and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Renata

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to present and discuss Brazilian policy concerning actions to protect breastfeeding, especially the history, international and national background, limitations, and perspectives of the Brazilian Guidelines for the Marketing of Baby Food, Pacifiers and Bottles. The Brazilian Guidelines, which play a crucial role in protecting breastfeeding against industry marketing strategies, were based on the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, proposed by the World Health Organization in 1981. The first version of the Brazilian Guidelines was released in 1988, and there were subsequent revisions in 1992 and 2001/2002. In 2006, the Guidelines became national law. However, the strides made over this period in terms of regulation have been few because the law is not always observed. Thus, it is essential that all actors involved, including government officials, manufacturers and sellers of baby food and other baby products, teaching and health professionals and their associations, international bodies, and non-governmental organizations make a commitment to enforce the current law.

  13. Gaining competitive advantage in the gas boilers market of Vojvodina through integrated marketing communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dragoljub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the appearance of marketing and implementation of marketing concept in practice, the importance of the marketing mix, through which organizations adapt their offer to targeted customer segments, was emphasized . Regardless of the fact that the product is commonly referred to as the basic (key instrument of the marketing mix, in the last ten years, due to the rapid and strong development of science, technology, especially information technology, business and society in general, integrated marketing communications (IMK are becoming increasingly important, without which organizations can not even begin, or end, any significant marketing activity. In this context, the aim of the authors of this study was to investigate the importance of integrated marketing communications on the placement of gas boilers, i.e. on the market share of individual producers in the market of Vojvodina, which also represents the basic hypothesis of the research. Research results confirmed the basic hypothesis as well as an extraordinary influence of IMK to the market share of producers in the placement of gas boilers. Supplementary hypothesis was not confirmed, advertising is not a key promotional instrument. Thanks to the specific characteristics, primarily the high technical complexity of gas boilers, a key promotional instrument are education and training of sales and installation staff in the marketing channels, which operate on the market of Vojvodina.

  14. Market integration of Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Kirschmeyer; Hansen, Lars Henrik; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon;

    2013-01-01

    We consider a direct control Virtual Power Plant, which is given the task of maximizing the profit of a portfolio of flexible consumers by trading flexibility in Energy Markets. Spot price optimization has been quite intensively researched in Smart Grid literature lately. In this work, however, w...... are penetrated, the size of the profit is strongly dependent on the type of flexibility considered. We also find that penetrating several markets makes profits surprisingly robust to spot price prediction errors.......We consider a direct control Virtual Power Plant, which is given the task of maximizing the profit of a portfolio of flexible consumers by trading flexibility in Energy Markets. Spot price optimization has been quite intensively researched in Smart Grid literature lately. In this work, however, we...... develop a three stage market model, which includes Day-Ahead (Spot), Intra-Day and Regulating Power Markets. This allows us to test the hypothesis that the Virtual Power Plant can generate additional profit by trading across several markets. We find that even though profits do increase as more markets...

  15. The Food and Drug Administration and pragmatic clinical trials of marketed medical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Monique L; Griffin, Joseph; Goldkind, Sara F; Zeitler, Emily P; Wing, Liz; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Sherman, Rachel E

    2015-10-01

    Pragmatic clinical trials can help answer questions of comparative effectiveness for interventions routinely used in medical practice. Pragmatic clinical trials may examine outcomes of one or more marketed medical products, and they are heterogeneous in design and risk. The Food and Drug Administration is charged with protecting the rights, safety, and welfare of individuals enrolled in clinical investigations, as well as assuring the integrity of the data upon which approval of medical products is made. The Food and Drug Administration has broad jurisdiction over drugs and medical devices (whether or not they are approved for marketing), and as such, clinical investigations of these products are subject to applicable Food and Drug Administration regulations. While many pragmatic clinical trials will meet the criteria for an exemption from the requirements for an investigational new drug application or investigational device exemption, in general, all clinical investigations of medical products that fall under Food and Drug Administration jurisdiction must adhere to regulations for informed consent and review by an institutional review board. We are concerned that current Food and Drug Administration requirements for obtaining individual informed consent may deter or delay the conduct of pragmatic clinical trials intended to develop reliable evidence of comparative safety and effectiveness of approved medical products that are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. Under current regulations, there are no described mechanisms to alter or waive informed consent to make it less burdensome or more practicable for low-risk pragmatic clinical trials. We recommend that the Food and Drug Administration establish a risk-based approach to obtaining informed consent in pragmatic clinical trials that would facilitate the conduct of pragmatic clinical trials without compromising the protection of enrolled individuals or the integrity of the resulting data.

  16. Getting better integrated into foreign markets supported by the incubator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Gretzinger, Susanne; Hollensen, Svend

    The challenges associated with entering foreign growth markets, like BRIC markets, remain significant, especially for inexperienced SMEs. These challenges can include inadequate knowledge about a host country’s culture, norms, values and business environment, and a lack of embeddedness...... in the industry networks abroad. Such barriers can often hinder successful foreign market entry. One concept to use for SMEs, which lack experiential knowledge when bridging new distant international growth markets, is the ‘incubator’. It is best described as a shared office-space facility, including a local...... into the following two propositions: - The higher the level of the company’s accumulated experiential knowledge, the faster integration into the foreign market. - The use of incubator facilitates a faster integration into a specific high growth foreign market....

  17. Popular Music Celebrity Endorsements in Food and Nonalcoholic Beverage Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Miller, Alysa N; Elizee, Juleen; Dighe, Shatabdi; Elbel, Brian D

    2016-07-01

    Food and beverage marketing has been associated with childhood obesity. We quantified the number and type of food or beverage brands promoted by music celebrities, assessed the nutritional quality of the products, and examined Teen Choice Award data to assess the celebrities' popularity among adolescents. This was a descriptive study. A list of music celebrities associated with the 2013 and 2014 Billboard Hot 100 Chart, which ranks songs according to sales and radio impressions, was compiled. Data on celebrity endorsements were gathered from official company Web sites, YouTube commercials, an advertising database, and media reports. Nutritional quality of foods was assessed according to the Nutrient Profile Index, whereas nonalcoholic beverages were evaluated based on calories from added sugar. Teen Choice Award nominations were used to measure the celebrities' popularity among adolescents. Of the 590 endorsements made by the 163 celebrities in the sample, consumer goods (eg, fragrances, makeup) represented the largest endorsement category (26%), followed by food and beverage (18%) and retail (11%). Sixty-five celebrities were collectively associated with 57 different food and beverage brands owned by 38 parent companies. Of these 65 celebrities, 53 (81.5%) had ≥1 Teen Choice Award nomination. Forty-nine (71%) of the 69 nonalcoholic beverage references promoted sugar-sweetened beverages. Twenty-one (80.8%) of the 26 endorsed foods were energy dense and nutrient poor. Baauer, will.i.am, Justin Timberlake, Maroon 5, and Britney Spears had the most food and beverage endorsements. This study demonstrates that music celebrities who are popular among adolescents endorse energy-dense, nutrient-poor products. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Social actors and latticesin fresh food marketing in the regional market of La Plata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Palacios

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the wholesale markets of fresh food marketing as social spaces that link scenarios related to production and consumption scenarios. We study the interactions and behaviors of reciprocity that interweave among wholesalers who own stalls in the Regional Market of La Plata (MRLP and the relationships established with growers of oranges and peaches of the jurisdiction of San Pedro, Province of Buenos Aires that remit part of their production. Methodologically, we rely on qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews conducted in related literature and statistical material. The density of the personal links constitutes a key aspect that affects the decision making processof the actors. It is common that between them there take place situations of uncertainty, of bids of interests but also of negotiation and understanding

  19. Segmentation of the industrial market for food commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study presented in this article is to examine whether the cconcepts developed in the area of industrial buying behavior can add to the understanding of commodity markets. The industrial market for vegetable oil was chosen as the outset of the study, because it is characterized...... by the appearance of changing demands and technological opportunities, which potentially can lead to differentiation possibilities. The article describes a framework for the study of industrial buying of food commodities and the results of a conjoint study based on interviews with oil purchasers in the margarine...... and mayonnaise industries in Denmark, Sweden, Germany, the United Kingdom and Switzerland. The main result of the study is that the price is an omnipotent decision criterion, when vegetable fats and mayonnaise producers buy vegetable oil, but also that product and supplier criteria can be used to segment...

  20. Food safety objective: an integral part of food chain management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorris, L.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of food safety objective has been proposed to provide a target for operational food safety management, leaving flexibility in the way equivalent food safety levels are achieved by different food chains. The concept helps to better relate operational food safety management to public

  1. Food safety objective: an integral part of food chain management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorris, L.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of food safety objective has been proposed to provide a target for operational food safety management, leaving flexibility in the way equivalent food safety levels are achieved by different food chains. The concept helps to better relate operational food safety management to public healt

  2. DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN EQUILIBRIUM AND INTEGRATION IN MARKETS ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces a new market analysis methodology based on maximum likelihood estimation of a mixture distribution model incorporating price, transfer cost, and trade flow data. Not only does this method obviate statistical problems associated with conventional price analysis methods, it also permits differentiation between market integration and competitive market equilibrium. The model generates estimates of the frequency of alternative regimes, combinations of which provide useful, i...

  3. Economic implications of ASEAN integration for Malaysia's labour market

    OpenAIRE

    Rasiah, Rajah

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of the formation of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Economic Community (AEC) in 2015 on Malaysia’s labour market. The discussion centres on the nature of the structural change that Malaysia has experienced, especially since the 1980s, and how that has impacted on its labour market. Integration into ASEAN markets has obviously helped Malaysia enjoy the synergies of regional coordination. Although Malaysia’s economic growth has been steady...

  4. Integrated marketing communications and their role in economy and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnikova Nadezhda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of marketing, its role and significance in the modern education system and economy. The authors review the advantages of integrated marketing communications which include, apart from marketing, organizational culture, advertising, public relations (PR, branding, image making and other types of communication influencing the formation and functions of social processes and institutions, including the economic and education sphere.

  5. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; JA Perez-Cueto, Federico; Niedzwiedzka, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Background: Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public...... sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. Methods: In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food...... and beverage marketing cases were purposively sampled from different European countries. The cases involved different consumer target groups, product categories, company sizes and marketing techniques. The analysis focused on cases of relatively healthy food types, and nutrition and health-related aspects...

  6. Protecting children from harmful food marketing: options for local government to make a difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Graff, Samantha K

    2011-09-01

    The obesity epidemic cannot be reversed without substantial improvements in the food marketing environment that surrounds children. Food marketing targeted to children almost exclusively promotes calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and takes advantage of children's vulnerability to persuasive messages. Increasing scientific evidence reveals potentially profound effects of food marketing on children's lifelong eating behaviors and health. Much of this marketing occurs in nationwide media (eg, television, the Internet), but companies also directly target children in their own communities through the use of billboards and through local environments such as stores, restaurants, and schools. Given the harmful effect of this marketing environment on children's health and the industry's reluctance to make necessary changes to its food marketing practices, government at all levels has an obligation to act. This article focuses on policy options for municipalities that are seeking ways to limit harmful food marketing at the community level.

  7. Integrating Internal Branding in Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Slavova Milanka

    2013-01-01

    Brand is a major asset of the company. Building brand equity requires a lot of efforts in brand positioning and development. In the recent years more attention is given not only to the outward branding activities but to the role of employees in the branding process. Internal branding is an essential part of the marketing strategy and branding decisions as part of the company marketing mix. It ties outward brand promise with creating employees’ brand loyalty. External and internal brand corres...

  8. European food cultures in a macro and micro perspective: Implications for the marketing of Asian food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Ludvigsen, Hanne H.

    1996-01-01

    to Asian food producers and marketing people". 2. Therefore two questions of importance to Asian (with special attention to South East Asian) food producers and marketers are explored in this paper. 3. First: To which extent can Asian food manufacturers consider Europe one single market? And second: Do any...... different European countries and regions to more homogeneous export markets but in general confir heterogeneity of the European food cultures. 5. Since these data did not contain specific information about our second question, the inclusion of Asian food products in European diets, we have investigated...... certain food consumption trends from a micro-perspective, using qualitative techniques to explore changes in eating beghaviour in general and the openness to new "ethnic" or "exotic" types of food in particular. 6. This micro-level analysis was carried out in Denmark, for convenience reasons as well...

  9. Analysis of Transport Processes Management for a Romanian Food Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria NEAGU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of optimization process for the products transportation for a Romanian food-market. The vehicle routing problem was solves using Lingo 13.0 software and an analysis was conducted in order to determine the optimal routes for the vehicles in the conditions of products request variation. The program developed is considering one storing place from where the products are transported to other six delivery points using three vehicles. Each vehicle has a constant capacity and a constant travel velocity.

  10. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    Food and food markets still enjoy a pivotal role in the world economy and the international food industry is moving towards greater consolidation and globalization, with increased vertical integration and changes to market structure. Companies grow bigger in order to obtain economies of scale...... and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented...

  11. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented......Food and food markets still enjoy a pivotal role in the world economy and the international food industry is moving towards greater consolidation and globalization, with increased vertical integration and changes to market structure. Companies grow bigger in order to obtain economies of scale...

  12. Source-Message-Receiver in Integrated Marketing Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Sharee LeBlanc

    2011-01-01

    This is an abbreviation of the author's dissertation. Because integrated marketing communication (IMC) research has traditionally been problematic, this study used an existing scale to determine that higher educational institutional advancement (alumni, marketing-communications, development) is an appropriate venue to study the process model of…

  13. Source-Message-Receiver in Integrated Marketing Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Sharee LeBlanc

    2011-01-01

    This is an abbreviation of the author's dissertation. Because integrated marketing communication (IMC) research has traditionally been problematic, this study used an existing scale to determine that higher educational institutional advancement (alumni, marketing-communications, development) is an appropriate venue to study the process model of…

  14. Integrated Marketing Communications: A New Master's Degree Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caywood, Clarke; Ewing, Raymond

    1991-01-01

    Describes how separate graduate degree programs have been fused into an integrated marketing communications program at Northwestern University. Discusses the five-quarter program that includes a core of new marketing communications planning and management classes, professional specialization classes in corporate public relations, advertising, and…

  15. Investigating How to Align Schools' Marketing Environments with Federal Standards for Competitive Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polacsek, Michele; O'Brien, Liam M.; Pratt, Elizabeth; Whatley-Blum, Janet; Adler, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Background: Limiting food and beverage marketing to children is a promising approach to influence children's nutrition behavior. School-based marketing influences nutrition behavior and studies have consistently found marketing for nonnutritious foods and beverages in schools. No studies have examined the resources necessary to align school…

  16. Investigating How to Align Schools' Marketing Environments with Federal Standards for Competitive Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polacsek, Michele; O'Brien, Liam M.; Pratt, Elizabeth; Whatley-Blum, Janet; Adler, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Background: Limiting food and beverage marketing to children is a promising approach to influence children's nutrition behavior. School-based marketing influences nutrition behavior and studies have consistently found marketing for nonnutritious foods and beverages in schools. No studies have examined the resources necessary to align school…

  17. Unhealthy food marketing to New Zealand children and adolescents through the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Sagar, Karuna; Kelly, Bridget; Swinburn, Boyd

    2017-02-17

    To assess the extent and nature of unhealthy food marketing to New Zealand children and adolescents through the internet. Internet traffic data for January 2014 was purchased from AC Nielsen to identify the most popular websites (n=110) among children and adolescents aged 6-17 years. In addition, websites (n=70) of food and beverage brands most frequently marketed to children through television, sports, magazines and Facebook were included. Marketing techniques and features on those websites were analysed. The extent of food marketing on popular non-food websites was low. A wide range of marketing techniques and features was, however, identified on food brand websites, including advercation (87%), viral marketing (64%), cookies (54%), free downloadable items (43%), promotional characters (39%), designated children's sections (19%) and advergaming (13%). Most techniques appeared more frequently on websites specifically targeting children and adolescents, than on other websites targeting the general public. Compared to traditional media, the internet allows food marketers to use engaging techniques to directly interact with children. While the range of marketing techniques and features identified on food brand websites was extensive, the most popular websites among children and adolescents were non-food related, and the extent of food marketing on those websites was found to be low. Additional assessment of food marketing to children through social and other digital media is recommended.

  18. Changes in consumer behavior on the market with food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Turčínková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Czech Republic has experienced significant changes on the market with food in last two decades. The paper presents summary of results of conducted analyses focusing on changes in levels of most important food categories, changes in consumer preferences, and suggests what trends we can expect in the near future. The analyses were based on date from Czech Statistical Office Yearbooks, EUROSTAT, INCOMA and GfK, and data from primary researches conducted on sample of total 2522 households in the Czech Republic through questionnaire researches in 2005, 2006 and 2007. The results show that in the Czech Republic, the ratio of expenditures for food out of total consumer expenditures is slowly decreasing and advances to (still lower level typical for traditional EU countries. We have experienced growth of demand for products with higher added value; customers put more emphasis on perceived quality, longer durability and special product characteristics. Czech con­su­mers increase their consumption of vegetables and fruit, bottled beverages, wine and alcoholic beverages, cheese, they decreased their consumption of meat (in total, milk and potatoes, stagnation was typical for bakery products, sugar and fats and oils. Development in all social classes was very similar. For the future, we can expect growing interest for food products in smaller packages and targeted at specific needs, growing demand for food products with higher added value, consumption of food formerly unusual for the Czech, more frequent out-of-home eating, and growing differences between individual segments of social groups, mainly due to uneven income distribution.

  19. Children's recall of fast food television advertising-testing the adequacy of food marketing regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M Bernhardt

    Full Text Available In the United States, the fast food companies McDonald's and Burger King participate in marketing self-regulation programs that aim to limit emphasis on premiums and promote emphasis of healthy food choices. We determine what children recall from fast food television advertisements aired by these companies.One hundred children aged 3-7 years were shown McDonald's and Burger King children's (MDC & BKC and adult (MDA & BKA meal ads, randomly drawn from ads that aired on national US television from 2010-11. Immediately after seeing the ad, children were asked to recall what they had seen and transcripts evaluated for descriptors of food, healthy food (apples or milk, and premiums/tie-ins.Premiums/tie-ins were common in children's but rarely appeared in adult ads, and all children's ads contained images of healthy foods (apples and milk. Participants were significantly less likely to recall any food after viewing the children's vs. the adult ad (MDC 32% [95% confidence interval 23, 41] vs. MDA 68% [59, 77] p <0.001; BKC 46% [39, 56] vs. BKA 67% [58, 76] respectively, p = 0.002. For children's ads alone and for both restaurants, recall frequency for all food was not significantly different from premium/tie-ins, and participants were significantly more likely to recall other food items than apples or milk. Moreover, premiums/tie-ins were recalled much more frequently than healthy food (MDC 45% [35, 55] vs. 9% [3, 15] p<0.001; BKC 54% [44, 64] vs. 2% [0, 5] respectively, p<0.001.Children's net impressions of television fast food advertising indicate that industry self-regulation failed to achieve a de-emphasis on toy premiums and tie-ins and did not adequately communicate healthy menu choices. The methods devised for this study could be used to monitor and better regulate advertising patterns of practice.

  20. Comparative analysis of marketing integration strategies in three different marketing environments

    OpenAIRE

    Adeleke Adepoju; A.L. Badmus

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a study of comparative analysis of marketing integration strategies in three different marketing environments. It is observed that one of the fundamental challenges facing the multinational enterprise in the contemporary world is the decision to standardize marketing programs and practices or to tailor them according to the local conditions of the host country. A vigorous comparative methodology of matched samples at the level of statistical analysis was util...

  1. Green Marketing: integrated social and environmental responsibility in the marketing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dalmoro,Marlon; Venturini, Jonas Cardona; Diniz Pereira, Breno Augusto

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to describe and analyze as social and environmental responsibility is integrated in the marketing strategy of a Coca-Cola Company franchisee. By the perceptions of Karna, Hansen and Juslin (2001), environment marketing is described based on three hierarchical levels: strategic, structural and functional marketing. There has been developed a qualitative approach through case study, in which the data were collected through semi-structured interviews with people involved in the p...

  2. Green Marketing: integrated social and environmental responsibility in the marketing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dalmoro,Marlon; Venturini, Jonas Cardona; Diniz Pereira, Breno Augusto

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to describe and analyze as social and environmental responsibility is integrated in the marketing strategy of a Coca-Cola Company franchisee. By the perceptions of Karna, Hansen and Juslin (2001), environment marketing is described based on three hierarchical levels: strategic, structural and functional marketing. There has been developed a qualitative approach through case study, in which the data were collected through semi-structured interviews with people involved in the p...

  3. European food cultures in a macro and micro perspective: Implications for the marketing of Asian food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Ludvigsen, Hanne H.

    This article origines as part of a Danish national food research program: Market-based Process and Product Innovation in the Food Sector (MAPP), presenting some of the results of a project concerning the cultural dimension of food consumption. Two questions of importance to Asian (with special...... attention to South East Asian) food producers and marketers are explored. First: To which extent can Asian food manufacturers consider Europe one single market? And second: Do change processes in the European food cultures faclitate adoption of more Asian food products in the coming years? Of course......-perspective, using qualitative tec to explore changes in eating behaviour in general and the openness to new "ethnic" or "exotic" types of food inparticular. This micro-level analysis was carried out in the country of Denmark, both for conveneince reasons but also because Denmark i macro-level analysis showed signs...

  4. Marketing for College Managers: A Workbook for the Effective Integration of Marketing into College Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Angela; Sedgmore, Lynne

    This workbook provides a practical approach to establishing and implementing a corporate marketing strategy within an educational environment and integrates this into the traditional college planning process. Organized in three stand-alone sections, the workbook examines the marketing challenge from three different management perspectives and…

  5. Economic and financial integration in emerging markets: A European policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoropoulos Theodore E.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends to test if the same short-run increase in cyclical volatility arising from financial integration is observed in this specific sample of "emerging markets". This work finds signs that, contrary to other emerging markets, this does not happen: for the future member states financial integration, similarly to the outcome observed in mature market economies, reduces cyclical volatility both in the short and in the long run. Weak indications are found that this may happen partially due to the anchoring of expectations provided by the EU Accession, and to the more robust institutional framework imposed by this process onto the countries in question.

  6. Elspot: Nord Pool Spot Integration in MASCEM Electricity Market Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Ricardo; Santos, Gabriel; Praca, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The energy sector in industrialized countries has been restructured in the last years, with the purpose of decreasing electricity prices through the increase in competition, and facilitating the integration of distributed energy resources. However, the restructuring process increased the complexi...... from the already implemented markets, and it is a reference electricity market in Europe (the one with the larger amount of traded power).......The energy sector in industrialized countries has been restructured in the last years, with the purpose of decreasing electricity prices through the increase in competition, and facilitating the integration of distributed energy resources. However, the restructuring process increased the complexity...... in market players' interactions and generated emerging problems and new issues to be addressed. In order to provide players with competitive advantage in the market, decision support tools that facilitate the study and understanding of these markets become extremely useful. In this context arises MASCEM...

  7. Food Advertising and Marketing Directed at Children and Adolescents in the US

    OpenAIRE

    French Simone; Story Mary

    2004-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, the food and beverage industry in the US has viewed children and adolescents as a major market force. As a result, children and adolescents are now the target of intense and specialized food marketing and advertising efforts. Food marketers are interested in youth as consumers because of their spending power, their purchasing influence, and as future adult consumers. Multiple techniques and channels are used to reach youth, beginning when they are toddlers, to foster...

  8. The application of "integrated marketing communications" to social marketing and health communication: organizational challenges and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, G; Cole, G; Kirby, S; Freimuth, V; Caywood, C

    1998-01-01

    Influencing consumer behavior is a difficult and often resource-intensive undertaking, with success usually requiring identifying, describing, and understanding target audiences; solid product and/or service positioning relative to competitors; and significant media and communication resources. Integrated marketing communication (IMC) is a new way of organizing and managing persuasive communication tools and functions which involves realigning communications to consider the flow of information from an organization from the viewpoint of end consumers. Although the application of IMC to social marketing remains relatively unexplored, the IMC literature and recent efforts by the US Centers for Disease Prevention and Control suggest that integrated communication approaches have much to offer social marketing and health communication efforts. IMC, IMC and social marketing, and implications of IMC for public and private sector social marketing programs are discussed.

  9. On the integration of financial markets: How strong is the evidence from five international stock markets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentes, Sónia R.

    2015-07-01

    This paper examines the integration of financial markets using data from five international stock markets in the context of globalization. The theoretical basis of this study relies on the price theory and the Law of One Price, which was adjusted to the framework of financial markets. When price levels are nonstationary, cointegration and the error correction model constitute a powerful tool for the empirical examination of market integration. The error correction model provides a fully dynamic framework that allows to separating the long and the short run effects of the integration process. A dataset encompassing the daily stock price series of the PSI 20 (Portugal), IBEX 35 (Spain), FTSE 100 (UK), NIKKEI 225 (Japan) and SP 500 (US) indices from January 4th 1999 to September 19th 2014 is employed. The results highlight that these five stock markets are linked together by just one long-run relationship, although short-run movements are also present, which causes distinct deviations from the long-run equilibrium relationship. Endogeneity prevails in the system as a whole. While market integration in the sense of the Law of One Price holds, pairwise full price transmission has limited evidence. The results therefore show that stock market price movements are highly nonlinear and complex.

  10. An Empirical Study on Marketing Effectiveness Evaluation of Green Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhou Xiong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the marketing effectiveness of green food industry in Hubei Province via fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. Based on the cost basis of analysis of present situation, an evaluation system of marketing effectiveness evaluation on green food industry is established from three aspects, including the industry factor, policy factor and marketing performance factor. And fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is used to make the quantitative research, analyze the major obstacle to promotion of green marketing. Finally some countermeasures are proposed to promote the marketing effectiveness of green food industry in Hubei Province.

  11. LABOR MARKET INTEGRATION OF HIGHER EDUCATIONECONOMIC GRADUATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelescu Coralia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Transition from school to work is a major research topic in the last decade (Hannan and Werquin 2001 and Ryan 2001. The main reason is related to the fact that after graduating finding a job is difficult and more often the graduates occupy vulnerable positions. In Romania, one year after graduation, the insertion rate is 60,9% for university graduates and 35% for those with secondary education. This paper examines the process of insertion of higher education graduates in the Romanian labor market, focusing on economic profile graduates and using a national survey conducted on a sample including the 2003, 2005 and 2007 promotions. Keywords: labor market, insertion, youth unemployment

  12. Market Integration of Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Kirschmeyer

    is the technical and commercial entity in charge of mobilization and control of flexible consumers. This Thesis addresses some of the challenges relating to the Smart Grid and Virtual Power Plant visions with special attention to flexibility, value creation and portfolio coordination. The term flexibility....... It does however significantly sharpen the discussion of the flexibility concept and provides a categorization of flexible systems. This Thesis also investigates what value can be created from the different types of flexibility by assuming that the Virtual Power Plant will generate profit by trading...... flexibility in electricity markets. Based on the taxonomy and a model of the Nordic electricity markets it is explored how differences between flexibility types affects profit margin. It is found that revenue potential depends strongly on the quality of flexibility. Finally the subject of portfolio...

  13. Product market integration, tax distortions and public sector size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Sørensen, Allan

    The implications of product market integration for public sector activities (transfers and public consumption) are considered in a standard setting. The analysis supports that a larger public sector (higher tax rate) tends to increase wages and worsen wage competitiveness. However, the implications...... of product market integration for the public sector are far from straightforward. The reason is gains-from-trade effects which tend to increase the tax base and decrease the opportunity costs of public consumption (marginal utility of private consumption falls). It follows that the retrenchment view...... that product market integration inevitable leads to a downward pressure on public sector activities does not get support in a standard setting. A particularly noteworthy finding is that a country with a large public sector (strong preferences for public consumption) may benefit more by integrating...

  14. System and market integration of wind power in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede; Alberg Østergaard, Poul;

    2013-01-01

    Denmark has more than 10 years’ of experience with a wind share of approximately 20 per cent. During these 10 years, electricity markets have been subject to developments with a key focus on integrating wind power as well as trading electricity with neighbouring countries. This article introduces...... a methodology to analyse and understand the current market integration of wind power and concludes that the majority of Danish wind power in the period 2004e2008 was used to meet the domestic demand. Based on a physical analysis, at least 63 per cent of Danish wind power was used domestically in 2008....... To analyse the remaining 37 per cent, we must apply a market model to identify cause-effect relationships. The Danish case does not illustrate any upper limit for wind power integration, as also illustrated by Danish political targets to integrate 50 per cent by 2020. In recent years, Danish wind power has...

