WorldWideScience

Sample records for food labeling

  1. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Labels KidsHealth / For Teens / Food Labels What's in ... to have at least 95% organic ingredients. Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  2. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention......The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  3. Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  4. Figuring Out Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It's also displayed in grocery stores near fresh foods, like fruits, vegetables, and fish. The nutrition facts label includes: a ... found in citrus fruits, other fruits, and some vegetables. Food companies might also list the amounts of other ...

  5. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  6. Food Allergies: Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Manufacturers aren't required to include warnings about food allergens accidentally introduced during manufacturing or packaging (cross-contamination). This potentially can cause trouble if you're ...

  7. Sustainability labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    of sustainability was limited, but understanding of four selected labels (Fair Trade, Rainforest Alliance, Carbon Footprint, and Animal Welfare) was better, as some of them seem to be self-explanatory. The results indicated a low level of use, no matter whether use was measured as self-reported use of different......This study investigates the relationship between consumer motivation, understanding and use of sustainability labels on food products (both environmental and ethical labels), which are increasingly appearing on food products. Data was collected by means of an online survey implemented in the UK......, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, and Poland, with a total sample size of 4408 respondents. Respondents expressed medium high to high levels of concern with sustainability issues at the general level, but lower levels of concern in the context of concrete food product choices. Understanding of the concept...

  8. Gluten-Free Labeling of Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... issued a final rule defining “gluten-free” for food labeling, which will help consumers, especially those living with ... free” label on foods. Food Facts: Gluten and Food Labeling: FDA’s Regulation of “Gluten-Free” Claims Blog: A ...

  9. Nutrition marketing on food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Marketing strategy, nutrient label information, if the product was fruit/or milk based, and target age. Frequency distributions were computed. Forty-nine percent of all products contained nutrition marketing and of those, 48% had both nutrition marketing and were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar (11%, 17%, and 31% respectively). Seventy-one percent of products marketed to children had nutrition marketing. Of those, 59% were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar content, with more than half being high in sugar. The most commonly used nutrition marketing statements were "good source of calcium", "reduced/low/fat free", and "food company's health symbol". Nutrition marketing is commonly used on products high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar and is more often used on products marketed toward children than products marketed toward adults. Current food industry symbols may not be helping consumers select foods low in saturated fat, sodium or sugar. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. ORGANIC FOOD LABELING AND CERTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA-ANDREEA NEACSU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the rush to produce more and more crops to satisfy growing demand producers have had to resort to using a lethal cocktail of pesticides to control disease and insect attack. This has lead to numerous international debates about unhealthy food, the effects of it and the measures that must be taken in order to avoid the harmful effects of genetically modified food consumption demonstrated by specialists. These debates evolve around the benefits of the organic products versus the pure trade trick outlined by some. The organic food movement has earned its well deserved place in many markets around the world. Its prestige is lately being widespread to vast parts of Eastern-Europe as well. Based on data collected from specialized reports and articles on organic products, the aim of this paper is to present the importance of organic products, the regulations on organic food and different labels used around the world in order to certify the organic food products.

  11. Labelling of food: A challenge for many

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henderikx Frans

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In food marketing, there is a trend towards artisanal, traditional “honest” food, and simultaneously to good looking, long lasting, multi-purpose food with a clean label. In addition, marketeers like to upgrade the image of the food, including the label, using various digital techniques. This can produce (unintended non-conformities with the current food law on labelling, which in this review, refers to Regulation (EU No 1169/2011 (European Union, 2011. Food and meat labelling have been subjected to increased regulation in the recent years, sometimes after scandals (horse-gate, food fraud, sometimes due to wishes of consumer organisations (nutritional information and sometimes after the introduction of new types of ingredients (sweeteners, phytosterols, nanomaterials. Scope and approach: This review provides information about food labelling. Some experiences gathered by food inspectorate personnel in practice, with reference to the literature data, positive aspects, main problems and trends are discussed. Key findings and conclusion: Food labelling is a complex requirement, with the general demands written down in the harmonized regulation (European Union, 2011. Foods sold by e-commerce must also follow these same regulations. However, many food labels on the market show smaller and/or bigger deviations from the legal requirements, which should be appropriately addressed by the food manufacturers or packers, but also by the competent authorities. Even training of consumers seems to be needed, since all this information is, in the end, intended for consumers to aptly utilise.

  12. Food nutrition labelling practice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yexuan; Li, Ji; Lo, Y Martin; Tang, Qingya; Wang, Youfa

    2011-03-01

    The present study aimed to scrutinize the food nutrition labelling practice in China before the Chinese Food Nutrition Labeling Regulation (CFNLR) era. Nutrition information of pre-packaged foods collected from a supermarket between December 2007 and January 2008 was analysed and compared with findings from a survey conducted in Beijing. Information collected from a supermarket in Shanghai. A total of 850 pre-packaged foods. In the Shanghai survey, the overall labelling rate was 30·9 %, similar to that found in the Beijing study (29·7 %). While only 20·5 % of the snacks in Shanghai had nutrition labelling, the percentage of food items labelled with SFA (8·6 %), trans fatty acid (4·7 %) or fibre (12·1 %) was very low. Of those food items with nutrition labels, a considerable proportion (7-15 %) did not label energy, fat, carbohydrate or protein. Food products manufactured by Taiwan and Hong Kong companies had a lower labelling rate (13·6 %) than those manufactured by domestic (31·6 %) or international manufacturers (33·8 %). The very low food nutrition labelling rate among products sold in large chain supermarkets in major cities of China before CFNLR emphasizes the need for such critical regulations to be implemented in order to reinforce industrial compliance with accurate nutrition labelling.

  13. 76 FR 37291 - Food Labeling; Calorie Labeling of Articles of Food in Vending Machines; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    .... FDA-2011-F-0171] Food Labeling; Calorie Labeling of Articles of Food in Vending Machines; Correction... certain articles of food sold from vending machines. The document published with several errors including... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Daniel Y. Reese, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-820), Food...

  14. Food quality labels from the producers’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Velčovská

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysing the food producer attitudes towards quality labels. The Klasa label, as the most known and the most frequently used food quality label in the Czech Republic, have become the subject of investigation. The aim of the research was to identify the benefits and problems arising from the certification process and the label use. Primary data were collected in online survey based on standardized questionnaire. In census, 86 respondents from the total 218 producers with the Klasa label in the Czech Republic completed the questionnaire. The most of producers (72% have a longer experience with the label, they are using the label for more than four years. The producers’ expectations from the label were fulfilled only partially. A poor state marketing support and missing marketing strategy were identified as general problems of the label. Specific perceived problems are formalities connected with the certification process and certification of poor-quality products. Correlation analysis, t-test and Pearson chi-square test were calculated to discover relations between variables. The results of the study can be beneficial to both, food producers as well as administrator of the label. Identified problems could help them to improve marketing strategy of the label in order to manage the label in effective way and use all benefits arising from the certification. Administrator of the label should make the certification process more effective and transparent, promotion should be focused on the explanation to consumers what the Klasa label guarantees.

  15. [Academic production on food labeling in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, Maria Clara Coelho; Marinho, Carmem Luisa Cabral; Guilam, Maria Cristina; Braga, Ana Maria Cheble Bahia

    2008-01-01

    To review and discuss academic production (theses and dissertations) on the topic of labeling of prepackaged foods in Brazil. A search of the database maintained by the Coordination for the Development of Higher Education Professionals (CAPES), one of the two Brazilian government research funding and support agencies, was conducted on the following keywords: "rotulagem" (labeling), "rotulagem nutricional" (food labeling) and "rótulo de alimentos" (food labels). The search covered the years 1987 (earliest year available) to 2004. We identified 49 studies on this topic. Content analysis identified three major themes: the extent to which food labels meet specific legal requirements (57.2%); the degree to which consumers understand the information on labels (22.4%); and the labeling of transgenic or genetically-modified foods (20.4%). Food labeling is a frequent topic and is adequately covered by the Brazilian academic production. In most of the studies, ineffective law enforcement appears to be the main factor in the lack of compliance with and disrespect for the food labeling rules and regulations in Brazil.

  16. Figuring Out Food Labels (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... English Español Figuring Out Food Labels KidsHealth / For Kids / Figuring Out Food Labels What's in this article? ...

  17. Consumer preferences for food allergen labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Carlo A; Harvard, Stephanie; Grubisic, Maja; Galo, Jessica; Clarke, Ann; Elliott, Susan; Lynd, Larry D

    2017-01-01

    Food allergen labeling is an important tool to reduce risk of exposure and prevent anaphylaxis for individuals with food allergies. Health Canada released a Canadian food allergen labeling regulation (2008) and subsequent update (2012) suggesting that research is needed to guide further iterations of the regulation to improve food allergen labeling and reduce risk of exposure. The primary objective of this study was to examine consumer preferences in food labeling for allergy avoidance and anaphylaxis prevention. A secondary objective was to identify whether different subgroups within the consumer population emerged. A discrete choice experiment using a fractional factorial design divided into ten different versions with 18 choice-sets per version was developed to examine consumer preferences for different attributes of food labeling. Three distinct subgroups of Canadian consumers with different allergen considerations and food allergen labeling needs were identified. Overall, preferences for standardized precautionary and safety symbols at little or no increased cost emerged. While three distinct groups with different preferences were identified, in general the results revealed that the current Canadian food allergen labeling regulation can be improved by enforcing the use of standardized precautionary and safety symbols and educating the public on the use of these symbols.

  18. 21 CFR 501.100 - Animal food; exemptions from labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal food; exemptions from labeling. 501.100... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING Exemptions From Animal Food Labeling Requirements § 501.100 Animal food; exemptions from labeling. (a) The following foods are exempt...

  19. Comparison of international food allergen labeling regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendel, Steven M

    2012-07-01

    Food allergy is a significant public health issue worldwide. Regulatory risk management strategies for allergic consumers have focused on providing information about the presence of food allergens through label declarations. A number of countries and regulatory bodies have recognized the importance of providing this information by enacting laws, regulations or standards for food allergen labeling of "priority allergens". However, different governments and organizations have taken different approaches to identifying these "priority allergens" and to designing labeling declaration regulatory frameworks. The increasing volume of the international food trade suggests that there would be value in supporting sensitive consumers by harmonizing (to the extent possible) these regulatory frameworks. As a first step toward this goal, an inventory of allergen labeling regulations was assembled and analyzed to identify commonalities, differences, and future needs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. 21 CFR 501.17 - Animal food labeling warning statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal food labeling warning statements. 501.17... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.17 Animal food labeling warning statements. (a) Self-pressurized containers. (1) The label of a food packaged in...

  1. Impact of Food Labeling on Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Todua Nugzar

    2017-01-01

    The current study evaluates the development and perspective implication of social marketing interventions for empowering healthy life and well-being of the population in Georgia. The objective of the research is to analyze the impact of food labeling for healthy behavior change of Georgian consumers. The study revealed the strong correlation between awareness and education of consumer on food labeling and healthy behavior changing. One of the important factors of chang...

  2. A consumer perspective on food labelling: ethical or not?

    OpenAIRE

    M. van der Merwe; K. Venter

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a review of ethical food labelling from a consumer perspective and makes recommendations to the food industry and regulators regarding ethical food labelling in order to satisfy consumers’ food-labelling needs. Various studies have found that many consumers have negative perceptions regarding food labelling. However, research on consumers’ perspectives regarding ethical food labelling has been accorded little attention. This article addresses this topic through a review ...

  3. A consumer perspective on food labelling: Ethical or not?

    OpenAIRE

    van der Merwe, M.; Venter, K.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a review of ethical food labelling from a consumer perspective and makes recommendations to the food industry and regulators regarding ethical food labelling in order to satisfy consumers' food-labelling needs. Various studies have found that many consumers have negative perceptions regarding food labelling. However, research on consumers' perspectives regarding ethical food labelling has been accorded little attention. This article addresses this topic through a review ...

  4. A consumer perspective on food labelling: ethical or not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van der Merwe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a review of ethical food labelling from a consumer perspective and makes recommendations to the food industry and regulators regarding ethical food labelling in order to satisfy consumers’ food-labelling needs. Various studies have found that many consumers have negative perceptions regarding food labelling. However, research on consumers’ perspectives regarding ethical food labelling has been accorded little attention. This article addresses this topic through a review of the relevant literature of mostly quantitative research, but also includes qualitative and mixed method studies. The article examines such aspects as the trustworthiness of claims on food labels, intelligibility of label information, listing of food additives on labels, and labelling of genetically modified foods. As negative perspectives on food labelling are likely to affect consumers’ decision making regarding the purchasing of food products, the food industry must realise their responsibility to provide ethical food labels. The food industry and regulators should aim to provide risk communication and intelligible information through ethical food labels and consumer education programmes on food labelling. Consumers need to be aware of their right to know what they are purchasing through ethical food labels and take a stand in this regard.

  5. FDA Regulation of Food Labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hannah Y.

    1999-01-01

    As one strolls down a grocery aisle, shift through the maze of cosmetic counters, or sits in front of the television, one is transported into various fantasies, identities, and scenarios. The power of advertisements and package designs to influence the consumers has grown tremendously over the years. Food and cosmetic manufacturers, cognizant of this power, have invested an enormous amount of their resources into the both advertising and packaging – so much so that a fissur...

  6. 75 FR 78155 - Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    .... FDA-2000-N-0011] Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations AGENCY: Food and Drug... 1, 2014, as the uniform compliance date for food labeling regulations that are issued between... established January 2, 2012, as the uniform compliance date for food labeling regulations issued between...

  7. 75 FR 71344 - Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    .... FSIS-2010-0031] RIN 0583-AD Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations AGENCY: Food Safety... regulations that require changes in the labeling of meat and poultry food products. Many meat and poultry... for new food labeling regulations is consistent with FDA's approach in this regard. FDA is also...

  8. 77 FR 70885 - Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    .... FDA-2000-N-0011] Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations AGENCY: Food and Drug... January 1, 2016, as the uniform compliance date for food labeling regulations that are issued between... established January 1, 2014, as the uniform compliance date for food labeling regulations issued between...

  9. NUTIRTION LABELLING OF FOOD AND ALLERGEN IN FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Golian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The new regulation introduced mandatory nutrition labelling and ordering food manufacturers provide information on energy and six nutrients: fat, saturated fatty acids, carbohydrates, sugars, protein and salt - in that order, and per 100 g or 100 ml. This information should be included in the nutritional table in one visual field (usually on the back cover, moreover, can also be expressed on per serving. It is important to realize that this regulation requires manufacturers indicate the nutritional value in one field of vision, usually on the "back cover" designation in the principal field (e.g. "on the front cover" remains voluntary. Food allergy is a significant public health issue worldwide. Regulatory risk management strategies for allergic consumers have focused on providing information about the presence of food allergens through label declarations. A number of countries and regulatory bodies have recognized the importance of providing this information by enacting laws, regulations or standards for food allergen labelling of ‘‘priority allergens. Increasing volume of the international food trade suggests that there would be value in supporting sensitive consumers by harmonizing (to the extent possible these regulatory frameworks. As a first step toward this goal, an inventory of allergen labelling regulations was assembled and analyzed to identify commonalities, differences, and future needs.doi:10.5219/230

  10. Food Labeling and Consumer Associations with Health, Safety, and Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Joanna K; Doran, Neal

    2016-12-01

    The food supply is complicated and consumers are increasingly calling for labeling on food to be more informative. In particular, consumers are asking for the labeling of food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMO) based on health, safety, and environmental concerns. At issue is whether the labels that are sought would accurately provide the information desired. The present study examined consumer (n = 181) perceptions of health, safety and the environment for foods labeled organic, natural, fat free or low fat, GMO, or non-GMO. Findings indicated that respondents consistently believed that foods labeled GMO are less healthy, safe and environmentally-friendly compared to all other labels (ps labels mean something to consumers, but that a disconnect may exist between the meaning associated with the label and the scientific consensus for GMO food. These findings may provide insight for the development of labels that provide information that consumers seek.

  11. 76 FR 19237 - Food Labeling; Calorie Labeling of Articles of Food in Vending Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... exemption from nutrition labeling for food that is served in restaurants or other establishments in which... the selection button that includes a clear and conspicuous statement disclosing the number of calories... Act also requires certain restaurants and similar retail food establishments to provide calorie and...

  12. 75 FR 52601 - Food Labeling; Labeling of Food Made From AquAdvantage Salmon; Public Hearing; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... summary of an oral presentation: Juanita Yates, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and... Part II Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration Food Labeling... 26, 2010 / Notices#0;#0; [[Page 52602

  13. 21 CFR 101.10 - Nutrition labeling of restaurant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of restaurant foods. 101.10... restaurant foods. Nutrition labeling in accordance with § 101.9 shall be provided upon request for any restaurant food or meal for which a nutrient content claim (as defined in § 101.13 or in subpart D of this...

  14. Food Allergen Labeling: A Latin American Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Maria Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Food allergy is a public health concern almost all over the world. Although most of the countries that regulate the declaration of allergens in prepackaged foods include the list recommended by the Codex Alimentarius, some countries have added other allergens to this list due to prevalence data and regional incidence, whereas others have incorporated exceptions for some products derived from allergenic foods. Within this context, the situation in Latin America regarding these regulations is diverse. Data about prevalence of food hypersensitivity are very limited in the region. The countries that have established regulations are Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Chile, Mexico, and Venezuela. Argentina has approved a regulation for the labeling of food allergens in November 2016. It only needs to be published in the Official Bulletin to go into effect. All countries follow the Codex list that includes latex and excludes sulfites, except Brazil. On the other hand, Argentina is the only country that includes exceptions. As for the methodologies for the detection of allergens in foods, this issue is a serious problem for both the food industry and control laboratories. Available methodologies are based mainly on commercial ELISA kits; currently, there are no Latin American companies that produce them, so ELISA kits are expensive and their acquisition is complicated. There is an initiative in Argentina to address all these gaps in the region through the Platform of Food Allergens (PFA), a nonprofit organization that integrates health professionals, patients, representatives of the food industry, government, and scientists. The different actions carried out by the PFA have made it possible to contact different scientific groups from other Latin American countries in order to expand this initiative and thereby promote and strengthen both public and private capacities in the region.

  15. 76 FR 30050 - Food Labeling; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 11 and 101 [Docket No. FDA-2011-F-0172] RIN 0910-AG57 Food Labeling; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food Establishments; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS...

  16. 76 FR 30051 - Food Labeling; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 11 and 101 [Docket No. FDA-2011-F-0172] RIN 0910-AG57 Food Labeling; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food Establishments; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  17. Policy Case Study – Food Labelling: Climate for Sustainable Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Cosbey, Aaron; Marcu, Andrei; Belis, David; Stoefs, Wijnand; Tuokko, Katja

    2015-01-01

    This study, which is part of the project entitled “Climate for Sustainable Growth“, focuses on one particular policy tool used in the agricultural sector, food labelling. It reviews food carbon labelling when put in place with clear objectives to address climate change. This study examines whether food carbon labels, as climate mitigation tools, are put in place in a sustainable way, by identifying their impacts on the three dimensions of sustainable development: 1) economic 2) social and ...

  18. Toward a More Comprehensive Theory of Food Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Julie A. Caswell; Daniel I. Padberg

    1992-01-01

    Food labels play important third-party roles in the food marketing system through their impact on product design, advertising, consumer confidence in food quality, and consumer education on diet and health. However, current analysis focuses overwhelmingly on the label's direct use as a point-of-purchase shopping aid, even though such use is limited by consumers' information processing abilities and time. In rewriting label regulations, policy makers should consider the benefits and costs of t...

  19. 21 CFR 101.3 - Identity labeling of food in packaged form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identity labeling of food in packaged form. 101.3... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.3 Identity labeling of food in... food is labeled pursuant to the provisions of § 101.9, and provided the labeling with respect to any...

  20. Do nutrition labels influence healthier food choices? Analysis of label viewing behaviour and subsequent food purchases in a labelling intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Jiang, Yannan; Blakely, Tony

    2018-02-01

    There are few objective data on how nutrition labels are used in real-world shopping situations, or how they affect dietary choices and patterns. The Starlight study was a four-week randomised, controlled trial of the effects of three different types of nutrition labels on consumer food purchases: Traffic Light Labels, Health Star Rating labels, or Nutrition Information Panels (control). Smartphone technology allowed participants to scan barcodes of packaged foods and receive randomly allocated labels on their phone screen, and to record their food purchases. The study app therefore provided objectively recorded data on label viewing behaviour and food purchases over a four-week period. A post-hoc analysis of trial data was undertaken to assess frequency of label use, label use by food group, and association between label use and the healthiness of packaged food products purchased. Over the four-week intervention, study participants (n = 1255) viewed nutrition labels for and/or purchased 66,915 barcoded packaged products. Labels were viewed for 23% of all purchased products, with decreasing frequency over time. Shoppers were most likely to view labels for convenience foods, cereals, snack foods, bread and bakery products, and oils. They were least likely to view labels for sugar and honey products, eggs, fish, fruit and vegetables, and meat. Products for which participants viewed the label and subsequently purchased the product during the same shopping episode were significantly healthier than products where labels were viewed but the product was not subsequently purchased: mean difference in nutrient profile score -0.90 (95% CI -1.54 to -0.26). In a secondary analysis of a nutrition labelling intervention trial, there was a significant association between label use and the healthiness of products purchased. Nutrition label use may therefore lead to healthier food purchases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationships among Food Label Use, Motivation, and Dietary Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Soederberg Miller

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition information on packaged foods supplies information that aids consumers in meeting the recommendations put forth in the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans such as reducing intake of solid fats and added sugars. It is important to understand how food label use is related to dietary intake. However, prior work is based only on self-reported use of food labels, making it unclear if subjective assessments are biased toward motivational influences. We assessed food label use using both self-reported and objective measures, the stage of change, and dietary quality in a sample of 392 stratified by income. Self-reported food label use was assessed using a questionnaire. Objective use was assessed using a mock shopping task in which participants viewed food labels and decided which foods to purchase. Eye movements were monitored to assess attention to nutrition information on the food labels. Individuals paid attention to nutrition information when selecting foods to buy. Self-reported and objective measures of label use showed some overlap with each other (r = 0.29, p < 0.001, and both predicted dietary quality (p < 0.001 for both. The stage of change diminished the predictive power of subjective (p < 0.09, but not objective (p < 0.01, food label use. These data show both self-reported and objective measures of food label use are positively associated with dietary quality. However, self-reported measures appear to capture a greater motivational component of food label use than do more objective measures.

  2. Consumer response to food labels in an emerging market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Festila, Alexandra Florina; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 428 respondents (45.6% males of an average age of 30.6 years). Results revealed that for most respondents awareness levels towards food labels are generally low, except for the Guideline Daily Amount and the organic food labels. Objective understanding...

  3. 77 FR 12313 - Food Labeling Workshop; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0001] Food Labeling Workshop; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of... District Office (DALDO), in collaboration with Oklahoma State University (OSU), Robert M. Kerr Food...

  4. 75 FR 29775 - Food Labeling Workshop; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Food and Drug Administration Food Labeling Workshop; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of...: Institute of Food Science & Engineering, University of Arkansas, 2650 North Young Ave., Fayetteville, AR...

  5. The importance of accurate and understandable food allergen labelling for food-allergic consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse-Vermaat, J.R.; Botjes, E.; Frewer, L.J.; Voordouw, J.

    2007-01-01

    New EU regulations regarding food allergen labelling were introduced in 2005. These rules were introduced to ensure that 12 potential food allergens are labelled if they are included as ingredients in food products. The question arises as to whether food-allergic consumers will benefit from the new

  6. Exploring global consumer attitudes toward nutrition information on food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Josephine M; Schmidt, David B; Pillo-Blocka, Francy; Cairns, Georgina

    2009-05-01

    In many parts of the world, food companies, consumers, and governments are re-examining the provision of nutrition information on food labels. It is important that the nutrition information provided be appropriate and understandable to the consumer and that it impact food-choice behaviors. Potentially, food labeling represents a valuable tool to help consumers make informed decisions about their diet and lifestyle. Food information organizations worldwide have been following consumer trends in the use of this information as well as consumer attitudes about food, nutrition, and health. This paper summarizes a workshop that examined consumer attitudes gathered regionally with the aim of establishing commonalities and differences.

  7. International Implications of Labeling Foods Containing Engineered Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieger, Khara D; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Mortensen, Ninell P; Cates, Sheryl; Kowalcyk, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    To provide greater transparency and comprehensive information to consumers regarding their purchase choices, the European Parliament and the Council have mandated via Regulation 1169/2011 that foods containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) be labeled. This review covers the main concerns related to the use of ENMs in foods and the potential impacts that this type of food labeling might have on diverse stakeholder groups, including those outside the European Union (EU), e.g., in the United States. We also provide recommendations to stakeholders for overcoming existing challenges related to labeling foods containing ENMs. The revised EU food labeling requirements will likely result in a number of positive developments and a number of challenges for stakeholders in both EU and non-EU countries. Although labeling of foods containing ENMs will likely improve transparency, provide more information to facilitate consumer decisions, and build trust among food safety authorities and consumers, critical obstacles to the successful implementation of these labeling requirements remain, including the need for (i) harmonized information requirements or regulations between countries in different regions of the world, (ii) clarification of the regulatory definitions of the ENMs to be used for food labeling, (iii) robust techniques to detect, measure, and characterize diverse ENMs in food matrices, and (iv) clarification of the list of ENMs that may be exempt from labeling requirements, such as several food additives used for decades. We recommend that food industries and food safety authorities be more proactive in communicating with the public and consumer groups regarding the potential benefits and risks of using ENMs in foods. Efforts should be made to improve harmonization of information requirements between countries to avoid potential international trade barriers.

  8. Food labeling; calorie labeling of articles of food in vending machines. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    To implement the vending machine food labeling provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is establishing requirements for providing calorie declarations for food sold from certain vending machines. This final rule will ensure that calorie information is available for certain food sold from a vending machine that does not permit a prospective purchaser to examine the Nutrition Facts Panel before purchasing the article, or does not otherwise provide visible nutrition information at the point of purchase. The declaration of accurate and clear calorie information for food sold from vending machines will make calorie information available to consumers in a direct and accessible manner to enable consumers to make informed and healthful dietary choices. This final rule applies to certain food from vending machines operated by a person engaged in the business of owning or operating 20 or more vending machines. Vending machine operators not subject to the rules may elect to be subject to the Federal requirements by registering with FDA.

  9. Are consumers influenced in their food choice by health labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boztug, Yasemin; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Elshiewy, Ossama

    focus on consumer attention to labels and very few studies concentrate on effects on actual purchase behavior. In this study we report the results from an analysis of scanner data provided by a large UK retailer and the conclusion is that GDA label introduction does not have the expected consequences......Front of pack (FOP) nutrition labeling has received extensive political attention within the last years. The European Commission is proposing to make FOP nutrition labeling mandatory in order to guide consumers to make healthier food choices. Most of the studies of the effects on nutrition labeling...

  10. Salt content labelling of foods in supermarkets in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. NÄRHINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the extent to which lightly salted food products are included in the assortments of Finnish supermarkets and prominently placed on shelves. The study was carried out in eastern Finland in four supermarkets of different food chains. Six food groups of importance for people's salt intake were considered. The food labels of 689 packaged food products were checked for salt and sodium information on the basis of Finnish regulations on salt. Products with reduced salt contents were found in most food groups but not among whole-meat or ready-to-eat foods. Half of the products with reduced amounts of salt were labelled "lightly salted". All four supermarkets had a similar assortment of lightly salted products. From the public health point of view, the food industry should increase the supply of lightly salted products, and make a special effort to develop lightly salted ready-to-eat foods.

  11. 75 FR 21007 - Food Labeling; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ..., particularly small businesses, with firsthand working knowledge of FDA's requirements and compliance policies... Consumer Protection Act of 2004, (3) nutrition labeling requirements, (4) health and nutrition claims, and...

  12. Calorie labeling, fast food purchasing and restaurant visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, Brian; Mijanovich, Tod; Dixon, L Beth; Abrams, Courtney; Weitzman, Beth; Kersh, Rogan; Auchincloss, Amy H; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2013-11-01

    Obesity is a pressing public health problem without proven population-wide solutions. Researchers sought to determine whether a city-mandated policy requiring calorie labeling at fast food restaurants was associated with consumer awareness of labels, calories purchased and fast food restaurant visits. Difference-in-differences design, with data collected from consumers outside fast food restaurants and via a random digit dial telephone survey, before (December 2009) and after (June 2010) labeling in Philadelphia (which implemented mandatory labeling) and Baltimore (matched comparison city). Measures included: self-reported use of calorie information, calories purchased determined via fast food receipts, and self-reported weekly fast-food visits. The consumer sample was predominantly Black (71%), and high school educated (62%). Postlabeling, 38% of Philadelphia consumers noticed the calorie labels for a 33% point (P < 0.001) increase relative to Baltimore. Calories purchased and number of fast food visits did not change in either city over time. While some consumers report noticing and using calorie information, no population level changes were noted in calories purchased or fast food visits. Other controlled studies are needed to examine the longer term impact of labeling as it becomes national law. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  13. 21 CFR 101.108 - Temporary exemptions for purposes of conducting authorized food labeling experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... authorized food labeling experiments. 101.108 Section 101.108 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Exemptions From Food Labeling Requirements § 101.108 Temporary exemptions for purposes of conducting authorized food...

  14. Attitudes and preferences of consumers toward food allergy labeling practices by diagnosis of food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Se-Young; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kwak, Tong-Kyoung; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate food allergens and prevalence rates of food allergies, followed by comparison of consumer attitudes and preferences regarding food allergy labeling by diagnosis of food allergies. A total of 543 individuals living in Seoul and Gyeonggi area participated in the survey from October 15 to 22 in 2013. The results show that the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed food allergies was 17.5%, whereas 6.4% of respondents self-reported food allergies. The most common allergens of doctor-diagnosed and self-reported food allergy respondents were peaches (30.3%) and eggs (33.3%), respectively, followed by peanuts, cow's milk, and crab. Regarding consumer attitudes toward food labeling, checking food allergens as an item was only significantly different between allergic and non-allergic respondents among all five items (P label, and addition of potential allergens) were necessary for an improved food allergen labeling system. PLSR analysis determined that the doctor-diagnosed group and checking of food allergens were positively correlated, whereas the non-allergy group was more concerned with checking product brands. An effective food labeling system is very important for health protection of allergic consumers. Additionally, government agencies must develop policies regarding prevalence of food allergies in Korea. Based on this information, the food industry and government agencies should provide clear and accurate food labeling practices for consumers.

  15. Assessing knowledge and practice of food producers, retailers and consumers of food labels in Bostanabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghochani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of the information provided on food labels is important and will help the consumers to select standard food packaging. This knowledge can lead to improving the diet and health in the community. This study was carried out to determine the knowledge and practice of food producer retailers and consumers of food labels in Bostanabad, East-Azarbaijan province. In a descriptive and cross-sectional study, 1013 individuals were selected through random selection. Data on demographics and knowledge and practice of food retailers and consumers were collected by filling in a questionnaire and the results were compared. The age of participants ranged 16-65 years old and majority of them were between 40 and 60 years of age. According to the results, 75.7% of the participants read food labels during shopping.  Amongst mostly considered food labels to observe the production and expiry dates on labels. A minority of the participants read food labels for nutritional information, product weight, types of additives and artificial colors, etc. The results showed that knowledge of people about the nutritional information on food labels is very slight. Due to the high impact of nutritional knowledge on the performance of people, having an idea about the individual’s attention to the information on food labels is essential. It is important to achieve the proper nutritional behavior and reduce the risk of adverse effects associated with packaged foods.

  16. TOWARDS NUTRITION SECURITY: FOOD LABEL USE AMONG NIGERIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Falola

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on food label use by Nigerians, using Kwara State as a case study. Specifically, the study describes the socio-economics characteristics of the respondents, determined people’s perception about food labels and examined factors influencing willingness-to-read food labels in the study area. A total of 120 respondents selected through a combination of purposive and random sampling techniques were used for the study. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, 5-point likert scale and logistic resgression analysis. Majority of the respondents were females (72.5%, married (60% and had secondary education (50%. The mean age, household size, number of preschool children and household income of the respondents were 26years, 9 persons, 2 children and N25,250.00/month (USD 157.81 respectively. The respondents opined that food labels were used mainly for traceability (M = 3.24, registration status of the food producer (M = 3.01, advertisement (M =4.02, as a legal requirement (M = 4.00, to know the expiry dates (M = 4.57 and to distinguish the product from that of other competitors (M = 3.54. Results of the regression analysis revealed that women were more willing to read food labels than men, and positively related to age of respondent, household income level, educational status of food planner and nutritional knowledge of the food planner. However, willingness-to-read food labels by the respondents declined with household size and number of preschool children. The study therefore calls for enlightenment of the public by relevant stakeholders on importance of food labels to determine nutritional composition and health implications.

  17. 21 CFR 501.8 - Labeling of animal food with number of servings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of animal food with number of servings... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.8 Labeling of animal food with number of servings. (a) The label of any package of a food which...

  18. Focus on Food Labeling. An FDA Consumer Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Drug Administration (DHHS/PHS), Washington, DC.

    This special issue is designed for those who want to know all they can about the new federal requirements for nutrition information on food labels. Nine articles are included. "Good Reading for Good Eating" (Paula Kurtzweil) addresses mandatory nutrition labeling, the nutrition panel, nutrient content and health claims, and ingredient…

  19. Food quality and safety: traceability and labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupien, John R

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses food systems in general, their development over the past 120 years, and realities and problems faced by a world population of over 6 billion people. Various food and feed problems are mentioned, and the concept of "traceability" is discussed in the context of the broader and more useful approach of using "good practices" at all levels of the food chain.

  20. Attitudes and preferences of consumers toward food allergy labeling practices by diagnosis of food allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Se-young; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Kyu-earn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to investigate food allergens and prevalence rates of food allergies, followed by comparison of consumer attitudes and preferences regarding food allergy labeling by diagnosis of food allergies. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 543 individuals living in Seoul and Gyeonggi area participated in the survey from October 15 to 22 in 2013. RESULTS The results show that the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed food allergies was 17.5%, whereas 6.4% of respondents self-reported food allergies. The most common allergens of doctor-diagnosed and self-reported food allergy respondents were peaches (30.3%) and eggs (33.3%), respectively, followed by peanuts, cow's milk, and crab. Regarding consumer attitudes toward food labeling, checking food allergens as an item was only significantly different between allergic and non-allergic respondents among all five items (P food allergen labeling system. PLSR analysis determined that the doctor-diagnosed group and checking of food allergens were positively correlated, whereas the non-allergy group was more concerned with checking product brands. CONCLUSIONS An effective food labeling system is very important for health protection of allergic consumers. Additionally, government agencies must develop policies regarding prevalence of food allergies in Korea. Based on this information, the food industry and government agencies should provide clear and accurate food labeling practices for consumers. PMID:26425282

  1. Food and Drug Labeling and the Adult Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Michael C.; Aker, Richard

    1978-01-01

    Full disclosure of ingredients on food, drugs, and cosmetic labels is really non-disclosure where the chemical formulation has no common name or where one generic name covers a variety of formations. The Food and Drug Administration offers suggestions for adult education programs in consumer awareness, understanding compound nomenclature, and…

  2. Families' use of nutritional information on food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Brunsø, Karen

    2009-01-01

    How interested and competent are families in fact when using nutritional information on food labels? By means of ethnographical methodologies 12 families with children aged 9-13 were monitored when shopping for food and in their own home when cooking and eating dinner in order to explore their use...

  3. Top-down expectation effects of food labels on motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, Joost; van Loon, Ilke; Smeets, Paul A.M.; Cools, Roshan; Aarts, Esther

    2018-01-01

    Labels on food packages inform our beliefs, shaping our expectations of food properties, such as its expected taste and healthiness. These beliefs can influence the processing of caloric rewards beyond objective sensory properties and have the potential to impact decision making. However, no

  4. Influence of nutrition labelling on food portion size consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Mary T; Wallace, Julie M W; Robson, Paula J; Rennie, Kirsten L; McCaffrey, Tracy A; Welch, Robert W; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2013-06-01

    Nutrition labelling is an important strategic approach for encouraging consumers to make healthier food choices. The availability of highly palatable foods labelled as 'low fat or reduced calorie' may encourage the over-consumption of these products. This study aimed to determine whether the manipulation of nutrition labelling information can influence food portion size consumption. Normal and overweight men (n=24) and women (n=23) were served an identical lunch meal on three separate days, but the information they received prior to consuming the lunch meal was manipulated as follows: "baseline", "high fat/energy" and "low fat/energy". Food and energy intake was significantly increased in the low fat/energy condition compared with both baseline and the high fat/energy condition. An additional 3% (162 kJ) energy was consumed by subjects under the low fat/energy condition compared to baseline. No differences were observed between the baseline and high fat/energy condition. Subjects who consumed most in the low fat/energy condition were found to be mostly men, to have a higher BMI and to be overweight. Low fat/energy information can positively influence food and energy intake, suggesting that foods labelled as 'low fat' or 'low calorie' may be one factor promoting the consumption of large food portions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitative risk assessment of foods containing peanut advisory labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Benjamin C; Baumert, Joseph L; Marx, David B; Taylor, Steve L

    2013-12-01

    Foods with advisory labeling (i.e. "may contain") continue to be prevalent and the warning may be increasingly ignored by allergic consumers. We sought to determine the residual levels of peanut in various packaged foods bearing advisory labeling, compare similar data from 2005 and 2009, and determine any potential risk for peanut-allergic consumers. Of food products bearing advisory statements regarding peanut or products that had peanut listed as a minor ingredient, 8.6% and 37.5% contained detectable levels of peanut (>2.5 ppm whole peanut), respectively. Peanut-allergic individuals should be advised to avoid such products regardless of the wording of the advisory statement. Peanut was detected at similar rates and levels in products tested in both 2005 and 2009. Advisory labeled nutrition bars contained the highest levels of peanut and an additional market survey of 399 products was conducted. Probabilistic risk assessment showed the risk of a reaction to peanut-allergic consumers from advisory labeled nutrition bars was significant but brand-dependent. Peanut advisory labeling may be overused on some nutrition bars but prudently used on others. The probabilistic approach could provide the food industry with a quantitative method to assist with determining when advisory labeling is most appropriate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Traffic light labelling: traduzindo a rotulagem de alimentos Traffic light labeling: translating food labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma adaptação do Traffic Light Labelling, ou "Semáforo Nutricional", adotado no Reino Unido e outros países da Europa, às normas vigentes no Brasil e classificar produtos industrializados comercializados no país. MÉTODOS: Esta ferramenta baseia-se na utilização das cores do semáforo para valorar concentrações de gorduras total, saturada e trans, açúcar, sódio e fibra correspondente a 100g ou 100mL do produto. O sinal vermelho indica que o nutriente está presente em quantidade excessiva; o amarelo, média e o verde, adequada. Para fibras as baixas concentrações têm cor vermelha e as recomendadas, verde. A adaptação e aplicação desses conceitos para consumidores brasileiros fundamentaram-se nas normas do Regulamento Técnico Referente à Informação Nutricional Complementar da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária e da Food Standards Agency. RESULTADOS: Foram classificados cem produtos industrializados, os quais foram selecionados da página eletrônica de um hipermercado brasileiro, optando pelos primeiros cinco a oito produtos listados na página, para cada uma das 17 categorias. A análise mostra que são altas as quantidades de gordura total, saturada e sódio e baixas as quantidades de gordura trans e fibra. CONCLUSÃO: A adaptação dessa metodologia visa facilitar a escolha de alimentos saudáveis, sensibilizando os consumidores quanto às desvantagens no que se refere a qualidade nutricional dos alimentos industrializados, e estimular as indústrias a melhorar a composição nutricional de seus produtos, sob a perspectiva de receberem maior quantidade de sinais verdes e menor quantidade de sinais vermelhos; assim, contribuindo para a prevenção de erros alimentares, obesidade e doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis, principais causas de incapacidade e mortes precoces no Brasil.OBJECTIVE: This study presented an adaptation of the Traffic Light Labeling or Nutrition Traffic Light adopted

  7. Are food labels effective as a means of health prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Claudia Viviana Viola

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases related to unbalanced and unhealthy eating habits have definitely become one of the major issues of modern age, not only in western countries but also in those ones where rapid economic growth has increased global prosperity levels. In order to avoid medical systems to collapse under excessive costs, International and Public Organizations strongly support health policies that aim to make people shift towards wholesome dietary patterns, also encouraging the use of food-labels to choose healthier products. To evaluate the consumers’ knowledge and perception about food-labels a brief questionnaire was developed and shared on Facebook between January-March 2016. Most of the participants were young adults with higher education. They declared to do their shopping at least once a week, reading the foodlabels quite often. Despite owing limited knowledge in basic nutrition principles and food-labelling they were generally able to recognize healthier products looking over their nutritional fact tables. Anyway, on average, what they care the most about the products they purchase is the global quality level rather than the nutritional values. In order to induce the whole population to use food label as an effective self-protection tool, more efforts should be done to improve their knowledge on nutrition fundamentals and basics about food labelling, because that would make them able to take safer and more conscious choices as regards their own health.

  8. Allergens labeling on French processed foods - an Oqali study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Charlène; Chambefort, Amélie; Digaud, Olivier; Duplessis, Barbara; Perrin, Cécile; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Gauvreau-Béziat, Julie; Menard, Céline

    2017-07-01

    The French Observatory of Food Quality (Oqali) aims at collecting all nutritional data provided on labels of processed foods (nutritional information and composition), at branded products level, in order to follow nutritional labeling changes over time. This study carries out an overview of allergens labeling frequencies by distinguishing allergens used in recipes from those listed on precautionary statements, for the fourteen allergen categories for which labeling is mandatory according to European legislation. 17,309 products were collected, between 2008 and 2012, from 26 food categories. Products were classified per family and type of brand (national brands, retailer brands, entry-level retailer brands, hard discount, and specialized retailer brands). Allergenic ingredients were identified from ingredients lists and precautionary statements. 73% of the 17,309 products studied contained at least one allergen in their ingredients list and 39% had a precautionary statement for one or more allergens. Milk (53%), gluten (41%), and egg (22%) were the most commonly used allergens in ingredients lists. For precautionary statement, nuts (20%), egg (14%), peanut (13%), soybean (12%), and milk (11%) were the most common allergens listed. Precautionary statement was most frequently found among first-price products (hard discount and entry-level retailer brands). National brands seemed to use it less frequently. For all these results, differences depended both on food categories and allergen categories. This study will enable to follow allergens labeling and their use as ingredients over time, particularly by assessing an hypothetical increase in allergens presence in processed food.

  9. Regulatory science requirements of labeling of genetically modified food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghissi, A Alan; Jaeger, Lisa M; Shafei, Dania; Bloom, Lindsey L

    2018-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the evolution of food labeling in the USA. It briefly describes the three phases of agricultural development consisting of naturally occurring, cross-bred, and genetically engineered, edited or modified crops, otherwise known as Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO). It uses the Best Available Regulatory Science (BARS) and Metrics for Evaluation of Regulatory Science Claims (MERSC) to evaluate the scientific validity of claims applicable to GMO and the Best Available Public Information (BAPI) to evaluate the pronouncements by public media and others. Subsequently claims on health risk, ecological risk, consumer choice, and corporate greed are evaluated based on BARS/MERSC and BAPI. The paper concludes by suggesting that labeling of food containing GMO should consider the consumer's choice, such as the food used by those who desire kosher and halal food. Furthermore, the consumer choice is already met by the exclusion of GMO in organic food.

  10. 21 CFR 501.3 - Identity labeling of animal food in package form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identity labeling of animal food in package form... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.3 Identity labeling of animal food in package form. (a) The principal display panel of a food in...

  11. Label it or ban it? Public perceptions of nano-food labels and propositions for banning nano-food applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Agnes S. F.; Leong, Alisius D.; Cummings, Christopher L.; Ho, Shirley S.

    2018-02-01

    The future of nano-food largely hinges on public perceptions and willingness to accept this novel technology. The present study utilizes the scientific literacy model and psychometric paradigm as the key theoretical frameworks to examine the factors influencing public support for labeling and banning of nano-food in Singapore. Using data collected from a nationally representative survey of 1001 respondents, the findings demonstrated that attitudes toward technology, preference for natural product, science knowledge, and risk perception were found to substantially affect public support for both labeling and banning of nano-food. Conversely, attention to food safety news on traditional media and attention to nano-news on new media were only associated with public support for labeling of nano-food. Similarly, benefit perception was only significantly associated with public support for banning of nano-food. Theoretically, these findings support the growing body of literature that argues for the significant role played by predispositions, media use, science knowledge, and risk and benefit perceptions on attitude formation toward nano-food. It serves as the pioneering piece to address the aspect of banning in the field of nano-food. Practically, insights drawn from this study could aid relevant stakeholders in enlisting effecting strategies to convey the benefits of nano-food while mitigating the risk perceptions among the public.

  12. LABELLING OF FOOD PRODUCTS AND SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nestorowicz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available  The manifestation of sustainable consumption on the food market is the consumer is choice of products originating from fair trade and/or organic farming. This paper presents the level of knowledge of Fairtrade signs and organic food logo of the EU. The author describes the importance of these signs by purchasing decisions and the relationship between these factors and the declared level ofknowledge about fair trade. In November 2013 research was conducted by the Department of Marketing Strategies at the Poznań University of Economics and Polish Scientifi c Association of Marketing (PNTM. We interviewed 444 people responsible for food shopping in their households. There were structured interviews in 3 Polish cities: Poznań, Szczecin and Lublin. The results confi rm low awareness of Polish consumers in respect of Fairtrade determinations and slightly higher in the case of organic products. Information regarding the origin of the product (fair trade or organic is not important to consumers when choosing food products. With increasing knowledge on products originating from fair trade derives knowledge of both organic foods and Fairtrade signs, but not the impact of these markings on consumers’ purchasing decisions. Still, people who attach importance to this type of information are niche on the Polish market.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Baby Food Labelling in Hungary and in Romania: Consumers’ Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Noémi Hajdú; Katalin Lipták; Zsuzsa Săplăcan

    2018-01-01

    Baby food represents a growing segment of the food industry; the baby food labelling issues affect more and more mothers who want to make better and safer nutritional choices. In a continuously improving food labelling regulation environment consumer studies regarding the baby food labelling are very limited. Present article has an exploratory nature and aims to find specific patterns of baby food buying behaviour and labelling preference in Romania and Hungary, and also to rev...

  14. International Implications of Labeling Foods Containing Engineered Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara D.; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Mortensen, Ninell P.

    2016-01-01

    To provide greater transparency and comprehensive information to consumers regarding their purchase choices, the European Parliament and the Council have mandated via Regulation 1169/2011 that foods containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) be labeled. This review covers the main concerns related...... additives used for decades. We recommend that food industries and food safety authorities be more proactive in communicating with the public and consumer groups regarding the potential benefits and risks of using ENMs in foods. Efforts should be made to improve harmonization of information requirements...... between countries to avoid potential international trade barriers....

  15. Have Food Allergies? Read the Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... crustacean shellfish, such as crab, lobster, or shrimp tree nuts, such as almonds, pecans, or walnuts wheat peanuts soybeans The law allows manufacturers a choice in how they identify the specific “food source names,” such as “milk,” “ ...

  16. 78 FR 4153 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Labeling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ...] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Labeling... label or in its labeling a statement provided for in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C... other forms of information technology. Food Labeling; Notification Procedures for Statements on Dietary...

  17. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label of...

  18. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling shall be... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. 317.300 Section 317.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...

  19. The Effects of Food Labelling on Postexercise Energy Intake in Sedentary Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lafrenière, Jacynthe; McNeil, Jessica; Provencher, Véronique; Doucet, Éric

    2017-01-01

    Food labelling has been previously reported to influence energy intake (EI). Whether food labels influence postexercise EI remains to be determined. We assessed how food labelling and exercise (Ex) interact to influence food perception and postexercise EI. In this randomized crossover design, 14 inactive women participated in 4 experimental conditions: Ex (300?kcal at 70% of VO2peak) and lunch labelled as low in fat (LF), Ex and lunch labelled as high in fat (HF), Rest and LF, and Rest and HF...

  20. Communicating healthier food choice : food composition data, front-of-pack nutrition labelling and health claims.

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgkins, Charo E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food composition data, front-of-pack nutrition labelling and nutrition and health claims have an important role to play in the development of appropriate policy, regulation and public health interventions ultimately aimed at reducing the burden of diet-related chronic disease. The overarching aim of this thesis is to explore whether the communication of healthier food choice through front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling and health claims can be enhanced by the development of con...

  1. Monitoring the health-related labelling of foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, M; Wood, A; Lawrence, M; Mhurchu, C N; Albert, J; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Hawkes, C; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; L'abbé, M; Lee, A; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Sacks, G; Sanders, D; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B; Vandevijvere, S; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    Food labelling on food packaging has the potential to have both positive and negative effects on diets. Monitoring different aspects of food labelling would help to identify priority policy options to help people make healthier food choices. A taxonomy of the elements of health-related food labelling is proposed. A systematic review of studies that assessed the nature and extent of health-related food labelling has been conducted to identify approaches to monitoring food labelling. A step-wise approach has been developed for independently assessing the nature and extent of health-related food labelling in different countries and over time. Procedures for sampling the food supply, and collecting and analysing data are proposed, as well as quantifiable measurement indicators and benchmarks for health-related food labelling. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  2. Ingredient and labeling issues associated with allergenic foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S L; Hefle, S L

    2001-01-01

    Foods contain a wide range of food ingredients that serve numerous technical functions. Per capita consumer exposure to most of these food ingredients is rather low with a few notable exceptions such as sugar and starch. Some food ingredients including edible oils, hydrolyzed proteins, lecithin, starch, lactose, flavors and gelatin may, at least in some products, be derived from sources commonly involved in IgE-mediated food allergies. These ingredients should be avoided by consumers with allergies to the source material if the ingredient contains detectable protein residues. Other food ingredients, including starch, malt, alcohol and vinegar, may be derived in some cases from wheat, rye or barley, the grains that are implicated in the causation of celiac disease. If these ingredients contain gluten residues, then they should be avoided by celiac sufferers. A few food ingredients are capable of eliciting allergic sensitization, although these ingredients would be classified as rarely allergenic. These ingredients include carmine, cochineal extract, annatto, tragacanth gum and papain. Food manufacturers should declare the presence of allergenic food ingredients in the ingredient listings on product labels so that allergic consumers can know to avoid these potentially hazardous products.

  3. Consumer Food Security and Labeling Intervention on Food Products through Public Policies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacinia Crina Petrescu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The correct understanding of consumers’ food labeling knowledge and perceptions is a prerequisite to develop and implement coherent and appropriate food safety policies. One objective of the paper was to discover how often consumers access and use specific food label information. Another objective was to explore stakeholders’ preferences for several public policy options relevant for food safety. In this respect, a survey on a sample of 312 Romanian consumers and the evaluation of several public policy options by four stakeholder groups (food producers and sellers, doctors, fitness trainers, and consumers were carried out. The results revealed that the most frequently read types of information on the label were “expiration date” and “price”, closely followed by “quantity” and “brand”. Among tested public policies, those related to the traffic light labels and to the social interest messages with health claims were rewarded with high scores by investigated stakeholders. Although nutrition has a decisive impact on health state, nutrition information was not frequently read by people, thus justifying the implementation of a public policy meant to enhance consumers’ interest in and reading frequency of nutrition information on food label.

  4. Submissions to the Australian and New Zealand Review of Food Labelling Law and Policy support traffic light nutrition labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John; Signal, Louise

    2012-10-01

    Food labels to support healthier choices are an important potential intervention for improving population health by reducing obesity and diet-related disease. This study examines the use of research evidence about traffic light nutrition labelling in submissions to the Review of Food Labelling Law and Policy conducted in Australia and New Zealand. Content analysis of final submissions to the Review and a literature review of documents reporting research evidence about traffic light labelling. Sixty-two submitters to the Review were categorised as 'supporters' of traffic light labelling and 29 as 'opponents'. Supporters focused on studies showing traffic light labels were better than other systems at helping consumers identify healthier food options. Opponents cited evidence that traffic light labels were no better than other systems in this respect and noted a lack of evidence that they led to changes in food consumption. A literature review demonstrated that, as a group, submitters had drawn attention to most of the relevant research evidence on traffic light labelling. Both supporters and opponents were, however, selective in their use of evidence. The weight of evidence suggested that traffic light labelling has strengths in helping consumers to identify healthier food options. Further research would be valuable in informing the development of an interpretive front-of-pack labelling system. The findings have significant implications for the development of front-of-pack nutrition labelling currently being considered in Australia and New Zealand. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  5. Food labeling issues in patients with severe food allergies: solving a hamlet-like doubt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Vincenzo; Di Girolamo, Francesco; Marzano, Valeria; Dahdah, Lamia; Mennini, Maurizio

    2017-06-01

    We review the laws on labeling in the international community, the difficulties they pose to the food manufacturers to prepare the food labels and the methodologies to determine the concentration of potential allergens in foods. European Food Safety Authority and International Life Sciences Institute Europe are evaluating strategies to identify the threshold level of allergen that can trigger a reaction in individuals. The most used techniques to detect the presence of protein in food are Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, polymerase chain reaction and real time polymerase chain reaction. Researchers are now trying to apply proteomics to estimate the amount of protein within the food.In order to protect the health of consumers, the Codex Alimentarius Commission updates constantly the list of allergens. In response to these regulations, some industries have also added some precautionary allergen labeling (PAL). It was generally agreed that PAL statements needed to be visible, simple, and safe. It was suggested that PAL be standardized, an action that would occur if the 'Voluntary Incidental Trace Allergen Labelling' process was made mandatory. So far, no laboratory technique is able to reassure the consumers about the composition of foods found on the packaging. International authorities produced increasingly stringent laws, but more is still to do.

  6. Food labeling; nutrition labeling of standard menu items in restaurants and similar retail food establishments. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    To implement the nutrition labeling provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (Affordable Care Act or ACA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is requiring disclosure of certain nutrition information for standard menu items in certain restaurants and retail food establishments. The ACA, in part, amended the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), among other things, to require restaurants and similar retail food establishments that are part of a chain with 20 or more locations doing business under the same name and offering for sale substantially the same menu items to provide calorie and other nutrition information for standard menu items, including food on display and self-service food. Under provisions of the ACA, restaurants and similar retail food establishments not otherwise covered by the law may elect to become subject to these Federal requirements by registering every other year with FDA. Providing accurate, clear, and consistent nutrition information, including the calorie content of foods, in restaurants and similar retail food establishments will make such nutrition information available to consumers in a direct and accessible manner to enable consumers to make informed and healthful dietary choices.

