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Sample records for food intake body

  1. Regulation of food intake and body weight by recombinant proghrelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weizhen; Majumder, Arundhati; Wu, Xiaobin; Mulholland, Michael W

    2009-12-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid hormone derived from the endoproteolytic processing of its prehormone proghrelin. Although ghrelin has been reported to regulate food intake and body weight, it is still unknown whether proghrelin exercises any biological function. Here we show that recombinant proghrelin alters food intake and energy metabolism in mice. After intraperitoneal administration of recombinant proghrelin (100 nmol/kg body wt), cumulative food intake was significantly increased at days 1, 2, and 3 (6 +/- 0.3, 13 +/- 0.5, and 20 +/- 0.8 g vs. 5 +/- 0.2, 10 +/- 0.2, and 16 +/- 0.3 g of the control mice receiving normal saline, respectively, n = 6, P light photo period in mice treated with proghrelin increased significantly relative to the control (2.1 +/- 0.04 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.2 g, n = 6, P dark photo period was observed between mice treated with proghrelin and vehicle (4.2 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.3 +/- 0.6 g, n = 6, P > 0.05). This is associated with a decrease in body weight (0.42 +/- 0.04 g) for mice treated with proghrelin, whereas control animals gained body weight (0.31 +/- 0.04 g). Mice treated with proghrelin demonstrate a significant decrease in respiratory quotient, indicating an increase in fat consumption. Recombinant proghrelin is functionally active with effects on food intake and energy metabolism.

  2. Effects of chronic restraint stress on body weight, food intake, and hypothalamic gene expressions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Joo Yeon; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kang, Sang Soo

    2013-12-01

    Stress affects body weight and food intake, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We evaluated the changes in body weight and food intake of ICR male mice subjected to daily 2 hours restraint stress for 15 days. Hypothalamic gene expression profiling was analyzed by cDNA microarray. Daily body weight and food intake measurements revealed that both parameters decreased rapidly after initiating daily restraint stress. Body weights of stressed mice then remained significantly lower than the control body weights, even though food intake slowly recovered to 90% of the control intake at the end of the experiment. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that chronic restraint stress affects the expression of hypothalamic genes possibly related to body weight control. Since decreases of daily food intake and body weight were remarkable in days 1 to 4 of restraint, we examined the expression of food intake-related genes in the hypothalamus. During these periods, the expressions of ghrelin and pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA were significantly changed in mice undergoing restraint stress. Moreover, daily serum corticosterone levels gradually increased, while leptin levels significantly decreased. The present study demonstrates that restraint stress affects body weight and food intake by initially modifying canonical food intake-related genes and then later modifying other genes involved in energy metabolism. These genetic changes appear to be mediated, at least in part, by corticosterone.

  3. The association among chronotype, timing of food intake and food preferences depends on body mass status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, J S G; Cañavate, R; Hernández, C M; Cara-Salmerón, V; Morante, J J H

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that individuals with circadian preferences for the evening (wake up later and reach maximum activity in the afternoon) have distorted dietary habits and misregulated body weight. Therefore, the present study was conducted to analyse the possible relationships between 'morningness' or 'eveningness' (chronotype), dietary habits and the level of obesity. Among 400 participants, 171 subjects finished the follow-up period and were evaluated. Anthropometric, clinical and dietary parameters were analysed; the Horne-Östberg test was used to determine chronotype. A hypocaloric-behavioural intervention was performed in the overweight/obese subjects. In normal-weight subjects, the morningness group ingested most of their energy and nutrients at breakfast and lunch, whereas the eveningness group showed a higher intake at dinner, corresponding with their chronotypes. A significant interaction was revealed between chronotype and body mass index regarding the energy and nutrients consumed at dinner (Pfood intake was higher in the eveningness group, but in the overweight subjects the situation was inverse. In addition, the food preferences were related to the chronotype, as the morningness subjects showed a higher intake of fruit (Pfood intake corresponded to the chronotype in the normal-weight subjects; however, the overweight/obese subjects showed intake patterns removed from their physiological rhythms. These findings may indicate a need to design specific diets based not only on the total energy expenditure but also on the chronotype, as an indicator of the biological rhythms.

  4. Study of food intake dynamics in rats following acute whole-body irradiation with X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smajda, B.; Ahlers, I.; Datelinka, I.

    1987-01-01

    The effects were studied of whole-body X-irradiation with sublethal (2.39 Gy) and medium lethal (5.74 Gy) doses on food intake by rats. The lower dose caused a temporary decrease in food intake, with a minimum of 63.3% of the control level on the 2nd day after irradiation. The decrease was statistically significant up to the 4th day after irradiation. No substantial changes were observed in the parameters of the circadian rhythm in food intake with the maximum on the 3rd day after irradiation, with only 8% of the initial value. The food intake was reduced until the 9th day after irradiation. The daily thythm of food intake was strongly disturbed during the first three days after irradiation, then restoring gradually and on the 9th day showing the original phasing and shape. The results obtained were in agreement with the assumed neural regulation mechanism of food intake and its circadian rhythm in the rat. (author). 5 figs., 12 refs

  5. Body composition, energy expenditure and food intake in brazilian fashion models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Magna Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n1p1   The objective of this study was to compare body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR and food intake between adolescent fashion models and non-models. Thirty-three models and 33 non-models ranging in age from 15 to 18 years and matched for age and BMI participated in the study. Body composition was evaluated by plethysmography. RMR was determined using an indirect calorimetry method and food intake was evaluated based on three-day food records obtained on alternate days. No significant difference in mean body fat percentage was observed between groups (p>0.05. However, when the adolescents were classified according to body fat percentage, none of the models presented a body fat percentage lower than 15%, whereas 15.2% of the non-models presented a low body fat percentage (p0.05. Mean energy intake was 1480.93 ± 582.95 kcal in models and 1973.00 ± 557.63 kcal in non-models (p=0.001. In conclusion, most models presented a body composition within the limits considered to be normal for this phase of life. RMR was similar in the two groups. However, energy intake was lower among adolescent models compared to non-models.

  6. Continuous gamma irradiation influence on food intake, body weight, and weight of some rat organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malatova, Z [Institute of Neurobiology SAV, Kosice (Czechoslovakia); Sedlakova, A; Ahlers, I; Praslicka, M [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Prirodovedecka Fakulta

    1977-01-01

    Food intake, body weight and weight of some organs were studied in male Wistar rats within 25 days of continuous gamma irradiation at a dose rate of 15.48 x 10/sup -3/ C/kg (6O R) per day in an experimental gamma field. A decrease in food intake and body weight and a decrease in thymus and spleen weights were found during the first week in irradiated rats. The thymus and spleen involutions did not progress within the second week. From the beginning of the third week till the end of the experiment the irradiated animals increased their weight and the food intake was even higher during the last week of irradiation in comparison with controls. The spleen and thymus involutions stopped but the weight remained at the lower level. The relative weight of the adrenal glands in irradiated animals only increased at the end of the period.