  15. System and market integration of wind power in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede; Alberg Østergaard, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Denmark has more than 10 years’ of experience with a wind share of approximately 20 per cent. During these 10 years, electricity markets have been subject to developments with a key focus on integrating wind power as well as trading electricity with neighbouring countries. This article introduces...... a methodology to analyse and understand the current market integration of wind power and concludes that the majority of Danish wind power in the period 2004e2008 was used to meet the domestic demand. Based on a physical analysis, at least 63 per cent of Danish wind power was used domestically in 2008....... To analyse the remaining 37 per cent, we must apply a market model to identify cause-effect relationships. The Danish case does not illustrate any upper limit for wind power integration, as also illustrated by Danish political targets to integrate 50 per cent by 2020. In recent years, Danish wind power has...

  16. Emerging Markets Integration in Latin America (MILA Stock market indicators: Chile, Colombia, and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo R Lizarzaburu Bolaños

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the impact of the Latin American Integrated Market (MILA start-up in the main indicators of the stock markets of the countries that conform it (Chile, Colombia, and Peru. At the end, several indicators were reviewed to measure the impact on profitability, risk, correlation, and trading volume between markets, using indicators such as: annual profitability, standard deviation, correlation coefficient, and trading volume. The sample period runs from November 2008 to August 2013; and involves the three stock markets associated with MILA: Bolsa de Comercio de Santiago (BCS, Bolsa de Valores de Colombia (BVC y Bolsa de Valores de Lima (BVL. An additional evaluation for further research would consist of the calculation of relevant indicators to corroborate the validity of the effects found in this investigation corresponding to the integration of the stock exchanges of Lima, Santiago and Bogota, after the integration of the Mexican stock exchange that occurred in 2014.

  17. Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC di PT Halo Rumah Bernyanyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekka Rismayanti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research aims to describe the effectiveness of Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC in PT Halo Rumah Bernyanyi which, from the perspective of marketing strategy, could be studied by analyzing the segmentation, targeting, and positioning. Using case-study method with in-depth interview, the result shows that the implementation of IMC at PT Halo Rumah Bernyayi is arranged in one single strategy and tend to neglect the complexities of running multi-brand family karaoke-house. This considers as ineffective because it leads to “cannibalization” among brands, especially when costumer’s targetting is overlooked before drafting the IMC plan. Keywords: Business, Integrated Marketing Communication, Marketing   Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan efektivitas penerapan Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC yang dilihat dari aspek segmentation, targeting dan positioning. Metode penelitian adalah studi kasus dengan menggunakan wawancara mendalam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penerapan IMC di PT Halo Rumah Bernyanyi dibuat dalam satu strategi dan tidak memerhatikan kompleksitas dari aspek segmentation, targeting dan positioning sebagai pedoman dasar. Langkah tersebut dinilai tidak efektif karena dapat mengakibatkan “kanibalisasi” antar brand, terlebih jika perhatian terhadap target konsumen diabaikan sebelum menyusun perencanaan IMC. Kata Kunci: Bisnis, Integrated Marketing Communications, Pemasaran

  18. Marketing Strategic Benefit-risk Analysis: Transgenic Poultry Food Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Liu; Dazheng Wang

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the causes of marketing strategic benefit-risk of transgenic poultry food supply chain in china, we analyze the role that benefits and risks play in the formation of the decision-making process of transgenic poultry food participants. This study discusses the ways and strategies of transgenic poultry food supply chain from the following aspects: a), the food's safety concerning producers, marketing participants and consumers’ risk behaviour at three stages of the transgenic ...

  19. An overview on the supply chain for European organic food market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOVLEAC Lavinia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available European organic food market is very dynamic both due to the consumers’ preferences and requests and due to the supply chain members who focus more and more on satisfying the market needs. Organic food has emerged as an important segment of food retailing in recent years. The supply chain management for organic food was first based on the conventional methods, but the products’ particular characteristics determined some specific changes. This paper aims to evaluate the supply chain challenges on the European and Romanian organic food market, trying to offer some solutions for the sector’ sustainable development.

  20. Retail grocery store marketing strategies and obesity: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Karen; Bader, Michael D M; Iyer, Shally

    2012-05-01

    In-store food marketing can influence food-purchasing behaviors and warrants increased attention given the dramatic rise in obesity. Descriptive and experimental studies of key marketing components have been conducted by consumer scientists, marketing researchers, and public health experts. This review synthesizes research and publications from industry and academic sources and provides direction for developing and evaluating promising interventions. Literature sources for the review were English-language articles published from 1995 to 2010, identified from multidisciplinary search indexes, backward searches of cited articles, review articles, industry reports, and online sources. Only articles that focused on physical grocery stores and food products were included. Data collection occurred in 2010 and 2011. Articles were classified in the categories of product, price, placement, and promotion and divided into controlled laboratory experiments, observation, and field experiments; 125 primary peer-reviewed articles met the inclusion criteria. Narrative synthesis methods were used. Key findings were synthesized by category of focus and study design. Evidence synthesis was completed in 2011. Findings suggest several strategies for in-store marketing to promote healthful eating by increasing availability, affordability, prominence, and promotion of healthful foods and/or restricting or de-marketing unhealthy foods. Key results of research in controlled laboratory studies should be adapted and tested in real-world in-store settings. Industry methods for assessing consumer behavior, such as electronic sales data and individually linked sales information from loyalty card holders, can help public health researchers increase the scientific rigor of field studies. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Best Practices for Integrating the Romanian Small Farmers into the Agri-Food Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Boboc

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the modern market economy, agri-food chains were imposed and strengthened due to unprecedented evolving recorded by supply and demand of food in recent decades, dynamic driven by market fragmentation, on the one hand, and specific processes of consumption and consumer emancipation, on the other hand. The objective of the paper aims to bring to the fore the best practices for support the Romanian small farmers to facilitate their access to the market, which is often dominated by large distribution networks. Reality has shown that financial support is not enough, even if farmers use modern and efficient technological systems, and that it is a need for an efficient integration of small producers in the agri-food sector. To highlight the best practices that can be used by Romanian small farmers were used information derived from: literature study on problems regarding the food sector; analysis of studies conducted by the consulting companies specialised in this field; analysing the consequences of recent legislation concerning the marketing of food products, namely its implementation in our country, especially in terms of small agricultural producers and their access to the Romanian market.

  2. Trading Relationship Performance and Market Power in Food Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xhoxhi, Orjon

    that contribute to the exercise by intermediaries of these power dimensions. In the third paper a Structural Equation Modelling is employed to analyse the effects of intermediaries’ power on trading relationship performance between farmer and intermediaries. The analysis show that intermediaries’ exercise...... of power over farmers’ margin, leads to reduced relationship performance. On the other hand, when they exercise their power over farmers input selection activities or over harvesting and delivery activities the performance is improved. Furthermore, the result show that intermediaries’ power affects......The development of the agri-food industry has led to a considerable increase of intermediaries’ market power vis-à-vis farmers. There are studies and evidence that suggests that due to their power, intermediaries transfer risks and unexpected costs to farmers which compromise the innovation...

  3. Profiling Consumer Trend-setters in the Canadian Healthy-foods Market

    OpenAIRE

    West, Gale E.; Larue, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    The agri-food industry faces new challenges as consumer demand for new, healthier foods increases. Media headlines frequently mention health benefits from certain foods and food components, and consumers are more health conscious because they are aging. They realize their food choices can reduce their risk of developing chronic illnesses such as cancer and heart disease. The competitive advantages for firms who are the first to bring their food innovations to market will depend in part on the...

  4. European Monetary Integration as a Development Factor of Eurocurrency Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurić Predrag

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic interconnection among the European countries influenced the birth of a single economic space with a common monetary policy. In addition, the abolition of the gold standard represented an important external factor that followed the same path. In parallel with these processes, the conditions were created for developing a Eurocurrency market which favoured financial integration of Europe, as well as the creation of a single European currency. In accordance with such economic flows, Eurocurrency market emerged as a distinguished international financial market, crucial for the development of international banking. Thus, business entities were allowed to access the capital which represents the transfer of the international accumulation of the exporting country onto the European capital market, thereby resulting in more efficient financing of the member states. Thanks to similar economic effects, these processes of European monetary integrations have become imperative to other countries in the region.

  5. Effects of top management involvement in integrated marketing communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Hočevar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available There is scarce empirical evidence in the academic literature of how top management involvement influences the degree of integrated marketing communications. At the same time, some authors believe that this relationship should be explored more extensively.In this paper we present one possible approach to investigating the relationship between top management involvement and the degree of integrated marketing communications. Our research established that a greater involvement of top management in marketing communications could be associated with a higher degree of IMC. Investigating the relationship between management and IMC is indeed at a very early stage. We suggest that this study has provided a basis for future research on the relationship between top management involvement in marketing communications and the degree of IMC.

  6. MARKETIZATION OF GREEN FOOD RESOURCES IN FOREST REGION OF THE CHANGBAI MOUNTAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yan

    2004-01-01

    The Changbai Mountains is rich in the resources of green food. At present, the low marketization of green food resources in the forest region of the Changbai Mountains becomes the bottleneck to restrict the benign development of its green food industry. With huge market demands at home and abroad, it is the urgent problem how to improve marketization process of green food resources and transfer the resources superiority into the market superiority in the region. According to the investigation, this paper analyzed the status quo and the cause of formation of low-marketization with the method of combining comparative research and practice research. It pointed out that necessary condition of marketization of green food resources in the forest region, such as strategy, economic environment, marketization allocation of sci-tech resources, etc. should be established. Furthermore, the concrete strategies of marketization of green food resources in the region such as market location, strategies of objective markets, combined strategy of marketing, etc. were advanced.

  7. Integrated Marketing Communications Plan for Health Centre Rhein-Neckar

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    In today’s competitive environment, medical practices cannot do without advertising their services in order to attract and retain patients. Marketing in health care has become as essential as within any other industry. Therefore, this product-oriented thesis aims at creating an integrated marketing communications plan for the case company, Orthopaedic Health Centre Rhein-Neckar. The company’s objective is to increase sales generated by its diagnostic methods and treatment options for arthrosi...

  8. A study on the effects of marketing communication using integrated marketing communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Sellahvarzi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC is one of the needed concepts in competitive edge. IMC is defined as a cross functional process for creating and nourishing profitable relationships with customers and other stakeholders by strategically controlling or impacting all messages sent to these groups. It ensures that all forms of communications and messages are carefully linked together. This study investigates the effectiveness of marketing communication in an Iranian automaker named Khodro using IMC system. The study tries to audit the rate of marketing relationship integrity and its outcome on organization performance. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 384 randomly selected people who use this firm’s services and Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.974. Hypotheses of this survey are exanimated by Pearson correlation test as well as pairwise t-student tests. The results show the effects of integrated marketing Communication on organization performance. In addition, there is a significant positive correlation relationship between integrated marketing communication with mission marketing, Cross functional Strategic Planning and Interactivity. Finally, there is a significant positive correlation relationship between dimensions of IMC.

  9. Food satisfaction: Integrating feelings before, during and after food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Barbara Vad; Hyldig, Grethe

    2015-01-01

    Consumers' satisfaction is important for the food industry to ensure product success. Determinants to food satisfaction are multifactorial and a method approaching the multiple determinants would provide a detailed picture of determinant behind consumers' hedonic food appreciation. The aims...... of this study were (1) to develop a method that could give detailed information about sensory- and food satisfaction (2) to study differences in sensory satisfaction in a case study, and (3) to study the factors related to food satisfaction. Focus group interviews and a literature study provided an overview...... of factors with potential to affect food satisfaction. A total of four questionnaires, covering factors before-, during- and after intake as well as demographics, were developed to measure factors related to satisfaction. The questionnaires were utilised in a cross-over consumer study with 79 subjects...

  10. Identifying influential factors on integrated marketing planning using information technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Hamdi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to identify important factors influencing integrated marketing planning using information technology. The proposed study designs a questionnaire for measuring integrated marketing planning, which consists of three categories of structural factors, behavioral factors and background factors. There are 40 questions associated with the proposed study in Likert scale. Cronbach alphas have been calculated for structural factors, behavioral factors and background factors as 0.89, 0.86 and 0.83, respectively. Using some statistical test, the study has confirmed the effects of three factors on integrated marketing. In addition, the implementation of Freedman test has revealed that structural factors were the most important factor followed by background factors and behavioral factors.

  11. Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV): Analysis and US market potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzis, Lisa; Friedman, David; Hill, Sarah; Teagan, Peter; Strong, Steven; Strong, Marilyn

    1995-02-01

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., in conjunction with Solar Design Associates, conducted a study for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Building Technologies (OBT) to determine the market potential for grid-connected, building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). This study defines BIPV as two types of applications: (1) where the PV modules are an integral part of the building, often serving as the exterior weathering skin; and (2) the PV modules are mounted on the existing building exterior. Both of these systems are fully integrated with the energy usage of the building and have potential for significant market penetration in the US. Off-grid building applications also offer a near-term market for BIPV, but are not included in the scope of this study.

  12. Chlorinated organic pesticides in marketed food: Barcelona, 2001-06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontcuberta, M. [Agencia de Salut Publica de Barcelona, ASPB, Public Health Agency of Barcelona, Av Drassanes 13, 08001 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: mfontcub@aspb.es; Arques, J.F.; Villalbi, J.R.; Martinez, M.; Centrich, F.; Serrahima, E.; Pineda, L.; Duran, J.; Casas, C. [Agencia de Salut Publica de Barcelona, ASPB, Public Health Agency of Barcelona, Av Drassanes 13, 08001 Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    This paper reports concentration levels of 22 chlorinated organic compounds (both primary compounds and metabolites) in food marketed in the city of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) in 2001-06. Samples included meat products, fish and seafood, eggs, milk and dairy, vegetal oils, cereal products and derivates, vegetables, fresh fruits, dry fruits, spices, formula and baby food, tea and wine. Levels of chlorinated organic compounds were determined by gas chromatography with selective detectors: electron capture (ECD), flame photometric (FPD) and confirmation with mass-spectrometry. Chlorinated organic pesticides were detected in 7 of the 1,484 samples analyzed in the 2001-06 period (0.5%): 1 dairy product, 1 fruit, 1 olive oil and 4 vegetables. Specific pesticides detected are lindane and endosulfan {alpha}, {beta} or sulphate. A decrease in both the proportion of samples with detectable residues and in the variety of chlorinated pesticides found is visible when comparing these results with those of the previous 1989-2000 period. These results suggest the gradual disappearance of regulated chlorinated organic pesticides as a consequence of the growing worldwide implementation of current regulatory agreements.

  13. European food cultures in a macro and micro perspective: Implications for the marketing of Asian food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Ludvigsen, Hanne H.

    homogenoues export markets but ingeneral confirms the heterogeneity of the European fo cultures. Since these data did not contain specific information about our second question, the inclusion of Asian food products in European diets, we have investigated certain food consumption trends from a micro-perspective...... of being one of the most generally open food cultures of Europe with relatively many overlapping characteristicsw with other European food cultures....

  14. Food references and marketing to children in Australian magazines: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the content and extent of food references and marketing within popular children's magazines in Australia. Sixteen popular Australian children's magazines were selected, as determined by readership and circulation data. Back copies of each magazine were purchased for publications released between January and December 2006 (n = 76). Each magazine was assessed for food references on the basis of 23 food categories and 7 food-referencing types and as either branded or non-branded food references. There were a high number of overall food references within the children's magazines, with the majority of these being for unhealthy food products (63.7% unhealthy versus 36.3% healthy foods, p magazines, those targeting males and children aged 7-12 years had the highest proportion of unhealthy food references (78.1 and 69.8% unhealthy food references, respectively). Food references within children's magazines are common and skewed towards unhealthy foods. Children's high magazine readership rates and a lack of advertising and product placement regulations for magazines in Australia make this media an attractive target for food marketers. The timely establishment of food marketing regulations within magazines are recommended to prevent further expansion of food marketing in this area.

  15. PARTICULAR QUALITIES OF INTEGRATIONAL INTERACTION DEVELOPMENT OF THE FOOD INDUSTRY IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Skopenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Integrated structures forming and their development is an effective area of improving the efficiency of agricultural enterprises in general and the food industry in particular. Specific features of this sector determine the feasibility of the priorities of integrational interaction between the food industry enterprieses and other market players. A forecast of integrational interaction of the food industry is made, issues of businesses and efficient tools of integration, depending on the stage of development of the industry are developed. There are some examples. Active integration, expansion by creating separate business units, integration in related field only if there is occurrence of synergy or as part of resource support is appropriate for beverage – energytonik producers, bottled drinking water, frozen food, pastry, organic products manufacturers. For producers of wines, alcoholic drinks, mineral water?flour we suggest horizontal and vertical integration, acquisitions of competitors, participation in various associations (unions, associations, diversification of production. For bread producers and bakery products, oils and fats, dairy and meat products, sugar, confectionery, processed fruit and vegetables we propose horizontal and vertical integration, diversification of production decline, disintegration through the provision or salling of non-core assets. For beer manufacturers and tobacco is urgent to use transnational integration, integration in other industries through the provision of disintegration or selling of non-core assets.

  16. Integration of Manufacturing and Development in Emerging Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigates the problems related to functional integration between manufacturing activities and R&D activities in emerging markets within multinational companies. A framework to this end is developed and illustrated in relation to four cases from multinational companies, which have...... established R&D and manufacturing in China or India. The findings point to the importance of contingencies such as industrial clock speed, technological complexity, as well as the extent to which local adaptation is needed. Keywords: Co-location, Emerging markets, Functional integration, Manufacturing, R&D....

  17. Strategies to Improve Marketing and Promotion of Foods and Beverages at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Food and beverage marketing often appears throughout schools in the form of posters, vending machine fronts, in-school television advertisements, school newspapers, textbook covers, sports equipment, and scoreboards. Many foods marketed in schools are of poor nutritional quality. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Institute of…

  18. Marketing Strategic Benefit-risk Analysis: Transgenic Poultry Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the causes of marketing strategic benefit-risk of transgenic poultry food supply chain in china, we analyze the role that benefits and risks play in the formation of the decision-making process of transgenic poultry food participants. This study discusses the ways and strategies of transgenic poultry food supply chain from the following aspects: a, the food's safety concerning producers, marketing participants and consumers’ risk behaviour at three stages of the transgenic poultry food supply chain. b, all these risks should be effectively managed in order to derive the utmost of benefits and avoid disruption or catastrophic economic consequences for all stages of the transgenic poultry food supply chain. c, the identification, analysis, determination and understanding of the benefit-risk trade-offs of market participants in transgenic poultry food market may help policy makers, financial analysts and marketers to make well informed and effective corporate marketing strategies in order to deal with highly uncertain and risky situations. We hope these can accelerate the construction of marketing strategic benefit-risk trade-offs of transgenic poultry food supply chain, promote sustained and rapid growth of transgenic poultry food industry in china.

  19. Monopolistic Market Position and Losses from Monetary Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Młodkowski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to show how a market position influences company’s gains and losses from monetary integration. The literature on monetary integration already features cost and benefit analysis. However the proposed examples of both results (negative and positive are not offered for different market structures and most often are macroeconomic in nature. The paper develops an idea that a monopolistic enterprise might be worse off because of monetary integration. The case discussed, shows that prior to monetary integration, a specific solution regarding pricing of imported goods allowed the company for: (1 hedging effectively from exchange rate risk, (2 benefiting from long-term appreciation trend of the domestic currency against the euro. Both goals were achieved due to privileged market position (legal monopoly of the company. The monetary integration and the expected full EMU accession is going to remove the need for hedging but simultaneously it will result in loosing the ability to achieve extra profits extracted so far. This is a basis for a claim that costs and benefits flowing from monetary integration could depend on market structure an entity operates in. We conclude that in a more monopolized economies, the microeconomic benefits achieved by households are at the cost of firms, while in a perfect competition gains are uniformly distributed across agents at supply and demand sides of markets. Therefore, producers in monopolized economies could be less prone to join a monetary union. The opposite hypothesis might also be true. In economies with fewer monopolies there are fewer incentives to oppose monetary integration. The comparison of the two extreme settings allows posting a hypothesis that the perfect competition is monetary integration-neutral and the monopoly is monetary integration-averse market structure. Data for the paper and the studied case are originating from one of the largest legal monopolists in Poland that

  20. Integration of liberalised energy market; Samspillet mellem de liberaliserede energimarkeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinge Jacobsen, H.; Fristrup, P.; Munksgaard, J.; Pade, L.L.; Henriksen, T.C.

    2004-03-01

    The markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating are inter-linked both with respect to the energy flows and with respect to ownership of supply sources and infrastructure. The extent and the possible consequences of these linkages are examined in this report. The options for public interventions in these markets are analysed to compare instruments with respect to their ability to provide the necessary incentives for an efficient functioning of the liberalised markets. Aspects of retail markets with households facing multi-product distribution companies and aspects of the production of combined heat and power based on natural gas has been covered. This project identifies some important aspects related to final consumers and the interaction of markets with different types of regulation and scope for liberalisation. From a Danish perspective the district heat market and the dependence on market conditions for natural gas is a specific concern. Consumer concerns also relate to the creation of multi-product energy distribution companies that are privately owned and possibly controlled by foreign interests. Such companies might use bundled sales of energy products to extent their dominant position in one market e.g. a regulated heat market to a market with considerable competition (electricity). Bundled sales would not necessarily result in a loss for the consumer due to economies of scope in supplying energy products. However, the regulatory authorities responsible for district heat prices will have a more complicated job in surveying the bundled price setting. Integration of activities within natural gas distribution and CHP production has been analysed with respect to incentives and welfare implications. Results of the project point to critical market conditions and identify areas of concern for regulatory policies. The analysis shows that there is a large welfare loss associated with having monopolies in both natural gas supplies and the CHP production

  1. Getting serious about protecting New Zealand children against unhealthy food marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

    2015-07-03

    Reducing childhood obesity is now a high priority for Government and New Zealand society, and foremost in these efforts should be getting serious about protecting children from being targeted by sophisticated marketing for the very foods and beverages that are making them fat. The marketing of unhealthy food products to children is powerful, pervasive and predatory. Previous studies in New Zealand found that food marketing targeted at children through various media is predominantly for unhealthy food products. Statutory comprehensive regulations providing full protections for children against unhealthy food marketing are recommended, but strengthening voluntary codes into a more quasi-regulatory system would allow food companies to clearly demonstrate their commitments to becoming part of the solution for New Zealand's unacceptably high rate of childhood obesity.

  2. An Integrative Framework for Evolving A Socially Responsible Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    El-Ansary, Adel I; Cerne, Annette

    2005-01-01

    The rise in the strategic importance of maintaining positive stakeholder relationships and the need to protect corporate brand reputation has moved the academic and business debates of ethical issues concerning corporate social responsibility (CSR) from being viewed as paternalistic philanthropy to an integral part of business strategy (Raynard et al., 2002; Husted et al., 2000). Subsequently, the integration of CSR issues into business and marketing strategy transitioned from an option to a ...

  3. Formulation of market strategies for Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    The ANL Energy and Environmental Systems Division has undertaken studies of implementation mechanisms and commercialization prospects for ''integrated community energy systems.'' Real Estate Research Corp. was commissioned to formulate marketing strategies appropriate to the implementation of ICES in the U.S. Objectives of this assignment are to: assist ICES program managers in formulating market strategies for the acceptance and widespread application of ICES systems; provide sufficient background information on the processes of development so that marketing strategies can be suitably tailored to particular concerns and characteristics of development projects; establish an information system for identifying areas, subareas, sites, or projects with substantial growth and development activity, as potential candidates for the application of ICES; test the information system to determine its potential usefulness for identifying candidate sites; and provide recommendations on strategies and techniques that might be used in a comprehensive marketing program for application of ICES systems. Chapter 2 presents information on the development process, which is used as a framework for other elements of the report. The project information system for identifying candidate projects for ICES applications is described in Chapter 3, and that system is subjected to a limited test and evaluation in Chapter 4. Description of the characteristics of development process appears in Chapter 5, and discussion of the formulation of marketing strategies in Chapter 6, and presentation of marketing techniques as part of an ICES marketing program in Chapter 7.

  4. Speculation on commodities futures markets and destabilization of global food prices: exploring the connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Jayati; Heintz, James; Pollin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In December 2010, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's Food Price Index surpassed its previous peak of June 2008, and prices remained at this level through September 2011. This pattern is creating justified fears of a renewal or intensification of the global food crisis. This paper reviews arguments and evidence to inform debates on how to regulate commodity futures markets in the face of such price volatility and sustained high prices. We focus on the relationship between market liquidity and price patterns in asset markets in general and in commodities futures markets in particular, as well as the relationship between spot and futures market prices for food. We find strong evidence supporting the need to limit huge increases in trading volume on futures markets through regulations. We find that arguments opposing regulation are not supported. We find no support for the claim that liquidity in futures markets stabilizes prices at "fundamental" values or that spot market prices are free of any significant influence from futures markets. Given these results, the most appropriate position for regulators is precautionary: they should enact and enforce policies capable of effectively dampening excessive speculative trading on the commodities markets for food.

  5. Protecting Financial Market Integrity: Roles and Responsibilities of Auditors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.M. Diekman (Peter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWaarom heeft u nog vertrouwen in een bank? En waarom vertrouwt u uw geld nog toe aan banken? Deze vragen staan centraal in de oratie ‘Protecting Financial Market Integrity. Roles and Responsibilities of Auditors' van prof.dr. Peter A.M. Diekman RA. Hij stelt dat zowel de intern als de op

  6. Integrating Development, Alumni Relations, and Marketing for Fundraising Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevick, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    At many institutions, the vice president of institutional advancement oversees the functions of development, alumni relations, and marketing and communications. University leaders expect these functions to be integrated and to work hand-in-hand to advance the institution's mission, particularly in the area of private donations. The reality is that…

  7. Historical Business Cycles and Market Integration: Evidence from Comovement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uebele, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This thesis addresses historical business cycles and market integration in Europe and America in the 19th and 20th centuries. For the analysis of historical business cycles, the widely used methodology of historical national accounting is complemented with a dynamic factor model that allows for usin

  8. Historical Business Cycles and Market Integration: Evidence from Comovement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uebele, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This thesis addresses historical business cycles and market integration in Europe and America in the 19th and 20th centuries. For the analysis of historical business cycles, the widely used methodology of historical national accounting is complemented with a dynamic factor model that allows for

  9. Market Integration and Transport Costs in France 1825-1903

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Persson, Karl Gunnar

    2000-01-01

    This article argues that the appropriate standard for the analysis of commodity market integration is the transport cost adjusted law of one price. A threshold error correction model that incorporates that property is developed and applied to French wheat prices in the 19th century. This type of ...

  10. Food Advertising and Marketing Directed at Children and Adolescents in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    French Simone

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, the food and beverage industry in the US has viewed children and adolescents as a major market force. As a result, children and adolescents are now the target of intense and specialized food marketing and advertising efforts. Food marketers are interested in youth as consumers because of their spending power, their purchasing influence, and as future adult consumers. Multiple techniques and channels are used to reach youth, beginning when they are toddlers, to foster brand-building and influence food product purchase behavior. These food marketing channels include television advertising, in-school marketing, product placements, kids clubs, the Internet, toys and products with brand logos, and youth-targeted promotions, such as cross-selling and tie-ins. Foods marketed to children are predominantly high in sugar and fat, and as such are inconsistent with national dietary recommendations. The purpose of this article is to examine the food advertising and marketing channels used to target children and adolescents in the US, the impact of food advertising on eating behavior, and current regulation and policies.

  11. Food Advertising and Marketing Directed at Children and Adolescents in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Mary; French, Simone

    2004-02-10

    In recent years, the food and beverage industry in the US has viewed children and adolescents as a major market force. As a result, children and adolescents are now the target of intense and specialized food marketing and advertising efforts. Food marketers are interested in youth as consumers because of their spending power, their purchasing influence, and as future adult consumers. Multiple techniques and channels are used to reach youth, beginning when they are toddlers, to foster brand-building and influence food product purchase behavior. These food marketing channels include television advertising, in-school marketing, product placements, kids clubs, the Internet, toys and products with brand logos, and youth-targeted promotions, such as cross-selling and tie-ins. Foods marketed to children are predominantly high in sugar and fat, and as such are inconsistent with national dietary recommendations. The purpose of this article is to examine the food advertising and marketing channels used to target children and adolescents in the US, the impact of food advertising on eating behavior, and current regulation and policies.