  7. Is advising food allergic patients to avoid food with precautionary allergen labelling out of date?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurzolo, Giovanni A; de Courten, Maximilian; Koplin, Jennifer; Mathai, Michael L; Allen, Katrina J

    2016-06-01

    Precautionary allergen labelling (PAL) continues to be used by the food manufacturing industry to alert the food allergic consumer that cross-contact may have occurred during the supply chain for ingredients or the manufacturing process. This review will summarize recent evidence regarding use and interpretation of precautionary labels by industry, healthcare professionals, and food allergic consumers. Consumers find precautionary labels difficult to interpret and often distrust them as disclaimers of product liability. It is unclear from a clinician's perspective how healthcare professionals should advise their patients regarding these statements. Recent studies suggest that consumers do not always read food labels and that these labels are difficult to interpret and are often distrusted by consumers as disclaimers of liability. There is evidence to suggest that this behaviour occurs in all countries assessed that use PAL. The healthcare professional remains confused about the interpretation and value of the current PAL system as it is unclear whether foods that contain no advisory labels are safe to consume. There is a need for improvement in the value and use of precautionary labelling for allergen risk assessment for allergic consumers. New studies have shown the confusion that currently exists in regard to PAL for the healthcare professional and the consumer alike. The studies have also highlighted certain gaps in the literature that, once addressed, will improve the uniformity of PAL and provide the healthcare professional with appropriate advice which they can in turn relay to the allergic consumer. Because of the global supply of food products there is a need for an international approach in improving PAL.

  8. FDA regulations regarding iodine addition to foods and labeling of foods containing added iodine12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Paula R

    2016-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the addition of iodine to infant formulas, the iodization of salt, and the addition of salt and iodine to foods. The required amount of iodine in infant formulas is based on caloric content, and the label must provide the iodine content per 100 kcal. Cuprous iodide and potassium iodide may be added to table salt as a source of dietary iodine at a maximum amount of 0.01%; if added, the label must indicate that the salt is iodized. Table salt to which iodine has not been added must bear the statement, “This salt does not supply iodide, a necessary nutrient.” If a nutrient is to be appropriately added to a food for the purpose of correcting a dietary insufficiency, there should be sufficient scientific information available to demonstrate a nutritional deficiency and/or identify a public health problem. Furthermore, the population groups that would benefit from the proposed fortification should be identified. If iodine is added to a food, the percent Daily Value of iodine must be listed. There are no FDA regulations governing ingredient standards for dietary supplements. As a result, some dietary supplements include iodine and others do not. If a supplement contains iodine, the Supplement Facts label must list iodine as a nutrient ingredient. If iodine is not listed on the Supplement Facts label, then it has not been added. There are similarities between the FDA, which establishes US food regulations and policies, and the Codex Alimentarius (Codex), which develops international food standards and guidelines under the aegis of the FAO and the WHO. Both the FDA and Codex call for the labeling of table salt to indicate fortification with iodine, voluntary labeling of iodine on foods, and a Daily Value (called a Nutrient Reference Value by Codex) of 150 μg for iodine. PMID:27534626

  9. 76 FR 46671 - Food Labeling; Gluten-Free Labeling of Foods; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... were delineated and assessed in the following reaction timeframes: Acute (hours up to and including 14.... The Threshold Working Group, ``Approaches to Establish Thresholds for Major Food Allergens and for... Performance of the R5 Enzyme Linked Immunoassay to Determine Gliadin in Gluten-Free Food,'' European Journal...

  10. Food label reading and understanding in parts of rural and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food label reading and understanding in parts of rural and urban Zimbabwe. ... The reading and understanding of nutrition information on food packages has been shown to improve food choices and instill ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  11. Labeling of genetically modified food: closer to reality in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlers, Anton E

    2013-01-01

    Within the broader context of several related biotech developments, including the proliferation of GM food in American grocery stories, the recent decision by Whole Foods Market, Inc. to require the labeling of all genetically modified (GM) organism products sold in its stores by 2018, and the development of GM animals for consumption, this essay asks whether the United States is inching towards a policy of mandatory GM food labeling. The analysis highlights aspects of the biotechnology policy debate in the United States and European Union, and traces public opinion as well as grassroots and legislative efforts aimed at GM food labeling. Findings show that activities at the federal level do not suggest any major regulatory changes regarding labeling in the near future; however, a growing number of individual states are considering GM food labeling legislation and political momentum in favor of labeling has picked up in recent years. Voluntary labeling by food companies may also become increasingly common.

  12. PERCEPTION OF BIO-FOOD LABELING BY CONSUMERS IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vietoris

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The paper presents an overview of the present perception of bio-food labeling by consumers in Slovakia. Analyses were realized by the questionnaire survey organized in the period December 2009 to January 2010. In the survey, 388 respondents were interviewed. From the methodological aspect, basic approaches of descriptive statistics have been used, as well as methods of association measurement. The test of robustness tested Chi-Square statistic. The robustness have been judged based on the p-values. Correlations have been tested through the Contingency coefficient and Cramer´s V coefficient. The survey showed that dependency knowledge of logos was confirmed in terms of knowledge of bio-food, education, type of employment, study at FBP faculty and in terms of choice of organic foods by manufacturers. Students of FBP  knows more bio-food logos than other respondents. The second highest dependency was confirmed within selection of bio-food produced individual manufacturers.doi:10.5219/107 

  13. Health claims in the labelling and marketing of food products:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asp, Nils-Georg; Bryngelsson, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Since 1990 certain health claims in the labelling and marketing of food products have been allowed in Sweden within the food sector's Code of Practice. The rules were developed in close dialogue with the authorities. The legal basis was a decision by the authorities not to apply the medicinal products’ legislation to “foods normally found on the dinner table” provided the rules defined in the Code were followed. The Code of Practice lists nine well-established diet–health relationships eligible for generic disease risk reduction claims in two steps and general rules regarding nutrient function claims. Since 2001, there has also been the possibility for using “product-specific physiological claims (PFP)”, subject to premarketing evaluation of the scientific dossier supporting the claim. The scientific documentation has been approved for 10 products with PFP, and another 15 products have been found to fulfil the Code's criteria for “low glycaemic index”. In the third edition of the Code, active since 2004, conditions in terms of nutritional composition were set, i.e. “nutrient profiles”, with a general reference to the Swedish National Food Administration's regulation on the use of a particular symbol, i.e. the keyhole symbol. Applying the Swedish Code of practice has provided experience useful in the implementation of the European Regulation on nutrition and health claims made on foods, effective from 2007.

  14. Food labels promote healthy choices by a decision bias in the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabenhorst, Fabian; Schulte, Frank P; Maderwald, Stefan; Brand, Matthias

    2013-07-01

    Food labeling is the major health policy strategy to counter rising obesity rates. Based on traditional economic theory, such strategies assume that detailed nutritional information will necessarily help individuals make better, healthier choices. However, in contrast to the well-known utility of labels in food marketing, evidence for the efficacy of nutritional labeling is mixed. Psychological and behavioral economic theories suggest that successful marketing strategies activate automatic decision biases and emotions, which involve implicit emotional brain systems. Accordingly, simple, intuitive food labels that engage these neural systems could represent a promising approach for promoting healthier choices. Here we used functional MRI to investigate this possibility. Healthy, mildly hungry subjects performed a food evaluation task and a food choice task. The main experimental manipulation was to pair identical foods with simple labels that emphasized either taste benefits or health-related food properties. We found that such labels biased food evaluations in the amygdala, a core emotional brain system. When labels biased the amygdala's evaluations towards health-related food properties, the strength of this bias predicted behavioral shifts towards healthier choices. At the time of decision-making, amygdala activity encoded key decision variables, potentially reflecting active amygdala participation in food choice. Our findings underscore the potential utility of food labeling in health policy and indicate a principal role for emotional brain systems when labels guide food choices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of a benthic community food web using isotopically labelled potential food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beviss-Challinor, M.H.; Field, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    A series of experiments was designed to reveal the trophic structure of a benthic community using kelp holdfasts as microcosms within the kelp-bed community. The experimental food comprised zooplankton represented by 3 H 2 O-labelled Artemia sp. eggs and nauplii (200 to 300 μm), detritus derived from 14 C-labelled kelp (60 to 90 μm), and phytoplankton represented by 14 C-labelled Dunaliella primolecta (5 to 10 μm) cultures. Separate experiments of short duration (1 to 2 h) were used to indicate the primary consumers on each type of food, while longer experiments (4, 8 and 16 h) suggested the secondary consumers (coprophagous and carnivorous species). Several species were found to be omnivorous. (orig.)

  16. Analysis of U.S. Food and Drug Administration food allergen recalls after implementation of the food allergen labeling and consumer protection act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendel, Steven M; Zhu, Jianmei

    2013-11-01

    To avoid potentially life-threatening reactions, food allergic consumers rely on information on food labels to help them avoid exposure to a food or ingredient that could trigger a reaction. To help consumers in the United States obtain the information that they need, the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 defined a major food allergen as being one of eight foods or food groups and any ingredient that contains protein from one of these foods or food groups. A food that contains an undeclared major food allergen is misbranded under the U.S. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and is subject to recall. Food allergen labeling problems are the most common cause of recalls for U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-regulated food products. To help understand why food allergen recalls continue to occur at a high rate, information on each food allergen recall that occurred in fiscal years 2007 through 2012 was obtained from the FDA recall database. This information was analyzed to identify the food, allergen, root cause, and mode of discovery for each food allergen recall. Bakery products were the most frequently recalled food type, and milk was the most frequently undeclared major food allergen. Use of the wrong package or label was the most frequent problem leading to food allergen recalls. These data are the first reported that indicate the importance of label and package controls as public health measures.

  17. [Food labeling and the prevention of overweight and obesity: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián-Ponce, Miren Itxaso; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2011-11-01

    This article reports on a systematic review of articles on food labeling and the prevention of obesity and overweight, in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library Plus, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, LILACS, and CINAHL databases. The DeCS/MeSH descriptors were obesity and food labeling. 207 articles were retrieved. Using inclusion and exclusion criteria, 14 articles were selected: 11 were on food labeling and its impact on final food product consumption; 2 were on fast food establishments; 1 on sensory attributes as compared to health recommendations; and 2 on follow-up of interventions. Labeling has a positive effect on final food product consumption, in contrast with fast food restaurants. Sensory attributes were more effective than recommendations on the labels. Follow-up of interventions confirmed the long-term effect of the target interventions.

  18. An Evaluation of the Reliability of the Food Label Literacy Questionnaire in Russian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Konstantin G.; Reynolds, Jesse; Bifulco, Lauren; Doughty, Kimberly; Njike, Valentine; Katz, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: School-based nutrition education can promote the development of skills, such as food label reading, that can contribute to making healthier food choices. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of a Russian language version of the previously validated Food Label Literacy for Applied Nutrition Knowledge (FLLANK)…

  19. Food and nutrition labelling: the past, present and the way forward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There have been many developments in South Africa in terms of food and nutrition labelling in the last decade. Although the food industry, health professionals and consumers face many changes, challenges and opportunities with regard to food, and specifically to nutrition labelling, this is also the ideal time to promote the ...

  20. Food-allergic consumers' labelling preferences: a cross-cultural comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse-Vermaat, J.R.; Voordouw, J.; Yiakoumaki, V.; Theodoridis, G.; Frewer, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Recent changes in European food safety legislation have resulted in the implementation of statutory requirements regarding the traceability and labelling of 12 food allergens. This article describes research conducted to establish if current food labelling practices are perceived to be

  1. Legal Limits on Food Labelling Law: Comparative Analysis of the EU and the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der E.L.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore to what extent freedom of expression should protect food businesses against government intervention with corporate communications on food labels. A functional comparative method was used to analyse the objective. It was found that expression on food labels

  2. Influence of nutritional knowledge on the use and interpretation of Spanish nutritional food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, E; Varela, P; Fiszman, S

    2012-01-01

    The present study analyzed the nutritional knowledge of Spanish consumers and its relationship with the correct use of food labels. Consumers were asked about their nutritional knowledge and some functional foods and about their understanding of food labeling and their use of it to select healthy food. A 2-part questionnaire was employed. The 1st part concerned their knowledge of nutritional facts, including their knowledge about macronutrients and perception of certain functional foods, while the 2nd part addressed some questions regarding food labels. The results revealed no statistically significant differences in nutritional knowledge by either age or gender, but a direct relationship with educational level. The association between nutritional knowledge and the perception and understanding of food labeling showed that the nutritional label rarely influenced the food purchases of the group with low nutritional knowledge, who considered that this information was too technical. More than half of the consumers did not consider the calorie or sugar content important for selecting food. In addition, the group with low nutritional knowledge stated that they never or rarely looked at the food labels to check whether it was low-fat food that they were buying. Knowing the status of the consumer's nutritional knowledge allows health campaigns to be designed; considering the influence of cultural factors and the perception of food labeling is very useful for promoting better nutritional information. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Potential Effect of Physical Activity Calorie Equivalent (PACE) Labeling on Adult Fast Food Ordering and Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Antonelli, Ray; Viera, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numeric calorie content labels show limited efficacy in reducing the number of calories ordered from fast food meals. Physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) labels are an alternative that may reduce the number of calories ordered in fast food meals while encouraging patrons to exercise. Methods A total of 1000 adults from 47 US states were randomly assigned via internet survey to one of four generic fast food menus: no label, calories only, calories + minutes, or calories + ...

  4. Energy and traffic light labelling have no impact on parent and child fast food selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Pennie; Wolfenden, Luke; Chapman, Kathy; Wellard, Lyndal; Hughes, Clare; Wiggers, John

    2013-10-25

    Labelling of food from fast food restaurants at point-of-purchase has been suggested as one strategy to reduce population energy consumption and contribute to reductions in obesity prevalence. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of energy and single traffic light labelling systems on the energy content of child and adult intended food purchases. The study employed a randomised controlled trial design. English speaking parents of children aged between three and 12 years were recruited from an existing research cohort. Participants were mailed one of three hypothetical fast food menus. Menus differed in their labelling technique- either energy labels, single traffic light labels, or a no-label control. Participants then completed a telephone survey which assessed intended food purchases for both adult and child. The primary trial outcome was total energy of intended food purchase. A total of 329 participants completed the follow-up telephone interview. Eighty-two percent of the energy labelling group and 96% of the single traffic light labelling group reported noticing labelling information on their menu. There were no significant differences in total energy of intended purchases of parents, or intended purchases made by parents for children, between the menu labelling groups, or between menu labelling groups by socio-demographic subgroups. This study provided no evidence to suggest that energy labelling or single traffic light labelling alone were effective in reducing the energy of fast food items selected from hypothetical fast food menus for purchase. Additional complementary public health initiatives promoting the consumption of healthier foods identified by labelling, and which target other key drivers of menu item selection in this setting may be required. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Agro-food industry growth and obesity in China: what role for regulating food advertising and promotion and nutrition labelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, C

    2008-03-01

    Taking a food supply chain approach, this paper examines the regulation of food marketing and nutrition labelling as strategies to help combat obesity in China in an era of rapid agro-food industry growth. China is the largest food producer and consumer in the world. Since the early 1980s, the agro-food industry has undergone phenomenal expansion throughout the food supply chain, from agricultural production to trade, agro-food processing to food retailing, and from food service to advertising and promotion. This industry growth, alongside related socioeconomic changes and government policies, has encouraged a 'nutrition transition'. China's population, especially in urban areas, is now consuming significantly more energy from dietary fat, which is leading to higher rates of obesity. Regulation of food advertising and promotion and nutrition labelling has the potential to help prevent the further growth of obesity in China and encourage the agro-food industry to supplier healthier foods. Government legislation and guidance, as well as self-regulation and voluntary initiatives, are needed to reduce children's exposure to food advertising and promotion, and increase the effectiveness of nutrition labelling. Policies on food marketing and nutrition labelling should be adapted to the China context, and accompanied by further action throughout the food supply chain. Given China's unique characteristics and position in the world today, there is an opportunity for the government and the agro-food industry to lead the world by creating a balanced, health promoting model of complementary legislation and industry action.

  6. Consumer attitudes and risks associated with packaged foods having advisory labeling regarding the presence of peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefle, Susan L; Furlong, Terence J; Niemann, Lynn; Lemon-Mule, Heather; Sicherer, Scott; Taylor, Steve L

    2007-07-01

    Foods with advisory labeling (eg, "may contain") are increasingly prevalent. Consumers with food allergies might ignore advisory labeling advice. We sought to determine whether consumers with food allergy heeded advisory labels and whether products with advisory labels contained detectable peanut allergen. Surveys (n = 625 in 2003 and n = 645 in 2006) were conducted at Food Allergy & Anaphylaxis Network patient conferences. Food products bearing advisory statements regarding peanuts were analyzed for the presence of peanut. Consumers were less likely to heed advisory labeling in 2006 (75%) compared with in 2003 (85%, P 1 mg of peanut or >0.25 mg of peanut protein) were detected in only 13 of 200 such products. Consumers with food allergy are increasingly ignoring advisory labeling. Because food products with advisory labeling do contain detectable levels of peanuts, a risk exists to consumers choosing to eat such foods. The format of the labeling statement did not influence the likelihood of finding detectable peanut, except for products listing peanuts as a minor ingredient, but did influence the choices of consumers with food allergy. Allergic patients are taking risks by increasingly disregarding advisory labeling.

  7. The Effects of Food Labelling on Postexercise Energy Intake in Sedentary Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrenière, Jacynthe; McNeil, Jessica; Provencher, Véronique; Doucet, Éric

    2017-01-01

    Food labelling has been previously reported to influence energy intake (EI). Whether food labels influence postexercise EI remains to be determined. We assessed how food labelling and exercise (Ex) interact to influence food perception and postexercise EI. In this randomized crossover design, 14 inactive women participated in 4 experimental conditions: Ex (300 kcal at 70% of VO 2peak ) and lunch labelled as low in fat (LF), Ex and lunch labelled as high in fat (HF), Rest and LF, and Rest and HF. The lunch was composed of a plate of pasta, yogurt, and oatmeal cookies, which had the same nutritional composition across the 4 experimental conditions. EI at lunch and for the 48-hour period covering the testing day and the following day was assessed. Furthermore, perceived healthiness of the meal and appetite ratings were evaluated. There were no effects of exercise and food labelling on EI. However, meals labelled as LF were perceived as heathier, and this label was associated with higher prospective food consumption. Initial beliefs about food items had a stronger effect on healthiness perception than the different food labels and explain the positive correlation with the amount of food consumed ( ρ = 0.34, P < 0.001).

  8. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice between Medical and Non-Medical Sciences Students about Food Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Malek Mahdavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the significant role of consumers’ awareness about food labels in making healthy food choices, this study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and prac-tice of university students about food labeling.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 332 students aged 18-25 yr in five different academic ma-jors (including Nutrition, Public Health, Health Services Administration, Paramedical and En-gineering were asked to complete an approved questionnaire contained fifteen questions. The chi-square test was applied to examine the differences across various major groups.Results: 89.2% of the students believed that food labels had effect on nutritional awareness. 77.4% were agreed with the usefulness of the food labels and 79.2% did not feel that nutrition claims on food label were truthful. For 84% of students, the expiry date and storage conditions information were the most important informational cues to appear on the food labels. From 47.6% of students who reported the use of nutrition facts label in their often or always shopping; only 32.3% used the information on labels to fit the food into their daily diet. Surprisingly, fatty acids were the least noteworthy items (1.9% on nutrition facts labels. Regarding students’ major, there was significant difference in their knowledge, attitude and practice about truth of the nutri-tion claims, using food labels and importance of health claims (P<0.05.Conclusion: Food labels were more useful tools for students and had an effect on their nutri-tional awareness. Designing and implementation of the educational programs in order to increase the level of knowledge about food labels is suggested.

  9. Critically appraised topic on adverse food reactions of companion animals (5): discrepancies between ingredients and labeling in commercial pet foods

    OpenAIRE

    Olivry, Thierry; Mueller, Ralf S.

    2018-01-01

    Background Elimination dietary trials for the diagnosis of adverse food reactions (food allergies) in dogs and cats are often conducted with commercial pet foods while relying on their label to select those not containing previously-eaten ingredients. There are concerns that industrial pet foods might contain unlisted food sources that could negate the usefulness of performing food trials. Furthermore, unidentified ingredients might cause clinical reactions in patients hypersensitive to such ...

  10. Food regulations: low FODMAP labeling and communication goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méance, Séverine; Giordano, Josy; Chuang, Emil; Schneider, Heinrich

    2017-03-01

    There is growing clinical evidence in support of a diet for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) that is low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP). This low FODMAP diet is gaining acceptance globally among clinicians and IBS sufferers alike. However, there is disparity concerning the success rates of the FODMAP diet between patients, which can be attributed to differences in the recommended diet itself and to adherence issues. To address the differences in the diet, a generally accepted science-based definition of the analytical criteria for low FODMAP products suitable for a low FODMAP diet should be developed. To address the adherence challenge, regulators should permit manufacturers of low FODMAP products to communicate the benefits of a low FODMAP diet on product labels and promotional material which will facilitate people with IBS' selection and use low FODMAP foods. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Making food labels social: The impact of colour of nutritional labels and injunctive norms on perceptions and choice of snack foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljevic, Milica; Pechey, Rachel; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies report that using green labels to denote healthier foods, and red to denote less healthy foods increases consumption of green- and decreases consumption of red-labelled foods. Other symbols (e.g. emoticons conveying normative approval and disapproval) could also be used to signal the healthiness and/or acceptability of consuming such products. The present study tested the combined effects of using emoticons and colours on labels amongst a nationally representative sample of the UK population (n = 955). In a 3 (emoticon expression: smiling vs. frowning vs. no emoticon) × 3 (colour label: green vs. red vs. white) ×2 (food option: chocolate bar vs. cereal bar) between-subjects experiment, participants rated the level of desirability, healthiness, tastiness, and calorific content of a snack bar they had been randomised to view. At the end they were further randomised to view one of nine possible combinations of colour and emoticon labels and asked to choose between a chocolate and a cereal bar. Regardless of label, participants rated the chocolate as tastier and more desirable when compared to the cereal bar, and the cereal bar as healthier than the chocolate bar. A series of interactions revealed that a frowning emoticon on a white background decreased perceptions of healthiness and tastiness of the cereal bar, but not the chocolate bar. In the explicit choice task selection was unaffected by label. Overall nutritional labels had limited effects on perceptions and no effects on choice of snack foods. Emoticon labels yielded stronger effects on perceptions of taste and healthiness of snacks than colour labels. Frowning emoticons may be more potent than smiling emoticons at influencing the perceived healthiness and tastiness of foods carrying health halos. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Differences in consumer use of food labels by weight loss strategies and demographic characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about national patterns in the use of fast food and packaged food labels among adults by weight loss strategies and demographic characteristics. Methods We analyzed the Consumer Behavior Module in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007?2010 among adults (N?=?9,690). For each of the outcome variables ? use of packed food and fast food menu labels ? multiple logistic regressions were used to adjust for potential differences in population characteris...

  13. Information provision for allergic consumers - where are we going with food allergen labelling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, E.N.C.; Valovirta, E.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2004-01-01

    As the current treatment for food allergy involves dietary exclusion of the problem food, information for food-allergic consumers provided on food labels about the nature of allergenic ingredients is important to the management of their condition. The members of an EU-funded networking project......, InformAll, focusing on developing strategies for the provision of credible, reliable sources of information for food allergy sufferers, regulators and the food industry, have been considering these matters with respect to food labelling. This paper presents an overview of the genesis of the new EU...

  14. Housewives’ Compliance in Reading Food Labels in Gorontalo City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Tumenggung

    2016-06-01

    Di Indonesia, masalah label pada kemasan makanan kurang mendapat perhatian konsumen. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari determinan kepatuhan membaca label pada kemasan makanan oleh ibu rumah tangga di Kota Gorontalo. Penelitian dengan metode survei ini dilakukan dari bulan Juni sampai Agustus 2013. Data dikumpulkan secara potong lintang dengan menggunakan angket. Variabel terikat adalah kepatuhan membaca label pada kemasan makanan yang terdiri dari label informasi nilai gizi, komposisi makanan, masa kedaluwarsa, harga, dan status halal. Variabel bebas adalah usia, tingkat pendidikan, dan keterpaparan dengan media informasi. Besar sampel 262 orang ditentukan secara accidental technique. Analisis data menggunakan uji kai kuadrat. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar responden patuh membaca label kedaluwarsa, label harga, dan label halal. Faktor usia berhubungan dengan kepatuhan membaca label informasi nilai gizi, label kedaluwarsa dan label harga. Tingkat pendidikan berhubungan dengan kepatuhan membaca label informasi nilai gizi, label komposisi, label harga, dan lebel halal. Keterpaparan dengan media informasi berhubungan dengan kepatuhan membaca label komposisi, kedaluwarsa, harga, dan halal. Disarankan kepada institusi terkait, yaitu dinas kesehatan untuk melakukan upaya meningkatkan pemahaman pentingnya membaca label kemasan makanan, terutama yang berkaitan dengan informasi nilai gizi dan komposisi bahan makanan.

  15. 21 CFR 101.43 - Substantial compliance of food retailers with the guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.43 Substantial compliance of food retailers with the guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling of raw fruit... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial compliance of food retailers with the...

  16. Consumer reactions to the use of EU quality labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Aachmann, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The EU promotes three types of food quality labels, PDO, PGI and TSG in order to protect producers of food with special qualities and to aid consumers in their decision-making. This papers reviews published research on how these labels affect consumers. 35 studies were identified and are reviewed...... based on a hierarchy of effects framework. While results are conflicting, some overall themes emerge, suggesting that the role of these quality labels in consumer decision-making at present is still relatively low. Suggestions for research are made that would provide a better basis for evidence......-based policy formulation with regard to food quality labels....

  17. Does attention to health labels predict a healthy food choice? An eye-tracking study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Nicolaas, Iris; Galetzka, Mirjam

    2018-01-01

    Visual attention to health labels can indicate a subsequent healthy food choice. This study looked into the relative effects of Choices logos and traffic light labels on consumers’ visual attention and food choice. A field experiment using mobile eye-tracking was conducted in a Dutch university

  18. Overcoming consumer scepticism toward food labels: The role of multisensory experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Kersten, Leonne; Bialkova, Svetlana; Bialkova, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    More and more information labels appear on the front of food packages, increasing the complexity of consumer decision-making and enhancing consumer scepticism toward food labels. It is important to evaluate the efficacy of information communicated to consumers. The experimental study among 209 Dutch

  19. Consumer choice : Linking consumer intentions to actual purchase of GM labeled food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleenhoff, S.; Osseweijer, P.

    2013-01-01

    With a mandatory labeling scheme for GM food in Europe since 2004 measuring actual consumer choice in practice has become possible. Anticipating Europeans negative attitude toward GM food, the labeling was enforced to allow consumers to make an informed choice. We studied consumers actual purchase

  20. Consumer Understanding and Use of Food and Nutrition Labeling in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besler, Halit Tanju; Buyuktuncer, Zehra; Uyar, Muhemmed Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine patterns of food and nutrition labels use by Turkish consumers, and examine constraints on the use of this information. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Twenty-six regions of Turkey. Participants: Consumers (n = 1,536), aged 12-56 years. Variables measured: Level of interest in food and nutrition labels, the…

  1. Nutritional Noise: Community Literacies and the Movement against Foods Labeled as "Natural"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauth, Erin

    2015-01-01

    In the face of the $44 billion market--and rising--for foods labeled as "natural" (despite any formal regulatory oversight on the use of this term), this article examines multiple complex layers of community literacies and movements involving foods labeled as "natural," including an increasing availability of…

  2. Determinants of Food Label Use among Supermarket Shoppers: A Singaporean Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykumar, Santosh; Lwin, May O.; Chao, Jiang; Au, Cyndy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Examining factors influencing food label use among Singapore's supermarket shoppers using the Theory of Planned Behavior. Design: A point-of-purchase survey among general shoppers in 2 supermarkets. Setting: Singapore, a country whose population is exposed to a wide range of food labeling formats because of the import-dependent nature…

  3. 78 FR 15370 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff: Recommendations for Labeling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-D-0168] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff: Recommendations for Labeling Medical...; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug...

  4. Information provision for allergic consumers : where are we going with food allergen labelling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, E.N.C.; Valovirta, E.; Madsen, C.; Taylor, S.L.; Vieths, S.; Anklam, E.; Baumgartner, S.; Koch, P.; Crevel, R.W.R.; Frewer, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    As the current treatment for food allergy involves dietary exclusion of the problem food, information for food-allergic consumers provided on food labels about the nature of allergenic ingredients is important to the management of their condition. The members of an EU-funded networking project,

  5. Who Buys Oddly Shaped Food and Why? Impacts of Food Shape Abnormality and Organic Labeling on Purchase Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loebnitz, Natascha; Schuitema, Geertje; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    influence consumers’ purchase intentions, but only if the food deviates extremely from the norm; no differences in purchase intentions emerge for moderately abnormal food. Awareness of food waste issues and proenvironmental self-identities also drive purchase intentions, such that participants with high...... experimentally. A representative sample of 964 Danish consumers indicated their purchase intentions for two fruits and two vegetables with varying levels of food shape abnormality (normal, moderately abnormal, and extremely abnormal) and organic labels (organic label, no label). Food shape abnormalities...... levels of these traits express significantly higher purchase intentions for abnormally shaped food. Thus, increasing awareness of food waste issues, particularly among those with strong proenvironmental self-identities, might encourage more consumers to purchase abnormally shaped fruits and vegetables....

  6. Predictors of nutrition label viewing during food purchase decision making: an eye tracking investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Dan J; Jeffery, Robert W

    2012-02-01

    Nutrition label use could help consumers eat healthfully. Despite consumers reporting label use, diets are not very healthful and obesity rates continue to rise. The present study investigated whether self-reported label use matches objectively measured label viewing by monitoring the gaze of individuals viewing labels. The present study monitored adults viewing sixty-four food items on a computer equipped with an eye-tracking camera as they made simulated food purchasing decisions. ANOVA and t tests were used to compare label viewing across various subgroups (e.g. normal weight v. overweight v. obese; married v. unmarried) and also across various types of foods (e.g. snacks v. fruits and vegetables). Participants came to the University of Minnesota's Epidemiology Clinical Research Center in spring 2010. The 203 participants were ≥18 years old and capable of reading English words on a computer 76 cm (30 in) away. Participants looked longer at labels for 'meal' items like pizza, soup and yoghurt compared with fruits and vegetables, snack items like crackers and nuts, and dessert items like ice cream and cookies. Participants spent longer looking at labels for foods they decided to purchase compared with foods they decided not to purchase. There were few between-group differences in nutrition label viewing across sex, race, age, BMI, marital status, income or educational attainment. Nutrition label viewing is related to food purchasing, and labels are viewed more when a food's healthfulness is ambiguous. Objectively measuring nutrition label viewing provides new insight into label use by various sociodemographic groups.

  7. Genetically Modified Food Labeling in China: In Pursuit of a Rational Path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao; Roberts, Michael T; Wu, Kaijie

    2016-08-01

    Facing a tension between the increasing use of genetically engineered or modified food and consumer concerns over the risks associated with GMOs, China has established a GM food labeling regime through regulations-known as Agro-GMO regulations-to protect consumers' right to know. However, the design and enforcement of this GM food labeling regime is problematic. As a result, the labeling regime is ineffective and inconsistent, leaving consumers' rights unprotected. As the recently amended Food Safety Law in China requires GM food labeling for the first time, this article argues that China should replace the current Agro-GMO food labeling scheme with a special regulatory scheme. A comparative analysis of the GM food labeling systems in the European Union and United States, coupled with a rigorous examination of the problems and barriers of GM food labeling in China, sets a solid foundation by which to propose changes to incorporate into a special regulatory scheme. To this end, this article engages in such an analysis and recommends practical steps to guide the enactment of a special regulatory scheme. The recommendations comport with China's unique legal and political culture, but also could be used by other national regulatory regimes who permit use of GM food while also being committed to improving consumers' right to know.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Baby Food Labelling in Hungary and in Romania: Consumers’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noémi Hajdú

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Baby food represents a growing segment of the food industry; the baby food labelling issues affect more and more mothers who want to make better and safer nutritional choices. In a continuously improving food labelling regulation environment consumer studies regarding the baby food labelling are very limited. Present article has an exploratory nature and aims to find specific patterns of baby food buying behaviour and labelling preference in Romania and Hungary, and also to reveal the behavioural similarities and differences between the two countries. To meet this aim, a questionnaire-based quantitative research was designed. The sample consists of 993 mothers (590 from Hungary and 403 from Romania with small children. Results show that there is a difference between Romanian and Hungarian mothers regarding the baby food buying habits. The profile of the mothers buying jarred baby food can be characterised by living in towns, with one or two children, and the propensity to give jarred baby food to their child is growing with their age. The mothers agree that the labels contain tiny, unreadable letters, disordered information, unknown expressions and bad translation. The Hungarian mothers pay more attention to the indication of allergen and to the ingredients list. The most important information cluster they seek on a label is related to product ingredients, the second is related to usage of baby food and the least important are the label design elements. The paper provides insightful results for the producers and policy-makers to improve the baby food label quality to help consumers to make better, healthier and safer food choices for their children.

  9. Food consumption and food exchange of caged honey bees using a radioactive labelled sugar solution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brodschneider

    Full Text Available We measured the distribution of sugar solution within groups of caged honey bees (Apis mellifera under standard in vitro laboratory conditions using 14C polyethylene glycol as a radioactive marker to analyze ingestion by individual bees after group feeding. We studied the impact of different experimental setups by varying the number of bees, age of bees, origin of bees, duration of experiment, the amount of available diet, and the influence of the neurotoxic pesticide imidacloprid in the diet on the feeding and food sharing behavior (trophallaxis. Sugar solution was non-uniformly distributed in bees in 36 out of 135 cages. As a measure of the extent to which the sugar diet was equally distributed between caged bees, we calculated the (inner 80% intake ratio by dividing the intake of the 90th percentile bee by the intake of the 10th percentile bee. This intake ratio ranged from 1.3 to 94.8 in 133 individual cages, further supporting a non-uniform distribution of food among caged bees. We can expect a cage with 10 or 30 bees containing one bee that ingests, on average, the 8.8-fold of the bee in the same cage ingesting the smallest quantity of food. Inner 80% intake ratios were lower in experiments with a permanent or chronic offering of labelled sugar solution compared to temporary or acute feedings. After pooling the data of replicates to achieve a higher statistical power we compared different experimental setups. We found that uniform food distribution is best approached with 10 newly emerged bees per cage, which originate from a brood comb from a single colony. We also investigated the trophallaxis between caged honey bees which originally consumed the diet and newly added bees. Color marked bees were starved and added to the cages in a ratio of 10:5 or 20:20 after the initial set of bees consumed all the labelled sugar solution. The distribution of the labelled sugar solution by trophallaxis within 48 hours to added bees was 25% (10:5 or 45

  10. Food consumption and food exchange of caged honey bees using a radioactive labelled sugar solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodschneider, Robert; Libor, Anika; Kupelwieser, Vera; Crailsheim, Karl

    2017-01-01

    We measured the distribution of sugar solution within groups of caged honey bees (Apis mellifera) under standard in vitro laboratory conditions using 14C polyethylene glycol as a radioactive marker to analyze ingestion by individual bees after group feeding. We studied the impact of different experimental setups by varying the number of bees, age of bees, origin of bees, duration of experiment, the amount of available diet, and the influence of the neurotoxic pesticide imidacloprid in the diet on the feeding and food sharing behavior (trophallaxis). Sugar solution was non-uniformly distributed in bees in 36 out of 135 cages. As a measure of the extent to which the sugar diet was equally distributed between caged bees, we calculated the (inner 80%) intake ratio by dividing the intake of the 90th percentile bee by the intake of the 10th percentile bee. This intake ratio ranged from 1.3 to 94.8 in 133 individual cages, further supporting a non-uniform distribution of food among caged bees. We can expect a cage with 10 or 30 bees containing one bee that ingests, on average, the 8.8-fold of the bee in the same cage ingesting the smallest quantity of food. Inner 80% intake ratios were lower in experiments with a permanent or chronic offering of labelled sugar solution compared to temporary or acute feedings. After pooling the data of replicates to achieve a higher statistical power we compared different experimental setups. We found that uniform food distribution is best approached with 10 newly emerged bees per cage, which originate from a brood comb from a single colony. We also investigated the trophallaxis between caged honey bees which originally consumed the diet and newly added bees. Color marked bees were starved and added to the cages in a ratio of 10:5 or 20:20 after the initial set of bees consumed all the labelled sugar solution. The distribution of the labelled sugar solution by trophallaxis within 48 hours to added bees was 25% (10:5) or 45% (20:20) of the

  11. Nutrition marketing on processed food packages in Canada: 2010 Food Label Information Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermel, Alyssa; Emrich, Teri E; Arcand, JoAnne; Wong, Christina L; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2013-06-01

    The current study describes the frequency of use of different forms of nutrition marketing in Canada and the nutrients and conditions that are the focus of nutrition marketing messages. Prepackaged foods with a Nutrition Facts table (N = 10,487) were collected between March 2010 and April 2011 from outlets of the 3 largest grocery chains in Canada and 1 major western Canadian grocery retailer. The nutrition marketing information collected included nutrient content claims, disease risk reduction claims, and front-of-pack nutrition rating systems (FOPS). We found that nutrition marketing was present on 48.1% of Canadian food packages, with nutrient content claims being the most common information (45.5%), followed by FOPS on 18.9% of packages. Disease risk reduction claims were made least frequently (1.7%). The marketing messages used most often related to total fat and trans fat (15.6% and 15.5% of nutrient content claims, respectively). Limiting total and trans fats is a current public health priority, as recommended by Health Canada and the World Health Organization. However, other nutrients that are also recommended to be limited, including saturated fats, sodium, and added sugars, were not nearly as prominent on food labels. Thus, greater emphasis should be placed by the food industry on these other important nutrients. Repeated data collection in the coming years will allow us to track longitudinal changes in nutrition marketing messages over time as food marketing, public health, and consumer priorities evolve.

  12. Precautionary labelling of foods for allergen content: are we ready for a global framework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy appears to be on the rise with the current mainstay of treatment centred on allergen avoidance. Mandatory allergen labelling has improved the safety of food for allergic consumers. However an additional form of voluntary labelling (termed precautionary allergen labelling) has evolved on a wide range of packaged goods, in a bid by manufacturers to minimise risk to customers, and the negative impact on business that might result from exposure to trace amounts of food allergen present during cross-contamination during production. This has resulted in near ubiquitous utilisation of a multitude of different precautionary allergen labels with subsequent confusion amongst many consumers as to their significance. The global nature of food production and manufacturing makes harmonisation of allergen labelling regulations across the world a matter of increasing importance. Addressing inconsistencies across countries with regards to labelling legislation, as well as improvement or even banning of precautionary allergy labelling are both likely to be significant steps forward in improved food safety for allergic families. This article outlines the current status of allergen labelling legislation around the world and reviews the value of current existing precautionary allergen labelling for the allergic consumer. We strongly urge for an international framework to be considered to help roadmap a solution to the weaknesses of the current systems, and discuss the role of legislation in facilitating this. PMID:24791183

  13. Precautionary labelling of foods for allergen content: are we ready for a global framework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Katrina J; Turner, Paul J; Pawankar, Ruby; Taylor, Stephen; Sicherer, Scott; Lack, Gideon; Rosario, Nelson; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Wong, Gary; Mills, E N Clare; Beyer, Kirsten; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Sampson, Hugh A

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy appears to be on the rise with the current mainstay of treatment centred on allergen avoidance. Mandatory allergen labelling has improved the safety of food for allergic consumers. However an additional form of voluntary labelling (termed precautionary allergen labelling) has evolved on a wide range of packaged goods, in a bid by manufacturers to minimise risk to customers, and the negative impact on business that might result from exposure to trace amounts of food allergen present during cross-contamination during production. This has resulted in near ubiquitous utilisation of a multitude of different precautionary allergen labels with subsequent confusion amongst many consumers as to their significance. The global nature of food production and manufacturing makes harmonisation of allergen labelling regulations across the world a matter of increasing importance. Addressing inconsistencies across countries with regards to labelling legislation, as well as improvement or even banning of precautionary allergy labelling are both likely to be significant steps forward in improved food safety for allergic families. This article outlines the current status of allergen labelling legislation around the world and reviews the value of current existing precautionary allergen labelling for the allergic consumer. We strongly urge for an international framework to be considered to help roadmap a solution to the weaknesses of the current systems, and discuss the role of legislation in facilitating this.

  14. Potential Effect of Physical Activity Calorie Equivalent (PACE) Labeling on Adult Fast Food Ordering and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Ray; Viera, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Numeric calorie content labels show limited efficacy in reducing the number of calories ordered from fast food meals. Physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) labels are an alternative that may reduce the number of calories ordered in fast food meals while encouraging patrons to exercise. A total of 1000 adults from 47 US states were randomly assigned via internet survey to one of four generic fast food menus: no label, calories only, calories + minutes, or calories + miles necessary to walk to burn off the calories. After completing hypothetical orders participants were asked to rate the likelihood of calorie-only and PACE labels to influence (1) food choice and (2) physical activity. Respondents (n = 823) ordered a median of 1580 calories from the no-label menu, 1200 from the calories-only menu, 1140 from the calories + minutes menu, and 1210 from the calories + miles menu (p = 0.0001). 40% of respondents reported that PACE labels were "very likely" to influence food item choice vs. 28% for calorie-only labels (pcalorie-only labels (pcalories ordered in fast food meals and may have the added benefit of encouraging exercise.

  15. Obesity prevention and personal responsibility: the case of front-of-pack food labelling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnusson Roger S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, the food industry and public health groups are locked in serious struggle for regulatory influence over the terms of front-of-pack food labelling. Clear, unambiguous labelling of the nutritional content of pre-packaged foods and of standardized food items sold in chain restaurants is consistent with the prevailing philosophy of 'personal responsibility'. An interpretive, front-of-pack labelling scheme has the capacity to encourage healthier patterns of eating, and to be a catalyst for improvements in the nutritional quality of food products through re-formulation. On the other hand, the strength of opposition of the Australian Food and Grocery Council to 'Traffic Light Labelling', and its efforts to promote a non-interpretive, voluntary scheme, invite the interpretation that the food industry is resistant to any reforms that could destabilise current (unhealthy purchasing patterns and the revenues they represent. Discussion This article argues that although policies that aim to educate consumers about the nutritional content of food are welcome, they are only one part of a broader basket of policies that are needed to make progress on obesity prevention and public health nutrition. However, to the extent that food labelling has the capacity to inform and empower consumers to make healthier choices - and to be a catalyst for improving the nutritional quality of commercial recipes - it has an important role to play. Furthermore, given the dietary impact of meals eaten in fast food and franchise restaurants, interpretive labelling requirements should not be restricted to pre-packaged foods. Summary Food industry resistance to an interpretive food labelling scheme is an important test for government, and a case study of how self-interest prompts industry to promote weaker, voluntary schemes that pre-empt and undermine progressive public health regulation.

  16. Obesity prevention and personal responsibility: the case of front-of-pack food labelling in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger S

    2010-11-02

    In Australia, the food industry and public health groups are locked in serious struggle for regulatory influence over the terms of front-of-pack food labelling. Clear, unambiguous labelling of the nutritional content of pre-packaged foods and of standardized food items sold in chain restaurants is consistent with the prevailing philosophy of 'personal responsibility'. An interpretive, front-of-pack labelling scheme has the capacity to encourage healthier patterns of eating, and to be a catalyst for improvements in the nutritional quality of food products through re-formulation. On the other hand, the strength of opposition of the Australian Food and Grocery Council to 'Traffic Light Labelling', and its efforts to promote a non-interpretive, voluntary scheme, invite the interpretation that the food industry is resistant to any reforms that could destabilise current (unhealthy) purchasing patterns and the revenues they represent. This article argues that although policies that aim to educate consumers about the nutritional content of food are welcome, they are only one part of a broader basket of policies that are needed to make progress on obesity prevention and public health nutrition. However, to the extent that food labelling has the capacity to inform and empower consumers to make healthier choices--and to be a catalyst for improving the nutritional quality of commercial recipes--it has an important role to play. Furthermore, given the dietary impact of meals eaten in fast food and franchise restaurants, interpretive labelling requirements should not be restricted to pre-packaged foods. Food industry resistance to an interpretive food labelling scheme is an important test for government, and a case study of how self-interest prompts industry to promote weaker, voluntary schemes that pre-empt and undermine progressive public health regulation.

  17. Obesity prevention and personal responsibility: the case of front-of-pack food labelling in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background In Australia, the food industry and public health groups are locked in serious struggle for regulatory influence over the terms of front-of-pack food labelling. Clear, unambiguous labelling of the nutritional content of pre-packaged foods and of standardized food items sold in chain restaurants is consistent with the prevailing philosophy of 'personal responsibility'. An interpretive, front-of-pack labelling scheme has the capacity to encourage healthier patterns of eating, and to be a catalyst for improvements in the nutritional quality of food products through re-formulation. On the other hand, the strength of opposition of the Australian Food and Grocery Council to 'Traffic Light Labelling', and its efforts to promote a non-interpretive, voluntary scheme, invite the interpretation that the food industry is resistant to any reforms that could destabilise current (unhealthy) purchasing patterns and the revenues they represent. Discussion This article argues that although policies that aim to educate consumers about the nutritional content of food are welcome, they are only one part of a broader basket of policies that are needed to make progress on obesity prevention and public health nutrition. However, to the extent that food labelling has the capacity to inform and empower consumers to make healthier choices - and to be a catalyst for improving the nutritional quality of commercial recipes - it has an important role to play. Furthermore, given the dietary impact of meals eaten in fast food and franchise restaurants, interpretive labelling requirements should not be restricted to pre-packaged foods. Summary Food industry resistance to an interpretive food labelling scheme is an important test for government, and a case study of how self-interest prompts industry to promote weaker, voluntary schemes that pre-empt and undermine progressive public health regulation. PMID:21044302

  18. The informational turn in food politics: The US FDA's nutrition label as information infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Xaq

    2017-04-01

    This article traces the history of the US FDA regulation of nutrition labeling, identifying an 'informational turn' in the evolving politics of food, diet and health in America. Before nutrition labeling was introduced, regulators actively sought to segregate food markets from drug markets by largely prohibiting health information on food labels, believing such information would 'confuse' the ordinary food consumer. Nutrition labeling's emergence, first in the 1970s as consumer empowerment and then later in the 1990s as a solution to information overload, reflected the belief that it was better to manage markets indirectly through consumer information than directly through command-and-control regulatory architecture. By studying product labels as 'information infrastructure', rather than a 'knowledge fix', the article shows how labels are situated at the center of a legally constructed terrain of inter-textual references, both educational and promotional, that reflects a mix of market pragmatism and evolving legal thought about mass versus niche markets. A change to the label reaches out across a wide informational environment representing food and has direct material consequences for how food is produced, distributed, and consumed. One legacy of this informational turn has been an increasing focus by policymakers, industry, and arguably consumers on the politics of information in place of the politics of the food itself.

  19. The EU Rules on Labelling of Genetically Modified Foods: Mission accomplished?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bracht

    2010-01-01

    of GMO related content in a food product is in fact an appropriate measure to protect consumer interests. Furthermore, the EU labelling rules may prove to be a trade obstacle causing conflict in the EU’s trade relations with third countries. The labelling rules will most likely be considered a trade......In 2003 the EU adopted new rules regulating all aspects of placing genetically modified foods on the market. The rules significantly enhance the scope of the labelling requirement in an attempt to accommodate consumer demand, but it is debatable whether or not a labelling requirement in the case...

  20. Outstanding Questions In First Amendment Law Related To Food Labeling Disclosure Requirements For Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2015-11-01

    The federal and state governments are increasingly focusing on food labeling as a method to support good health. Many such laws are opposed by the food industry and may be challenged in court, raising the question of what is legally feasible. This article analyzes outstanding questions in First Amendment law related to commercial disclosure requirements and conducts legal analysis and policy evaluation for three current policies. These include the Food and Drug Administration's draft regulation requiring an added sugar disclosure on the Nutrition Facts panel, California's proposed sugar-sweetened beverage safety warning label bill, and Vermont's law requiring labels of genetically engineered food to disclose this information. I recommend several methods for policy makers to enact food labeling laws within First Amendment parameters, including imposing factual commercial disclosure requirements, disclosing the government entity issuing a warning, collecting evidence, and identifying legitimate governmental interests. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  1. 75 FR 73107 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Blood Lancet Labeling; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ...] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Blood Lancet Labeling; Availability AGENCY... announcing the availability of the guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... single copies of the guidance document entitled ``Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration...

  2. Reading Food Labels: Tips If You Have Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/heart/obesity/lose_wt/fat_free.htm. Accessed Aug. 18, 2016. Nutrient content claims. American Diabetes Association. http://www.diabetes.org/food-and-fitness/food/what-can-i-eat/food- ...

  3. Copper absorption from foods labelled intrinsically and extrinsically with Cu-65 stable isotope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, L J; Dainty, J R; Beattie, J H; Majsak-Newman, G; Wharf, S G; Reid, M D; Fairweather-Tait, S J

    2005-03-01

    To determine copper absorption from copper containing foods labelled either intrinsically or extrinsically with a highly enriched Cu-65 stable isotope label. A longitudinal cross-over study. The study was conducted at the Institute of Food Research, Human Nutrition Unit, Norwich, UK. Subjects were recruited locally via advertisements placed around the Norwich Research Park. A total of 10 volunteers (nine female, one male) took part in the study, but not all volunteers completed each of the test meals. A highly enriched Cu-65 stable isotope label was administered to volunteers in the form of a reference dose or in breakfast test meals consisting of red wine, soya beans, mushrooms or sunflower seeds. Faecal monitoring and mass spectrometry techniques were used to estimate the relative quantities of copper absorbed from the different test meals. True copper absorption from the reference dose (54%) was similar to extrinsically labelled red wine (49%) and intrinsically labelled sunflower seeds (52%), but significantly higher than extrinsically labelled mushrooms (35%), intrinsically (29%) and extrinsically (15%) labelled soya beans and extrinsically labelled sunflower seed (32%) test meals. The use of Cu-65 extrinsic labels in copper absorption studies requires validation according to the food being examined; intrinsic and extrinsic labelling produced significantly different results for sunflower seeds.

  4. Reference serving sizes for the Brazilian population: An analysis of processed food labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Kliemann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare serving sizes reported on processed food labels with reference serving sizes according to nutrition labeling legislation and the "Food Guide for the Brazilian Population". METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed the labels of 2,072 processed foods in a supermarket of Florianópolis, Santa Caratina, Brazil. The foods were classified according to the Brazilian food labeling legislation. Central tendency and variability values were calculated for the serving sizes and energy values reported on the labels, as well as the ratio between the reported and reference energy value. The Spearman correlation test was performed between the reference serving size and the reference energy density, and also between the reference serving size and energy density of each study food. RESULTS: Nutrition labeling and the Food Guide presented reference servings with different sizes and energy values. The serving sizes reported on the labels did not follow either of the references and presented heterogeneous values, with a maximum range of 55-240 g among ready and semi-ready pre-prepared dishes. The reported energy values were between 0.1 times smaller and 2.4 times larger than the reference values. The reference serving sizes presented a highly inverse correlation with the reference energy density (Spearman coefficient= 0.9 and a very low inverse correlation with the energy density of the foods analyzed (Spearman coefficient= 0.2. CONCLUSION: This study showed the need for standardizing reference serving size information for the Brazilian population as well as reviewing nutrition labeling legislation in order to standardize the serving sizes reported on labels and to update the reference energy density used to calculate serving sizes.

  5. Calorie-labelling in catering outlets: acceptability and impacts on food sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, Charoula K; Lean, Michael E J; Hankey, Catherine R

    2014-10-01

    Obesity is the biggest challenge facing preventive medicine. Calorie-labelling has been suggested as a way of changing the architecture of an 'obesogenic' environment without limiting consumer choice. This study examined the effect of calorie-labelling on sales of food items at catering outlets on a city-centre university campus. Sales data were collected for two consecutive months in 2013 on three UK university sites (two with calorie-labelling during second month, one control) and analysed with chi-square 'Goodness-of-Fit' tests. A questionnaire seeking consumers' views and use of the calorie-labelling was administered and analysed at group-level with chi-square tests. In intervention vs control sites, total sales of all labelled items fell significantly (-17% vs -2%, p<0.001) for the month with calorie-labelling. Calorie-labelling was associated with substantially reduced sales of high-calorie labelled items, without any compensatory changes in unlabelled alternative items. Among 1166 student- and 646 staff-respondents, 56% reported using the calorie-labels, 97% of them to make lower-calorie choices. More females (63%) than males (40%) reported being influenced by calorie-labels when choosing foods (p=0.01). This study provides evidence, beyond that from single-meal exposures, for the acceptability of meal calorie-labelling and its potential as an effective low-cost anti-obesity measure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Food and nutrition labelling: the past, present and the way forward

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-29

    Nov 29, 2015 ... According to the World Health Organization (WHO), food labelling includes “any .... from rural areas move into urban areas (the nutrition transition), there ..... nutrient profiling models, recommended that the Australian and New.

  7. ‘If labels for GM food were present, would consumers trust them?’ Insights from a consumer survey in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Falck-Zepeda, J.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Food labelling is costly. Food labelling is often demanded with the introduction of new food products such as genetically modified (GM) food. If consumers do not have trust in the label, scarce resources are wasted. This paper investigates factors affecting the trust in food labels among Ugandan

  8. School Foodservice Personnel's Struggle with Using Labels to Identify Whole-Grain Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yen Li; Orsted, Mary; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe how school foodservice personnel use current labeling methods to identify whole-grain products and the influence on purchasing for school meals. Methods: Focus groups explored labeling methods to identify whole-grain products and barriers to incorporating whole-grain foods in school meals. Qualitative analysis procedures and…

  9. 77 FR 21077 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... guidelines; (c) studying specific labeling problems assigned to it by Codex; and (d) studying problems... Production, Processing, Labeling and Marketing of Organically Produced Foods. (a) Inclusion of Ethylene for... on: April 3, 2012. Karen Stuck, U.S. Manager for Codex Alimentarius. [FR Doc. 2012-8505 Filed 4-6-12...

  10. 78 FR 6804 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ...; (c) Studying specific labeling problems assigned to it by Codex; and (d) Studying problems associated... the Production, Processing, Labeling and Marketing of Organically Produced Foods. (a) Use of ethylene... Washington, DC on January 24, 2013. Mary Frances Lowe, U.S. Manager for Codex Alimentarius. [FR Doc. 2013...