  7. Leptin actions on food intake and body temperature are mediated by IL-1.

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    Luheshi, G N; Gardner, J D; Rushforth, D A; Loudon, A S; Rothwell, N J

    1999-06-08

    Leptin regulates energy balance through its actions in the brain on appetite and energy expenditure and also shares properties with cytokines such as IL-1. We report here that leptin, injected into rats intracerebroventricularly or peripherally, induces significant dose-dependent increases in core body temperature as well as suppression of appetite. Leptin failed to affect food intake or body temperature in obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats, which posses a defective leptin receptor. Furthermore, injection of leptin increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta in the hypothalamus of normal Sprague-Dawley rats. Central injection of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) inhibited the suppression of food intake caused by central or peripheral injection of leptin (60 and 84%, respectively) and abolished the leptin-induced increase in body temperature in both cases. Mice lacking (gene knockout) the main IL-1 receptor (80 kDa, R1) responsible for IL-1 actions showed no reduction in food intake in response to leptin. These data indicate that leptin actions in the brain depend on IL-1, and we show further that the effect of leptin on fever, but not food intake, is abolished by a cyclooxygenase inhibitor. Thus, we propose that in addition to its role in body weight regulation, leptin may mediate neuroimmune responses via actions in the brain dependent on release of IL-1 and prostaglandins.

  8. VGF-derived peptide, TLQP-21, regulates food intake and body weight in Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethwa, Preeti H; Warner, Amy; Nilaweera, Kanishka N; Brameld, John M; Keyte, John W; Carter, Wayne G; Bolton, Neil; Bruggraber, Michael; Morgan, Peter J; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J P

    2007-08-01

    The Siberian hamster survives winter by decreasing food intake and catabolizing abdominal fat reserves, resulting in a sustained, profound loss of body weight. VGF gene expression is photoperiodically regulated in the hypothalamus with significantly higher expression in lean Siberian hamsters. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of VGF in regulating these seasonal cycles by determining the effects of a VGF-derived peptide (TLQP-21) on food intake and body weight. Acute intracerebroventricular administration of TLQP-21 decreased food intake, and chronic treatment caused a sustained reduction in food intake and body weight and decreased abdominal fat depots. Behavioral analysis revealed that TLQP-21 reduced meal size but not the frequency of feeding bouts, suggesting a primary action on satiety. Hamsters treated with TLQP-21 lost a similar amount of weight as a pair-fed group in which food intake was matched to that of the TLQP-21-treated group. Central or peripheral treatment with TLQP-21 did not produce a significant effect on resting metabolic rate. We conclude that the primary action of TLQP-21 is to decrease food intake rather than increase energy expenditure. TLQP-21 treatment caused a decrease in UCP-1 mRNA in brown adipose tissue, but hypothalamic expression of orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptide genes remained unchanged after TLQP-21 treatment, although compensatory increases in NPY and AgRP mRNA were observed in the pair-fed hamsters. The effects of TLQP-21 administration are similar to those in hamsters in short days, suggesting that increased VGF activity may contribute to the hypophagia that underlies the seasonal catabolic state.

  9. Leptin actions on food intake and body temperature are mediated by IL-1

    OpenAIRE

    Luheshi, Giamal N.; Gardner, Jason D.; Rushforth, David A.; Loudon, Andrew S.; Rothwell, Nancy J.

    1999-01-01

    Leptin regulates energy balance through its actions in the brain on appetite and energy expenditure and also shares properties with cytokines such as IL-1. We report here that leptin, injected into rats intracerebroventricularly or peripherally, induces significant dose-dependent increases in core body temperature as well as suppression of appetite. Leptin failed to affect food intake or body temperature in obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats, which posses a defective leptin receptor. Furthermore, inje...

  10. Effects of daily snack food intake on food reinforcement depend on body mass index and energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Erika N; Dewey, Amber M; Temple, Jennifer L

    2010-02-01

    The reinforcing value of food plays a role in food consumption. We have shown previously that daily intake of a high-energy-density (HED) snack food decreases food reinforcement and food liking in nonobese women but increases food reinforcement and decreases food liking in obese women. These previous studies were conducted with the use of only HED snack foods. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these effects generalize to low-energy-density (LED) foods. Participants (n = 53) had food reinforcement and food liking tested at baseline and then again after 2 wk of daily consumption of 60-g portions of an HED (n = 26) or an LED (n = 27) snack food. We observed a decrease in food reinforcement in women with a lower body mass index (BMI) and an increase in food reinforcement in women with a higher BMI after 14 d of consumption of an HED snack food. Food liking decreased in all women, regardless of BMI, after repeated consumption of HED foods. Conversely, all women, regardless of BMI, showed a decrease in food reinforcement after 14 d of LED snack food consumption. Women with a lower BMI who consumed LED snacks also showed a decrease in liking, but women with a higher BMI who consumed LED foods reported no change in liking. These findings suggest that changes in food reinforcement after daily snack food intake are influenced by both BMI and the energy density of the foods. In addition, changes in food reinforcement cannot be explained by changes in food liking.

  11. The bold and the beautiful. Influence of body size of televised media models on body dissatisfaction and actual food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Becker, Eni S; van Strien, Tatjana

    2008-01-01

    The effects of exposure to televised thin and average size models on body dissatisfaction and actual food intake were examined. Normal weight female students (N=104) were exposed to a 30-min movie clip featuring beautiful girls. Half of them viewed the movie clip in normal screen size (4:3) and the

  12. Activation of murine pre-proglucagon-producing neurons reduces food intake and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaykema, Ronald P; Newmyer, Brandon A; Ottolini, Matteo; Raje, Vidisha; Warthen, Daniel M; Lambeth, Philip S; Niccum, Maria; Yao, Ting; Huang, Yiru; Schulman, Ira G; Harris, Thurl E; Patel, Manoj K; Williams, Kevin W; Scott, Michael M

    2017-03-01

    Peptides derived from pre-proglucagon (GCG peptides) act in both the periphery and the CNS to change food intake, glucose homeostasis, and metabolic rate while playing a role in anxiety behaviors and physiological responses to stress. Although the actions of GCG peptides produced in the gut and pancreas are well described, the role of glutamatergic GGC peptide-secreting hindbrain neurons in regulating metabolic homeostasis has not been investigated. Here, we have shown that chemogenetic stimulation of GCG-producing neurons reduces metabolic rate and food intake in fed and fasted states and suppresses glucose production without an effect on glucose uptake. Stimulation of GCG neurons had no effect on corticosterone secretion, body weight, or conditioned taste aversion. In the diet-induced obese state, the effects of GCG neuronal stimulation on gluconeogenesis were lost, while the food intake-lowering effects remained, resulting in reductions in body weight and adiposity. Our work suggests that GCG peptide-expressing neurons can alter feeding, metabolic rate, and glucose production independent of their effects on hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, aversive conditioning, or insulin secretion. We conclude that GCG neurons likely stimulate separate populations of downstream cells to produce a change in food intake and glucose homeostasis and that these effects depend on the metabolic state of the animal.