  12. Persuasive food marketing to children: use of cartoons and competitions in Australian commercial television advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Hattersley, Libby; King, Lesley; Flood, Victoria

    2008-12-01

    While there is a recognized link between high levels of exposure to advertising of unhealthy foods and overweight and obesity among children, there is little research on the extent to which these exposures include persuasive marketing techniques. This study aimed to measure children's exposure to the use of persuasive marketing within television food advertisements. Advertisements broadcast on all three commercial Australian television channels were recorded for an equivalent 1 week period in May 2006 and 2007 (714 h). Food advertisements were analysed for their use of persuasive marketing, including premium offers, such as competitions, and the use of promotional characters, including celebrities and cartoon characters. Advertised foods were categorized as core, non-core or miscellaneous foods. Commercial data were purchased to determine children's peak viewing times and popular programs. A total of 20 201 advertisements were recorded, 25.5% of which were for food. Significantly more food advertisements broadcast during children's peak viewing times, compared to non-peak times, contained promotional characters (P advertisements per hour containing premium offers, compared to 0.2 per hour during programs most popular with adults. The majority of advertisements containing persuasive marketing during all viewing periods were for non-core foods. Persuasive marketing techniques are frequently used to advertise non-core foods to children, to promote children's brand recognition and preference for advertised products. Future debate relating to television advertising regulations must consider the need to restrict the use of persuasive marketing techniques to children.

  13. Study on the Chinese Goods Market Structure and Related Integrated Marketing Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qishen Zhou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the Chinese goods market structure and related integrated marketing strategy. In recent years, it is becoming more and more popular for Chinese consumers to go on luxury consuming in a variety of large cities in China, showing the increasing demand of luxury for Chinese people possessed relatively high fortune. Further, dozens of international famous luxury brands are pouring into the Chinese market such as LVMH and Gucci, recognizing the huge consumption demand on luxury goods. Then it is proved by the fact that these famous international brands on luxury have obtained huge profits. On the contrary, different from the outstanding operation of international luxury brands, native luxury brands in China is still in the initiated stage that shows a relatively far distance with them. In this study, the basic connotation and characteristics of luxury consumption are firstly described so as to confirm the final connotation. Then the scale and consumer groups are analyzed additionally and the related reasons for shaping the Chinese luxury market are explored further. Based on these analyses, the detailed and related integrated marketing strategies on Chinese luxury market are eventually put forward respectively.

  14. Market research and plan for Chinese fast-food restaurant start-up

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Tianhao

    2017-01-01

    CENTRIA UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES Market research and plan for Chinese fast-food restaurant start-up Instructor Due to the popularity of fast-food services in the Helsinki region, this thesis studies the possibility to find out the market opportunities for Chinese traditional fast-food business. Most of the fast-food restaurants opened are according to European flavor, so there is almost a void for Chinese fast-food to fill in, plus the Helsinki region is an area of ...

  15. The Market Effect of a Food Scare: The Case of Genetically Modified StarLink Corn

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Genetic modification of crops has revolutionized food production, but it remains controversial due to food safety concerns. A recent food safety scare provides a natural experiment on the market's willingness to accept an increase in perceived risk from genetically modified (GM) food. We analyze the market impact of contamination of the U.S. food-corn supply by a GM variety called StarLink. We find that the contamination led to a 6.8 percent discount in corn prices and that the suppression...

  16. The effect of ethanol policies on the vertical price transmission in corn and food markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabik, D.; Ciaian, P.; Pokrivcak, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of ethanol policies on price transmission along the food supply chain. We consider the US corn sector and its vertical links with food and ethanol (energy) markets. We find that ethanol is a source of imperfect price transmission in the food supply chain. Ethanol, howe

  17. Biofuels and Vertical Price Transmission: The Case of the US Corn, Ethanol, and Food Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabik, D.; Ciaian, P.; Pokrivcak, J.

    2014-01-01

    This is the first paper to analyze the impact of biofuels on the price transmission along the food chain. We analyze the U.S. corn sector and its vertical links with food and ethanol (energy) markets. We find that biofuels affect the price transmission elasticity in the food chain compared to a no b

  18. Children's everyday exposure to food marketing: an objective analysis using wearable cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal, L N; Stanley, J; Smith, M; Barr, M B; Chambers, T J; Zhou, J; Duane, A; Gurrin, C; Smeaton, A F; McKerchar, C; Pearson, A L; Hoek, J; Jenkin, G L S; Ni Mhurchu, C

    2017-10-08

    Over the past three decades the global prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has increased by 47%. Marketing of energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages contributes to this worldwide increase. Previous research on food marketing to children largely uses self-report, reporting by parents, or third-party observation of children's environments, with the focus mostly on single settings and/or media. This paper reports on innovative research, Kids'Cam, in which children wore cameras to examine the frequency and nature of everyday exposure to food marketing across multiple media and settings. Kids'Cam was a cross-sectional study of 168 children (mean age 12.6 years, SD = 0.5) in Wellington, New Zealand. Each child wore a wearable camera on four consecutive days, capturing images automatically every seven seconds. Images were manually coded as either recommended (core) or not recommended (non-core) to be marketed to children by setting, marketing medium, and product category. Images in convenience stores and supermarkets were excluded as marketing examples were considered too numerous to count. On average, children were exposed to non-core food marketing 27.3 times a day (95% CI 24.8, 30.1) across all settings. This was more than twice their average exposure to core food marketing (12.3 per day, 95% CI 8.7, 17.4). Most non-core exposures occurred at home (33%), in public spaces (30%) and at school (19%). Food packaging was the predominant marketing medium (74% and 64% for core and non-core foods) followed by signs (21% and 28% for core and non-core). Sugary drinks, fast food, confectionary and snack foods were the most commonly encountered non-core foods marketed. Rates were calculated using Poisson regression. Children in this study were frequently exposed, across multiple settings, to marketing of non-core foods not recommended to be marketed to children. The study provides further evidence of the need for urgent action to reduce children's exposure to

  19. An overview of the functional food market: from marketing issues and commercial players to future demand from life in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergari, Francesca; Tibuzzi, Arianna; Basile, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Companies in the food industry have high expectations for food products that meet the consumers' demand for a healthy life style. In this context Functional Food plays a specific role. These foods are not intended only to satisfy hunger and provide the necessary human nutrients, but also to prevent nutrition-related diseases and increase the physical and mental well-being of their consumer. Among participants in space science and missions, recognition of nutraceuticals and dietary supplements is growing for their potential in reducing health risks and to improve health quality and eating habits during long-term flights and missions. In 2008 the entire functional foods market was worth over an estimated US $80 billion, with the US holding a majority share in the nutraceuticals market (35%) followed byJapan (25%) and with the ever-growing European market, currently estimated at US$8 billion. India and China are the two major countries known for their production of traditional functional food products and nutraceuticals, but other South-East Asian countries and Gulf nations are developing potential markets.

  20. Art of persuasion: an analysis of techniques used to market foods to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebden, Lana; King, Lesley; Kelly, Bridget

    2011-11-01

    Persuasive marketing techniques, such as promotional characters, influence children's food preferences and requests for foods. The aim of this research was to describe the techniques used to market unhealthy foods and beverages to children on Sydney free-to-air television. Marketing techniques designed to appeal to children were identified from international literature and summarised into a systematic coding tool. Using this tool, the marketing techniques used in a random sample of 100 unique food advertisements, broadcasted on Sydney free-to-air television, were coded. Frequency of marketing techniques was analysed overall and for use in advertisements marketing unhealthy foods, emotionally or verbally appealing to parents, or featuring child actors. Advertisers' use of persuasive techniques generally did not differ by type of food advertised. Marketing techniques with greater prominence in unhealthy food advertising were palatability (54% of unhealthy food advertisements), convenience (52%), fantasy/imagination (28%), fun/happiness (17%) and cartoon characters (9%). Advertisements emotionally appealing to parents (24%) were significantly more likely to make general health or nutrition statements (38% vs. 17%), and appealed to children concurrently through fun/happiness and fantasy/imagination appeals. Children were depicted in advertisements as eating with friends or family, situated within the home and frequently snacking on less healthy foods. Food and beverage advertisers use a range of visual, audio and emotive techniques to appeal to children and their parents that do not discriminate by the type of food advertised. The range and complexity of these techniques complicate the restriction of their use in food advertising to children. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  1. SUSTAINABILITY OF SUSTAINABLE PALM OIL: A MARKET INTEGRATION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Chalil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Crude Palm Oil (CPO is the biggest consumed vegetable oil in the world. The increase in CPO production raises concern on the environmental impact even outside the producing countries. As a response to this matter, the EU has made a requirement to only import certified CPO (CSPO. India and China, the two biggest importers in the world, are less restrictive to the environmental issues, and their demands are more influenced by CPO price levels. These countries are the main export markets for Indonesia and Malaysia, the two biggest CPO exporters in the world. This research using monthly price data from the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, EU28, India, China, Indonesia and Malaysia. Market integrations are tested with Cointegration Test, Vector Error Correction Model and Seemingly Unrelated Regression. The results show that these markets are integrated, but European countries are unlikely to lead the price movement. Therefore, the concern on sustainable certification from the European countries still slowly spreads to other main importers, resulting in low absorption of CSPO. Keywords: market integration; sustainable palm oil; seemingly unrelated regression; vector Error correction model

  2. Food-related life style: Development of a cross-culturally valid instrument for market surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1993-01-01

    an important input to a food producer's strategy formation. 2. Life style measurement has been widely used in marketing, namely for guiding advertising strategy, segmentation, and product development. Life style is potentially a valuable tool for market surveillance. 3. Life style studies as they are currently......Executive summary: 1. Surveying end users is a major component of market surveillance in the food industry. End users' value perception is the final determinant of how all other actors in the food chain can make a living. To perceive trends that affect how consumers value food products is therefore...... done in market research have been criticized on several grounds: they lack a theoretical foundation, they lack cross-cultural validity, their ability to predict behaviour is limited, and the derivation of so-called basic life style dimensions is unclear. 4. We propose an instrument called food...

  3. Food marketing to children in Canada: a settings-based scoping review on exposure, power and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowse, Rachel

    2017-09-01

    Food marketing impacts children's food knowledge, behaviours and health. Current regulations in Canada focus on restricting promotional aspects of food marketing with little-to-no consideration of the places where children experience food. Understanding food marketing in children's everyday settings is necessary to protect children. This scoping review describes the current literature on food marketing to children in Canada by setting. The author searched databases for Canadian research on children's exposure to food marketing, and the power and impact of food marketing to children (2-17 years) across settings, and on how current regulations may mediate the effect of food marketing on children. Peer-reviewed studies in English, published between 2000 and 2016, were included. Twenty-five studies documented children's exposure to food marketing and its power and/or impact on them in homes (via television, or online) (n = 12), public schools (n = 1), grocery stores (n = 8), fast food restaurants (n = 2), and in general (n = 2). Research trends suggest that unhealthy foods are targeted at children using multiple promotional techniques that overlap across settings. Several research gaps exist in this area, leading to an incomplete, and potentially underestimated, picture of food marketing to children in Canada. Available evidence suggests that current Canadian approaches have not reduced children's exposure to or the power of food marketing in these settings, with the exception of some positive influences from Quebec's statutory regulations. The settings where children eat, buy or learn about food expose them to powerful, often unhealthy food marketing. The current evidence suggests that "place" may be an important marketing component to be included in public policy in order to broadly protect children from unhealthy food marketing. Organizations and communities can engage in settings-based health promotion interventions by developing their own marketing policies that

  4. 'Children and obesity: a pan-European project examining the role of food marketing'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Anne E

    2008-02-01

    Rising levels of obesity in school-age children across Europe are causing increasing concern. The 'Children, Obesity and associated avoidable Chronic Diseases' project sought to examine the effects of promotion within food marketing, given the influential role it plays in children's diets. A questionnaire and data-collection protocol was designed for the national co-ordinators, facilitating standardized responses. Co-ordinators collected data from within 20 European Union countries relating to food promotion to children. Results showed that unhealthy foods such as savoury snacks and confectionary were the most commonly marketed and consumed by children across all countries. Television was found to be the prime promotional medium, with in-school and internet marketing seen as growth areas. Media literacy programmes designed specifically to counterbalance the effects of food marketing to children were reported by only a few of the 20 countries. An ineffective and incoherent pattern of regulation was observed across the countries as few governments imposed tough restrictions with most preferring to persuade industry to voluntarily act with responsibly. Most health, consumer and public interest groups supported food marketing restrictions whilst industry and media groups advocated self-regulation. Recommendations include the amendment of the European Union's Television Without Frontiers Directive to ban all TV advertising of unhealthy food to children, the adoption of a commonly agreed European Union definition of an 'unhealthy' food, and the establishment of a mechanism for pan-European monitoring of the nature and extent of food marketing to children and its regulation.

  5. Consumer Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior in the Russian Market for Organic Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Meixner

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, the market for organic food has developed well in Western European countries and comparable markets like the United States or Canada. While these markets are now approaching market saturation, other markets still have huge potential for growth and are therefore of special interest to export companies. In this paper, we analyze the demands, knowledge, and expectations of the emerging market in Russia. It is well documented that the Russian market for organic food has had a much higher growth rate than Western markets in recent years. According to the USDA, the Russian market grew significantly during the last years. The increase might also be due to changes in Russian consumers’ behavior. However, some challenges must be considered when entering the Russian market with premium products: (1 a large number of low‐income consumers are not able topay for premium products, and (2 up until now, there have been no official organic labels available in Russia, and, therefore, it is likely that the Russian population lacks knowledge of what organic food is and which requirements are connected to the organic production process. Considering these restrictions, we analyzed important factors affecting Russian consumers’ food choice on the one hand and their knowledge of organic food on the other. This paper presents results for one specific product (organic potatoes, which can be considered to be a typical alternative to low‐priced, conventional products. A conjoint analysis was conducted in Saint Petersburg (n = 300 to investigate the importance of the buying attributes of organic potatoes. While the results are not representative of the whole Russian market, they show crucial differences in consumer attitudes compared to Western markets and confirm that the average consumer knowledge about this product category remains low. These findings offer valuable information to those stakeholders of the supply chain who want to enter a

  6. Innovation in a multiple-stage, multiple-product food marketing chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Alister Derek; Christensen, Tove

    of market power in a single chain generally reproduce those delivered by previous authors. The impacts of market power in related chains are found to depend on linkages between chains in terms of interactions in consumer demand. Interactions between products in costs (economies of scope) generate......A model of a 3-stage food marketing chain is presented for the case of two products. Its extension of existing work is its capacity to examine non-competitive input and output markets in two marketing chains at once, and have them related by demand and cost interactions. The simulated impacts...... an interesting result in that a possible market failure is identified that may be offset by the exercise of market power. The generation of farm-level innovation is seen to be largely unaffected by market power, but where market power is exercised the benefits are extracted from farmers and consumers...

  7. Innovation in a multiple-stage, multiple-product food marketing chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Alister Derek; Christensen, Tove

    A model of a 3-stage food marketing chain is presented for the case of two products. Its extension of existing work is its capacity to examine non-competitive input and output markets in two marketing chains at once, and have them related by demand and cost interactions. The simulated impacts...... of market power in a single chain generally reproduce those delivered by previous authors. The impacts of market power in related chains are found to depend on linkages between chains in terms of interactions in consumer demand. Interactions between products in costs (economies of scope) generate...... an interesting result in that a possible market failure is identified that may be offset by the exercise of market power. The generation of farm-level innovation is seen to be largely unaffected by market power, but where market power is exercised the benefits are extracted from farmers and consumers...

  8. Specifics of marketing targeted to the segments of elderly consumers and children of the food companies on the Czech market.

    OpenAIRE

    Olšanová, Květa

    2011-01-01

    Activities of international food companies targeted to selected groups of consumers (children and seniors) are specific in several respects. Communication policy targeted on children is strongly regulated at both national and international level, thus new product development targeted to children needs special attention of marketers. Targeting seniors above fifty years is considered by marketers to be less perspective despite significant growth of the segment. The thesis analyses specifics of ...

  9. Marketing parameters and their influence on consumer food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2006-01-01

    , pricing, promotion, and distribution of goods, services, and ideas to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives'. The British Chartered Institute of Marketing defines it as 'the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements......Introduction: In everyday life, when you say 'marketing' most people associate it with communication and persuasion. 'Marketing' is advertising, merchandising, sales promotions, samples, coupons and other measures aimed at increasing sales of a particular product. It is not uncommon to talk about...... 'marketing tricks', implying that these are measures to induce people to buy things which they neither need nor want. In the academic treatment of marketing, the concept is somewhat broader. The American Marketing Association (AMA) defines marketing as 'The process of planning and executing the conception...

  10. Electric vehicle integration in a real-time market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Bro; Østergaard, Jacob; Poulsen, Bjarne

    ” are needed at the device level. In order for this market to work, however, the proper ICTnetwork- and server-infrastructure has to be developed. The primary goal of this PhD project, has been to investigate the scope of this ICT infrastructure, required to realise price-signal based charging of electric......This project is rooted in the EDISON project, which dealt with Electrical Vehicle (EV) integration into the existing power grid, as well as with the infrastructure needed to facilitate the ever increasing penetration of fluctuating renewable energy resources like e.g. wind turbines. In the EDISON...... the distributed energy resources registered with it, in order to make them appear as a single producer in the eyes of the market. Although the concept of a VPP is used within the EcoGrid EU project, the idea of more individual control is introduced through a new proposed real-time electricity market, where...

  11. How do domestic policies affect the integration of Ethiopian fertiliser markets with world markets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanes U. I. Agbahey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Frequent shifts in policy on fertiliser markets have occurred in Ethiopia with the aim of facilitating both physical and economic access of farmers to fertiliser. The last shift was the introduction of a monopoly on each stage of the supply chain in 2008. Furthermore, government control of prices and margins as well as stockholding programmes are also present on the markets. This paper evaluates the effect of these policies on the integration of domestic with world markets of fertiliser, using cointegration methods. Time series data of diammonium phosphate (DAP and urea prices on world, import and retail markets between 1971 and 2012 are used. The findings show high transmission of price signals from world markets to import prices for both DAP and urea. However, between import and retail prices there is no evidence of cointegration for urea, while for DAP full price transmission is concluded. In the retail market, domestic transaction costs associated with storing large volumes of fertiliser act as a buffer between import and retail prices, especially for urea. Therefore, economic benefits could be achieved by reducing the size of stocks and revising the demand estimation process.

  12. Risk Assessment and Mitigation Strategies : Suppliers and Retailers in the Swedish Organic Food Market

    OpenAIRE

    Bocquillon, Grégoire; Ekallam, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Consumer interest and demand for healthy and ecologically produced local food has led to a high market demand that local production cannot meet. Product attributes of perishability and short life cycles ensure that even local supply chains are challenging to manage. This increases potential for risks occurrence in an Organic Food Supply Chain (OFSC) especially with unreliable supply of products. Small and established food retailers import organic food products from across...

  13. Food and Beverage Brands that Market to Children and Adolescents on the Internet: A Content Analysis of Branded Web Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Anna E.; Story, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify food and beverage brand Web sites featuring designated children's areas, assess marketing techniques present on those industry Web sites, and determine nutritional quality of branded food items marketed to children. Design: Systematic content analysis of food and beverage brand Web sites and nutrient analysis of food and…

  14. Food and Beverage Brands that Market to Children and Adolescents on the Internet: A Content Analysis of Branded Web Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Anna E.; Story, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify food and beverage brand Web sites featuring designated children's areas, assess marketing techniques present on those industry Web sites, and determine nutritional quality of branded food items marketed to children. Design: Systematic content analysis of food and beverage brand Web sites and nutrient analysis of food and…

  15. Productivity Effects of United States Multinational Enterprises : The Roles of Market Orientation and Regional Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Roger; Wei, Yingqi

    2010-01-01

    Smeets R. and Wei Y. Productivity effects of United States multinational enterprises: the roles of market orientation and regional integration, Regional Studies. This paper considers the role of market orientation and regional integration in foreign direct investment (FDI) productivity effects.

  16. COMPETITIVE POSITION OF SELECTED REGIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS ON THE GLOBAL AGRI-FOOD MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Sapa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to determine the CACM, MERCOSUR and NAFTA competitive position in the agri-food market taking into account selected indicators related to GDP, productivity and trade. The analysis allowed to state that only for MERCOSUR the competitive position in global food-market improved. In that groupings, compared to NAFTA and CACM, there was a bigger increase in GDP per capita and labour productivity in agriculture. Furthermore, only the share of MERCOSUR agri-food trade in world trade increased which was accompanied by a greater increase of extra-regional agri-food trade than intra-regional ones.

  17. The BuzzFeed Marketing Challenge: An Integrative Social Media Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Scott W.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the BuzzFeed Marketing Challenge, which helps students gain integrative real-world marketing experience by selecting a target market, then creating, publishing, and promoting an article for the target market on entertainment publisher BuzzFeed.com. The challenge is for students to effectively use marketing strategy and…

  18. Responses to GM food content in context with food integrity issues: results from Australian population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Philip; Golley, Sinéad

    2016-01-25

    This study examined community responses to use of genetically modified (GM) content in food in the context of responses to familiar food additives by testing an empirically and theoretically derived model of the predictors of responses to both GM content and food integrity issues generally. A nationwide sample of 849 adults, selected at random from the Australian Electoral Roll, responded to a postal Food and Health Survey. Structural equation modelling analyses confirmed that ratings of general concern about food integrity (related to the presence of preservatives and other additives) strongly predicted negativity towards GM content. Concern about food integrity was, in turn, predicted by environmental concern and health engagement. In addition, both concern about food integrity generally and responses to GM content specifically were weakly predicted by attitudes to benefits of science and an intuitive (i.e., emotionally-based) reasoning style. Data from a follow-up survey conducted under the same conditions (N=1184) revealed that ratings of concern were significantly lower for use of genetic engineering in food than for four other common food integrity issues examined. Whereas the question of community responses to GM is often treated as a special issue, these findings support the conclusion that responses to the concept of GM content in food in Australia are substantially a specific instance of a general sensitivity towards the integrity of the food supply. They indicate that the origins of responses to GM content may be largely indistinguishable from those of general responses to preservatives and other common food additives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. RELATION OF INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS WITH ONLINE TOURIST PRODUCT DISTRIBUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ivelina Yoveva

    2009-01-01

    The increasing communication possibilities in recent decades have contributed to increased and blurred situation as regards information dissemination and feedback among participants in various types of dialogues and communities. This is true especially in tourism industry where it is of vital importance for marketers to integrate their efforts in order to provide stronger influence to the customers, in order their offer to be heard and accepted. The role of IMC nowadays is even more powerful ...

  20. Perceptions of the food marketing environment among African American teen girls and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibeau, Wendy S; Saksvig, Brit I; Gittelsohn, Joel; Williams, Sonja; Jones, Lindsey; Young, Deborah Rohm

    2012-02-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects African American adolescents, particularly girls. While ethnically targeted marketing of unhealthful food products contributes to this disparity, it is not known how African Americans perceive the food marketing environment in their communities. Qualitative methods, specifically photovoice and group discussions, were used to understand perceptions of African American adults and teen girls regarding targeted food marketing to adolescent girls. An advisory committee of four students, two faculty, and two parents was formed, who recruited peers to photograph their environments and participate in group discussions to answer "what influences teen girls to eat what they do." Seven adults and nine teens (all female) participated in the study. Discussions were transcribed, coded, and analyzed with ATLAS.ti to identify common and disparate themes among participants. Results indicated that adults and teens perceived the type of food products, availability of foods, and price to influence the girls' choices. The girls spoke about products that were highly convenient and tasty as being particularly attractive. The adults reported that advertisements and insufficient nutrition education were also influencers. The teens discussed that the places in which food products were available influenced their choices. Results suggest that the marketing of highly available, convenient food at low prices sell products to teen girls. Future work is needed to better understand the consumer's perspective on the food and beverage marketing strategies used.

  1. European Integration, Labour Market Dynamics and Migration Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinoia, Michela

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper has two objectives. Firstly, we wish to evaluate whether a greater economic integration has effects, and of what type, on migration flows from Central and Eastern Europe (New Member States of the EU, NMS towards the fifteen countries of the European Union (EU-15. Secondly, we wish to understand what effect the migration flows from the NMS have on the labour market of the receiving countries in the EU-15. The most suitable theoretical context that seems to summarise European labour market characteristics is that of the insider/outsider model by Layard, Nickell and Jackman (Layard et al., 1991. We have modified the above mentioned model by introducing two innovations. Firstly, we constructed three measures that act as a proxy for economic integration: the Intra Regional Trade Index (IRTI, Global Trade Index (GTI and Financial Market Integration (FMI. Then we placed the three indicators into the insider/outsider model to arrive at a modified version of Layard, Nickell and Jackman (Layard et al., 1991. The second innovative contribution was the introduction of an equation modelling migration flows. The creation of this equation is inspired by the neo-classical approach to migration theory (Harris-Todaro, 1970. The theoretical model, based on rational expectations, has been solved to find the equilibrium solution and the impact multipliers. We then carried out an empirical analysis, which involved estimating a Structural Vector Autoregression Model (SVAR. The aim of this estimation was to evaluate, on the one hand, the effect that greater European integration (a positive shock to the integration indicators has on migration flows, and, on the other, to measure the type of effect that migration flows could have on the labour market of the EU-15 countries, considered as a single entity. The results of our empirical evidence show that economic integration does generate significant effects on migration flows from the enlargement countries

  2. Improving internal communication between marketing and technology functions for successful new food product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, L.F.; Grunert, K.G.; Søndergaard, H.A.; Steenbekkers, B.; Dekker, M.; Lähteenmäki, L.

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase the new product development (NPD) success for novel food products, it is crucial to understand how information can be optimally disseminated within companies. This systematic literature review concentrates on factors influencing internal communication between market and

  3. Children and obesity: a pan-European project examining the role of food marketing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthews, Anne E

    2008-01-01

    .... The 'Children, Obesity and associated avoidable Chronic Diseases' project sought to examine the effects of promotion within food marketing, given the influential role it plays in children's diets. Method...

  4. Child-oriented marketing techniques in snack food packages in Guatemala

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chacon, Violeta; Letona, Paola; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-01-01

    .... This study sought to assess the availability of child-oriented snack foods sold in school kiosks and convenience stores near public schools in Guatemala, to identify the marketing techniques used...

  5. Marketing parameters and their influence on consumer food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2006-01-01

    , pricing, promotion, and distribution of goods, services, and ideas to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives'. The British Chartered Institute of Marketing defines it as 'the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements......Introduction: In everyday life, when you say 'marketing' most people associate it with communication and persuasion. 'Marketing' is advertising, merchandising, sales promotions, samples, coupons and other measures aimed at increasing sales of a particular product. It is not uncommon to talk about...

  6. Marketing nursing as a profession: integrated marketing strategies to address the nursing shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Mark John; Finch, Linda; Birnbaum, Dee

    2010-07-01

    The nursing shortage in the United States is at a crisis level characterized by critical shortages of highly trained nurses and of nursing faculty. Key issues in addressing these shortages include awareness and image-building, along with enhanced outreach programs. Although these issues are related to marketing theory, most studies in this area are based on a vocational choice model. This study was grounded in marketing theory and the results offer a new perspective for addressing the nursing shortage. In-depth interviews conducted with 31 first-year nursing students indicated that there were two distinct segments among nursing students: traditionals and instrumentals. Traditionals were attracted to nursing as a helping profession while instrumentals were interested in career-related rewards such as variety, mobility, and compensation. These findings were discussed in terms of building awareness and marketing programs for nursing students that are integrated across schools of nursing, private foundations and public agencies.

  7. Integrated marketing communications paradigm in digital environment: The five pillars of integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Beba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the paradigm of integrated marketing communications (IMC in digital environment. The integration is analysed through five aspects. First, integration in terms of media; it means that IMC are performed through the mix of traditional media (print - newspapers, magazines; radio; television; direct-response media - telephone, direct mail, catalogue marketing; billboards; other 'specific media': product - especially brand, packaging; price; place; people; process; physical evidence; traditional/offline consumers - WOM communications and digital media ( the Internet; mobile phones and other mobile devices; digital newspapers and magazines through the Internet and mobile devices; digital radio; digital TV; digital consumers - digital WOM communications. Second, integration in terms of communication methods, it means that IMC are a mix of traditional promotion (advertising, personal selling, public relations & publicity, direct marketing, sales promotion, digital communications/interactions (Internet communications, mobile communications, communications via digital radio and TV and WOM communications/interactions (offline and online. Third, integration in terms of time of communications and possibilities for interaction, it means that IMC are a mix of traditionalstatic communications ('monologue' towards the target audience and dynamic communications ('dialogue' in real time. Fourth, integration in terms of actors, it means that IMC are a mix of communications initiated both by consumers (WOM communications - offline and online/e/digital and organizations. Fifth, integration in terms of content creation, it means that IMC are a mix of communications based on consumer generated content and marketing content (created by organisations.