  11. Potential effect of physical activity calorie equivalent labeling on parent fast food decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Anthony J; Antonelli, Ray

    2015-02-01

    Menu labels displaying food energy in physical activity calorie equivalents (PACE) is a possible strategy to encourage ordering meals with fewer calories and promoting physical activity. Potential effects of such labeling for children have never been examined. We conducted a national survey of 1000 parents randomized to 1 of 4 fast food menus: no labels, calories only, calories plus minutes, or calories plus miles needed to walk to burn the calories. Respondents were asked to imagine they were in a fast food restaurant and place an order for their child. At the survey's conclusion, all respondents were shown a calorie-only label and both PACE labels and asked to rate the likelihood each label would influence them to encourage their child to exercise. We excluded respondents whose meals totaled 0 calories or >4000 calories, leaving 823 parents in the analysis. The mean age of the child for whom the meal was "ordered" was 9.5 years. Parents whose menus displayed no label ordered an average of 1294 calories, whereas those shown calories only, calories plus minutes, or calories plus miles ordered 1066, 1060, and 1099 calories, respectively (P = .0001). Only 20% of parents reported that calories-only labeling would be "very likely" to prompt them to encourage their children to exercise versus 38% for calories plus minutes (P calories plus miles (P food items to order for their children and encourage them to get their children to exercise. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. 21 CFR 101.17 - Food labeling warning, notice, and safe handling statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... illness from bacteria: keep eggs refrigerated, cook eggs until yolks are firm, and cook foods containing eggs thoroughly. (2) The label statement required by paragraph (h)(1) of this section shall appear... significance that is likely to occur in the juice. (h) Shell eggs. (1) The label of all shell eggs, whether in...

  13. 27 CFR 4.32b - Petitions for exemption from major food allergen labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Petitions for exemption from major food allergen labeling. 4.32b Section 4.32b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE...

  14. 27 CFR 5.32b - Petitions for exemption from major food allergen labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Petitions for exemption from major food allergen labeling. 5.32b Section 5.32b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF...

  15. The Food Quality Labels: Awareness and Willingness to Pay in the Context of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Velčovská

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with quality labels utilization in the food products sector from consumer point of view and presents the results of research study which was conducted in the Czech Republic by interviewing a sample of 250 respondents selected by quota sampling methods. The study was aimed at analysing the consumers’ awareness and perceived credibility of food quality labels, at revealing their willingness to pay a higher price for certified products, and at determining whether significant differences do exist in the way consumers perceive the food quality labels based on their socio-demographic characteristics. The findings revealed a low awareness of food quality labels. A higher level of recognition as well as perceived credibility was proven for national quality labels. As the main problem were identified a poor information about quality labels and lack of confidence that certified products have declared characteristics. Consumers show an interest in getting information about the topic, they also express a willingness to pay a slightly higher price for certified products if they trust them. Our findings confirmed that significant differences do exist between socio-demographic characteristics of respondents (gender, age, education, and responsibility for food purchases and their attitudes toward the labels; no significant difference was found based on income.

  16. Valuing Information on GM Foods in the Presence of Country-of-Origin Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Xie; Hyeyoung Kim; Lisa House

    2013-01-01

    Information on production methods (genetic modification (GM) or organic production) and locations (country of origin) are commonly found on food package labels. Both pieces of information may be used as a proxy for food safety and (perceived) quality by consumers. Our study investigates the interactive effects between information on production method and country-of-origin labeling (COOL) by conducting choice experiments in the European Union, United States and Japan. This study also investig...

  17. A qualitative study of consumer perceptions and use of traffic light food labelling in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Wilma B; Waters, William F; Rivas-Mariño, Gabriela; Nguyen, Tien; Rivas, Patricio

    2017-04-01

    To analyse patterns of knowledge, comprehension, attitudes and practices regarding the traffic light label placed on processed food packages to inform Ecuadorian consumers about levels of added fat, sugar and salt. Twenty-one focus group discussions organized by age group, sex and place of residence. Interviews with representatives of companies that manufacture or market processed foods. Analysis of regulations and structured observations of processed food labels. Cities and towns in Ecuador's coastal, highland and eastern lowland regions. One hundred and seventy-eight participants in twenty-one focus group discussions and nine key informants. Focus group participants knew about the traffic light label and understood the information it conveys, but not all changed their attitudes and practices related to the purchase and consumption of processed foods. Children, adolescents and adult males reported using the information infrequently; adolescents interested in health and adult women used the label the most to select products. Representatives of companies that manufacture or market processed foods generally opposed the policy, stating that the information is misleading. Nevertheless, some companies have reduced levels of added fat, sugar or salt in their products. The traffic light label is an effective tool for conveying complex information. Its potential contribution to reduce consumption of products with high levels of fat, sugar and salt could be enhanced by promoting healthy diets among consumers who have not changed purchasing and consumption behaviour, by placing the label on front panels and by monitoring the production and marketing of processed foods.

  18. Consumers’ Awareness and Attitudinal Determinants of European Union Quality Label Use on Traditional Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Verbeke

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses European consumers’ awareness and determinants of use of PDO, PGI and TSG labels in six European countries (Italy, Spain, France, Bel- gium, Norway and Poland using data from a cross-sectional survey with 4,828 participants. The study confirms a higher awareness of PDO (68.1% as compared to PGI (36.4% and TSG (25.2%. Awareness is higher among men and people aged above 50 years. Consumers’ use of a PDO, PGI or TSG label is triggered by the belief that the label signals better product quality. Quality beliefs are shaped by an interest in getting information about product quality through the quality label. Interest in the origin of foods is a stronger direct and indirect driver of label use than interest in support for the local economy, but both motivations are not directly related to TSG-label use. Differences in the role of determinants are small between the three labelling schemes and between countries with versus without a strong tradition of quality labels in their agri- cultural and food quality policies. Apart from building general awareness and favourable quality perceptions of the quality schemes and their respective labels, efforts to stimulate consumers’ interest in origin and getting information about product quality through EU quality labels are recommended.

  19. 21 CFR 101.100 - Food; exemptions from labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... potassium metabisulfite) that has been added to any food or to any ingredient in any food and that has no... the required information. (i) Wrapped clusters (consumer units) of bananas of nonuniform weight...

  20. Consumer Confidence from Cluj-Napoca Metropolitan Area, in the Food Labeling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Ancuța Iancu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to discover the aspects that influence the consumer level of confidence (from ClujNapoca metropolitan area, regarding the information on the food label and their reading frequency a study based on a questionnaire was made. This was promoted online, especially on Facebook and was filled in by 392 persons. Besides the descriptive analysis meant to offer us an overview of the aspects that influence the consumer level of confidence regarding the information on the food label, the authors have proposed to observe the level of association and test some hypotheses, which are linked to the importance of some elements (sex, age, education, family income, buying food for children under 5 and over 6 years old, smokers, athletes, the perception of the correctness of information on the label, food poisoning, country of origin and the benefits of technology in food sector. The results indicate a decrease in the level of confidence of Romanian consumers in the information on the food label, while the age, the number of years spent on formal study, increased revenue and shopping of products for children under the age of 5 influence the frequency of label reading. On the other side, women grant a higher importance to the information that is mandatory, by law, to be included on the label, than men. This study shows the importance of improving the trust of consumers in the food labelling system by increasing the frequency of reading. We underline that information of consumers can’t be successfully achieved if they don’t read or trust the information found on the labels.

  1. 75 FR 74736 - Food Labeling Workshop; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001..., Lincoln Way and University Avenue, Iowa State Center, Ames, IA. Contact: David Arvelo, Food and Drug... payable to ``Iowa State University.'' Mail to: Dr. Ruth MacDonald, Food Science and Human Nutrition, 2312...

  2. Food consumption and nutritional labeling among immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Endevelt, Ronit; Zemach, Mina; Tirosh-Kamienchick, Yaara

    2015-04-01

    Nutritional labeling helps consumers make healthier choices regarding food product purchases. In this study, we examined the difference between immigrants from the former Soviet Union who emigrated to Israel beginning in 1990 (IIFSU) and the general population of Israel regarding food consumption broadly and the use of nutritional labeling specifically. A representative sample of each population (n = 592) was composed and interviewed. According to the findings, compared to the general population, the IIFSU attribute less importance to health factors in purchasing food products and information about the ingredients contained in food products; they tend not to follow nutritional labels; and report less on the need for nutritional integrative labeling. Following from this, in the second part of the study, we investigated which of the socio-economic variables is most dominant in shaping attitudes towards food consumption and nutritional labeling. Only immigration and age were found in correlation with attitudes related to healthy food consumption. In contrast, gender, education and religious observance did not affect food selection. Immigration was recognized as the main factor with more clout than the other variables. In conclusion, it is crucial to clarify immigrants' perceptions of the concept of "health" and "proper nutrition" in formulating health promotion programs.

  3. Precautionary labelling of foods for allergen content: are we ready for a global framework?

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Katrina J; Turner, Paul J; Pawankar, Ruby; Taylor, Stephen; Sicherer, Scott; Lack, Gideon; Rosario, Nelson; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Wong, Gary; Mills, E N Clare; Beyer, Kirsten; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Sampson, Hugh A

    2014-01-01

    16/02/15 meb. OA paper Ok to add. DOI and copyright added. ? 2014 Allen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.Food allergy appears to be on the rise with the current mainstay of treatment centred on allergen avoidance. Mandatory allergen labelling has improved the safety of food for allergic consumers. However an additional form of voluntary labelling (termed precautionary allergen labelling) has evolved on a wide range of packaged goods, in a bid by manufacturers to minimise risk to custome...

  4. Food Allergen Labeling and Purchasing Habits in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchisotto, Mary Jane; Harada, Laurie; Kamdar, Opal; Smith, Bridget M; Waserman, Susan; Sicherer, Scott; Allen, Katie; Muraro, Antonella; Taylor, Steve; Gupta, Ruchi S

    Mandatory labeling of products with top allergens has improved food safety for consumers. Precautionary allergen labeling (PAL), such as "may contain" or "manufactured on shared equipment," are voluntarily placed by the food industry. To establish knowledge of PAL and its impact on purchasing habits by food-allergic consumers in North America. Food Allergy Research & Education and Food Allergy Canada surveyed consumers in the United States and Canada on purchasing habits of food products featuring different types of PAL. Associations between respondents' purchasing behaviors and individual characteristics were estimated using multiple logistic regression. Of 6684 participants, 84.3% (n = 5634) were caregivers of a food-allergic child and 22.4% had food allergy themselves. Seventy-one percent reported a history of experiencing a severe allergic reaction. Buying practices varied on the basis of PAL wording; 11% of respondents purchased food with "may contain" labeling, whereas 40% purchased food that used "manufactured in a facility that also processes." Twenty-nine percent of respondents were unaware that the law requires labeling of priority food allergens. Forty-six percent were either unsure or incorrectly believed that PAL is required by law. Thirty-seven percent of respondents thought PAL was based on the amount of allergen present. History of a severe allergic reaction decreased the odds of purchasing foods with PAL. Almost half of consumers falsely believed that PAL was required by law. Up to 40% surveyed consumers purchased products with PAL. Understanding of PAL is poor, and improved awareness and guidelines are needed to help food-allergic consumers purchase food safely. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Quality assurance labels as drivers of loyalty in the case of traditional food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Giraud, Georges

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the role of quality assurance labels as drivers of customer loyalty in the case of traditional food products. More specifically, it investigates whether quality assurance labels, such as the Designation of Origin Labels (DOLs), perform as better drivers of loyalty in comparison...... to other brand-related attributes, such as price and brand type, and if brands carrying a DOL exhibit higher loyalty levels in comparison to brands that do not carry any DOL label. Scanner data were collected from a panel of 789 French customers recording purchases over a year within a traditional food...... product category. The olarisation index (phi) was used as a measure of loyalty. The findings show that in comparison with other extrinsic product attributes, DOLs constitute less important drivers of loyalty. However, brands carrying a DOL in comparison to brands that do not carry any DOL label exhibit...

  6. 'Snack' versus 'meal': The impact of label and place on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Jane; Wood, Chloe; Payne, Elise; Fouracre, Hollie; Lammyman, Frances

    2018-01-01

    Eating behaviour is influenced by both cognitions and triggers in the environment. The potential difference between a 'snack' and a 'meal' illustrates these factors and the way in which they interact, particularly in terms of the label used to describe food and the way it is presented. To date no research has specifically explored the independent and combined impact of label and presentation on eating behaviour. Using a preload/taste test design this experimental study evaluated the impact of label ('snack' vs. 'meal') and place ('snack' vs. 'meal') of a preload on changes in desire to eat and subsequent food intake. Eighty female participants consumed a pasta preload which labelled as either a 'snack' or a 'meal' and presented as either a 'snack' (standing and eating from a container) or a 'meal' (eating at a table from a plate), generating four conditions. The results showed main effects of label and place with participants consuming significantly more sweet mass (specifically chocolate) at the taste test when the preload had been labelled a 'snack' and more total mass and calories when the preload had been presented as a 'snack'. No label by place interactions were found. The results also showed a combined effect of both label and place with those who had eaten the preload both labelled and presented as a 'snack' consuming significantly more in terms of nearly all measures of food intake than those in the other conditions. To conclude, label and presentation influence subsequent food intake both independently and combined which is pertinent given the increase in 'snacking' in contemporary culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. College Students Must Overcome Barriers to Use Calorie Labels in Fast-Food Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stran, Kimberly A; Knol, Linda L; Turner, Lori W; Severt, Kimberly; McCallum, Debra M; Lawrence, Jeannine C

    2016-02-01

    To explore predictors of intention of college students to use calorie labels on fast-food menus and differences in calories ordered after viewing calorie information. Quasi-experimental design. Participants selected a meal from a menu without calorie labels, selected a meal from the same menu with calorie labels, and completed a survey that assessed demographics, dietary habits, Theory of Planned Behavior constructs, and potential barriers to use of calorie labeling. A southern university. Undergraduate university students (n = 97). Predictors of intention to use calorie labels and whether calories selected from the nonlabeled menu differed from the labeled menu. Confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis, multiple regression, and paired t tests. Participants ordered significantly fewer calories (P = .02) when selecting from the labeled menu vs the menu without labels. Attitudes (P = .006), subjective norms (P behavioral control (P = .01) predicted intention to use calorie information but did not predict a difference in the calories ordered. Hunger (P = .03) and cost (P = .04) were barriers to using the calorie information. If students can overcome barriers, calorie labeling could provide information that college students need to select lower-calorie items at fast-food restaurants. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Language and Nutrition (Mis)Information: Food Labels, FDA Policies and Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Christy Marie

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, I address the ways in which food manufacturers can exploit the often vague and ambiguous nature of FDA policies concerning language and images used on food labels. Employing qualitative analysis methods (Strauss, 1987; Denzin and Lincoln, 2003; Mackey and Gass, 2005) that drew upon critical discourse analysis (Fairclough,…

  9. Organic food labeling and certification: comparison between Czech Republic and Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madar, A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on data collected from specialized reports and articles on organic products, the aim of this paper is to present the importance of organic products, the regulations on organic food and different labels used around the world in order to certify the organic food products. It also seeing the organic trends in both the Czech Republic and Romania.

  10. The impact of private labels on the competitiveness of the European food supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunte, F.H.J.; Galen, van M.A.; Winter, de M.A.; Dobson, P.; Bergès-Sennou, F.; Monier-Dilhan, S.; Juhász, A.; Moro, D.; Sckokai, P.; Soregaroli, C.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Szajkowska, A.

    2011-01-01

    The report studies the impact of private labels on the competitiveness of the European food processing industry and investigates whether a system of producer indication may improve the functioning of the food supply chain. The impact is studied using economic theory and empirical and legal analysis.

  11. Nutrition labeling and value size pricing at fast-food restaurants: a consumer perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Harnack, Lisa J; French, Simone A; Story, Mary; Oakes, J Michael; Jeffery, Robert W

    2006-01-01

    This pilot study examined nutrition-related attitudes that may affect food choices at fast-food restaurants, including consumer attitudes toward nutrition labeling of fast foods and elimination of value size pricing. A convenience sample of 79 fast-food restaurant patrons aged 16 and above (78.5% white, 55% female, mean age 41.2 [17.1]) selected meals from fast-food restaurant menus that varied as to whether nutrition information was provided and value pricing included and completed a survey and interview on nutrition-related attitudes. Only 57.9% of participants rated nutrition as important when buying fast food. Almost two thirds (62%) supported a law requiring nutrition labeling on restaurant menus. One third (34%) supported a law requiring restaurants to offer lower prices on smaller instead of bigger-sized portions. This convenience sample of fast-food patrons supported nutrition labels on menus. More research is needed with larger samples on whether point-of-purchase nutrition labeling at fast-food restaurants raises perceived importance of nutrition when eating out.

  12. Validity of the remote food photography method against doubly labeled water among minority preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to determine the validity of energy intake (EI) estimations made using the remote food photography method (RFPM) compared to the doubly labeled water (DLW) method in minority preschool children in a free-living environment. Seven days of food intake and spot urine samples...

  13. Sociodemographic disparities among fast-food restaurant customers who notice and use calorie menu labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jessie E; Brown, Alan G; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2015-07-01

    As part of the recently passed Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, chain restaurants with 20 or more locations nationwide will soon be required to post calorie information on menus with the aim of helping customers make healthier food choices. To be effective, this policy must affect all customers, especially those most at risk for poor health and diet outcomes. To determine whether noticing or using calorie menu labels was associated with demographic characteristics of customers at a national fast-food chain currently implementing calorie menu labeling. Cross-sectional analysis. Customer receipts and survey data were collected from 329 participants using street-intercept survey methodology at 29 McDonald's restaurant locations in low- and high-income neighborhoods throughout the Phoenix, AZ, metropolitan area. Calorie menu labeling awareness and use were assessed. The total number of calories purchased was evaluated using participants' itemized receipts. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to calculate the odds of customers noticing or using calorie menu labels. Approximately 60% of participants noticed calorie menu labels, whereas only 16% reported using the information for food or beverage purchases. Higher-income individuals had twice the odds of noticing calorie labels (P=0.029) and three times the odds of using them (P=0.004). Significant positive associations were found between individuals with a bachelor's degree or higher and use of calorie menu labels (odds ratio 3.25; P=0.023). Noticing calorie menu labels was not associated with purchasing fewer calories; however, those who reported using calorie information purchased 146 fewer calories than those who did not (P=0.001). Using calorie menu labels is associated with purchasing fewer calories. However, there are significant socioeconomic disparities among customers who notice and use calorie menu labels. Targeted education campaigns are needed to improve the use of menu labeling

  14. Food labelled Information: An Empirical Analysis of Consumer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Banterle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analysing which kinds of currently labelled information are of interest and actually used by consumers, and which additional kinds could improve consumer choices. We investigate the attitude of consumers with respect to innovative strategies for the diffusion of product information, as smart-labels for mobile-phones. The empirical analysis was organised in focus groups followed by a survey on 240 consumers. Results show that the most important nutritional claims are vitamins, energy and fat content. Consumers show a high interest in the origin of the products, GMOs, environmental impact, animal welfare and type of breeding.

  15. Differences in consumer use of food labels by weight loss strategies and demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A

    2015-12-22

    Little is known about national patterns in the use of fast food and packaged food labels among adults by weight loss strategies and demographic characteristics. We analyzed the Consumer Behavior Module in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 among adults (N = 9,690). For each of the outcome variables - use of packed food and fast food menu labels - multiple logistic regressions were used to adjust for potential differences in population characteristics by weight loss activities and demographic characteristics. Overall, 69 percent of adults reported they would use fast food information and 76 percent reported using the nutrition facts panel on packaged foods. Adults trying to lose weight had a greater likelihood of reporting use of nutrition information to choose fast foods (OR = 1.72; 95 % CI: 1.29, 2.29) and using the nutrition facts panel on food labels (OR = 1.92; 95 % CI: 1.60, 2.30). Black and Hispanic adults were more likely to report using ingredients lists on packaged foods compared to Whites (White -63 %, Black/Hispanic -68 %, p fast food nutrition information.

  16. Colour correct: the interactive effects of food label nutrition colouring schemes and food category healthiness on health perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyilasy, Gergely; Lei, Jing; Nagpal, Anish; Tan, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of food label nutrition colouring schemes in interaction with food category healthiness on consumers' perceptions of food healthiness. Three streams of colour theory (colour attention, colour association and colour approach-avoidance) in interaction with heuristic processing theory provide consonant predictions and explanations for the underlying psychological processes. A 2 (food category healthiness: healthy v. unhealthy)×3 (food label nutrient colouring schemes: healthy=green, unhealthy=red (HGUR) v. healthy=red, unhealthy=green (HRUG) v. no colour (control)) between-subjects design was used. The research setting was a randomised-controlled experiment using varying formats of food packages and nutritional information colouring. Respondents (n 196) sourced from a national consumer panel, USA. The findings suggest that, for healthy foods, the nutritional colouring schemes reduced perceived healthiness, irrespective of which nutrients were coloured red or green (healthinesscontrol=4·86; healthinessHGUR=4·10; healthinessHRUG=3·70). In contrast, for unhealthy foods, there was no significant difference in perceptions of food healthiness when comparing different colouring schemes against the control. The results make an important qualification to the common belief that colour coding can enhance the correct interpretation of nutrition information and suggest that this incentive may not necessarily support healthier food choices in all situations.

  17. Mandatory food labeling of trans fat acids: qualitative analysis of the public consultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Fernandes Davies

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify the stakeholders and their contributions to the public consultation carried out with regard to the mandatory trans fat acids food labeling proposal in Brazil. Methodology thematic analysis of the documents. Results 25 stakeholders made suggestions regarding the proposed law, and the majority belonged to the food industry sector. The following issues were raised: lack of knowledge among the consumers about trans fat acids; lack of information about trans fat acids in food composition tables and infrastructure to analyse the trans fat content of foods; voluntary trans fat labelling. Conclusions The stakeholders addressed important issues, such as improving nutritional knowledge among the population. However, few stakeholders linked to consumers took part in the public consultation, which might lead to disproportionate influence of the food industry on the development of future food policies.

  18. Adherence to a Gluten Free Diet Is Associated with Receiving Gluten Free Foods on Prescription and Understanding Food Labelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humayun Muhammad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of coeliac disease requires a strict gluten-free (GF diet, however, a high proportion of patients do not adhere to a GF diet. The study explores the practical challenges of a GF diet and dietary adherence in Caucasian and South Asian adults with coeliac disease. Patients with biopsy- and serology-proven coeliac disease were recruited from a hospital database. Participants completed a postal survey (n = 375, including a validated questionnaire designed to measure GF dietary adherence. Half of Caucasians (53% and South Asians (53% were adhering to a GF diet. The quarter of patients (n = 97 not receiving GF foods on prescription had a lower GF dietary adherence score compared with those receiving GF foods on prescription (12.5 versus 16.0; p < 0.001. Not understanding food labelling and non-membership of Coeliac UK were also associated with lower GF dietary adherence scores. A higher proportion of South Asian patients, compared with Caucasians, reported difficulties understanding what they can eat (76% versus 5%; p < 0.001 and understanding of food labels (53% versus 4%; p < 0.001. We recommend retaining GF foods on prescription, membership of a coeliac society, and regular consultations with a dietitian to enable better understanding of food labels. Robust studies are urgently needed to evaluate the impact of reducing the amount of GF foods prescribed on adherence to a GF diet in all population groups.

  19. Differentiating the consumer benefits from labeling of GM food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scatasta, S.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Hobbs, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Although recurrent evidence is found that consumers have different willingness to pay for GM and non-GM products, there is disagreement in the scientific community about the size of consumer benefits from GM labeling. In this article we use a theoretical model based on a standard constant elasticity

  20. Processed foods and the consumer: additives, labeling, standards, and nutrition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Packard, Vernal S

    1976-01-01

    ... supplements; and it brings together under one cover the health-related issues of food additives and nutrition. If I were to point to one objective of this work, it would be to guide student and consumer alike through the maze of food ingredients, regulations, and standards in order to make as clear as present knowledge allows the critical issues co...

  1. Are there good reasons for fluoride labelling of food and drink?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohoori, F V; Maguire, A

    2018-02-23

    This opinion piece highlights the importance of controlling systemic fluoride intake from food and drink in early childhood to minimise risk of dental fluorosis whilst maximising caries prevention; the wide range of fluoride contents found in a study of commercially-available food and drinks; and the need for comprehensive fluoride labelling on food and drink products in the UK, particularly those used by infants and young children.

  2. Food labels: consumer’s information or consumer’s confusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monier-Dilhan Sylvette

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper synthesizes findings of published research on the impact of food labels on consumers’ willingness to pay and focuses on the consumers’ rationales when deciding to purchase organic food. The first issue refers to one aspect of the proliferation of quality labels in the agro-food sector: the coexistence of two signs on one product and the consequences of this coexistence on the value of each sign. In the context of the competition between national brands and private labels through public quality labels, it has been shown that the willingness to pay for a quality sign decreases when it is combined with another one on the same product. The second concern is a two-fold issue: the characterization of “organics food consumers” in terms of socio-demographics characteristics and consumers’ purchasing motives. The more consistent result is that consumers with higher levels of education are more likely to purchase organic products. The three main reasons for buying organic products are considerations related to health, product quality, and environmental protection. The proliferation of signs about quality is a topical issue related to the emergence of sustainability issues that highlight labels linked to agro-ecological practices. The question of the effectiveness of the informational role of labels remains relevant.

  3. A nudge in a healthy direction. The effect of nutrition labels on food purchasing behaviors in university dining facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Catherine E; Levitsky, David A; Pacanowski, Carly R; Bertz, Fredrik

    2015-09-01

    Despite legislation that requires restaurants to post nutritional labels on their products or menu items, the scientific literature provides inconsistent support for the idea that adding labels to foods will change buying patterns. Lack of success of previous research may be that sample sizes have been too small and durations of studies too short. To assess the effect of nutrition labeling on pre-packaged food purchases in university dining facilities. Weekly sales data for a sample of pre-packaged food items were obtained and analyzed, spanning three semesters before and three semesters after nutritional labels were introduced on to the sample of foods. The labels summarized caloric content and nutrient composition information. Mean nutrient composition purchased were calculated for the sample of foods. Labeled food items were categorized as high-calorie, low-calorie, high-fat, or low-fat foods and analyzed for change as a function of the introduction of the labels. Data were obtained from all retail dining units located at Cornell University, Ithaca, NY where the pre-packaged food items were sold. Results indicated that the introduction of food labels resulted in a 7% reduction of the mean total kcals purchased per week (p < 0.001) from the labeled foods. Total fat purchased per week were also reduced by 7% (p < 0.001). Percent of sales from "low-calorie" and "low-fat" foods (p < 0.001) increased, while percent of sales from "high-calorie" and "high-fat" foods decreased (p < 0.001). The results suggest that nutrition labels on pre-packaged foods in a large university dining hall produces a small but significant reduction of labeled high calorie and high fat foods purchased and an increase in low calorie, low fat foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Child and adolescent fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labeling: a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, B; Gyamfi, J; Kersh, R

    2011-04-01

    Obesity is an enormous public health problem and children have been particularly highlighted for intervention. Of notable concern is the fast-food consumption of children . However, we know very little about how children or their parents make fast-food choices, including how they respond to mandatory calorie labeling. We examined children's and adolescents' fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labels in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) and in a comparison city (Newark, NJ). Natural experiment: Survey and receipt data were collected from low-income areas in NYC, and Newark, NJ (as a comparison city), before and after mandatory labeling began in NYC. Study restaurants included four of the largest chains located in NYC and Newark: McDonald's, Burger King, Wendy's and Kentucky Fried Chicken. A total of 349 children and adolescents aged 1-17 years, who visited the restaurants with their parents (69%) or alone (31%) before or after labeling was introduced. In total, 90% were from racial or ethnic minority groups. We found no statistically significant differences in calories purchased before and after labeling; many adolescents reported noticing calorie labels after their introduction (57% in NYC) and a few considered the information when ordering (9%). Approximately 35% of adolescents ate fast food six or more times per week and 72% of adolescents reported that taste was the most important factor in their meal selection. Adolescents in our sample reported that parents have some influence on their meal selection. Adolescents in low-income communities notice calorie information at similar rates as adults, although they report being slightly less responsive to it than adults. We did not find evidence that labeling influenced adolescent food choice or parental food choices for children in this population.

  5. Child and adolescent fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labeling: a natural experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, B; Gyamfi, J; Kersh, R

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity is an enormous public health problem and children have been particularly highlighted for intervention. Of notable concern is the fast-food consumption of children. However, we know very little about how children or their parents make fast-food choices, including how they respond to mandatory calorie labeling. We examined children’s and adolescents’ fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labels in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) and in a comparison city (Newark, NJ). Design Natural experiment: Survey and receipt data were collected from low-income areas in NYC, and Newark, NJ (as a comparison city), before and after mandatory labeling began in NYC. Study restaurants included four of the largest chains located in NYC and Newark: McDonald’s, Burger King, Wendy’s and Kentucky Fried Chicken. Subjects A total of 349 children and adolescents aged 1–17 years who visited the restaurants with their parents (69%) or alone (31%) before or after labeling was introduced. In total, 90% were from racial or ethnic minority groups. Results We found no statistically significant differences in calories purchased before and after labeling; many adolescents reported noticing calorie labels after their introduction (57% in NYC) and a few considered the information when ordering (9%). Approximately 35% of adolescents ate fast food six or more times per week and 72% of adolescents reported that taste was the most important factor in their meal selection. Adolescents in our sample reported that parents have some influence on their meal selection. Conclusions Adolescents in low-income communities notice calorie information at similar rates as adults, although they report being slightly less responsive to it than adults. We did not find evidence that labeling influenced adolescent food choice or parental food choices for children in this population. PMID:21326209

  6. Food allergy knowledge, perception of food allergy labeling, and level of dietary practice: A comparison between children with and without food allergy experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongmi; Ju, Seyoung

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The prevalence of food allergies in Korean children aged 6 to 12 years increased from 10.9% in 1995 to 12.6% in 2012 according to nationwide population studies. Treatment for food allergies is avoidance of allergenic-related foods and epinephrine auto-injector (EPI) for accidental allergic reactions. This study compared knowledge and perception of food allergy labeling and dietary practices of students. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study was conducted with the fourth to sixth grade students from an elementary school in Yongin. A total of 437 response rate (95%) questionnaires were collected and statistically analyzed. RESULTS The prevalence of food allergy among respondents was 19.7%, and the most common food allergy-related symptoms were urticaria, followed by itching, vomiting and nausea. Food allergens, other than 12 statutory food allergens, included cheese, cucumber, kiwi, melon, clam, green tea, walnut, grape, apricot and pineapple. Children with and without food allergy experience had a similar level of knowledge on food allergies. Children with food allergy experience thought that food allergy-related labeling on school menus was not clear or informative. CONCLUSION To understand food allergies and prevent allergic reactions to school foodservice among children, schools must provide more concrete and customized food allergy education. PMID:25671074

  7. Food allergen law and the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004: falling short of true protection for food allergy sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roses, Jonathan B

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, Congress mandated labeling of food allergens on packaged foods for the first time by passing the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA). FALCPA requires that manufacturers of foods containing one of the eight major allergens responsible for 90 percent of food allergies either state on the food's packaging that the food contains the allergen, or refers to the allergen by a name easily understandable by consumers in the ingredients listing. Despite this important first step in protecting consumers with food allergies, FALCPA left unregulated the use of conditional precautionary statements (e.g., "may contain [allergen]"), which many manufacturers have used as a low-cost shield to liability. Further, FALCPA applies only to packaged foods, and does not mandate listing of food allergen ingredients in restaurants. This article discusses the history of food allergen litigation in the United States, highlighting the problems plaintiffs have faced in seeking recovery for allergic reactions to a defendants' food product, and some of the practical difficulties still extant due to the lack of regulation of precautionary statements. Also presented is a review of the Massachusetts Food Allergy Awareness Act, the first state legislation requiring restaurants to take an active role in educating employees and consumers about the presence and dangers of food allergens.

  8. Physical activity-equivalent label reduces consumption of discretionary snack foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Isabella E; Keast, Russell Sj; Liem, Dijn G

    2018-03-01

    The present research aimed to investigate the impact of the physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) front-of-pack label on consumption, prospective consumption and liking of familiar and unfamiliar discretionary snack foods. In a within-subject randomised design, participants tasted and rated liking (9-point hedonic scale) and prospective consumption (9-point category scale) of four different snack foods with four different labels (i.e. blank, fake, PACE, PACE doubled) and four control snack foods. The twenty snack foods were presented during two 45 min sessions (i.e. ten snack foods per session) which were separated by one week. The amount participants sampled of each snack food was measured. The study was conducted in the Centre for Advanced Sensory Sciences laboratory at Deakin University, Australia. The participants were 153 university students (126 females, twenty-seven males, mean age 24·3 (sd 4·9) years) currently enrolled in an undergraduate nutrition degree at Deakin University. When the PACE label was present on familiar snack foods, participants sampled 9·9 % (22·8 (sem 1·4) v. 25·3 (sem 1·5) g, P=0·03) less than when such label was not present. This was in line with a decreased prospective snack food consumption of 9·1 % (3·0 (sem 0·2) v. 3·3 (sem 0·2) servings, P=0·03). Such pattern was not seen in unfamiliar snacks. The PACE label appears to be a promising way to decrease familiar discretionary snack food consumption in young, health-minded participants.

  9. Consumer choice: Linking consumer intentions to actual purchase of GM labeled food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleenhoff, Susanne; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    With a mandatory labeling scheme for GM food in Europe since 2004 measuring actual consumer choice in practice has become possible. Anticipating Europeans negative attitude toward GM food, the labeling was enforced to allow consumers to make an informed choice. We studied consumers actual purchase behavior of GM food products and compared this with their attitude and behavioral intention for buying GM food. We found that despite a majority of consumers voicing a negative attitude toward GM food over 50% of our European respondents stated that they did not actively avoid the purchase of GM food and 6% actually purchased one of the few available GM labeled food products in the period between September 2006 and October 2007. Our results imply that a voiced negative attitude of consumers in responses to questionnaires about their intentions is not a reliable guide for what they actually do in supermarkets. We conclude that the assumption of a negative attitude with regard to GM food is at least in part construed.

  10. Use and understanding of nutrition information on food labels in six European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Grunert , Klaus G.; Fernández-Celemín , Laura; Wills , Josephine M.; Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann , Stefan; Nureeva , Liliya

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim The goal of the study was to investigate the use of nutrition information on food labels and understanding of guideline daily amount (GDA) front-of-pack nutrition labels in six European countries. Subjects and methods In-store observations and in-store interviews were conducted in major retailers in the UK (n?=?2019), Sweden (n?=?1858), France (n?=?2337), Germany (n?=?1963), Poland (n?=?1800) ...

  11. 21 CFR 1.382 - What labeling or marking requirements apply to a detained article of food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What labeling or marking requirements apply to a detained article of food? 1.382 Section 1.382 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Administrative Detention of Food for...

  12. [Consumer reaction to information on the labels of genetically modified food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian-Ponce, Miren Itxaso; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2014-02-01

    To analyze consumer opinion on genetically modified foods and the information included on the label. A systematic review of the scientific literature on genetically modified food labeling was conducted consulting bibliographic databases (Medline - via PubMed -, EMBASE, ISI-Web of knowledge, Cochrane Library Plus, FSTA, LILACS, CINAHL and AGRICOLA) using the descriptors "organisms, genetically modified" and "food labeling". The search covered the first available date, up to June 2012, selecting relevant articles written in English, Portuguese or Spanish. Forty articles were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All of them should have conducted a population-based intervention focused on consumer awareness of genetically modified foods and their need or not, to include this on the label. The consumers expressed a preference for non-genetically modified products, and added that they were prepared to pay more for this but, ultimately, the product bought was that with the best price, in a market which welcomes new technologies. In 18 of the articles, the population was in favor of obligatory labelling, and in six, in favor of this being voluntary; seven studies showed the consumer knew little about genetically modified food, and in three, the population underestimated the quantity they consumed. Price was an influencing factor in all cases. Label should be homogeneous and clarify the degree of tolerance of genetically modified products in humans, in comparison with those non-genetically modified. Label should also present the content or not of genetically modified products and how these commodities are produced and should be accompanied by the certifying entity and contact information. Consumers express their preference for non-genetically modified products and they even notice that they are willing to pay more for it, but eventually they buy the item with the best price, in a market that welcomes new technologies.

  13. Penetration of nutrition information on food labels across the EU-27 plus Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storcksdieck genannt Bonsmann, S; Celemín, L Fernández; Larrañaga, A; Egger, S; Wills, J M; Hodgkins, C; Raats, M M

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The European Union (EU)-funded project Food Labelling to Advance Better Education for Life (FLABEL) aims to understand how nutrition information on food labels affects consumers' dietary choices and shopping behaviour. The first phase of this study consisted of assessing the penetration of nutrition labelling and related information on various food products in all 27 EU Member States and Turkey. Methods: In each country, food products were audited in three different types of retailers to cover as many different products as possible within five food and beverage categories: sweet biscuits, breakfast cereals, pre-packed chilled ready meals, carbonated soft drinks and yoghurts. Results: More than 37 000 products were audited in a total of 84 retail stores. On average, 85% of the products contained back-of-pack (BOP) nutrition labelling or related information (from 70% in Slovenia to 97% in Ireland), versus 48% for front-of-pack (FOP) information (from 24% in Turkey to 82% in the UK). The most widespread format was the BOP tabular or linear listing of nutrition content. Guideline daily amounts labelling was the most prevalent form of FOP information, showing an average penetration of 25% across all products audited. Among categories, breakfast cereals showed the highest penetration of nutrition-related information, with 94% BOP penetration and 70% FOP penetration. Conclusions: Nutrition labelling and related information was found on a large majority of products audited. These findings provide the basis for subsequent phases of FLABEL involving attention, reading, liking, understanding and use by consumers of different nutrition labelling formats. PMID:20808336

  14. The effect of energy and traffic light labelling on parent and child fast food selection: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Pennie; Wolfenden, Luke; Chapman, Kathy; Wellard, Lyndal; Hughes, Clare; Wiggers, John

    2014-02-01

    Labelling of food from fast food restaurants at point-of-purchase has been suggested as one strategy to reduce population energy consumption and contribute to reductions in obesity prevalence. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of energy and single traffic light labelling systems on the energy content of child and adult intended food purchases. The study employed a randomised controlled trial design. English speaking parents of children aged between three and 12 years were recruited from an existing research cohort. Participants were mailed one of three hypothetical fast food menus. Menus differed in their labelling technique – either energy labels, single traffic light labels, or a no-label control. Participants then completed a telephone survey which assessed intended food purchases for both adult and child. The primary trial outcome was total energy of intended food purchase. A total of 329 participants completed the follow-up telephone interview. Eighty-two percent of the energy labelling group and 96% of the single traffic light labelling group reported noticing labelling information on their menu. There were no significant differences in total energy of intended purchases of parents, or intended purchases made by parents for children, between the menu labelling groups, or between menu labelling groups by socio-demographic subgroups. This study provided no evidence to suggest that energy labelling or single traffic light labelling alone were effective in reducing the energy of fast food items selected from hypothetical fast food menus for purchase. Additional complementary public health initiatives promoting the consumption of healthier foods identified by labelling, and which target other key drivers of menu item selection in this setting may be required.

  15. Discriminating nutritional quality of foods using the 5-Color nutrition label in the French food market: consistency with nutritional recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, Chantal; Ducrot, Pauline; Péneau, Sandrine; Deschamps, Valérie; Méjean, Caroline; Fézeu, Léopold; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-09-28

    Our objectives were to assess the performance of the 5-Colour nutrition label (5-CNL) front-of-pack nutrition label based on the Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system to discriminate nutritional quality of foods currently on the market in France and its consistency with French nutritional recommendations. Nutritional composition of 7777 foods available on the French market collected from the web-based collaborative project Open Food Facts were retrieved. Distribution of products across the 5-CNL categories according to food groups, as arranged in supermarket shelves was assessed. Distribution of similar products from different brands in the 5-CNL categories was also assessed. Discriminating performance was considered as the number of color categories present in each food group. In the case of discrepancies between the category allocation and French nutritional recommendations, adaptations of the original score were proposed. Overall, the distribution of foodstuffs in the 5-CNL categories was consistent with French recommendations: 95.4% of 'Fruits and vegetables', 72.5% of 'Cereals and potatoes' were classified as 'Green' or 'Yellow' whereas 86.0% of 'Sugary snacks' were classified as 'Pink' or 'Red'. Adaptations to the original FSA score computation model were necessary for beverages, added fats and cheese in order to be consistent with French official nutritional recommendations. The 5-CNL label displays a high performance in discriminating nutritional quality of foods across food groups, within a food group and for similar products from different brands. Adaptations from the original model were necessary to maintain consistency with French recommendations and high performance of the system.

  16. Toward a sustainability label for food products: an analysis of experts' and consumers' acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Stéphanie V; Hansmann, Ralf; Scholz, Roland W

    2010-01-01

    The recent proliferation of standards and labels for organic, fair-trade, locally produced, and healthy food products risks creating confusion among consumers. This study presents a standardized approach to developing a comprehensive sustainability label that incorporates ecological, economic, and social values. The methodology is based on an extension of modular life-cycle assessment to non-environmental sustainability criteria. Interviews with a wide range of experts (n=65) and a consumer survey (n=233) were conducted to analyze the feasibility and potential effectiveness of the approach. Responses indicated that a comprehensive sustainability label could considerably influence consumption patterns and facilitate cross-product comparisons. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  17. A Comparison of the Sodium Content of Supermarket Private-Label and Branded Foods in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevena, Helen; Neal, Bruce; Dunford, Elizabeth; Haskelberg, Hila; Wu, Jason H Y

    2015-08-21

    Supermarket private-label products are perceived to be lower quality than their branded counterparts. Excess dietary sodium in foods contributes to high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Sodium concentrations in products are an important indicator of quality. We compared the sodium content of 15,680 supermarket private-label and branded products, available in four Australian supermarkets between 2011-2013, overall and for 15 food categories. Mean sodium values were compared for: (1) all products in 2013; (2) products in both 2011 and 2013; and (3) products only in 2013. Comparisons were made using paired and unpaired t tests. In each year the proportion of supermarket private-label products was 31%-32%, with overall mean sodium content 17% (12%-23%) lower than branded products in 2013 (p ≤ 0.001). For products available in both 2011 and 2013 there was a ≤2% (1%-3%) mean sodium reduction overall with no difference in reformulation between supermarket private-label and branded products (p = 0.73). New supermarket private-label products in 2013 were 11% lower in sodium than their branded counterparts (p = 0.02). Supermarket private-label products performed generally better than branded in terms of their sodium content. Lower sodium intake translates into lower blood pressure; some supermarket private-label products may be a good option for Australians needing to limit their sodium intake.

  18. Effects of an icon-based menu labelling initiative on consumer food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerins, Claire; Cunningham, Katie; Finucane, Francis M; Gibson, Irene; Jones, Jenni; Kelly, Colette

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an icon-based menu labelling initiative on consumer buying behaviour. This quasi-experimental study recruited a convenience sample of eight food service establishments, all with at least one menu item meeting the heart healthy criteria. Data from sales of all menu items sold over an 8-week period were collated 4 weeks prior to and 4 weeks during the display of information icons related to healthy food choices on menus. The absolute change in menu item sales showed a non-significant trend towards an increase in healthier menu item selections. Furthermore, there was no association between the type of food service establishment and the percentage change in labelled menu item sales. The study did not find a statistically significant influence of the icon-based menu labels on consumer food choice. Given the limited amount of research that examines alternative menu labelling formats in real-world settings, more studies are necessary to confirm these results. Further research is needed to identify the optimal format, content and impact of menu labels on consumer behaviour.

  19. Age differences in the use of serving size information on food labels: numeracy or attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa M Soederberg; Applegate, Elizabeth; Beckett, Laurel A; Wilson, Machelle D; Gibson, Tanja N

    2017-04-01

    The ability to use serving size information on food labels is important for managing age-related chronic conditions such as diabetes, obesity and cancer. Past research suggests that older adults are at risk for failing to accurately use this portion of the food label due to numeracy skills. However, the extent to which older adults pay attention to serving size information on packages is unclear. We compared the effects of numeracy and attention on age differences in accurate use of serving size information while individuals evaluated product healthfulness. Accuracy and attention were assessed across two tasks in which participants compared nutrition labels of two products to determine which was more healthful if they were to consume the entire package. Participants' eye movements were monitored as a measure of attention while they compared two products presented side-by-side on a computer screen. Numeracy as well as food label habits and nutrition knowledge were assessed using questionnaires. Sacramento area, California, USA, 2013-2014. Stratified sample of 358 adults, aged 20-78 years. Accuracy declined with age among those older adults who paid less attention to serving size information. Although numeracy, nutrition knowledge and self-reported food label use supported accuracy, these factors did not influence age differences in accuracy. The data suggest that older adults are less accurate than younger adults in their use of serving size information. Age differences appear to be more related to lack of attention to serving size information than to numeracy skills.

  20. Impact of food labelling systems on food choices and eating behaviours: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, M; Warin, L

    2016-03-01

    Food labels are considered a crucial component of strategies tackling unhealthy diets and obesity. This study aims at assessing the effectiveness of food labelling in increasing the selection of healthier products and in reducing calorie intake. In addition, this study compares the relative effectiveness of traffic light schemes, Guideline Daily Amount and other food labelling schemes. A comprehensive set of databases were searched to identify randomized studies. Studies reporting homogeneous outcomes were pooled together and analysed through meta-analyses. Publication bias was evaluated with a funnel plot. Food labelling would increase the amount of people selecting a healthier food product by about 17.95% (confidence interval: +11.24% to +24.66%). Food labelling would also decrease calorie intake/choice by about 3.59% (confidence interval: -8.90% to +1.72%), but results are not statistically significant. Traffic light schemes are marginally more effective in increasing the selection of healthier options. Other food labels and Guideline Daily Amount follow. The available evidence did not allow studying the effects of single labelling schemes on calorie intake/choice. Findings of this study suggest that nutrition labelling may be an effective approach to empowering consumers in choosing healthier products. Interpretive labels, as traffic light labels, may be more effective. © 2015 World Obesity.

  1. The Influence of Nutrition Labeling and Point-of-Purchase Information on Food Behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Ekaterina; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2015-03-01

    Point-of-purchase information on packaged food has been a highly debated topic. Various types of nutrition labels and point-of-purchase information have been studied to determine their ability to attract consumers' attention, be well understood and promote healthy food choices. Country-specific regulatory and monitoring frameworks have been implemented to ensure reliability and accuracy of such information. However, the impact of such information on consumers' behaviour remains contentious. This review summarizes recent evidence on the real-world effectiveness of nutrition labels and point-of-purchase information.

  2. Aminocarminic acid in E120-labelled food additives and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatino, Leonardo; Scordino, Monica; Gargano, Maria; Lazzaro, Francesco; Borzì, Marco A; Traulo, Pasqualino; Gagliano, Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    An analytical method was developed for investigating aminocarminic acid occurrence in E120-labelled red-coloured-beverages and in E120 additives, with the aim of controlling the purity of the carmine additive in countries where the use of aminocarminic acid is forbidden. The carminic acid and the aminocarminic acid were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-tandem mass spectrography (HPLC-PDA-MS/MS). The method was statistically validated. The regression lines, ranging from 10 to 100 mg/L, showed r(2 )> 0.9996. Recoveries from 97% to 101% were obtained for the fortification level of 50 mg/L; the relative standard deviations did not exceed 3%. The LODs were below 2 mg/L, whereas the LOQs did not exceed 4 mg/L. The method was successfully applied to 27 samples of commercial E120-labelled red-coloured beverages and E120 additives, collected in Italy during quality control investigations conducted by the Ministry. The results demonstrated that more than 50% of the samples contained aminocarminic acid, evidencing the alarming illicit use of this semi-synthetic carmine acid derivative.

  3. Testing Two Nutrient Profiling Models of Labelled Foods and Beverages Marketed in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, Derya; Kızıl, Mevlüde; Uyar, Muhemmet Fatih; Pekcan, Gülden

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutrient profile of labelled foods and also understand the application of two international nutrient profiling models of labelled foods and beverages. WXYfm and NRF 9.3 nutrient profiling models were used to evaluate 3,171 labelled foods and beverages of 38 food categories and 500 different brands. According to the WXYfm model, pasta, grains and legumes and frozen foods had the best scores whereas oils had the worst scores. According to the NRF 9.3 model per 100 kcal, the best scores were obtained for frozen foods, grains and legumes and milk products whereas the confectionery foods had the worst scores. According to NRF 9.3 per serving size, grains and legumes had the best scores and flavoured milks had the worst scores. A comparison of WXYfm and NRF 9.3 nutrient profiling models ranked scores showed a high positive correlation (p=0.01). The two nutrient models evaluated yielded similar results. Further studies are needed to test other category specific nutrient profiling models in order to understand how different models behave. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  4. Harmonisation of food labelling regulations in Southeast Asia: benefits, challenges and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasapila, William; Shaarani, Sharifudin Md

    2011-01-01

    In the globalised world of the 21st century, issues of food and nutrition labelling are of pre-eminent importance. Several international bodies, including the World Health Organisation and World Trade Organisation, are encouraging countries to harmonise their food and nutrition regulations with international standards, guidelines and recommendations such as those for Codex Alimentarius. Through harmonisation, these organisations envisage fewer barriers to trade and freer movement of food products between countries, which would open doors to new markets and opportunities for the food industry. In turn, increased food trade would enhance economic development and allow consumers a greater choice of products. Inevitably, however, embracing harmonisation brings along cost implications and challenges that have to be overcome. Moreover, the harmonisation process is complex and sporadic in light of the tasks that countries have to undertake; for example, updating legislation, strengthening administrative capabilities and establishing analytical laboratories. This review discusses the legislation and regulations that govern food and nutrition labelling in Southeast Asia, and highlights the discrepancies that exist in this regard, their origin and consequences. It also gives an account of the current status of harmonising labelling of pre-packaged foodstuffs in the region and explains the subsequent benefits, challenges and implications for governments, the food industry and consumers.

  5. Beyond labelling: what strategies do nut allergic individuals employ to make food choices? A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Barnett

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Food labelling is an important tool that assists people with peanut and tree nut allergies to avoid allergens. Nonetheless, other strategies are also developed and used in food choice decision making. In this paper, we examined the strategies that nut allergic individuals deploy to make safe food choices in addition to a reliance on food labelling. METHODS: THREE QUALITATIVE METHODS: an accompanied shop, in-depth semi-structured interviews, and the product choice reasoning task - were used with 32 patients that had a clinical history of reactions to peanuts and/or tree nuts consistent with IgE-mediated food allergy. Thematic analysis was applied to the transcribed data. RESULTS: Three main strategies were identified that informed the risk assessments and food choice practices of nut allergic individuals. These pertained to: (1 qualities of product such as the product category or the country of origin, (2 past experience of consuming a food product, and (3 sensory appreciation of risk. Risk reasoning and risk management behaviours were often contingent on the context and other physiological and socio-psychological needs which often competed with risk considerations. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding and taking into account the complexity of strategies and the influences of contextual factors will allow healthcare practitioners, allergy nutritionists, and caregivers to advise and educate patients more effectively in choosing foods safely. Governmental bodies and policy makers could also benefit from an understanding of these food choice strategies when risk management policies are designed and developed.

  6. Consumer reaction to information on the labels of genetically modified food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian-Ponce, Miren Itxaso; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze consumer opinion on genetically modified foods and the information included on the label. METHODS A systematic review of the scientific literature on genetically modified food labeling was conducted consulting bibliographic databases (Medline – via PubMed –, EMBASE, ISI-Web of knowledge, Cochrane Library Plus, FSTA, LILACS, CINAHL and AGRICOLA) using the descriptors “organisms, genetically modified” and “food labeling”. The search covered the first available date, up to June 2012, selecting relevant articles written in English, Portuguese or Spanish. RESULTS Forty articles were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All of them should have conducted a population-based intervention focused on consumer awareness of genetically modified foods and their need or not, to include this on the label. The consumers expressed a preference for non-genetically modified products, and added that they were prepared to pay more for this but, ultimately, the product bought was that with the best price, in a market which welcomes new technologies. In 18 of the articles, the population was in favor of obligatory labelling, and in six, in favor of this being voluntary; seven studies showed the consumer knew little about genetically modified food, and in three, the population underestimated the quantity they consumed. Price was an influencing factor in all cases. CONCLUSIONS Label should be homogeneous and clarify the degree of tolerance of genetically modified products in humans, in comparison with those non-genetically modified. Label should also present the content or not of genetically modified products and how these commodities are produced and should be accompanied by the certifying entity and contact information. Consumers express their preference for non-genetically modifiedproducts and they even notice that they are willing to pay more for it, but eventually they buy the item with the best price, in a market that welcomes

  7. Predicament of Chinese legislation on genetically modified food (GMF) labeling management and solutions - from the perspective of the new food safety law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Li, Han

    2017-11-01

    This paper considers the background of Article 69 of the newly revised Food Safety Law in China in combination with the current situation of Chinese legislation on GMF labeling management, compared with a foreign genetically modified food labeling management system, revealing deficiencies in the Chinese legislation with respect to GMF labeling management, and noting that institutions should properly consider the GMF labeling management system in China. China adheres to the principle of mandatory labeling based on both product and processes in relation to GMFs and implements a system of process-centered mandatory labeling under a negotiation-construction form. However, China has not finally defined the supervision mode of mandatory labeling of GMFs through laws, and this remains a challenge for GMF labeling management when two mandatory labeling modes coexist. Since April 2015 and October 1, 2015 when the Food Safety Law was revised and formally implemented respectively, the applicable judicial interpretations and enforcement regulations have not made applicable revisions and only principle-based terms have been included in the Food Safety Law, it is still theoretically and practically difficult for mandatory labeling of GMFs in juridical practices and conflicts between the principle of GMF labeling and the purpose that safeguards consumers' right to know remain. The GMF labeling system should be legislatively and practically improved to an extent that protects consumers' right to know. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Survey of peanut levels in selected Irish food products bearing peanut allergen advisory labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Orla N; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Remington, Benjamin C; Baumert, Joseph L; Taylor, Steve L

    2013-01-01

    Peanut allergy affects up to 2% of consumers and is responsible for the majority of fatalities caused by food-induced anaphylaxis. Peanut-containing products must be clearly labelled. Manufacturers are not legally required to label peanut if its inclusion resulted from unintentional cross contact with foods manufactured in the same facility. However, the use of allergen advisory statements alerting consumers of the potential presence of peanut allergen has increased in recent years. In previous studies, the vast majority of foods with precautionary allergen statements did not contain detectable levels of peanut, but no data are available on Irish food products. Thirty-eight food products bearing peanut/nut allergen-related statements were purchased from multiple locations in the Republic of Ireland and analysed for the presence of peanut. Peanut was detected in at least one lot in 5.3% (2 of 38) of the products tested. The doses of peanut detected ranged from 0.14 mg to 0.52 mg per suggested serving size (0.035-0.13 mg peanut protein). No detectable levels of peanut were found in the products that indicated peanut/nuts as a minor ingredient. Quantitative risk assessment, based on the known distribution of individual threshold doses for peanut, indicates that only a very small percentage of the peanut-allergic population would be likely to experience an allergic reaction to those products while the majority of products with advisory labels appear safe for the peanut-allergic population. Food manufacturers should be encouraged to analyse products manufactured in shared facilities and even on shared equipment with peanuts for peanut residues to determine whether sufficient risk exists to warrant the use of advisory labelling. Although it appears that the majority of food products bearing advisory nut statements are in fact free of peanut contamination, advice to peanut allergy sufferers to avoid said foods should continue in Ireland and therefore in the wider European

  9. The effects of nutrition labeling on consumer food choice: a psychological experiment and computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Peter; Shultz, Thomas R

    2014-12-01

    The widespread availability of calorie-dense food is believed to be a contributing cause of an epidemic of obesity and associated diseases throughout the world. One possible countermeasure is to empower consumers to make healthier food choices with useful nutrition labeling. An important part of this endeavor is to determine the usability of existing and proposed labeling schemes. Here, we report an experiment on how four different labeling schemes affect the speed and nutritional value of food choices. We then apply decision field theory, a leading computational model of human decision making, to simulate the experimental results. The psychology experiment shows that quantitative, single-attribute labeling schemes have greater usability than multiattribute and binary ones, and that they remain effective under moderate time pressure. The computational model simulates these psychological results and provides explanatory insights into them. This work shows how experimental psychology and computational modeling can contribute to the evaluation and improvement of nutrition-labeling schemes. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Aspects of Private Labels Development in the Segment of Organic Food in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kutnohorska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with various aspects of the private labels building. It primarily focuses on organic food market in the Czech Republic, but on this market it illustrates the general trends, both in brand building, as well as in the importance of a brand in purchasing decisions. Organic food market is specific as there is high importance of product attributes, which are based on customer's confidence. Many of the important criteria for the decision to purchase (the way of cultivation and processing of food, freshness, taste, etc. are not possible to be objectively assessed before buying. A brand name plays a large role in the confidence based attributes. Consumers perceive it as a certain guarantee of the expected quality. In the field of organic food there are still not strong brands but there is the space and the need to differentiate organic from conventional foods, in particular. A suitable option could be the retail chain private labels, which are already partially developed as far as for consumers subconscious expectations are concerned. The final part of the article provides an overview of the current offer of organic food private labels in the Czech Republic.  