  13. Effects of Dim Light at Night on Food Intake and Body Mass in Developing Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cissé, Yasmine M; Peng, Juan; Nelson, Randy J

    2017-01-01

    Appropriately timed light is critical for circadian organization; exposure to dim light at night (dLAN) disrupts temporal organization of endogenous biological timing. Exposure to dLAN in adult mice is associated with elevated body mass and changes in metabolism putatively driven by voluntary changes in the time of food intake. We predicted that exposure of young mice to LAN could affect adult metabolic function. At 3 weeks (Experiment 1) or 5 weeks (Experiment 2) of age, mice were either maintained in standard light-dark (DARK) cycles or exposed to nightly dLAN (5 lux). In the first two experiments, food intake and locomotor activity were assessed after 4 weeks and a glucose tolerance test was administered after 6 weeks in experimental lighting conditions. In Experiment 3, tissues were collected around the clock at 6 h intervals to investigate rhythmic hepatic clock gene expression in mice exposed to dLAN from 3 or 5 weeks of age. Male and female mice exposed to dLAN beginning at 3 weeks of age displayed similar growth rates and body mass to DARK-reared offspring, despite increasing day-time food intake. Exposure to dLAN beginning at 5 weeks of age increased body mass and daytime food intake in male, but not female, mice. Consistent with the body mass phenotype, clock gene expression was unaltered in the liver. In contrast to adults, dLAN exposure during the development of the peripheral circadian system has sex- and development-dependent effects on body mass gain.

  14. Effects of Dim Light at Night on Food Intake and Body Mass in Developing Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine M. Cissé

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Appropriately timed light is critical for circadian organization; exposure to dim light at night (dLAN disrupts temporal organization of endogenous biological timing. Exposure to dLAN in adult mice is associated with elevated body mass and changes in metabolism putatively driven by voluntary changes in the time of food intake. We predicted that exposure of young mice to LAN could affect adult metabolic function. At 3 weeks (Experiment 1 or 5 weeks (Experiment 2 of age, mice were either maintained in standard light-dark (DARK cycles or exposed to nightly dLAN (5 lux. In the first two experiments, food intake and locomotor activity were assessed after 4 weeks and a glucose tolerance test was administered after 6 weeks in experimental lighting conditions. In Experiment 3, tissues were collected around the clock at 6 h intervals to investigate rhythmic hepatic clock gene expression in mice exposed to dLAN from 3 or 5 weeks of age. Male and female mice exposed to dLAN beginning at 3 weeks of age displayed similar growth rates and body mass to DARK-reared offspring, despite increasing day-time food intake. Exposure to dLAN beginning at 5 weeks of age increased body mass and daytime food intake in male, but not female, mice. Consistent with the body mass phenotype, clock gene expression was unaltered in the liver. In contrast to adults, dLAN exposure during the development of the peripheral circadian system has sex- and development-dependent effects on body mass gain.

  15. Effects of Dim Light at Night on Food Intake and Body Mass in Developing Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ciss?, Yasmine M.; Peng, Juan; Nelson, Randy J.

    2017-01-01

    Appropriately timed light is critical for circadian organization; exposure to dim light at night (dLAN) disrupts temporal organization of endogenous biological timing. Exposure to dLAN in adult mice is associated with elevated body mass and changes in metabolism putatively driven by voluntary changes in the time of food intake. We predicted that exposure of young mice to LAN could affect adult metabolic function. At 3 weeks (Experiment 1) or 5 weeks (Experiment 2) of age, mice were either mai...

  16. Activation of murine pre-proglucagon–producing neurons reduces food intake and body weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaykema, Ronald P.; Newmyer, Brandon A.; Ottolini, Matteo; Warthen, Daniel M.; Lambeth, Philip S.; Niccum, Maria; Yao, Ting; Huang, Yiru; Schulman, Ira G.; Harris, Thurl E.; Patel, Manoj K.; Williams, Kevin W.

    2017-01-01

    Peptides derived from pre-proglucagon (GCG peptides) act in both the periphery and the CNS to change food intake, glucose homeostasis, and metabolic rate while playing a role in anxiety behaviors and physiological responses to stress. Although the actions of GCG peptides produced in the gut and pancreas are well described, the role of glutamatergic GGC peptide–secreting hindbrain neurons in regulating metabolic homeostasis has not been investigated. Here, we have shown that chemogenetic stimulation of GCG-producing neurons reduces metabolic rate and food intake in fed and fasted states and suppresses glucose production without an effect on glucose uptake. Stimulation of GCG neurons had no effect on corticosterone secretion, body weight, or conditioned taste aversion. In the diet-induced obese state, the effects of GCG neuronal stimulation on gluconeogenesis were lost, while the food intake–lowering effects remained, resulting in reductions in body weight and adiposity. Our work suggests that GCG peptide–expressing neurons can alter feeding, metabolic rate, and glucose production independent of their effects on hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, aversive conditioning, or insulin secretion. We conclude that GCG neurons likely stimulate separate populations of downstream cells to produce a change in food intake and glucose homeostasis and that these effects depend on the metabolic state of the animal. PMID:28218622

  17. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice

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    Cettour-Rose Philippe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested.

  18. Circulating zearalenone and its metabolites differ in women due to body mass index and food intake.

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    Mauro, T; Hao, L; Pop, L C; Buckley, B; Schneider, S H; Bandera, E V; Shapses, S A

    2018-04-17

    The environmental estrogen, zearalenone (ZEA), is found in the food supply from Fusarium fungal contamination in grains and sometimes used as a growth promoter for beef cattle. Long-term exposure to ZEA and its metabolites may present health risk due to higher estrogenic activity. Serum ZEA metabolites were measured to determine the exposure and the association with food intake in 48 overweight/obese women (52 ± 9 years). The free and conjugated ZEA indicated the highest detection rate of all the metabolites. Conjugated ZEA and total ZEA metabolites were lower (p = 0.02) in overweight/obese than normal weight women, and free metabolites were either the same or showed a trend to be higher. In addition, those with highest (280-480 g/d) compared those with lowest (metabolite concentrations (p metabolites. These findings indicate that ZEA and its metabolites are detectable in nearly all women and concentrations are associated with greater meat intake, and influenced by body mass index. Determining how the food supply influences human concentrations of ZEA metabolites is warranted, as well as determining vulnerable populations. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Does body mass play a role in the regulation of food intake?