  8. Copenhagen Food Community – Values in contrast to market dominance

    OpenAIRE

    Campion, Nathan; Christiansen, Asta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this bachelor project is to give concrete suggestions for the future of the Copenhagen Food Community, having in mind, the growing attention on organic food in the supermarkets. We have collected both quantitative and qualitative data, in order to give a proper response to our problem. This has been done through a survey between the members of the Copenhagen Food Community and through interviews with the person in charge of purchasing for Copenhagen Food Community, ...

  9. WINS. Market Simulation Tool for Facilitating Wind Energy Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahidehpour, Mohammad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-10-30

    Integrating 20% or more wind energy into the system and transmitting large sums of wind energy over long distances will require a decision making capability that can handle very large scale power systems with tens of thousands of buses and lines. There is a need to explore innovative analytical and implementation solutions for continuing reliable operations with the most economical integration of additional wind energy in power systems. A number of wind integration solution paths involve the adoption of new operating policies, dynamic scheduling of wind power across interties, pooling integration services, and adopting new transmission scheduling practices. Such practices can be examined by the decision tool developed by this project. This project developed a very efficient decision tool called Wind INtegration Simulator (WINS) and applied WINS to facilitate wind energy integration studies. WINS focused on augmenting the existing power utility capabilities to support collaborative planning, analysis, and wind integration project implementations. WINS also had the capability of simulating energy storage facilities so that feasibility studies of integrated wind energy system applications can be performed for systems with high wind energy penetrations. The development of WINS represents a major expansion of a very efficient decision tool called POwer Market Simulator (POMS), which was developed by IIT and has been used extensively for power system studies for decades. Specifically, WINS provides the following superiorities; (1) An integrated framework is included in WINS for the comprehensive modeling of DC transmission configurations, including mono-pole, bi-pole, tri-pole, back-to-back, and multi-terminal connection, as well as AC/DC converter models including current source converters (CSC) and voltage source converters (VSC); (2) An existing shortcoming of traditional decision tools for wind integration is the limited availability of user interface, i.e., decision

  10. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschemann-Witzel Jessica

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. Methods In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food and beverage marketing cases were purposively sampled from different European countries. The cases involved different consumer target groups, product categories, company sizes and marketing techniques. The analysis focused on cases of relatively healthy food types, and nutrition and health-related aspects in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through discussion structured by a card sorting method. Results Six clusters of success factors emerged from the analysis and were labelled as "data and knowledge", "emotions", "endorsement", "media", "community" and "why and how". Each cluster subsumes two or three success factors and is illustrated by examples. In total, 16 factors were identified. It is argued that the factors "nutritional evidence", "trend awareness", "vertical endorsement", "simple naturalness" and "common values" are of particular importance in the communication of health with regard to food. Conclusions The present study identified critical factors for the success of commercial food marketing campaigns related to the issue of nutrition and health, which are possibly

  11. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; Niedzwiedzka, Barbara; Verbeke, Wim; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2012-02-21

    Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food and beverage marketing cases were purposively sampled from different European countries. The cases involved different consumer target groups, product categories, company sizes and marketing techniques. The analysis focused on cases of relatively healthy food types, and nutrition and health-related aspects in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through discussion structured by a card sorting method. Six clusters of success factors emerged from the analysis and were labelled as "data and knowledge", "emotions", "endorsement", "media", "community" and "why and how". Each cluster subsumes two or three success factors and is illustrated by examples. In total, 16 factors were identified. It is argued that the factors "nutritional evidence", "trend awareness", "vertical endorsement", "simple naturalness" and "common values" are of particular importance in the communication of health with regard to food. The present study identified critical factors for the success of commercial food marketing campaigns related to the issue of nutrition and health, which are possibly transferable to the public health sector. Whether or not a particular

  12. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. Methods In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food and beverage marketing cases were purposively sampled from different European countries. The cases involved different consumer target groups, product categories, company sizes and marketing techniques. The analysis focused on cases of relatively healthy food types, and nutrition and health-related aspects in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through discussion structured by a card sorting method. Results Six clusters of success factors emerged from the analysis and were labelled as "data and knowledge", "emotions", "endorsement", "media", "community" and "why and how". Each cluster subsumes two or three success factors and is illustrated by examples. In total, 16 factors were identified. It is argued that the factors "nutritional evidence", "trend awareness", "vertical endorsement", "simple naturalness" and "common values" are of particular importance in the communication of health with regard to food. Conclusions The present study identified critical factors for the success of commercial food marketing campaigns related to the issue of nutrition and health, which are possibly transferable to the public health

  13. Developing the Management Competencies for Getting a Competitive Position in the Organic Food Market

    OpenAIRE

    Marian NASTASE; Mirela STOIAN; Raluca Andreea ION

    2011-01-01

    Although almost any conference tackles the issue of organic foods, we consider that this article does not fit into normal patterns of research. Our paper proposes a complex analysis in the field of organic food products. It also highlights the need of developing new competences of managers and marketers in analysing market for getting a competitive position on it. The method used is the Six Thinking Hats, devised by Edward de Bono. This method appeals to the driving creative thinking; it can ...

  14. Food marketing expenditures aimed at youth: putting the numbers in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Harris, Jennifer L; Fox, Tracy

    2013-10-01

    In response to concerns about childhood obesity, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) released two reports documenting food and beverage marketing expenditures to children and adolescents. The recently released 2012 report found an inflation-adjusted 19.5% reduction in marketing expenditures targeted to youth from $2.1 billion in 2006 to $1.8 billion in 2009. The current article highlights features of the FTC's analysis, examines how expenditures relate to youth exposure to food marketing, and assesses changes in the nutritional content of marketed products. Of the $304.0 million decline in expenditures, $117.8 million (38.7%) was from a decline in premium (i.e., restaurant children's meal toys) expenditures rather than direct marketing. Although inflation-adjusted TV expenditures fell by 19.4%, children and teens still see 12-16 TV advertisements (ads)/day for products generally high in saturated fat, sugar, or sodium. In addition, newer digital forms of unhealthy food and beverage marketing to youths are increasing; the FTC reported an inflation-adjusted 50.7% increase in new media marketing expenditures. The self-regulatory Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) is limited in scope and effectiveness: expenditures increased for many noncovered marketing techniques (i.e., product placement, movie/video, cross-promotion licenses, athletic sponsorship, celebrity fees, events, philanthropy, and other); only two restaurants are members of CFBAI, and nonpremium restaurant marketing expenditures were up by $86.0 million (22.5% inflation-adjusted increase); industry pledges do not protect children aged >11 years, and some marketing appears to have shifted to older children; and, nutritional content remains poor. Continued monitoring of and improvements to food marketing to youth are needed.

  15. Food Marketing Expenditures Aimed at Youth Putting the Numbers in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M.; Harris, Jennifer L.; Fox, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    In response to concerns about childhood obesity, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) released two reports documenting food and beverage marketing expenditures to children and adolescents. The recently released 2012 report found an inflation-adjusted 19.5% reduction in marketing expenditures targeted to youth from $2.1 billion in 2006 to $1.8 billion in 2009. The current article highlights features of the FTC’s analysis, examines how expenditures relate to youth exposure to food marketing, and assesses changes in the nutritional content of marketed products. Of the $304.0 million decline in expenditures, $117.8 million (38.7%) was from a decline in premium (i.e., restaurant children’s meal toys) expenditures rather than direct marketing. Although inflation-adjusted TV expenditures fell by 19.4%, children and teens still see 12–16 TV advertisements (ads)/day for products generally high in saturated fat, sugar or sodium. In addition, newer digital forms of unhealthy food and beverage marketing to youths are increasing; the FTC reported an inflation-adjusted 50.7% increase in new media marketing expenditures. The self-regulatory Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) is limited in scope and effectiveness: expenditures increased for many noncovered marketing techniques (i.e., product placement, movie/video, cross-promotion licenses, athletic sponsorship, celebrity fees, events, philanthropy, and other); only two restaurants are members of CFBAI, and nonpremium restaurant marketing expenditures were up by $86.0 million (22.5% inflation-adjusted increase); industry pledges do not protect children aged >11 years, and some marketing appears to have shifted to older children; and, nutritional content remains poor. Continued monitoring of and improvements to food marketing to youth are needed. PMID:24050422

  16. Integration of Capital, Commodity and Currency Markets: A Study on Volatility Spillover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Palakkod

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The volatility spillover tells about the extent of the integration between different markets. In this study an effort has been made to analyse the integration and interrelationship among the capital market, currency market and commodity market in India through the volatility spillover frame work by using AR (1-GARCH (1,1 approach. This study differentiates from the earlier studies by including all three segments of the markets. The study found out that the volatility spillover from currency markets and commodity markets to capital markets. Likewise the volatility spillover from capital market to currency markets and there is no spillover from commodity market to currency markets. In case of commodity market there is no evidence of volatility spillover

  17. Impact of Negative Quality Inconsistency on Brand Loyalty – Case of Croatian Food Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ferenčić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Attracting and keeping consumers’ loyalty in Fast Moving Consumer Goods segment became the main concern for all producing companies and retailers, too. Many marketing researchers argue that product or service quality perception is one of the key elements in brand loyalty building process. When talking about food market, one has to be aware that food consumption has direct impact on human health and, in that context, process of building brand loyalty for food brands is not possible, or it can be hard, if the product quality of food brands is not on the expected level and according to defined food quality standards. The goal of this paper was to understand aspects of connection between food product quality and brand loyalty process better and to explore how problems with negative quality inconsistency in different food categories can influence brand loyalty. An empirical research (on-line survey was conducted to prove and explain the connection between food product quality and food brand loyalty. The research results shows that the main reasons for being loyal to a certain food brand or product are related mostly to positive brand experience, high and stabile product quality, and recognizable taste. In the context of these research results, it can be concluded that long term consumer satisfaction as a factor in food brand loyalty process depends on stabile product quality, so food manufacturers or food brand owners should be focused on preventing or minimizing the aspect of negative quality issues. Regarding research limitations, the study was conducted only on users from Croatian market; so broadening the survey to other markets should give a clearer view on the connection between food product quality and brand loyalty process.

  18. Thinking Like a Whole Building: A Whole Foods Market New Construction Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Bonnema, E.; Doebber, I.; Hirsch, A.; McIntyre, M.; Scheib, J.

    2011-04-01

    Whole Foods Market participates in the U.S. Department of Energy's Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) to identify and develop cost-effective, readily deployed, replicable energy efficiency measures (EEMs) for commercial buildings. Whole Foods Market is working with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) on a retrofit and a new construction CBP project. Whole Foods Market's CBP new construction project is a standalone store in Raleigh, North Carolina. Whole Foods Market examined the energy systems and the interactions between those systems in the design for the new Raleigh store. Based on this collaboration and preliminary energy modeling, Whole Foods Market and NREL identified a number of cost-effective EEMs that can be readily deployed in other Whole Foods Market stores and in other U.S. supermarkets. If the actual savings in the Raleigh store - which NREL will monitor and verify - match the modeling results, each year this store will save nearly $100,000 in operating costs (Raleigh's rates are about $0.06/kWh for electricity and $0.83/therm for natural gas). The store will also use 41% less energy than a Standard 90.1-compliant store and avoid about 3.7 million pounds of carbon dioxide emissions.

  19. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of food handlers in food safety: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Laís Mariano; da Cunha, Diogo Thimoteo; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera; Capriles, Vanessa Dias; Stedefeldt, Elke

    2017-10-01

    This study presents an overview of the relationship between knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of food handlers with training in food safety, in addition to proposing reflections on the training of food handlers, considering its responsibility for food safety and health of consumers. The review was based on the integrative method. The descriptors used were: (food handler), (knowledge, attitudes and practice) and (training). Six databases were searched, 253 articles were consulted and 36 original articles were included. Fifty per cent of the articles pointed that there was no proper translation of knowledge into attitudes/practices or attitudes into practices after training. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of food handlers are important for identifying how efficient training in food safety is allowing prioritize actions in planning training. The evaluation of KAP is the first step to understand the food handler's point of view. After this evaluation other diagnostic strategies become necessary to enhance this understanding. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Food Marketing towards Children: Brand Logo Recognition, Food-Related Behavior and BMI among 3–13-Year-Olds in a South Indian Town

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Ueda; Leilei Tong; Cristobal Viedma; Chandy, Sujith J.; Gaetano Marrone; Anna Simon; Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess exposure to marketing of unhealthy food products and its relation to food related behavior and BMI in children aged 3-13, from different socioeconomic backgrounds in a south Indian town. METHODS: Child-parent pairs (n=306) were recruited at pediatric clinics. Exposure to food marketing was assessed by a digital logo recognition test. Children matched 18 logos of unhealthy food (high in fat/sugar/salt) featured in promotion material from the food industry to pictures of c...

  1. Marketing of foods of minimal nutritional value to children in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Alex; Garcia, David R; Boninger, Faith; Merrill, Bruce

    2008-11-01

    Despite calls for children to lower their consumption of food high in fat and sugar (FHFS) and food of minimal nutritional value (FMNV), such foods are heavily marketed to and consumed by children. This study provides the first nationally representative survey to measure the nature and extent of marketing activities in American public schools. A stratified random sample of 313 U.S. primary school officials reported their schools' participation in marketing activities with corporations that sell FHFS and FMNV for the academic year 2003-2004. They also reported whether their schools would be forced to reduce programs if marketing was prohibited and their attitude toward increased regulation of marketing for FHFS and FMNV. According to school officials, 37.7% of primary schools nationwide participated in fundraising, 31.6% participated in incentive programs, and 16.3% participated in exclusive agreements with a corporation that sells FHFS or FMNV. In addition, 87.5% of school officials reported that their schools would not be forced to reduce programs if marketing was prohibited, and 53.7% supported the increased regulation of FHFS and FMNV marketing. American primary schools participate extensively in corporate-sponsored marketing for foods whose high consumption may lead to obesity and its attendant health risks.

  2. Action needed to combat food and drink companies' social media marketing to adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon

    2013-05-01

    Reports have shown how behavioural marketing through social media sites is heavily dominated by soft drink and fast food franchises, with additional concern arising due to the direct targeting of this marketing at 13 to 17-year-olds. Dr Simon Williams from Northwestern University, Chicago, USA suggests ways in which the medical community can tackle this threat to public health.

  3. Food Safety Knowledge, Behavior, and Attitudes of Vendors of Poultry Products Sold at Pennsylvania Farmers' Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinberg, Joshua; Radhakrishna, Rama; Cutter, Catherine N.

    2013-01-01

    A needs assessment survey was developed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of poultry vendors at farmers' markets in Pennsylvania, on food safety, regulation, and poultry production. Vendors were administered a 32-question paper survey, in person, during market hours. The results revealed critical vendor practices and identified important…

  4. Evaluation of Segmentation Bases for the Heterogeneous Elderly Consumer Population: the Functional Food Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, van der L.D.T.; Kleef, van E.; Wijk, de R.A.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    It is beneficial for both the public health community and the food industry to meet nutritional needs of elderly consumers through product formats that they want. The heterogeneity of the elderly market poses a challenge, however, and calls for market segmentation. Although many researchers have pro

  5. Back to the future? Understanding Change in Food Habits of Farmers' Market Customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascucci, S.; Cicatiello, C.; Franco, S.; Pancino, B.; Marinov, D.; Davide, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses how attending farmers markets may affect consumers’ willingness to change food habits toward high-quality products. A discrete choice model was applied using data col-lected through an extensive field survey in 2009, which involved 400 consumers in 12 different farmers’ markets

  6. Food Safety Knowledge, Behavior, and Attitudes of Vendors of Poultry Products Sold at Pennsylvania Farmers' Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinberg, Joshua; Radhakrishna, Rama; Cutter, Catherine N.

    2013-01-01

    A needs assessment survey was developed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of poultry vendors at farmers' markets in Pennsylvania, on food safety, regulation, and poultry production. Vendors were administered a 32-question paper survey, in person, during market hours. The results revealed critical vendor practices and identified important…

  7. Market-based process and product innovation in the food sector: A Danish research programme

    OpenAIRE

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Baadsgaard, Allan

    1992-01-01

    This note informs about the Danish MAPP research programme, a collection of 15 research projects aimed at making product and process innovation in the food sector more market-based. The programme, which has an interdisciplinary base, but is geared towards marketing applications, is concerned with the organization of the innovation process, the interaction of consumer and producer criteria in product development, the assessment of long-term developments in the market environment and the role d...

  8. A systematic review of persuasive marketing techniques to promote food to children on television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkin, G; Madhvani, N; Signal, L; Bowers, S

    2014-04-01

    The ubiquitous marketing of energy-dense, nutrient-poor food and beverages is a key modifiable influence on childhood dietary patterns and obesity. Much of the research on television food advertising is focused on identifying and quantifying unhealthy food marketing with comparatively few studies examining persuasive marketing techniques to promote unhealthy food to children. This review identifies the most frequently documented persuasive marketing techniques to promote food to children via television. A systematic search of eight online databases using key search terms identified 267 unique articles. Thirty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis of the reviewed studies revealed the most commonly reported persuasive techniques used on television to promote food to children. These were the use of premium offers, promotional characters, nutrition and health-related claims, the theme of taste, and the emotional appeal of fun. Identifying and documenting these commonly reported persuasive marketing techniques to promote food to children on television is critical for the monitoring and evaluation of advertising codes and industry pledges and the development of further regulation in this area. This has a strong potential to curbing the international obesity epidemic besieging children throughout the world.

  9. Understanding heterogeneity among elderly consumers: an evaluation of segmentation approaches in the functional food market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, Lotte D T; van Kleef, Ellen; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-06-01

    It is beneficial for both the public health community and the food industry to meet nutritional needs of elderly consumers through product formats that they want. The heterogeneity of the elderly market poses a challenge, however, and calls for market segmentation. Although many researchers have proposed ways to segment the elderly consumer population, the elderly food market has received surprisingly little attention in this respect. Therefore, the present paper reviewed eight potential segmentation bases on their appropriateness in the context of functional foods aimed at the elderly: cognitive age, life course, time perspective, demographics, general food beliefs, food choice motives, product attributes and benefits sought, and past purchase. Each of the segmentation bases had strengths as well as weaknesses regarding seven evaluation criteria. Given that both product design and communication are useful tools to increase the appeal of functional foods, we argue that elderly consumers in this market may best be segmented using a preference-based segmentation base that is predictive of behaviour (for example, attributes and benefits sought), combined with a characteristics-based segmentation base that describes consumer characteristics (for example, demographics). In the end, the effectiveness of (combinations of) segmentation bases for elderly consumers in the functional food market remains an empirical matter. We hope that the present review stimulates further empirical research that substantiates the ideas presented in this paper.

  10. Small Business Marketing Capability in the Food Sector: The Cases of Belgium, Hungary and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allesandro Banterle

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of thie paper is to assess the marketing management capabilities of SMEs producing traditional food products in the EU through thge development of a self-evaluation tool.SMEs represent the greater part of European food firms and they find it very difficult to adapt to market changes, and to compete with big enterprises. In this context, marketing management capabilities play a key role in good SME performance in the market. The self-evaluation tool is developed in the innovative form of an interactive questionnaire published on the web. At the moment, the sample is composed by 60 traditional food producers located in three member states (Belgium, Italy, and Hungary belonging to different sectors (cheese, beer, dry ham, sausage and white pepper. The data were analysed with cluster analysis. The results of the survey revealed that most of the firms analysed show weaknesses in marketing management capabilities. Nevertheless, cluster analysis pointed out a group of firms (22% of the sample with high performances in all the stages of marketing management process, which can be defined market oriented in terms of MARKOR approach. Most firms showed difficulties in analysing the competitive environment in which they operate, and in controlling the achievement of the marketing objectives. Moreover, the survey showed that, generally, micro sized firms perform worse than small and medium enterprises. Nevertheless, in some cases micro firms achieved high performances revealing that the firm size is not a so insuperable constraint to reach good results in marketing.

  11. Nested Markets, Food Networks, and New Pathways for Rural Development in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Schneider

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the frameworks of nested markets and alternative food networks to two empirical cases in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, aiming to analyse the construction and dynamics of these markets in order to demonstrate how their dimensions of quality, location, and nature are built and sustained, especially with regard to their interface with broader markets and their contributions to rural development practices, policies, and processes. The paper focuses on the study of rural tourism in Caminhos de Pedra Route, in the municipality of Bento Gonçalves, and the Farmers’ Market, in the municipality of Passo Fundo. Both cases represent alternative practices and processes of rural development and bear features that associate them to the nested markets. It is noteworthy that the influence of conventional food markets in these cases shows that nested markets do not operate in isolation but coexist and are continuously in connection with broader agri-food markets. In this sense, despite being subject to criticism and showing limitations, nested markets constitute increasingly robust strategies for rural development practices, processes, and policies, being able to create opportunities for families’ livelihood in rural areas.

  12. Achieving energy security through integrated Canadian-American markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moens, A. [Fraser Inst., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Rastin, T.; O' Keefe, G. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The oil and gas sector in the United States and Canada has become increasingly integrated over the last 2 decades, and competitive market forces have displaced attempts at government intervention in both countries. Regulatory measures in both countries are often geared to optimize free-market exchanges. As a result, trade in oil, gas, and electricity is flourishing between Canada and the United States. This paper argued that the relationship between the United States and Canada is under increasing pressure to change. In Canada, energy nationalism and the rising importance of Alberta's oil sands deposits may cause other regions to look at political methods to redistribute wealth or redirect trade flows. The extraction methods used by the oil sands industry as well as Arctic, offshore oil and coalbed methane (CBM) industries are more detrimental to the environment than traditional methods of energy source development, and may attract critics who will call for freezes on production and excessive government intervention. Data on energy production, consumption and trade in North America was provided as well as a history of the evolution of market and regulatory conditions. Challenges and opportunities in the oil and gas sector were outlined. It was recommended that governments in both countries emphasize their commitment to market-based solutions and attempt to remove uncertainties arising from environmental restrictions and First Nations claims. 104 refs.

  13. Marketing nutrition & health-related benefits of food & beverage products: enforcement, litigation & liability issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Sarah; Pippins, Raqiyyah

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the liability risks associated with food and beverage product marketing have increased significantly, particularly with respect to nutrition and health-related product benefit claims. FDA and FTC enforcement priorities appear to have contributed to the increasing liability trends that are associated with these nutrition and health-related claims. This article examines key enforcement and litigation developments involving conventional food and beverage product marketing claims during the first 18 months of President Obama's administration: Part I considers FDA enforcement priorities and recent warning letters; Part II considers FTC enforcement priorities, warning letters, and consent orders; and Part III considers the relationship between FDA and FTC enforcement priorities and recent false advertising cases brought by private parties challenging nutrition and health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products. The article makes recommendations concerning ways in which food and beverage companies can help minimize liability risks associated with health-related marketing claims. In addition, the article suggests that federal policy reforms may be required to counter the perverse chilling effects current food liability trends appear to be having on health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products, and proposes a number of specific reforms that would help encourage the responsible use of well-substantiated marketing claims that can help foster healthy dietary practices. In view of the obesity prevention and other diet-related public health priorities of the Obama administration, the article suggests that this is an opportune time to address the apparent chilling effects increasing food liability risks are having on nutrition and health-related marketing claims for healthy food and beverage products, and potential adverse consequences for public health.

  14. Active pharmaceutical ingredients detected in herbal food supplements for weight loss samples on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeuwijk, N.M.; Venhuis, B.J.; Kaste, de D.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Rietjens, I.; Martena, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Herbal food supplements claiming to reduce weight may contain active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements for weight loss on the Dutch market contain APIs with weight lo

  15. Functional food. Product development, marketing and consumer acceptance--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siró, István; Kápolna, Emese; Kápolna, Beáta; Lugasi, Andrea

    2008-11-01

    It was mainly the advances in understanding the relationship between nutrition and health that resulted in the development of the concept of functional foods, which means a practical and new approach to achieve optimal health status by promoting the state of well-being and possibly reducing the risk of disease. Functional foods are found virtually in all food categories, however products are not homogeneously scattered over all segments of the growing market. The development and commerce of these products is rather complex, expensive and risky, as special requirements should be answered. Besides potential technological obstacles, legislative aspects, as well as consumer demands need to be taken into consideration when developing functional food. In particular, consumer acceptance has been recognized as a key factor to successfully negotiate market opportunities. This paper offers a brief overview of the current functional food market situation in USA, Japan and some European countries completed with some comments on functional food future potential. It explores the main challenges of such product development focusing on the different factors determining the acceptance of functional food. Furthermore it discusses some prominent types of these food products currently on the market.

  16. The Marketing of Gathered Food as an Economic Strategy of Women in Northeast Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno-Black, G.; Price, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the effects of the sale of gathered food items used for home consumption on women's time allocation patterns and household nutrition. Marketing opportunities; Gathering habits; Significance of the contribution to family income; Expenditures using money from gathered food; effects on subsis

  17. Seas of Change: A report on scaling inclusive agri-food markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodhill, A.J.; Guijt, W.J.; Wegner, L.; Blomne Sopov, M.

    2012-01-01

    Can agri-food companies do it all? Develop new markets, secure supply, protect reputations, ensure profits and reduce poverty, create jobs and guarantee food supplies? Company strategies now commonly refer to ‘creating shared value’ and ‘inclusive business’. But with growing pressure on resources, a

  18. A mixed-method examination of food marketing directed towards children in Australian supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sarah; James, Erica L; Stacey, Fiona G; Bowman, Jennifer; Chapman, Kathy; Kelly, Bridget

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of children's food requests, and parents' experiences of food marketing directed towards children, in the supermarket environment. A mixed-method design was used. Firstly, intercept interviews were conducted with parents accompanied by a child/children on exiting supermarkets (sampled from a large regional centre in Australia). Parents were asked about the prevalence and types of food requests by child/children during their supermarket visit and whether they purchased these foods. Secondly, focus groups (n = 13) and telephone interviews (n = 3) were conducted exploring parents' experiences of supermarket shopping with children and the impact of child-directed marketing. Of the 158 intercept survey participants (30% response rate), 73% reported a food request during the supermarket visit. Most requested food items (88%) were unhealthy foods, with chocolate/confectionery being the most common food category requested (40%). Most parents (70%) purchased at least one food item requested during the shopping trip. Qualitative interviews identified four themes associated with food requests and prompts in the supermarket: parents' experience of pester power in the supermarket; prompts for food requests in the supermarket; parental responses to pestering in the supermarket environment, and; strategies to manage pestering and minimize requests for food items. Food requests from children are common during supermarket shopping. Despite the majority of the requests being unhealthy, parents often purchase these foods. Parents reported difficulties dealing with constant requests and expressed desire for environmental changes including confectionery-free checkouts, minimization of child friendly product placement and reducing children's exposure to food marketing.

  19. Segmentation of the industrial market for food commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study presented in this article is to examine whether the cconcepts developed in the area of industrial buying behavior can add to the understanding of commodity markets. The industrial market for vegetable oil was chosen as the outset of the study, because it is characterized...... and mayonnaise industries in Denmark, Sweden, Germany, the United Kingdom and Switzerland. The main result of the study is that the price is an omnipotent decision criterion, when vegetable fats and mayonnaise producers buy vegetable oil, but also that product and supplier criteria can be used to segment...... the market, if the price premium is held within limits....

  20. Investigating Food and Beverage Industry Market Structure and Market Power Based on Leo and Bresnahan’s Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nabishahikitash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Food processing industries are one of the major industrial groups in developing countries which play an important role in the economic development of these countries. With the Developed and Developing Food Industry on the other hand, food security and providing food are very important in each country. In an overview, markets are divided into two groups: The first group is a market with perfect competition. And second group is markets with monopoly structure.One of the important features of markets that determine its type is the ability of the firms in the pricing and determiningof the amount of production. If the firms do not have any effect on these two factors, themarket has perfect competition.If the firms have the ability to influence price of productions, this market is non-competitive and a concept called market power emerges.In general, not only market power is the ability of firm in determination of price above the competitive situation, but also it does not let its share of sale to decrease. The existence of collusion in markets can makethem distantfrom perfect competition and make them incomplete. In economics and particularly in industrial organization, market power is the ability of a firm to profitably raise the market price of a good or service over marginal cost. In perfect competitive markets, market participants have no market power. A firm with total market power can raise prices without losing any customers to competitors. Firms that have power to set price are referred to as "price makers" or "price setters", while those without itare sometimes called "price-takers". Significant market power occurs when prices exceed marginal cost and the long run average cost, so the firm makes economic profits. A firm with market power has the ability to individually affect either the total quantity or the prevailing price in the market. Price makers face a downward slopingdemand curve, such that increases in price leads to a

  1. Analysis of the efficiency-integration nexus of Japanese stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Syed Aun R.; Arshad, Shaista

    2017-03-01

    This paper attempts a novel approach in analysing the Japanese economy through a dual-dimension analysis of its stock market, examining the efficiency and market integration. Taking a period of 24 years, this study employs MFDFA and MGARCH to understand how the efficiency and integration of the stock market faired during different business cycle phases of the Japanese economy. The results showed improving efficiency over the time period. For the case of market integration, our findings conform to recent literature on business cycles and stock market integration that every succeeding recession creates a break into integration levels resulting in a decrease.