  11. Influence of time orientation on food choice: Case study with cookie labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tórtora, Giuliana; Ares, Gastón

    2018-04-01

    Time orientation can influence health-related behaviors, including food consumption. The aim of the present work was to study the influence of time orientation on food choice, using cookie labels as case study. A choice-conjoint task was designed using labels differing in type of cookie (chocolate chips vs. granola), front-of-pack nutrition information (nutritional warnings vs. Facts Up Front system) and nutritional claim (no claim vs. "0% cholesterol. 0% trans fat"). An online study was conducted, in which 155 participants evaluated 8 pairs of cookie labels and selected the one they would buy if they were in the supermarket. Then, they were asked to complete a consideration of future consequences scale (CFC) adapted to eating habits, as well as a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics. Time orientation influenced participants' choices of cookies labels; particularly the importance attached to type of cookie. Participants with greater consideration of future consequences preferred the granola cookies, associated with health, while those who prioritized immediate consequences preferred chocolate chip cookies. In addition, nutritional warnings discouraged choice regardless of participants' time orientation. Results from the present work provide additional evidence of the influence of time preferences on food choices and suggest that strategies to stimulate and generate a more future-oriented perspective on eating habits could contribute to more healthful food choices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparing private label and manufacturer brand innovation projects in a Dutch food processing company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omta, S.W.F.; Fortuin, F.T.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The time when private labels consisted only of low-priced, low-quality products has long gone. A new type of cooperative innovation project has emerged in which food processors and retailers work closely together to target consumers with new and innovative products. These so-called high-end private

  13. Food label reading and understanding in parts of rural and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    educational status (p<0.05), employment status (p<0.05) and locality (p<0.05). .... in the final analysis. Results ... Income per month ... *Differences between groups are statistically significant at p < 0.05 based on .... European countries revealed the following prevalences of food label reading; UK 52%, Ireland 65%, Sweden.

  14. Determinants of food demand and the experienced taste effect of healthy labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of taste and health in food demand, as well as the effect on consumers’ experienced taste of the non-intrinsic value of healthy labels. Our analysis is based on taste experiments and Vickrey second price auctions on potato chips and bread. Our findings imply...

  15. 76 FR 71248 - Animal Food Labeling; Declaration of Certifiable Color Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... survey of pet food products for dogs, cats, rabbits, and guinea pigs, however, found that only 13 of the... change the wording of their labels. Animal feeds for a limited number of production animals, such as... assumptions on the use of color additives in animal feeds for production animals in general, and in particular...

  16. The Validation of a Food Label Literacy Questionnaire for Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jesse S.; Treu, Judith A.; Njike, Valentine; Walker, Jennifer; Smith, Erica; Katz, Catherine S.; Katz, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the reliability and validity of a 10-item questionnaire, the Food Label Literacy for Applied Nutrition Knowledge questionnaire. Methods: Participants were elementary school children exposed to a 90-minute school-based nutrition program. Reliability was assessed via Cronbach alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient…

  17. Lessons from EU voluntary Labelling Schemes for GM-Free Processed Food Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venus, T.J.; Kalaitzandonakes, Nicholas; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2016-01-01

    In the European Union, a mandatory GMO labeling law for food and feed products that contain more than 0.9 % EU-approved GMOs has been in place since the early 2000s. This law does not include animal products derived from animals that were fed with GM feed. To enable consumers to also choose animal

  18. Food bar labels: consumer behaviour and veracity of the available information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gonçalo Domiciano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The search for high nutritional value, convenience, low-calorie foods with pleasant sensory characteristics which provide health benefits, makes food bars a promising product in the food sector, and they are already being considered as healthy alternatives according to common sense. The objectives of this study were: (i to evaluate the interest and the way in which consumers understand the information on food labels; (ii to determine consumer habits; and (iii to determine the sugar contents of commercial food bars (conventional, sugar-free and light to confirm the veracity of the information available on the labels of these products. Regarding the consumption of food bars, the majority of the respondents consumed this product and, although most of them considered them to be a healthy product due to the allegation of being rich in fibre and cereals, even with the knowledge of the presence of sugar, the main reasons taken into consideration when buying them were convenience and practicality. Socio-demographic variables such as gender, age, income and educational level influenced the standards and behaviours of consumption of the product. The quantification of sugar in commercial food bars indicated that these products could be considered as foods with intermediate to high amounts of sugar. The results obtained for sugar-free bars were even more worrying because the concentrations of sugar found indicated a lack of compliance with applicable regulations for this category for all the brands evaluated.

  19. 76 FR 20686 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Safety Labeling Changes; Implementation of the Federal Food, Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0164] Draft Guidance for Industry on Safety Labeling Changes; Implementation of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  20. Nutritional labelling for healthier food or non-alcoholic drink purchasing and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Rachel A; King, Sarah E; Marteau, Theresa M; Prevost, A T; Bignardi, Giacomo; Roberts, Nia W; Stubbs, Brendon; Hollands, Gareth J; Jebb, Susan A

    2018-01-01

    Background Nutritional labelling is advocated as a means to promote healthier food purchasing and consumption, including lower energy intake. Internationally, many different nutritional labelling schemes have been introduced. There is no consensus on whether such labelling is effective in promoting healthier behaviour. Objectives To assess the impact of nutritional labelling for food and non-alcoholic drinks on purchasing and consumption of healthier items. Our secondary objective was to explore possible effect moderators of nutritional labelling on purchasing and consumption. Search methods We searched 13 electronic databases including CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase to 26 April 2017. We also handsearched references and citations and sought unpublished studies through websites and trials registries. Selection criteria Eligible studies: were randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs/Q-RCTs), controlled before-and-after studies, or interrupted time series (ITS) studies; compared a labelled product (with information on nutrients or energy) with the same product without a nutritional label; assessed objectively measured purchasing or consumption of foods or non-alcoholic drinks in real-world or laboratory settings. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion and extracted study data. We applied the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool and GRADE to assess the quality of evidence. We pooled studies that evaluated similar interventions and outcomes using a random-effects meta-analysis, and we synthesised data from other studies in a narrative summary. Main results We included 28 studies, comprising 17 RCTs, 5 Q-RCTs and 6 ITS studies. Most (21/28) took place in the USA, and 19 took place in university settings, 14 of which mainly involved university students or staff. Most (20/28) studies assessed the impact of labelling on menus or menu boards, or nutritional labelling placed on, or adjacent to, a range of foods or drinks from

  1. Choosing front-of-package food labelling nutritional criteria: how smart were 'Smart Choices'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Christina A; Bragg, Marie A; Livingston, Kara A; Harris, Jennifer L; Thompson, Jackie M; Seamans, Marissa J; Brownell, Kelly D

    2012-02-01

    The 'Smart Choices' programme was an industry-driven, front-of-package (FOP) nutritional labelling system introduced in the USA in August 2009, ostensibly to help consumers select healthier options during food shopping. Its nutritional criteria were developed by members of the food industry in collaboration with nutrition and public health experts and government officials. The aim of the present study was to test the extent to which products labelled as 'Smart Choices' could be classified as healthy choices on the basis of the Nutrient Profile Model (NPM), a non-industry-developed, validated nutritional standard. A total of 100 packaged products that qualified for a 'Smart Choices' designation were sampled from eight food and beverage categories. All products were evaluated using the NPM method. In all, 64 % of the products deemed 'Smart Choices' did not meet the NPM standard for a healthy product. Within each 'Smart Choices' category, 0 % of condiments, 8·70 % of fats and oils, 15·63 % of cereals and 31·58 % of snacks and sweets met NPM thresholds. All sampled soups, beverages, desserts and grains deemed 'Smart Choices' were considered healthy according to the NPM standard. The 'Smart Choices' programme is an example of industries' attempts at self-regulation. More than 60 % of foods that received the 'Smart Choices' label did not meet standard nutritional criteria for a 'healthy' food choice, suggesting that industries' involvement in designing labelling systems should be scrutinized. The NPM system may be a good option as the basis for establishing FOP labelling criteria, although more comparisons with other systems are needed.

  2. A South African study of consumers' perceptions of food labels and its relevance to their purchasing behaviour / R. Klein

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Riana

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION: This study had been motivated by the lack of existing data on South African consumers' perceptions of food labels and its relevance to purchasing behaviour. In order to gather this information it is important to understand consumers and their purchasing behaviour so that these could be translated into food label characteristics to implement consumer-oriented label development (Sijtsema et al., 2002:565). Consumers' purchasing behaviour is influenc...

  3. Marketing and labelling of radiation insect-disinfested food and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, R.W.; Urbain, W.M.

    1985-01-01

    Marketing procedures need to be designed specifically for the particular products involved. While most marketing efforts are directed toward the consumer, it is likely that with radiation insect-disinfestated foods, the principal effort will be concerned with food distributors and retailers. Labelling as ''irradiated'' should be at the option of the vendor and not mandatory. A three-step procedure for marketing is proposed: (1) identification of specific market need or opportunity; (2) test production and marketing; and (3) commercial production and marketing. It is suggested that information on irradiated foods directed toward answering potential consumer interests and concerns be made available

  4. THE AWARENESS OF THE EU FOOD LABELLING SYSTEM AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Cichocka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A high level of competition combined with food safety related risks gives cause for producers to offer and consumers to seek means of reducing the risk involved in transactions. One such means is a food labelling system. The article presents the results of research aimed at determining the awareness of the food labelling system among young people. A diagnostic survey method was used in the research and a tool constituted an anonymous questionnaire that was completed by 451 students. The awareness may be described as low. The symbol of a green leaf (called EURO-LISTEK in Polish was recognized by a fifth of the respondents. The awareness of quality symbols was much lower. A few of the respondents named the product on which a symbol was put and the greatest difficulty was to specify the content which a given symbol delivered. The fact that the system of labelling food products is hardly known is particularly troubling since the research was conducted two years after the Agricultural Market Agency launched a campaign promoting the EU system of symbols called “Three Symbols of Taste”. It is recommended that advertising campaigns are designed in such a way as to inform young consumers about the advantages of certified food products as well as to carry out educational activities targeted at young consumers.

  5. The “Natural” vs. “Natural Flavors” Conflict in Food Labeling: A Regulatory Viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Matthew J

    Food branded with a Natural label can be found in any grocery store across the United States. Consumers consider this label to be an important attribute when making a purchasing decision and billions of dollars are spent annually on these products. While many consumers believe Natural foods are healthier, heavy reliance on that assumption is misguided as “Natural” has no formal legal definition—it’s merely defined pursuant to an FDA approved informal policy. Another important health attribute in a consumer’s purchasing decision is the presence of natural flavors in food. However, unlike the term Natural, FDA has promulgated legally binding regulations for natural flavors. These flavors are currently the fourth most common food ingredient listed on food labels. In reality, “natural flavors” are a far cry from what consumers might expect, as they can contain both artificial and synthetic chemicals (often used as processing aids). Nonetheless, without a legally binding Natural regulation, there has been little opportunity to contest the naturalness of natural flavors in the past. Recently, FDA has initiated a notification of request for comments on use of the term Natural, so an attempt to promulgate regulations may be underway. Thus, it is appropriate to consider where natural flavors will fall if binding regulations are set forth. This article looks at the Natural debate, its history, and model regulatory standards worth considering. Within that context, it also provides a critical discussion concerning a misunderstood, yet federally regulated, ingredient that our society so heavily consumes: natural flavors.

  6. The role of health-related, motivational and sociodemographic aspects in predicting food label use: a comprehensive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Rebecca; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies focused on a limited number of determinants of food label use. We therefore tested a comprehensive model of food label use consisting of sociodemographic, health-related and motivating variables. These three predictor groups were chosen based on the previous literature and completed with new predictors not yet examined in a comprehensive study of frequency of label use. We sent questionnaires to a random sample of households in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. The respondents filled in the questionnaire at home and returned it by mail. We analysed the data of 1162 filled-in questionnaires (response rate = 38 %). Of the respondents, 637 were women (55 %), and their mean age was 53·54 (sd 15·68) years. Health-related variables were the most important group of predictors of label use, followed by motivating factors and sociodemographic variables. Placing importance on health, healthy eating and nutritional value of food, perceived vulnerability for diet-related diseases, nutrition knowledge, numeracy and gender were positively associated with frequency of food label use whereas shopping habits and seeing eating as something positive were negative predictors of frequency of label use. People's health consciousness should be raised in order to increase the frequency of food label use. Furthermore, it should be stressed that reading labels and keeping a healthy diet do not contradict 'good eating', and that both of these aspects can be combined with the help of food labels.

  7. A retrospective view on Designation of Origin Labeled foods in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Perrea, Toula

    2017-01-01

    In the emergence of ethically conscious consumer segments across Europe, the expectation was that Designation of Origin Labeled (DOL) foods would make a production system of similar logic. Past analysis of DOLs' registration history showed that the take-up of this EU food quality scheme concentra......In the emergence of ethically conscious consumer segments across Europe, the expectation was that Designation of Origin Labeled (DOL) foods would make a production system of similar logic. Past analysis of DOLs' registration history showed that the take-up of this EU food quality scheme...... concentrated in the South, attributed to specific food supply and demand conditions prevalent in that part of Europe. This paper sheds light on the DOL product distribution and examines its evolution over a 14-year period (2001-2014). DOLs remain a quality differentiation scheme predominantly for the South EU...... agri-food industry. However, the less restrictive requirements for the PGI certification make it a much more popular DOL in Northern EU. To promote its food quality policy, the EU must approach the two DOL types differently, as they have a different growth potential among EU countries. DOLs...

  8. Nutrition knowledge, and use and understanding of nutrition information on food labels among consumers in the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Wills, Josephine M.; Fernández-Celemín, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Based on in-store observations in three major UK retailers, in-store interviews (2019) and questionnaires filled out at home and returned (921), use of nutrition information on food labels and its understanding were investigated. Respondents' nutrition knowledge was also measured, using...... a comprehensive instrument covering knowledge of expert recommendations, nutrient content in different food products, and calorie content in different food products. Across six product categories, 27% of shoppers were found to have looked at nutrition information on the label, with guideline daily amount (GDA...... information on food labels is mainly related to nutrition knowledge. Both are in turn affected by demographic variables, but in different ways....

  9. Investigation on the role of consumer health orientation in the use of food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, A; De Marchi, E; Banterle, A

    2017-06-01

    This study explored the relationship between health orientation (i.e. individual motivation to engage in healthy attitudes, beliefs and behaviours) and consumers' use of nutritional information on food labels. Specifically, this study analysed the relationship between a number of direct investments in health (namely those behaviours that can contribute directly to maintain a good health status) and use of nutritional information on food labels. Data for the analysis were collected through face-to-face interviews with a sample of 540 Italian consumers in charge of their grocery shopping. Forty grocery stores, including supermarkets and hypermarkets, were selected using a systematic sampling technique. Data were analysed using three equations and accounting for endogeneity issues. This study found that those consumer groups with low health orientation (specifically smokers, those who do not exercise regularly, and those with an unhealthy body weight) show little interest in nutritional labels. Nutritional labels as a tool to promote healthier food choices have a limited effect on those consumers in greatest need of pursuing healthier lifestyle habits. Alternative policy intervention should be undertaken to reach these consumer groups. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The practice and perception of precautionary allergen labelling by the Australasian food manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurzolo, G A; Peters, R L; Koplin, J J; de Courten, M; Mathai, M L; Tye-Din, J A; Tang, M L K; Campbell, D E; Ponsonby, A-L; Prescott, S L; Gurrin, L; Dharmage, S C; Allen, K J

    2017-07-01

    The precautionary allergen labelling (PAL) and Voluntary Incidental Trace Allergen Labelling (VITAL ® ) tools were designed by industry to assist consumers with selecting safe foods for consumption. However, a sizeable proportion of food products bear no label, and it is unclear whether these products are free from allergens and therefore safe to consume or have simply not undergone a risk assessment and therefore remain unlabelled for that reason. To assess the prevalence of unlabelled products that have undergone a risk assessment process and to examine the factors influencing industry's uptake of the VITAL ® process. A web-based questionnaire was distributed to Australasian food and grocery manufacturers. One hundred and thirty-seven Australasian manufacturers were contacted, and 59 questionnaires were returned (response rate: 43%). The respondents represented 454 different manufacturing sites. Manufacturers reported that 23% (95% CI 19-28) of products (n=102/434) that had been through the VITAL ® risk assessment process had no PAL statement on the label. 34% (95% CI 30-38), (n=204/600) of products that had undergone another (non-VITAL ® ) risk assessment process had no PAL statement. In examining the factors that influenced industry's uptake of the VITAL ® process, 25 manufacturers reported on factors that influenced the uptake of the VITAL ® process, 76% (CI 95% 55-91) reported that VITAL ® was an effective tool because it was based on science; 52% (CI 95% 31-72) reported that it was too time-consuming and 36% (CI 95% 18-57) identified a concern with it not being endorsed by the government. Currently, we estimate that at least 30% of products may have been through a risk assessment process and yet bear no PAL statement on the label. Permissive labelling could be incorporated onto these products if they have been assessed to be safe for consumption. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Consumers' knowledge, understanding, and attitudes toward health claims on food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullmer, S; Geiger, C J; Parent, C R

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess consumers' knowledge of current fiber recommendations and their attitudes, understanding, and awareness of health claims on breakfast cereal labels. An incidental sample of 241 respondents was drawn from four grocery stores of a local chain in Utah. Data were collected using a computerized interviewing system. The results suggested that consumers with higher education levels had a better understanding of diet-disease-related messages and a more positive attitude toward health messages on food labels. Knowledge of fiber was significantly correlated with positive attitudes toward health messages and understanding of health messages. Overall, attitudes toward placing diet-disease-related messages on food labels were positive. On a scale of 1 through 250, the mean score was 182.5 +/- 37.5 standard deviation (73%). Consumer knowledge of fiber was low. Out of 15 possible points, the mean score for fiber knowledge questions was 8.8 +/- 2.1 (59%). Consumers were more familiar with the role fiber may play in the prevention or treatment of certain diseases or conditions than with sources, classifications, and recommended intakes of fiber. Understanding of health messages was relatively low (45%). Whereas consumer attitudes toward health messages on food labels were positive, consumers (especially less-educated consumers) did not appear to understand the messages well. These results reiterate the concern for public policymakers to exercise caution and ensure that health messages on food labels are responsible and accurate. The results should also remind dietetic practitioners, who are the nutrition experts, of their continual role in providing and ensuring accurate nutrition education to the public.

  12. Willingness to pay for a local food label for lamb meat in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Gracia, Azucena; de Magistris, Tiziana; Nayga, Rodolfo M., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to assess consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for a local food produced in a less-favoured area in the Aragon region (Spain). In particular, we examine whether consumers value lamb meat products (lamb and suckling lamb) labelled as “Ojinegra from Teruel”, traditionally produced in these area. We use a nonhypothetical experimental auction to elicit Spanish consumers’ WTP for “Ojinegra from Teruel” labelled lamb products. Results show that consumers are willing to pay a ...

  13. Awareness of the Vysočina Regional Food Labels With Context of Their Media Presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Chalupová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of research study that focused on the recognition of the Vysočina regional labels among the consumers in the region in connection with media analysis about the topic. Research among consumers was conducted in each district of Vysočina Region (Jihlava, Žďár nad Sázavou, Třebíč, Havlíčkův Brod and Pelhřimov by interviewing a sample of 819 respondents, selected by quota sampling methods. The research was aimed at analysing the ability of respondents to recognise and differentiate two existing regional labels VYSOČINA Regional Product®, Regional Food Vysočina Region and also nonexistent brand From Our Region Vysočina, created by authors. Data have been processed with correspondence analysis and showed that respondents connect different characteristics with the labels. Media analysis of the Vysočina regional labels revealed that media may help building awareness about the labels but they do not shape respondents’ views on them. Examining the link between the frequency of different types of information in media and their potential impact on the labels’ pereception by consumers have shown distorted image. Stronger consensus between research and media analysis have been examined only on importance of products’ origin, which can be viewed as a logical inference from the name of the labels.

  14. The effect of menu labeling with calories and exercise equivalents on food selection and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platkin, Charles; Yeh, Ming-Chin; Hirsch, Kimberly; Wiewel, Ellen Weiss; Lin, Chang-Yun; Tung, Ho-Jui; Castellanos, Victoria H

    2014-01-01

    Better techniques are needed to help consumers make lower calorie food choices. This pilot study examined the effect of menu labeling with caloric information and exercise equivalents (EE) on food selection. Participants, 62 females, ages 18-34, recruited for this study, ordered a fast food meal with menus that contained the names of the food (Lunch 1 (L1), control meal). One week later (Lunch 2 (L2), experiment meal), participants ordered a meal from one of three menus with the same items as the previous week: no calorie information, calorie information only, or calorie information and EE. There were no absolute differences between groups in calories ordered from L1 to L2. However, it is noteworthy that calorie only and calorie plus exercise equivalents ordered about 16% (206 kcal) and 14% (162 kcal) fewer calories from Lunch 1 to Lunch 2, respectively; whereas, the no information group ordered only 2% (25 kcal) fewer. Menu labeling alone may be insufficient to reduce calories; however, further research is needed in finding the most effective ways of presenting the menu labels for general public.

  15. Shelf Life of Food Products: From Open Labeling to Real-Time Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Maria G

    2018-03-25

    The labels currently used on food and beverage products only provide consumers with a rough guide to their expected shelf lives because they assume that a product only experiences a limited range of predefined handling and storage conditions. These static labels do not take into consideration conditions that might shorten a product's shelf life (such as temperature abuse), which can lead to problems associated with food safety and waste. Advances in shelf-life estimation have the potential to improve the safety, reliability, and sustainability of the food supply. Selection of appropriate kinetic models and data-analysis techniques is essential to predict shelf life, to account for variability in environmental conditions, and to allow real-time monitoring. Novel analytical tools to determine safety and quality attributes in situ coupled with modern tracking technologies and appropriate predictive tools have the potential to provide accurate estimations of the remaining shelf life of a food product in real time. This review summarizes the necessary steps to attain a transition from open labeling to real-time shelf-life measurements.

  16. Consumer understanding of food labels: toward a generic tool for identifying the average consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Selsøe; Holm, Lotte; Møgelvang-Hansen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The ‘average consumer’ is referred to as a standard in regulatory contexts when attempts are made to benchmark how consumers are expected to reason while decoding food labels. An attempt is made to operationalize this hypothetical ‘average consumer’ by proposing a tool for measuring the level of ...... that independent future studies of consumer behavior and decision making in relation to food products in different contexts could benefit from this type of benchmarking tool.......The ‘average consumer’ is referred to as a standard in regulatory contexts when attempts are made to benchmark how consumers are expected to reason while decoding food labels. An attempt is made to operationalize this hypothetical ‘average consumer’ by proposing a tool for measuring the level...... of informedness of an individual consumer against the national median at any time. Informedness, i.e. the individual consumer's ability to interpret correctly the meaning of the words and signs on a food label is isolated as one essential dimension for dividing consumers into three groups: less-informed, informed...

  17. Nutritional labelling for healthier food or non-alcoholic drink purchasing and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Rachel A; King, Sarah E; Marteau, Theresa M; Prevost, A T; Bignardi, Giacomo; Roberts, Nia W; Stubbs, Brendon; Hollands, Gareth J; Jebb, Susan A

    2018-02-27

    Nutritional labelling is advocated as a means to promote healthier food purchasing and consumption, including lower energy intake. Internationally, many different nutritional labelling schemes have been introduced. There is no consensus on whether such labelling is effective in promoting healthier behaviour. To assess the impact of nutritional labelling for food and non-alcoholic drinks on purchasing and consumption of healthier items. Our secondary objective was to explore possible effect moderators of nutritional labelling on purchasing and consumption. We searched 13 electronic databases including CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase to 26 April 2017. We also handsearched references and citations and sought unpublished studies through websites and trials registries. Eligible studies: were randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs/Q-RCTs), controlled before-and-after studies, or interrupted time series (ITS) studies; compared a labelled product (with information on nutrients or energy) with the same product without a nutritional label; assessed objectively measured purchasing or consumption of foods or non-alcoholic drinks in real-world or laboratory settings. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion and extracted study data. We applied the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool and GRADE to assess the quality of evidence. We pooled studies that evaluated similar interventions and outcomes using a random-effects meta-analysis, and we synthesised data from other studies in a narrative summary. We included 28 studies, comprising 17 RCTs, 5 Q-RCTs and 6 ITS studies. Most (21/28) took place in the USA, and 19 took place in university settings, 14 of which mainly involved university students or staff. Most (20/28) studies assessed the impact of labelling on menus or menu boards, or nutritional labelling placed on, or adjacent to, a range of foods or drinks from which participants could choose. Eight studies provided participants with only one labelled food

  18. Feeding and stocking up: radio-labelled food reveals exchange patterns in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffin, Aurélie; Denis, Damien; Van Simaeys, Gaetan; Goldman, Serge; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2009-06-17

    Food sharing is vital for a large number of species, either solitary or social, and is of particular importance within highly integrated societies, such as in colonial organisms and in social insects. Nevertheless, the mechanisms that govern the distribution of food inside a complex organizational system remain unknown. Using scintigraphy, a method developed for medical imaging, we were able to describe the dynamics of food-flow inside an ant colony. We monitored the sharing process of a radio-labelled sucrose solution inside a nest of Formica fusca. Our results show that, from the very first load that enters the nest, food present within the colony acts as negative feedback to entering food. After one hour of the experiments, 70% of the final harvest has already entered the nest. The total foraged quantity is almost four times smaller than the expected storage capacity. A finer study of the spatial distribution of food shows that although all ants have been fed rapidly (within 30 minutes), a small area representing on average 8% of the radioactive surface holds more than 25% of the stored food. Even in rather homogeneous nests, we observed a strong concentration of food in few workers. Examining the position of these workers inside the nest, we found heavily loaded ants in the centre of the aggregate. The position of the centre of this high-intensity radioactive surface remained stable for the three consecutive hours of the experiments. We demonstrate that the colony simultaneously managed to rapidly feed all workers (200 ants fed within 30 minutes) and build up food stocks to prevent food shortage, something that occurs rather often in changing environments. Though we expected the colony to forage to its maximum capacity, the flow of food entering the colony is finely tuned to the colony's needs. Indeed the food-flow decreases proportionally to the food that has already been harvested, liberating the work-force for other tasks.

  19. Product reformulation in the context of nutritional warning labels: Exploration of consumer preferences towards food concepts in three food categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Gastón; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Curutchet, María Rosa; Antúnez, Lucía; Machín, Leandro; Vidal, Leticia; Giménez, Ana

    2018-05-01

    The reformulation of the food products available in the marketplace to improve their nutritional quality has been identified as one of the most cost-effective policies for controlling the global obesity pandemic. Front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling is one of the strategies that has been suggested to encourage the food industry to reformulate their products. However, the extent to which certain FOP labels can encourage product reformulation is dependent on consumer reaction. The aim of the present work was to assess consumers' perception towards product reformulation in the context of the implementation of nutritional warnings, an interpretive FOP nutrition labelling scheme. Three product categories were selected as target products: bread, cream cheese and yogurt, each associated with high content of one target nutrient. For each category, six packages were designed using a 3 × 2 experimental design with the following variables: product version (regular, nutrient-reduced and nutrient-free) and brand (market leader and non-market leader). A total 306 Uruguayan participants completed a choice experiment with 18 choice sets. Reformulated products without nutritional warnings were preferred by participants compared to regular products with nutritional warnings. No apparent preference for products reformulated into nutrient-reduced or nutrient-free product versions was found, although differences depended on the product category and the specific reformulation strategy. Preference for reformulated products without nutritional warnings was more pronounced for non-market leaders. Results from the present work suggest that reformulation of foods in the context of the implementation of nutritional warnings holds potential to encourage consumers to make more healthful food choices and to cause a reduction of their intake of nutrients associated with non-communicable diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A 2-phase labeling and choice architecture intervention to improve healthy food and beverage choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndike, Anne N; Sonnenberg, Lillian; Riis, Jason; Barraclough, Susan; Levy, Douglas E

    2012-03-01

    We assessed whether a 2-phase labeling and choice architecture intervention would increase sales of healthy food and beverages in a large hospital cafeteria. Phase 1 was a 3-month color-coded labeling intervention (red = unhealthy, yellow = less healthy, green = healthy). Phase 2 added a 3-month choice architecture intervention that increased the visibility and convenience of some green items. We compared relative changes in 3-month sales from baseline to phase 1 and from phase 1 to phase 2. At baseline (977,793 items, including 199,513 beverages), 24.9% of sales were red and 42.2% were green. Sales of red items decreased in both phases (P labeling intervention improved sales of healthy items and was enhanced by a choice architecture intervention.

  1. Using traffic light labels to improve food selection in recreation and sport facility eating environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Vermeer, Julianne; McCargar, Linda J; Prowse, Rachel J L; Raine, Kim D

    2015-08-01

    Many recreation and sports facilities have unhealthy food environments, however managers are reluctant to offer healthier foods because they perceive patrons will not purchase them. Preliminary evidence indicates that traffic light labeling (TLL) can increase purchase of healthy foods in away-from-home food retail settings. We examined the effectiveness of TLL of menus in promoting healthier food purchases by patrons of a recreation and sport facility concession, and among various sub-groups. TLL of all menu items was implemented for a 1-week period and sales were assessed for 1-week pre- and 1-week post-implementation of TLL (n = 2101 transactions). A subset of consumers completed a survey during the baseline (n = 322) and intervention (n = 313) periods. We assessed change in the proportion of patrons' purchases that were labeled with green, yellow and red lights from baseline to the TLL intervention, and association with demographic characteristics and other survey responses. Change in overall revenues was also assessed. There was an overall increase in sales of green (52.2% to 55.5%; p sales of red (30.4% to 27.2%; p revenues did not differ between the baseline and TLL periods. TLL of menus increased purchase of healthy, and reduced purchase of unhealthy foods in a publicly funded recreation and sport facility, with no loss of revenue. Policymakers should consider extending menu labeling laws to public buildings such as recreation and sports facilities to promote selection of healthier items. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Patterns of free amino acids in German convenience food products: marked mismatch between label information and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanussen, M; Gonder, U; Jakobs, C; Stegemann, D; Hoffmann, G

    2010-01-01

    Free amino acids affect food palatability. As information on amino acids in frequently purchased pre-packaged food is virtually absent, we analyzed free amino acid patterns of 17 frequently purchased ready-to-serve convenience food products, and compared them with the information obtained from the respective food labels. Quantitative amino acid analysis was performed using ion-exchange chromatography. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations were verified using a stable isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The patterns of free amino acids were compared with information obtained from food labels. An obvious mismatch between free amino acid patterns and food label information was detected. Even on considering that tomatoes and cereal proteins are naturally rich in glutamate, the concentrations of free glutamate outranged the natural concentration of this amino acid in several products, and strongly suggested artificial enrichment. Free glutamate was found to be elevated even in dishes that explicitly state 'no glutamate added'. Arginine was markedly elevated in lentils. Free cysteine was generally low, possibly reflecting thermal destruction of this amino acid during food processing. The meat and brain-specific dipeptide carnosine (CARN) was present in most meat-containing products. Some products did not contain detectable amounts of CARN in spite of meat content being claimed on the food labels. We detected GABA at concentrations that contribute significantly to the taste sensation. This investigation highlights a marked mismatch between food label information and food composition.

  3. Quantification of isotope-labelled and unlabelled folates in plasma, ileostomy and food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Barbara E; Öhrvik, Veronica E; Witthöft, Cornelia M; Rychlik, Michael

    2011-01-01

    New stable isotope dilution assays were developed for the simultaneous quantitation of [(13)C(5)]-labelled and unlabelled 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid, 5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid, folic acid along with unlabelled tetrahydrofolic acid and 10-formylfolic acid in clinical samples deriving from human bioavailability studies, i.e. plasma, ileostomy samples, and food. The methods were based on clean-up by strong anion exchange followed by LC-MS/MS detection. Deuterated analogues of the folates were applied as the internal standards in the stable isotope dilution assays. Assay sensitivity was sufficient to detect all relevant folates in the respective samples as their limits of detection were below 0.62 nmol/L in plasma and below 0.73 μg/100 g in food or ileostomy samples. Quantification of the [(13)C(5)]-label in clinical samples offers the possibility to differentiate between folate from endogenous body pools and the administered dose when executing bioavailability trials.

  4. Validity of the Remote Food Photography Method against Doubly Labeled Water among Minority Preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Nicklas, Theresa; Saab, Rabab; Islam, Noemi G.; Wong, William; Butte, Nancy; Schulin, Rebecca; Liu, Yan; Apolzan, John W.; Myers, Candice A.; Martin, Corby K.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the validity of energy intake (EI) estimations made using the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM) compared to the doubly-labeled water (DLW) method in minority preschool children in a free-living environment. Methods Seven days of food intake and spot urine samples excluding first void collections for DLW analysis were obtained on 39 3-to-5 year old Hispanic and African American children. Using an iPhone, caregivers captured before and after pictures of the child’s in...

  5. Consumer knowledge and attitudes about genetically modified food products and labelling policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchione, Melissa; Feldman, Charles; Wunderlich, Shahla

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between consumer knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards foods containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the prevalence of GMO labelling in northern New Jersey supermarkets. This cross-sectional study surveyed 331 adults, New Jersey supermarket customers (mean age 26 years old, 79.8% women). The results show a strong, positive correlation between consumer attitudes towards foods not containing GMOs and purchasing behaviour (Pearson's r = 0.701, p behaviour (Pearson's r = 0.593, p consumers in making informed purchase decisions.

  6. The Influence of Labeling the Vegetable Content of Snack Food on Children's Taste Preferences: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Lizzy; Wolf, Randi L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined whether informing children of the presence of vegetables in select snack food items alters taste preference. Methods: A random sample of 68 elementary and middle school children tasted identical pairs of 3 snack food items containing vegetables. In each pair, 1 sample's label included the food's vegetable (eg,…

  7. Hip Hop HEALS: Pilot Study of a Culturally Targeted Calorie Label Intervention to Improve Food Purchases of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Olajide; DeSorbo, Alexandra; Sawyer, Vanessa; Apakama, Donald; Shaffer, Michele; Gerin, William; Noble, James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We explored the effect of a culturally targeted calorie label intervention on food purchasing behavior of elementary school students. Method: We used a quasi-experimental design with two intervention schools and one control school to assess food purchases of third through fifth graders at standardized school food sales before and after…

  8. Valuing Information on GM Foods in the Presence of Country-of-Origin Labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Information on production methods (genetic modification (GM or organic production and locations (country of origin are commonly found on food package labels. Both pieces of information may be used as a proxy for food safety and (perceived quality by consumers. Our study investigates the interactive effects between information on production method and country-of-origin labeling (COOL by conducting choice experiments in the European Union, United States and Japan. This study also investigates the effect of information about potential benefits of biotechnology on consumer acceptance of GM foods. Results indicate that consumers preferred GM foods produced domestically to GM foods imported from foreign countries, and individuals with information on consumer benefits, producer benefits, and environmental benefits were willing to pay more than individuals without information in some cases, but the effect of information varied by type of information, location, and the country of origin of the products. Normal 0 21 false false false DE X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";}

  9. Zolpidem prescribing practices before and after Food and Drug Administration required product labeling changes

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, Jessica L; Fixen, Danielle R; Saseen, Joseph J; Saba, Laura M; Linnebur, Sunny A

    2017-01-01

    Background: Women have higher morning serum zolpidem concentrations than men after taking an evening dose, potentially leading to increased risk of harm. On 19 April 2013, the United States Food and Drug Administration required labeling changes for zolpidem, recommending an initial dose of no greater than 5 mg (immediate release) or 6.25 mg (controlled release) per night in women. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to compare prescribing practices before and after the 2013 zo...

  10. U.S. EPA, Pesticide Product Label, FOOD PLANT FOGGING INSECTICIDE, 01/30/1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... w.lter. food, 01" fet:,1 hy ')lur.J,:!C 01 ,li· ••• u"> •• I. ... (his proJuct c. .• Z",.. IfitJ~f'!f.1.~. I)n thi') label" •• o 6""(l'r .' ... IJlIIC'i ,111 ri'1lks of J\\t~ ')lo.SI~I~ or'. ...

  11. Traffic-light labels and choice architecture: promoting healthy food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndike, Anne N; Riis, Jason; Sonnenberg, Lillian M; Levy, Douglas E

    2014-02-01

    Preventing obesity requires maintenance of healthy eating behaviors over time. Food labels and strategies that increase visibility and convenience of healthy foods (choice architecture) promote healthier choices, but long-term effectiveness is unknown. Assess effectiveness of traffic-light labeling and choice architecture cafeteria intervention over 24 months. Longitudinal pre-post cohort follow-up study between December 2009 and February 2012. Data were analyzed in 2012. Large hospital cafeteria with a mean of 6511 transactions daily. Cafeteria sales were analyzed for (1) all cafeteria customers and (2) a longitudinal cohort of 2285 hospital employees who used the cafeteria regularly. After a 3-month baseline period, cafeteria items were labeled green (healthy); yellow (less healthy); or red (unhealthy) and rearranged to make healthy items more accessible. Proportion of cafeteria sales that were green or red during each 3-month period from baseline to 24 months. Changes in 12- and 24-month sales were compared to baseline for all transactions and transactions by the employee cohort. The proportion of sales of red items decreased from 24% at baseline to 20% at 24 months (pchoice architecture cafeteria intervention resulted in sustained healthier choices over 2 years, suggesting that food environment interventions can promote long-term changes in population eating behaviors. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine All rights reserved.

  12. Use and understanding of nutrition information on food labels in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Fernández-Celemín, Laura; Wills, Josephine M; Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann, Stefan; Nureeva, Liliya

    2010-06-01

    AIM: The goal of the study was to investigate the use of nutrition information on food labels and understanding of guideline daily amount (GDA) front-of-pack nutrition labels in six European countries. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In-store observations and in-store interviews were conducted in major retailers in the UK (n = 2019), Sweden (n = 1858), France (n = 2337), Germany (n = 1963), Poland (n = 1800) and Hungary (n = 1804), supplemented by questionnaires filled out at home and returned (overall response rate 50.3%). Use of labels was measured by combining in-store observations and in-store interviews on concrete purchases in six product categories. Understanding of GDA front-of-pack nutrition labels was measured by a variety of tasks dealing with conceptual understanding, substantial understanding and health inferences. Demographics, nutrition knowledge and interest in healthy eating were measured as potential determinants. RESULTS: Across six product categories, 16.8% of shoppers were found to have looked for nutrition information on the label, with the nutrition grid (table or list), GDA labels and the ingredients list as the main sources consulted and calories, fat and sugar the information most often looked for. Understanding of GDA labels was high in the UK, Sweden and Germany, and more limited in the other countries. Regression analysis showed that, in addition to country-specific differences, use and understanding are also affected by differences in interest in healthy eating and in nutrition knowledge and by social grade. CONCLUSION: Understanding of nutrition information seems to be more widespread than use, suggesting that lack of use is a question of not only understanding, but also motivation. Considerable national differences exist in both understanding and use, some of which may be attributed to different histories of the role of nutrition in the public debate.

  13. A survey of nutrition labelling of sugar-containing foods in the north of England in 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, A; Rugg-Gunn, A

    1990-12-01

    A survey of the nutrition labelling of 880 varieties of foods on sale in three stores in Newcastle upon Tyne was undertaken in May-July 1989. The foods were chosen for investigation because they contained sugars, and they were categorised into 12 types of food. Some nutritional information was given for most foods but it seldom conformed to the format suggested by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. The sugars content of the foods was seldom given. Even when nutritional claims were made (e.g. 'low sugar', 'high fibre'), nutritional information was often incomplete. The three stores differed in the extent to which their own-brand products were labelled for nutrient content. Tesco products were comprehensibly labelled, while own-brand products for sale in the other two stores were not, although both stores stated their intention to introduce comprehensive nutrition labelling. Two of the three stores had, or intended to have, obligatory sugar labelling. Despite this, there were many examples of nutrition labelling which was misleading. It is concluded that nutrition labelling should be compulsory and should conform to a format which specifies sugars content.

  14. Zolpidem prescribing practices before and after Food and Drug Administration required product labeling changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Jessica L; Fixen, Danielle R; Saseen, Joseph J; Saba, Laura M; Linnebur, Sunny A

    2017-01-01

    Women have higher morning serum zolpidem concentrations than men after taking an evening dose, potentially leading to increased risk of harm. On 19 April 2013, the United States Food and Drug Administration required labeling changes for zolpidem, recommending an initial dose of no greater than 5 mg (immediate release) or 6.25 mg (controlled release) per night in women. The primary objective of this study was to compare prescribing practices before and after the 2013 zolpidem labeling change. A secondary objective was to evaluate serious adverse events potentially related to zolpidem. Electronic medical records of adults receiving care through the University of Colorado Health system were accessed for study inclusion if patients were provided a first-time prescription for zolpidem either prior to or after the Food and Drug Administration labeling change. Patients were randomly chosen from eight strata based on age, gender, and date of zolpidem initiation (before/after the labeling change). Demographic and zolpidem prescribing data were collected. Low-dose zolpidem was considered 5 mg (immediate release) or 6.25 mg (controlled release) daily or less. Documentation of potentially related serious adverse events within the patients' records was also evaluated. A total of 400 patients were included in the study. The overall percentage of patients prescribed low-dose zolpidem increased from 44% to 58% after the labeling change (p = 0.0020). In a pre-specified subgroup analysis, the percentage of patients prescribed low-dose zolpidem increased in all groups, including young men (38%-50%, p = 0.23), elderly men (34%-40%, p = 0.53), and elderly women (60%-74%, p = 0.14), but the change was only significant in young women (42%-70%, p = 0.0045). After Food and Drug Administration-mandated labeling changes for zolpidem in 2013, the percentage of overall patients in our health system, and specifically young women, with initial prescriptions for low

  15. Zolpidem prescribing practices before and after Food and Drug Administration required product labeling changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Norman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women have higher morning serum zolpidem concentrations than men after taking an evening dose, potentially leading to increased risk of harm. On 19 April 2013, the United States Food and Drug Administration required labeling changes for zolpidem, recommending an initial dose of no greater than 5 mg (immediate release or 6.25 mg (controlled release per night in women. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to compare prescribing practices before and after the 2013 zolpidem labeling change. A secondary objective was to evaluate serious adverse events potentially related to zolpidem. Methods: Electronic medical records of adults receiving care through the University of Colorado Health system were accessed for study inclusion if patients were provided a first-time prescription for zolpidem either prior to or after the Food and Drug Administration labeling change. Patients were randomly chosen from eight strata based on age, gender, and date of zolpidem initiation (before/after the labeling change. Demographic and zolpidem prescribing data were collected. Low-dose zolpidem was considered 5 mg (immediate release or 6.25 mg (controlled release daily or less. Documentation of potentially related serious adverse events within the patients’ records was also evaluated. Results: A total of 400 patients were included in the study. The overall percentage of patients prescribed low-dose zolpidem increased from 44% to 58% after the labeling change (p = 0.0020. In a pre-specified subgroup analysis, the percentage of patients prescribed low-dose zolpidem increased in all groups, including young men (38%–50%, p = 0.23, elderly men (34%–40%, p = 0.53, and elderly women (60%–74%, p = 0.14, but the change was only significant in young women (42%–70%, p = 0.0045. Conclusion: After Food and Drug Administration–mandated labeling changes for zolpidem in 2013, the percentage of overall patients in our health

  16. Knowledge of nutrition facts on food labels and their impact on food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-05

    Mar 5, 2013 ... making purchasing choices with regard to food. Design: This was ..... Wansink reported that consumers tend to fully process and believe ... information and effect on their purchasing decision in Ghana: a case study of Kumasi.

  17. Use of Trans Fat Information on Food Labels and Its Determinants in a Multiethnic College Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasti, Sunitha; Kovacs, Szilvia

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the correlates of trans fat knowledge and trans fat label use; to examine the influence of trans fat knowledge, trans fat label use, and dietary attitudes on intake of high trans fat food. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: An urban commuter college. Subjects: Two hundred twenty-two college students. Variables…

  18. To Take or Not to Take With Meals? Unraveling Issues Related to Food Effects Labeling for Oral Antineoplastic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiexin; Brar, Satjit S; Lesko, Lawrence J

    2017-12-02

    There has been controversy regarding whether bioavailability of certain oral oncology drugs should be maximized by taking these medications with food, irrespective of label instructions in the dosing and administration section. To provide insight into this controversy, we conducted an in-depth analysis for oral antineoplastic drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2000-2016 and identified important issues influencing food labeling decisions. Furthermore, a case study involving sonidegib, a drug approved for locally advanced basal cell carcinoma with a significant food effect on exposure, was used to demonstrate the consequences of failure to adhere to food label recommendations using drug-specific population pharmacokinetic and exposure-toxicity models. In 2000-2009, 80% (4 out of 5) of all approved oral antineoplastics with increased bioavailability in the fed state were labeled as "take on empty stomach." In contrast, we found that in 2010-2016 there is a greater diversity in food recommendations for drugs with increased bioavailability in the fed state. Currently, many oral oncology drugs are given with food to maximize their bioavailability; however, as seen from our case study of sonidegib, failure to fully adhere to label recommendations to either take with food or not could lead to adverse consequences in terms of safety and efficacy. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  19. A holistic food labelling strategy for preventing obesity and dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, A B; Murtomaa, H

    2009-01-01

    Obesity and dental caries in childhood are among the major public health concerns described as a global pandemic because of their global distribution and severe consequences. A consensus has developed as to a recently emerging and alarming common risk factor that leads to the double burden...... of dental caries and obesity; energy-dense foods (sugar-coated cereals, high-sugar yogurt, soft drinks) are becoming very popular among children because of their dense marketing, cheaper price, increased supply and variety. Implementation of health-promoting and -supporting marketing strategies for healthy...... food can be one initial cornerstone for successful application of the common risk factor approach in prevention of obesity and dental caries, as also suggested by World Health Organization. Labelling healthy food with a 'health-friendly' logo, illustrating that the teeth and the heart are both parts...

  20. Effect of nutrition label format and product assortment on healthfulness of food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G; van Trijp, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to find out whether front-of-pack nutrition label formats influence the healthfulness of consumers’ food choices and important predictors of healthful choices, depending on the size of the choice set that is made available to consumers. The predictors explored were health motivati...... the results revealed no consistent differences in the effects between the formats, they indicate that manipulating choice sets by including healthier options is an effective strategy to increase the healthfulness of food choices........ The results showed that food choices were more healthful in the extended 20-product (vs. 10-product) choice set and that this effect is stronger than a random choice would produce. The formats colour coding and texts, particularly colour coding in Germany, increased the healthfulness of product choices when...

  1. Effects of nutrition label format and product assortment on the healthfulness of food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G; van Trijp, Hans C M; Bialkova, Svetlana; Raats, Monique M; Hodgkins, Charo; Wasowicz-Kirylo, Grazyna; Koenigstorfer, Joerg

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to find out whether front-of-pack nutrition label formats influence the healthfulness of consumers' food choices and important predictors of healthful choices, depending on the size of the choice set that is made available to consumers. The predictors explored were health motivation and perceived capability of making healthful choices. One thousand German and Polish consumers participated in the study that manipulated the format of nutrition labels. All labels referred to the content of calories and four negative nutrients and were presented on savoury and sweet snacks. The different formats included the percentage of guideline daily amount, colour coding schemes, and text describing low, medium and high content of each nutrient. Participants first chose from a set of 10 products and then from a set of 20 products, which was, on average, more healthful than the first choice set. The results showed that food choices were more healthful in the extended 20-product (vs. 10-product) choice set and that this effect is stronger than a random choice would produce. The formats colour coding and texts, particularly colour coding in Germany, increased the healthfulness of product choices when consumers were asked to choose a healthful product, but not when they were asked to choose according to their preferences. The formats did not influence consumers' motivation to choose healthful foods. Colour coding, however, increased consumers' perceived capability of making healthful choices. While the results revealed no consistent differences in the effects between the formats, they indicate that manipulating choice sets by including healthier options is an effective strategy to increase the healthfulness of food choices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sodium content and labelling of processed and ultra-processed food products marketed in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carla Adriano; de Sousa, Anete Araújo; Veiros, Marcela Boro; González-Chica, David Alejandro; Proença, Rossana Pacheco da Costa

    2015-05-01

    To analyse the Na content and labelling of processed and ultra-processed food products marketed in Brazil. Cross-sectional study. A large supermarket in Florianopolis, southern Brazil. Ingredient lists and Na information on nutrition labels of all processed and ultra-processed pre-prepared meals and prepared ingredients, used in lunch or dinner, available for sale in the supermarket. The study analysed 1416 products, distributed into seven groups and forty-one subgroups. Five products did not have Na information. Most products (58.8 %; 95 % CI 55.4, 62.2 %) had high Na content (>600 mg/100 g). In 78.0 % of the subgroups, variation in Na content was at least twofold between similar products with high and low Na levels, reaching 634-fold difference in the 'garnishes and others' subgroup. More than half of the products (52.0 %; 95 % CI 48.2, 55.6 %) had at least one Na-containing food additive. There was no relationship between the appearance of salt on the ingredients list (first to third position on the list) and a product's Na content (high, medium or low; P=0.08). Most food products had high Na content, with great variation between similar products, which presents new evidence for reformulation opportunities. There were inconsistencies in Na labelling, such as lack of nutritional information and incomplete ingredient descriptions. The position of salt on the ingredients list did not facilitate the identification of high-Na foods. We therefore recommend a reduction in Na in these products and a review of Brazilian legislation.