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    Speakman, John R; Stubbs, R James; Mercer, Julian G

    2002-11-01

    It is widely believed that body fatness (and hence total body mass) is regulated by a lipostatic feedback system. This system is suggested to involve at least one peripheral signalling compound, which signals to the brain the current size of body fat stores. In the brain the level of the signal is compared with a desirable target level, and food intake and energy expenditure are then regulated to effect changes in the size of body fat stores. There is considerable support for this theory at several different levels of investigation. Patterns of body-mass change in subjects forced into energy imbalance seem to demonstrate homeostasis, and long-term changes in body mass are minor compared with the potential changes that might result from energy imbalance. Molecular studies of signalling compounds have suggested a putative lipostatic signal (leptin) and a complex network of downstream processing events in the brain, polymorphisms of which lead to disruption of body-mass regulation. This network of neuropeptides provides a rich seam of potential pharmaceutical targets for the control of obesity. Despite this consistent explanation for the observed phenomena at several different levels of enquiry, there are alternative explanations. In the present paper we explore the possibility that the existence of lipostatic regulation of body fatness is an illusion generated by the links between body mass and energy expenditure and responses to energy imbalance that are independent of body mass. Using computer-based models of temporal patterns in energy balance we show that common patterns of change in body mass following perturbation can be adequately explained by this 'non-lipostatic' model. This model has some important implications for the interpretations that we place on the molecular events in the brain, and ultimately in the search for pharmaceutical agents for alleviation of obesity.

  20. Effect of water content in a canned food on voluntary food intake and body weight in cats.

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    Wei, Alfreda; Fascetti, Andrea J; Villaverde, Cecilia; Wong, Raymond K; Ramsey, Jon J

    2011-07-01

    To determine whether water content in a canned food diet induces decreases in voluntary energy intake (EI) or body weight (BW) in cats fed ad libitum. 16 sexually intact male domestic shorthair cats. Maintenance EI was determined for 2 months in 10 weight-stable cats consuming a control diet (typical colony diet). Cats were allocated into 2 groups of equal BW and fed a canned diet (with-water [WW] diet) or a freeze-dried version of the canned diet (low-water [LW] diet) twice daily. Diets were identical in nutrient profile on a dry-matter basis. Each dietary treatment period of the crossover experiment lasted 3 weeks, with a 3-week washout period between diets. Body composition measurements were determined by use of deuterium oxide at the end of each dietary treatment. Daily food intake was measured for determination of dry-matter intake and EI. Six other cats were used in preference tests for the 3 diets. EI was significantly decreased for the WW diet (mean ± SD, 1,053.0 ± 274.9 kJ/d), compared with EI for the LW diet (1,413.8 ± 345.8 kJ/d). Cats had a significant decrease in BW during consumption of the WW diet. Body composition was unaltered by diet. In short-term preference tests, cats ate significantly more of the WW than the LW diet. Bulk water in the WW diet stimulated decreases in EI and BW in cats. The impact of water content on energy density and food consumption may help promote weight loss in cats.

  1. Food Insecurity: Its Relationship to Dietary Intake and Body Weight among Somali Refugee Women in the United States

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    Dharod, Jigna M.; Croom, Jamar E.; Sady, Christine G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between food insecurity, dietary intake, and body mass index among Somali refugee women living in the United States. Methods: Cross-sectional study utilizing the snowball sampling method. Results: Most (67%) participants experienced some level of food insecurity, which was common among recent arrivals and…

  2. Sleep disturbances, body fat distribution, food intake and/or energy expenditure: pathophysiological aspects

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    Shechter, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Data from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have illustrated a relationship between short sleep duration (SSD) and weight gain. Individuals with SSD are heavier and gain more weight over time than normal-duration sleepers. This sleep-obesity relationship may have consequences for obesity treatments, as it appears that short sleepers have reduced ability to lose weight. Laboratory-based clinical studies found that experimental sleep restriction affects energy expenditure and intake, possibly providing a mechanistic explanation for the weight gain observed in chronic short sleepers. Specifically, compared to normal sleep duration, sleep restriction increases food intake beyond the energetic costs of increased time spent awake. Reasons for this increased energy intake after sleep restriction are unclear but may include disrupted appetite-regulating hormones, altered brain mechanisms involved in the hedonic aspects of appetite, and/or changes in sleep quality and architecture. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder at the intersection of sleep and obesity, and the characteristics of the disorder illustrate many of the effects of sleep disturbances on body weight and vice versa. Specifically, while obesity is among the main risk factors for OSA, the disorder itself and its associated disturbances in sleep quality and architecture seem to alter energy balance parameters and may induce further weight gain. Several intervention trials have shown that weight loss is associated with reduced OSA severity. Thus, weight loss may improve sleep, and these improvements may promote further weight loss. Future studies should establish whether increasing sleep duration/improving sleep quality can induce weight loss. PMID:25372728

  3. Prolyl carboxypeptidase in Agouti-related Peptide neurons modulates food intake and body weight

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    Giuseppe Bruschetta

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Prolyl carboxypeptidase (PRCP plays a role in the regulation of energy metabolism by inactivating hypothalamic α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH levels. Although detected in the arcuate nucleus, limited PRCP expression has been observed in the arcuate POMC neurons, and its site of action in regulating metabolism is still ill-defined. Methods: We performed immunostaining to assess the localization of PRCP in arcuate Neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related Peptide (NPY/AgRP neurons. Hypothalamic explants were then used to assess the intracellular localization of PRCP and its release at the synaptic levels. Finally, we generated a mouse model to assess the role of PRCP in NPY/AgRP neurons of the arcuate nucleus in the regulation of metabolism. Results: Here we show that PRCP is expressed in NPY/AgRP-expressing neurons of the arcuate nucleus. In hypothalamic explants, stimulation by ghrelin increased PRCP concentration in the medium and decreased PRCP content in synaptic extract, suggesting that PRCP is released at the synaptic level. In support of this, hypothalamic explants from mice with selective deletion of PRCP in AgRP neurons (PrcpAgRPKO showed reduced ghrelin-induced PRCP concentration in the medium compared to controls mice. Furthermore, male PrcpAgRPKO mice had decreased body weight and fat mass compared to controls. However, this phenotype was sex-specific as female PrcpAgRPKO mice show metabolic differences only when challenged by high fat diet feeding. The improved metabolism of PrcpAgRPKO mice was associated with reduced food intake and increased energy expenditure, locomotor activity, and hypothalamic α-MSH levels. Administration of SHU9119, a potent melanocortin receptor antagonist, selectively in the PVN of PrcpAgRPKO male mice increased food intake to a level similar to that of control mice. Conclusions: Altogether, our data indicate that PRCP is released at the synaptic levels and that PRCP in AgRP neurons contributes to