  2. The Context for Choice: Health Implications of Targeted Food and Beverage Marketing to African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Sonya A.; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.

    2008-01-01

    Targeted marketing of high-calorie foods and beverages to ethnic minority populations, relative to more healthful foods, may contribute to ethnic disparities in obesity and other diet-related chronic conditions. We conducted a systematic review of studies published in June 1992 through 2006 (n = 20) that permitted comparison of food and beverage marketing to African Americans versus Whites and others. Eight studies reported on product promotions, 11 on retail food outlet locations, and 3 on food prices. Although the evidence base has limitations, studies indicated that African Americans are consistently exposed to food promotion and distribution patterns with relatively greater potential adverse health effects than are Whites. The limited evidence on price disparities was inconclusive. PMID:18633097

  3. The context for choice: health implications of targeted food and beverage marketing to African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Sonya A; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2008-09-01

    Targeted marketing of high-calorie foods and beverages to ethnic minority populations, relative to more healthful foods, may contribute to ethnic disparities in obesity and other diet-related chronic conditions. We conducted a systematic review of studies published in June 1992 through 2006 (n = 20) that permitted comparison of food and beverage marketing to African Americans versus Whites and others. Eight studies reported on product promotions, 11 on retail food outlet locations, and 3 on food prices. Although the evidence base has limitations, studies indicated that African Americans are consistently exposed to food promotion and distribution patterns with relatively greater potential adverse health effects than are Whites. The limited evidence on price disparities was inconclusive.

  4. Integration of Capital Markets from Central and Eastern Europe: Implications for EU Investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra HOROBET

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Our paper investigates the extent of capital market co-movements between three emerging markets Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland and three developed markets from the European Union – Austria, France and Germany. We test whether an increase in correlations between the six markets took place in recent years, as revealing higher integration of capital markets in the region. We find a statistically significant positive trend in cross-market correlations between 1999 and 2008, before the emergence of the global financial crisis. Movements in national stock markets are not fully synchronized, but increases in market volatilities lead to increases in cross-country correlations. There is a long-term relationship between some of these countries capital markets, and information is transmitted from one market to the other. Our findings confirm previous studies and lead to the conclusion that stock markets from Central and Eastern Europe became more integrated with the developed markets in European Union.

  5. Overcoming challenges to effectiveness of mobile markets in US food deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Lydia; Reznickova, Anna; Lohr, Luanne

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate whether mobile food markets may be effective in facilitating healthy food choices in food deserts. We investigate who does and does not use mobile food markets and why, and whether mobile markets have the potential to alter attitudes and food choices, and if so, how? We use a focus group study at four sites in the US to ask groups of mobile market shoppers and non-shoppers about their shopping, cooking, and eating attitudes and behaviors. We find that mobile market shoppers eat significantly more servings of fruits and vegetables, however, both shoppers and non-shoppers perceive fruits and vegetables as luxury items, and both groups lack knowledge about what is a serving and what is the recommended number of servings per day. Both groups identified the following needs for mobile markets to be more successful: increased awareness and advertising; affordability; improved convenience by offering more stops and hours, as well as greater variety of items for one-stop shopping; emphasis on value and service; and building trust within communities.

  6. Preferences, trust and willingness to pay for food information: An analysis of the Italian Market

    OpenAIRE

    Nocella, Giuseppe; Stefani, Gianluca; Romano, Donato

    2011-01-01

    Lack of consumer trust and communication strategies are probably the main determinants of information failure in modern food markets. This study attempts to tackle these aspects affecting the quality of food information by investigating questions related to what topics are more relevant to consumers, who should disseminate trustful food information, and how communication should be conveyed. Primary data were collected both through qualitative (in depth interviews and focus groups) and quantit...

  7. Improving internal communication between marketing and technology functions for successful new food product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lina; Grunert, Klaus G; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    2014-01-01

    and technology experts within the NPD process from a food industry point of view. The review provides practical implications for improving internal communication in food companies and identifies knowledge gaps. By focusing on optimising organisational structure, team composition, management support......In order to increase the new product development (NPD) success for novel food products, it is crucial to understand how information can be optimally disseminated within companies. This systematic literature review concentrates on factors influencing internal communication between market...

  8. Consumer Attitudes, Labeling Regimes and the Market Success of Food Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, T; Yiannaka, Amalia; Giannakas, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    The study explores the market and welfare effects of the introduction of a food nanotechnology innovation under different labeling regimes. An analytical framework of heterogeneous consumers who differ in their attitudes towards interventions in the production process and imperfectly competitive producers is developed to analyze the effects of food nanotechnology under different labeling regimes while considering different consumer preferences for food nanotechnology. Analytical results show ...

  9. CONSUMER RESPONSE TO GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRODUCERS AND POLICY MAKERS

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Gregory A.; Burnham, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    Conjoint analysis is used to elicit consumer preferences for attributes of genetically modified foods. Market segments are identified based on a cluster analysis of respondents' preferences for brand, price, and GMO content. A logit analysis is used to analyze consumer characteristics associated with the acceptance of GMO foods. Those consumers who were most risk averse, most likely to believe that GMOs improved the quality or safety of food, and most knowledgeable about biotechnology were th...

  10. Wanted: institutions for balancing global food and energy markets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing demand for biomass for energy use is further escalating existing food security risks. Managing these risks is a task for global institutions. These should ensure timely investment in the world's capacity for producing biomass and balance the use of this biomass for foods and for non-f

  11. Integrating environmental management into food safety and food packaging in Malaysia: review of the food regulation 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, N. H.; Hara, H.; Kaida, N.

    2017-05-01

    Food safety is an important issue that is related to public safety to prevent the toxicity threats of the food. Management through legal approach has been used in Malaysia as one of the predominant approaches to manage the environment. In this regard, the Food Regulation 1985 has been one of the mechanisms of environmental management through legal approach in controlling the safety of packaged food in food packaging industry in Malaysia. The present study aims to analyse and to explain the implementation of the Food Regulation 1985 in controlling the safety of packaged food in Malaysia and to integrate the concept of environmental management into the food safety issue. Qualitative analysis on the regulation document revealed that there are two main themes, general and specific, while their seven sub themes are included harmful packages, safety packages, reuse packages, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), alcoholic bottle, toys, money and others and iron powder. The implementation of the Food Regulation 1985 in controlling the safety of packaged food should not be regarded solely for regulation purposes but should be further developed for a broader sense of food safety from overcoming the food poisoning.

  12. Using a research framework to identify knowledge gaps in research on food marketing to children in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Kathy; Kelly, Bridget; King, Lesley

    2009-06-01

    Research in the field of food marketing to children requires a better understanding of the research gaps in order to inform policy development. The purpose of this paper was to propose a framework for classifying food marketing research, using Australian research on food marketing to children to demonstrate how this framework can be used to determine knowledge gaps. A literature review of research databases and 'grey' material was conducted to identify research from the previous 10 years. Studies were classified according to their research focus, and media type, as either: exposure, including content analyses; effects of exposure, including opinions, attitudes and actions resulting from food marketing exposure; regulations, including the type and level of regulation that applies to food marketing; or breaches of regulations, including instances where marketing regulations have been violated. The majority of Australian research on food marketing to children has focused on television advertising and exposure research. Research has consistently shown that the content of food marketing directed at children is predominately for unhealthy foods. There is a lack of research on the effects of food marketing, which would be valuable to inform policy. The development of a logical framework for food marketing research allows for the identification of research gaps and enables research priorities to be identified.

  13. New directions in the use of virtual reality for food shopping: marketing and education perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Barb

    2011-03-01

    Virtual reality is used in marketing research to shape food selection and purchase decisions. Could it be used to counteract the marketing of less-nutritious foods and teach healthier food selection? This article presents interviews with Raymond Burke, Ph.D., of Indiana University Bloomington, and Rachel Jones, M.P.H., of the University of Utah College of Health. Topics covered include new marketing research technologies, including virtual reality simulations; retailing and shopper behavior; and the use of virtual grocery stores to help students explore quality of diet and food/nutrient relationships. The interviewees discuss how the technologies they have developed fit into research and behavior change related to obesity and diabetes. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  14. Internet food marketing strategies aimed at children and adolescents: a content analysis of food and beverage brand web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Kristi; Story, Mary; Harnack, Lisa

    2006-09-01

    Americans are spending an increasing amount of time using "new media" like the Internet. There has been little research examining food and beverage Web sites' content and marketing practices, especially those that attract children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to conduct a content analysis of food- and beverage-brand Web sites and the marketing techniques and advertising strategies present on these sites. The top five brands in eight food and beverage categories, 40 brands in total, were selected based on annual sales data from Brandweek magazine's annual "Superbrands" report. Data were collected using a standardized coding form. The results show a wide variety of Internet marketing techniques and advertising strategies targeting children and adolescents. "Advergaming" (games in which the advertised product is part of the game) was present on 63% of the Web sites. Half or more of the Web sites used cartoon characters (50%) or spokescharacters (55%), or had a specially designated children's area (58%) with a direct link from the homepage. With interactive media still in its developmental stage, there is a need to develop safeguards for children. Food and nutrition professionals need to advocate for responsible marketing techniques that will support the health of children.

  15. 75 FR 56112 - Integrated Food Safety System Online Collaboration Development-Cooperative Agreement With the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Integrated Food Safety System Online Collaboration... information sharing in the development of an integrated food safety system, and the development and... House Food Safety Working Group Objectives to integrate the food safety system at all levels....

  16. Analysis of Marketing Strategy for Food Supplements and Over-The-Counter Medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzeparoski, Marjan; Trajkovic-Jolevska, Suzana

    2016-09-15

    Marketing strategy is correlated with the regulations for the corresponding product category. Accordingly, there is a big difference in the marketing strategy of food supplements and over-the-counter medicines. In this paper are presented 2 different marketing strategies of a new small pharmaceutical company in two studies. The findings of studies analysis can be used for developing marketing strategies in the wider sense and other products, for other small to medium sized companies in other countries of interest with similar regulations and help them understand how to position and promote themselves and their products.

  17. Analysis of Marketing Strategy for Food Supplements and Over-The-Counter Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Dzeparoski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Marketing strategy is correlated with the regulations for the corresponding product category. Accordingly, there is a big difference in the marketing strategy of food supplements and over-the-counter medicines. In this paper are presented 2 different marketing strategies of a new small pharmaceutical company in two studies. The findings of studies analysis can be used for developing marketing strategies in the wider sense and other products, for other small to medium sized companies in other countries of interest with similar regulations and help them understand how to position and promote themselves and their products.

  18. Caregiver and adolescent responses to food and beverage marketing exposures through an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gayathri; Zytnick, Deena; Onufrak, Stephen; Harris, Jennifer L; Wethington, Holly; Kingsley, Beverly; Park, Sohyun

    2014-02-01

    The Institute of Medicine noted that current food and beverage marketing practices promote unhealthful diets. However, little public health research has been conducted on food marketing directed toward adolescents, especially using caregiver- and adolescent-reported data. We assessed perceived frequency of food/beverage advertising exposure and common locations of food/beverage marketing exposure for adolescents using 2012 Summer ConsumerStyles and YouthStyles survey data on US adults ≥18 years of age and their children ages 12-17 (n=847), respectively. Exposure to advertisements for fast food, soda, fruit drinks, sports drinks, energy drinks, and bottled water were categorized as marketing most frequently on television followed by at the supermarket. Our study showed that adolescents reported lower frequency of food and beverage advertising exposure than their caregivers. Further research may be needed to verify self-reported exposure data on food and beverage advertising as a way to obtain data for use in research on its relationship with diet quality and obesity.

  19. European wood pellet market integration - A study of the residential sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Olle; Hillring, Bengt; Vinterbaeck, Johan [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Energy and Technology P.O. Box 7032 SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    The integration of European energy markets is a key goal of EU energy policy, and has also been the focal point of many scientific studies in recent years. International markets for coal, oil, natural gas and electricity have previously been investigated in order to determine the extent of the respective markets. This study enhances this field of research to bioenergy markets. Price series data and time series econometrics are used to determine whether residential sector wood pellet markets of Austria, Germany and Sweden are integrated. The results of the econometric tests show that the German and Austrian markets can be considered to be integrated, whereas the Swedish market is separate from the other two countries. Although increased internationalization of wood pellet markets is likely to contribute to European price convergence and market integration, this process is far from completed. (author)

  20. Persuasive techniques used in television advertisements to market foods to UK children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyland, Emma J; Harrold, Joanne A; Kirkham, Tim C; Halford, Jason C G

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the nature and extent of use of persuasive marketing techniques in television advertisements (adverts) to promote foods to children. Popular UK commercial television channels broadcasting children's/family viewing were recorded for 2 days (6 am-10 pm) every month in 2008 and recordings were screened for adverts. Eighteen thousand eight hundred and eighty eight adverts were for food and these were coded for peak/non-peak children's viewing time and representation of core (healthy)/non-core (unhealthy)/miscellaneous foods. The analysis assessed use of persuasive appeals, premium offers, promotional characters (brand equity and licensed characters), celebrity endorsers and website promotion in food adverts. Promotional characters, celebrity endorsers and premium offers were used more frequently to promote non-core than core foods, even on dedicated children's channels. Brand equity characters featured on a greater proportion of food adverts than licensed characters. A food brand website was promoted in a third of food adverts (websites are not covered by the statutory regulation on food advertising). This extensive analysis of television adverts demonstrated that the use of persuasive marketing techniques to promote unhealthy foods was extensive in broadcasting popular with children despite regulations. Further studies should incorporate an analysis of the content of websites promoted during food adverts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Integration of Manufacturing and Development in Emerging Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2014-01-01

    The chapter investigates the problems related to the functional integration between manufacturing activities and research and development (R&D) activities in emerging markets within multinational companies. A framework to this end is developed and illustrated through four case studies from...... multinational companies, which have established R&D and manufacturing in China or India. The findings point to the importance of adopting cross-function co-location drivers and contingencies, such as clockspeed and technological complexity, as well as the extent to which local adaptation is needed...

  2. Cross-border infrastructure constraints, regulatory measures and economic integration of the Dutch - German gas market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, G.H.; Mulder, M.

    2013-01-01

    We estimate to which extent regulatory measures in the Dutch market have reduced the vulnerability of this market to constraints in the cross-border infrastructure with Germany, which is the largest Dutch neighbouring market. We measure this vulnerability by the degree the markets are integrated, i.

  3. Children's magazines: reading resources or food marketing tools?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Sandra C; Reid, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Magazines targeted at children under 12 years old are growing in popularity; past studies have asserted that food items are rarely exposed, but methodological issues may have covered the true extent of covert promotion...

  4. Food and Beverage Marketing in Schools: A Review of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Cayley E; Black, Jennifer L; Potvin Kent, Monique

    2017-09-12

    Despite growing interest from government agencies, non-governmental organizations and school boards in restricting or regulating unhealthy food and beverage marketing to children, limited research has examined the emerging knowledge base regarding school-based food and beverage marketing in high-income countries. This review examined current approaches for measuring school food and beverage marketing practices, and evidence regarding the extent of exposure and hypothesized associations with children's diet-related outcomes. Five databases (MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL, Embase, and PsycINFO) and six grey literature sources were searched for papers that explicitly examined school-based food and beverage marketing policies or practices. Twenty-seven papers, across four high-income countries including Canada (n = 2), Ireland (n = 1), Poland (n = 1) and United States (n = 23) were identified and reviewed. Results showed that three main methodological approaches have been used: direct observation, self-report surveys, and in-person/telephone interviews, but few studies reported on the validity or reliability of measures. Findings suggest that students in the U.S. are commonly exposed to a broad array of food and beverage marketing approaches including direct and indirect advertising, although the extent of exposure varies widely across studies. More pervasive marketing exposure was found among secondary or high schools compared with elementary/middle schools and among schools with lower compared with higher socio-economic status. Three of five studies examining diet-related outcomes found that exposure to school-based food and beverage marketing was associated with food purchasing or consumption, particularly for minimally nutritious items. There remains a need for a core set of standard and universal measures that are sufficiently rigorous and comprehensive to assess the totality of school food and beverage marketing practices that can be used to compare exposure

  5. Food marketing targeting youth and families: what do we know about stores where moms actually shop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Rooney, Mary R

    2013-01-01

    Although efforts are underway to examine marketing that targets the youth and families in the retail food store environment, few studies have specifically focused on stores that families identify as their primary sites for food shopping. Between November 2011 and April 2012, we examined the frequency and types of marketing techniques of 114 packaged and nonpackaged items in 24 food stores that mothers of young children in Champaign County, IL, said they commonly frequented. Chi-square tests were used to determine whether significant differences existed between items with regard to marketing by store type, store food-assistance-program acceptance (i.e., WIC), and claims. Overall, stores accepting WIC and convenience stores had higher frequencies of marketing compared to non-WIC and grocery stores. Fruits and vegetables had the lowest frequency of any marketing claim, while salty snacks and soda had the highest frequency of marketing claims. Nutrition claims were the most common across all items, followed by taste, suggested use, fun, and convenience. Television tie-ins and cartoons were observed more often than movie tie-ins and giveaways. Our results suggest an opportunity to promote healthful items more efficiently by focusing efforts on stores where mothers actually shop.

  6. Food Marketing Targeting Youth and Families: What Do We Know about Stores Where Moms Actually Shop?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana S. Grigsby-Toussaint

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although efforts are underway to examine marketing that targets the youth and families in the retail food store environment, few studies have specifically focused on stores that families identify as their primary sites for food shopping. Between November 2011 and April 2012, we examined the frequency and types of marketing techniques of 114 packaged and nonpackaged items in 24 food stores that mothers of young children in Champaign County, IL, said they commonly frequented. Chi-square tests were used to determine whether significant differences existed between items with regard to marketing by store type, store food-assistance-program acceptance (i.e., WIC, and claims. Overall, stores accepting WIC and convenience stores had higher frequencies of marketing compared to non-WIC and grocery stores. Fruits and vegetables had the lowest frequency of any marketing claim, while salty snacks and soda had the highest frequency of marketing claims. Nutrition claims were the most common across all items, followed by taste, suggested use, fun, and convenience. Television tie-ins and cartoons were observed more often than movie tie-ins and giveaways. Our results suggest an opportunity to promote healthful items more efficiently by focusing efforts on stores where mothers actually shop.

  7. Food Marketing Targeting Youth and Families: What Do We Know about Stores Where Moms Actually Shop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Rooney, Mary R.

    2013-01-01

    Although efforts are underway to examine marketing that targets the youth and families in the retail food store environment, few studies have specifically focused on stores that families identify as their primary sites for food shopping. Between November 2011 and April 2012, we examined the frequency and types of marketing techniques of 114 packaged and nonpackaged items in 24 food stores that mothers of young children in Champaign County, IL, said they commonly frequented. Chi-square tests were used to determine whether significant differences existed between items with regard to marketing by store type, store food-assistance-program acceptance (i.e., WIC), and claims. Overall, stores accepting WIC and convenience stores had higher frequencies of marketing compared to non-WIC and grocery stores. Fruits and vegetables had the lowest frequency of any marketing claim, while salty snacks and soda had the highest frequency of marketing claims. Nutrition claims were the most common across all items, followed by taste, suggested use, fun, and convenience. Television tie-ins and cartoons were observed more often than movie tie-ins and giveaways. Our results suggest an opportunity to promote healthful items more efficiently by focusing efforts on stores where mothers actually shop. PMID:24163701

  8. Competition among Companies in the Fast Food Market in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Šrédl

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to express the nature and the extent of changes in the consumer preferences in the context of the oligopolistic multinational chains of fast food restaurants. The methodology of the paper is based on the analysis of growing market shares of fast food restaurants in the Czech Republic using the performance indicators of companies. Among the largest fast food restaurants in the Czech Republic are McDonald’s, KFC, Subway and the new fast food chain Parky’s. McDonald’s market share in terms of output is currently 46% of the fast food market. The paper therefore analyzes the last part of the agri-food vertical with clear consequence on the demand for agricultural commodities and for food as a whole. This study is supported by the Internal Grant Agency of Faculty of Economics and Management, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (Projects No. 20141025 – The growing share of fast food restaurants in consumer demand.

  9. Sustainable Governance of Organic Food Production When Market Forecast Is Imprecise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghua Han

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, the market for organic food has been experiencing rapid growth. However, the market demand for organic food typically fluctuates due to its seasonal nature and customized characteristics, and it remains fairly difficult to precisely forecast market demand prior to the selling season. Forecast bias usually creates inefficiency in an organic food producer’s production plan and results in a substantial amount of waste. Thus, this paper studies how much an organic food producer is likely to lose with a certain level of forecast bias and investigates whether forecast bias necessarily results in an improper production plan. Finally, we calculate the maximum potential profit loss rate when the organic food producer determines how much to produce based on his forecasted demand, which we believe will be instructive for organic food producers in making production decisions. The target problem is formulated by a newsvendor model and solved using a tolerant analysis approach. We find that an organic food producer can still find the optimal solution only if his forecast bias is under a certain threshold. However, if the organic food producer’s forecast bias is beyond the threshold, he will probably make a sub-optimal production decision and potentially experience a profit loss. Subsequently, we analytically calculate an organic producer’s maximum potential profit loss rate for any given level of forecast bias. Examples are employed to numerically illustrate the main findings.

  10. Towards an integrated approach in supporting microbiological food safety decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelaar, A.H.; Braunig, J.; Christiansen, K.

    2007-01-01

    Decisions on food safety involve consideration of a wide range of concerns including the public health impact of foodborne illness, the economic importance of the agricultural sector and the food industry, and the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions. To support such decisions, we propose...... an integrated scientific approach combining veterinary and medical epidemiology, risk assessment for the farm-to-fork food chain as well as agricultural and health economy. Scientific advice is relevant in all stages of the policy cycle: to assess the magnitude of the food safety problem, to define...... the priorities for action, to establish the causes for the problem, to choose between different control options, to define targets along the food chain and to measure success....

  11. Placing on the market of novel foods or novel ingredients in Europe “novel food procedure”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohler Carole

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available « Novel Foods » concerned foods and food ingredients that have not been used for human consumption to a significant degree within the Community before 15 May 1997. Regulation (EC No 258/97 of 27 January 1997 lays out detailed rules for the authorisation of novel foods and novel food ingredients. In order to ensure the highest level of protection of human health, novel foods must undergo a safety assessment before being placed on the EU market. The application must be in accordance with Commission Recommendation 97/618/EC concerning the scientific information and the safety assessment. A proposal of the revision of this regulation of has been adopted in order to reflect the fact that genetically modified (GM food no longer falls under its scope, to create a more favourable legislative environment for innovation in the food industry, and to better facilitate foodstuffs trade between Europe and the rest of the world. The consumer would also benefit from a wider choice of safe novel foods.

  12. Availability and marketing of food and beverages to children through sports settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Mary-Ann; Edwards, R; Signal, L; Hoek, J

    2012-08-01

    The current systematic review aimed to identify and critically appraise research on food environments in sports settings, including research into the types of food and beverages available, the extent and impact of food and beverage sponsorship and marketing, and views about food environments among key stakeholders. A systematic review. Fourteen English-language studies (two were papers describing different facets of the same study), published between 1985 and 2011, were identified from searches of electronic databases and bibliographies of primary studies. Most studies originated from Australia (n 10), with the remaining studies originating in the UK (n 1), New Zealand (n 1), the USA (n 1) and Canada (n 1). Data were collected from observations in stadia, websites and televised sports events, through in-depth interviews, focus groups and surveys with sports club members, parents and quick serve restaurant managers. Literature exploring food environments in sports settings was limited and had some important methodological limitations. No studies comprehensively described foods available at clubs or stadia, and only one explored the association between food and beverage sponsorship and club incomes. Club policies focused on the impact of health promotion funding rather than the impact of sponsorship or food availability in sports settings. Further research, including comprehensive studies of the food environment in sports settings, is required to document the availability, sponsorship and marketing of food and beverages at national, regional and club levels and to estimate how sports settings may influence children's diets.

  13. Technology development and market access: from a food sovereignty perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaye, W.

    2012-01-01

    The concepts of ‘relevant social groups’ and ‘technical code’ are used to investigate the social relations in cowpea variety development (technology studies) and also the relationship of small-scale farmers to the Ghana School Feeding Program (market

  14. Situation Analysis of Organic Food Production with Qualitative Market Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktória Szente

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available During past decade the general attitude of the population toward health, nutrition, quality and environment remarkably changed. Consequently ecological farming showed an upswing especially in developed countries. Due to growing demand, government subsidies and other economic advantages the cropping area increased and it will keep its pace in the near future. In Hungary the actors of economy have not fitted themselves to changed conditions. Main problem is the presence of quite a narrow domestic market resulting from a purchasing boom by western trading companies. In our survey the input, production and marketing aspects of organic farming were studied through interviewing farmers being involved into organic farming. results highlight the specific features of production in Hungary, its management relations, production structure and environment protectional considerations. As an overall goal it was set forth to identify the main limiting factors of domestic market growth, define the most marketable products and related companyforms. Producers´ opinion helped us with conducting the above process. Results of interviews were supported by our former experiences.

  15. Technology development and market access: from a food sovereignty perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaye, W.

    2012-01-01

    The concepts of ‘relevant social groups’ and ‘technical code’ are used to investigate the social relations in cowpea variety development (technology studies) and also the relationship of small-scale farmers to the Ghana School Feeding Program (market

  16. Does market integration buffer risk, erode traditional sharing practices and increase inequality? A test among Bolivian forager-farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V.; von Rueden, Chris; Hooper, Paul L.; Kaplan, Hillard

    2015-01-01

    Sharing and exchange are common practices for minimizing food insecurity in rural populations. The advent of markets and monetization in egalitarian indigenous populations presents an alternative means of managing risk, with the potential impact of eroding traditional networks. We test whether market involvement buffers several types of risk and reduces traditional sharing behavior among Tsimane Amerindians of the Bolivian Amazon. Results vary based on type of market integration and scale of analysis (household vs. village), consistent with the notion that local culture and ecology shape risk management strategies. Greater wealth and income were unassociated with the reliance on others for food, or on reciprocity, but wealth was associated with a greater proportion of food given to others (i.e., giving intensity) and a greater number of sharing partners (i.e., sharing breadth). Across villages, greater mean income was negatively associated with reciprocity, but economic inequality was positively associated with giving intensity and sharing breadth. Incipient market integration does not necessarily replace traditional buffering strategies but instead can often enhance social capital. PMID:26526638

  17. Discriminating nutritional quality of foods using the 5-Color nutrition label in the French food market: consistency with nutritional recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, Chantal; Ducrot, Pauline; Péneau, Sandrine; Deschamps, Valérie; Méjean, Caroline; Fézeu, Léopold; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-09-28

    Our objectives were to assess the performance of the 5-Colour nutrition label (5-CNL) front-of-pack nutrition label based on the Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system to discriminate nutritional quality of foods currently on the market in France and its consistency with French nutritional recommendations. Nutritional composition of 7777 foods available on the French market collected from the web-based collaborative project Open Food Facts were retrieved. Distribution of products across the 5-CNL categories according to food groups, as arranged in supermarket shelves was assessed. Distribution of similar products from different brands in the 5-CNL categories was also assessed. Discriminating performance was considered as the number of color categories present in each food group. In the case of discrepancies between the category allocation and French nutritional recommendations, adaptations of the original score were proposed. Overall, the distribution of foodstuffs in the 5-CNL categories was consistent with French recommendations: 95.4% of 'Fruits and vegetables', 72.5% of 'Cereals and potatoes' were classified as 'Green' or 'Yellow' whereas 86.0% of 'Sugary snacks' were classified as 'Pink' or 'Red'. Adaptations to the original FSA score computation model were necessary for beverages, added fats and cheese in order to be consistent with French official nutritional recommendations. The 5-CNL label displays a high performance in discriminating nutritional quality of foods across food groups, within a food group and for similar products from different brands. Adaptations from the original model were necessary to maintain consistency with French recommendations and high performance of the system.