  3. Use of food labels by adolescents to make healthier choices on snacks: a cross-sectional study from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishanka A. Talagala

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unhealthy snacking is commonly seen among adolescents. Therefore, use of food labels is promoted for making healthier choices on packaged snacks. This study was conducted to assess the use of food labels in making choices on packaged snack and its associated factors among adolescents. Methods A cross–sectional study was conducted in 2012 among 542 Grade 12 students in Sri Lanka. Eight classes were selected as ‘clusters’ for the study (two classes each from two schools that were selected randomly from each list of ‘Girls only’ and ‘Boys only’ schools in Colombo district. A self-administered questionnaire assessed their socio-demography, snacking behaviour, attitudes and nutrition knowledge related to food labels. Adolescents’ use of labels was assessed by three practices (label reading frequency, attention paid to label contents and correct interpretation of six hypothetical labels of snacks. Based on total scores obtained for the three practices, ‘satisfactory’ (score ≥75th percentile mark and ‘unsatisfactory’ (score <75th percentile mark label users were identified. Using SPSS, associations were assessed at 0.05 significance level using Chi-square-test. Results Of the participants, 51 % were males; 61 % spent their pocket money at least once/week on packaged snacks; predominantly on biscuits (85 % and cola-drinks (77 % and 88 % selected snacks on their own. The majority (74.5 % was frequent (‘always’ or ‘most often’ label readers with female predominance (p < 0.05. Over 74 % paid attention frequently to the brand name (75 %, price (85 % and nutrition panel (81 %. Over 64 % were able to select the better food label when given a choice between two snacks, although some did it for reasons such as attractive label (63 %. The majority (84 % had good knowledge (obtaining more than the 75th percentile mark on interpreting labels. Although not statistically significant,

  4. Making sense of the "clean label" trends: A review of consumer food choice behavior and discussion of industry implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asioli, Daniele; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Caputo, Vincenzina; Vecchio, Riccardo; Annunziata, Azzurra; Næs, Tormod; Varela, Paula

    2017-09-01

    Consumers in industrialized countries are nowadays much more interested in information about the production methods and components of the food products that they eat, than they had been 50years ago. Some production methods are perceived as less "natural" (i.e. conventional agriculture) while some food components are seen as "unhealthy" and "unfamiliar" (i.e. artificial additives). This phenomenon, often referred to as the "clean label" trend, has driven the food industry to communicate whether a certain ingredient or additive is not present or if the food has been produced using a more "natural" production method (i.e. organic agriculture). However, so far there is no common and objective definition of clean label. This review paper aims to fill the gap via three main objectives, which are to a) develop and suggest a definition that integrates various understandings of clean label into one single definition, b) identify the factors that drive consumers' choices through a review of recent studies on consumer perception of various food categories understood as clean label with the focus on organic, natural and 'free from' artificial additives/ingredients food products and c) discuss implications of the consumer demand for clean label food products for food manufacturers as well as policy makers. We suggest to define clean label, both in a broad sense, where consumers evaluate the cleanliness of product by assumption and through inference looking at the front-of-pack label and in a strict sense, where consumers evaluate the cleanliness of product by inspection and through inference looking at the back-of-pack label. Results show that while 'health' is a major consumer motive, a broad diversity of drivers influence the clean label trend with particular relevance of intrinsic or extrinsic product characteristics and socio-cultural factors. However, 'free from' artificial additives/ingredients food products tend to differ from organic and natural products. Food

  5. Use of food labels by adolescents to make healthier choices on snacks: a cross-sectional study from Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talagala, Ishanka A; Arambepola, Carukshi

    2016-08-08

    Unhealthy snacking is commonly seen among adolescents. Therefore, use of food labels is promoted for making healthier choices on packaged snacks. This study was conducted to assess the use of food labels in making choices on packaged snack and its associated factors among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 among 542 Grade 12 students in Sri Lanka. Eight classes were selected as 'clusters' for the study (two classes each from two schools that were selected randomly from each list of 'Girls only' and 'Boys only' schools in Colombo district). A self-administered questionnaire assessed their socio-demography, snacking behaviour, attitudes and nutrition knowledge related to food labels. Adolescents' use of labels was assessed by three practices (label reading frequency, attention paid to label contents and correct interpretation of six hypothetical labels of snacks). Based on total scores obtained for the three practices, 'satisfactory' (score ≥75(th) percentile mark) and 'unsatisfactory' (score pocket money at least once/week on packaged snacks; predominantly on biscuits (85 %) and cola-drinks (77 %) and 88 % selected snacks on their own. The majority (74.5 %) was frequent ('always' or 'most often') label readers with female predominance (p < 0.05). Over 74 % paid attention frequently to the brand name (75 %), price (85 %) and nutrition panel (81 %). Over 64 % were able to select the better food label when given a choice between two snacks, although some did it for reasons such as attractive label (63 %). The majority (84 %) had good knowledge (obtaining more than the 75(th) percentile mark) on interpreting labels. Although not statistically significant, 'unsatisfactory' label use was higher among males (73 %), purchasing power (70.4 %) and unhealthy snacking behaviour (73 %). In contrast, among the marketing strategies, identifying known brands (73.2 %) and imported products (75.8 %) as 'good' products were significantly

  6. Validation of energy intake estimated from a food frequency questionnaire: a doubly labelled water study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, L Frost; Tomten, H; Haggarty, P; Løvø, A; Hustvedt, B-E

    2003-02-01

    The validation of dietary assessment methods is critical in the evaluation of the relation between dietary intake and health. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a food frequency questionnaire by comparing energy intake with energy expenditure measured with the doubly labelled water method. Total energy expenditure was measured with the doubly labelled water (DLW) method during a 10 day period. Furthermore, the subjects filled in the food frequency questionnaire about 18-35 days after the DLW phase of the study was completed. Twenty-one healthy, non-pregnant females volunteered to participate in the study; only 17 subjects completed the study. The group energy intake was on average 10% lower than the energy expenditure, but the difference was not statistically significant. However, there was a wide range in reporting accuracy: seven subjects were identified as acceptable reporters, eight as under-reporters and two were identified as over-reporters. The width of the 95% confidence limits of agreement in a Bland and Altman plot for energy intake and energy expenditure varied from -5 to 3 MJ. The data showed that there was substantial variability in the accuracy of the food frequency questionnaire at the individual level. Furthermore, the results showed that the questionnaire was more accurate for groups than individuals.

  7. The science and regulations of probiotic food and supplement product labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Mary Ellen; Levy, Dan D

    2011-02-01

    Presented by the New York Academy of Sciences, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the U.S. Office of Dietary Supplements of the National Institutes of Health, the symposium "Probiotic Foods and Supplements: The Science and Regulations of Labeling," was held on June 12, 2010 at the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, NY, the goals of which were to facilitate the exchange of ideas regarding labeling and substantiation of claims for probiotics among academic, industry, and regulatory professionals, and to discuss ways to translate and communicate research results in a truthful way to the consumer and to such health professionals as physicians, pharmacists, and dieticians. The target audience for this symposium included academicians interested in conducting research on the health benefits of probiotics; scientists; communications personnel, and regulatory specialists from companies involved in, or interested in, the marketing of probiotics; U.S. government regulatory experts tasked with oversight of probiotic foods and dietary supplement products; and other experts in the field interested in the development of probiotics for the U.S. market. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Impact of Consumers’ Self-Image and Demographics on Preference for Healthy Labeled Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Hanspal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are becoming more health conscious. Increasingly, products that are labeled “healthy” are being marketed as new retailers and new brands vie for the consumers’ share of wallet. This research identifies the self-image factors that constitute a health conscious image of the self and examines how self-image impacts consumer buying of foods that are labeled healthy. It also makes an effort to find out whether specific self-image factors are significantly associated with demographics. This study employs a scale consisting of 15 statements that included four statements from the Health Consciousness scale developed by Gould. The psychometric properties of the scale used in the study are reported. The study uses factor analysis to identify five factors of consumer self-image as they relate to health consciousness. Furthermore, the study explores the relationship between demographics such as age, gender, education, and relationship status with the self-image factors and reports results for consumer preferences for choosing healthy foods when hungry. This research has important implications for marketers in the health food industry and for such other companies that might use consumer health consciousness as a basis for market segmentation and strategy design.

  9. Effect of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on restaurant and cafeteria food choices: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnack, Lisa J; French, Simone A

    2008-10-26

    Eating away from home has increased in prevalence among US adults and now comprises about 50% of food expenditures. Calorie labeling on chain restaurant menus is one specific policy that has been proposed to help consumers make better food choices at restaurants. The present review evaluates the available empirical literature on the effects of calorie information on food choices in restaurant and cafeteria settings. Computer-assisted searches were conducted using the PUBMED database and the Google Scholar world wide web search engine to identify studies published in peer-review journals that evaluated calorie labeling of cafeteria or restaurant menu items. Studies that evaluated labeling only some menu items (e.g. low calorie foods only) were excluded from the review since the influence of selective labeling may be different from that which may be expected from comprehensive labeling. Six studies were identified that met the selection criteria for this review. Results from five of these studies provide some evidence consistent with the hypothesis that calorie information may influence food choices in a cafeteria or restaurant setting. However, results from most of these studies suggest the effect may be weak or inconsistent. One study found no evidence of an effect of calorie labeling on food choices. Each of the studies had at least one major methodological shortcoming, pointing toward the need for better designed studies to more rigorously evaluate the influence of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on food choices. More research is needed that meets minimum standards of methodological quality. Studies need to include behavioral outcomes such as food purchase and eating behaviors. Also, studies need to be implemented in realistic settings such as restaurants and cafeterias.

  10. Effect of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on restaurant and cafeteria food choices: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    French Simone A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eating away from home has increased in prevalence among US adults and now comprises about 50% of food expenditures. Calorie labeling on chain restaurant menus is one specific policy that has been proposed to help consumers make better food choices at restaurants. The present review evaluates the available empirical literature on the effects of calorie information on food choices in restaurant and cafeteria settings. Methods Computer-assisted searches were conducted using the PUBMED database and the Google Scholar world wide web search engine to identify studies published in peer-review journals that evaluated calorie labeling of cafeteria or restaurant menu items. Studies that evaluated labeling only some menu items (e.g. low calorie foods only were excluded from the review since the influence of selective labeling may be different from that which may be expected from comprehensive labeling. Results Six studies were identified that met the selection criteria for this review. Results from five of these studies provide some evidence consistent with the hypothesis that calorie information may influence food choices in a cafeteria or restaurant setting. However, results from most of these studies suggest the effect may be weak or inconsistent. One study found no evidence of an effect of calorie labeling on food choices. Each of the studies had at least one major methodological shortcoming, pointing toward the need for better designed studies to more rigorously evaluate the influence of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on food choices. Conclusion More research is needed that meets minimum standards of methodological quality. Studies need to include behavioral outcomes such as food purchase and eating behaviors. Also, studies need to be implemented in realistic settings such as restaurants and cafeterias.

  11. First-Year College Students Increase Food Label-Reading Behaviors and Improve Food Choices in a Personal Nutrition Seminar Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallant, April

    2017-01-01

    Background: Poor dietary behaviors are risk factors for developing chronic diseases that plague public health. Purpose: This study sought to determine the differences in pre and post food label and food choice scores among first-year college students at the beginning and end of the semester. Case analyses were conducted to evaluate individualized…

  12. Traffic-Light Labels and Choice Architecture Promoting Healthy Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndike, Anne N.; Riis, Jason; Sonnenberg, Lillian M.; Levy, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Preventing obesity requires maintenance of healthy eating behaviors over time. Food labels and strategies that increase visibility and convenience of healthy foods (choice architecture) promote healthier choices, but long-term effectiveness is unknown. Purpose Assess effectiveness of traffic-light labeling and choice architecture cafeteria intervention over 24 months. Design Longitudinal pre–post cohort follow-up study between December 2009 and February 2012. Data were analyzed in 2012. Setting/participants Large hospital cafeteria with mean of 6511 transactions daily. Cafeteria sales were analyzed for: (1) all cafeteria customers and (2) longitudinal cohort of 2285 hospital employees who used the cafeteria regularly. Intervention After 3-month baseline period, cafeteria items were labeled green (healthy), yellow (less healthy) or red (unhealthy) and rearranged to make healthy items more accessible. Main outcome measures Proportion of cafeteria sales that were green or red during each 3-month period from baseline to 24 months. Changes in 12- and 24-month sales were compared to baseline for all transactions and transactions by the employee cohort. Results The proportion of sales of red items decreased from 24% at baseline to 20% at 24 months (p<0.001), and green sales increased from 41% to 46% (p<0.001). Red beverages decreased from 26% of beverage sales at baseline to 17% at 24 months (p<0.001); green beverages increased from 52% to 60% (p<0.001). Similar patterns were observed for the cohort of employees, with largest change for red beverages (23% to 14%, p<0.001). Conclusions A traffic-light and choice architecture cafeteria intervention resulted in sustained healthier choices over 2 years, suggesting food environment interventions can promote long-term changes in population eating behaviors. PMID:24439347

  13. Consumer use of health-related endorsements on food labels in the United Kingdom and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, M; Boaz, A; Higginson, C

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine how consumers use health-related food endorsements on food labels. Three endorsement programs were examined: those of the two major retailers in the United Kingdom, Tesco and Sainsbury's, and the "Pick the Tick" program of the National Heart Foundation of Australia. The main methodology used was protocol analysis. This involves the subject "thinking aloud" while performing a task--in this case, (a) shopping normally and (b) shopping "healthily" for foods on a predetermined list--to generate a protocol. Each subject was also interviewed to investigate reported use of endorsements. Subjects were a quota sample (N = 44) of shoppers representative of the U.K. and Australian populations. Information about the subjects, the protocols, and interview data were analyzed quantitatively; the protocols were also analyzed qualitatively. Sainsbury's and Australian shoppers never used the endorsements when shopping but Tesco shoppers did, albeit rarely. Tesco shoppers used the endorsement in complex ways and not just as a trigger to food selection. They sometimes used the endorsement to reject endorsed foods. Subjects claimed to use the endorsements even though the protocol analysis revealed no actual use. There are features of the Tesco endorsement program that make it more helpful to consumers than the other programs.

  14. Extending the scope of eco-labelling in the food industry to drive change beyond sustainable agriculture practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Ackerman, Marco A; Azzaro-Pantel, Catherine

    2017-12-15

    New consumer awareness is shifting industry towards more sustainable practices, creating a virtuous cycle between producers and consumers enabled by eco-labelling. Eco-labelling informs consumers of specific characteristics of products and has been used to market greener products. Eco-labelling in the food industry has yet been mostly focused on promoting organic farming, limiting the scope to the agricultural stage of the supply chain, while carbon labelling informs on the carbon footprint throughout the life cycle of the product. These labelling strategies help value products in the eyes of the consumer. Because of this, decision makers are motivated to adopt more sustainable models. In the food industry, this has led to important environmental impact improvements at the agricultural stage, while most other stages in the Food Supply Chain (FSC) have continued to be designed inefficiently. The objective of this work is to define a framework showing how carbon labelling can be integrated into the design process of the FSC. For this purpose, the concept of Green Supply Chain Network Design (GSCND) focusing on the strategic decision making for location and allocation of resources and production capacity is developed considering operational, financial and environmental (CO 2 emissions) issues along key stages in the product life cycle. A multi-objective optimization strategy implemented by use of a genetic algorithm is applied to a case study on orange juice production. The results show that the consideration of CO 2 emission minimization as an objective function during the GSCND process together with techno-economic criteria produces improved FSC environmental performance compared to both organic and conventional orange juice production. Typical results thus highlight the importance that carbon emissions optimization and labelling may have to improve FSC beyond organic labelling. Finally, CO 2 emission-oriented labelling could be an important tool to improve the

  15. A review of European research on consumer response to nutrition information on food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Wills, Josephine M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review research conducted in 2003-2006 in the EU-15 countries on how consumers perceive, understand, like and use nutrition information on food labels. Based on a search of databases on academic publications, Google-based search, and enquiries directed to a range...... with an earlier review by Cowburn and Stockley (Public Health Nutr 8:21-28, 2005), covering research up to 2002, but provide new insights into consumer liking and understanding of simplified front of pack signposting formats. There is an urgent need for more research studying consumer use of nutritional...

  16. The Effect of Energy Labelling on Menus and a Social Marketing Campaign on Food-Purchasing Behaviours of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajshri Roy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed the impact of kilojoule (kJ labelling alone or accompanied by a social marketing campaign on food sales and selection of less energy-dense meals by young adults from a university food outlet. Methods There were two kJ labelling intervention phases each of five weeks: (1 kJ labelling alone (2 kJ labels with marketing materials (“8700 kJ campaign”. Food sales of labelled items were tracked during each intervention and five weeks after. Food sales during interventions were also compared with historical sales of foods in the same 10-week period in the previous year. A sub sample of young adults (n = 713; aged 19–24 were surveyed during both the interventions to assess awareness, influence, sentiment and anticipated future impact of kJ labels and the social marketing campaign respectively. Results There were no differences in sales between the kJ labelling with social marketing and the 5-weeks of labelling before and after. The percentage sale of chicken Caesar burger (3580 kJ, P = 0.01, steak and chips (4000 kJ, P = 0.02 and the grill burger (5500 kJ, P = 0.00 were lower in the year with menu labelling and social marketing campaign. Only 30 % students were initially aware of the kJ labels on the menu but 75 % of students were accepting of kJ labelling, after they were made aware. Respondents viewing the marketing campaign elements and then using kJ values on the menu selected meals with a lower mean energy content; constituting a reduction of 978 kJ (p < 0.01 even though the majority claimed that the 8700 kJ campaign would not impact their food choices. Conclusions Point-of-purchase energy labelling may be an effective method to encourage better food choices when eating out among young adults. However, further efforts to increase awareness and provide education about energy requirements to prevent weight gain will be needed.

  17. The Effect of Energy Labelling on Menus and a Social Marketing Campaign on Food-Purchasing Behaviours of University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Rajshri; Beattie-Bowers, Jack; Ang, Siew Min; Colagiuri, Stephen; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2016-08-05

    This study assessed the impact of kilojoule (kJ) labelling alone or accompanied by a social marketing campaign on food sales and selection of less energy-dense meals by young adults from a university food outlet. There were two kJ labelling intervention phases each of five weeks: (1) kJ labelling alone (2) kJ labels with marketing materials ("8700 kJ campaign"). Food sales of labelled items were tracked during each intervention and five weeks after. Food sales during interventions were also compared with historical sales of foods in the same 10-week period in the previous year. A sub sample of young adults (n = 713; aged 19-24) were surveyed during both the interventions to assess awareness, influence, sentiment and anticipated future impact of kJ labels and the social marketing campaign respectively. There were no differences in sales between the kJ labelling with social marketing and the 5-weeks of labelling before and after. The percentage sale of chicken Caesar burger (3580 kJ, P = 0.01), steak and chips (4000 kJ, P = 0.02) and the grill burger (5500 kJ, P = 0.00) were lower in the year with menu labelling and social marketing campaign. Only 30 % students were initially aware of the kJ labels on the menu but 75 % of students were accepting of kJ labelling, after they were made aware. Respondents viewing the marketing campaign elements and then using kJ values on the menu selected meals with a lower mean energy content; constituting a reduction of 978 kJ (p < 0.01) even though the majority claimed that the 8700 kJ campaign would not impact their food choices. Point-of-purchase energy labelling may be an effective method to encourage better food choices when eating out among young adults. However, further efforts to increase awareness and provide education about energy requirements to prevent weight gain will be needed.

  18. The meaning of colours in nutrition labelling in the context of expert and consumer criteria of evaluating food product healthfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wąsowicz, Grażyna; Styśko-Kunkowska, Małgorzata; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative studies were conducted to explore the effect of front-of-pack nutrition labels on the perceived healthfulness of food products. Consumers were found to hold beliefs about colours and their fit to product categories that influence the assessment process. Consumers...... show the complexity of psychological processes in the perception of food healthfulness....

  19. Isoflavones in food supplements: chemical profile, label accordance and permeability study in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, I M C; Rodrigues, F; Sarmento, B; Alves, R C; Oliveira, M B P P

    2015-03-01

    Consumers nowadays are playing an active role in their health-care. A special case is the increasing number of women, who are reluctant to use exogenous hormone therapy for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and are looking for complementary therapies. However, food supplements are not clearly regulated in Europe. The EFSA has only recently begun to address the issues of botanical safety and purity regulation, leading to a variability of content, standardization, dosage, and purity of available products. In this study, isoflavones (puerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein, glycitein, genistein, formononetin, prunetin, and biochanin A) from food supplements (n = 15) for menopausal symptoms relief are evaluated and compared with the labelled information. Only four supplements complied with the recommendations made by the EC on the tolerable thresholds. The intestinal bioavailability of these compounds was investigated using Caco-2 cells. The apparent permeability coefficients of the selected isoflavonoids across the Caco-2 cells were affected by the isoflavone concentration and product matrix.

  20. A 2-Phase Labeling and Choice Architecture Intervention to Improve Healthy Food and Beverage Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Lillian; Riis, Jason; Barraclough, Susan; Levy, Douglas E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed whether a 2-phase labeling and choice architecture intervention would increase sales of healthy food and beverages in a large hospital cafeteria. Methods. Phase 1 was a 3-month color-coded labeling intervention (red = unhealthy, yellow = less healthy, green = healthy). Phase 2 added a 3-month choice architecture intervention that increased the visibility and convenience of some green items. We compared relative changes in 3-month sales from baseline to phase 1 and from phase 1 to phase 2. Results. At baseline (977 793 items, including 199 513 beverages), 24.9% of sales were red and 42.2% were green. Sales of red items decreased in both phases (P beverages. Red beverages decreased 16.5% during phase 1 (P beverages increased 9.6% in phase 1 (P < .001) and further increased 4.0% in phase 2 (P < .001). Bottled water increased 25.8% during phase 2 (P < .001) but did not increase at 2 on-site comparison cafeterias (P < .001). Conclusions. A color-coded labeling intervention improved sales of healthy items and was enhanced by a choice architecture intervention. PMID:22390518

  1. Inaccurate Assessment of Canine Body Condition Score, Bodyweight, and Pet Food Labels: A Potential Cause of Inaccurate Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa S. Yam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to investigate owners’ ability to assign the correct bodyweight (BW and body condition score (BCS to their dog and to interpret wet and dry pet food labels by estimating how much to feed daily. One hundred and seventy-four questionnaires were completed. Owner estimated BW was compared to actual BW, correct being defined within ±10% of actual BW. Correct interpretation of the total amount of food required was determined by the number of cans (±25% of cans required for wet food and grams (±20% of grams for dry food, based on the dog’s actual BW, the feeding guidelines on the label, and a comparison with the owner’s estimate. Eleven percent of owners overestimated BCS and 19% overestimated BW. Only 48% of owners could correctly estimate their dog’s BW. Only 23% and 43% of owners could correctly estimate how much wet and dry food to feed, respectively. Chi-square analysis demonstrated a significant positive association for owners correctly estimating their dog’s BW and interpreting the wet pet food label. Many owners are not aware of their pet’s BCS and BW and cannot accurately interpret pet food labels. Further owner education to improve these skills is needed if dogs are to be fed correctly.

  2. Bringing a probiotic-containing functional food to the market: microbiological, product, regulatory and labeling issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, M E; Huis in't Veld, J

    1999-01-01

    Properly formulated probiotic-containing foods offer consumers a low risk, low cost dietary component that has the potential to promote health in a variety of ways. Several such products are available commercially, although markets in Japan and Europe are more developed than in the USA. Once healthful attributes of a probiotic product have been identified, there remain microbiological, product, regulatory and labeling issues to be addressed prior to marketing. Microbiological and product issues include safety, effective scale-up for manufacturing, definition of probiotic activity, probiotic stability in the product over the course of product manufacture, shelf-life and consumption, definition of effective dose and target population(s), and development of quality assurance approaches. Examples of probiotic-containing foods are given. Regulatory and labeling issues are complicated because they differ for each country, but are likewise critical because they provide the means for communication of the product benefits to the consumer. The regulatory climate worldwide appears to be one of caution about overstating the benefits of such products but at the same time not preventing corporate commitment to marketing.

  3. Mandatory menu labeling in one fast-food chain in King County, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Eric A; Strombotne, Kiersten L; Chan, Nadine L; Krieger, James

    2011-02-01

    As part of a comprehensive effort to stem the rise in obesity, King County, Washington, enforced a mandatory menu-labeling regulation requiring all restaurant chains with 15 or more locations to disclose calorie information at the point of purchase beginning in January 2009. The purpose of this study is to quantify the impact of the King County regulation on transactions and purchasing behavior at one Mexican fast-food chain with locations within and adjacent to King County. To examine the effect of the King County regulation, a difference-in-difference approach was used to compare total transactions and average calories per transaction between seven King County restaurants and seven control locations focusing on two time periods: one period immediately following the law until the posting of drive-through menu boards (January 2009 to July 2009) and a second period following the drive-through postings (August 2009 through January 2010). Analyses were conducted in 2010. No impact of the regulation on purchasing behavior was found. Trends in transactions and calories per transaction did not vary between control and intervention locations after the law was enacted. In this setting, mandatory menu labeling did not promote healthier food-purchasing behavior. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Parents' meal choices for their children at fast food and family restaurants with different menu labeling presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kiwon; Lee, Youngmi

    2018-06-01

    This study examined the effect of nutrition labeling formats on parents' food choices for their children at different restaurant types. An online survey was conducted with 1,980 parents of children aged 3-12 years. Participants were randomly assigned to fast food or family restaurant scenarios, and one of four menu stimuli conditions: no labeling, low-calorie symbol (symbol), numeric value (numeric), and both low-calorie symbol and numeric value (symbol + numeric). Participants selected menu items for their children. Menu choices and total calories were compared by nutrition labeling formats in each type of the restaurant. Low-calorie item selections were scored and a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted for an interaction effect between restaurant and labeling type. In the fast food restaurant group, parents presented with low-calorie symbols selected the lowest calorie items more often than those not presented with the format. Parents in the symbol + numeric condition selected significantly fewer calories (653 kcal) than those in the no labeling (677 kcal) or numeric conditions (674 kcal) ( P = 0.006). In the family restaurant group, no significant difference were observed among different labeling conditions. A significant interaction between restaurant and labeling type on low-calorie selection score (F = 6.03, P restaurant type to jointly affect parents' food choices for their children. The provision of easily interpretable nutritional information format at fast food restaurants may encourage healthier food choices of parents for their children; however, the effects were negligible at family restaurants.

  5. Health-related claims on food labels in Australia: understanding environmental health officers' roles and implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon-Paoloni, Deanne; Yeatman, Heather R; Grigonis-Deane, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Health and related claims on food labels can support consumer education initiatives that encourage purchase of healthier foods. A new food Standard on Nutrition, Health and Related Claims became law in January 2013. Implementation will need careful monitoring and enforcement to ensure that claims are truthful and have meaning. The current study explored factors that may impact on environmental health officers' food labelling policy enforcement practices. The study used a mixed-methods approach, using two previously validated quantitative questionnaire instruments that provided measures of the level of control that the officers exercised over their work, as well as qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interviews. Local government; Australia. Thirty-seven officers in three Australian states participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews, as well as completing the quantitative questionnaires. Senior and junior officers, including field officers, participated in the study. The officers reported a high level of autonomy and control of their work, but also a heavy workload, dominated by concerns for public health and food safety, with limited time for monitoring food labels. Compliance of labels with proposed health claims regulations was not considered a priority. Lipsky's theory of street-level bureaucracy was used to enhance understanding of officers' work practices. Competing priorities affect environmental health officers' monitoring and enforcement of regulations. Understanding officers' work practices and their perceptions of enforcement is important to increase effectiveness of policy implementation and hence its capacity to augment education initiatives to optimize health benefits.

  6. Hip Hop HEALS: Pilot Study of a Culturally Targeted Calorie Label Intervention to Improve Food Purchases of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Olajide; DeSorbo, Alexandra; Sawyer, Vanessa; Apakama, Donald; Shaffer, Michele; Gerin, William; Noble, James

    2016-02-01

    We explored the effect of a culturally targeted calorie label intervention on food purchasing behavior of elementary school students. We used a quasi-experimental design with two intervention schools and one control school to assess food purchases of third through fifth graders at standardized school food sales before and after the intervention (immediate and delayed) in schools. The intervention comprised three 1-hour assembly-style hip-hop-themed multimedia classes. A mean total of 225 children participated in two baseline preintervention sales with and without calorie labels; 149 children participated in immediate postintervention food sales, while 133 children participated in the delayed sales. No significant change in purchased calories was observed in response to labels alone before the intervention. However, a mean decline in purchased calories of 20% (p < .01) and unhealthy foods (p < .01) was seen in immediately following the intervention compared to baseline purchases, and this persisted without significant decay after 7 days and 12 days. A 3-hour culturally targeted calorie label intervention may improve food-purchasing behavior of children. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  7. Exploring enhanced menu labels' influence on fast food selections and exercise-related attitudes, perceptions, and intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Morgan S; Thompson, Joel Kevin

    2016-10-01

    Labeling restaurant menus with calorie counts is a popular public health intervention, but research shows these labels have small, inconsistent effects on behavior. Supplementing calorie counts with physical activity equivalents may produce stronger results, but few studies of these enhanced labels have been conducted, and the labels' potential to influence exercise-related outcomes remains unexplored. This online study evaluated the impact of no information, calories-only, and calories plus equivalent miles of walking labels on fast food item selection and exercise-related attitudes, perceptions, and intentions. Participants (N = 643) were randomly assigned to a labeling condition and completed a menu ordering task followed by measures of exercise-related outcomes. The labels had little effect on ordering behavior, with no significant differences in total calories ordered and counterintuitive increases in calories ordered in the two informational conditions in some item categories. The labels also had little impact on the exercise-related outcomes, though participants in the two informational conditions perceived exercise as less enjoyable than did participants in the no information condition, and trends following the same pattern were found for other exercise-related outcomes. The present findings concur with literature demonstrating small, inconsistent effects of current menu labeling strategies and suggest that alternatives such as traffic light systems should be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 'Traffic-light' nutrition labelling and 'junk-food' tax: a modelled comparison of cost-effectiveness for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, G; Veerman, J L; Moodie, M; Swinburn, B

    2011-07-01

    Cost-effectiveness analyses are important tools in efforts to prioritise interventions for obesity prevention. Modelling facilitates evaluation of multiple scenarios with varying assumptions. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of conservative scenarios for two commonly proposed policy-based interventions: front-of-pack 'traffic-light' nutrition labelling (traffic-light labelling) and a tax on unhealthy foods ('junk-food' tax). For traffic-light labelling, estimates of changes in energy intake were based on an assumed 10% shift in consumption towards healthier options in four food categories (breakfast cereals, pastries, sausages and preprepared meals) in 10% of adults. For the 'junk-food' tax, price elasticities were used to estimate a change in energy intake in response to a 10% price increase in seven food categories (including soft drinks, confectionery and snack foods). Changes in population weight and body mass index by sex were then estimated based on these changes in population energy intake, along with subsequent impacts on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Associated resource use was measured and costed using pathway analysis, based on a health sector perspective (with some industry costs included). Costs and health outcomes were discounted at 3%. The cost-effectiveness of each intervention was modelled for the 2003 Australian adult population. Both interventions resulted in reduced mean weight (traffic-light labelling: 1.3 kg (95% uncertainty interval (UI): 1.2; 1.4); 'junk-food' tax: 1.6 kg (95% UI: 1.5; 1.7)); and DALYs averted (traffic-light labelling: 45,100 (95% UI: 37,700; 60,100); 'junk-food' tax: 559,000 (95% UI: 459,500; 676,000)). Cost outlays were AUD81 million (95% UI: 44.7; 108.0) for traffic-light labelling and AUD18 million (95% UI: 14.4; 21.6) for 'junk-food' tax. Cost-effectiveness analysis showed both interventions were 'dominant' (effective and cost-saving). Policy-based population-wide interventions such as traffic

  9. The 2015 US Food and Drug Administration Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Mary C; King, Tekoa L

    2017-05-01

    As of 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) discontinued the pregnancy risk categories (ABCDX) that had been used to denote the putative safety of drugs for use among pregnant women. The ABCDX system has been replaced by the FDA Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling Rule (PLLR) that requires narrative text to describe risk information, clinical considerations, and background data for the drug. The new rule includes 3 overarching categories: 1) pregnancy, which includes labor and birth; 2) lactation; and 3) females and males of reproductive potential. This article reviews the key components of the PLLR and clinical implications, and provides resources for clinicians who prescribe drugs for women of reproductive age. © 2017 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  10. Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: Results from an experimental trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffery Robert W; Story Mary T; Oakes J Michael; French Simone A; Harnack Lisa J; Rydell Sarah A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Although point-of-purchase calorie labeling at restaurants has been proposed as a strategy for improving consumer food choices, a limited number of studies have evaluated this approach. Likewise, little research has been conducted to evaluate the influence of value size pricing on restaurant meal choices. Methods To examine the effect of point-of-purchase calorie information and value size pricing on fast food meal choices a randomized 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conduc...

  11. Validity of the Remote Food Photography Method Against Doubly Labeled Water Among Minority Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Theresa; Saab, Rabab; Islam, Noemi G; Wong, William; Butte, Nancy; Schulin, Rebecca; Liu, Yan; Apolzan, John W; Myers, Candice A; Martin, Corby K

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the validity of energy intake (EI) estimations made using the remote food photography method (RFPM) compared to the doubly labeled water (DLW) method in minority preschool children in a free-living environment. Seven days of food intake and spot urine samples excluding first void collections for DLW analysis were obtained on thirty-nine 3- to 5-year-old Hispanic and African American children. Using an iPhone, caregivers captured before and after pictures of each child's intake, pictures were wirelessly transmitted to trained raters who estimated portion size using existing visual estimation procedures, and energy and macronutrients were calculated. Paired t tests, mean differences, and Bland-Altman limits of agreement were performed. The mean EI was 1,191 ± 256 kcal/d using the RFPM and 1,412 ± 220 kcal/d using the DLW method, resulting in a mean underestimate of 222 kcal/d (-15.6%; P < 0.0001) that was consistent regardless of intake. The RFPM underestimated EI by -28.5% in 34 children and overestimated EI by 15.6% in 5 children. The RFPM underestimated total EI when compared to the DLW method among preschoolers. Further refinement of the RFPM is needed for assessing the EI of young children. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  12. A miniaturized optoelectronic system for rapid quantitative label-free detection of harmful species in food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, Ioannis; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Makarona, Eleni; Salapatas, Alexandros; Petrou, Panagiota; Kakabakos, Sotirios; Botsialas, Athanasios; Jobst, Gerhard; Haasnoot, Willem; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo; Lees, Michelle; Valamontes, Evangelos

    2016-03-01

    Optical biosensors have emerged in the past decade as the most promising candidates for portable, highly-sensitive bioanalytical systems that can be employed for in-situ measurements. In this work, a miniaturized optoelectronic system for rapid, quantitative, label-free detection of harmful species in food is presented. The proposed system has four distinctive features that can render to a powerful tool for the next generation of Point-of-Need applications, namely it accommodates the light sources and ten interferometric biosensors on a single silicon chip of a less-than-40mm2 footprint, each sensor can be individually functionalized for a specific target analyte, the encapsulation can be performed at the wafer-scale, and finally it exploits a new operation principle, Broad-band Mach-Zehnder Interferometry to ameliorate its analytical capabilities. Multi-analyte evaluation schemes for the simultaneous detection of harmful contaminants, such as mycotoxins, allergens and pesticides, proved that the proposed system is capable of detecting within short time these substances at concentrations below the limits imposed by regulatory authorities, rendering it to a novel tool for the near-future food safety applications.

  13. What does it Mean to Be Well-Informed? Rhetorics, Perceptions and Attitudes on the Problem of Transgenic Food Labelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÓSEAN LARRIÓN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we develop a case study, focused on Spain and the European Union, on the controversy over the labelling of transgenic foods. This paper firstly compares the social discourses that conceive labelling essentially as being a problem or a solution. Secondly, an analysis is provided of the main legislative responses, together with the specific issues that remain controversial in this field. Thirdly, the limits of the cognitive deficit model and the problem of establishing what information is relevant or irrelevant are discussed. The research concludes by showing the presence of the rhetorics of safety and risk, and proposes an outline of social positions around the consumption of transgenic foods, their differential labelling, and the endeavour of science in our societies.

  14. An observational study of consumer use of fast-food restaurant drive-through lanes: implications for menu labelling policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Christina A; Hoffnagle, Elena; Bragg, Marie A; Brownell, Kelly D

    2010-11-01

    Some versions of restaurant menu labelling legislation do not require energy information to be posted on menus for drive-through lanes. The present study was designed to quantify the number of customers who purchase fast food through drive-in windows as a means of informing legislative labelling efforts. This was an observational study. The study took place at two McDonald's and Burger King restaurants, and single Dairy Queen, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Taco Bell and Wendy's restaurants. The number of customers entering the chain restaurants and purchasing food via the drive-through lane were recorded. A total of 3549 patrons were observed. The percentage of customers who made their purchases at drive-throughs was fifty-seven. The overall average (57 %) is likely a conservative estimate because some fast-food restaurants have late-night hours when only the drive-throughs are open. Since nearly six in ten customers purchase food via the drive-through lanes, menu labelling legislation should mandate the inclusion of menu labels on drive-through menu boards to maximise the impact of this public health intervention.

  15. Extrinsic labelling of staple food crops with isotopic iron does not consistently result in full equilibration: Revisiting the methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrinsic isotopic labeling of food Fe has been used for over 50 years to measure Fe absorption. This method is based on the assumption that complete equilibration occurs between the extrinsic and the intrinsic Fe prior to intestinal absorption. The present study tested this assumption via use of in...

  16. Single-larger-portion-size and dual-column nutrition labeling may help consumers make more healthful food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lando, Amy M; Lo, Serena C

    2013-02-01

    The Food and Drug Administration is considering changes to the Nutrition Facts label to help consumers make more healthful choices. To examine the effects of modifications to the Nutrition Facts label on foods that can be listed as having 1 or 2 servings per container, but are reasonably consumed at a single eating occasion. Participants were randomly assigned to study conditions that varied on label format, product, and nutrition profile. Data were collected via an online consumer panel. Adults aged 18 years and older were recruited from Synovate's online household panel. Data were collected during August 2011. A total of 32,897 invitations were sent for a final sample of 9,493 interviews. Participants were randomly assigned to one of 10 label formats classified into three groups: listing 2 servings per container with a single column, listing 2 servings per container with a dual column, and listing a single serving per container. Within these groups there were versions that enlarged the font size for "calories," removed "calories from fat," and changed the wording for serving size declaration. The single product task measured product healthfulness, the amount of calories and various nutrients per serving and per container, and label perceptions. The product comparison task measured ability to identify the healthier product and the product with fewer calories per container and per serving. Analysis of covariance models with Tukey-Kramer tests were used. Covariates included general label use, age, sex, level of education, and race/ethnicity. Single-serving and dual-column formats performed better and scored higher on most outcome measures. For products that contain 2 servings but are customarily consumed at a single eating occasion, using a single-serving or dual-column labeling approach may help consumers make healthier food choices. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and class labeling of gadolinium-based contrast agents by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lucie; Krefting, Ira; Gorovets, Alex; Marzella, Louis; Kaiser, James; Boucher, Robert; Rieves, Dwaine

    2012-10-01

    In 2007, the Food and Drug Administration requested that manufacturers of all approved gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs), drugs widely used in magnetic resonance imaging, use nearly identical text in their product labeling to describe the risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). Accumulating information about NSF risks led to revision of the labeling text for all of these drugs in 2010. The present report summarizes the basis and purpose of this class-labeling approach and describes some of the related challenges, given the evolutionary nature of the NSF risk evidence. The class-labeling approach for presentation of product risk is designed to decrease the occurrence of NSF and to enhance the safe use of GBCAs in radiologic practice. © RSNA, 2012.

  18. Effect of calorie or exercise labels on menus on calories and macronutrients ordered and calories from specific foods in Hispanic participants: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Meena; Bouza, Brooke; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Jaffery, Manall; Esposito, Phil; Dart, Lyn

    2016-12-01

    The effect of menu labels on food choices is unknown in Hispanics. This study evaluated the impact of menu labels on calories and macronutrients ordered in Hispanics. 372 Hispanics (18-65 years) were randomly assigned to menus with no labels (NL) (n=127), rank-ordered calorie labels plus a statement on energy needs per meal (CL) (n=123), or rank-ordered exercise labels showing minutes of brisk walking necessary to burn the food calories (EL) (n=122). The menus had identical food choices. Participants were instructed to select foods from the assigned menu as if having lunch in a fast food restaurant. One-way analysis of variance found no difference in calories ordered (median (25th and 75th centiles)) by menu condition (NL: 785.0 (465.0, 1010.0) kcal; CL: 790.0 (510.0, 1020.0) kcal; EL: 752.5 (520.0, 1033.8) kcal; p=0.75). Calories from specific foods and macronutrient intake were not different by menu condition. Menu label use was 26.8% in the CL and 25.4% in the EL condition. Calories ordered were not different between those who used and those who did not use the labels. Regression analysis showed that perception of being overweight (p=0.02), selecting foods based on health value (p<0.0001), and meeting exercise guidelines (p<0.0001) were associated with fewer calories ordered. Logistic regression showed that selecting foods based on health value (p=0.01) was associated with higher food label use. Menu labels did not affect food choices in Hispanic participants. Future studies should determine if nutrition, exercise, and weight perception counseling prior to menu labels intervention would result in better food choices. NCT02804503; post-results. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical Research.

  19. The effect of food label cues on perceptions of quality and purchase intentions among high-involvement consumers with varying levels of nutrition knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Amber; Long, Marilee

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether differences in nutrition knowledge affected how women (a high-involvement group) interpreted intrinsic cues (ingredient list) and extrinsic cues ("all natural" label) on food labels. A 2 (intrinsic cue) × 2 (extrinsic cue) × 2 (nutrition knowledge expert vs novice) within-subject factorial design was used. Participants were 106 female college students (61 experts, 45 novices). Dependent variables were perception of product quality and purchase intention. As predicted by the elaboration likelihood model, experts used central route processing to scrutinize intrinsic cues and make judgments about food products. Novices used peripheral route processing to make simple inferences about the extrinsic cues in labels. Consumers' levels of nutrition knowledge influenced their ability to process food labels. The United States Food and Drug Administration should regulate the "all natural" food label, because this claim is likely to mislead most consumers. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Discrepancy between the composition of some commercial cat foods and their package labelling and suitability for meeting nutritional requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosper, E C; Raubenheimer, D; Machovsky-Capuska, G E; Chaves, A V

    2016-01-01

    To investigate if the label information and nutrient composition of commercial cat foods are accurate and compliant with the Australian Standard (AS 5812-2011) and if they meet the nutritional requirements of an adult cat. A chemical analysis of 10 wet and 10 dry commercial cat foods labelled as 'nutritionally complete' for the adult cat was performed. The results were compared with the package composition values, the Australian Standard and the unique dietary requirements of the cat. In addition, the results of the chemical analysis were compared with the nutrient requirements published by the Association of the American Feed Control Officials and the National Research Council. When compared with the Australian Standard, 9 of the 20 cat foods did not adhere to their 'guaranteed analysis' and 8 did not adhere to the standards for nutrient composition. Also, various deficiencies and excesses of crude protein, crude fat, fatty acid and amino acid were observed in the majority of the cat foods. The results of this study highlight a need for an improved method of ensuring that label information and nutrient composition are accurate and comply with the Australian Standard (AS 5812-2011) to ensure the adult cat's unique dietary requirements are being met by commercial adult cat food. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  1. [Supervision of foods containing components of genetically modified organisms and the problems of labeling this type of products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2010-01-01

    Commercial production of genetically modified (GM) crops as food or feed is regarded as a promising social area in the development of modern biotechnology. The Russian Federation has set up a governmental system to regulate the use of biotechnology products, which is based on Russian and foreign experience and the most up-to-date scientific approaches. The system for evaluating the quality and safety of GM foodstuffs envisages the postregistration monitoring of their circulation as an obligatory stage. For these purposes, the world community applies two methods: enzyme immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction. It should be noted that there are various approaches to GM food labeling in the world; this raises the question of whether the labeling of foods that are prepared from genetically modified organisms, but contain no protein or DNA is to be introduced in Russia, as in the European Union.

  2. How does consumer knowledge affect environmentally sustainable choices? Evidence from a cross-country latent class analysis of food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, Anne O; Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo; Veeman, Michele

    2016-11-01

    This paper examines consumers' knowledge and lifestyle profiles and preferences regarding two environmentally labeled food staples, potatoes and ground beef. Data from online choice experiments conducted in Canada and Germany are analyzed through latent class choice modeling to identify the influence of consumer knowledge (subjective and objective knowledge as well as usage experience) on environmentally sustainable choices. We find that irrespective of product or country under investigation, high subjective and objective knowledge levels drive environmentally sustainable food choices. Subjective knowledge was found to be more important in this context. Usage experience had relatively little impact on environmentally sustainable choices. Our results suggest that about 20% of consumers in both countries are ready to adopt footprint labels in their food choices. Another 10-20% could be targeted by enhancing subjective knowledge, for example through targeted marketing campaigns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quality Label as the Guarantee of Top Quality Agricultural and Food Products Produced in Slovak Republic – a Case Study of Slovak Food Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrida Košičiarová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to determine the Slovak consumer’s opinion about the purchase and quality level of agricultural and food products produced in the Slovak Republic, as well as to determine their knowledge and preference of the National Quality Label “Značka kvality SK”. As research methods, there have been used the methods of survey and structured questionnaire consisting of 22 questions. The total number of respondents was 2.808 randomly selected respondents from all over the Slovak Republic. For a deeper analysis of the obtained results, there have been set out nine hypothesis, which have been tested with the use of Pearson’s chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, Mann-Whitney U-Test and Cramer’s contingency coefficient. The results of the present paper show, that the knowledge and preference of higher quality food is between Slovak consumers on a pretty high level – more than 44 % respondents think that they buy higher quality products, more than 49 % of respondents think that the agricultural and food products produced in Slovak Republic are rather higher and higher quality, more than 58 % of respondents know the Quality Label “Značka kvality SK”, over 56 % of respondents could describe its logo, more than 60 % of them could spontaneously name five brands, respectively products labelled with this Quality Label and almost 50 % of respondents buy also the ecological products.

  4. A traffic light food labeling intervention increases consumer awareness of health and healthy choices at the point-of-purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Lillian; Gelsomin, Emily; Levy, Douglas E; Riis, Jason; Barraclough, Susan; Thorndike, Anne N

    2013-10-01

    We surveyed customers in a hospital cafeteria in Boston, Massachusetts before and after implementation of traffic light food labeling to determine the effect of labels on customers' awareness and purchase of healthy foods. Cafeteria items were identified as red (unhealthy), yellow (less healthy), or green (healthy). Customers were interviewed before (N=166) and after (N=223) labeling was implemented. Each respondent was linked to cash register data to determine the proportion of red, yellow, and green items purchased. Data were collected from February-April 2010. We compared responses to survey questions and mean proportion of red, yellow, and green items per transaction between customers interviewed during baseline and customers interviewed during the intervention. Survey response rate was 60%. Comparing responses during labeling intervention to baseline, more respondents identified health/nutrition as an important factor in their purchase (61% vs. 46%, p=0.004) and reported looking at nutrition information (33% vs. 15%, ppurchases were more likely to purchase healthier items than respondents who did not notice labels (ppoint-of-purchase. © 2013.

  5. Labeling the finished products as a part of information support of marketing activities at vegetable-food enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Petrenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the influence of labeling food-vegetable subcomplex, as part of marketing activities provide information on consumer behavior, the choice of consumers and an increase in sales of enterprises. This article's aims -are to estimate estimate consumer response to the information received from various kinds of labels and labeling products, and analysis of the impact of such information on the final consumer choices. The article analizyng the needness of the front and rear panels of information on labels of product, differentiation methods of marking. The importance of product information on the impact on the environment, and the associated benefits this consumer preference. Analyzed the importance of providing consumers information about the components and their usefulness for each product, and method of presentation data in full or abbreviated form. The conclusion of the obvious dependence providing consumer preferences on the type of labeling goods of food-vegitable subcomplex and according the final choice of the consumer, which in turn affects the increase in factory production and will allow the enterprises to consolidate their positions on international markets.

  6. The success of the citizen suit: protecting consumers from inaccurate food labeling by amending the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, James

    2013-01-01

    The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act ("FDCA"), amended in 1990 by the Nutrition Education and Labeling Act ("NLEA"), established a national framework for the administration and promulgation of uniform food labeling standards. Specifically, the NLEA created affirmative obligations for the food--requiring detailed disclosure of food content and strict adherence to regulations governing the use of health and nutritional claims on food packaging. To accomplish these goals, Congress tasked the Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") with the sole responsibility of the enforcement of these new requirements. Under the statutory framework of the FDCA, the United States Supreme Court ("Court") has held that there is no private right of action, of which extended to the enforcement of NLEA standards. This interpretation has left individuals with no federal outlet for relief in the enforcement of federal food labeling standards. Adherence to this interpretation is especially concerning when the FDA currently faces exponential growth in administrative responsibilities while simultaneously experiencing employment reduction, a $206 million "Sequester," and a recent government-wide shutdown. As a result, the American people are left to depend on an Agency that is struggling with drastic resource reduction while being accountable for ever increasing enforcement responsibilities. To ensure consumer protection, this Article argues that Congress should amend the FDCA to include a citizen suit provision in order to provide individuals with a right of private action for the enforcement of NLEA standards. Borrowing from the successes realized under similar citizen suit provisions found in environmental legislation, this Article argues that a citizen suit provision is amendable to the FDCA and would relieve fiscal pressures, strengthen the current enforcement framework of the FDCA, encourage more robust enforcement by the FDA and states, and ensure uniform interpretation of NLEA

  7. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

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    Full Text Available ... Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should ... for Parents Figuring Out Food Labels Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories Food Labels View ...

  8. Legislação brasileira referente à rotulagem nutricional de alimentos Brazilian food labeling regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Benedita Ferreira

    2007-02-01

    present a reflection on the historical evolution of the Brazilian food legislation and to emphasize nutritional labeling. The main regulations which have been under way for the four past decades were highlighted as well as some topics in the regulations which should be improved. From a general point of view, during this period, advances in the legislation have been observed, considering that scientific reports were incorporated in the regulations intending to improve food quality and to promote public health on account of the specific demands of the Brazilian reality. Nevertheless, according to the Regulation nr.360 of the Collegiate Directorate of the Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária in 2003, which states that the declaration of iron, calcium and cholesterol contents is not obligatory anymore, an involution could be assumed regarding public health. Yet, the regulation has its merit by uniformizing the legislation of the countries which compose the Mercosul, providing free trading. Efforts should be made in order to maintain on food labels the nutrients whose declaration is not obligatory anymore. Moreover, it seems to be important to update the regulations, to fill in gaps and to recommend integrated actions of education in food, based on scientific evidences. Food labels have been an useful tool to consumers by giving them the opportunity to know about the composition, nutrient and energy contents as well as informations regarding health maintenance. Food legislation should be considered a strategy to help reduce obesity, nutritional deficiencies and even to prevent the most common chronic noncommunicable diseases associated with intake patterns.

  9. Calorie labeling in a rural middle school influences food selection: findings from community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsberger, Monica; McGinnis, Paul; Smith, Jamie; Beamer, Beth Ann; O'Malley, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Calorie labeling at the point-of-purchase in chain restaurants has been shown to reduce energy intake. To investigate the impact of point-of-purchase calorie information at one rural middle school. With a community-based participatory research framework a mixed method approach was used to evaluate the impact of point-of-purchase calorie information. Students in grades 6-8, dining at the school cafeteria January and February 2010, participated for 17 school days each month; in January a menu was offered in the usual manner without calorie labels; the same menu was prepared in February with the addition of calorie labels at point-of-purchase. Gross calories served per student were measured each day allowing for matched comparison by menu. In March/April of 2010, 32 students who ate in the cafeteria 3 or more times per week were interviewed regarding their views on menu labeling. Calorie consumption decreased by an average of 47 calories/day; fat intake reduced by 2.1 grams/day. Five main themes were consistent throughout the interviews. Point-of-purchase calorie labels can play a role in reducing the number of calories consumed by middle school age children at the lunch. The majority of students interviewed found the calorie labels helped them choose healthier food.

  10. An easy-to-use semiquantitative food record validated for energy intake by using doubly labelled water technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebnick, C; Wagner, K; Thielecke, F; Dieter, G; Höhne, A; Franke, A; Garcia, A L; Meyer, H; Hoffmann, I; Leitzmann, P; Trippo, U; Zunft, H J F

    2005-09-01

    Estimating dietary intake is important for both epidemiological and clinical studies, but often lacks accuracy. To investigate the accuracy and validity of energy intake estimated by an easy-to-use semiquantitative food record (EI(SQFR)) compared to total energy expenditure (TEE) estimated by doubly labelled water technique (EE(DLW)). TEE was measured in 29 nonobese subjects using the doubly labelled water method over a period of 14 days. Within this period, subjects reported their food consumption by a newly developed semiquantitative food record for 4 consecutive days. Energy intake was calculated using the German Food Code and Nutrition Data Base BLS II.3. A good correlation was observed between EI(SQFR) and EE(DLW) (r = 0.685, P 20% in nine subjects (31%). In five subjects (17%), an overestimation of EI(SQFR) was observed. The easy-to-use semiquantitative food record provided good estimates of EI in free-living and nonobese adults without prior detailed verbal instructions. The presented food record has limitations regarding accuracy at the individual level.

  11. Comparison of two front-of-package nutrition labeling schemes, and their explanation, on consumers' perception of product healthfulness and food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeberg, Pamela J; Graham, Dan J; Mohr, Gina S

    2018-06-01

    Front-of-package (FOP) nutrition labels are increasingly used to present nutritional information to consumers. A variety of FOP nutrition schemes exist for presenting condensed nutrition information. The present study directly compared two symbolic FOP labeling systems - traffic light and star-based schemes - with specific regard to healthfulness perception and purchase intention for a variety of products. Additionally, this study investigated which method of message framing (gain, loss, gain + loss) would best enable individuals to effectively utilize the FOP labels. College students (n = 306) viewed food packages featuring either star or traffic light FOP labels and rated the healthfulness of each product and their likelihood of purchasing the product. Within each label type, participants were presented with differently-framed instructions regarding how to use the labels. Participants who viewed the star labels rated products with the lowest healthfulness as significantly less healthful and rated products with the highest healthfulness as significantly more healthful compared to participants who viewed those same products with traffic light labels. Purchase intention did not differ by label type. Additionally, including any type of framing (gain, loss, or gain + loss) assisted consumers in differentiating between foods with mid-range vs. low nutritional value. Star-based labels led more healthful foods to be seen as even more healthful and less healthful foods to be seen as even less healthful compared to the same foods with traffic light labels. Additionally, results indicate a benefit of including framing information for FOP nutrition label instructions; however, no individual frame led to significantly different behavior compared to the other frames. While ratings of product healthfulness were influenced by the framing and the label type, purchase intention was not impacted by either of these factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  12. Sustainability Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability labeling originated from a need to protect the identity of alternative systems of food production and to increase market transparency. From the 1980s onwards sustainability labeling has changed into a policy instrument replacing direct government regulation of the food market, and a

  13. Effects of a Voluntary Front-of-Pack Nutrition Labelling System on Packaged Food Reformulation: The Health Star Rating System in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Eyles, Helen; Choi, Yeun-Hyang

    2017-08-22

    Interpretive, front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labels may encourage reformulation of packaged foods. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the Health Star Rating (HSR), a new voluntary interpretive FOP labelling system, on food reformulation in New Zealand. Annual surveys of packaged food and beverage labelling and composition were undertaken in supermarkets before and after adoption of HSR i.e., 2014 to 2016. Outcomes assessed were HSR uptake by food group star ratings of products displaying a HSR label; nutritional composition of products displaying HSR compared with non-HSR products; and the composition of products displaying HSR labels in 2016 compared with their composition prior to introduction of HSR. In 2016, two years after adoption of the voluntary system, 5.3% of packaged food and beverage products surveyed ( n = 807/15,357) displayed HSR labels. The highest rates of uptake were for cereals, convenience foods, packaged fruit and vegetables, sauces and spreads, and 'Other' products (predominantly breakfast beverages). Products displaying HSR labels had higher energy density but had significantly lower mean saturated fat, total sugar and sodium, and higher fibre, contents than non-HSR products (all p -values labelled products compared with their composition prior to adoption of HSR. Reformulation of HSR-labelled products was greater than that of non-HSR-labelled products over the same period, e.g., energy reduction in HSR products was greater than in non-HSR products (-1.5% versus -0.4%), and sodium content of HSR products decreased by 4.6% while that of non-HSR products increased by 3.1%. We conclude that roll-out of the voluntary HSR labelling system is driving healthier reformulation of some products. Greater uptake across the full food supply should improve population diets.

  14. An Evaluation of an eHealth Tool Designed to Improve College Students’ Label-Reading Skills and Feelings of Empowerment to Choose Healthful Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Soederberg Miller

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveCollege students are at risk for poor dietary choices. New skills can empower individuals to adopt healthful behaviors, yet eHealth tools designed to develop food-choice skills, such as label-reading skills, are uncommon. We investigated the effects of web-based label-reading training on college students’ perceptions of healthful food-choice empowerment.MethodsStudents completed label-reading training in which they practiced selecting the more healthful food using nutrition labels. We examined improvements in label-reading accuracy (correct healthfulness decisions and perceptions of empowerment, using a 6-item scale. Repeated measures ANOVAs and paired-samples t-tests were used to examine changes in accuracy and empowerment across the training session.ResultsIn addition to increases in label-reading accuracy with training, we found increases in healthful food-choice empowerment scores. Specifically, the proportion of correct (i.e., more healthful food choices increased across the three blocks of practice (p = 0.04 and food-choice empowerment scores were about 7.5% higher on average after training (p < 0.001.Conclusion and implicationsLabel-reading training was associated with increased feelings of empowerment associated with making healthful food choices. Skill focused eHealth tools may offer an important avenue for motivating behavior change through skill development.