  4. Influence of benzodiazepines on body weight and food intake in obese and lean Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, C

    2000-05-01

    1. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system, which is functionally altered in obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats, plays an important role in controlling energy balance within the central nervous system. 2. GABA receptors seem to be involved in the dysfunction of the hypothalamic energy homeostasis-controlling mechanisms in these animals due to a genetically-induced defect of the leptin-neuropeptide Y system. 3. To shed further light on the possible role played by the GABA system in the pathogenesis of this rat model, two benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor agonists (diazepam and clonazepam) and one BDZ antagonist (flumazenil) were administered intraperitoneally in obese and lean Zucker rats. 4. Body weight gain was reduced by the BDZ agonists in both phenotypes, and one receptor-agonist (diazepam) lowered insulin concentration in obese rats. In GABA-antagonist-treated obese rats, the daily amount of body weight gain and food intake acquired an oscillatory rhythm similar to that of normal rodents. 5. By demonstrating the role of BDZ receptors, these findings may help clarify the pathophysiology of obesity and insulin resistance in fatty Zucker rats.

  5. The effects of TV commercials using less thin models on young women's mood, body image and actual food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Becker, Eni S; van Strien, Tatjana

    This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to television commercials using less thin models on mood, body focused anxiety and food intake, as compared to the effects of commercials using thin models. In a naturalistic setting, 110 young women were exposed to a neutral movie,

  6. Impact of Orexin-A Treatment on Food Intake, Energy Metabolism and Body Weight in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Blais

    Full Text Available Orexin-A and -B are hypothalamic neuropeptides of 33 and 28-amino acids, which regulate many homeostatic systems including sleep/wakefulness states, energy balance, energy homeostasis, reward seeking and drug addiction. Orexin-A treatment was also shown to reduce tumor development in xenografted nude mice and is thus a potential treatment for carcinogenesis. The aim of this work was to explore in healthy mice the consequences on energy expenditure components of an orexin-A treatment at a dose previously shown to be efficient to reduce tumor development. Physiological approaches were used to evaluate the effect of orexin-A on food intake pattern, energy metabolism body weight and body adiposity. Modulation of the expression of brain neuropeptides and receptors including NPY, POMC, AgRP, cocaine- and amphetamine related transcript (CART, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH and prepro-orexin (HCRT, and Y2 and Y5 neuropeptide Y, MC4 (melanocortin, OX1 and OX2 orexin receptors (Y2R, Y5R, MC4R, OX1R and OX2R, respectively was also explored. Our results show that orexin-A treatment does not significantly affect the components of energy expenditure, and glucose metabolism but reduces intraperitoneal fat deposit, adiposity and the expression of several brain neuropeptide receptors suggesting that peripheral orexin-A was able to reach the central nervous system. These findings establish that orexin-A treatment which is known for its activity as an inducer of tumor cell death, do have minor parallel consequence on energy homeostasis control.

  7. Effects of intestinal bypass surgery on appetite, food intake, and body weight in obese and lean rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, A; Koopmans, H S; Vasselli, J R; Reichman, M

    1978-04-01

    Jejunoileal bypass surgery or sham surgery was performed in female rats made obese with ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) knife cuts, and in lean control rats. After bypass surgery, the VMH rats underate and lost weight until they reached the body weight of the control sham rats, and they then maintained their weight at control levels. Bypass surgery in lean rats produced much smaller reductions in food intake and body weight. Both bypass groups initially consumed less of a sucrose solution and milk diet during 1 h/day tests, but their intakes returned to near normal levels during the second postoperative month. Reconnection of the intestinal tract in the VMH-bypass rats led to renewed hyperphagia and return to obese body weights. A second experiment revealed that bypass surgery reduces food intake and body weight in genetically obese (fatty) rats, but this effect is not as pronounced as that displayed by VMH rats. These results confirm recent clinical observations that reduced appetite and caloric intake are the major causes of the weight loss produced by intestinal bypass surgery.

  8. Regulation of hypothalamic neuronal sensing and food intake by ketone bodies and fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Foll, Christelle; Dunn-Meynell, Ambrose A; Miziorko, Henri M; Levin, Barry E

    2014-04-01

    Metabolic sensing neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) alter their activity when ambient levels of metabolic substrates, such as glucose and fatty acids (FA), change. To assess the relationship between a high-fat diet (HFD; 60%) intake on feeding and serum and VMH FA levels, rats were trained to eat a low-fat diet (LFD; 13.5%) or an HFD in 3 h/day and were monitored with VMH FA microdialysis. Despite having higher serum levels, HFD rats had lower VMH FA levels but ate less from 3 to 6 h of refeeding than did LFD rats. However, VMH β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) and VMH-to-serum β-OHB ratio levels were higher in HFD rats during the first 1 h of refeeding, suggesting that VMH astrocyte ketone production mediated their reduced intake. In fact, using calcium imaging in dissociated VMH neurons showed that ketone bodies overrode normal FA sensing, primarily by exciting neurons that were activated or inhibited by oleic acid. Importantly, bilateral inhibition of VMH ketone production with a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase inhibitor reversed the 3- to 6-h HFD-induced inhibition of intake but had no effect in LFD-fed rats. These data suggest that a restricted HFD intake regimen inhibits caloric intake as a consequence of FA-induced VMH ketone body production by astrocytes.