  18. Survey of food safety practices on small to medium-sized farms and in farmers markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Judy A; Gaskin, Julia W; Harrison, Mark A; Cannon, Jennifer L; Boyer, Renee R; Zehnder, Geoffrey W

    2013-11-01

    As produce consumption has increased, so have foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh produce. Little research has addressed food safety practices used on small to medium-sized farms selling locally or in farmers markets. This study evaluated current food safety practices used by farmers on small to medium-sized farms and managers of farmers markets in Georgia, Virginia, and South Carolina based on responses to surveys. Surveys were developed, pretested, and revised before implementation with target audiences and were implemented via mail and the Web to maximize participation, with reminders sent to nonrespondents. Data were collected from 226 farmers and 45 market managers. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for all response variables. Responses from farmers indicated that more than 56% of them use manures. Of those who use manures, 34% use raw or mixtures of raw and composted manure, and over 26% wait fewer than 90 days between application of raw manure and harvest. Over 27% use water sources that have not been tested for safety for irrigation, and 16% use such water sources for washing produce. Over 43% do not sanitize surfaces that touch produce at the farm. Only 33% of farmers always clean transport containers between uses. Responses from market managers indicated that over 42% have no food safety standards in place for the market. Only 2 to 11% ask farmers specific questions about conditions on the farm that could affect product safety. Less than 25% of managers sanitize market surfaces. Only 11% always clean market containers between uses. Over 75% of markets offer no sanitation training to workers or vendors. While farmers and market managers are using many good practices, the results indicate that some practices being used may put consumers at risk of foodborne illness. Consequently, there is a need for training for both farmers and market managers.

  19. Integration of multi-level marketing management systems geographically industry development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Lavrov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors attempt to develop a multi-level management system territorially industry development in market conditions, built in the widespread use of various types of marketing and their horizontal and vertical integration.

  20. Magazines for children and young people and the links to Internet food marketing: a review of the extent and type of food advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowburn, Gill; Boxer, Anna

    2007-10-01

    To examine the nature of the link between food advertising in UK magazines aimed at children and young people and Internet food marketing, to establish whether consideration should be given to tightening existing controls. A review and descriptive analysis of food advertising found in a sample of the top five magazine titles aimed at a range of ages of children and young people between November 2004 and August 2005 and of the Internet food marketing sites to which readers were directed. Food advertising appeared as 'cover-mount' free gifts and as part of the main bound issue. Children aged 6-10 years were the most frequent recipients of food-based free gifts, all of which were confectionery. No food advertising was found in magazines aimed at pre-school children and it formed a small percentage of total advertising in the magazines aimed at children of school age and above. Most food advertisements were for 'less healthy' foods, although advertisements for 'healthier' food products did appear infrequently. Almost half of food advertisements directed readers towards Internet food marketing sites. We found evidence that these sites are using at least some of the 'marketing tricks' which have been identified as a cause for concern. Proposed restrictions on broadcast media may lead to more food advertising via other non-broadcast means. We suggest monitoring the effect of such changes in print and online advertising and that consideration be given to restricting marketing techniques used on websites aimed at children and young people.

  1. INTEGRATION OF THE FOOD INDUSTRY AND RELATED SECTORS BASED ON THE CLUSTER APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bautin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a diversified agro-industrial complex structure of the Voronezh region there are more than 200 enterprises of food and processing industry. However, due to the growth disparity in prices for agricultural and industrial products, the collapse of a single process has been a sharp decline in the production of final products of agribusiness. In the conditions of Russia's accession to the WTO and the growth in this regard competition in the market of raw materials and finished products, problems of high relevance of search for effective strategies for the development of the food industry. The emphasis of these reforms should be a priori biased towards the crea tion of favorable conditions for the formation of optimal institutional innovation structures and prospects of development of the national agro-food system at all levels. In this regard, the formation of institutional models of integration in the agricultural sector, we regard the system approach, where the newly created integrated structure is defined as a social institution, characterized by composition, structure, objectives, functions, internal and external bounding box defined inputs and outputs. Under these conditions, there is a need to develop partnerships and coo peration between enterprises of the technological chain of the final product agribusiness, finds its expression in a variety of forms, one of which is the formation of clusters, creating the conditions for effective interaction of producers of raw materials and finished products, research and educational institutions, service infrastructure of organizations and representatives of other areas to ensure. However, the analysis showed that, across a variety of alternative strategies for the development of the food industry, the most optimal in today's economic conditions appear to integration strategies that involve the union of disparate market participants on the principles of economic integr ation, which results in a synergy

  2. A City and National Metric measuring Isolation from the Global Market for Food Security Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Silver, Kirk Coleman; Rajagopalan, Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    The World Bank has invested in infrastructure in developing countries for decades. This investment aims to reduce the isolation of markets, reducing both seasonality and variability in food availability and food prices. Here we combine city market price data, global distance to port, and country infrastructure data to create a new Isolation Index for countries and cities around the world. Our index quantifies the isolation of a city from the global market. We demonstrate that an index built at the country level can be applied at a sub-national level to quantify city isolation. In doing so, we offer policy makers with an alternative metric to assess food insecurity. We compare our isolation index with other indices and economic data found in the literature.We show that our Index measures economic isolation regardless of economic stability using correlation and analysis

  3. The role of industry in bringing foods for particular nutritional uses (PARNUTS) to the market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathwood, P; MacLean, W; Uauy, R

    1999-12-01

    The process of bringing new food products from innovation to implementation requires a high level of interaction between researchers, marketers, and consumers. Researchers from industry and academia have the task of developing products that are not only efficacious, but also have a high probability of consumer acceptance. For most foods, industry must provide the most leadership in finding new product concepts, determining which products will have the widest markets, and in funding research and development. To accomplish these tasks, industry has forged partnerships with academic centers and scientists who excel in research and development, and continues to search for the best ways to communicate with consumers. For some FSMPs, other considerations, such as medical and nutritional needs (e.g., products for inborn errors of metabolism), might change the pattern of industry leadership. The following article explores the ways in which industry can facilitate the development and acceptance of beneficial and marketable food products.

  4. Credibility engineering in the food industry: linking science, regulation, and marketing in a corporate context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Bart; Nelis, Annemiek P

    2011-12-01

    We expand upon the notion of the "credibility cycle" through a study of credibility engineering by the food industry. Research and development (R&D) as well as marketing contribute to the credibility of the food company Unilever and its claims. Innovation encompasses the development, marketing, and sales of products. These are directed towards three distinct audiences: scientific peers, regulators, and consumers. R&D uses scientific articles to create credit for itself amongst peers and regulators. These articles are used to support health claims on products. However, R&D, regulation, and marketing are not separate realms. A single strategy of credibility engineering connects health claims to a specific public through linking that public to a health issue and a food product.

  5. Antecedents of marketing integration in cross-border mergers and acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Sinkovics, Rudolf R.; Sinkovics, Noemi; Lew, Yong Kyu; Jedin, Mohd Haniff Bin; Zagelmeyer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to examine operational-level implementation issues regarding mergers and acquisitions (M&As) in general, and resource combination and integration at the functional marketing level in particular. Design/methodology/approach – The paper introduces four factors (i.e. collaboration, interaction, marketing synergy, and the realignment of marketing resources) that support successful M&A marketing integration and enhance overall M&A performance...

  6. Vertical integration and product market competition: Evidence from the Spanish local TV industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Ricard

    2011-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the relation between product market competition and vertical integration in the Spanish local TV industry. For this reason, I use a data set of Spanish local TV stations that provides station level information on vertical integration and product market competition, as well as other station and market characteristics, for the years 1996, 1999 and 2002. During this period, changes in regulation in this industry had a strong impact on the level of market competiti...

  7. Sweet samosas: a new food product in the Portuguese market

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    Since in the present times families have much less time to prepare meals or even deserts, and because sweets are always so well accepted to enjoy a moment of pleasure either alone or shared, it was the aim of this academic work to prepare an alternative desert, not at sale in the Portuguese market, and study its acceptance by the consumers. The product selected was sweet samosas, and these were prepared with different filings (apple & cinnamon, chocola...

  8. Functional Foods as Differentiated Products: the Italian Yogurt Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonanno, A.

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the growing consumers' interest for functional foods, the knowledge regarding the demand for these products and their profitability is limited. Adapting the LA/AIDS (Linear Approximated–Almost Ideal Demand System) model by means of Pinkse, Slade and Brett's distance metric method (2002),

  9. Internet marketing directed at children on food and restaurant websites in two policy environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, M Potvin; Dubois, L; Kent, E A; Wanless, A J

    2013-04-01

    Food and beverage marketing has been associated with childhood obesity yet little research has examined the influence of advertising policy on children's exposure to food/beverage marketing on the Internet. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of Quebec's Consumer Protection Act and the self-regulatory Canadian Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CAI) on food manufacturer and restaurant websites in Canada. A content analysis of 147 French and English language food and restaurant websites was undertaken. The presence of child-directed content was assessed and an analysis of marketing features, games and activities, child protection features, and the promotion of healthy lifestyle messages was then examined on those sites with child-directed content. There were statistically no fewer French language websites (n = 22) with child-directed content compared to English language websites (n = 27). There were no statistically significant differences in the number of the various marketing features, or in the average number of marketing features between the English and French websites. There were no fewer CAI websites (n = 14) with child-directed content compared to non-CAI websites (n = 13). The CAI sites had more healthy lifestyle messages and child protection features compared to the non-CAI sites. Systematic surveillance of the Consumer Protection Act in Quebec is recommended. In the rest of Canada, the CAI needs to be significantly expanded or replaced by regulatory measures to adequately protect children from the marketing of foods/beverages high in fat, sugar, and sodium on the Internet. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  10. Ultra-processed family foods in Australia: nutrition claims, health claims and marketing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulker, Claire Elizabeth; Scott, Jane Anne; Pollard, Christina Mary

    2017-07-17

    To objectively evaluate voluntary nutrition and health claims and marketing techniques present on packaging of high-market-share ultra-processed foods (UPF) in Australia for their potential impact on public health. Cross-sectional. Packaging information from five high-market-share food manufacturers and one retailer were obtained from supermarket and manufacturers' websites. Ingredients lists for 215 UPF were examined for presence of added sugar. Packaging information was categorised using a taxonomy of nutrition and health information which included nutrition and health claims and five common food marketing techniques. Compliance of statements and claims with the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code and with Health Star Ratings (HSR) were assessed for all products. Almost all UPF (95 %) contained added sugars described in thirty-four different ways; 55 % of UPF displayed a HSR; 56 % had nutrition claims (18 % were compliant with regulations); 25 % had health claims (79 % were compliant); and 97 % employed common food marketing techniques. Packaging of 47 % of UPF was designed to appeal to children. UPF carried a mean of 1·5 health and nutrition claims (range 0-10) and 2·6 marketing techniques (range 0-5), and 45 % had HSR≤3·0/5·0. Most UPF packaging featured nutrition and health statements or claims despite the high prevalence of added sugars and moderate HSR. The degree of inappropriate or inaccurate statements and claims present is concerning, particularly on packaging designed to appeal to children. Public policies to assist parents to select healthy family foods should address the quality and accuracy of information provided on UPF packaging.

  11. The Challenges Organic Food Processors Meet at Small Emerging Market – Estonian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Sarapuu, Kerttu; Pehme, Sirli; Peetsmann, Elen; Matt, Darja

    2014-01-01

    Organic farming and demand for organic products is continually a growing trend all over the world (Willer et al., 2013). In Estonia the share of organic land is 15% of all agricultural land and the number of organic farmers is also growing (Vetemaa, Mikk 2013). Estonian organic food market is still in forming stage being affected by local organic farming development, marketing situation, economic situation and consumer attitudes. Organic processing has clearly not kept up with organic farming...

  12. Actual and potential development of consumer demand on the organic food market in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katherine O'Doherty; Denver, Sigrid; Zanolic, R.

    2011-01-01

    Development of demand for organic foods on three European markets (Denmark, Italy and UK) was investigated by means of quantitative analysis of household panel data and qualitative analysis of consumer life stories and shopping patterns. Potential development was investigated by means of scenario...... will be distributed more widely on national markets, and whether support for research and conversion of organic production systems on the part of public authorities is enhanced....

  13. The Role of Multicultural Marketing on Malay Consumers Perceptions towards Global vs. Local Ethnic Food Brands

    OpenAIRE

    Umair, Sana

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation combines two different elements of interest in International Marketing Research. The objective of this research is the comparison of global versus local brand within the context of ethnic marketing in the multicultural society of Malaysia. The product instant noodle in the category of ethnic food was chosen in the variant of Asam Laksa as the target sample focused specifically on Malay consumers. Comparison was done between Maggi (global) and Mamee (local). The sample compri...

  14. Farmer groups enterprises and the marketing of staple food commodities in Africa:

    OpenAIRE

    Coulter, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    "There are some apparently successful cases of collective marketing with staple food commodities (grains and root crops), but these are less common than cases involving higher value agricultural products. These can be attributed to the benefit/cost ratio to participants being generally higher for collective marketing of the higher-value crops. Some of the costs are ‘hidden', in the sense that they are borne by individuals in time spent in attending meetings, and not shown in the financial sta...

  15. The Effect of Energy Labelling on Menus and a Social Marketing Campaign on Food-Purchasing Behaviours of University Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roy, Rajshri; Beattie-Bowers, Jack; Ang, Siew Min; Colagiuri, Stephen; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of kilojoule (kJ) labelling alone or accompanied by a social marketing campaign on food sales and selection of less energy-dense meals by young adults from a university food outlet...

  16. Big Data Concept in the Food Supply Chain: Small Markets Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navickas Valentinas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The strategies of competitive advantage are changing dramatically because of high technology development. The data size in the world is multiplying rapidly - the amount of information in the world doubles every 12 months. Therefore, the authors analyzed Big data in the food supply chain. The methodology used in the paper consists of a review of global competitiveness reports and secondary data analysis together with document-based literature synthesis; a competitiveness maximization methodology was modelled referring to a case of small markets. The supply of food industry is complicated, because of various regulations and a demand for high quality products just on time. Various companies are transporting partial freight; therefore, the visibility, lead-time and cost minimization is essential for them. However, they are unable to use all the gathered information and are not utilizing the potential that is possible. The problem of data analysis is a bigger concern to the smaller markets. Many of the small markets are less developed countries that still are not using Big data in their enterprises. In addition, new technologies are developing in the Big data industry. Therefore, the gap of technology will increase even more between large and small markets. The analysed innovation level and technology usage indicated a need for the food industry to change competitiveness strategies. Therefore, the authors developed a competitiveness strategy that is orientated to the food industry of small markets.

  17. Food group contribution of essential elements of the Sao Paulo State market basket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avegliano, Roseane P.; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: pagliaro@usp.b, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Fabio F. da, E-mail: ffsusp@uol.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica e Estatistica. Empresa Junior de Informatica, Matematica e Estatistica

    2009-07-01

    To establish a Market Basket of Sao Paulo state seventy-one foods, with a mean consumption of more than 2 g day{sup -1} per person, were grouped into 30 food categories. The food groups were: cereals, leguminous, leafy vegetables, fruity vegetables, tuberous vegetables, tropical fruits, other fruits, flours, pastas, breads, biscuits, prime grade beef, standard grade beef, pork meats, other meats, poultry, milk/cream, other dairy products, sugars, sweets, salts, sauces, oils, fats, alcoholic beverages, non-alcoholic beverages, coffee, ready-made dishes, saltwater and freshwater fishes. Information about individual food consumption was obtained from a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' conducted by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics from July 2002 to June 2003. Sampling and kitchen preparation of foods were carried out in restaurants of the University of Sao Paulo. Each food item was individually prepared table-ready. Foods of the same group were mixed, homogenized, pulverized and analyzed for the determination of Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Average daily intake of each element was calculated by multiplying the element concentration in the food by the corresponding weight of the ready-to-consume food group. The contribution of each food group to the total daily intake of elements by the ready-to-consume food groups of the Market Basket was evaluated. The food groups representing the highest contributions were salts: 79% Na; breads: 37% Fe and 46% Cr; cereals: 19% Zn and milk/cream: 58% Ca and 24% K. (author)

  18. Children’s Recall of Fast Food Television Advertising—Testing the Adequacy of Food Marketing Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Amy M.; Wilking, Cara; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Emond, Jennifer A.; Sargent, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim In the United States, the fast food companies McDonald’s and Burger King participate in marketing self-regulation programs that aim to limit emphasis on premiums and promote emphasis of healthy food choices. We determine what children recall from fast food television advertisements aired by these companies. Methods One hundred children aged 3–7 years were shown McDonald’s and Burger King children’s (MDC & BKC) and adult (MDA & BKA) meal ads, randomly drawn from ads that aired on national US television from 2010–11. Immediately after seeing the ad, children were asked to recall what they had seen and transcripts evaluated for descriptors of food, healthy food (apples or milk), and premiums/tie-ins. Results Premiums/tie-ins were common in children’s but rarely appeared in adult ads, and all children’s ads contained images of healthy foods (apples and milk). Participants were significantly less likely to recall any food after viewing the children’s vs. the adult ad (MDC 32% [95% confidence interval 23, 41] vs. MDA 68% [59, 77]) p food was not significantly different from premium/tie-ins, and participants were significantly more likely to recall other food items than apples or milk. Moreover, premiums/tie-ins were recalled much more frequently than healthy food (MDC 45% [35, 55] vs. 9% [3, 15] pfast food advertising indicate that industry self-regulation failed to achieve a de-emphasis on toy premiums and tie-ins and did not adequately communicate healthy menu choices. The methods devised for this study could be used to monitor and better regulate advertising patterns of practice. PMID:25738653

  19. Healthy food outside: farmers' markets, taco trucks, and sidewalk fruit vendors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Alfonso; Kettles, Gregg

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the many dimensions of street vending and public markets, the multiple intersections vending and markets have with food regulation, and the historical connection markets have with other policy problems. We develop the article in four parts, following the introduction found in section one the article touches on three elements of law and public policy. The second section considers markets and merchants in public goods with their associated dilemmas. Our approach is to reconfigure the emphasis on public space as transportation by justifying the use of the street and sidewalk for street vending. The importance of public space for commerce and other creative activities bridges the second and third sections of the article. The third section chronicles the history of law and regulation around street and public markets. Here we emphasize how cities historically used public markets as public policy tools to address food security, employment, and to help those growing cities accommodate new immigrants. The fourth section focuses on public health by examining the law of outdoor food sold on the street. Through our analysis we set forth numerous suggestions for advocacy, policy, and legal reform.

  20. Application of integrated data mining techniques in stock market forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yin Huang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stock market is considered too uncertain to be predictable. Many individuals have developed methodologies or models to increase the probability of making a profit in their stock investment. The overall hit rates of these methodologies and models are generally too low to be practical for real-world application. One of the major reasons is the huge fluctuation of the market. Therefore, the current research focuses in the stock forecasting area is to improve the accuracy of stock trading forecast. This paper introduces a system that addresses the particular need. The system integrates various data mining techniques and supports the decision-making for stock trades. The proposed system embeds the top-down trading theory, artificial neural network theory, technical analysis, dynamic time series theory, and Bayesian probability theory. To experimentally examine the trading return of the presented system, two examples are studied. The first uses the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC data-set that covers an investment horizon of 240 trading days from 16 February 2011 to 23 January 2013. Eighty four transactions were made using the proposed approach and the investment return of the portfolio was 54% with an 80.4% hit rate during a 12-month period in which the TSMC stock price increased by 25% (from $NT 78.5 to $NT 101.5. The second example examines the stock data of Evergreen Marine Corporation, an international marine shipping company. Sixty four transactions were made and the investment return of the portfolio was 128% in 12 months. Given the remarkable investment returns in trading the example TSMC and Evergreen stocks, the proposed system demonstrates promising potentials as a viable tool for stock market forecasting.

  1. Market-based process and product innovation in the food sector: A Danish research programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Baadsgaard, Allan

    1992-01-01

    This note informs about the Danish MAPP research programme, a collection of 15 research projects aimed at making product and process innovation in the food sector more market-based. The programme, which has an interdisciplinary base, but is geared towards marketing applications, is concerned...... with the organization of the innovation process, the interaction of consumer and producer criteria in product development, the assessment of long-term developments in the market environment and the role distribution system in product innovation. Innovation in both primary production and processing are considered....

  2. The Model of Integrated Marketing Communication: Who has the Role to Influence Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Olimpia Elena Mihaela Oancea

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the models of integrated marketing communication that can influence the consumer behaviour, and the development a model of integrated marketing communication. The research goals aim the following aspects: (a) The analyze of the IMC concept; (b) Identifying and analyzing the main models of integrated marketing communication that can influence the consumer behaviour; (c) Identifying the variables that will be included ...

  3. Integrated Energy Systems (IES) for Buildings: A Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeMar, P.

    2002-10-29

    Integrated Energy Systems (IES) combine on-site power or distributed generation technologies with thermally activated technologies to provide cooling, heating, humidity control, energy storage and/or other process functions using thermal energy normally wasted in the production of electricity/power. IES produce electricity and byproduct thermal energy onsite, with the potential of converting 80 percent or more of the fuel into useable energy. IES have the potential to offer the nation the benefits of unprecedented energy efficiency gains, consumer choice and energy security. It may also dramatically reduce industrial and commercial building sector carbon and air pollutant emissions and increase source energy efficiency. Applications of distributed energy and Combined heat and power (CHP) in ''Commercial and Institutional Buildings'' have, however, been historically limited due to insufficient use of byproduct thermal energy, particularly during summer months when heating is at a minimum. In recent years, custom engineered systems have evolved incorporating potentially high-value services from Thermally Activated Technologies (TAT) like cooling and humidity control. Such TAT equipment can be integrated into a CHP system to utilize the byproduct heat output effectively to provide absorption cooling or desiccant humidity control for the building during these summer months. IES can therefore expand the potential thermal energy services and thereby extend the conventional CHP market into building sector applications that could not be economically served by CHP alone. Now more than ever, these combined cooling, heating and humidity control systems (IES) can potentially decrease carbon and air pollutant emissions, while improving source energy efficiency in the buildings sector. Even with these improvements over conventional CHP systems, IES face significant technological and economic hurdles. Of crucial importance to the success of IES is the ability

  4. Implementing Brand Valuation in Marketing Management: Estonian Food Industry Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Lele Aak; Alan Brokaw; Mait Miljan

    2004-01-01

    The dynamic global business environment creates brand strategy challenges for companies, including those in fast-adjusting Central and Eastern European countries. Some of the main topics that businesses have to face are brand building, brand equity and brand valuation. The importance of brands varies across and within industries. This paper focuses on analyzing the need for brand building, brand equity, and brand valuation in food industry, with a focus on Estonian businesses. Specifically, t...

  5. Climate Change, Global Food Markets, and Urban Unrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    stability in Kenya , they typically focus on climatic conditions in Kenya . Yet just as El Niño in the tropical Pacific can lead to colder and wetter...global food prices in constant dollar terms, as well as the proportion of cereal staples (maize, rice , wheat, etc.) traded as a percent of total...populous countries run large rice trade surpluses – such as Thailand and Vietnam – the region as a whole is import dependent.18 Over time, Africa and

  6. HOW LABELING OF SAFETY AND PROCESS ATTRIBUTES AFFECTS MARKETS FOR FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Julie A Caswell

    1998-01-01

    Consumers are increasingly considering information on the safety and process (how foods are produced) attributes of food in making their buying decisions. Producers, processors, and retailers may choose voluntary labeling of these attributes, may be required to label by government regulations, or may use a combination of these approaches. The market effects depend on consumer perceptions of the attributes, the benefits and costs of labeling for companies, and the goals of government policy. T...

  7. Processed Chili Peppers for Export Markets: A Capital Budgeting Study on the AgroFood Company

    OpenAIRE

    Shelaby, Ayman A.; Semida, Wael M.; Warnock, Daniel F.; Hahn, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The AgroFood Company, which currently exports fresh chili peppers to European clients, desires to expand the product mix offered. The company, as it expands its production of fresh peppers for export, has an increasing supply of grade 2 peppers that are unmarketable in Egypt. However, an attractive market for processed frozen chili peppers exists in Europe. To expand their client base, capitalize on a value added product, and minimize product waste, the AgroFood Company desires to develop pro...

  8. The integration of marketing problem-solving modes and marketing management support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Wierenga (Berend); G.H. van Bruggen (Gerrit)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractFocuses on the issue of problem solving in marketing and develops a classification of marketing problem-solving modes (MPSMs). Typology of MPSMs; Relationship among MPSMs; Marketing management support systems.

  9. The use of sports references in marketing of food and beverage products in supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Liu, Peggy J; Roberto, Christina A; Sarda, Vishnu; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2013-04-01

    Food marketing has been identified as a significant driver of the childhood obesity epidemic. The purpose of the present study was to (i) conduct a content analysis of the types of sports references that appear on supermarket food and beverage products and (ii) assess each product's nutritional and marketing profile. This was a descriptive study. Every product featuring sports references on the packaging was purchased in two major supermarkets during 2010. A content analysis was conducted and nutritional evaluations were made based on the Nutrient Profile Model, a validated nutrition model. Marketing data were obtained from The Nielsen Company. Two major supermarkets in Connecticut, USA. Food and beverage products (n 102) were selected from two supermarkets. The 102 products (fifty-three foods and forty-nine beverages) had sports references as part of their packaging: 72·5 % featured a character exercising, 42·2 % were endorsed by a professional sports entity and 34·0 % were child-targeted. The median nutrition score for food products was 36 (1 = unhealthiest and 100 = healthiest; scores of ≥63 are considered healthy according to this model). More than two-thirds of beverages (69·4 %) were 100 % sugar-sweetened. Children saw significantly more commercials for these products than adults. Companies place sports figures on food and beverage products that are child-targeted and unhealthy.

  10. The Model of Integrated Marketing Communication: Who has the Role to Influence Consumer Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Elena Mihaela Oancea

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the models of integrated marketing communication that can influence the consumer behaviour, and the development a model of integrated marketing communication. The research goals aim the following aspects: (a The analyze of the IMC concept; (b Identifying and analyzing the main models of integrated marketing communication that can influence the consumer behaviour; (c Identifying the variables that will be included in the conceptual model of integrated marketing communication proposed. A review of the integrated marketing communication literature show the fact that were developed a series models of integrated marketing communication which has the role to influence the consumer buying behavior, but these not capture the correlation between the following factors: sociological variables, external stimuli, integrated marketing communication and consumer behavior. The method used was the secondary research in order to fulfill the research objectives established. The major result of this paper consists in proposing of a new conceptual model of integrated marketing communication that captures the correlation between external stimuli - sociological variables - integrated marketing communication - consumer behavior.

  11. Capital Market Integration and Consumption Risk Sharing over the Long Run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Jesper; Santa-Clara, Pedro; Schmeling, Maik

    We empirically investigate time variation in capital market integration and consumption risk sharing using data for 16 countries from 1875 to 2012. We show that there has been considerable variation over time in the degrees of capital market integration and consumption risk sharing and that higher...... capital market integration forecasts more consumption risk sharing in the future. This finding is robust is to controlling for trade openness and exchange rate volatilities. Hence, financial integration seems to drive consumption risk sharing whereas we find no evidence that risk sharing forecasts market...

  12. A comparative examination of currency risk pricing and market integration in the stock markets of Nigeria and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odongo Kodongo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine the pricing of currency risk and market integration in the equity markets of Nigeria and South Africa. Using the Generalized Method of Moments with a multi-beta asset pricing model and firm-level data, we find that currency risk is partly unconditionally priced in South Africa's stock market, with this market being largely integrated with the world equity markets. Conversely, currency risk is not priced in Nigeria's equity market, which also shows no evidence of integration with the world equity markets. Interestingly, a portfolio analysis of firms reveals a size based return sensitivity to both world equity markets and exchange rate volatility across the two countries. Therefore, while general results suggest that Nigeria, rather than South Africa, would provide greater diversification benefits to international investors with little or no worry about hedging unconditional exchange rate risk, that view must be nuanced when considering large size firms which are consistently sensitive to the two factors across both countries.