  15. Helping consumers make more healthful food choices: consumer views on modifying food labels and providing point-of-purchase nutrition information at quick-service restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lando, Amy M; Labiner-Wolfe, Judith

    2007-01-01

    To understand consumer (1) interest in nutrition information on food labels and quick-service restaurant menu boards and (2) reactions to modifying this information to help highlight calories and more healthful choices. Eight consumer focus groups, using a guide and stimuli. Focus group discussions in 4 US cities. A total of 68 consumers, with 7 to 10 per focus group. Authors prepared detailed summaries of discussions based on observation. Video recordings and transcripts were used to cross-check summaries. Data were systematically reviewed, synthesized, and analyzed. Consumer views on alternative presentations of nutrition information on packaged food items and quick-service restaurant menu boards. Participants (1) were interested in having nutrition information available, but would not use it at every eating occasion; (2) thought that food products typically consumed at 1 eating occasion should be labeled as a single serving; and (3) indicated that an icon on labels and menu boards that signaled more healthful options could be helpful. Findings provide a basis for the development of more systematic studies to better understand whether alternative presentations of nutrition information would help consumers.

  16. An empirical determination of consumers’ reaction to nutritional labeling of pre-packaged food products in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben. E.A. Oghojafor

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of diet induced diseases such as cancer, high blood pressure, stroke, cardiovascular/heart disease, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis and malnutrition are rampant in our world today and therefore topical. The practice of nutritional labeling is being advocated as a panacea for this malaise and hence a sizeable number of researches are being undertaken in this direction. Large chunk of these studies are concentrated in the advanced countries. Unfortunately, there is dearth of such studies in developing countries including Nigeria. Consequently, this study sought to empirically determine consumers’ reaction to nutritional labeling of pre-packaged food products in Nigeria. The study was purely descriptive and data collected aptly analyzed through the instrumentality of pertinent statistical tools. Findings show that consumers read, comprehend, trust the authenticity and are significantly aware of nutritional labeling and are able to relate the effects of nutrition information to their health. Not surprising therefore, consumers consciously search for nutrition information, which significantly influence their purchase decisions of these kinds of products. These results hold some implications for both policy-makers and pre-packaged food marketers. Further research should be in areas of quantity and position of disclosure of nutrition information and use of symbols in nutritional labeling in Nigeria.

  17. Predicted Impact of the Food and Drug Administration's Menu-Labeling Regulations on Restaurants in 4 New Jersey Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Jessie; DeWeese, Robin S; Lorts, Cori; Yedidia, Michael J; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2018-02-01

    To determine the proportion of restaurants that will be required to post calorie information under the Food and Drug Administration's menu-labeling regulations in 4 New Jersey cities. We classified geocoded 2014 data on 1753 restaurant outlets in accordance with the Food and Drug Administration's guidelines, which will require restaurants with 20 or more locations nationwide to post calorie information. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the association between menu-labeling requirements and census tract characteristics. Only 17.6% of restaurants will be affected by menu labeling; restaurants in higher-income tracts have higher odds than do restaurants in lower-income tracts (odds ratio [OR] = 1.55; P = .02). Restaurants in non-Hispanic Black (OR = 1.62; P = .02) and mixed race/ethnicity (OR = 1.44; P = .05) tracts have higher odds than do restaurants in non-Hispanic White tracts of being affected. Additional strategies are needed to help consumers make healthy choices at restaurants not affected by the menu-labeling law. These findings have implications for designing implementation strategies for the law and for evaluating its impact.

  18. Meal skipping relates to food choice, understanding of nutrition labeling, and prevalence of obesity in Korean fifth grade children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Na-Rae; Lee, Jung-Sug; Choi, Young-Sun; Kwak, Tong-Kyung; Chung, Hae Rang; Kwon, Sehyug; Choi, Youn-Ju; Lee, Soon-Kyu; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2012-08-01

    This study was performed to investigate the differences in food choice, nutrition labeling perceptions, and prevalence of obesity due to meal skipping in Korean elementary school children. A national survey was performed in 2010 to collect data on food intake frequency, understanding of nutrition labeling, and body mass index from 2,335 fifth grade students in 118 elementary schools selected from 16 metropolitan local governments by stratified cluster sampling. The data were analyzed using the SAS 9.1 and SUDAAN 10.0 packages. Students who consumed three meals for 6-7 days during the past week were classified into the regular meal eating (RM) group (n = 1,476) and those who did not were placed into the meal skipping (MS) group (n = 859). The daily intake frequency of fruits, vegetables, kimchi, and milk was significantly lower in the MS group compared to that in the RM group (P instant noodles (ramyeon) was significantly higher in the MS group than that in the RM group (P < 0.05). The MS group demonstrated a significantly lower degree of understanding with regard to nutrition labeling and high calorie foods containing low nutritional value than that in the RM group. The distribution of obesity based on the percentile criteria using the Korean growth chart was different between the MS and RM groups. The MS group (8.97%) had a higher percentage of obese subjects than that in the RM group (5.38%). In conclusion, meal skipping was related to poor food choice, low perception of nutrition labeling, and a high prevalence of obesity in Korean fifth grade children.

  19. The availability and accessibility of nutrition information in fast food outlets in five states post-menu labelling legislation in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard, Lyndal; Havill, Michelle; Hughes, Clare; Watson, Wendy L; Chapman, Kathy

    2015-12-01

    1) Explore the availability and accessibility of fast food energy and nutrient information post-NSW menu labelling legislation in states with and without menu labelling legislation. 2) Determine whether availability and accessibility differed compared with pre-menu labelling legislation in NSW. We visited 210 outlets of the five largest fast food chains in five Australian states to observe the availability and accessibility of energy and nutrient information. Results were compared with 197 outlets surveyed pre-menu labelling. Most outlets (95%) provided energy values, half provided nutrient values and 3% provided information for all menu items. The total amount of information available increased post-NSW menu labelling implementation (473 versus 178 pre-implementation, pFast food chains surveyed had voluntarily introduced menu labelling nationally. However, more nutrient information was available in-store in 2010, showing that fast food chains are able to provide comprehensive nutrition information, yet they have stopped doing so. Menu labelling legislation should compel fast food chains to provide accessible nutrition information including nutrient values in addition to energy for all menu items in-store. Additionally, public education campaigns are needed to ensure customers can use menu labelling. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  20. A voluntary nutrition labeling program in restaurants: Consumer awareness, use of nutrition information, and food selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. White

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Health Check (HC was a voluntary nutrition labeling program developed by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada as a guide to help consumers choose healthy foods. Items meeting nutrient criteria were identified with a HC symbol. This study examined the impact of the program on differences in consumer awareness and use of nutritional information in restaurants. Exit surveys were conducted with 1126 patrons outside four HC and four comparison restaurants in Ontario, Canada (2013. Surveys assessed participant noticing of nutrition information, influence of nutrition information on menu selection, and nutrient intake. Significantly more patrons at HC restaurants noticed nutrition information than at comparison restaurants (34.2% vs. 28.1%; OR = 1.39; p = 0.019; however, only 5% of HC restaurant patrons recalled seeing the HC symbol. HC restaurant patrons were more likely to say that their order was influenced by nutrition information (10.9% vs. 4.5%; OR = 2.96, p < 0.001; and consumed less saturated fat and carbohydrates, and more protein and fibre (p < 0.05. Approximately 15% of HC restaurant patrons ordered HC approved items; however, only 1% ordered a HC item and mentioned seeing the symbol in the restaurant in an unprompted recall task, and only 4% ordered a HC item and reported seeing the symbol on the item when asked directly. The HC program was associated with greater levels of noticing and influence of nutrition information, and more favourable nutrient intake; however, awareness of the HC program was very low and differences most likely reflect the type of restaurants that “self-selected” into the program.

  1. A voluntary nutrition labeling program in restaurants: Consumer awareness, use of nutrition information, and food selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Christine M; Lillico, Heather G; Vanderlee, Lana; Hammond, David

    2016-12-01

    Health Check (HC) was a voluntary nutrition labeling program developed by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada as a guide to help consumers choose healthy foods. Items meeting nutrient criteria were identified with a HC symbol. This study examined the impact of the program on differences in consumer awareness and use of nutritional information in restaurants. Exit surveys were conducted with 1126 patrons outside four HC and four comparison restaurants in Ontario, Canada (2013). Surveys assessed participant noticing of nutrition information, influence of nutrition information on menu selection, and nutrient intake. Significantly more patrons at HC restaurants noticed nutrition information than at comparison restaurants (34.2% vs. 28.1%; OR = 1.39; p = 0.019); however, only 5% of HC restaurant patrons recalled seeing the HC symbol. HC restaurant patrons were more likely to say that their order was influenced by nutrition information (10.9% vs. 4.5%; OR = 2.96, p restaurant patrons ordered HC approved items; however, only 1% ordered a HC item and mentioned seeing the symbol in the restaurant in an unprompted recall task, and only 4% ordered a HC item and reported seeing the symbol on the item when asked directly. The HC program was associated with greater levels of noticing and influence of nutrition information, and more favourable nutrient intake; however, awareness of the HC program was very low and differences most likely reflect the type of restaurants that "self-selected" into the program.

  2. The impact of interpretive and reductive front-of-pack labels on food choice and willingness to pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Zenobia; Norman, Richard; Pettigrew, Simone; Neal, Bruce; Kelly, Bridget; Dixon, Helen; Ball, Kylie; Miller, Caroline; Shilton, Trevor

    2017-12-19

    This study examined how front-of-pack labels and product healthfulness affect choice and willingness to pay across a range of foods. It was hypothesized that: (i) product choice and (ii) willingness to pay would be more aligned with product healthfulness when healthfulness was expressed through the Health Star Rating, followed by the Multiple Traffic Light, then the Daily Intake Guide, and (iii) the Nutrition Facts Panel would be viewed infrequently. Adults and children aged 10+ years (n = 2069) completed an online discrete choice task involving mock food packages. A 4 food type (cookies, corn flakes, pizza, yoghurt) × 2 front-of-pack label presence (present, absent) × 3 front-of-pack label type (Daily Intake Guide, Multiple Traffic Light, Health Star Rating) × 3 price (cheap, moderate, expensive) × 3 healthfulness (less healthy, moderately healthy, healthier) design was used. A 30 s time limit was imposed for each choice. Of the three front-of-pack labels tested, the Health Star Rating produced the largest differences in choices, with 40% (95% CIs: 38%-42%) of respondents selecting the healthier variant, 33% selecting the moderately healthy variant (95% CIs: 31%-35%), and 23% (95% CIs: 21%-24%) selecting the less healthy variant of the four products included in the study. The Multiple Traffic Light led to significant differences in choices between healthier (35%, 95% CIs: 33%-37%) and less healthy products (29%, 95% CIs: 27%-31%), but not moderately healthy products (32%, 95% CIs: 30%-34%). No significant differences in choices were observed by product healthfulness when the Daily Intake Guide was present. Only the Health Star Rating resulted in a significantly greater willingness to pay for healthier versus less healthy products. The Nutrition Facts Panel was viewed for only 7% of all mock packages. Front-of-pack labels that are more interpretive, such as the Health Star Rating, can be more effective at directing consumers towards healthier choices than

  3. 76 FR 18149 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ...) Mandatory nutrition labeling. Guidelines for the production, processing, labeling and marketing of... USDA's Target Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TTY). To file a written complaint of discrimination... able to provide information to a much broader, more diverse audience. In addition, FSIS offers an e...

  4. Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: Results from an experimental trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery Robert W

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although point-of-purchase calorie labeling at restaurants has been proposed as a strategy for improving consumer food choices, a limited number of studies have evaluated this approach. Likewise, little research has been conducted to evaluate the influence of value size pricing on restaurant meal choices. Methods To examine the effect of point-of-purchase calorie information and value size pricing on fast food meal choices a randomized 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted in which participants ordered a fast food meal from one of four menus that varied with respect to whether calorie information was provided and whether value size pricing was used. Study participants included 594 adolescents and adults who regularly ate at fast food restaurants. Study staff recorded the foods ordered and consumed by each participant. Participants also completed surveys to assess attitudes, beliefs and practices related to fast food and nutrition. Results No significant differences in the energy composition of meals ordered or eaten were found between menu conditions. The average energy content of meals ordered by those randomized to a menu that included calorie information and did not include value size pricing was 842 kcals compared with 827 kcals for those who ordered their meal from a menu that did not include calorie information but had value size pricing (control menu. Results were similar in most analyses conducted stratified by factors such as age, race and education level. Conclusion Additional research is needed to better evaluate the effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices. Studies in which participants are repeatedly exposed to these factors are needed since long term exposure may be required for behavior change.

  5. Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: results from an experimental trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnack, Lisa J; French, Simone A; Oakes, J Michael; Story, Mary T; Jeffery, Robert W; Rydell, Sarah A

    2008-12-05

    Although point-of-purchase calorie labeling at restaurants has been proposed as a strategy for improving consumer food choices, a limited number of studies have evaluated this approach. Likewise, little research has been conducted to evaluate the influence of value size pricing on restaurant meal choices. To examine the effect of point-of-purchase calorie information and value size pricing on fast food meal choices a randomized 2 x 2 factorial experiment was conducted in which participants ordered a fast food meal from one of four menus that varied with respect to whether calorie information was provided and whether value size pricing was used. Study participants included 594 adolescents and adults who regularly ate at fast food restaurants. Study staff recorded the foods ordered and consumed by each participant. Participants also completed surveys to assess attitudes, beliefs and practices related to fast food and nutrition. No significant differences in the energy composition of meals ordered or eaten were found between menu conditions. The average energy content of meals ordered by those randomized to a menu that included calorie information and did not include value size pricing was 842 kcals compared with 827 kcals for those who ordered their meal from a menu that did not include calorie information but had value size pricing (control menu). Results were similar in most analyses conducted stratified by factors such as age, race and education level. Additional research is needed to better evaluate the effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices. Studies in which participants are repeatedly exposed to these factors are needed since long term exposure may be required for behavior change.

  6. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  7. Bioaccumulation of 14C-Labeled Graphene in an Aquatic Food Chain through Direct Uptake or Trophic Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shipeng; Xia, Tian; Yang, Yu; Lin, Sijie; Mao, Liang

    2018-01-16

    The growing applications of graphene materials warrant a careful evaluation of their environmental fate in aquatic food webs. Escherichia coli (Bacteria), Tetrahymena thermophila (protozoa), Daphnia magna (zooplankton), and Danio rerio (vertebrate) were used to build aquatic food chains to investigate the waterborne uptake and trophic transfer of 14 C-labeled graphene. Body burden factor (BBF) and trophic transfer factor (TTF) were analyzed for each organism and food chain to assess the bioaccumulation and biomagnification of graphene. The test organisms have high potential of accumulating graphene via direct uptake from culture medium with log-transformed BBF (log BBF) values of 3.66, 5.1, 3.9, and 1.62 for each organism, respectively. In the food chain from E. coli to T. thermophila, the calculated TTFs of 0.2 to 8.6 indicate the high trophic transfer potential in this aquatic food chain. However, the TTFs calculated for the food chain from T. thermophila to D. magna and from D. magna to D. rerio are much lower than 1, indicating that biomagnification was unlikely to occur in these food chains. Body burden measured for dietary uptake by T. thermophila, D. magna, and D. rerio are higher than that via waterborne exposure in a similar nominal concentration, respectively, indicating that trophic transfer is a nonnegligible route for the bioaccumulation of graphene in organisms.

  8. Structural responses to the obesity and non-communicable diseases epidemic: the Chilean Law of Food Labeling and Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvalán, C; Reyes, M; Garmendia, M L; Uauy, R

    2013-11-01

    In 12 July 2012, the Chilean Senate approved the Law of Food Labeling and Advertising, resulting from the joint efforts of a group of health professionals, researchers and legislators who proposed a regulatory framework in support of healthy diets and active living. Its goal was to curb the ongoing epidemic increase of obesity and non-communicable diseases. Two actions included: (i) improving point of food purchase consumer information by incorporating easy-to-understand front-of-packages labeling and specific messages addressing critical nutrients, and (ii) decreasing children's exposure to unhealthy foods by restricting marketing, advertising and sales. We summarize the work related to the law's release and discuss the conclusions reached by the various expert committees that were convened by the Ministry of Health to guide the development of the regulatory norms. Throughout the process, the food industry has overtly expressed its disagreement with the regulatory effort. The final content of the regulatory norms is still pending; however there are suggestions that its implementation will be delayed and might be modified based on the industry lobbying actions. These lessons should contribute to show the need of anticipating and addressing potential barriers to obesity-prevention policy implementation, particularly with respect to the role of the private sector. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  9. The Effect of Food Label Cues on Perceptions of Quality and Purchase Intentions among High-Involvement Consumers with Varying Levels of Nutrition Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Amber; Long, Marilee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether differences in nutrition knowledge affected how women (a high-involvement group) interpreted intrinsic cues (ingredient list) and extrinsic cues ("all natural" label) on food labels. Methods: A 2 (intrinsic cue) x 2 (extrinsic cue) x 2 (nutrition knowledge expert vs novice) within-subject factorial design…

  10. Nutritional quality and labelling of ready-to-eat breakfast cereals: the contribution of the French observatory of food quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goglia, R; Spiteri, M; Ménard, C; Dumas, C; Combris, P; Labarbe, B; Soler, L G; Volatier, J L

    2010-11-01

    To assess developments in the nutritional quality of food products in various food groups in France, an Observatory of Food Quality (Oqali) was created in 2008. To achieve its aims, Oqali built up a new database to describe each specific food item at the most detailed level, and also included economic parameters (market share and mean prices). The objective of this paper is to give a detailed analysis of the monitoring of the ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (RTEBCs) sector in order to show the benefits of the Oqali database. Analysis was limited to products with nutritional information on labels. Packaging was provided by manufacturers or retailers, or obtained by buying products in regular stores. Economic parameters were obtained from surveys on French food consumption and data from consumer purchase panels. The breakfast cereal sector was divided into 10 categories and 5 types of brand. Oqali has developed anonymous indicators to describe product characteristics for each category of RTEBC and each type of brand by cross-referencing nutritional values with economic data. Packaging-related data were also analysed. The major nutritional parameters studied were energy, protein, fat, saturated fat, carbohydrates, sugars, fibre and sodium. Analysis was performed on the basis of descriptive statistics, multivariate statistics and a Kruskal-Wallis test. For the RTEBC, there is large variability in nutrient content throughout the sector, both within and between product categories. There is no systematic relation between brand type and nutritional quality within each product category, and the proportion of brand type within each product category is different. Nutritional labels, claims and pictograms are widespread on packages but vary according to the type of brand. These findings form the basis for monitoring developments in the nutritional composition and packaging-related data for breakfast cereals in the future. The final objective is to expand the approach

  11. Processed foods aimed at children and adolescents: sodium content, adequacy according to the dietary reference intakes and label compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Favila Ribeiro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study determined the sodium content of processed foods aimed at children and adolescents and the adequacy of its content in relation to the dietary reference intakes, and verified label compliance. METHODS: The sodium content of 17 food samples (instant noodles, breaded items, hamburger patties, hot dogs and bologna sausages was determined by flame photometry and chloride titration, and the results were compared with nutritional data. The labels were checked for compliance with the pertinent laws. RESULTS: According to flame photometry and chloride titration, 13 and 5 products, respectively, had sodium contents that exceeded those reported on the nutrition facts label by more than 20%. All samples had more than 480mg of sodium per serving. The tolerable upper intake level for sodium for children aged 4-8 years was exceeded in 8 instant noodles and 3 breaded items according to flame photometry, and in 9 items according to chloride titration. Regarding the legislation, 5 products used a daily reference intake other than that provided by the legislation to report their percent sodium content per serving. Moreover, the serving sizes of 3 instant noodles, the terminology used in 1 instant noodles and the protein content of 1 breaded item were also not compliant with the legislation. CONCLUSION: The sodium contents in the study samples were high and there was no regard for the legislation.

  12. Impact of front-of-pack nutrition information and label design on children's choice of two snack foods: Comparison of warnings and the traffic-light system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrúa, Alejandra; Curutchet, María Rosa; Rey, Natalia; Barreto, Patricia; Golovchenko, Nadya; Sellanes, Andrea; Velazco, Guillermo; Winokur, Medy; Giménez, Ana; Ares, Gastón

    2017-09-01

    Research on the relative influence of package features on children's perception of food products is still necessary to aid policy design and development. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the relative influence of two front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling schemes, the traffic light system and Chilean warning system, and label design on children's choice of two popular snack foods in Uruguay, wafer cookies and orange juice. A total of 442 children in grades 4 to 6 from 12 primary schools in Montevideo (Uruguay) participated in the study. They were asked to complete a choice-conjoint task with wafer cookies and orange juice labels, varying in label design and the inclusion of FOP nutrition information. Half of the children completed the task with labels featuring the traffic-light system (n = 217) and the other half with labels featuring the Chilean warning system (n = 225). Children's choices of wafer cookies and juice labels was significantly influenced by both label design and FOP nutritional labels. The relative impact of FOP nutritional labelling on children's choices was higher for the warning system compared to the traffic-light system. Results from the present work stress the need to regulate the design of packages and the inclusion of nutrient claims, and provide preliminary evidence of the potential of warnings to discourage children's choice of unhealthful products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Protect Your Heart: Check Food Labels to Make Heart-Healthy Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protein 15g Total Amounts To make heart-healthy food choices, look at the totals and cut back on • ... Toolkit No. 8: Protect Your Heart: Make Smart Food Choices • Toolkit No. 9: Protect Your Heart: Choose Fats ...

  14. Emergence of Seaweed and Seaweed-Containing Foods in the UK: Focus on Labeling, Iodine Content, Toxicity and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bouga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed (edible algae is not a staple food in the Western diet, despite occasional use as a traditional ingredient in coastal areas. High nutritional value, combined with the expansion of the health-food industry, has led to a resurgence of seaweed in the British diet. While seaweed could be useful in tackling dietary iodine insufficiency, consumption of some species and sources of seaweed has also been associated with risks, such as toxicity from high iodine levels, or accumulation of arsenic, heavy metals and contaminants. The current retail level of seaweed and edible algae in the UK market, either as whole foods or ingredients, was evaluated with particular focus on labelling and iodine content. Seaweed-containing products (n = 224 were identified. Only 22 products (10% stated information regarding iodine content and another 40 (18% provided information sufficient to estimate the iodine content. For these products, the median iodine content was 110 μg/g (IQR 21–503 and 585 μg per estimated serving (IQR 105–2520. While calculations for iodine exposure per serving relied on assumptions, 26 products could potentially lead to an iodine intake above the (European tolerable adult upper level of 600 μg/day. In the context of the data presented, there is scope to improve product labelling (species, source, processing, content.

  15. Emergence of Seaweed and Seaweed-Containing Foods in the UK: Focus on Labeling, Iodine Content, Toxicity and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouga, Maria; Combet, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed (edible algae) is not a staple food in the Western diet, despite occasional use as a traditional ingredient in coastal areas. High nutritional value, combined with the expansion of the health-food industry, has led to a resurgence of seaweed in the British diet. While seaweed could be useful in tackling dietary iodine insufficiency, consumption of some species and sources of seaweed has also been associated with risks, such as toxicity from high iodine levels, or accumulation of arsenic, heavy metals and contaminants. The current retail level of seaweed and edible algae in the UK market, either as whole foods or ingredients, was evaluated with particular focus on labelling and iodine content. Seaweed-containing products (n = 224) were identified. Only 22 products (10%) stated information regarding iodine content and another 40 (18%) provided information sufficient to estimate the iodine content. For these products, the median iodine content was 110 μg/g (IQR 21–503) and 585 μg per estimated serving (IQR 105–2520). While calculations for iodine exposure per serving relied on assumptions, 26 products could potentially lead to an iodine intake above the (European) tolerable adult upper level of 600 μg/day. In the context of the data presented, there is scope to improve product labelling (species, source, processing, content). PMID:28231201

  16. Food and Beverage Selection Patterns among Menu Label Users and Nonusers: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Jessie; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2017-06-01

    By May 5, 2017, restaurants with 20 or more locations nationwide will be required to post calorie information on menus and menu boards. Previous research shows that those who use menu labels purchase fewer calories, but how users are saving calories is unknown. To assess food and beverage selection patterns among menu label users and nonusers. Secondary, cross-sectional analysis using data from a study examining sociodemographic disparities in menu label usage at a national fast-food restaurant chain. Participants were recruited outside restaurant locations, using street-intercept survey methodology. Consenting customers submitted receipts and completed a brief oral survey. Receipt data were used to categorize food and beverage purchases. Side, beverage, and entrée purchases. Sides and beverages were classified as healthier and less-healthy options consistent with the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Healthier options contained items promoted in the guidelines, such as whole fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy, and 100% fruit juice; less-healthy options contained solid fat or added sugar. Entrées were categorized as lower-, medium-, and higher-calorie options, based on quartile cutoffs. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) for purchases among menu label users and nonusers, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and total price paid. Healthier sides were selected by 7.5% of users vs 2.5% of nonusers; healthier beverages were selected by 34.0% of users vs 11.6% of nonusers; and lowest-calorie entrées were selected by 28.3% of users vs 30.1% of nonusers. Compared with nonusers (n=276), users (n=53) had a higher probability of purchasing healthier sides (PR=5.44; P=0.034), and healthier beverages (PR=3.37; P=0.005). No significant differences were seen in the purchasing patterns of entrées. Targeting educational campaigns to side and beverage purchasing behaviors may increase the effectiveness of menu

  17. A comparison of 111In-labelled polymer beads and 99mTc-Sn-colloid as solid food and semi-solid food tracers for scintigraphic gastric emptying studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormehl, I.C.; Du Plessis, M.; Maree, M.; Pilloy, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    In order to establish the efficacy of labelling a solid meal and a semi-solid meal with either 111 In-labelled polymer beads or 99m Tc-tin colloid beagle dogs were fed variously labelled meals of different consistencies and then monitored by scintigraphy for gastric motility patterns. The labelling with each tracer was either performed by thoroughly mixing it into the food before cooking, or alternatively by surface labelling after the food had been cooked. For the 99m Tc-Sn-colloid tracer no difference was found in the measured gastric emptying times resulting from either pre-cooking labelling or surface labelling of the meals. Cooking the tracer together with the ingredients does however seem to promote a firm entrapment of the 111 In-polymer beads into a solid protein, and in this manner the 111 In-labelled resin appears to be a reliable solid food tracer. Surface labelling with 111 In-polymer beads of a solid meal with a smooth texture fails totally and the tracer empties with the liquid phase. (orig.) [de

  18. Comparison of /sup 111/In-labelled polymer beads and /sup 99/mTc-Sn-colloid as solid food and semi-solid food tracers for scintigraphic gastric emptying studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormehl, I.C.; Du Plessis, M.; Maree, M.; Pilloy, W.J.

    1986-04-01

    In order to establish the efficacy of labelling a solid meal and a semi-solid meal with either /sup 111/In-labelled polymer beads or /sup 99m/Tc-tin colloid beagle dogs were fed variously labelled meals of different consistencies and then monitored by scintigraphy for gastric motility patterns. The labelling with each tracer was either performed by thoroughly mixing it into the food before cooking, or alternatively by surface labelling after the food had been cooked. For the /sup 99m/Tc-Sn-colloid tracer no difference was found in the measured gastric emptying times resulting from either pre-cooking labelling or surface labelling of the meals. Cooking the tracer together with the ingredients does however seem to promote a firm entrapment of the /sup 111/In-polymer beads into a solid protein, and in this manner the /sup 111/In-labelled resin appears to be a reliable solid food tracer. Surface labelling with /sup 111/In-polymer beads of a solid meal with a smooth texture fails totally and the tracer empties with the liquid phase.

  19. Potential effect of physical activity based menu labels on the calorie content of selected fast food meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowray, Sunaina; Swartz, Jonas J; Braxton, Danielle; Viera, Anthony J

    2013-03-01

    In this study we examined the effect of physical activity based labels on the calorie content of meals selected from a sample fast food menu. Using a web-based survey, participants were randomly assigned to one of four menus which differed only in their labeling schemes (n=802): (1) a menu with no nutritional information, (2) a menu with calorie information, (3) a menu with calorie information and minutes to walk to burn those calories, or (4) a menu with calorie information and miles to walk to burn those calories. There was a significant difference in the mean number of calories ordered based on menu type (p=0.02), with an average of 1020 calories ordered from a menu with no nutritional information, 927 calories ordered from a menu with only calorie information, 916 calories ordered from a menu with both calorie information and minutes to walk to burn those calories, and 826 calories ordered from the menu with calorie information and the number of miles to walk to burn those calories. The menu with calories and the number of miles to walk to burn those calories appeared the most effective in influencing the selection of lower calorie meals (p=0.0007) when compared to the menu with no nutritional information provided. The majority of participants (82%) reported a preference for physical activity based menu labels over labels with calorie information alone and no nutritional information. Whether these labels are effective in real-life scenarios remains to be tested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluating the Impact of U.S. Food and Drug Administration-Proposed Nutrition Facts Label Changes on Young Adults' Visual Attention and Purchase Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Dan J.; Roberto, Christina A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has proposed modifying the Nutrition Facts Label (NFL) on food packages to increase consumer attention to this resource and to promote healthier dietary choices. Aims: The present study sought to determine whether the proposed NFL changes will affect consumer attention to the NFL or purchase…

  1. Validation of a label dosimeter for food irradiation applications by subjective and objective means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlermann, D.A.E.

    1997-01-01

    A new label dosimeter was tested for reliability and reproducibility. For the nominal absorbed dose values of 70, 125, and 300 Gy a sharp transition from bright red to black occurs. This was confirmed by instrumental tri-chromatic measurement of colour and by visual judgment in triangle and ranking tests. As for its dosimetric properties, the device proved suitable for the intended purpose as a label dosimeter. The question as to whether or not any dose indication specific only to the outside of an irradiated unit is sufficiently informative about the minimum dose somewhere inside the consignment remains to be resolved. (author)

  2. Feeding and stocking up: radio-labelled food reveals exchange patterns in ants.

    OpenAIRE

    Aurélie Buffin; Damien Denis; Gaetan Van Simaeys; Serge Goldman; Jean-Louis Deneubourg

    2009-01-01

    Food sharing is vital for a large number of species, either solitary or social, and is of particular importance within highly integrated societies, such as in colonial organisms and in social insects. Nevertheless, the mechanisms that govern the distribution of food inside a complex organizational system remain unknown. Using scintigraphy, a method developed for medical imaging, we were able to describe the dynamics of food-flow inside an ant colony. We monitored the sharing process of a radi...

  3. Comparative Analysis of the Antecedents and Dimensions of Brand Equity Between Food Processors’ Brands and Supermarket’s Private Labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sarto Freire Castelo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the relationship between the marketing mix elements and the creation of brand equity based on a conceptual framework defined from the state of the art marketing literature. The study is based on individual perceptions of 603 buyers who had the experience in the context of an assisted “top of mind” of six brands of food processors versus the private label of a supermarket in the city of Fortaleza - Ceará. The results of the hypotheses tests, with the application of the structural equation modeling, show that the marketing mix elements relate differently to the dimensions that antecedents brand equity, and that the perceived quality and brand association dimensions are similar in the formation of brand equity of manufacturers and supermarket’s food brands.

  4. 75 FR 14418 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Implementation of the WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity, and Health (a) Proposed Draft Revision of..., Physical Activity, and Health Guidelines for the Production, Processing, Labeling and Marketing of... recognize the importance of providing interested parties the opportunity to obtain background information on...

  5. Food allergic consumers' preferences for labelling practices: a qualitative study in a real shopping environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordouw, J.; Cornelisse-Vermaat, J.R.; Yiakoumaki, V.; Theodoridis, G.; Chryssochoidis, G.; Frewer, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Food allergy is a chronic disease that can only be managed through avoidance of problematic proteins in the diet. Inappropriate communication about food allergens can cause stress and insecurity, which may have a negative impact on quality of life. The aim was to investigate whether information

  6. Effects of Different Types of Front-of-Pack Labelling Information on the Healthiness of Food Purchases-A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Bruce; Crino, Michelle; Dunford, Elizabeth; Gao, Annie; Greenland, Rohan; Li, Nicole; Ngai, Judith; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Pettigrew, Simone; Sacks, Gary; Webster, Jacqui; Wu, Jason HY

    2017-11-24

    Front-of-pack nutrition labelling may support healthier packaged food purchases. Australia has adopted a novel Health Star Rating (HSR) system, but the legitimacy of this choice is unknown. To define the effects of different formats of front-of-pack labelling on the healthiness of food purchases and consumer perceptions. Individuals were assigned at random to access one of four different formats of nutrition labelling-HSR, multiple traffic light labels (MTL), daily intake guides (DIG), recommendations/warnings (WARN)-or control (the nutrition information panel, NIP). Participants accessed nutrition information by using a smartphone application to scan the bar-codes of packaged foods, while shopping. The primary outcome was healthiness defined by the mean transformed nutrient profile score of packaged foods that were purchased over four weeks. The 1578 participants, mean age 38 years, 84% female recorded purchases of 148,727 evaluable food items. The mean healthiness of the purchases in the HSR group was non-inferior to MTL, DIG, or WARN (all p 0.07), but WARN resulted in healthier packaged food purchases (mean difference 0.87; 95% confidence interval 0.03 to 1.72; p = 0.04). HSR was perceived by participants as more useful than DIG, and easier to understand than MTL or DIG (all p food purchases.

  7. Do Health Claims and Front-of-Pack Labels Lead to a Positivity Bias in Unhealthy Foods?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenobia Talati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Health claims and front-of-pack labels (FoPLs may lead consumers to hold more positive attitudes and show a greater willingness to buy food products, regardless of their actual healthiness. A potential negative consequence of this positivity bias is the increased consumption of unhealthy foods. This study investigated whether a positivity bias would occur in unhealthy variations of four products (cookies, corn flakes, pizzas and yoghurts that featured different health claim conditions (no claim, nutrient claim, general level health claim, and higher level health claim and FoPL conditions (no FoPL, the Daily Intake Guide (DIG, Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL, and the Health Star Rating (HSR. Positivity bias was assessed via measures of perceived healthiness, global evaluations (incorporating taste, quality, convenience, etc. and willingness to buy. On the whole, health claims did not produce a positivity bias, while FoPLs did, with the DIG being the most likely to elicit this bias. The HSR most frequently led to lower ratings of unhealthy foods than the DIG and MTL, suggesting that this FoPL has the lowest risk of creating an inaccurate positivity bias in unhealthy foods.

  8. Exploratory Analysis of Fast-Food Chain Restaurant Menus Before and After Implementation of Local Calorie-Labeling Policies, 2005–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Alexa; Leonberg, Beth L.; Wootan, Margo G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Since 2008, several states and municipalities have implemented regulations requiring provision of nutrition information at chain restaurants to address obesity. Although early research into the effect of such labels on consumer decisions has shown mixed results, little information exists on the restaurant industry’s response to labeling. The objective of this exploratory study was to evaluate the effect of menu labeling on fast-food menu offerings over 7 years, from 2005 through 2011. Methods Menus from 5 fast-food chains that had outlets in jurisdictions subject to menu-labeling laws (cases) were compared with menus from 4 fast-food chains operating in jurisdictions not requiring labeling (controls). A trend analysis assessed whether case restaurants improved the healthfulness of their menus relative to the control restaurants. Results Although the overall prevalence of “healthier” food options remained low, a noteworthy increase was seen after 2008 in locations with menu-labeling laws relative to those without such laws. Healthier food options increased from 13% to 20% at case locations while remaining static at 8% at control locations (test for difference in the trend, P = .02). Since 2005, the average calories for an à la carte entrée remained moderately high (approximately 450 kilocalories), with less than 25% of all entrées and sides qualifying as healthier and no clear systematic differences in the trend between chain restaurants in case versus control areas (P ≥ .50). Conclusion These findings suggest that menu labeling has thus far not affected the average nutritional content of fast-food menu items, but it may motivate restaurants to increase the availability of healthier options. PMID:23786908

  9. Exploratory analysis of fast-food chain restaurant menus before and after implementation of local calorie-labeling policies, 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Alexa; Auchincloss, Amy; Leonberg, Beth L; Wootan, Margo G

    2013-06-20

    Since 2008, several states and municipalities have implemented regulations requiring provision of nutrition information at chain restaurants to address obesity. Although early research into the effect of such labels on consumer decisions has shown mixed results, little information exists on the restaurant industry's response to labeling. The objective of this exploratory study was to evaluate the effect of menu labeling on fast-food menu offerings over 7 years, from 2005 through 2011. Menus from 5 fast-food chains that had outlets in jurisdictions subject to menu-labeling laws (cases) were compared with menus from 4 fast-food chains operating in jurisdictions not requiring labeling (controls). A trend analysis assessed whether case restaurants improved the healthfulness of their menus relative to the control restaurants. Although the overall prevalence of "healthier" food options remained low, a noteworthy increase was seen after 2008 in locations with menu-labeling laws relative to those without such laws. Healthier food options increased from 13% to 20% at case locations while remaining static at 8% at control locations (test for difference in the trend, P = .02). Since 2005, the average calories for an à la carte entrée remained moderately high (approximately 450 kilocalories), with less than 25% of all entrées and sides qualifying as healthier and no clear systematic differences in the trend between chain restaurants in case versus control areas (P ≥ .50). These findings suggest that menu labeling has thus far not affected the average nutritional content of fast-food menu items, but it may motivate restaurants to increase the availability of healthier options.

  10. Adherence to a Gluten Free Diet Is Associated with Receiving Gluten Free Foods on Prescription and Understanding Food Labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Humayun; Reeves, Sue; Ishaq, Sauid; Mayberry, John; Jeanes, Yvonne M

    2017-07-06

    Treatment of coeliac disease requires a strict gluten-free (GF) diet, however, a high proportion of patients do not adhere to a GF diet. The study explores the practical challenges of a GF diet and dietary adherence in Caucasian and South Asian adults with coeliac disease. Patients with biopsy- and serology-proven coeliac disease were recruited from a hospital database. Participants completed a postal survey ( n = 375), including a validated questionnaire designed to measure GF dietary adherence. Half of Caucasians (53%) and South Asians (53%) were adhering to a GF diet. The quarter of patients ( n = 97) not receiving GF foods on prescription had a lower GF dietary adherence score compared with those receiving GF foods on prescription (12.5 versus 16.0; p diet in all population groups.

  11. FDA Consumer Nutrition Knowledge Survey. Report II, 1975. A Nationwide Study of Food Shopper's Knowledge, Beliefs, Attitudes and Reported Behavior Regarding Food and Nutrition. Factors Related to Nutrition Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Herbert; And Others

    During 1973, a nationwide study for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was conducted which provided information on nutrition knowledge, beliefs about nutrition, and first reactions to nutrition labeling among food shoppers. This initial research provided a baseline measurement of nutrition knowledge and attitudes among consumers, and in 1975…

  12. [Labeling of food containing genetically modified organisms: international policies and Brazilian legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Thadeu Estevam Moreira Maramaldo; Marin, Victor Augustus

    2011-08-01

    The increase in surface area planted with genetically modified crops, with the subsequent transfer of such crops into the general environment for commercial trade, has raised questions about the safety of these products. The introduction of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety has led to the need to produce information and ensure training in this area for the implementation of policies on biosafety and for decision-making on the part of governments at the national, regional and international level. This article presents two main standpoints regarding the labeling of GM products (one adopted by the United States and the other by the European Union), as well as the position adopted by Brazil and its current legislation on labeling and commercial release of genetically modified (GM) products.

  13. Private Label on Food Market. Comparing Spain and Europe. How will be the next 10 years?

    OpenAIRE

    Buisan de la Figuera, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The increasing of PL`s market share is reinforced with the current trend of retailing concentration, the global economic recession and even with the changing consumer habits. These brands to manufacturer brands based on lower prices and less quality. Nowadays, there are a huge range of products in the big supermarket chains and other types of retailing shorts. Consumers can find different types: Manufacturer brands, distributor own brands or private labels. All of them have rem...

  14. Synthesis and tritium labeling of the food mutagens IQ and methyl-IQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterhouse, A.L.; Rapoport, H.

    1985-01-01

    The mutagens found in cooked meat, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoline (IQ) and 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (Methyl-IQ), have been synthesized by unambiguous methods that allow for the preparation of sufficient quantities of material for biological studies. These methods avoid difficult separations of regioisomeric mixtures of products and incorporate specific high level tritium labeling, effected by hydrogenolysis of the appropriately substituted 5-bromo precursors. (author)

  15. A critical review of the significance of food labelling during consumer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food purchase decisions are generally considered less complex compared to the ... and obstacles they are confronted with in terms of rational decision making. ... The importance of this information throughout the consumer decision-making ...

  16. 75 FR 76525 - Food Labeling; Health Claim; Phytosterols and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... organizations, industry, consumer groups, health care professionals, academia, and research scientists. The... Agency for Healthcare, Research and Quality (AHRQ) to identify intervention studies that had been... increase lipid solubility of phytosterols and facilitate incorporation of phytosterols into foods. However...

  17. Valorisation of menu labelling at fast food restaurants: exploring consumer perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Miguel Cunha; Ana Pinto de Moura; Rui Costa Lima; Ana Frias

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate Portuguese consumers' interestfor the provision of nutrition information at fast food restaurants and reactionsto alternative presentations of this information. Four focus groups, with 5 to8 consumers, were conducted in which participants were asked to look at threemock fast food restaurant menus that varied with respect to whether calorieinformation was provided and whether small portions and salads were available.Participants also discussed about fast ...

  18. How, when and why do young women use nutrition information on food labels? A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlich, Charlotte; Gardner, Benjamin; McGowan, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition information (NI) on food packaging offers a public health tool that could be used to promote informed consumer choice and aid consumption of a healthy diet. Research indicates that the use of NI can lead to reduced energy intake and lower BMI, but little evidence is available regarding how, when or why people use NI when making everyday food choices. This qualitative study explored motivations and contexts surrounding the use of NI among 25 UK-based female NI users aged 23-35 years, using semi-structured individual interviews. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Six themes were identified: (1) understanding and (2) functions of NI, (3) health versus appearance motives, NI use in (4) affective and (5) symbolic food episodes, and (6) competing point-of-purchase influences. Notable observations included a difficulty in understanding and converting NI into personally meaningful terms, and eschewal of NI in settings where food plays an affective or symbolic role (e.g. food consumption after a stressful day, buying food for a dinner party). We suggest evidence-based directions for future research and offer policy and practice recommendations, including the adoption of clear and consistent NI formats.

  19. Do Nutrient-Based Front-of-Pack Labelling Schemes Support or Undermine Food-Based Dietary Guideline Recommendations? Lessons from the Australian Health Star Rating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Mark A; Dickie, Sarah; Woods, Julie L

    2018-01-05

    Food-based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) promote healthy dietary patterns. Nutrient-based Front-of-Pack Labelling (NBFOPL) schemes rate the 'healthiness' of individual foods. This study aimed to investigate whether the Australian Health Star Rating (HSR) system aligns with the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADGs). The Mintel Global New Products Database was searched for every new food product displaying a HSR entering the Australian marketplace from 27 June 2014 (HSR system endorsement) until 30 June 2017. Foods were categorised as either a five food group (FFG) food or 'discretionary' food in accordance with ADG recommendations. Ten percent (1269/12,108) of new food products displayed a HSR, of which 57% were FFG foods. The median number of 'health' stars displayed on discretionary foods (2.5; range: 0.5-5) was significantly lower ( p stars across the two food categories was observed, with 56.7% of discretionary foods displaying ≥2.5 stars. The HSR system is undermining the ADG recommendations through facilitating the marketing of discretionary foods. Adjusting the HSR's algorithm might correct certain technical flaws. However, supporting the ADGs requires reform of the HSR's design to demarcate the food source (FFG versus discretionary food) of a nutrient.

  20. Under-reporting of food intake is frequent among Brazilian free-living older persons: a doubly labelled water study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriolli, Eduardo; Pfrimer, Karina; Moriguti, Julio C; Lima, Nereida K C; Moriguti, Eny K U; Formighieri, Paulo F; Scagliusi, Fernanda B; Marchini, Julio S

    2010-03-15

    The assessment of food intake is essential for the development of dietetic interventions. Accuracy is low when intake is assessed by questionnaires, the under-reporting of food intake being frequent. Most such studies, however, were performed in developed countries and there is little data about the older population of developing nations. This study aimed to verify the total energy expenditure (TEE) of independent older Brazilians living in an urban area, through the doubly labelled water (DLW) method and to compare it with the reported energy intake obtained through the application of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Initially, 100 volunteers aged from 60 to 75 years had their body composition determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Five volunteers of each quartile of body fat percentage had their energy expenditure determined by DLW. The mean age of the subjects included in this phase of the study was 66.4 +/- 3.5 years, and ten of the subjects were men. The mean TEE was 2565 +/- 614 and 2154 +/- 339 kcal.day(-1) for men and women, respectively. The Physical Activity Level (PAL) was 1.58 +/- 0.31 and 1.52 +/- 0.22, respectively. Under-reporting of food intake was highly prevalent, with a mean percentage of reported intake in relation to measured TEE of -17.7%. Thus, under-reporting of food intake is highly prevalent among Brazilian independent older persons. The DLW method is an important tool in nutritional studies and its use is to be recommended in developing countries. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Advantages and Limitations of the Front-of-Package (FOP Labeling Systems in Guiding the Consumers’ Healthy Food Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Tarabella

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, nutrition labels have provided an increasing amount of information about the nutritional value of a foodstuff, in a variety of patterns, having the main goal to help consumers in making healthier food choices. Now, many questions appeared related to the effectiveness of nutrition information in guiding the consumer purchasing behaviour, by encouraging the healthy foods choice. It becomes increasingly clear that many consumers have difficulties in understanding the nutritional information, preferring a simpler way in providing this information, helping them in the rapid evaluation of the nutritional characteristics of a foodstuff. In response to the obvious need to develop a more effective presentation of nutritional information, which convey this information in a simplified and systematic manner, manufacturers and retailers from different countries have created some systems for signalling the nutritional profile. For the nutritional information of greatest interest to be easily perceived by consumers, they have used various forms of graphical representation, that were marked on the front of individual packages (generically called "front of package" - FOP. Although created in order to facilitate healthy food choices, the effect of these FOP systems on consumers is now controversial. Following a literature review, the paper highlights the main benefits and limitations of the widely used FOP systems in the European Union ("Traffic Light" and "Guideline Daily Amounts". The paper presents also some suggestions for developing an optimal FOP system, standardized and adapted to consumers` needs.

  2. A produção acadêmica sobre a rotulagem de alimentos no Brasil Academic production on food labeling in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara Coelho Câmara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e discutir a produção acadêmica (teses e dissertações sobre a rotulagem de alimentos industrializados no Brasil. MÉTODO: Foi pesquisado o portal da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES. Foram utilizados os descritores "rotulagem", "rotulagem nutricional" e "rótulo de alimentos". A pesquisa abrangeu os anos de 1987 (primeiro ano do portal a 2004. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 49 estudos que abordavam a temática proposta. Utilizando a técnica de análise de conteúdo foram identificados três tópicos centrais: adequação dos rótulos de produtos alimentícios à legislação específica (57,2%, compreensão dos rótulos de alimentos pelos consumidores (22,4% e rotulagem de alimentos geneticamente modificados ou transgênicos (20,4%. CONCLUSÕES: A rotulagem de alimentos é um tema freqüente e abordado adequadamente pela produção acadêmica brasileira. A fiscalização ineficiente é apontada pela maioria dos estudos como principal fator para o descumprimento e a banalização das normas estabelecidas para a rotulagem de alimentos no Brasil.OBJECTIVE: To review and discuss academic production (theses and dissertations on the topic of labeling of prepackaged foods in Brazil. METHOD: A search of the database maintained by the Coordination for the Development of Higher Education Professionals (CAPES, one of the two Brazilian government research funding and support agencies, was conducted on the following keywords: "rotulagem" (labeling, "rotulagem nutricional" (food labeling and "rótulo de alimentos" (food labels. The search covered the years 1987 (earliest year available to 2004. RESULTS: We identified 49 studies on this topic. Content analysis identified three major themes: the extent to which food labels meet specific legal requirements (57.2%; the degree to which consumers understand the information on labels (22.4%; and the labeling of transgenic or genetically

  3. 21 CFR 501.22 - Animal foods; labeling of spices, flavorings, colorings, and chemical preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products thereof. Artificial flavor includes... products, or fermentation products thereof, whose significant function in food is flavoring rather than... or retard deterioration thereof, but does not include common salt, sugars, vinegars, spices, or oils...

  4. Changes in front-of-pack food labeling from 2007-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The objectives were to describe the proportions of packaged foods with front-of pack (FOP) nutrition marketing or marketing to children that were high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar content, and changes in the proportions from 2007 to 2014. Methods: FOP nutrition marketing, chil...

  5. Composition, labelling, and safety of food supplements based on bee products in the legislative framework of the European Union - Croatian experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujić, Mario; Pollak, Lea

    2015-12-01

    The European Union market is overflown by food supplements and an increasing number of consumers prefer those where bee products play an important part in their composition. This paper deals with complex European Union legislation concerning food supplements based on bee products, placing a special emphasis on their composition, labelling, and safety. Correct labelling of food supplements also represents a great challenge since, in spite of legal regulations in force, there are still open issues regarding the statements on the amount of propolis, which is not clearly defined by the legal framework. One of the key issues are the labels containing health claims from the EU positive list approved by the European Food Safety Authority. Emphasis will also be placed on informing consumers about food, as statements which imply the healing properties of food supplements and their capacity to cure diseases are forbidden. One of the key elements of product safety is HACCP based on the EU Regulations EC 178/02 and 852/2004. Health safety analyses of food supplements with bee products used as raw materials, which are standardised by legal regulations will also be discussed. In the future, attention should also be paid to establishing the European Union "nutrivigilance" system. Croatian experiences in addressing challenges faced by producers, supervisory entities, and regulatory and inspection bodies may serve as an example to countries aspiring to become part of the large European family.

  6. Food label usage and reported difficulty with following a gluten-free diet among individuals in the USA with coeliac disease and those with noncoeliac gluten sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrill, L; Zhang, Y; Kane, R

    2013-10-01

    Individuals with coeliac disease (CD) and those with noncoeliac gluten sensitivity (GS) have reported difficulty following a gluten-free diet (GFD); however, few studies have explored the link between the food label, gluten-free (GF) claims and the difficulty associated with following a GFD. The present study surveyed adults with CD (n = 1,583) and adults with GS (n = 797) about their reported difficulty following a GFD, including assessing the role of food labels and GF claims, as well as other factors known to contribute to this difficulty. A two-sample t-test and chi-squared tests for equality of means or proportions were used for the descriptive data and ordinal logistic regression (OLR) was used to model associations. On average, individuals with GS reported slightly more difficulty following the GFD than did participants with CD. According to the OLR results, reading the food label often was significantly associated with less reported difficulty following a GFD, whereas consuming packaged processed foods and looking for GF claims more often were significantly associated with more reported difficulty for both respondent groups. Individuals with GS may rely more heavily on the GF claim for information about a product's gluten content. Individuals with CD, on the other hand, may be more experienced food label readers and may rely more on the ingredient list for finding GF foods. More studies are needed aiming to understand the role of the food label in facilitating consumers' ability to follow a GFD. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Obtaining consumer perspectives using a citizens' jury: does the current country of origin labelling in Australia allow for informed food choices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withall, Elizabeth; Wilson, Annabelle M; Henderson, Julie; Tonkin, Emma; Coveney, John; Meyer, Samantha B; Clark, Jacinta; McCullum, Dean; Ankeny, Rachel; Ward, Paul R

    2016-12-09

    Contemporary food systems are vast and complex, creating greater distance between consumers and their food. Consequently, consumers are required to put faith in a system of which they have limited knowledge or control. Country of origin labelling (CoOL) is one mechanism that theoretically enables consumer knowledge of provenance of food products. However, this labelling system has recently come under Australian Government review and recommendations for improvements have been proposed. Consumer engagement in this process has been limited. Therefore this study sought to obtain further consumer opinion on the issue of CoOL and to identify the extent to which Australian consumers agree with Australian Government recommendations for improvements. A citizens' jury was conducted with a sample of 14 South Australian consumers to explore their perceptions on whether the CoOL system allows them to make informed food choices, as well as what changes (if any) need to be made to enable informed food choices (recommendations). Overall, jurors' perception of usefulness of CoOL, including its ability to enable consumers to make informed food choices, fluctuated throughout the Citizens' Jury. Initially, the majority of the jurors indicated that the labels allowed informed food choice, however by the end of the session the majority disagreed with this statement. Inconsistencies within jurors' opinions were observed, particularly following delivery of information from expert witnesses and jury deliberation. Jurors provided recommendations for changes to be made to CoOL, which were similar to those provided in the Australian Government inquiry. Consumers in this study engaged with the topical issue of CoOL and provided their opinions. Overall, consumers do not think that the current CoOL system in Australia enables consumers to make informed choices. Recommendations for changes, including increasing the size of the label and the label's font, and standardising its position, were made.

  8. Perception of front-of-pack labels according to social characteristics, nutritional knowledge and food purchasing habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méjean, Caroline; Macouillard, Pauline; Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; Castetbon, Katia

    2013-03-01

    To identify patterns of perception of front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labels and to determine social factors, nutritional knowledge and attention to packaging features related to such patterns. Cross-sectional. Perception was measured using indicators of understanding and acceptability of three simple FOP labels (the 'Green Tick', the logo of the French Nutrition and Health Programme (PNNS logo) and 'simple traffic lights' (STL)) and two detailed formats ('multiple traffic lights' (MTL) and the 'colour range' logo (CR)). Associations of perception patterns with individual characteristics were examined using χ2 tests. Data from the French NutriNet-Santé cohort study. A total of 38,763 adults. Four perception patterns emerged. Poorly educated individuals were most often found in groups favouring simple formats. The 'favourable to CR' group had a high rate of men and older persons. Poor nutritional knowledge was more frequent in the 'favourable to STL' group, while individuals with substantial knowledge were proportionally more numerous in the 'favourable to MTL' group. The 'favourable to STL' group more frequently self-reported noting price and marketing characteristics during purchasing, while the 'favourable to MTL' and 'favourable to CR' groups declared more interest in nutritional information. The 'favourable to Green Tick and PNNS logo' group self-reported paying closer attention to claims and quality guarantee labels. The 'favourable to MTL' cluster was most frequently represented in our survey. However, simple FOP formats may be most appropriate for increasing awareness of healthy eating among targeted groups with poor nutritional knowledge and little interest in the nutritional quality of packaged foods.