  9. Gamified working memory training in overweight individuals reduces food intake but not body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassen, Fania C M; Houben, Katrijn; Van Breukelen, Gerard J P; Jansen, Anita

    2018-05-01

    Working Memory (WM) plays a crucial role in successful self-regulation of behavior, including weight regulation. Improving WM might therefore be a promising strategy to support weight loss. In the present study, overweight individuals with a desire to lose weight (N = 91) received an online lifestyle intervention, in conjunction with either 25 sessions of gamified WM training (experimental condition) or a sham training (control). Primary outcomes were Body Mass Index (BMI) and food intake at posttest. Secondary outcomes were executive functioning, self-control, eating style, eating psychopathology and healthy eating. Data were analyzed with mixed regression analyses with condition as between-subjects factor (experimental versus control) and time as within-subjects factor (baseline, posttest, FU1 after one month and FU2 after six months). Results revealed that the experimental condition increased their WM span more than control from pretest to posttest, and these gains were retained at FU1, though lost at FU2. No transfer effects of WM training to other executive functioning measures were found. During the bogus taste test at posttest, participants in the experimental condition consumed significantly less than participants in the control condition. However, both conditions showed a small reduction in BMI, improved eating style, reduced eating disorder pathology, and reported more self-control and a healthier eating pattern. In conclusion, the current results provide some evidence that WM training can improve eating behavior at the short term. However, the WM gains were short-lived, and the added value of WM training as an intervention to promote weight loss could not be established. Future studies should test the added value of WM training booster sessions to promote weight loss over a prolonged period of time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ghrelin Agonist JMV 1843 Increases Food Intake, Body Weight and Expression of Orexigenic Neuropeptides in Mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holubová, Martina; Špolcová, Andrea; Demianova, Zuzana; Sýkora, D.; Fehrentz, J. A.; Martinez, J.; Štofková, A.; Jurčovičová, J.; Drápalová, J.; Lacinová, Z.; Haluzík, M.; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 4 (2013), s. 435-444 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/09/0744; GA ČR GAP303/10/1368 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : GHS-R agonists * JMV 1843 * male C57BL/6 mice * food intake * NPY/AgRP Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.487, year: 2013

  11. Food and snow intake, body mass and rumen function in reindeer fed lichen and subsequently starved for 4 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.H. Aagnes

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Food and snow intake, body mass, rumen fluid volume, rumen fluid turnover time and ruminal dry matter content were examined in four female rumen fistulated reindeer which were first fed lichen ad libitum in 14 days and then starved for 4 days in March. When the animals were eating lichen median daily dry matter food intake was 15.7 g/kg (range 12.2-19.9 g/kg, while median daily snow intake only amounted to 0.6 g/kg (range 0-3.3 g/kg. The median body mass decreased from 67.5 kg (range 62.5-69.5 kg to 63.5 kg (range 60.5-68.5 kg during this period, and dropped further to 62.5 kg (range 57.5-66.0 kg after four days of starvation. Rumen fluid volume and fluid turnover time were fairly constant in individual animals, but varied between animals fed lichen ad libitum. Neither of these parameters changed significantly (P>0.05, but ruminal dry matter decreased, while snow intake rose conspicuously in reponse to starvation. Thus, aside from the latter, which mitigate the reduction of total rumen volume, we have failed to expose any special adaptions aimed at the maintenance of ruminal integrity in starving reindeer.

  12. Body weight and food intake in Parkinson's disease. A review of the association to non-motor symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Marilena; Eleopra, Roberto; Rumiati, Raffella I

    2015-01-01

    Research on eating behaviours has extensively highlighted that cognitive systems interact with the metabolic system in driving food intake and in influencing body weight regulation. Parkinson's disease is a good model for studying these complex interactions since alterations in both body weight and cognitive domains have been frequently reported among these patients. Interestingly, even if different non-motor symptoms may characterize the course of the disease, their contribution to weight and food preference has been poorly investigated. This review describes body weight alterations and eating habits in patients with Parkinson's disease, including those who underwent deep brain stimulation surgery. In particular, the review considers the link between non-motor symptoms, affecting sensory perception, cognition, mood and motivation, and food intake and weight alterations. The take home message is twofold. First, we recommend a comprehensive approach in order to develop effective strategies in the management of patients' weight. Second, we also suggest that investigating this issue in patients with Parkinson's disease may provide some useful information about the mechanisms underlying food and weight regulation in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Under-reporting of food intake and body fatness in independent older people: a doubly labelled water study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfrimer, Karina; Vilela, Mariana; Resende, Cristina Maria; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza; Marchini, Julio Sergio; Lima, Nereida K C; Moriguti, Julio Cesar; Ferriolli, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    there are no accurate methods for the assessment of food intake in older populations, under-reporting of intake being highly prevalent. There is controversy about which dietary assessment method and what person's characteristics are associated with greater under-reporting rates. to assess the correlation between under-reporting of energy intake (EI) and different percentages of body fat in independent older people. cross-sectional study. area assisted by the Family Health Program of the Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Brazil. one hundred volunteers aged 60-70 years. all volunteers had their body composition assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. In second phase, 41 volunteers were evaluated, representing the four quartiles of fat percentage. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured by the doubly labelled water method, and EI was assessed by 24-h recalls and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). TEE and EI values, EI-to-TEE ratios and EI-TEE values were compared. TEE was 2,220 ± 601 kcal, while the EI was 1,919 ± 602 kcal (24-h recall) and 2,119 ± 670 kcal (FFQ). The proportion of under-reporters was 31 and 40.5%, respectively. Under-reporting was more frequent in subjects with higher percentage of body fat and in females (P food intake. Older persons follow the same profile of under-reporting as younger adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Nesfatin-1 in childhood and adolescent obesity and its association with food intake, body composition and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Ghada M; Yamamah, Gamal; Ibrahim, Amani; El-Lebedy, Dalia; Farid, Tarek M; Mahmoud, Rasha

    2014-01-10

    Nesfatin-1 is an anorexigenic peptide that controls feeding behavior and glucose homeostasis. However, there is little data that exists regarding nesfatin-1 secretion in obese children and young adolescents. The aim of this study is to investigate serum nesfatin-1 in childhood and adolescent obesity and to study potential correlations with food intake, anthropometric indices, body composition and insulin resistance. Forty obese children and adolescents and 40 healthy control subjects were studied. Anthropometric measurements were assessed, dietary food intake was evaluated based on 3-days food record and body composition indices were evaluated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Lipid profile, fasting blood sugar, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were measured. Fasting serum nesfatin-1 was quantitatively assayed by ELISA. Serum nesfatin-1 was significantly higher in obese group (2.49±1.96 ng/ml) than in control group (0.70±0.81 ng/ml), P=0.001. Positive correlations with serum insulin (P=0.001), HOMA-IR (P=0.000), BMI-SDS (P=0.04), body fat % (P=0.000), fat mass (P=0.000), fat free mass (P=0.03), CHO % (P=0.000), and saturated fat % (P=0.01) were found. While significant negative correlation with protein % (P=0.000) was observed. In conclusion, our results denote that nesfatin-1 might have an important role in regulation of food intake and pathogenesis of insulin resistance in obese children and young adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Cees; Kok, Frans J

    2010-05-01

    This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings of a number of studies show that foods that can be eaten quickly lead to high food intake and low satiating effects-the reason being that these foods only provide brief periods of sensory exposure, which give the human body insufficient cues for satiation. Future research should focus on the underlying physiological, neurological and molecular mechanisms through which our current eating environment affects our control of food intake.