  13. Beyond Television: Children’s Engagement with Online Food and Beverage Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rena Mendelson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food and beverage marketing has been implicated in the childhood obesity “pandemic.” Prior studies have established the negative impact of television advertising on children’s dietary intake, yet few have considered the role of online food and beverage marketing, particularly within the Canadian context.Objective: This study explores children’s engagement in online marketing and investigates the potential impact on their dietary intake.Methods: Participants were recruited from the Ryerson University Summer Day Camp to participate in a single one-on-one semi-structured interview.Results: A total of 83 children (age 7 to13 years; mean 9.99 years; 56.3% boys, 43.8% girls participated in the study. Fewer children thought that there is food, drink, or candy advertising on the internet (67.7% than on television (98.8% (p 0.001. Awareness of online marketing increased with age: 7 to 8 year olds (23.67%; 4, 9 to10 years (63.89%; 23, 11 to12 years (86.96%; 20; 13 years (100%; 9. Over one-third of children had visited a website after seeing the address advertised on television (n = 32; 38.55% or on product package (n = 29; 34.94%.Conclusions: Branded internet sites, commonly featured on television and product packaging, offer new opportunities for marketers to reach children with messages promoting commercial food and beverage items. These websites are subsequently spread via word-of-mouth through children’s peer networks. The independent impact of web-based food, drink and candy marketing, as well as the synergistic effect of multi-channel product promotion, on children’s dietary intake merits further investigation.

  14. Market appeal intelligently evaluation basing on integral monitoring functions using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Kosenko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to create guidelines for establising a mechanism for monitoring the commercial potential of intellectual property in industry. The author develops recommendations for its effective using. The results of the analysis. Objective assessment of the commercial potential of innovative technology depends largely on the level of potential economic benefit that can be obtained by: developer of innovative technologies for commercialization; consumer innovative technology while using it. It is proposed to use the ratio of these effects for the ongoing assessment of changes in the level of commercial potential of innovative technology. To do this, the author suggests using the tangent function, which allows you to carry out the monitoring procedure effectively. Determining a plurality of values of the trigonometric functions tangent, which characterizes the ratio of economic benefit to the consumer and developer of innovative technology, allows to find four specific areas. The article describes the economic characteristics of each of these zones, which allow the researcher to obtain important characteristics, which are used for the process of intellectual property commercialization. The proposed additional monitoring mechanism puts another function monitoring to the intellectual activity of the enterprise, which reflects the quality of the complex characteristics (consumer properties and commercial risk (the possibility of successful commercialization of technological product. We recommend using an arc tangent function. Evaluation of integral quality index technology is carried out using the following guidelines. Intellectual property, with close on consumer qualities and spheres of use at the appropriate analogues technology market, has base for comparison. In this case it is proposed to assess the values of the complex index of the quality of recommendations by using the desirability function Harrington

  15. Marketing fast food: impact of fast food restaurants in children's hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahud, Hannah B; Binns, Helen J; Meadow, William L; Tanz, Robert R

    2006-12-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to determine fast food restaurant prevalence in hospitals with pediatric residencies and (2) to evaluate how hospital environment affects purchase and perception of fast food. We first surveyed pediatric residency programs regarding fast food restaurants in their hospitals to determine the prevalence of fast food restaurants in these hospitals. We then surveyed adults with children after pediatric outpatient visits at 3 hospitals: hospital M with an on-site McDonald's restaurant, hospital R without McDonald's on site but with McDonald's branding, and hospital X with neither on-site McDonald's nor branding. We sought to determine attitudes toward, consumption of, and influences on purchase of fast food and McDonald's food. Fifty-nine of 200 hospitals with pediatric residencies had fast food restaurants. A total of 386 outpatient surveys were analyzed. Fast food consumption on the survey day was most common among hospital M respondents (56%; hospital R: 29%; hospital X: 33%), as was the purchase of McDonald's food (hospital M: 53%; hospital R: 14%; hospital X: 22%). McDonald's accounted for 95% of fast food consumed by hospital M respondents, and 83% of them bought their food at the on-site McDonald's. Using logistic regression analysis, hospital M respondents were 4 times more likely than respondents at the other hospitals to have purchased McDonald's food on the survey day. Visitors to hospitals M and R were more likely than those at hospital X to believe that McDonald's supported the hospital financially. Respondents at hospital M rated McDonald's food healthier than did respondents at the other hospitals. Fast food restaurants are fairly common in hospitals that sponsor pediatric residency programs. A McDonald's restaurant in a children's hospital was associated with significantly increased purchase of McDonald's food by outpatients, belief that the McDonald's Corporation supported the hospital financially, and higher rating

  16. Furan in commercial baby foods from the Spanish market: estimation of daily intake and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaki, M Soubhi; Santos, F Javier; Puignou, Lluis; Galceran, Maria Teresa

    2017-05-01

    The occurrence of furan in commercial baby food samples from the Spanish market was evaluated using an automated headspace solid-phase microextraction method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). A total of 76 baby food samples including infant formula, baby cereals, fruit in cans and/or jars, vegetables, meat, and fish, were surveyed for furan content. The lowest concentration of this compound was found in infant formula (food (0.15-2.1 ng g(-1)) while baby food containing fish showed the highest concentrations (19-84 ng g(-1)). Following recommendation of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the effect on furan content was evaluated of consumer home preparation of foods, heating and handling. Furan concentrations were reduced by up to 35% when samples were heated in a dish using microwave oven and by up to 53% when a hot water bath was used. Finally, we estimated the furan intake from baby food consumption (0.002-1.18 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1)) and we calculated the margin of exposure (MOE) from samples as purchased and also after home preparation of the food. For infant formula and cereal baby foods, the MOEs (26,278-412,776) indicated no infant health concern or priority, while for meat and fish-based baby foods the values pointed to a potential public health risk, even considering the furan losses during preparation at home.

  17. Brand leadership and product innovation as firm strategies in global food markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehlhar, M.; Regmi, A.; Stefanou, S.E.; Zoumas, B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to understand the motivations for product innovation and brand leadership using a series of case studies focusing on firms with leading market positions of different types. Design/methodology/approach - A qualitative study is presented of three leading food sector firms of different

  18. Maps & Apps: Mobile Media Marketing Education for Food and Farm Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Julie; Leeds, Rob; Barrett, Eric

    2014-01-01

    With an increasing number of consumers using smartphones, tablets, and other mobile devices to find and interact with local businesses, Ohio State University Extension developed a new curriculum aimed at improving market access for food and farm entrepreneurs. The literature review, curriculum framework, and lessons learned shared in this article…

  19. Alternative Food in the Global South: Reflections on a Direct Marketing Initiative in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidberg, Susanne; Goldstein, Lissa

    2011-01-01

    Amidst booming scholarship on alternative food networks (AFNs) in the global North, research on AFN in the global South remains scarce. Partly this is because explicitly alternative initiatives are themselves scarce, except for those focused on export markets. Yet in countries such as Kenya, urban consumers and rural smallholders have good reason…

  20. Improving internal communication between marketing and technology functions for successful new food product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, L.F.; Grunert, K.G.; Søndergaard, H.A.; Steenbekkers, B.; Dekker, M.; Lähteenmäki, L.

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase the new product development (NPD) success for novel food products, it is crucial to understand how information can be optimally disseminated within companies. This systematic literature review concentrates on factors influencing internal communication between market and technolo

  1. Food and feed products from micro-algae: Market opportunities and challenges for the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigani, M.; Parisi, C.; Rodriguez-Cerezo, E.; Barbosa, M.J.; Sijtsma, L.; Ploeg, M.; Enzing, C.

    2015-01-01

    Micro-algae are a new and promising source of nutrients. The main products obtainable are dried algae with high nutrients content and high-value compounds such as fatty acids, pigments and anti-oxidants. This paper analyses the market and the economic opportunities of micro-algae-based food and feed

  2. Brand leadership and product innovation as firm strategies in global food markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehlhar, M.; Regmi, A.; Stefanou, S.E.; Zoumas, B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to understand the motivations for product innovation and brand leadership using a series of case studies focusing on firms with leading market positions of different types. Design/methodology/approach - A qualitative study is presented of three leading food sector firms of different

  3. Alternative Food in the Global South: Reflections on a Direct Marketing Initiative in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidberg, Susanne; Goldstein, Lissa

    2011-01-01

    Amidst booming scholarship on alternative food networks (AFNs) in the global North, research on AFN in the global South remains scarce. Partly this is because explicitly alternative initiatives are themselves scarce, except for those focused on export markets. Yet in countries such as Kenya, urban consumers and rural smallholders have good reason…

  4. Young adults: beloved by food and drink marketers and forgotten by public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Kelly, Bridget; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Baur, Louise

    2016-12-01

    Young adults are a highly desirable target population for energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) food and beverage marketing. But little research, resources, advocacy and policy action have been directed at this age group, despite the fact that young adults are gaining weight faster than previous generations and other population groups. Factors such as identity development and shifting interpersonal influences differentiate young adulthood from other life stages and influence the adoption of both healthy and unhealthy eating behaviours. EDNP food and beverage marketing campaigns use techniques to normalize brands within young adult culture, in particular through online social media. Young adults must be a priority population in future obesity prevention efforts. Stronger policies to protect young adults from EDNP food and beverage marketing may also increase the effectiveness of policies that are meant to protect younger children. Restrictions on EDNP food and beverage marketing should be extended to include Internet-based advertising and also aim to protect vulnerable young adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Tycoon market-based system: integration with EGEE

    CERN Document Server

    Dana Perez, J M

    2007-01-01

    Tycoon is a market-based system for trading resources. The idea is to integrate Tycoon with EGEE, obtaining a dynamic Grid ready to share resources with others (Universities, research centres, etc.). Tycoon will run as a new service, deploying and destroying virtual machines (Worker Nodes and Computing Elements) on demand. Tycoon will give to EGEE a dynamic, flexible, secure and transparent platform/service to trade resources more efficiently. It could attract small and medium VOs to the EGEE project, they could take advantage of the Grid resources and obtain extra computing power while EGEE could obtain credits/money for its service. Our goal is to integrate Tycoon as a new service of EGEE, we do not have special requirements, we do not need to modify the EGEE middleware, Grid special services, etc. Standard and ‘tycoonized’ nodes (Computing Elements and Worker Nodes) must coexist in the same Grid, working without problems. Our main issue would be to ensure the security of the whole system (EGEE platform...

  6. Linking Local Food Systems and the Social Economy? Future Roles for Farmers' Markets in Alberta and British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittman, Hannah; Beckie, Mary; Hergesheimer, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Often organized as grassroots, nonprofit organizations, many farmers' markets serve as strategic venues linking producers and consumers of local food while fulfilling multiple social, economic, and environmental objectives. This article examines the potential of farmers' markets to play a catalyst role in linking local food systems to the social…

  7. Linking Local Food Systems and the Social Economy? Future Roles for Farmers' Markets in Alberta and British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittman, Hannah; Beckie, Mary; Hergesheimer, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Often organized as grassroots, nonprofit organizations, many farmers' markets serve as strategic venues linking producers and consumers of local food while fulfilling multiple social, economic, and environmental objectives. This article examines the potential of farmers' markets to play a catalyst role in linking local food systems to the social…

  8. Integrating Sustainability into the Marketing Curriculum: Learning Activities that Facilitate Sustainable Marketing Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borin, Norm; Metcalf, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    In response to political, social, and competitive forces, many firms are developing sustainable marketing strategies. Marketing educators can play an important role in assisting these firms by developing curricula that build the knowledge and skills required to enable marketing graduates to contribute to sustainable marketing efforts. Marketing…

  9. Integrating Sustainability into the Marketing Curriculum: Learning Activities that Facilitate Sustainable Marketing Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borin, Norm; Metcalf, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    In response to political, social, and competitive forces, many firms are developing sustainable marketing strategies. Marketing educators can play an important role in assisting these firms by developing curricula that build the knowledge and skills required to enable marketing graduates to contribute to sustainable marketing efforts. Marketing…

  10. Nano-food packaging: an overview of market, migration research, and safety regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbudsanpharoke, Nattinee; Ko, Seonghyuk

    2015-05-01

    Recently, food packages produced with nanoparticles, "nano-food packaging," have become more available in the current market. However, although the use of nanomaterials is increasing in food packaging applications, concern over toxicity affects consumer perceptions and acceptance. Quite a number of commercialized forms of nano-food packaging are coated or composited product with inorganic materials, for example, nanosilver and nanoclay as representative examples. Several studies have shown the possibility of nanomaterial migration from packaging or containers to foodstuff. The debate is still ongoing among researchers about the extent of migration and whether it is negligible and safe. Government agencies and stakeholders must hurry to determine use limitations and release conclusive legislation and regulations as soon as possible since nano-food packaging may have great impacts on human health. This paper aims to review the availability of nano-food packaging in the current market, report case studies on nanomaterial migration, and present the current status of safety regulations and management of nano-food packaging in leading countries across regions. This review should enable governments and researchers to develop further nanomaterial risk assessment studies.

  11. Obesity and industry self-regulation of food and beverage marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Karsten; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2014-01-01

    -regulation regarding food and beverage marketing and nutrition labelling. Design: Five databases were searched for combinations of the search terms: obesity, nutrition, food, beverages, industry, self-regulation, labelling, advertising and marketing, and papers were selected on the basis of paper titles......-regulation in relation to obesity prevention is an emerging field of research, and further research is needed in such schemes’ definitions of regulatory standards, their monitoring and sanctioning mechanisms, and their interactions with public regulation, if industry self-regulation of marketing behaviour is to become......Objective: Obesity is a growing concern at national and international levels, and it is increasingly recognized that the industry plays a role and needs to be involved to halt the obesity epidemic. The objective of this study is to describe, analyse and evaluate research on industry self...

  12. Smallholder Heterogeneity and Maize Market Participation in Southern and Eastern Africa: Implications for Investment Strategies to Increase Marketed Food Staple Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Mather, David; Boughton, Duncan; Jayne, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    In many African countries, as well as in other parts of the world where a significant part of the rural population is poor and food insecure, policymakers face what is called the food price dilemma. On the one hand, they need to provide farmers with incentives to increase the quantity of marketed food staples to feed a growing population, especially in rapidly growing urban centers where unrest can be politically destabilizing. On the other hand, because staple foods account for a large porti...

  13. Agricultural and oil commodities: price transmission and market integration between US and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Rosa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this article it to get some evidences of market interaction between United States and Italy using the time series analysis of spot prices spanning from January 1999 to May 2012 for crude oil and three ag-commodities: wheat, corn and soybean. These crops have been selected for their relevance in ag-commodity exchanges between US and Italy markets. The integration between US and Italy agricultural markets is hypothesized for the consistent volume of crop traded between these two countries while the price transmission is related to the leading price signals of the CBT (Chicago Board of Trade. The integration between oil and ag-commodity markets is suggested both by the large use of energy intensive inputs, (fertilizer, seed, machinery in production of these ag-commodities, and their use in biofuel production. The results suggest: a for US market the evidence of market integration between crude oil and US ag-commodities; b for Italy the integration with US ag-commodity markets and less evidence of integration with the oil market. These results are valuable information both for the agents and policy makers contributing to improve the information accuracy to predict the price movements used by marketing operators for their strategies and policy makers to set up policies to re-establish conditions of market efficiency and allocate these ag-commodities in alternative market channels.

  14. Teaching Students How to Integrate and Assess Social Networking Tools in Marketing Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, Regina Pefanis; Harich, Katrin R.

    2013-01-01

    This research is based on two studies that focus on teaching students how to integrate and assess social networking tools in marketing communications. Study 1 examines how students in marketing classes utilize social networking tools and explores their attitudes regarding the use of such tools for marketing communications. Study 2 focuses on an…

  15. Teaching Students How to Integrate and Assess Social Networking Tools in Marketing Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, Regina Pefanis; Harich, Katrin R.

    2013-01-01

    This research is based on two studies that focus on teaching students how to integrate and assess social networking tools in marketing communications. Study 1 examines how students in marketing classes utilize social networking tools and explores their attitudes regarding the use of such tools for marketing communications. Study 2 focuses on an…

  16. On the relationship between supplier integration and time-to-market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perols, J.; Zimmermann, C.; Kortmann, S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent operations management and innovation management research emphasizes the importance of supplier integration. However, the empirical results as to the relationship between supplier integration and time-to-market are ambivalent. To understand this important relationship, we incorporate two major

  17. On the relationship between supplier integration and time-to-market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perols, J.; Zimmermann, C.; Kortmann, S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent operations management and innovation management research emphasizes the importance of supplier integration. However, the empirical results as to the relationship between supplier integration and time-to-market are ambivalent. To understand this important relationship, we incorporate two major

  18. Integrating Environmental Sustainability Considerations into Food and Nutrition Policies: Insights from Australia's National Food Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Ella Megan; Lawrence, Mark Andrew; Woods, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The environmental sustainability (ES) of food systems is a critical challenge for policy makers. This is a highly contested policy area with differing views among stakeholders. The aim of the study was to develop a better understanding of how ES considerations are addressed in Australian food and nutrition policies and the way that consultation processes affect final policy outcomes. A mixed-methods study design combined a detailed chronology of key policy developments (2009-2015), a content analysis of written submissions obtained during the NFP's consultation period (2011-2013) and a frame analysis of the sustainability perspectives - efficiency, demand restraint, and system transformation - in the NFP's Issues, Green, and White Papers. There were 555 written submissions responding to two consultation papers. Stakeholders represented all sectors of Australia's food system including government, non-government organizations, the food supply chain, research and academic institutions, and members of the general public. Around 74% of submissions referred to ES considerations and ~65% supported their inclusion into the final policy. Efficiency frames were most dominant; emphasizing a production-oriented approach that regards the environment as a natural resource base for food production but overlooks consumption and equity concerns. Despite strong support for the inclusion of ES considerations in the NFP, the influence of Australia's socio-political context, powerful, industry-dominated stakeholders, and a reliance on traditional production-oriented perspectives delivered a business-as-usual approach to food policy making. It has since been replaced by an agricultural strategy that provides only cursory attention to ES. Our findings indicate that Australia's political environment is not sufficiently mature for ES considerations to be integrated into food and nutrition policies. We propose reforms to the current consultation process in Australia to better support this

  19. Study on Migration of Melamine from Food Packaging Materials on Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIE LU; JING XIAO; DA-JIN YANG; ZHU-TIAN WANG; DING-GUO JIANG; CONG-RONG FANG; JIE YANG

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To study the migration of melamine into foods from plastic food packaging materials and dairy product containers commonly used in China. Methods 37 samples were collected from the market. The EU migration testing conditions were adopted with distilled water, 3% acetic acid, n-hexane and 15% ethanol being chosen as the simulating solutions. The HPLC method was used to detect melamine. Results No melamine was detected in 15 dairy product containers. Among the 22 plastic samples, 16 of polypropylene, and polycarbonate types had no delectable amount melamine while a low level of melamine was found in 3 of the 6 melamine resin containers. Conclusion Migration of melamine from food packaging materials in China market is in line with the requirements of EU.

  20. Alchemy in eden: entrepreneurialism, branding, and food marketing in the United States, 1880–1920.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonier, Terri

    2010-01-01

    Through an investigation into the origins of American food marketing, this dissertation reveals how branding—specifically, the centennial brands Quaker Oats, Coca-Cola, and Crisco—came to underpin much of today's market-driven economy. In a manner akin to alchemy, the entrepreneurs behind these three firms recognized the inherent value of an agricultural Eden, then found ways to convert common, low-cost agricultural goods—oats, sugar, and cottonseed oil—into appealing, high-revenue branded food products. In the process, these ventures devised new demand-driven business models that exploited technology and communications advances, enabling them to tap a nascent consumer culture. Their pioneering efforts generated unprecedented profits, laid the foundation for iconic billion-dollar brands, and fundamentally changed how Americans make daily food choices.

  1. Consumer buying motives and attitudes towards organic food in two emerging markets: China and Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Perin, Marcelo Gattermann;

    2015-01-01

    and conclusions are limited by the covered countries and products. Practical implications: Key consumer value propositions with respect to organic food seem cross-culturally valid and universally accepted by a segment of customers that share these values. Hence, organic food can be mar-keted globally based...... on a universal set of key value propositions. The same could be true for other global prod-ucts sharing similar types of certifiable value propositions. Social implications: New insights of value for the cross-cultural marketing of “green” and ethical consumer prod-ucts. Originality/value: Fills a gap...... about its healthiness, taste and environmental friendliness. Also, consumer attitudes towards buying organic food are positively related to what Schwartz’s “Universalism” values in all studied cultures. Research limitations: Correlational (survey) data do not allow conclusions about causality...

  2. Food and nutrition education in school environment: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Tecchio Borsoi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Food and Nutrition Education is a strategy to promote health and healthy eating habits. The school environment rises as a suitable place to develop these actions. Through Integrative Literature Review, we could identify the characteristics of scientific production on the Food and Nutrition Education at school from 2002 to 2013. The sample of this review consisted of 17 articles. It was observed that it has been giving more emphasis to this issue from 2009. Nine of the selected studies opted for intervention methodologies, and eight of them have proposed to consolidate the practice of educators, administrators and school cafeteria owners, the understanding of Food and Nutrition Education. The actions accomplished were characterized as slightly critical and participatory strategies based on the transmission of information. It concludes the need for approaches to treating eating disorders broadly at school, through problem-solving methodologies that go beyond the mere transmission of information.

  3. The Global Financial Crisis and the Integration of Emerging Stock Markets in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hoon Kang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of volatility spillovers among five Asian stock markets (China, Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan and examines how the global financial crisis of 2008 has influenced volatility transmission among Asian stock markets. The results from a VAR(1-bivariate GARCH model indicate strong volatility linkages between the Chinese stock market and the four emerging stock markets since the global financial crisis, suggesting the intensification of stock market integration in Asia since the crisis increases the integration of Chinese stock market in Asia. This strong integration of the markets is important in that the intensified linkages can reduce potential gains from the diversification of international equity portfolios.

  4. Marketing Verde: responsabilidade social e ambiental integradas na envolvente de marketingGreen Marketing: integrated social and environmental responsibility in the marketing environmentMarketing Verde: responsabilidad social y ambiental integrada en la envolvente de marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DALMORO, Marlon

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO presente estudo tem como objetivo principal analisar e descrever como a responsabilidade social e ambiental está integrada na envolvente de marketing de uma unidade franqueada da Companhia Coca-Cola. Ao encontro das percepções de Karna, Hansen e Juslin (2001, a envolvente de marketing é descrita, baseada em três níveis hierárquicos: marketing estratégico, estrutural e funcional. Neste sentido, realizou-se uma abordagem qualitativa com estudo de caso, no qual os dados foram coletados, por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas com pessoas envolvidas no processo de gestão ambiental e social da empresa franqueada. No tratamento dos dados foi utilizada análise de conteúdo. Na percepção dos entrevistados, a empresa encontra-se em um avançado processo de integração em toda a organização de uma cultura de marketing verde, principalmente, pela relação de franqueado, mantida com a Companhia Coca-Cola. Observou-se que a empresa franqueada, bem como a companhia, de modo geral, encontram-se numa situação pró-ativa em termos de marketing verde, mesmo que o ambiente institucional não cumpra com o seu papel na plenitude.ABSTRACTThis study aims to describe and analyze as social and environmental responsibility is integrated in the marketing strategy of a Coca-Cola Company franchisee. By the perceptions of Karna, Hansen and Juslin (2001, environment marketing is described based on three hierarchical levels: strategic, structural and functional marketing. There has been developed a qualitative approach through case study, in which the data were collected through semi-structured interviews with people involved in the process of environmental and social management of the franchisee company. Data treatment was used in the analysis of content. In the interviewer’s perception, the company is in advanced process of integration across the organization of a green marketing culture, primarily by the relationship of the franchisee maintained

  5. Integrated marketing sphere of physical culture and sports in terms of European integration Regional Center Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Popov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: exposure of conceptual and strategic positions of the complex marketing of sphere of physical culture and sport in the conditions of European integration of regional center. Material and Methods: analysis of literary sources, analysis of documents of legislative, normatively-legal and programmatic maintenance, analysis of the systems, questioning as a questionnaire. Results: the analysis of the systems of terms of development of sphere of physical culture and sport is carried out by the study of modern tendencies, interests of young people and habitants of regional center; complex description of conceptual and strategic positions of the relatively complex marketing of sphere of physical culture and sport is presented in the conditions of European integration of regional center. Conclusions: it is set that the decision of tasks in relation to conditioning for development of sphere of physical culture and sport must come true with the observance of certain principles; got founding in relation to development of marketing plan of forming of sporting image Kharkiv.

  6. Through the integration to the regulated market of fresh vegetables in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Podgoršek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Disconnectedness of Slovenian producers is reflected in a markedly disadvantageous position in purchasing and sales marketing. Therefore, we raised a research question about the possibilities for the creation of an optimal model for the integration of producers. Purpose: The purpose of the study is to determine the readiness of stakeholders in the chain of vegetable production for mutual cooperation. The aim of the research is to find the optimal model of vegetable producers' integration and/with other stakeholders. Method: We have come to the results through different research tools. We have analyzed questionnaires with MS Excel and Statgraphyc plus 4.0, having errected an organization model for the integration of growers through a system analysis, comparative analysis and with multicriterion decision-making method DEXi. We have verified these results by applying a method of participatory research. Results: We found in this research that primarily larger agricultural holdings, which produce vegetables, wish to cooperate more intensively with each other. Using the research tools, we have determined the optimal form of mutual cooperation between producers. It is an economic cluster. However, gradual organizing via an producer organization, in particular due to the financial support of the EU, is reasonable. Organization: Competitive advantages acquired as the result of interconnection of growers will be felt on any agricultural holding. Society: By improving the conditions for the marketing of vegetables, self-sufficiency in vegetables will also grow, which will undoubtedly increase the autonomy of society and its independence from food imports from elsewhere. Originality: The study has made an innovative approach to the organization of the optimal model of the integration of vegetable growers. Limitations/Future Research: The study is limited to the vegetable sector, for the other sectors a new study should be carried out.

  7. Ethnoagroforestry: integration of biocultural diversity for food sovereignty in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Calles, Ana Isabel; Casas, Alejandro; Rivero-Romero, Alexis Daniela; Romero-Bautista, Yessica Angélica; Rangel-Landa, Selene; Fisher-Ortíz, Roberto Alexander; Alvarado-Ramos, Fernando; Vallejo-Ramos, Mariana; Santos-Fita, Dídac

    2016-01-01

    Background Documenting the spectrum of ecosystem management, the roles of forestry and agricultural biodiversity, TEK, and human culture for food sovereignty, are all priority challenges for contemporary science and society. Ethnoagroforestry is a research approach that provides a theoretical framework integrating socio-ecological disciplines and TEK. We analyze in this study general types of Agroforestry Systems of México, in which peasants, small agriculturalist, and indigenous people are t...

  8. INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS: A CASE STUDY OF NIRMA GROUP OF COMPANIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ajay Kumar Garg

    2012-01-01

    .... All this is possible with the help of better integrated marketing communications. It is a holistic approach of disseminating information about the company as well as products and services to the myriad people in home and abroad. Nirma Group of companies has chosen an integrated marketing communications so as to reach each and every segment of society and individuals consumer. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT

  9. Productivity Effects of United States Multinational Enterprises : The Roles of Market Orientation and Regional Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Roger; Wei, Yingqi

    2010-01-01

    Smeets R. and Wei Y. Productivity effects of United States multinational enterprises: the roles of market orientation and regional integration, Regional Studies. This paper considers the role of market orientation and regional integration in foreign direct investment (FDI) productivity effects. Usin

  10. Productivity Effects of United States Multinational Enterprises : The Roles of Market Orientation and Regional Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Roger; Wei, Yingqi

    2010-01-01

    Smeets R. and Wei Y. Productivity effects of United States multinational enterprises: the roles of market orientation and regional integration, Regional Studies. This paper considers the role of market orientation and regional integration in foreign direct investment (FDI) productivity effects. Usin

  11. A risk perspective on market integration and the reform of support of renewables in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Pahle, Michael; Schweizerhof, Henriette

    2015-01-01

    After more than a decade of supporting power from renewable energy (RE) through guaranteed feed-in tariffs, the German Government has initiated reforms to integrate RE into the market. To eventually achieve market integration requires that RE investors carry power market risks, in particular the power price risk. At the same time however, under the current financial structure higher risks are likely to have a negative impact on the bankability of new RE projects, which by extension may endang...