  9. Uptake of cobalt-60 from sea water and from labelled food by the common shrimp Crangon erangon (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weers, A.W. van

    1975-01-01

    The role of two different modes of uptake in the accumulation of 60 Co by the common shrimp (Crangon crangon (L.)) is the subject of the present study. The results show that accumulation of 60 Co from sea water is a slow process. The concentration factor for whole animals reached in one month was only about 13. Most of the activity accumulated from water appears to be associated with the exoskeleton. As a consequence, moulting has a pronounced effect on the uptake pattern of 60 Co and on the subsequent retention of the radionuclide by shrimps kept in non-radioactive sea water. After single feeding of shrimps with labelled mussel flesh, 60 Co is retained according to an exponential function with a short-lived and a long-lived component. The short-lived component has a mean biological half-life of 1.2 days and accounts for about 80% of the initial activity. About 20% of the initial activity is lost with a mean biological half-life of about 10 days. After repeated feeding of labelled mussel flesh the short-lived component in the 60 Co retention is virtually absent. Cobalt-60 taken up with food is localized mainly in the digestive gland and the concentration in the edible muscles from the abdomen is relatively small. It is concluded from the present study that direct uptake from sea water will play only a minor role in the accumulation of 60 Co in the internal organs of the shrimp. 60 Co released into the marine environment will be taken up by shrimps mainly from food. The results indicate a rapid turnover of 60 Co in shrimps. (author)

  10. Food labeling: health claims; D-tagatose and dental caries. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-03

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is adopting as a final rule, without change, the provisions of the interim final rule that amended the regulation authorizing a health claim on sugar alcohols and dental caries, i.e., tooth decay, to include the sugar D-tagatose as a substance eligible for the dental caries health claim. FDA is taking this action to complete the rulemaking initiated with the interim final rule.

  11. Estimates of Ethanol Exposure in Children from Food not Labeled as Alcohol-Containing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgus, Eva; Hittinger, Maike; Schrenk, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Ethanol is widely used in herbal medicines, e.g., for children. Furthermore, alcohol is a constituent of fermented food such as bread or yogurt and "non-fermented" food such as fruit juices. At the same time, exposure to very low levels of ethanol in children is discussed as possibly having adverse effects on psychomotoric functions. Here, we have analyzed alcohol levels in different food products from the German market. It was found that orange, apple and grape juice contain substantial amounts of ethanol (up to 0.77 g/L). Furthermore, certain packed bakery products such as burger rolls or sweet milk rolls contained more than 1.2 g ethanol/100 g. We designed a scenario for average ethanol exposure by a 6-year-old child. Consumption data for the "categories" bananas, bread and bakery products and apple juice were derived from US and German surveys. An average daily exposure of 10.3 mg ethanol/kg body weight (b.w.) was estimated. If a high (acute) consumption level was assumed for one of the "categories," exposure rose to 12.5-23.3 mg/kg b.w. This amount is almost 2-fold (average) or up to 4-fold (high) higher than the lowest exposure from herbal medicines (6 mg/kg b.w.) suggested to require warning hints for the use in children. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Monitoring the changes to the nutrient composition of fast foods following the introduction of menu labelling in New South Wales, Australia: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard-Cole, Lyndal; Goldsbury, David; Havill, Michelle; Hughes, Clare; Watson, Wendy L; Dunford, Elizabeth K; Chapman, Kathy

    2018-04-01

    The present study examined the energy (kilojoule) content of Australian fast-food menu items over seven years, before and after introduction of menu board labelling, to determine the impact of the introduction of the legislation. Analysis of the median energy contents per serving and per 100g of fast-food menu items. Change in energy content of menu items across the years surveyed and differences in energy content of standard and limited-time only menu items were analysed. Five of Australia's largest fast food chains: Hungry Jack's, KFC, McDonald's, Oporto and Red Rooster. All standard and limited-time only menu items available at each fast-food chain, collected annually for seven years, 2009-2015. Although some fast-food chains/menu item categories had significant increases in the energy contents of their menus at some time points during the 7-year period, overall there were no significant or systematic decreases in energy following the introduction of menu labelling (P=0·19 by +17 kJ/100 g, P=0·83 by +8 kJ/serving). Limited-time only items were significantly higher in median energy content per 100 g than standard menu items (+74 kJ/100 g, P=0·002). While reformulation across the entire Australian fast-food supply has the potential to positively influence population nutrient intake, the introduction of menu labelling legislation in New South Wales, Australia did not lead to reduced energy contents across the five fast-food chains. To encourage widespread reformulation by the fast-food industry and enhance the impact of labelling legislation, the government should work with industry to set targets for reformulation of nutrient content.

  13. The effect of packaging, branding and labeling on the experience of unhealthy food and drink: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaczkowski, Gemma; Durkin, Sarah; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-04-01

    Extrinsic information, such as packaging, branding and labeling, can significantly alter our experience of food and drink through a process of 'sensation transfer', in which extrinsic attributes are transferred to our sensory perception of a product. The aim of this review was to summarize the literature on sensation transfer for unhealthy food and drink and to investigate personal factors that may influence its occurrence. Seventy-eight studies in 69 articles, published between 1966 and 2014 were identified which evaluated sensation transfer. Sixty-five of the 78 studies found an effect of extrinsic information on taste and/or hedonic outcomes, providing strong evidence for sensation transfer. The majority of studies identified that specific extrinsic information influenced particular products or specific sensory outcomes. Study designs incorporating a measure of expectation allowed a tighter assessment of sensation transfer. The results of such studies confirm the hypothesis that these effects occur when extrinsic information elicits an expectation of product taste, which then forms a framework to guide sensory perception. These studies also support the hypothesis that where sensation transfer does not occur, this is likely due to a mismatch between the expectations elicited by the extrinsic information and the sensory characteristics being measured, or the failure of the extrinsic information to elicit an expectation of taste for that product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... topic for: Parents Kids Teens Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When Reading Food Labels? ...

  15. Under-reporting of food intake and body fatness in independent older people: a doubly labelled water study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfrimer, Karina; Vilela, Mariana; Resende, Cristina Maria; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza; Marchini, Julio Sergio; Lima, Nereida K C; Moriguti, Julio Cesar; Ferriolli, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    there are no accurate methods for the assessment of food intake in older populations, under-reporting of intake being highly prevalent. There is controversy about which dietary assessment method and what person's characteristics are associated with greater under-reporting rates. to assess the correlation between under-reporting of energy intake (EI) and different percentages of body fat in independent older people. cross-sectional study. area assisted by the Family Health Program of the Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Brazil. one hundred volunteers aged 60-70 years. all volunteers had their body composition assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. In second phase, 41 volunteers were evaluated, representing the four quartiles of fat percentage. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured by the doubly labelled water method, and EI was assessed by 24-h recalls and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). TEE and EI values, EI-to-TEE ratios and EI-TEE values were compared. TEE was 2,220 ± 601 kcal, while the EI was 1,919 ± 602 kcal (24-h recall) and 2,119 ± 670 kcal (FFQ). The proportion of under-reporters was 31 and 40.5%, respectively. Under-reporting was more frequent in subjects with higher percentage of body fat and in females (P food intake. Older persons follow the same profile of under-reporting as younger adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Awareness, understanding and use of sodium information labelled on pre-packaged food in Beijing:a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yao; Huang, Liping; Yan, Sijin; Li, Yuan; Lu, Lixin; Wang, Hongbo; Niu, Wenyi; Zhang, Puhong

    2018-04-17

    Nutrition labelling has been mandatory for pre-packaged foods since 2013 in China, and sodium is one of the nutrients required for display on the nutritional information panel (NIP). This study aimed to estimate the awareness, understanding of, and use of sodium labelling information among the population in China. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in urban Beijing in 2016 on pre-packaged foods. The researchers randomly selected 380 residents from four convenient but disconnected communities and 370 shoppers from four supermarkets owned by different companies and conducted face-to-face interviews. Questions on nutritional knowledge, health attitude, understanding and use of nutritional labels as well as other related factors were assessed. All of the 380 community residents and 308 of the 370 supermarket shoppers successfully completed the survey. Of those 688 respondents, 91.3% understood that excessive salt intake was harmful, 19.5% were aware that sodium content is listed on the NIP, 5.5% understood the meaning of NRV% (Percentage of Nutrient Reference Values), 47.7% did not know the relationship between sodium and salt, and 12.6% reported they frequently read the label when shopping. Factors for why people were more likely to choose a product because of its low level of salt shown on the label include income level and their level of awareness of the link between salt and diet. Although the participants had a good understanding of the harmful effects of salt, the awareness, understanding and use of sodium labels was very low in Beijing, and even worse nationwide. Efforts should be taken to educate the public to understand and use the NIP better and design clearer ways of displaying such information, such as front-of pack (FoP) labelling or health-related smartphone applications to improve health and help people make better food choices.

  17. Analysis of the presence of nutrient claims on labels of ultra-processed foods directed at children and of the perception of kids on such claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Durigon ZUCCHI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize the presence of nutrient claims on the front-of-pack labels of ultra-processed foods directed at children and gain insight on children' views about the presence of marketing strategies and nutrient claims on labels of ultra-processed foods. Methods: Analysis of images (front panel, nutrition facts table, and ingredients list of labels from 535 packaged foods with marketing strategies directed at children obtained in an audit-type survey conducted at a Brazilian large supermarket store. Food products with ultra-processed characteristics were identified, and the nutrient claims were quantified and described. Focus groups were conducted with children aged 8-10 years. Results: A total of 472 (88.0% of the 535 packaged foods directed at children were classified as ultra-processed. Of these, 220 (46.6% had one or more nutrient claims on their front-of-pack label (n=321, most (n=236, 73.5% claiming the presence/increased quantities of vitamins and minerals. The most common 'free/reduced' content claim regarded trans fat content (n=48. The focus groups allowed the identification of a noticeable influence of nutrition claims on children, who considered the emphasis important but were confused by the meaning and focus of such claims. Conclusion: Highlighted nutrient claims on the packages of ultra-processed foods were common and seemed to influence the children's perception of the products' quality as a whole. The results indicate the need of thoroughly reviewing the legislation on nutrient claims on the packages of ultra-processed foods.

  18. Effects of Different Types of Front-of-Pack Labelling Information on the Healthiness of Food Purchases—A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Neal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Front-of-pack nutrition labelling may support healthier packaged food purchases. Australia has adopted a novel Health Star Rating (HSR system, but the legitimacy of this choice is unknown. Objective: To define the effects of different formats of front-of-pack labelling on the healthiness of food purchases and consumer perceptions. Design: Individuals were assigned at random to access one of four different formats of nutrition labelling—HSR, multiple traffic light labels (MTL, daily intake guides (DIG, recommendations/warnings (WARN—or control (the nutrition information panel, NIP. Participants accessed nutrition information by using a smartphone application to scan the bar-codes of packaged foods, while shopping. The primary outcome was healthiness defined by the mean transformed nutrient profile score of packaged foods that were purchased over four weeks. Results: The 1578 participants, mean age 38 years, 84% female recorded purchases of 148,727 evaluable food items. The mean healthiness of the purchases in the HSR group was non-inferior to MTL, DIG, or WARN (all p < 0.001 at 2% non-inferiority margin. When compared to the NIP control, there was no difference in the mean healthiness of purchases for HSR, MTL, or DIG (all p > 0.07, but WARN resulted in healthier packaged food purchases (mean difference 0.87; 95% confidence interval 0.03 to 1.72; p = 0.04. HSR was perceived by participants as more useful than DIG, and easier to understand than MTL or DIG (all p < 0.05. Participants also reported the HSR to be easier to understand, and the HSR and MTL to be more useful, than NIP (all p < 0.03. Conclusions: These real-world data align with experimental findings and provide support for the policy choice of HSR. Recommendation/warning labels warrant further exploration, as they may be a stronger driver of healthy food purchases.

  19. A Natural Experiment: Using Immersive Technologies to Study the Impact of "All-Natural" Labeling on Perceived Food Quality, Nutritional Content, and Liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rebecca; Hooker, Neal H; Parasidis, Efthimios; Simons, Christopher T

    2017-03-01

    The "all-natural" label is used extensively in the United States. At many point-of-purchase locations, employed servers provide food samples and call out specific label information to influence consumers' purchase decisions. Despite these ubiquitous practices, it is unclear what information is conveyed to consumers by the all-natural label or how it impacts judgments of perceived food quality, nutritional content, and acceptance. We used a novel approach incorporating immersive technology to simulate a virtual in-store sampling scenario where consumers were asked by a server to evaluate identical products with only one being labeled all-natural. Another condition evaluated the impact of the in-store server additionally emphasizing the all-natural status of one sample. Results indicated the all-natural label significantly improved consumer's perception of product quality and nutritional content, but not liking or willingness to pay, when compared to the regular sample. With the simple emphasis of the all-natural claim by the in-store server, these differences in quality and nutritional content became even more pronounced, and willingness to pay increased significantly by an average of 8%. These results indicate that in a virtual setting consistent with making food purchases, an all-natural front-of-pack label improves consumer perceptions of product quality and nutritional content. In addition, information conveyed to consumers by employed servers has a further, substantial impact on these variables suggesting that consumers are highly susceptible to social influence at the point of purchase. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Assessing the role of shape and label in the misleading packaging of Food Imitating Products: From empirical evidence to policy recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic eBasso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Food imitating products are chemical consumer items used frequently in the household for cleaning and personal hygiene (e.g., bleach, soap, and shampoo, which resemble food products. Their containers replicate elements of food package design such as possessing a shape close in style to drinking product containers or bearing labels that depict colourful fruits. In marketing, these incongruent forms are designed to increase the appeal of functional products, leading to chemical consumer product embellishment. However, due to the resulting visual ambiguity, food imitating products may expose consumers to the risk of being poisoned from ingestion. Thus, from a public health perspective, food imitating products are considered dangerous chemical products that should not be sold, and may merit being recalled for the safety of consumers. To help policymakers address the hazardous presence of food imitating products, the purpose of this article is to identify the specific design features that generate most ambiguity for the consumer, and therefore increase the likelihood of confusion with foodstuffs. Among the visual elements of food packaging, the two most important features (shape and label are manipulated in a series of three lab studies combining six Implicit Association Tests (IATs and two explicit measures on products’ drinkability and safety. IATs were administered to assess consumers’ implicit association of liquid products with tastiness in a within-subject design in which the participants (N=122 were presented with two kinds of food imitating products with a drink shape or drink label compared with drinks (experiential products with congruent form and classic chemical products (hygiene products (functional products with congruent form. Results show that chemical consumer products with incongruent drink shapes (but not drink labels as an element of food package design are both implicitly associated with tastiness and explicitly judged as

  1. Assessing the Role of Shape and Label in the Misleading Packaging of Food Imitating Products: From Empirical Evidence to Policy Recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Frédéric; Bouillé, Julien; Le Goff, Kévin; Robert-Demontrond, Philippe; Oullier, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Food imitating products are chemical consumer items used frequently in the household for cleaning and personal hygiene (e.g., bleach, soap, and shampoo), which resemble food products. Their containers replicate elements of food package design such as possessing a shape close in style to drinking product containers or bearing labels that depict colorful fruits. In marketing, these incongruent forms are designed to increase the appeal of functional products, leading to chemical consumer product embellishment. However, due to the resulting visual ambiguity, food imitating products may expose consumers to the risk of being poisoned from ingestion. Thus, from a public health perspective, food imitating products are considered dangerous chemical products that should not be sold, and may merit being recalled for the safety of consumers. To help policymakers address the hazardous presence of food imitating products, the purpose of this article is to identify the specific design features that generate most ambiguity for the consumer, and therefore increase the likelihood of confusion with foodstuffs. Among the visual elements of food packaging, the two most important features (shape and label) are manipulated in a series of three lab studies combining six Implicit Association Tests (IATs) and two explicit measures on products' drinkability and safety. IATs were administered to assess consumers' implicit association of liquid products with tastiness in a within-subject design in which the participants (N = 122) were presented with two kinds of food imitating products with a drink shape or drink label compared with drinks (experiential products with congruent form) and classic chemical products (hygiene products) (functional products with congruent form). Results show that chemical consumer products with incongruent drink shapes (but not drink labels) as an element of food package design are both implicitly associated with tastiness and explicitly judged as safe and drinkable

  2. Assessing the Role of Shape and Label in the Misleading Packaging of Food Imitating Products: From Empirical Evidence to Policy Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Frédéric; Bouillé, Julien; Le Goff, Kévin; Robert-Demontrond, Philippe; Oullier, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Food imitating products are chemical consumer items used frequently in the household for cleaning and personal hygiene (e.g., bleach, soap, and shampoo), which resemble food products. Their containers replicate elements of food package design such as possessing a shape close in style to drinking product containers or bearing labels that depict colorful fruits. In marketing, these incongruent forms are designed to increase the appeal of functional products, leading to chemical consumer product embellishment. However, due to the resulting visual ambiguity, food imitating products may expose consumers to the risk of being poisoned from ingestion. Thus, from a public health perspective, food imitating products are considered dangerous chemical products that should not be sold, and may merit being recalled for the safety of consumers. To help policymakers address the hazardous presence of food imitating products, the purpose of this article is to identify the specific design features that generate most ambiguity for the consumer, and therefore increase the likelihood of confusion with foodstuffs. Among the visual elements of food packaging, the two most important features (shape and label) are manipulated in a series of three lab studies combining six Implicit Association Tests (IATs) and two explicit measures on products' drinkability and safety. IATs were administered to assess consumers' implicit association of liquid products with tastiness in a within-subject design in which the participants (N = 122) were presented with two kinds of food imitating products with a drink shape or drink label compared with drinks (experiential products with congruent form) and classic chemical products (hygiene products) (functional products with congruent form). Results show that chemical consumer products with incongruent drink shapes (but not drink labels) as an element of food package design are both implicitly associated with tastiness and explicitly judged as safe and drinkable

  3. Labeled extra virgin olive oil as food supplement; phenolic compounds in oils from some autochthonous Croatian olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakobušić Brala, C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of an incentive to provide labeled extra virgin olive oils as a food supplement in pharmacies, the phenolic profile analysis of extra virgin olive oils obtained from Croatian olive cultivars has been reported. With the aim of increasing the consumption of EVOO-s in northern Croatia, the varieties Bjelica, Buža and Italian Leccino have been studied involving two different agroclimatic locations, over two harvest years differing significantly in the amount of rainfall. The Croatian cultivars Plominka, Žižolera, Oblica and Lastovka, were also examined. Correlation tests and the insight from PCA reveal that the cultivars are highly individualized in character with regard to relationships among phenolic compounds. Some elements of an innovative labeling aimed to better present the authenticity, quality, excellence and uniqueness of the EVOO-s were suggested.En el marco de los incentivos que se han considerado para proporcionar el etiquetado de aceites de oliva virgen extra como suplemento alimenticio en farmacias, se reporta el análisis del perfil fenólico de aceites de oliva vírgenes extra obtenidos a partir de variedades croatas. Para ampliar el consumo de AOVE-s en el norte de Croacia, se han estudiado las variedades Bjelica, Buža y Leccino italiana procedentes de dos lugares agroclimáticos diferentes que difieren significativamente en la cantidad de lluvia y obtenidos en dos cosechas. Tambien fueron examinados los cultivares croatas Plominka, Žižolera, Oblica y Lastovka. Los test de correlación y los resultados de PCA revelan que las variedades están altamente individualizados en su carácter en lo que respecta a las relaciones entre los compuestos fenólicos. Se sugirieron algunos elementos innovadores para un etiquetado dirigido a presentar mejor la autenticidad, la calidad, la excelencia y la singularidad de los AOVE-s.

  4. 99mTc ovalbumin labelled eggs for gastric emptying scintigraphy: in-vitro comparison of solid food markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Frédérique; Salaun, Pierre Y; Couturier, Olivier; Querellou, Solène; Le Duc-Pennec, Alexandra; Mougin-Degraef, Marie; Bizais, Yves; Legendre, Jean M

    2005-11-01

    The reliability of solid phase gastric emptying measurements by scintigraphy requires a marker that remains within the solid component of the test meal, and which is not degraded by the gastric juice throughout the scintigraphic procedure. In Europe, foods are most often labelled with 99mTc rhenium sulfide macrocolloid (RSMC) but this solid phase marker was withdrawn from the market in January 2004. To test other potential solid phase markers and to compare them to the reference marker RSMC. These markers were rhenium sulfide nanocolloid (RSNC), tin fluoride colloid (TFC), phytates and two albumins (Alb and AlbC). All were radiolabelled with 99mTc. After quality control, each 99mTc marker was incorporated into the albumin of one egg. Then, egg white and yolk were mixed together, and a well-cooked omelette was prepared. Aliquots of the omelette were incubated with an acidic solution of pepsin at 37 degrees C which mimicked gastric juice. Unbound radioactivity in the supernatant fraction was measured at various times up to 3 h. The radiochemical purity was > 95% for all radiopharmaceuticals. During the in-vitro incubation, the percentage of 99mTc labelled colloids released from the omelette increased continuously: after 3 h, 5% for TFC and RSMC, 8% for phytates, and > 9% for the two albumins and RSNC. Considering quality controls and release of 99mTc during in-vitro incubation of the omelette, TFC showed the same behaviour as the reference marker RSMC. Thus, TFC seems to be the best candidate to replace RSMC for the radiolabelling of the solid phase of the gastric emptying test meal.

  5. Compelled commercial speech: the Food and Drug Administration's effort to smoke out the tobacco industry through graphic warning labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Bryan M; Andrews, Anne Hampton; Jacob, C Reade

    2013-01-01

    FDA's proposed graphic warning labels for cigarette packages have been scrutinized for potentially violating the First Amendment's free speech clause. This article addresses the distinction between the commercial speech and compelled speech doctrines and their applicability in analyzing the constitutionality of the labels. The government's position is that the labels evoke an emotional response and educate consumers, while tobacco companies argue that the labels forcibly promote the government's message. Two federal appellate courts, applying different legal standards, have arrived at different conclusions. This article advocates that the Supreme Court, if faced with review of the labels, should apply strict scrutiny and declare the labels unconstitutional.

  6. The Influence of a Factitious Free-From Food Product Label on Consumer Perceptions of Healthfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priven, Matthew; Baum, Jennifer; Vieira, Edward; Fung, Teresa; Herbold, Nancie

    2015-11-01

    Given the rapid rise of free-from products available in the marketplace (especially gluten-free), more research is needed to understand how these products influence consumer perceptions of healthfulness. To determine whether perceptions of healthfulness can be generated about free-from products in the absence of risk information. A survey was administered to 256 adults. Two picture-based food product questions evaluated which products consumers perceived to be healthier. One free-from designation was fabricated (MUI-free), whereas gluten-free was used as the comparison designation. For each question, participants chose which product they thought was healthier (free-from, conventional, or equally healthy). A χ(2) test was run to assess the difference between responses to picture-based food product questions. Multinomial regression assessed variance in responses attributable to participant demographic characteristics. Among the respondents, 21.9% selected the MUI-free product as healthier, whereas 25.5% selected the gluten-free product as healthier. Frequency data showed that a significant number of participants chose both free-from products as healthier than the conventional products (P<0.001). Regression analysis found that individuals who identified as gluten intolerant or unsure of a gluten intolerance were significantly more likely than other participants to choose the free-from product as healthier compared with choosing "equally healthy" (P=0.040). Hispanics and those with an associate's degree or vocational training were significantly more likely than their referent groups (whites and those with a doctoral degree, respectively) to choose the free-from product as healthier compared with choosing "equally healthy" (P=0.022 and 0.034, respectively). Finally, African Americans were more likely than whites to choose the conventional product as healthier compared with choosing "equally healthy" (P=0.016). Frequency data demonstrated that free-from products can

  7. Mandatory trans fat labeling regulations and nationwide product reformulations to reduce trans fatty acid content in foods contributed to lowered concentrations of trans fat in Canadian women's breast milk samples collected in 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Wm Nimal; Swist, Eleonora; Zoka, Rana; Gagnon, Claude; Lillycrop, William; Pantazapoulos, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Recent efforts in Canada to reduce industrial trans fatty acids (TFAs) in foods include mandated inclusion of TFA content on food labels and recommendations by Health Canada that encourage the food industry to voluntarily limit TFA content in all vegetable oils and soft margarines and in all other prepackaged foods to labeling regulations introduced in 2003 and recommendations by Health Canada in 2007 instructing the food manufacturers and restaurants to limit TFAs in foods have resulted in significant reductions in TFAs in the diets of Canadian breastfeeding mothers and their breast milk. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Changes in energy content of lunchtime purchases from fast food restaurants after introduction of calorie labelling: cross sectional customer surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumanovsky, Tamara; Huang, Christina Y; Nonas, Cathy A; Matte, Thomas D; Bassett, Mary T; Silver, Lynn D

    2011-07-26

    To assess the impact of fast food restaurants adding calorie labelling to menu items on the energy content of individual purchases. Cross sectional surveys in spring 2007 and spring 2009 (one year before and nine months after full implementation of regulation requiring chain restaurants' menus to contain details of the energy content of all menu items). Setting 168 randomly selected locations of the top 11 fast food chains in New York City during lunchtime hours. 7309 adult customers interviewed in 2007 and 8489 in 2009. Energy content of individual purchases, based on customers' register receipts and on calorie information provided for all items in menus. For the full sample, mean calories purchased did not change from before to after regulation (828 v 846 kcal, P = 0.22), though a modest decrease was shown in a regression model adjusted for restaurant chain, poverty level for the store location, sex of customers, type of purchase, and inflation adjusted cost (847 v 827 kcal, P = 0.01). Three major chains, which accounted for 42% of customers surveyed, showed significant reductions in mean energy per purchase (McDonald's 829 v 785 kcal, P = 0.02; Au Bon Pain 555 v 475 kcal, PKFC 927 v 868 kcal, P<0.01), while mean energy content increased for one chain (Subway 749 v 882 kcal, P<0.001). In the 2009 survey, 15% (1288/8489) of customers reported using the calorie information, and these customers purchased 106 fewer kilocalories than customers who did not see or use the calorie information (757 v 863 kcal, P<0.001). Although no overall decline in calories purchased was observed for the full sample, several major chains saw significant reductions. After regulation, one in six lunchtime customers used the calorie information provided, and these customers made lower calorie choices.

  9. Label-free detection of gliadin food allergen mediated by real-time apta-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Alessandro; Polo, Pedro Nadal; Henry, Olivier; Redondo, M Carmen Bermudo; Svobodova, Marketa; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2014-01-01

    Celiac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten. The only effective treatment consists in a lifelong gluten-free diet, requiring the food industry to tightly control the gluten contents of their products. To date, several gluten quantification approaches using antibodies are available and recommended by the legal authorities, such as Codex Alimentarius. However, whilst these antibody-based tests exhibit high sensitivity and specificity, the production of antibodies inherently requires the killing of host animals and is time-consuming and relatively expensive. Aptamers are structured single-stranded nucleic acid ligands that bind with high affinity and specificity to their cognate target, and aiming for a cost-effective viable alternative to the use of antibodies. Herein, we report the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX)-based selection of a DNA aptamer against gliadin from a combinatorial DNA library and its application in a novel detection assay. Taking into account the hydrophobic nature of the gliadin target, a microtitre plate format was exploited for SELEX, where the target was immobilised via hydrophobic interactions, thus exposing aptatopes accessible for interaction with the DNA library. Evolution was followed using surface plasmon resonance, and following eight rounds of SELEX, the enriched DNA pool was cloned, sequenced and a clear consensus motif was identified. An apta-PCR assay was developed where competition for the aptamer takes place between the surface-immobilised gliadin and gliadin in the target sample, akin to an ELISA competitive format where the more target present in the sample, the less aptamer will bind to the immobilised gliadin. Following competition, any aptamer bound to the immobilised gliadin was heat-eluted and quantitatively amplified using real-time PCR, achieving a detection limit of approx. 2 nM (100 ng mL(-1)). The specificity of the selected aptamer was

  10. The 5-CNL Front-of-Pack Nutrition Label Appears an Effective Tool to Achieve Food Substitutions towards Healthier Diets across Dietary Profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Julia

    Full Text Available Front-of-pack (FOP nutrition labels are considered helpful tools to help consumers making healthier food choices, thus improving their diet. In France, the implementation of a FOP nutrition label-the 5-Colour Nutrition Label (5-CNL-is currently under consideration. Our objective was to investigate dietary profiles in a French adult population using the 5-CNL, and to assess its potential impact in improving the diet through substitution of foods.Subjects included in the NutriNet-Santé cohort, who had completed three 24-h dietary records were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Mutually exclusive clusters of individuals were identified using the percentage of energy derived from foods of each of the 5-CNL colours as input variables. Three scenarios of substitution of foods for healthier alternative using the 5-CNL were tested. Food group and dietary intakes, socio-demographic and lifestyle data were compared across clusters using ANOVAs or Chi-square tests, as appropriate. We identified three mutually exclusive dietary profiles: 'Healthy' (N = 28 095, 29.3% of the sample, with high consumption of fruit, vegetables, whole cereals and fish; 'Western' (N = 33 386, 34.8%; with high consumption of sweetened beverages, breakfast cereal, cheese, fatty and sugary foods; 'Traditional' (N = 34 461, 35.1%, with high consumption of potatoes, bread, meat and dairy desserts. Overall, substitutions strategies led to an increase in the number of subjects reaching the recommended intakes in energy, macro and micronutrients. Increases were particularly high in the 'Western' pattern for lipids and saturates intakes: from 16.2% reaching the recommended amount for lipids (13.5% for saturates to 60.6% and 85.7% respectively.The use of the 5-CNL as an indicator of food choice meaningfully characterizes clusters of dietary habits and appears as an effective tool to help improving the nutritional quality of the diet.

  11. The 5-CNL Front-of-Pack Nutrition Label Appears an Effective Tool to Achieve Food Substitutions towards Healthier Diets across Dietary Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, Chantal; Méjean, Caroline; Péneau, Sandrine; Buscail, Camille; Alles, Benjamin; Fézeu, Léopold; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labels are considered helpful tools to help consumers making healthier food choices, thus improving their diet. In France, the implementation of a FOP nutrition label-the 5-Colour Nutrition Label (5-CNL)-is currently under consideration. Our objective was to investigate dietary profiles in a French adult population using the 5-CNL, and to assess its potential impact in improving the diet through substitution of foods. Subjects included in the NutriNet-Santé cohort, who had completed three 24-h dietary records were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Mutually exclusive clusters of individuals were identified using the percentage of energy derived from foods of each of the 5-CNL colours as input variables. Three scenarios of substitution of foods for healthier alternative using the 5-CNL were tested. Food group and dietary intakes, socio-demographic and lifestyle data were compared across clusters using ANOVAs or Chi-square tests, as appropriate. We identified three mutually exclusive dietary profiles: 'Healthy' (N = 28 095, 29.3% of the sample), with high consumption of fruit, vegetables, whole cereals and fish; 'Western' (N = 33 386, 34.8%); with high consumption of sweetened beverages, breakfast cereal, cheese, fatty and sugary foods; 'Traditional' (N = 34 461, 35.1%), with high consumption of potatoes, bread, meat and dairy desserts. Overall, substitutions strategies led to an increase in the number of subjects reaching the recommended intakes in energy, macro and micronutrients. Increases were particularly high in the 'Western' pattern for lipids and saturates intakes: from 16.2% reaching the recommended amount for lipids (13.5% for saturates) to 60.6% and 85.7% respectively. The use of the 5-CNL as an indicator of food choice meaningfully characterizes clusters of dietary habits and appears as an effective tool to help improving the nutritional quality of the diet.

  12. Ultra-processed foods: Consumption among children at day-care centers and their classification according to Traffic Light Labelling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana LONGO-SILVA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the age at which ultra-processed foods are introduced in the diet of infants enrolled in public daycare centers and analyze these foods' nutritional composition according to the Traffic Light Labelling system adapted to the Brazilian norms and recommendations.Methods: Cross-sectional study including 636 nursery age children attending day care centers. Their mothers were interviewed about the age of introduction of instant noodles, snack chips, encased meat, chocolate, ice cream, and stuffed cookies. The proximate composition of these foods was evaluated according to the Traffic Light Labelling adapted to the Brazilian norms and recommendations, which classifies total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, fiber, and sodium amounts as green, yellow, or red indicators.Results: It was found that before 12 months of age 70.6% of children had consumed instant noodles, 65.9% snack chips, 54.7% encased meat, 67.1% chocolate, 36.9% ice cream, and 68.7% stuffed cookies. In addition, all foods were classified as red for saturated fat and sodium and 50.0% were classified as red for total fat.Conclusion: The introduction of ultra-processed foods in the children's diets occurred early, but it is worth mentioning that such foods have an inadequate nutritional composition, contributing to the excess consumption of total fat, saturated fat, and sodium, as well as low fiber.

  13. Validation of an Online Food Frequency Questionnaire against Doubly Labelled Water and 24 h Dietary Recalls in Pre-School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Hanna; Alexandrou, Christina; Bergström, Anna; Bonn, Stephanie; Bälter, Katarina; Löf, Marie

    2017-01-13

    The development of easy-to-use and accurate methods to assess the intake of energy, foods and nutrients in pre-school children is needed. KidMeal-Q is an online food frequency questionnaire developed for the LifeGene prospective cohort study in Sweden. The aims of this study were to compare: (i) energy intake (EI) obtained using KidMeal-Q to total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water and (ii) the intake of certain foods measured using KidMeal-Q to intakes acquired by means of 24 h dietary recalls in 38 children aged 5.5 years. The mean EI calculated using KidMeal-Q was statistically different ( p food frequency questionnaires. However, its accuracy needs to be improved before it can be used in studies in pre-school children.

  14. How does consumer knowledge affect environmentally sustainable choices?:Evidence from a cross-country latent class analysis of food labels

    OpenAIRE

    Peschel, Anne O; Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo; Veeman, Michele

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines consumers' knowledge and lifestyle profiles and preferences regarding two environmentally labelled food staples, potatoes and ground beef. Data from online choice experiments conducted in Canada and Germany are analyzed through latent class choice modelling to identify the influence of consumer knowledge (subjective and objective knowledge as well as usage experience) on environmentally sustainable choices. We find that irrespective of product or country under investigatio...

  15. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, and more — but ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  16. Diazonium-based impedimetric aptasensor for the rapid label-free detection of Salmonella typhimurium in food sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheryan, Zahra; Raoof, Jahan-Bakhsh; Golabi, Mohsen; Turner, Anthony P F; Beni, Valerio

    2016-06-15

    Fast and accurate detection of microorganisms is of key importance in clinical analysis and in food and water quality monitoring. Salmonella typhimurium is responsible for about a third of all cases of foodborne diseases and consequently, its fast detection is of great importance for ensuring the safety of foodstuffs. We report the development of a label-free impedimetric aptamer-based biosensor for S. typhimurium detection. The aptamer biosensor was fabricated by grafting a diazonium-supporting layer onto screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPEs), via electrochemical or chemical approaches, followed by chemical immobilisation of aminated-aptamer. FTIR-ATR, contact angle and electrochemical measurements were used to monitor the fabrication process. Results showed that electrochemical immobilisation of the diazonium-grafting layer allowed the formation of a denser aptamer layer, which resulted in higher sensitivity. The developed aptamer-biosensor responded linearly, on a logarithm scale, over the concentration range 1 × 10(1) to 1 × 10(8)CFU mL(-1), with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1 × 10(1) CFU mL(-1) and a limit of detection (LOD) of 6 CFU mL(-1). Selectivity studies showed that the aptamer biosensor could discriminate S. typhimurium from 6 other model bacteria strains. Finally, recovery studies demonstrated its suitability for the detection of S. typhimurium in spiked (1 × 10(2), 1 × 10(4) and 1 × 10(6) CFU mL(-1)) apple juice samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Food Labels Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016 Nationally-Representative Phone Survey April 6, 2016 Consumer Reports® National Research Center Introduction In February, 2016, the Consumer Reports® National Research Center conducted a nationally representative phone ...

  18. 21 CFR 201.70 - Calcium labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium labeling. 201.70 Section 201.70 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.70 Calcium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the calcium content per...

  19. 21 CFR 610.60 - Container label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Container label. 610.60 Section 610.60 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.60 Container label. (a) Full label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each container of a product capable of bearing a full...

  20. Fatty acid biomarkers: validation of food web and trophic markers using C-13-labelled fatty acids in juvenile sandeel ( Ammodytes tobianus )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; St. John, Michael

    2004-01-01

    A key issue in marine science is parameterizing trophic interactions in marine food webs, thereby developing an understanding of the importance of top-down and bottom-up controls on populations of key trophic players. This study validates the utility of fatty acid food web and trophic markers usi......), respectively. Lack of temporal trends in nonlabelled fatty acids confirmed the conservative incorporation of labelled fatty acids by the fish.......A key issue in marine science is parameterizing trophic interactions in marine food webs, thereby developing an understanding of the importance of top-down and bottom-up controls on populations of key trophic players. This study validates the utility of fatty acid food web and trophic markers using...... C-13-labelled fatty acids to verify the conservative incorporation of fatty acid tracers by juvenile sandeel (Ammodytes tobianus) and assess their uptake, clearance, and metabolic turnover rates. Juvenile sandeel were fed for 16 days in the laboratory on a formulated diet enriched in (13)C16...

  1. Patient-Reported Outcomes Labeling for Products Approved by the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products of the US Food and Drug Administration (2010-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasakthy, Ari; DeMuro, Carla; Clark, Marci; Haydysch, Emily; Ma, Esprit; Bonthapally, Vijayveer

    2016-06-01

    To review the use of patient-reported outcome (PRO) data in medical product labeling granted by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for new molecular entities and biologic license applications by the FDA Office of Hematology and Oncology Products (OHOP) between January 2010 and December 2014, to elucidate challenges faced by OHOP for approving PRO labeling, and to understand challenges faced by drug manufacturers to include PRO end points in oncology clinical trials. FDA Drug Approval Reports by Month were reviewed to obtain the number of new molecular entities and biologic license applications approved from 2010 to 2014. Drugs approved by the FDA OHOP during this period were selected for further review, focusing on brand and generic name; approval date; applicant; indication; PRO labeling describing treatment benefit, measures, end point status, and significant results; FDA reviewer feedback on PRO end points; and study design of registration trials. First in class, priority review, fast track, orphan drug, or accelerated approval status was retrieved for selected oncology drugs from 2011 to 2014. Descriptive analyses were performed by using Microsoft Excel 2010. Of 160 drugs approved by the FDA (2010-2014), 40 were approved by OHOP. Three (7.5%) of the 40 received PRO-related labeling (abiraterone acetate, ruxolitinib phosphate, and crizotinib). Compared with nononcology drugs (2011-2014), oncology drugs were more likely to be orphan and first in class. The majority of oncology drug reviews by FDA were fast track, priority, or accelerated. Although symptoms and functional decrements are common among patients with cancer, PRO labeling is rare in the United States, likely because of logistical hurdles and oncology study design. Recent developments within the FDA OHOP to capture PROs in oncology studies for the purpose of product labeling are encouraging. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  2. Collecting wrappers, labels, and packages to enhance accuracy of food records among children 2-8 years in the Pacific region: Children's Healthy Living Program (CHL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemori, Kim M; Ennis, Tui; Novotny, Rachel; Fialkowski, Marie K; Ettienne, Reynolette; Wilkens, Lynne R; Leon Guerrero, Rachael T; Bersamin, Andrea; Coleman, Patricia; Li, Fenfang; Boushey, Carol J

    2017-12-01

    The aim was to describe differences in dietary outcomes based on the provision of food wrappers, labels or packages (WLP) to complement data from dietary records (DR) among children from the US Affiliated Pacific. The WLP were intended to aid food coding. Since WLP can be associated with ultra-processed foods, one might expect differences in sodium, sugar, and other added ingredients to emerge. Dietary intakes of children (2-8 y) in Alaska, Hawai'i, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam were collected using parent/caregiver completed 2-day DR. Parents were encouraged to collect WLP associated with the child's intake. Trained staff entered data from the DRs including the WLP when available using PacTrac3, a web application. Of the 1,868 DRs collected and entered at the time of this report, 498 (27%) included WLP. After adjusting for confounders (sex, age, location, education, food assistance), the DRs with WLP had significantly higher amounts of energy (kcal), total fat, saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium. These results suggest the inclusion of WLP enhanced the dietary intake data. The intake of energy, fat, added sugar and sodium derived from processed foods and foods consumed outside the home was better captured in children who had WLP.

  3. Evaluation of the impact of matrix effect on quantification of pesticides in foods by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using isotope-labeled internal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Otake, Takamitsu

    2015-05-29

    The impact of the matrix effect in GC-MS quantification of pesticides in food using the corresponding isotope-labeled internal standards was evaluated. A spike-and-recovery study of nine target pesticides was first conducted using paste samples of corn, green soybean, carrot, and pumpkin. The observed analytical values using isotope-labeled internal standards were more accurate for most target pesticides than that obtained using the external calibration method, but were still biased from the spiked concentrations when a matrix-free calibration solution was used for calibration. The respective calibration curves for each target pesticide were also prepared using matrix-free calibration solutions and matrix-matched calibration solutions with blank soybean extract. The intensity ratio of the peaks of most target pesticides to that of the corresponding isotope-labeled internal standards was influenced by the presence of the matrix in the calibration solution; therefore, the observed slope varied. The ratio was also influenced by the type of injection method (splitless or on-column). These results indicated that matrix-matching of the calibration solution is required for very accurate quantification, even if isotope-labeled internal standards were used for calibration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Searching for flavor labels in food products: The influence of color-flavor congruence and association strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eVelasco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior research provides robust support for the existence of a number of associations between colors and flavors. In the present study, we examined whether congruent (vs. incongruent combinations of product packaging colors and flavor labels would facilitate visual search for products labelled with specific flavors in a Stroop-like manner. Across two experiments, a Stroop-like effect between flavor words and packaging colors is documented and we demonstrate that people are able to search for packaging flavor labels more rapidly when the color of the packaging is congruent with the flavor label (e.g., red/tomato than when it is incongruent (e.g., yellow/tomato. In addition, when the packaging color was incongruent, those flavor labels that were more strongly associated with a specific color yielded slower reaction times and more errors (Stroop interference than those that were less strongly tied to a specific color. Importantly, search efficiency was affected both by color/flavor congruence and association strength. Taken together, these results therefore highlight the role of color congruence and color-word association strength when it comes to searching for specific flavor labels.

  5. Searching for flavor labels in food products: the influence of color-flavor congruence and association strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Carlos; Wan, Xiaoang; Knoeferle, Klemens; Zhou, Xi; Salgado-Montejo, Alejandro; Spence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Prior research provides robust support for the existence of a number of associations between colors and flavors. In the present study, we examined whether congruent (vs. incongruent) combinations of product packaging colors and flavor labels would facilitate visual search for products labeled with specific flavors. The two experiments reported here document a Stroop-like effect between flavor words and packaging colors. The participants were able to search for packaging flavor labels more rapidly when the color of the packaging was congruent with the flavor label (e.g., red/tomato) than when it was incongruent (e.g., yellow/tomato). In addition, when the packaging color was incongruent, those flavor labels that were more strongly associated with a specific color yielded slower reaction times and more errors (Stroop interference) than those that were less strongly tied to a specific color. Importantly, search efficiency was affected both by color/flavor congruence and association strength. Taken together, these results therefore highlight the role of color congruence and color-word association strength when it comes to searching for specific flavor labels.

  6. El sector de los alimentos ecológicos: Regulación y etiquetado ecológico = The organic food sector: Regulation and ecological labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Aguirre García

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El sector de los alimentos ecológicos y la evolución de su normativa están experimentando continuos cambios y ampliaciones acordes con los flujos económicos y comerciales de nuestros días. El objetivo del artículo, desde una metodología descriptiva, es reflejar esta evolución, presentando la regulación vigente, que es exhaustiva y abarca ámbitos diversos: sistemas de producción agraria ecológica, control y certificación de operadores, comercialización y etiquetado de los alimentos ecológicos. Asimismo, se abordan las diferentes caracterizaciones en la actualidad del etiquetado de los alimentos ecológicos en Europa, en España y en las Comunidades Autónomas.   The organic food sector and the evolution of its regulations are undergoing continuous changes and extensions in line with the economic and commercial flows of our day. The objective of the article, from a descriptive methodology, is to reflect this evolution, presenting the current regulation, which is exhaustive and covers different areas: ecological agricultural production systems, operator control and certification, marketing and labeling of organic food. It also addresses the different characterizations of organic food labeling in Europe, Spain and the “Comunidades Autónomas”.

  7. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  8. Does race matters in consumers' stated preferences for water and carbon footprints labelled food products? Insights from black and white South Africans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Sekyere, Enoch; Jordaan, Henry

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, governments, policy-makers, and managers of private food companies and agribusinesses are interested in understanding how consumers will react to environmentally sustainable attributes and information on food product labels. This study examines consumers' stated preferences for water and carbon footprints labelled food products from the viewpoint of black and white South Africans. Discrete choice experimental data was collected from black and white consumers to possibly assess cross-ethnic variations in preferences for environmentally sustainable products. Two widely purchased livestock products were chosen for the choice experiment. We found that consumers' preferences for environmentally sustainable attributes vary significantly between black and white South Africans. Our findings revealed that there are profound heterogeneous consumer segments within black and white respondents. The heterogeneity within both sub-samples is better explained at the segment level, rather than at individual level. For both product categories, the findings revealed that there are more distinct consumer segments among black respondents, relative to white respondents. The black respondents consist of water sustainability advocates, carbon reduction advocates, keen environmentalist and environmental neutrals. The white respondents entail keen environmentalist, environmental cynics, and environmental neutrals. The inherent significant variations in preferences for environmentally sustainable attributes across segments and racial groups would help in formulating feasible, and segment-specific environmental sustainability policies and marketing strategies aimed at changing consumers' attitude towards environmentally sustainable products. Demographic targeting of consumer segments, sustainability awareness and segment-specific educational campaigns meant to enhance subjective and objective knowledge on environmental sustainability are important tools for food companies and

  9. Protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial of an intervention to increase the use of traffic light food labelling in UK shoppers (the FLICC trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Peter; Hodgkins, Charo; Raats, Monique M; Harrington, Richard A; Cowburn, Gill; Dean, Moira; Doherty, Aiden; Foster, Charlie; Juszczak, Edmund; Matthews, Anne; Mizdrak, Anja; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Shepherd, Richard; Tiomotijevic, Lada; Winstone, Naomi; Rayner, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Traffic light labelling of foods-a system that incorporates a colour-coded assessment of the level of total fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt on the front of packaged foods-has been recommended by the UK Government and is currently in use or being phased in by many UK manufacturers and retailers. This paper describes a protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial of an intervention designed to increase the use of traffic light labelling during real-life food purchase decisions. The objectives of this two-arm randomised controlled pilot trial are to assess recruitment, retention and data completion rates, to generate potential effect size estimates to inform sample size calculations for the main trial and to assess the feasibility of conducting such a trial. Participants will be recruited by email from a loyalty card database of a UK supermarket chain. Eligible participants will be over 18 and regular shoppers who frequently purchase ready meals or pizzas. The intervention is informed by a review of previous interventions encouraging the use of nutrition labelling and the broader behaviour change literature. It is designed to impact on mechanisms affecting belief and behavioural intention formation as well as those associated with planning and goal setting and the adoption and maintenance of the behaviour of interest, namely traffic light label use during purchases of ready meals and pizzas. Data will be collected using electronic sales data via supermarket loyalty cards and web-based questionnaires and will be used to estimate the effect of the intervention on the nutrition profile of purchased ready meals and pizzas and the behavioural mechanisms associated with label use. Data collection will take place over 48 weeks. A process evaluation including semi-structured interviews and web analytics will be conducted to assess feasibility of a full trial. The design of the pilot trial allows for efficient recruitment and data collection. The intervention could be

  10. Evaluating the Impact of U.S. Food and Drug Administration-Proposed Nutrition Facts Label Changes on Young Adults' Visual Attention and Purchase Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Dan J; Roberto, Christina A

    2016-08-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has proposed modifying the Nutrition Facts Label (NFL) on food packages to increase consumer attention to this resource and to promote healthier dietary choices. The present study sought to determine whether the proposed NFL changes will affect consumer attention to the NFL or purchase intentions. This study compared purchase intentions (yes/no responses to "would you purchase this food?" for 64 products) and attention to NFLs (measured via high-speed eye-tracking camera) among 155 young adults randomly assigned to view products with existing versus modified NFLs. Attention to all individual components of the NFL (e.g., calories, fats, sugars) were analyzed separately to assess the impact of each proposed NFL modification on attention to that region. Data were collected in 2014; analysis was conducted in 2015. Modified NFLs did not elicit significantly more visual attention or lead to more healthful purchase intentions than did existing NFLs. Relocating the percent daily value component from the right side of the NFL to the left side, as proposed by the FDA, actually reduced participants' attention to this information. The proposed "added sugars" component was viewed on at least one label by a majority (58%) of participants. Results suggest that the proposed NFL changes may not achieve FDA's goals. Changes to nutrition labeling may need to take a different form to meaningfully influence dietary behavior. Young adults' visual attention and purchase intentions do not appear to be meaningfully affected by the proposed NFL modifications. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  11. Consumer preferences for food labels on tomatoes in Germany - A comparison of a quasi-experiment and two stated preference approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerding, Stephan G H

    2016-08-01

    In many studies, consumer preferences are determined by using direct surveys. For this method social desirability is problematic. This leads to the effect that participants answer in a way that they perceive as desired by society. This leads to the stated importance of certain features in these studies not being reflected in real purchasing decisions. Therefore, the aim of the study is to compare consumer preferences measured by a quasi-experiment to those quantified by direct questions. Another objective is to quantify the part-worth utilities of product characteristics such as origin, price and food labels. Part-worth utilities are estimated on an interval scale with an arbitrary origin and are a measure for preferences. The real purchasing situation was simulated in a quasi-experiment using a choice-based conjoint analysis. The part-worth utilities were then compared with the results of a conventional preference assessment (Likert scale). For this purpose, 645 consumers from all over Germany were surveyed in 2014. The participants were on average 44 years old and 63% were women. The results of the conjoint analysis report the highest part-worth utility (2.853) for the lowest price (1.49€), followed by the characteristic "grown locally" (2.157). For the labels, the German organic label shows the highest part-worth utility (0.785) followed by Fairtrade/"A heart for the producer" (0.200). It is noticeable that the carbon footprint labels have negative part-worth utilities compared to tomatoes without a label (-0.130 with CO2 indication, -0.186 without CO2 indication). The price is ranked 12th in the importance of the characteristics of purchasing tomatoes in the survey with a Likert scale, whereas it is first in the evaluation of the quasi-experiment (conjoint analysis), which supports the assumption of a social desirability bias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-15

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680 kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665-0.896, p foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  13. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH, which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a to compare energy intake (EI using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water (DLW; and (b to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH was not statistically different from TEE (DLW (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively. No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001. In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  14. Do "good" food products make others look "bad"? Spin-off effects of labels for sustainable food production in the consumer perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binnekamp, M.H.A.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Purpose ¿ The objective of this study is to examine whether sustainability labels like Fair Trade have a spin-off effect to mainstream products in the consumer perception: do consumers perceive mainstream products and brands more negatively in the presence of a product with a sustainability

  15. A Comparison of Concentrations of Sodium and Related Nutrients (Potassium, Total Dietary Fiber, Total and Saturated Fat, and Total Sugar) in Private-Label and National Brands of Popular, Sodium-Contributing, Commercially Packaged Foods in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Cogswell, Mary

    2017-05-01

    Private-label brands account for about one in four foods sold in US supermarkets. They provide value to consumers due to their low cost. We know of no US studies comparing the nutrition content of private-label products with corresponding national brand products. The objective was to compare concentrations of sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar) in popular sodium-contributing, commercially packaged foods by brand type (national or private-label brand). During 2010 to 2014, the Nutrient Data Laboratory of the US Department of Agriculture obtained 1,706 samples of private-label and national brand products from up to 12 locations nationwide and chemically analyzed 937 composites for sodium and related nutrients. The samples came from 61 sodium-contributing, commercially packaged food products for which both private-label and national brands were among the top 75% to 80% of brands for US unit sales. In this post hoc comparative analysis, the authors assigned a variable brand type (national or private label) to each composite and determined mean nutrient contents by brand type overall and by food product and type. The authors tested for significant differences (Pfoods sampled, differences between brand types were not statistically significant for any of the nutrients studied. However, differences in both directions exist for a few individual food products and food categories. Concentrations of sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar) do not differ systematically between private-label and national brands, suggesting that brand type is not a consideration for nutritional quality of foods in the United States. The study data provide public health officials with baseline nutrient content by brand type to help focus US sodium-reduction efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Perceptions of university students regarding calories, food healthiness, and the importance of calorie information in menu labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana Carolina; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Rodrigues, Vanessa Mello; Fiates, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck; da Costa Proença, Rossana Pacheco

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated Brazilian university students' perceptions of the concept of calories, how it relates to food healthiness, and the role of calorie information on menus in influencing food choices in different restaurant settings. Focus groups were conducted with 21 undergraduate students from various universities. Transcriptions were analysed for qualitative content, by coding and grouping words and phrases into similar themes. Two categories were obtained: Calorie concept and connection to healthiness; and Calorie information and food choices in restaurants. Calories were understood as energy units, and their excessive intake was associated with weight gain or fat gain. However, food healthiness was not associated to calorie content, but rather to food composition as a whole. Calorie information on restaurant menus was not considered enough to influence food choices, with preferences, dietary restrictions, food composition, and even restaurant type mentioned as equally or more important. Only a few participants mentioned using calorie information on menus to control food intake or body weight. Students' discussions were suggestive of an understanding of healthy eating as a more complex issue than calorie-counting. Discussions also suggested the need for more nutrition information, besides calorie content, to influence food choices in restaurants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimating the impact of various menu labeling formats on parents' demand for fast-food kids' meals for their children: An experimental auction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobin, Erin; Lillico, Heather; Zuo, Fei; Sacco, Jocelyn; Rosella, Laura; Hammond, David

    2016-10-01

    This study experimentally tested whether parents' demand for fast-food kids' meals for their children is influenced by various menu labeling formats disclosing calorie and sodium information. The study also examined the effect of various menu labeling formats on parents' ability to identify fast-food kids' meals with higher calorie and sodium content. Online surveys were conducted among parents of children aged 3-12. Parents were randomized to view 1 of 5 menu conditions: 1) No Nutrition Information; 2) Calories-Only; 3) Calories + Contextual Statement (CS); 4) Calories, Sodium, + CS; and, 5) Calorie and Sodium in Traffic Lights + CS. Using an established experimental auction study design, parents viewed replicated McDonald's menus according to their assigned condition and were asked to bid on 4 Happy Meals. A randomly selected price was chosen; bids equal to or above this price "won" the auction, and bids less than this price "lost" the auction. After the auction, participants were asked to identify the Happy Meal with the highest calories and sodium content. Adjusting for multiple comparisons and covariates, the Calories, Sodium, + CS menu had a mean attributed value across all 4 Happy Meals which was 8% lower (-$0.31) than the Calories + CS menu (p < 0.05). Significantly more parents in the 4 menu conditions providing calories were able to correctly identify the Happy Meal with the highest calories (p < 0.0001) and significantly more parents in the 2 conditions providing sodium information were able to correctly identify the Happy Meal with the highest sodium content (p < 0.0001). Menus disclosing both calories and sodium information may reduce demand for fast-food kids' meals and better support parents in making more informed and healthier food choices for their children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The roles of human values and generalized trust on stated preferences when food is labeled with environmental footprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo; Veeman, Michele

    2015-01-01

    (Rokeach 1973), and generalized trust attitudes using a version of the World Values Survey (WVS) / General Social Survey (GSS) standard question on trust. Consumer preferences for footprint-labeled potatoes were elicited by means of an attribute-based stated choice experiment. The results suggest...