  16. Effects of thiamine deficiency on food intake and body weight increment in adult female and growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bâ, Abdoulaye

    2012-09-01

    The present study compared the effects of thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (TD) on the patterns of food intake and body weight in adult female and neonatal Wistar rats. The adults weighed 250-270 g at the start and were fed for 60 days either with a synthetic TD diet (211 B1) or with the same synthetic diet+thiamine (210 B1). TD led to a marked reduction in food intake and the body weight set point, both recovering rapidly to their initial level in only 3 days after dietetic reversion. The effects of TD in developing rats were evaluated by subjecting pregnant rats to thiamine restriction during different time windows: prenatal (3 days before mating to parturition); perinatal (7 days after mating to the 10th postnatal day); and postnatal (from parturition to weaning). The effect of TD on the occurrence of low birth weight and ponderal growth retardation was examined from postnatal days 1 to 45. Only perinatal TD significantly decreased birth weight relative to untreated or pair-fed controls. Moreover, compared with the control treatments, ponderal growth retardation was not induced by prenatal TD, whereas induction of TD from perinatal into postnatal periods did cause ponderal growth retardation, with long-lasting effects persisting in adulthood. The results suggest a major physiological role of thiamine in the homeostasis of body weight programming, increment, and set point regulation in both offspring and adult female rats.

  17. The relationship between dental status, food selection, nutrient intake, nutritional status, and body mass index in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Marcenes

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed the findings from a national survey in Great Britain which assessed whether dental status affected older people's food selection, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. The survey analyzed national random samples of free-living and institution subjects for dental examination, interview, and four-day food diary as well as blood and urine tests In the free-living sample, intakes of non-starch polysaccharides, protein, calcium, non-heme iron, niacin, and vitamin C were significantly lower in edentulous as compared to dentate subjects. People with 21 or more teeth consumed more of most nutrients, particularly non-starch polysaccharides. This relationship in intake was not apparent in the hematological analysis. Plasma ascorbate and retinol were the only analytes significantly associated with dental status. Having 21 or more teeth increased the likelihood of having an acceptable body mass index (BMI. Thus, maintaining a natural and functional dentition defined as having more than twenty teeth into old age plays an important role in having a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables, a satisfactory nutritional status, and an acceptable BMI.

  18. Effects of liraglutide and sibutramine on food intake, palatability, body weight and glucose tolerance in the gubra DIO-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gitte; Jelsing, Jacob; Vrang, Niels

    2012-02-01

    To validate the gubra DIO-rats as a useful animal model of human obesity. The gubra diet-induced obesity (DIO) rat model was based on male Sprague-Dawley rats with ad libitum access to regular chow and a palatable diet rich in fat and sugar. To evaluate the versatility of the gubra DIO-rats as a valid model of human obesity syndrome, the efficacy of 2 weight loss compounds liraglutide and sibutramine with different mechanisms of action were examined in 7-month-old gubra DIO-rats. Liraglutide (200 μg/kg, sc) was administered bi-daily, and sibutramine (5 mg/kg, po) was administered once daily for 23 d. Both the compounds effectively reduced the food intake, body weight and total fat mass as measured by nuclear magnetic resonance. Whereas the 5-HT reuptake inhibitor/5-HT receptor agonist sibutramine reduced the intake of both chow and the gubra-diet, the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide predominantly reduced the intake of the highly palatable diet, indicating a shift in food preference. Sibutramine lowered the insulin sensitivity index, primarily via reductions in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This animal model responds well to 2 weight loss compounds with different mechanisms of action. Moreover, the gubra DIO-rat can be particularly useful for the testing of compounds with potential effects on diet preference.

  19. Effects of amylin and bupropion/naltrexone on food intake and body weight are interactive in rodent models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapper, Jason R; Athanacio, Jennifer; Wittmer, Carrie; Griffin, Pete S; D'Souza, Lawrence; Parkes, David G; Roth, Jonathan D

    2013-01-05

    Antagonism of opioid systems (e.g., with naltrexone) has been explored as an anti-obesity strategy, and is particularly effective when co-administered with dual inhibitors of dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake (e.g., bupropion). Previously, we demonstrated that amylin enhances the food intake lowering and weight loss effects of neurohormonal (e.g., leptin, cholecystokinin, melanocortins) and small molecule (e.g., phentermine, sibutramine) agents. Here, we sought to characterize the interaction of amylin with naltrexone/bupropion on energy balance. Wild-type and amylin knockout mice were similarly responsive to the food intake lowering effects of either naltrexone (1mg/kg, subcutaneous) or bupropion (50mg/kg, subcutaneous) suggesting that they act independently of amylinergic systems and could interact additively when given in combination with amylin. To test this, diet-induced obese rats were treated (for 11 days) with vehicle, rat amylin (50 μg/kg/d, infused subcutaneously), naltrexone/bupropion (1 and 20mg/kg, respectively by twice daily subcutaneous injection) or their combination. We found that amylin+naltrexone/bupropion combination therapy exerted additive effects to reduce cumulative food intake, body weight and fat mass. In a separate study, the effects of amylin and naltrexone/bupropion administered at the same doses (for 14 days) were compared to a pair-fed group. Although the combination and pair-fed groups lost a similar amount of body weight, rats treated with the combination lost 68% more fat and better maintained their lean mass. These findings support the strategy of combined amylin agonism with opioid and catecholaminergic signaling systems for the treatment of obesity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An investigation of maternal food intake and maternal food talk as predictors of child food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJesus, Jasmine M; Gelman, Susan A; Viechnicki, Gail B; Appugliese, Danielle P; Miller, Alison L; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Lumeng, Julie C