  12. Evaluation and Analysis of the Strategies of Food Products Entry to Foreign Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamidreza rezvani

    2011-12-01

    Over the last decade, foreign market entry has continued to play a critical role in global economic development. Because of dynamics and complexity of entry modes and the influences of many variables, decision making on selection of international market entry strategies is a difficult task. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the strategic variables determining foreign market entry strategies. In every study, a different set of variables and findings has entered, which are often inconsistent. Hence, this study intends to identify the factors affecting selection of foreign market entry strategies and their influences on the selection. For this purpose, the content and types of foreign market entry strategies have been introduced by studying relevant literature. These strategies have been then divided into three main categories of export strategies, non-export strategies, and intermediate strategies. Then, the factors that make effect on selection of these strategies have been identified and classified. Finally, all factors are used to form two separate structural equation models (SEMs based on the theory of Strategic Reference Points and respectively it has been explained that how foreign entry strategies are chosen according to these reference points. To support this explanation empirically, 42 export companies of food industry have been studied in Mazandaran. SPSS18, MINITAB15, and AMOS18 have been used for analyzing and testing the research hypotheses. Findings imply that uncertainty of host country, uncertainty of product market, competitive uncertainty, uncertainty of partner behavior, international experience, technical knowledge, marketing skills, total investment, competitive intensity, nature of foreign activity, attractiveness of location and business relatedness affect selecting foreign market entry strategies. Moreover, with our SEMs, Attractiveness of location, language diversity and uncertainty of the host country are proved to be good manifests of

  13. The effects of Vietnamese rice export policies on world market integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luckmann, J.; Ihle, R.; Kleinwechter, U.; Grethe, H.

    2015-01-01

    World market prices of rice have been subject to large fluctuations in recent years. Vietnam is a major exporter of rice which is also the main staple food in the country. The Vietnamese government is limiting exports, to insulate domestic consumers from world market price hikes. The effects of thes

  14. The effects of Vietnamese rice export policies on world market integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luckmann, J.; Ihle, R.; Kleinwechter, U.; Grethe, H.

    2015-01-01

    World market prices of rice have been subject to large fluctuations in recent years. Vietnam is a major exporter of rice which is also the main staple food in the country. The Vietnamese government is limiting exports, to insulate domestic consumers from world market price hikes. The effects of thes

  15. Research document no.31. Integration of European gas markets: nascent competition in a diversity of models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D

    2002-07-01

    The idea of building an integrated European gas market based on competitive trade, like a gas lake supplied indifferently by remote, intra-European and national sources with the help of active market places allowing arbitration and price convergence, is far from being reached. In fact it depends upon two conditions: the deregulation of each gas market at national level, and at the upper level of the market the change in contractual relations between remote gas producers and buyers, who currently make the relations rigid with long-term transactions and limit opportunities for exchange on a competitive basis. This document analyses at two levels, namely national and European, the changing shape of the European gas markets under the effects of the market reforms and their chance of integration. Firstly the former two-level European gas market, the legacy of which determines the constraints on competition development more strongly than in electricity, are characterized. Secondly, in order to characterize the potential for development of competition, the main traits of each national gas market are identified in terms of market attractiveness and market accessibility for the incumbents competitors. Thirdly, dynamics of market development towards market integration are inferred at European level from these characteristics and from the possibility for development of new forms of gas trade between foreign producers, suppliers and users at national level. (A.L.B.)

  16. Market integration of wind power in electricity system balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorknæs, Peter; Andersen, Anders N.; Tang, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In most countries markets for electricity are divided into wholesale markets on which electricity is traded before the operation hour, and real-time balancing markets to handle the deviations from the wholesale trading. So far, wind power has been sold only on the wholesale market and has been...... known to increase the need for balancing. This article analyses whether wind turbines in the future should participate in the balancing markets and thereby play a proactive role. The analysis is based on a real-life test of proactive participation of a wind farm in West Denmark. It is found...

  17. Efficiency and Integration in the Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Jarzebowski

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the nature of the food supply chain, an increase of the integration's degree in the chain may be an important aspect in the context of increasing the efficiency of agri-food companies. Therefore, exploring the relationships among these variables was found as an important research area and adopted as the goal of the paper. The paper is focused mainly on the theoretical background showing the relationship between integration and performance. A description of the theoretical and methodological aspects of performance measurement and its extension (including the integration aspect was also made within the framework of the paper.For an empirical illustration of the analyzed relationships two steps were made. Firstly, the integration's degree in the food chain was measured. Secondly, the efficiency of the companies from the cereals processing industry in Europe was assessed. The SFA models (e.g. Translog and Cobb-Douglas functional form were used for assessment of efficiency. By using stochastic method (e.g. the SFA, Stochastic Frontier Analysis, one may show the influence of external variable (the integration in the supply chain on the efficiency performance of enterprises. Efficiency of economic entities is not an unambiguous term. There are several different concepts of efficiency, its measurement and expressions. Within the framework of efficiency, many terms of similar meaning may be applied. However, these concepts are not identical. The actual concept of efficiency is derived from the structure of the production function, therefore it is conditioned by changes in the productivity of production factors and their remuneration and refers to the allocation of production factors in the most technically efficient way.

  18. An exploration study to detect important factors influencing internet marketing: A case study of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadan Vahabzadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet marketing plays an important role on profitability of organizations, it can build a bridge between customers and business owners and anyone could purchase products and services through internet. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing internet marketing on Iranian food industry, named Shahrvand. The proposed study selects 280 out of 1040 managers who were involved in this industry during the year of 2012. Structural equation modeling has been performed to detect important factors including internal/external factors, ease of use and electronic marketing. Cronbach alphas have been calculated for these four items were mostly above 0.80, which validated the overall questionnaire of the survey. The results indicate that among internal factors, knowledge management, organizational culture and resources influence on acceptance of internet marketing, while these factors do not show any meaningful impact on ease of use. In addition, external factors including trend on market growth, competition and infrastructure influence on ease of use and acceptance of internet marketing but infrastructure and competition do not impact on ease of internet marketing.

  19. Integrating Problem Solvers from Analogous Markets in New Product Ideation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franke, Nikolaus; Poetz, Marion; Schreier, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Who provides better inputs to new product ideation tasks, problem solvers with expertise in the area for which new products are to be developed or problem solvers from “analogous” markets that are distant but share an analogous problem or need? Conventional wisdom appears to suggest that target...... that including problem solvers from analogous markets versus the target market accounts for almost two-thirds of the well-known effect of involving lead users instead of average problem solvers. This effect is further amplified when the analogous distance between the markets increases, i.e., when searching...... market expertise is indispensable, which is why most managers searching for new ideas tend to stay within their own market context even when they do search outside their firms' boundaries. However, in a unique symmetric experiment that isolates the effect of market origin, we find evidence...

  20. A nutritional comparison of foods and beverages marketed to children in two advertising policy environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin Kent, Monique; Dubois, Lise; Wanless, Alissa

    2012-09-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with children's exposure to food/beverage marketing. Policy options in this area are being sought in order to reduce childhood obesity rates on a population-level. We examined the nutritional quality of foods advertised to children during their preferred television viewing in Ontario (Canada), where advertising is self-regulated by industry, and in Quebec (Canada), where a child-directed advertising ban exists. A total of 428 children aged 10-12 years completed television viewing diaries for 7 days. Thirty-two television stations were recorded simultaneously between 6 AM and midnight. A content analysis of 90 h of English Ontario, French Quebec, and English Quebec children's preferred viewing was then undertaken. A total of 429 food and beverage advertisements were analyzed and their nutritional quality was assessed. Food advertisements in the Quebec French sample were statistically significantly higher in total fat, saturated fat and protein, and lower in carbohydrates and sugar per 100 g, and as a percentage of energy than food ads in the two English samples. A statistically significantly lower percentage of the Quebec French food advertisements were classified as either high fat, sugar or sodium and a smaller proportion of food ads were classified as "less healthy" compared to the Ontario and Quebec English samples. These results suggest that the Quebec advertising ban is influencing the macronutrient profile of advertised foods viewed by French Quebec children during their preferred viewing and that their promotions are marginally healthier than that viewed by the English samples.

  1. Obesity and fast food in urban markets: a new approach using geo-referenced micro data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Susan Elizabeth; Florax, Raymond J; Snyder, Samantha D

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a new method of assessing the relationship between features of the built environment and obesity, particularly in urban areas. Our empirical application combines georeferenced data on the location of fast-food restaurants with data about personal health, behavioral, and neighborhood characteristics. We define a 'local food environment' for every individual utilizing buffers around a person's home address. Individual food landscapes are potentially endogenous because of spatial sorting of the population and food outlets, and the body mass index (BMI) values for individuals living close to each other are likely to be spatially correlated because of observed and unobserved individual and neighborhood effects. The potential biases associated with endogeneity and spatial correlation are handled using spatial econometric estimation techniques. Our application provides quantitative estimates of the effect of proximity to fast-food restaurants on obesity in an urban food market. We also present estimates of a policy simulation that focuses on reducing the density of fast-food restaurants in urban areas. In the simulations, we account for spatial heterogeneity in both the policy instruments and individual neighborhoods and find a small effect for the hypothesized relationships between individual BMI values and the density of fast-food restaurants.

  2. Explaining the present GM business strategy on the EU food market: the gatekeepers' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inghelbrecht, Linde; Dessein, Joost; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2015-01-25

    The use of genetically modified (GM) crops and their applications is partially suppressed in European Union (EU) agriculture, even if one would expect otherwise given their complementarity with the neoliberal and industrialised EU agricultural regime in place. By applying a qualitative content analysis, this paper analyses how food manufacturers and retailers (referred to as gatekeepers in the food industry) explain and defend the exclusion of GM-labelled food products on the EU market. The study design places emphasis on the role of perceptions in the strategic behaviour of gatekeepers and on the role of interaction in this regard, as we assume that the way in which gatekeepers perceive the 'rules of the game' for commercialising GM crop applications on the EU food market will be influenced by their interaction with other agribusiness actors. In a first stage, the analysis determines thematic congruence in the (types of) perceptions that explain an agribusiness actor's overall interpretation of the EU business environment for GM crop applications. This perceived 'structuring arena' (SA) for GM crop applications - as conceptualised within our framework - contains areas of either internal and external tensions, that have a compelling or non-committal influence on the agribusiness actor's interpretation. In a second stage, the analysis particularly defines how gatekeepers in the food industry perceive and experience the SA for GM crop applications on the EU market, and how these perceptual tensions subsequently influence their strategic behaviour for GM-labelled products on the EU market. Finally, we highlight how these perceptions and actions (or inaction) suppress the main changes in practice that are necessary to manage this wicked problem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Child-oriented marketing techniques in snack food packages in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Violeta; Letona, Paola; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-10-18

    Childhood overweight in Guatemala is now becoming a public health concern. Child-oriented marketing contributes to increase children's food preference, purchase and consumption. This study sought to assess the availability of child-oriented snack foods sold in school kiosks and convenience stores near public schools in Guatemala, to identify the marketing techniques used in child-oriented snack food packages and to classify the snacks as "healthy" or "less-healthy". We purchased all child-oriented snacks found in stores inside and within 200 square meters from four schools in an urban community. Snacks were classified as child-oriented if the package had any promotional characters, premium offers, children's television/movie tie-ins, sports references, or the word "child". We used a checklist to assess child-oriented references and price. Snacks were classified as "healthy" or "less-healthy" according to the UK standards for the Nutritional Profiling Model. We analyzed 106 packages found in 55 stores. The most commonly used technique was promotional characters (92.5%) of which 32.7% were brand-specific characters. Premium offers were found in 34% of packages and were mostly collectibles (50%). Most marketing techniques were located on the front and covered nearly 25% of the package surface. Median (interquartile range) price was US$ 0.19 (0.25). Nutrition labels were found in 91 (86%) packages and 41% had a nutrition related health claim. Most snacks (97.1%) were classified as "less-healthy". In Guatemala, the food industry targets children through several marketing techniques promoting inexpensive and unhealthy snacks in the school environment. Evidence-based policies restricting the use of promotional characters in unhealthy snack food packages need to be explored as a contributing strategy to control the obesity epidemic.

  4. Increased Market Integration, Value, and Ecological Knowledge of Tea Agroforests in the Akha Highlands of Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robban A. J. Toleno

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the persistence and change of traditional land use patterns and ecological knowledge in response to expanded commercialization of tea (Camellia sinensis var. assamica (L. Kuntze Theaceae in an indigenous Akha (Hani community in the midlevel montane forests of southwest Yunnan, China. Surveys were conducted in 2005 and 2008, over a period corresponding to a regional tea market boom and bust cycle, to compare the valuation smallholders attribute to land use types and to determine the role that value systems play in shaping environmental behavior and knowledge. At the community level, increased market integration of tea agroforests is associated with reconfiguration of land use, intensified management, reorganization of labor structures, and generation of knowledge on tea resources. Akha have tapped into customary resources and forged new social networks with tea industry agents to take advantage of emerging market opportunities. They have resisted state reforms calling for the cultivation of high-intensity plantations and introduced cultivars. Consequently, they have benefited from price premiums through niche market networks for tea sourced from agroforests and proprietary landraces not available to other communities disempowered by market cycles. Subsistence agriculture, home gardening, and foraging persist for food security despite tea wealth. However, as traditional values are reoriented toward market-based ideologies, the community may risk a breakdown of the social institutions that support sustainability.

  5. Curriculum Currency: Integrating Direct and Interactive Marketing Content in Introductory Marketing Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Lisa D.; Scovotti, Carol

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which educators address direct and interactive marketing concepts in undergraduate introductory marketing courses. As practitioners seek more accountability from their marketing efforts, so too must academia respond with more relevant content. Results from textbook content analysis suggest that direct and…

  6. Consumer buying motives and attitudes towards organic food in two emerging markets: China and Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Perin, Marcelo Gattermann

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Investigate if consumer buying motives regarding organic food in emerging economies China and Brazil are culture bound or determined by key characteristics of the product. Methodology: A survey was collected in Guangzhou, China, and Porto Alegre, Brazil. Data were analyzed by means...... about its healthiness, taste and environmental friendliness. Also, consumer attitudes towards buying organic food are positively related to what Schwartz’s “Universalism” values in all studied cultures. Research limitations: Correlational (survey) data do not allow conclusions about causality...... and conclusions are limited by the covered countries and products. Practical implications: Key consumer value propositions with respect to organic food seem cross-culturally valid and universally accepted by a segment of customers that share these values. Hence, organic food can be mar-keted globally based...

  7. Putting the market in its place: food security in three Mapuche communities in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Timothy David

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of state policies since the 1970s on household food security in several Mapuche communities in the Araucanía region of Chile (Region IX). The author highlights key transformations in the national economy and food system and endeavors to link those to local phenomena, in particular the absorption of the local livelihood strategies and food systems into capitalist markets and the high incidences of food insecurity. The article concludes that a reconceptualization of macroeconomic and indigenous policies are required to rebuild the material and social foundations of rural Mapuche communities that provide the bases from which their inhabitants can reconstruct a mutually beneficial relationship with the broader Chilean society and avert the continued acceleration of tension and violence.

  8. The role of market forces and food safety institutions in the adoption of sustainable farming practices: The case of the fresh tomato export sector in Morocco and Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Codron, Jean Marie; Adanacioglu, Hakan; Aubert, Magali; Bouhsina, Zouhair; El Mekki, Abdelkader Ait; Rousset, Sylvain; Tozanli, Selma; Yercan, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Fresh produce growers are the main source of food contamination by chemical pesticides. In their choice of farming practices, producers are influenced by market forces as well as public and private safety regulations – or “macro-drivers” – as opposed to farm-level micro-drivers. Growers respond to their business and regulatory environment by implementing integrated pest management (IPM) and other good agricultural practices (GAP), where profitable through certification schemes. Our paper atte...

  9. Food marketing towards children: brand logo recognition, food-related behavior and BMI among 3-13-year-olds in a south Indian town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Peter; Tong, Leilei; Viedma, Cristobal; Chandy, Sujith J; Marrone, Gaetano; Simon, Anna; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    To assess exposure to marketing of unhealthy food products and its relation to food related behavior and BMI in children aged 3-13, from different socioeconomic backgrounds in a south Indian town. Child-parent pairs (n=306) were recruited at pediatric clinics. Exposure to food marketing was assessed by a digital logo recognition test. Children matched 18 logos of unhealthy food (high in fat/sugar/salt) featured in promotion material from the food industry to pictures of corresponding products. Children's nutritional knowledge, food preferences, purchase requests, eating behavior and socioeconomic characteristics were assessed by a digital game and parental questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were recorded. Recognition rates for the brand logos ranged from 30% to 80%. Logo recognition ability increased with age (plogo recognition was associated with higher BMI (p=0.022) and nutritional knowledge (pbrand logo recognition ability and are possibly exposed to more food marketing. The study did not lend support to a link between exposure to marketing and poor eating behavior, distorted nutritional knowledge or increased purchase requests. The correlation between logo recognition and BMI warrants further investigation on food marketing towards children and its potential role in the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases in this part of India.

  10. Food Marketing towards Children: Brand Logo Recognition, Food-Related Behavior and BMI among 3–13-Year-Olds in a South Indian Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Peter; Tong, Leilei; Viedma, Cristobal; Chandy, Sujith J.; Marrone, Gaetano; Simon, Anna; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess exposure to marketing of unhealthy food products and its relation to food related behavior and BMI in children aged 3–13, from different socioeconomic backgrounds in a south Indian town. Methods Child-parent pairs (n = 306) were recruited at pediatric clinics. Exposure to food marketing was assessed by a digital logo recognition test. Children matched 18 logos of unhealthy food (high in fat/sugar/salt) featured in promotion material from the food industry to pictures of corresponding products. Children's nutritional knowledge, food preferences, purchase requests, eating behavior and socioeconomic characteristics were assessed by a digital game and parental questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were recorded. Results Recognition rates for the brand logos ranged from 30% to 80%. Logo recognition ability increased with age (plogo recognition was associated with higher BMI (p = 0.022) and nutritional knowledge (pbrand logo recognition ability and are possibly exposed to more food marketing. The study did not lend support to a link between exposure to marketing and poor eating behavior, distorted nutritional knowledge or increased purchase requests. The correlation between logo recognition and BMI warrants further investigation on food marketing towards children and its potential role in the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases in this part of India. PMID:23082137

  11. Healthy Foods, Healthy Families: combining incentives and exposure interventions at urban farmers’ markets to improve nutrition among recipients of US federal food assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April B. Bowling

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Interventions combining exposure activities and modest financial incentives at farmers’ markets in low-income neighborhoods show strong potential to improve diet quality of families receiving federal food assistance.

  12. Integrated food chain surveillance system for Salmonella spp. in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Mussaret B; Calva, Juan Jose; Estrada-Garcia, Maria Teresa; Leon, Veronica; Vazquez, Gabriela; Figueroa, Gloria; Lopez, Estela; Contreras, Jesus; Abbott, Jason; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick; Tollefson, Linda

    2008-03-01

    Few developing countries have foodborne pathogen surveillance systems, and none of these integrates data from humans, food, and animals. We describe the implementation of a 4-state, integrated food chain surveillance system (IFCS) for Salmonella spp. in Mexico. Significant findings were 1) high rates of meat contamination (21.3%-36.4%), 2) high rates of ceftriaxone-resistant S. Typhimurium in chicken, ill humans, and swine (77.3%, 66.3%, and 40.4% of S. Typhimurium T isolates, respectively), and 3) the emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance in S. Heidelberg (10.4%) and S. Typhimurium (1.7%) from swine. A strong association between Salmonella spp. contamination in beef and asymptomatic Salmonella spp. infection was only observed in the state with the lowest poverty level (Pearson r = 0.91, pclusters with 102 human, retail meat, and food-animal isolates with indistinguishable patterns. An IFCS is technically and economically feasible in developing countries and can effectively identify major public health priorities.

  13. Ethnoagroforestry: integration of biocultural diversity for food sovereignty in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Calles, Ana Isabel; Casas, Alejandro; Rivero-Romero, Alexis Daniela; Romero-Bautista, Yessica Angélica; Rangel-Landa, Selene; Fisher-Ortíz, Roberto Alexander; Alvarado-Ramos, Fernando; Vallejo-Ramos, Mariana; Santos-Fita, Dídac

    2016-11-23

    Documenting the spectrum of ecosystem management, the roles of forestry and agricultural biodiversity, TEK, and human culture for food sovereignty, are all priority challenges for contemporary science and society. Ethnoagroforestry is a research approach that provides a theoretical framework integrating socio-ecological disciplines and TEK. We analyze in this study general types of Agroforestry Systems of México, in which peasants, small agriculturalist, and indigenous people are the main drivers of AFS and planning of landscape diversity use. We analyzed the actual and potential contribution of ethnoagroforestry for maintaining diversity of wild and domesticated plants and animals, ecosystems, and landscapes, hypothesizing that ethnoagroforestry management forms may be the basis for food sufficiency and sovereignty in Mexican communities, regions and the whole nation. We conducted research and systematization of information on Mexican AFS, traditional agriculture, and topics related to food sovereignty from August 2011 to May 2015. We constructed the database Ethnoagroforestry based on information from our own studies, other databases, Mexican and international specialized journals in agroforestry and ethnoecology, catalogues and libraries of universities and research centers, online information, and unpublished theses. We analyzed through descriptive statistical approaches information on agroforestry systems of México including 148 reports on use of plants and 44 reports on use of animals. Maize, beans, squashes and chili peppers are staple Mesoamerican food and principal crops in ethnoagroforestry systems practiced by 21 cultural groups throughout Mexico (19 indigenous people) We recorded on average 121 ± 108 (SD) wild and domesticated plant species, 55 ± 27% (SD) of them being native species; 44 ± 23% of the plant species recorded provide food, some of them having also medicinal, firewood and fodder uses. A total of 684 animal species has been

  14. Analysis of phthalates in food products and packaging materials sold on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, T; Servaes, K; Van Holderbeke, M; Geerts, L; De Henauw, S; Sioen, I; Vanermen, G

    2012-07-01

    Phthalates are organic lipophilic compounds that are principally used as plasticiser to increase the flexibility of plastic polymers. Other applications are a.o. the use of phthalates in printing inks and lacquers. Human exposure to phthalates mainly occurs via food ingestion and can induce adverse health effects. In this study, the presence of eight phthalate compounds--dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)--was investigated in 400 food products, divided over eleven groups, and packages sold on the Belgian market. For this purpose, suitable extraction techniques were developed and validated for four different matrices, namely high-fat foods, low-fat food products, aqueous-based beverages and packaging materials. The instrumental analysis was performed by means of gas chromatography-low resolution-mass spectrometry with electron impact ionisation (GC-EI-MS). A wide variety of phthalate concentrations was observed in the different groups. DEHP was found in the highest concentration in almost every group. Moreover, DEHP was the most abundant phthalate compound, followed by DiBP, DnBP and BBP. This survey is part of the PHTAL project, which is the first project that discusses phthalate contamination on the Belgian food market.

  15. Food marketing to children in India: comparative review of regulatory strategies across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Kaur, Ravneet; Dudeja, Puja

    2014-11-01

    Food marketing directed to children is an issue of concern in the present day society. Revolution in food industry, increasing globalization and boom in information technology has introduced various types of food products and the way they are placed in front of likely consumers. This has resulted in rising trend of obesity and switch from communicable to non-communicable diseases, which is not cost effective for nation as a whole. Multinational companies have targeted children as a naïve audience to boost their sales. In-ethical practice of misleading claims in the advertisements is instrumental in many cases. Food marketing to children has been assumed a public health threat since times of yore. World Health Organization has resolutions and recommendations on this subject. Member countries, including India are a signatory to this declaration. However, much needs to be done to counter these multinational food giants. Regulations and policies need to be enforced at national and institutional levels. Parents must be educated; schools and social organizations to be made proactive on this aspect.

  16. Caregiver perceptions of the food marketing environment of African-American 3-11-year-olds: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Monica L; Herbey, Ivan; Williams, Ronnie; Ard, Jamy D; Ivankova, Nataliya; Odoms-Young, Angela

    2013-12-01

    To assess caregivers’ perceptions of the extent to which the food marketing environment influences food consumption among African-American children (aged 3–11 years) in order to generate potential strategies to make the marketing environment more favourable to healthier eating. Individual semi-structured interviews with caregivers were conducted by trained community leaders to ascertain their awareness of and perceptions about food marketing environments contributing to African-American children's food consumption. Six predominantly African-American communities in metro Birmingham, Alabama, USA with high proportions of school-age children and lower-income residents. Caregivers (n 25) were predominantly female (93 %) and either parents/guardians (64 %) or grandparents (28 %) of African-American children aged 3–11 years. Caregiver mean age was 43 years and 46 % had lived in their current residence for over 10 years. Caregivers reported all aspects of the food marketing matrix as supporting unhealthy eating among African-American youth. Child preference for foods higher in fat and sugar, lower pricing of less healthy foods, limited access to healthier food retailers and targeted advertisements were particularly influential on the food selection, acquisition and consumption of children. Company loyalty, corporate sponsorship of local events and conflicts over parental v. food company responsibility contributed to less consensus about the overall impact (positive or negative) of food companies in African-American communities. While caregivers perceived aspects of their food marketing environments as primarily contributing to unhealthy eating among African-American children, framing the demand for changes in the food marketing environments of African-American youth may be particularly challenging.

  17. Caregiver perceptions of the food marketing environment of African-American 3–11-year-olds: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Monica L; Herbey, Ivan; Williams, Ronnie; Ard, Jamy D; Ivankova, Nataliya; Odoms-Young, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess caregivers’ perceptions of the extent to which the food marketing environment influences food consumption among African-American children (aged 3–11 years) in order to generate potential strategies to make the marketing environment more favourable to healthier eating. Design Individual semi-structured interviews with caregivers were conducted by trained community leaders to ascertain their awareness of and perceptions about food marketing environments contributing to African-American children’s food consumption. Setting Six predominantly African-American communities in metro Birmingham, Alabama, USA with high proportions of school-age children and lower-income residents. Subjects Caregivers (n 25) were predominantly female (93 %) and either parents/guardians (64 %) or grandparents (28 %) of African-American children aged 3–11 years. Caregiver mean age was 43 years and 46% had lived in their current residence for over 10 years. Results Caregivers reported all aspects of the food marketing matrix as supporting unhealthy eating among African-American youth. Child preference for foods higher in fat and sugar, lower pricing of less healthy foods, limited access to healthier food retailers and targeted advertisements were particularly influential on the food selection, acquisition and consumption of children. Company loyalty, corporate sponsorship of local events and conflicts over parental v. food company responsibility contributed to less consensus about the overall impact (positive or negative) of food companies in African-American communities. Conclusions While caregivers perceived aspects of their food marketing environments as primarily contributing to unhealthy eating among African-American children, framing the demand for changes in the food marketing environments of African-American youth may be particularly challenging. PMID:23830058

  18. Functional foods and nutraceuticals in a market of bolivian immigrants in Buenos Aires (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochettino, María Lelia; Puentes, Jeremías P; Buet Costantino, Fernando; Arenas, Patricia M; Ulibarri, Emilio A; Hurrell, Julio A

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research in urban ethnobotany, conducted in a market of Bolivian immigrants in the neighborhood of Liniers, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Functional foods and nutraceuticals belonging to 50 species of 18 families, its products, and uses were recorded. Some products are exclusive from the Bolivian community; others are frequent within the community, but they are also available in the general commercial circuit; they are introduced into it, generally, through shops called dietéticas ("health-food stores"), where products associated with the maintenance of health are sold. On this basis, the traditional and nontraditional components of the urban botanical knowledge were evaluated as well as its dynamics in relation to the diffusion of the products. Both the framework and methodological design are innovative for the studies of the urban botanical knowledge and the traditional markets in metropolitan areas.

  19. Research needs on food marketing to children. Report of the StanMark project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobstein, T

    2013-03-01

    A series of meetings on the topic of children's exposure to the marketing of food and beverages was held between researchers and government officials based in Europe and the Americas during 2010-2011. The meetings resulted in a number of outputs, including observations from policy-makers on the types of evidence they needed to strengthen policy-making. Their observations on the definitions of a child, the specification of foods using nutrient profiling schemes, the types of media carrying marketing messages, and the related policy implementation problems, are summarised in this Short Communication. The paper highlights the need for research which can directly support policy-making and which can evaluate its effectiveness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship of producers and retail networks in the regional food market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Alexandrovich Neganov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the issues of difficult and often uncooperative relationships between producers (suppliers and retail networks within thecontext of development of the new structure ofregional food market. At the present stage, the problem of numerous additional requirements presented by retail trade networks to producers during the conclusion of supply contract is noted as crucial for both parties. Hypotheses wereformulated during analysis of literaturetheir verification showed that the basis of disputed situations is mainly composed by price and bonus payments. The economic substance of bonus payments is collected by retail networks from agricultural producers and producers of food commodities is revealed. Relative importance of bonus payments in terms of retail networks and suppliers is compared; importance of divergence of their viewpoints is estimated. On the basis of quantitative and qualitative empirical data, the attempt to define the main disputed zones, with the help of modern marketing tools is undertaken.