  19. Evaluation of gluten in gluten-free-labeled foods and assessment of exposure level to gluten among celiac patients in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hussein; Elaridi, Jomana; Bassil, Maya

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate gluten contamination in all the gluten-free (GF)-labeled food products sold in Lebanon. Over a 2-year period, a total of 173 food samples collected from 135 brand names were analyzed. Gluten contamination was detected in 33 of 173 (19%) samples, and its content ranged between 2.5 and >80 mg kg -1 . In 10 of the 173 samples (6%), the quantity of gluten exceeded the upper limit of 20 mg kg -1 . Out of the 10 contaminated products, eight (80%) were locally manufactured. Among these 10 products, eight (80%) were wheat-starch-based foods. Of the 40 brand names tested twice in 2014 and 2015, 15 (38%) showed significantly (p < .05) different gluten content between the 2 years. Using a food frequency questionnaire, exposure level to gluten through the contaminated products was evaluated among 15 celiac patients. Two patients reported consuming these products more than twice per week.

  20. Validation of an Online Food Frequency Questionnaire against Doubly Labelled Water and 24 h Dietary Recalls in Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of easy-to-use and accurate methods to assess the intake of energy, foods and nutrients in pre-school children is needed. KidMeal-Q is an online food frequency questionnaire developed for the LifeGene prospective cohort study in Sweden. The aims of this study were to compare: (i energy intake (EI obtained using KidMeal-Q to total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water and (ii the intake of certain foods measured using KidMeal-Q to intakes acquired by means of 24 h dietary recalls in 38 children aged 5.5 years. The mean EI calculated using KidMeal-Q was statistically different (p < 0.001 from TEE (4670 ± 1430 kJ/24 h and 6070 ± 690 kJ/24 h, respectively. Significant correlations were observed for vegetables, fruit juice and candy between KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. Only sweetened beverage consumption was significantly different in mean intake (p < 0.001, as measured by KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. In conclusion, KidMeal-Q had a relatively short answering time and comparative validity to other food frequency questionnaires. However, its accuracy needs to be improved before it can be used in studies in pre-school children.

  1. 21 CFR 1302.04 - Location and size of symbol on label and labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Location and size of symbol on label and labeling... AND PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.04 Location and size of symbol on label and labeling. The symbol shall be prominently located on the label or the labeling of the commercial...

  2. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs ... las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels ...

  3. Marketing de alimentos industrializados destinados ao público infantil na perspectiva da rotulagem | Evalution of processed foods for children from the perspective of nutrition labeling and marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Soares Geraldo Ferreira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Compreendendo a importância das informações contidas nos rótulos dos alimentos, foi objetivo do presente estudo avaliar a qualidade de alimentos industrializados destinados ao público infantil, comercializados na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, sob a ótica da rotulagem nutricional e do marketing. Foram avaliados alimentos e bebidas industrializadas das categorias mais consumidas pelo público infantil. Os rótulos selecionados foram avaliados de acordo com os parâmetros estabelecidos em regulamentações vigentes, assim como, os recursos de marketing empregados nas embalagens e sua composição nutricional para 100 g ou 100 mL. Foram avaliados os rótulos de 93 embalagens de alimentos industrializados de 33 fabricantes diferentes. Cada amostra foi avaliada em 32 quesitos, totalizando 2.976 análises. Houve conformidade em 80% dos itens avaliados, 19% não eram aplicáveis e 1% apresentou não conformidade à legislação. A análise de marketing identificou o uso de 20 diferentes estratégias. A análise da composição nutricional declarada no rótulo permitiu concluir que os alimentos classificados com quantidades elevadas de açúcar, gordura saturada, gordura trans e/ou sódio corresponderam a 66%. Torna-se fundamental um modelo eficiente de regulação e fiscalização da rotulagem e marketing de modo a garantir informações claras e fidedignas. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of processed foods for children marketed in the city of Rio de Janeiro from the perspective of nutrition labeling and marketing in terms of the prevailing regulations. Industrialized foods and beverages consumed by were evaluated in the categories most commonly consumed by children were assessed. The product labels selected for the study were evaluated according to the parameters established in the current regulations, the marketing resources employed in

  4. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol ... Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When ...

  5. 21 CFR 332.31 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 332.31 Section 332.31 Food... HUMAN USE ANTIFLATULENT PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 332.31 Professional labeling. (a) The labeling of the product provided to health professionals (but not to the general public) may...

  6. 21 CFR 349.80 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 349.80 Section 349.80 Food... HUMAN USE OPHTHALMIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 349.80 Professional labeling. The labeling of any OTC ophthalmic demulcent drug product provided to health professionals (but...

  7. 21 CFR 341.90 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 341.90 Section 341.90 Food... HUMAN USE Labeling § 341.90 Professional labeling. The labeling of the product provided to health professionals (but not to the general public) may contain the following additional dosage information for...

  8. 21 CFR 336.80 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 336.80 Section 336.80 Food... HUMAN USE ANTIEMETIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 336.80 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not to the general public) may contain the...

  9. 21 CFR 610.61 - Package label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Package label. 610.61 Section 610.61 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.61 Package label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each package containing a product: (a) The proper name of the product; (b...

  10. Rotulagem de alimentos para lactentes e crianças de primeira infância Labeling food products for breastfeeding infants and toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheylle Almeida da Silva

    2008-04-01

    ústrias de alimentos e aos consumidores em geral.OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to analyze label conformity of foods for infants and lactating women according to ethical principles and current regulations. METHODS: A total of 86 labels acquired by free access and intentional sampling were analyzed, distributed as follows: infant formulas (n=11, follow-on formulas (n=5, complementary foods (n=07, cereal products (n=11, milk and foods containing vegetables (n=52, and food commonly used to feed this population (n=13. Structured forms were filled out with items from the Resoluções da Diretoria Colegiada (Graduated Board Resolutions 222/02, 977/98, 40/01, 40/02, 259/02, 23/00 and of the Portarias (rules 34/98 and 36/98 for each food. The chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and correlation test were used for data analysis. RESULTS: The rate of specific label non-conformity was much greater than that of general labeling. The highest rate of non-conformity was observed in the presentation of illustrations of the foods (images of breastfeeding infants or children with humanized images. Other non-conformities were: the presence of words such as humanized milk, baby or phrases that give a false idea of advantage or safety; the absence of mandatory phrases and non-conformity regarding the composition of the food. Foods that did not have as sales designation any of the characteristics of common use in this age group, that is, that were not marketed as such, such as lacteal flour, cereal flakes and paps presented warning phrases that were not necessarily for that kind of product. CONCLUSION: Labels of foods for breastfeeding infants and toddlers are irregular in many ways, especially regarding the specific labeling of the product. This practice may influence breastfeeding. More inspection is needed as well as more explanations to the food industries and to the consumers in general.

  11. FDA Online Label Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The drug labels and other drug-specific information on this Web site represent the most recent drug listing information companies have submitted to the Food and Drug...

  12. 21 CFR 357.280 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 357.280 Section 357.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Drug Products § 357.280 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not...

  13. 21 CFR 357.180 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 357.180 Section 357.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Products § 357.180 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not to the...

  14. 21 CFR 333.280 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 333.280 Section 333.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Drug Products § 333.280 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not...

  15. 21 CFR 820.120 - Device labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... designed to prevent mixups. (d) Labeling operations. Each manufacturer shall control labeling and packaging... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device labeling. 820.120 Section 820.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...

  16. CVD Prevention Through Policy: a Review of Mass Media, Food/Menu Labeling, Taxation/Subsidies, Built Environment, School Procurement, Worksite Wellness, and Marketing Standards to Improve Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshin, Ashkan; Penalvo, Jose; Del Gobbo, Liana; Kashaf, Michael; Micha, Renata; Morrish, Kurtis; Pearson-Stuttard, Jonathan; Rehm, Colin; Shangguan, Siyi; Smith, Jessica D; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-11-01

    Poor diet is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease in the USA and globally. Evidence-based policies are crucial to improve diet and population health. We reviewed the effectiveness for a range of policy levers to alter diet and diet-related risk factors. We identified evidence to support benefits of focused mass media campaigns (especially for fruits, vegetables, salt), food pricing strategies (both subsidies and taxation, with stronger effects at lower income levels), school procurement policies (for increasing healthful or reducing unhealthful choices), and worksite wellness programs (especially when comprehensive and multicomponent). Evidence was inconclusive for food and menu labeling (for consumer or industry behavior) and changes in local built environment (e.g., availability or accessibility of supermarkets, fast food outlets). We found little empiric evidence evaluating marketing restrictions, although broad principles and large resources spent on marketing suggest utility. Widespread implementation and evaluation of evidence-based policy strategies, with further research on other strategies with mixed/limited evidence, are essential "population medicine" to reduce health and economic burdens and inequities of diet-related illness worldwide.

  17. Response of shallow water benthic foraminifera to a 13C-labeled food pulse in the laboratory

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Linshy, V.N.; Nigam, R; Heinz, P.

    foraminifera in deep-sea food webs and carbon cycling In: Rowe GT, Pariente V (eds) Deep-Sea food chains and global carbon cycle, Kluwer Academic publishers, The Netherlands, p.63-91 Giullard RR, Ryther JH (1962) Studies of marine planktonic diatoms. I... afterwards to avoid the lysis of cells and stored at −80°C until freeze-drying. The final 13C- concentration in the algae was 75 atom % 13C. 2.3 Experiment Set-up Two time series were incubated for these investigations: one for Ammonia tepida and one...

  18. 76 FR 49707 - Food Labeling; Health Claim; Phytosterols and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease; Reopening of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... Risk of Coronary Heart Disease; Reopening of the Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... reconsider its proposed amendments to the phytosterols and risk of coronary heart disease health [[Page 49708... December 8, 2010, proposing to amend regulations on plant sterol/ stanol esters and risk of coronary heart...

  19. Binding of 14C-labeled food mutagens (IQ, MeIQ, MeIQx) by dietary fiber in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoedin, P.B.; Nyman, M.E.; Nilsson, L.; Asp, N.L.; Jaegerstad, M.

    1985-01-01

    Binding of three mutagens, known to occur in fried or broiled foods, by thirteen different types of dietary fiber was investigated in vitro. Nonspecific binding by other food polymers was minimized by using protease and amylase treatment. Water-insoluble fiber components were responsible for most of the binding capacity. Generally, a slightly larger proportion of 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ) than of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo] -4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) was bound. There was a significant correlation between Klason lignin content and binding of mutagens. Optimum pH for binding was between 4 and 6. Dietary fiber from sorghum had the highest binding capacity, which could be due to the presence of a large Klason lignin fraction

  20. Like your labels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The descriptive “conventions” used on food labels are always evolving. Today, however, the changes are so complicated (partly driven by legislation requiring disclosures about environmental impacts, health issues, and geographical provenance) that these labels more often baffle buyers than enlighten them. In a light-handed manner, the article points to how sometimes reading label language can be like deciphering runes—and how if we are familiar with the technical terms, we can find a literal meaning, but still not see the implications. The article could be ten times longer because food labels vary according to cultures—but all food-exporting cultures now take advantage of our short attention-span when faced with these texts. The question is whether less is more—and if so, in this contest for our attention, what “contestant” is voted off.

  1. Point-of-Purchase Labels and Reward Cards Improve Sales of Healthy Foods in University Dining Halls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biden, Catherine R; Matthews, June I; Laframboise, Natalie A; Zok, Anne; Dworatzek, Paula D N; Seabrook, Jamie A

    2018-06-12

    To compare sales of Food Resources and Education for Student Health (FRESH) Approved versus non-FRESH Approved menu cycle items pre- and postimplementation of the FRESH program. Sales data from 2011-2015 of FRESH Approved versus non-FRESH Approved menu items were analyzed. Fruit and milk items sold, net sales, and the cost of free fruit and milk redeemed through the FRESH Reward Card (FRC) program, were also analyzed. FRESH Approved items sold more often than non-FRESH Approved items in the latter 2 years (P = 0.01). Prices of FRESH Approved menu items were significantly lower than non-FRESH Approved items for all years (e.g., $1.52 ± $0.94 vs $2.21 ± $1.02 per serving in 2014-2015; P < 0.001). Across all FRESH implementation years, FRESH Approved menu items were found more often on the 6-week menu (P < 0.05). The number of fruit items sold increased from a baseline of 143 052 to 170 954, and net sales increased from $135 450 to $154 248 after 3 years of the FRC implementation. FRESH Approved items were less expensive, available more often, and had higher sales. The FRC increased net fruit sales despite the cost of free fruit. Highlighting and reducing the cost of healthy foods are promising practices to improve campus food environments.

  2. Current issues surrounding the definition of trans-fatty acids: implications for health, industry and food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Proctor, Spencer D

    2013-10-01

    The definition of trans-fatty acids (TFA) was established by the Codex Alimentarius to guide nutritional and legislative regulations to reduce TFA consumption. Currently, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is excluded from the TFA definition based on evidence (primarily preclinical studies) implying health benefits on weight management and cancer prevention. While the efficacy of CLA supplements remains inconsistent in randomised clinical trials, evidence has emerged to associate supplemental CLA with negative health outcomes, including increased subclinical inflammation and oxidative stress (particularly at high doses). This has resulted in concerns regarding the correctness of excluding CLA from the TFA definition. Here we review recent clinical and preclinical literature on health implications of CLA and ruminant TFA, and highlight several issues surrounding the current Codex definition of TFA and how it may influence interpretation for public health. We find that CLA derived from ruminant foods differ from commercial CLA supplements in their isomer composition/distribution, consumption level and bioactivity. We conclude that health concerns associated with the use of supplemental CLA do not repudiate the exclusion of all forms of CLA from the Codex TFA definition, particularly when using the definition for food-related purposes. Given the emerging differential bioactivity of TFA from industrial v. ruminant sources, we advocate that regional nutrition guidelines/policies should focus on eliminating industrial forms of trans-fat from processed foods as opposed to all TFA per se.

  3. The incidence of calorie labeling on fast food choices: A comparison between stated preferences and actual choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Maria L; Rahmani, Djamel

    2016-09-01

    In order to test the effect of calorie information on fast food choices, we conducted a questionnaire employing two types of stated preferences methods (the best-worst-scaling and intentional questions) and a follow-up randomized field experiment in a sample of 119 participants. This combined approach allowed us to test the internal validity of preferences for fast food meals across elicitation scenarios. The results showed that calorie information reduces the probability of selecting high calorie meals only in the questionnaire, while it did not have any significant impact on actual purchasing behavior in the field experiment. Thus, the findings show that there is a clear difference between the role of calorie information on immediate stated preference choices, and the relatively low level of responsiveness in real choices in a restaurant. We believe that the current results are quite suggestive, indicating the limits of predicting actual fast food behavior, and may open the way to using data sources that combine stated methods with field experiments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A highly sensitive and specific capacitive aptasensor for rapid and label-free trace analysis of Bisphenol A (BPA) in canned foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzajani, Hadi; Cheng, Cheng; Wu, Jayne; Chen, Jiangang; Eda, Shigotoshi; Najafi Aghdam, Esmaeil; Badri Ghavifekr, Habib

    2017-03-15

    A rapid, highly sensitive, specific and low-cost capacitive affinity biosensor is presented here for label-free and single step detection of Bisphenol A (BPA). The sensor design allows rapid prototyping at low-cost using printed circuit board material by benchtop equipment. High sensitivity detection is achieved through the use of a BPA-specific aptamer as probe molecule and large electrodes to enhance AC-electroelectrothermal effect for long-range transport of BPA molecules toward electrode surface. Capacitive sensing technique is used to determine the bounded BPA level by measuring the sample/electrode interfacial capacitance of the sensor. The developed biosensor can detect BPA level in 20s and exhibits a large linear range from 1 fM to 10 pM, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 152.93 aM. This biosensor was applied to test BPA in canned food samples and could successfully recover the levels of spiked BPA. This sensor technology is demonstrated to be highly promising and reliable for rapid, sensitive and on-site monitoring of BPA in food samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ringer's lactate, but not hydroxyethyl starch, prolongs the food intolerance time after major abdominal surgery; an open-labelled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhong; He, Rui; Ying, Xiaojiang; Hahn, Robert G

    2015-05-06

    The infusion of large amounts of Ringer's lactate prolongs the functional gastrointestinal recovery time and increases the number of complications after open abdominal surgery. We performed an open-labelled clinical trial to determine whether hydroxyethyl starch or Ringer's lactate exerts these adverse effects when the surgery is performed by laparoscopy. Eighty-eight patients scheduled for major abdominal cancer surgery (83% by laparoscopy) received a first-line fluid treatment with 9 ml/kg of either 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (Voluven) or Ringer's lactate, just after induction of anaesthesia; this was followed by a second-line infusion with 12 ml/kg of either starch or Ringer's lactate over 1 hour. Further therapy was managed at the discretion of the attending anaesthetist. Outcome data consisted of postoperative gastrointestinal recovery time, complications and length of hospital stay. The order of the infusions had no impact on the outcome. Both the administration of ≥ 2 L of Ringer's lactate and the development of a surgical complication were associated with a longer time period of paralytic ileus and food intolerance (two-way ANOVA, P food intolerance time amounted to 2 days each. The infusion of ≥ 1 L of hydroxyethyl starch did not adversely affect gastrointestinal recovery. Ringer's lactate, but not hydroxyethyl starch, prolonged the gastrointestinal recovery time in patients undergoing laparoscopic cancer surgery. Surgical complications prolonged the hospital stay.

  6. Facile and sensitive determination of N-nitrosamines in food samples by high-performance liquid chromatography via combining fluorescent labeling with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuaimin; Wu, Di; Li, Guoliang; Lv, Zhengxian; Gong, Peiwei; Xia, Lian; Sun, Zhiwei; Chen, Guang; Chen, Xuefeng; You, Jinmao; Wu, Yongning

    2017-11-01

    The intake of N-nitrosamines (NAs) from foodstuffs is considered to be an important influence factor for several cancers. But the rapid and sensitive screening of NAs remains a challenge in the field of food safety. Inspired by that, a sensitive and rapid method was demonstrated for determination of five NAs (Nitrosopyrrolidine, Nitrosodimethylamine, Nitrosodiethylamine, Nitrosodipropylamine and Nitrosodibutylamine) using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). The NAs were firstly denitrosated and labeled by 2-(11H-benzo[a]carbazol-11-yl) ethyl carbonochloridate (BCEC-Cl) and finally enriched by DLLME. Furthermore, the main DLLME conditions were optimized systematically. Under the optimal conditions, satisfactory limits of detection (LODs) were obtained with a range of 0.01-0.07ngg -1 , which were significantly lower than the reported methods. The developed method showed many merits including rapidity, simplicity, high sensitivity and excellent selectivity, which shows a broad prospect in food safety analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Experiências internacionais de regulamentação das alegações de saúde em rótulos de alimentos International experiences with health claims in food labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Giuberti Coutinho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available With ever-increasing frequency, consumers are seeking information on the foods they eat. Food labels are an important source of this type of information, and the Codex Alimentarius, created by the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, provides a global reference for coordinated food quality and identification standards. The Codex Alimentarius agenda includes nutritional information and "health claims," which are defined as any representation that states, suggests, or implies that a relationship exists between a food or a constituent of that food and health. Although food labeling seems to effectively assist consumers in choosing among processed foods, consumers are not always capable of reading or interpreting nutritional information correctly, so health claims may allow for more precise decision-making for these products. The present paper examines the use of health claims in countries and regions that have already implemented this type of regulation (Brazil, Chile, Canada, United States of America, the European Union, and Japan.

  8. Modifications in the Consumption of Energy, Sugar, and Saturated Fat among the Mexican Adult Population: Simulation of the Effect When Replacing Processed Foods that Comply with a Front of Package Labeling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Mendoza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A Mexican Committee of Nutrition Experts (MCNE from the National Institute of Public Health (INSP, free from conflict of interest, established food content standards to place the front-of-package (FOP logo on foods that meet these nutrition criteria. The objectives were to simulate the effect on nutrient intake in the Mexican adult population (20–59 years old after replacing commonly consumed processed foods with those that meet the FOP nutrition-labeling criteria. Twenty-four hour dietary recalls were collected from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (n = 2164 adults. A food database from the INSP was used. Weighted medians and 25–75 inter-quartile ranges (IQR of energy and nutrient intake were calculated for all subjects by sociodemographic characteristics before and after replacing foods. Significant decreases were observed in energy (−5.4%, saturated fatty acids (−18.9%, trans-fatty acids (−20%, total sugar (−36.8% and sodium (−10.7% intake and a significant increase in fiber intake (+15.5% after replacing foods, using the MCNE nutrition criteria. Replacing commonly consumed processed foods in the diet with foods that meet the FOP nutrition-labeling criteria set by the MCNE can lead to improvements in energy and nutrient intake in the Mexican adult population.

  9. America, you are digging your grave with your spoon--should the FDA tell you that on food labels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Melissa M

    2013-01-01

    R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. v. Food & Drug Admin. discussed whether the FDA's promulgation of graphic images violated tobacco companies' First Amendment rights. While the tobacco companies contested the graphic images, the tobacco companies did not contest the promulgation of nine textual statements about the adverse effects of cigarettes. This uncontested mandate opens a door for the FDA to further expand its regulatory scheme. If the FDA can mandate textual statements about the adverse effects of cigarettes, can the FDA mandate textual statements about the adverse effects of sugar to combat the obesity crisis? This Article presents three textual statements about the adverse effects of sugar, to define the line between acceptable and unacceptable forms of compelled commercial speech under Central Hudson. Establishing this line ensures that the commercial speech doctrine does not deny the FDA from its authority to provide consumers with accurate information. While three textual statements are presented, this Article advocates that one of the textual statements is likely to serve as the best solution to the obesity crisis. The chosen textual statement serves as an effective solution because it presents meaningful information to the consumers enabling consumers to make healthful decisions about their food and encourages manufacturers to modify their products.

  10. Differences in lercanidipine systemic exposure when administered according to labelling: in fasting state and 15 minutes before food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Covadonga; Gómez, Estrella; Simón, Marta; Govantes, Carlos; Guerra, Pedro; Frías, Jesús; García-Arieta, Alfredo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the systemic exposure of lercanidipine (Zanidip) after oral administration in the fasted state and 15 min before food intake (meals) to investigate if the recommendations in the Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) with respect to the intake of meals are adequate. The results of three pilot bioequivalence studies performed to develop a lercanidipine generic product, where Zanidip was administered consistently as reference product in the fasted state or 15 min before a standard breakfast, were compared to estimate the drug–food interaction and the similarity of the methods of administration defined in the SPC. The ingestion of a standard (non-high-fat, non-high-calorie) meal 15 min after drug intake increased the area under the concentration–time curve (AUC(0-t)) of S-lercanidipine by 1.78-fold [90% confidence interval (CI) 1.48–2.15, Pfood intake does not seem to be consistent with this recommendation. The Marketing Authorisation Holder should clarify the dosing instructions in relation to meals and identify a sufficient time-lapse to ensure an exposure similar to that obtained in phase III clinical efficacy studies.

  11. Effects of Food on the Pharmacokinetics of Omega-3-Carboxylic Acids in Healthy Japanese Male Subjects: A Phase I, Randomized, Open-label, Three-period, Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hitoshi; Nilsson, Catarina; Noda, Yoshinori; Kim, Hyosung; Lundström, Torbjörn; Yajima, Toshitaka

    2017-09-01

    Omega-3-carboxylic acids (OM3-CA) contain omega-3 free fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), as carboxylic acids. Food intake is known to affect the bioavailability of ethyl ester fatty acid formulations. We conducted a phase I study to investigate the effects of the timing of OM3-CA administration relative to food intake on the pharmacokinetics of EPA and DHA. In this randomized, open-label, three-period crossover study, Japanese healthy male subjects were administered 4×1 g OM3-CA capsules with continued fasting, before a meal, or after a meal. All subjects fasted for ≥10 h prior to drug/meal administration. The primary objective was to examine the effect of meal timing on the pharmacokinetics of EPA and DHA after OM3-CA administration. The secondary objectives were to examine the safety and tolerability of OM3-CA. A total of 42 Japanese subjects was enrolled in the study. The baseline-adjusted maximum concentration and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 72 h for EPA, DHA, and EPA +DHA were lower in the fasting and before meal conditions than in the after meal condition. The maximum total EPA, total DHA, and total EPA+DHA concentrations were reached later when administered in fasting conditions than in fed conditions, indicating slower absorption in fasting conditions. Diarrhea was reported by five, six, and no subjects in the fasting, before meal, and after meal conditions, respectively. The timing of OM3-CA administration relative to food intake influences the systemic bioavailability of EPA and DHA in healthy Japanese male subjects. NCT02372344.

  12. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & ... topic for: Parents Kids Teens Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If ...

  13. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe Recipes & ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  14. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  15. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators ... packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, ...

  16. Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Price Tag Read the Food Label Kitchen Timesavers Cooking for Your Family Tasty & Low-Cost Recipes Sample 2-Week Menus Resources for Professionals MyPlate Tip Sheets Print Materials Infographics 5 Ways ...

  17. 21 CFR 660.55 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling. 660.55 Section 660.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL... name such as polyspecific may appear in smaller type. (4) Visual inspection. When the label has been...

  18. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Watch this video for tips on figuring out food labels so you can make healthy choices. More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has ...

  19. Comparison of a web-based food record tool and a food-frequency questionnaire and objective validation using the doubly labelled water technique in a Swedish middle-aged population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybacka, Sanna; Bertéus Forslund, Heléne; Wirfält, Elisabet; Larsson, Ingrid; Ericson, Ulrika; Warensjö Lemming, Eva; Bergström, Göran; Hedblad, Bo; Winkvist, Anna; Lindroos, Anna Karin

    2016-01-01

    Two web-based dietary assessment tools have been developed for use in large-scale studies: the Riksmaten method (4-d food record) and MiniMeal-Q (food-frequency method). The aim of the present study was to examine the ability of these methods to capture energy intake against objectively measured total energy expenditure (TEE) with the doubly labelled water technique (TEE DLW ), and to compare reported energy and macronutrient intake. This study was conducted within the pilot study of the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS), which included 1111 randomly selected men and women aged 50-64 years from the Gothenburg general population. Of these, 200 were enrolled in the SCAPIS diet substudy. TEE DLW was measured in a subsample ( n 40). Compared with TEE DLW , both methods underestimated energy intake: -2·5 (sd  2·9) MJ with the Riksmaten method; -2·3 (sd 3·6) MJ with MiniMeal-Q. Mean reporting accuracy was 80 and 82 %, respectively. The correlation between reported energy intake and TEE DLW was r 0·4 for the Riksmaten method ( P  < 0·05) and r 0·28 (non-significant) for MiniMeal-Q. Women reported similar average intake of energy and macronutrients in both methods whereas men reported higher intakes with the Riksmaten method. Energy-adjusted correlations ranged from 0·14 (polyunsaturated fat) to 0·77 (alcohol). Bland-Altman plots showed acceptable agreement for energy and energy-adjusted protein and carbohydrate intake, whereas the agreement for fat intake was poorer. According to energy intake data, both methods displayed similar precision on energy intake reporting. However, MiniMeal-Q was less successful in ranking individuals than the Riksmaten method. The development of methods to achieve limited under-reporting is a major challenge for future research.

  20. Food Labels Tell the Story!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Menu Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ... Lessons Topics Expand Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ...

  1. Labelling schemes: From a consumer perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2000-01-01

    Labelling of food products attracts a lot of political attention these days. As a result of a number of food scandals, most European countries have acknowledged the need for more information and better protection of consumers. Labelling schemes are one way of informing and guiding consumers....... However, initiatives in relation to labelling schemes seldom take their point of departure in consumers' needs and expectations; and in many cases, the schemes are defined by the institutions guaranteeing the label. It is therefore interesting to study how consumers actually value labelling schemes....... A recent MAPP study has investigated the value consumers attach the Government-controlled labels 'Ø-mærket' and 'Den Blå Lup' and the private supermarket label 'Mesterhakket' when they purchase minced meat. The results reveal four consumer segments that use labelling schemes for food products very...

  2. Use of diet-tracking websites as a resource for hard-to-find food label information: an example using specialty grocery store items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many specialty foods cannot be found in research-focused food databases. However, some nutrient data can be found for many of these foods through individual website searches using brand and store names. Some popular diet-tracking websites contain data for over 3 million foods, data often entered by ...

  3. Consulta aos rótulos de alimentos e bebidas por freqüentadores de supermercados em Brasília, Brasil Usage of food and beverage labels by supermarket shoppers in Brasilia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Alves Monteiro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar se a população adulta freqüentadora de supermercados do Plano Piloto de Brasília (DF, Brasil, utiliza as informações nutricionais contidas nos rótulos de bebidas e alimentos, assim como caracterizar essa utilização. MÉTODOS: Este trabalho foi realizado em duas etapas: uma etapa quantitativa, baseada em um estudo transversal, onde foram entrevistados 250 indivíduos selecionados aleatoriamente em cinco supermercados; e uma etapa qualitativa, na qual foram feitas 25 entrevistas individuais com participantes da etapa anterior. RESULTADOS: A leitura da informação nutricional dos rótulos de alimentos era realizada por 187 (74,8% dos consumidores pesquisados. Contudo, apenas 25,7% dos consumidores nesse grupo liam os rótulos de todos os alimentos. Em geral (59,9%, a consulta se dava somente aos rótulos de alimentos específicos, como leites e derivados, enlatados, embutidos e produtos diet e light. Foram citados como os mais importantes objetivos da consulta aos rótulos o interesse acerca do número de calorias e da quantidade de gordura e sódio. CONCLUSÕES: Os presentes resultados indicam a necessidade de aperfeiçoar as estratégias educativas já existentes para o consumo saudável de alimentos, e podem ser úteis nesse aperfeiçoamento. Sugere-se que, além dos consumidores, os produtores e distribuidores de alimentos também sejam integrados nas estratégias de educação nutricional.OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether adults who shop in supermarkets in one part of Brasilia, the capital city of Brazil, use the information contained in food and beverage labels, as well as to characterize this usage. METHODS: This study was done in five supermarkets in the Plano Piloto (Pilot Plan central core area of Brasilia. The research was carried out in two stages: (1 a quantitative stage, based on a cross-sectional study, during which 250 individuals were randomly selected and surveyed in the supermarkets; and (2 a

  4. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, M.

    1989-01-01

    This popular-level article emphasizes that the ultimate health effects of irradiated food products are unknown. They may include vitamin loss, contamination of food by botulism bacteria, mutations in bacteria, increased production of aflatoxins, changes in food, carcinogenesis from unknown causes, presence of miscellaneous harmful chemicals, and the lack of a way of for a consumer to detect irradiated food. It is claimed that the nuclear industry is applying pressure on the Canadian government to relax labeling requirements on packages of irradiated food in order to find a market for its otherwise unnecessary products

  5. Private Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Kolmačková, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    This Bachelor Thesis titled Private labels deals with distribution strategy based on the introduction of private labels especially in retail chains. At the beginning it is focused on the general concept of private label offered by retailers, where is mentioned basic characteristics, history and structuring of distribution brands. Subsequently this thesis informs readers about the introduction of new special distribution brands, which focus primarily on the new consumption habits of customers....

  6. Review of nutrition labeling formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, C J; Wyse, B W; Parent, C R; Hansen, R G

    1991-07-01

    This article examines nutrition labeling history as well as the findings of nine research studies of nutrition labeling formats. Nutrition labeling regulations were announced in 1973 and have been periodically amended since then. In response to requests from consumers and health care professionals for revision of the labeling system, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a three-phase plan for reform of nutrition labeling in 1990. President Bush signed the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act in November 1990. Literature analysis revealed that only nine studies with an experimental design have focused on nutrition labeling since 1971. Four were conducted before 1975, which was the year that nutrition labeling was officially implemented, two were conducted in 1980, and three were conducted after 1986. Only two of the nine studies supported the traditional label format mandated by the Code of Federal Regulations, and one study partially supported it. Four of the nine studies that evaluated graphic presentations of nutrition information found that consumer comprehension of nutrition information was improved with a graphic format for nutrition labeling: three studies supported the use of bar graphs and one study supported the use of a pie chart. Full disclosure (ie, complete nutrient and ingredient labeling) was preferred by consumers in two of the three studies that examined this variable. The third study supported three types of information disclosure dependent upon socioeconomic class. In those studies that tested graphics, a bar graph format was significantly preferred and showed better consumer comprehension than the traditional format.

  7. 21 CFR 355.60 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 355.60 Section 355.60 Food... HUMAN USE ANTICARIES DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 355.60 Professional... health professionals (but not to the general public) may contain the following additional dosage...

  8. Comparison of Unlicensed and Off-Label Use of Antipsychotics Prescribed to Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients for Treatment of Mental and Behavioral Disorders with Different Guidelines: The China Food and Drug Administration Versus the FDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiuqing; Hu, Jinqing; Sun, Bin; Deng, Shuhua; Wen, Yuguan; Chen, Weijia; Qiu, Chang; Shang, Dewei; Zhang, Ming

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to compare the prevalence of unlicensed and off-label use of antipsychotics among child and adolescent psychiatric outpatients with guidelines proposed by the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and to identify factors associated with inconsistencies between the two regulations. A retrospective analysis of 29,326 drug prescriptions for child and adolescent outpatients from the Affiliated Brain Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University was conducted. Antipsychotics were classified as "unlicensed" or "off-label use" according to the latest pediatric license information registered by the CFDA and the FDA or the package inserts of antipsychotics authorized by the CFDA or the FDA for the treatment of pediatric mental and behavioral disorders, respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors associated with inconsistencies between the two regulations. The total unlicensed use, according to the CFDA analysis, was higher than that found in the FDA analysis (74.14% vs. 22.04%, p according to the FDA analysis, was higher than that found in the CFDA analysis (46.53% vs. 15.77%, p gender, diagnosis of schizophrenia and schizotypal and delusional disorders, diagnosis of mood [affective] disorders, diagnosis of mental retardation, and diagnosis of psychological development disorders were associated with inconsistent off-label use. The difference in prevalence of total unlicensed and off-label use of antipsychotics between the two regulations was statistically significant. This inconsistency could be partly attributed to differences in pediatric license information and package inserts of antipsychotics. The results indicate a need for further clinical pediatric studies and better harmonization between agencies regarding antipsychotic used in pediatrics.

  9. Traveling with Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on traveling and dining out at restaurants with food allergies. Travel Tips for the U.S. and Other Countries Get information about medications and food labeling practices in select countries. Spam Control Text: ...

  10. Pesticide Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  11. Portion Size Labeling and Intended Soft Drink Consumption: The Impact of Labeling Format and Size Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M.; Steenhuis, Ingrid H. M.; Leeuwis, Franca H.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess what portion size labeling "format" is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. Methods: An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie, reference portion size and small/medium/large…

  12. Labelling GM-free Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, Maarten; Venus, Thomas; Wesseler, Justus

    2016-01-01

    Food suppliers in the EU must comply with labelling regulations for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, excluded from mandatory labelling are food products derived from animals fed with GM feed (mainly GM soybean in the EU). Because of this labelling exemption, consumers are unable....... We asked them whether they produce ‘GM-free’ and to assess the ‘GM-free’ market in terms of (1) the current status, (2) potential benefits, (3) limitations and (4) risks. We find that smaller dairy companies mostly switch completely, whereas ‘GM-free’ production of larger dairy companies is often...... to identify which animal products were derived without the use of GMOs. Therefore, Germany and other countries introduced voluntary ‘GM-free’ labelling legislations or guidelines that allow companies to signal that their products are ‘GM-free’. We present the results of a survey among German dairy companies...

  13. Labelling patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strudwick, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at how diagnostic radiographers label their patients. An ethnographic study of the workplace culture in one diagnostic imaging department was undertaken using participant observation for four months and semi-structured interviews with ten key informants. One of the key themes; the way in which radiographers label their patients, is explored in this article. It was found from the study that within the department studied the diagnostic radiographers labelled or categorised their patients based on the information that they had. This information is used to form judgements and these judgements were used to assist the radiographers in dealing with the many different people that they encountered in their work. This categorisation and labelling of the patient appears to assist the radiographer in their decision-making processes about the examination to be carried out and the patient they are to image. This is an important aspect of the role of the diagnostic radiographer. - Highlights: • I have studied the culture in one imaging department. • Radiographers label or categorise their patients. • These labels/categories are used to manage the patient. • This is an important aspect of the way in which radiographers work.

  14. Análise da rotulagem de alimentos industrializados destinados ao público infantil à luz da proposta de semáforo nutricional | Analysis of labels in prepackaged food for children in the light of Tra ic Light Labelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Simões de Freitas Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As crianças estão fortemente expostas ao marketing de alimentos e o Semáforo Nutricional apresenta-se como possível aliado na acessibilidade e compreensão das informações contidas nos rótulos. Objetivou-se classificar os rótulos de alimentos industrializados direcionados ao público infantil, quanto às quantidades de sódio, açúcares, gorduras (totais, saturadas e trans e fibras. Foram coletados rótulos de produtos com características de publicidade abusiva à criança e ao adolescente conforme descrito pelas RDC nº 24/2010, emanada pela Anvisa, e RDC 163/2014, disposta pelo Conanda. Os 85 produtos selecionados pertenciam a diferentes marcas, a fim de possibilitar a comparação dos rótulos e nutrientes entre alimentos do mesmo grupo, considerando a proposta do Semáforo Nutricional. Observou-se resultados alarmantes nos grupos macarrão instantâneo e biscoitos recheados em relação à inadequação de gorduras saturadas, sódio e fibras. As fibras foram os nutrientes que receberam maior quantitativo de classificações vermelha, e as gorduras trans, mais classificações verde nos grupos de alimentos. Houve impossibilidade de avaliação dos teores de açúcares pela sua presença não ser obrigatória na informação nutricional no Brasil. Os produtos avaliados parecem inapropriados nutricionalmente no contexto da alimentação saudável e seu consumo configura-se como fator de risco à saúde do público infantil. ================================================= Children are strongly exposed to food marketing and the Traffic light labelling allowed the accessibility and understanding of the information on the labels. The objective of this study was to classify the processed food labels targeted at children, for the amounts of sodium, sugars, fat (total, saturated and trans and fiber. To this end, product labels presenting abusive advertising features in children and adolescents –as defined by AnvisaNVISA’s RDC nº24

  15. Study of the seasonal variation in the exchanges of food labelled with 198Au from a worker bee to a queen (Apis mellifica ligustica S.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, Janine; Roger, Bernard; Douault, Philippe

    1975-01-01

    Food exchanges from a worker giver to a queen receiver were quantified throughout the year. 4 days old workers distribute great amounts of food to queens, about 74% in average, but variations are low. On the other hand workers of unknown age distribute amounts that are less high and varying in terms of the season. A parallelism exists between percentage variations of food shared by workers of unknown age and the seasonal cycle of the 9-oxodec-2-enoic acid content of queens [fr

  16. 78 FR 24211 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Safety Considerations for Container Labels and Carton Labeling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... Labeling Design to Minimize Medication Errors.'' In Title I of the Food and Drug Administration Amendments..., dose designations, and error-prone label and packaging designs. Among these measures, FDA agreed that... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-D-0401...

  17. 21 CFR 660.28 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling. 660.28 Section 660.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL... change, precipitate, that may indicate possible deterioration of the product. (c) Package insert. Each...

  18. 9 CFR 317.4 - Labeling approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... undue economic hardship; and (iv) An unfair competitive advantage would not result from the granting of... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... approval to the Food Labeling Division, Regulatory Programs, Food Safety and Inspection Service, and...

  19. Associations between self-perception of weight, food choice intentions, and consumer response to calorie information: a retrospective investigation of public health center clients in Los Angeles County before the implementation of menu-labeling regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianogo, Roch A; Kuo, Tony; Smith, Lisa V; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2016-01-22

    Although obesity continues to rise and remains a great public health concern in the U.S., a number of important levers such as self-perception of weight and calorie postings at point-of-purchase in restaurants are still not well-characterized in the literature, especially for low-income and minority groups in Los Angeles County (LAC). To study this gap, we examined the associations of self-perception of weight (as measured by body weight discrepancy) with food choice intentions and consumer response to calorie information among low-income adults residing in LAC during the pre-menu labeling regulation era. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the aforementioned associations utilizing data from the 2007-2008 Calorie and Nutrition Information Survey (CNIS). The CNIS was a local health department study of 639 low-income adults recruited from five large, multi-purpose public health centers in LAC. Survey participants who reported that their desired weight was less than their current weight (versus desired weight the same as current weight) had (i) higher odds of intending to select lower-calorie foods under the scenario that calorie information was available at point-of-purchase (aOR = 2.0; 95 % CI: 1.0-3.9); and (ii) had higher odds of reporting that it is "very important" to have these calorie postings on food items in grocery stores (aOR = 3.1; 95 % CI: 0.90-10.7) and in fast-food restaurants (aOR = 3.4; 95 % CI: 1.0-11.4). Self-perception of weight was found to be associated with the intention to select lower-calorie foods under the scenario that calorie information was available at point-of-purchase. Future public health efforts to support menu labeling implementation should consider these and other findings to inform consumer education and communications strategies that can be tailored to assist restaurant patrons with this forthcoming federal law.

  20. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Food preservation by irradiation is one part of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program that is enjoying renewed interest. Classified as a food additive by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 instead of a processing technique, irradiation lost public acceptance. Experiments have not been done to prove that there are no health hazards from gamma radiation, but there are new pressures to get Food and Drug Administration approval for testing in order to make commercial use of some radioactive wastes. Irradiation causes chemical reactions and nutritional changes, including the destruction of several vitamins, as well as the production of radiolytic products not normally found in food that could have adverse effects. The author concludes that, lacking epidemiological evidence, willing buyers should be able to purchase irradiated food as long as it is properly labeled

  1. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenewald, T

    1985-01-01

    Food irradiation has become a matter of topical interest also in the Federal Republic of Germany following applications for exemptions concerning irradiation tests of spices. After risks to human health by irradiation doses up to a level sufficient for product pasteurization were excluded, irradiation now offers a method suitable primarily for the disinfestation of fruit and decontamination of frozen and dried food. Codex Alimentarius standards which refer also to supervision and dosimetry have been established; they should be adopted as national law. However, in the majority of cases where individual countries including EC member-countries so far permitted food irradiation, these standards were not yet used. Approved irradiation technique for industrial use is available. Several industrial food irradiation plants, partly working also on a contractual basis, are already in operation in various countries. Consumer response still is largely unknown; since irradiated food is labelled, consumption of irradiated food will be decided upon by consumers.

  2. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... information on food labels is exerting an effect on healthy food choices among consumers. Based for the first time on in-store observations and interviews, these studies give a real-life insight into consumers' shopping behaviours. The major outcomes to date are that most European consumers have reasonable...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  3. 21 CFR 340.50 - Labeling of stimulant drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of stimulant drug products. 340.50 Section 340.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE STIMULANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 340.50...

  4. Nutrition Labeling and Portion Size Information on Children's Menus in Fast-Food and Table-Service Chain Restaurants in London, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Sue; Wake, Yvonne; Zick, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate meals, price, nutritional content, and nutrition and portion size information available on children's menus in fast-food and table-service chain restaurants in London, since the United Kingdom does not currently require such information but may be initiating a voluntary guideline. Methods: Children's menus were assessed…

  5. Food irradiation - now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basson, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Food irradiation technology in South Africa is about to take its rightful place next to existing food preservation methods in protecting food supplies. This is as a result of several factors, the most important of which is the decision by the Department of Health and Population Development to introduce compulsory labelling of food irradiation. The factors influencing food irradiation technology in South Africa are discussed

  6. Menu labeling: the unintended consequences to the consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Ellen A

    2014-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act requires certain restaurants to provide nutritional information on their menus and menu boards, which is referred to as menu labeling. Menu labeling presupposes that providing consumers with the nutritional information about their food will cause them to reconsider their food choices by picking healthier food options over less healthy options, thereby reducing the nation's high obesity rate. However, several studies have shown that consumers do not make healthier food choices even when armed with menu labeling. The issue then becomes whether menu labeling provides a correlative benefit to consumers or whether there are unintended consequences that ultimately harm consumers.

  7. The effects of gamma irradiation on the fate of hindered phenol antioxidants in food contact polymers. Analytical and 14C-labelling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.W.; Leathard, D.A.; Smith, C.

    1991-01-01

    The extractable levels of two hindered phenol antioxidants (Irganox 1076 and Irganox 1010) present in PVC, polyethylene and polypropylene have been monitored by HPLC techniques following progressive exposure of the polymers to 60 Co(gamma) radiation. There is a gradual diminution in the extractable levels of each antioxidant as irradiation progresses as a result of transformation of the antioxidants in the oxidation reactions ensuing during irradiation. Experiments involving the use of a 14 C-labelled sample of Irganox 1076 in polyolefins have provided evidence of covalent binding of antioxidant degradation products to the polymer following gamma irradiation. However, there is also evidence of the formation of extractable degradation products, the identity of which is as yet unknown. (author)

  8. The effects of gamma irradiation on the fate of hindered phenol antioxidants in food contact polymers. Analytical and 14C-labelling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David W.; Leathard, David A.; Smith, Christine

    The extractable levels of two hindered phenol antioxidants (Irganox 1076 and Irganox 1010) present in PVC, polyethylene and polypropylene, have been monitored by HPLC techniques following progressive exposure of the polymers to 60Co γ radiation. There is a gradual diminution in the extractable levels of each antioxidant as irradiation progresses as a result of transformation of the antioxidants in the oxidation reactions ensuing during irradiation. Experiments involving the use of a 14C-labelled sample of Irganox 1076 in polyolefins have provided evidence of covalent binding of antioxidant degradation products to the polymer following gamma irradiation. However, there is also evidence of the formation of extractable degradation products, the identity of which is as yet unknown.

  9. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health ... choices. More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels ...

  10. High-fiber foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000193.htm High-fiber foods To use the sharing features on this page, ... Read food labels carefully to see how much fiber they have. Choose foods that have higher amounts of fiber, such as ...

  11. Etiquetado y rotulación de los alimentos en la prevención del sobrepeso y la obesidad: una revisión sistemática Food labeling and the prevention of overweight and obesity: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Itxaso Sebastián-Ponce

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Revisión de los artículos sobre el etiquetado o la rotulación en la prevención de la obesidad y el sobrepeso. Estudio, mediante técnica sistemática, de los trabajos recuperados mediante revisión bibliográfica. Bases de datos consultadas: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library Plus, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, LILACS y CINAHL. Descriptores DeCS/MeSH: obesity y food labeling. 207 artículos recuperados, mediante los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, se seleccionaron 14: 11 sobre etiquetado y la rotulación en el consumo final del producto; 2 sobre establecimientos de comida rápida. Uno sobre atributos sensoriales en contraste con recomendaciones saludables y 2 realizaron un seguimiento de las intervenciones. El etiquetado y la rotulación tienen efecto positivo en el consumo final de los alimentos, suceso no observado en restaurantes de comida rápida. Los atributos sensoriales fueron más efectivos que las recomendaciones recogidas en el etiquetado. El seguimiento de las actuaciones confirmó el efecto a largo plazo de las intervenciones estudiadas.This article reports on a systematic review of articles on food labeling and the prevention of obesity and overweight, in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library Plus, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, LILACS, and CINAHL databases. The DeCS/MeSH descriptors were obesity and food labeling. 207 articles were retrieved. Using inclusion and exclusion criteria, 14 articles were selected: 11 were on food labeling and its impact on final food product consumption; 2 were on fast food establishments; 1 on sensory attributes as compared to health recommendations; and 2 on follow-up of interventions. Labeling has a positive effect on final food product consumption, in contrast with fast food restaurants. Sensory attributes were more effective than recommendations on the labels. Follow-up of interventions confirmed the long-term effect of the target

  12. CVD Prevention Through Policy: a Review of Mass Media, Food/Menu Labeling, Taxation/Subsidies, Built Environment, School Procurement, Worksite Wellness, and Marketing Standards to Improve Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Afshin, Ashkan; Penalvo, Jose; Del Gobbo, Liana; Kashaf, Michael; Micha, Renata; Morrish, Kurtis; Pearson-Stuttard, Jonathan; Rehm, Colin; Shangguan, Siyi; Smith, Jessica D.; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Poor diet is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease in the USA and globally. Evidence-based policies are crucial to improve diet and population health. We reviewed the effectiveness for a range of policy levers to alter diet and diet-related risk factors. We identified evidence to support benefits of focused mass media campaigns (especially for fruits, vegetables, salt), food pricing strategies (both subsidies and taxation, with stronger effects at lower income levels), school procuremen...

  13. Calculating radiation exposures during use of (14)C-labeled nutrients, food components, and biopharmaceuticals to quantify metabolic behavior in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kelly, Peter B; Clifford, Andrew J

    2010-04-28

    (14)C has long been used as a tracer for quantifying the in vivo human metabolism of food components, biopharmaceuticals, and nutrients. Minute amounts (food components, biopharmaceuticals, or nutrients to be organized into models suitable for quantitative hypothesis testing and determination of metabolic parameters. In vivo models are important for specification of intake levels for food components, biopharmaceuticals, and nutrients. Accurate estimation of the radiation exposure from ingested (14)C is an essential component of the experimental design. Therefore, this paper illustrates the calculation involved in determining the radiation exposure from a minute dose of orally administered (14)C-beta-carotene, (14)C-alpha-tocopherol, (14)C-lutein, and (14)C-folic acid from four prior experiments. The administered doses ranged from 36 to 100 nCi, and radiation exposure ranged from 0.12 to 5.2 microSv to whole body and from 0.2 to 3.4 microSv to liver with consideration of tissue weighting factor and fractional nutrient. In comparison, radiation exposure experienced during a 4 h airline flight across the United States at 37000 ft was 20 microSv.

  14. Estratégia de marcas próprias no varejo supermercadista: um estudo comparativo entre Brasil e Inglaterra Private label strategy on food retailers: a comparative study between Brazil and England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Angélica Freitas de Paula

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa as estratégias de marcas próprias especificamente para o varejo supermercadista, considerando casos de redes inglesas e brasileiras. Após a revisão de literatura, realizaram-se entrevistas semiestruturadas em seis varejistas na Inglaterra e no Brasil e dados secundários foram coletados, seguidos de análise documental e análise de conteúdo. As diferenças entre os dois países são decorrentes da estrutura do varejo, do tempo de existência das marcas próprias, de perfil e hábitos/preferências dos consumidores. Fatores relacionados a cultura, legislação, economia e a forma de construir/gerenciar o portfólio de produtos descrevem as demais diferenças. Em ambos os países há a preocupação na utilização de diferentes formatos de loja para atender segmentos de mercado distintos, percebe-se a importância de estratégas de posicionamento, segmentação, marcas, sortimento, localização, imagem, ambiente de loja e composto de marketing, além da preocupação com seleção e avaliação de fornecedores de marcas próprias. Implicações incluem sugestões para varejistas supermercadistas.The purpose of this article was to analyze the private label strategies on food retailers, considering cases of English and Brazilian retail chains. After literature review, semi-structured interviews were conducted with six retailers in England and in Brazil. Secondary data were collected, followed by documental and content analysis. The main differences between the countries occur due to retail structure, time of private label offering, customers' profile and preferences. Factors related to culture, legislation, economy and management of product mix describe other differences. In both countries, different store formats are used for reaching different target markets. It is also possible to notice the importance, in both countries, of positioning strategies, segmentation, brands, product mix, location, image, store environment

  15. Estratégia de marcas próprias no varejo supermercadista: um estudo comparativo entre Brasil e Inglaterra Private label strategy on food retailers: a comparative study between Brazil and England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Angélica Freitas de Paula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa as estratégias de marcas próprias especificamente para o varejo supermercadista, considerando casos de redes inglesas e brasileiras. Após a revisão de literatura, realizaram-se entrevistas semiestruturadas em seis varejistas na Inglaterra e no Brasil e dados secundários foram coletados, seguidos de análise documental e análise de conteúdo. As diferenças entre os dois países são decorrentes da estrutura do varejo, do tempo de existência das marcas próprias, de perfil e hábitos/preferências dos consumidores. Fatores relacionados a cultura, legislação, economia e a forma de construir/gerenciar o portfólio de produtos descrevem as demais diferenças. Em ambos os países há a preocupação na utilização de diferentes formatos de loja para atender segmentos de mercado distintos, percebe-se a importância de estratégas de posicionamento, segmentação, marcas, sortimento, localização, imagem, ambiente de loja e composto de marketing, além da preocupação com seleção e avaliação de fornecedores de marcas próprias. Implicações incluem sugestões para varejistas supermercadistas.The purpose of this article was to analyze the private label strategies on food retailers, considering cases of English and Brazilian retail chains. After literature review, semi-structured interviews were conducted with six retailers in England and in Brazil. Secondary data were collected, followed by documental and content analysis. The main differences between the countries occur due to retail structure, time of private label offering, customers' profile and preferences. Factors related to culture, legislation, economy and management of product mix describe other differences. In both countries, different store formats are used for reaching different target markets. It is also possible to notice the importance, in both countries, of positioning strategies, segmentation, brands, product mix, location, image, store environment

  16. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  17. 21 CFR 895.25 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... labeling or advertising of the device. (d) If such voluntary action is not taken, the Commissioner may take... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES BANNED DEVICES General Provisions § 895.25 Labeling. (a) If the Commissioner determines that the...

  18. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of important ... Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  19. 21 CFR 344.52 - Labeling of ear drying aid drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. 344.52 Section 344.52 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains...

  20. 21 CFR 201.310 - Phenindione; labeling of drug preparations intended for use by man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phenindione; labeling of drug preparations intended for use by man. 201.310 Section 201.310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.310 Phenindione;...