    2018-08-01

    Though parental modeling is thought to play a critical role in promoting children's healthy eating, little research has examined maternal food intake and maternal food talk as independent predictors of children's food intake. The present study examines maternal food talk during a structured eating protocol, in which mothers and their children had the opportunity to eat a series of familiar and unfamiliar vegetables and desserts. Several aspects of maternal talk during the protocol were coded, including overall food talk, directives, pronoun use, and questions. This study analyzed the predictors of maternal food talk and whether maternal food talk and maternal food intake predicted children's food intake during the protocol. Higher maternal body mass index (BMI) predicted lower amounts of food talk, pronoun use, and questions. Higher child BMI z-scores predicted more first person pronouns and more wh-questions within maternal food talk. Mothers of older children used fewer directives, fewer second person pronouns, and fewer yes/no questions. However, maternal food talk (overall and specific types of food talk) did not predict children's food intake. Instead, the most robust predictor of children's food intake during this protocol was the amount of food that mothers ate while sitting with their children. These findings emphasize the importance of modeling healthy eating through action and have implications for designing interventions to provide parents with more effective tools to promote their children's healthy eating. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thyroid Hormone Receptor Beta in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus Is Essential for the Physiological Regulation of Food Intake and Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saira Hameed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The obesity epidemic is a significant global health issue. Improved understanding of the mechanisms that regulate appetite and body weight will provide the rationale for the design of anti-obesity therapies. Thyroid hormones play a key role in metabolic homeostasis through their interaction with thyroid hormone receptors (TRs, which function as ligand-inducible transcription factors. The TR-beta isoform (TRβ is expressed in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH, a brain area important for control of energy homeostasis. Here, we report that selective knockdown of TRβ in the VMH of adult mice results in severe obesity due to hyperphagia and reduced energy expenditure. The observed increase in body weight is of a similar magnitude to murine models of the most extreme forms of monogenic obesity. These data identify TRβ in the VMH as a major physiological regulator of food intake and energy homeostasis.

  2. Cats during gestation and lactation fed with canned food ad libitum: energy and protein intake, development of body weight and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichert, B; Signer, M; Uebelhart, D

    2012-12-01

    The NRC recommendations for cats for energy and protein supply during gestation and lactation are based on limited data. This study aimed to answer the question: Can the energy requirement be met with canned food or is the volume restrictive? Therefore, balance trials were conducted in 10 queens before mating, during the 4th and 7th week of gestation and during the 2nd and 6th week of lactation. The cats were fed with canned food ad libitum. Additionally, the body composition of the queens was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Dexa) before mating, after parturition and after weaning. Eight of 10 cats presented increased body fat content and lean body mass during gestation. The weight loss during lactation led to a loss of lean body mass, but only six cats lost body fat of widely differing amounts. It was evident that the queens' dry matter intake was consistent with that of queens fed ad libitum with dry food. The cats lost lean body mass during lactation and had negative protein balances in the 2nd week of lactation. This seems to be physiological in early lactation. Nevertheless, the protein recommendations for lactation seem to be too low. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Manipulating central nervous mechanisms of food intake and body weight regulation by intranasal administration of neuropeptides in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallschmid, Manfred; Benedict, Christian; Born, Jan; Fehm, Horst-Lorenz; Kern, Werner

    2004-10-30

    Maintaining a stable body weight set-point is assumed to rely on a homeostatic central nervous system (CNS) regulation of body fat with the particular involvement of hypothalamic pathways. The peripheral adiposity signals insulin and leptin convey information on the amount of energy stored as body fat to the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, where anabolic/orexigenic and catabolic/anorexigenic pathways interact to regulate food intake and energy expenditure. One of the most prominent orexigenic messengers is neuropeptide Y (NPY), whereas melanocortins, including alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), are essential for inducing anorexigenic effects. The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4-R) plays the most important role in mediating catabolic effects of alpha-MSH. In this review, we present a series of own studies on NPY, insulin and MSH/ACTH4-10, an MC4-R agonist. The studies were all based on the intranasal route of administration which enables a direct access of the peptides to hypothalamic functions. NPY acutely attenuated electrocortical signs of meal-related satiety. Prolonged intranasal administration of insulin as well as of MSH induced weight loss in healthy human subjects. However, overweight subjects did not lose body fat after MSH administration. The results corroborate in humans the significance of all three messengers for the central nervous regulation of adiposity and might contribute to the future development of medical strategies against body-weight-related disorders.

  4. An Optimized IES Method and Its Inhibitory Effects and Mechanisms on Food Intake and Body Weight in Diet-Induced Obese Rats: IES for Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xinyue; Yin, Jieyun; Foreman, Robert; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2017-12-01

    This paper aims to optimize stimulation parameters and durations for intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) and to explore the effects and mechanisms of chronic IES with optimized methodology in obesity rats. Sixteen diet-induced obese (DIO) rats were tested for food intake with four different sets of IES parameters each lasting 1 week. Then, another 12 DIO rats were used to test the effect of IES on food intake with different stimulation durations. Finally, 16 DIO rats were treated with IES or sham-IES for 4 weeks. Meal patterns, food intake, and body weight were observed. Mechanisms involving gastrointestinal motility, ghrelin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were studied. (1) Acute IES with different parameters showed different inhibitory effects on food intake, and the most effective parameters were 0.6 s on, 0.9 s off, 80 Hz, 2 ms, and 4 mA with which 26.3% decrease in food intake was noted (p fasting and postprandial plasma levels of GLP-1 but not ghrelin. Twelve-hour daily IES using optimized stimulation parameters reduces food intake and body weight in DIO rats by altering gastrointestinal motility and GLP-1. The IES methodology derived in this study may have a therapeutic potential for obesity.

  5. Effects of bark flour of Passiflora edulis on food intake, body weight and behavioral response of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandara A.F. Figueiredo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Effects of treatment with the bark flour of Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, were evaluated. Adult male Wistar rats were treated for 30 days (130 mg/kg, p.o. with the albedo flour, flavedo and full bark of P. edulis, corresponding to albedo associated with flavedo. Behavioral response observed after treatment with bark flour P. edulis showed sedative effects by the reduction of exploratory activity and increased duration of immobility in the open field test for the group of animals that received the albedo flour associated with the flavedo. Sedative effects were observed in the absence of motor incoordination or muscle relaxation. Food intake of experimental animals was not changed, but the weight gain was decreased both in animals that received only albedo flour, and in those who received the full bark flour. The full bark flour of Passiflora showed sedative effects, without anxiolytic effect detectable and muscle relaxation or motor incoordination, and reduces body weight gain.

  6. Effects of chronic systemic administration of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen on food intake and body weight in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sunit M; Ebenezer, Ivor S

    2010-06-10

    The effects of daily administration of physiological saline of baclofen (1 and 4mg/kg, i.p.) for 27 days were investigated on food intake and body weight in non-deprived rats in Experiment 1. Baclofen (1 and 4mg/kg) significantly increased daily short-term food intake when measured at 30min (F((2,15))=11.011, P<0.01) and 90min (F((2,15))=7.3801, P<0.01) over the 27 day experimental period.. Tolerance did not develop to the short-term hyperphagic effects of baclofen. Baclofen (1mg/kg) had no significant effects on body weight gain of the rats compared with controls. By contrast, baclofen (4mg/kg) significantly (P<0.05) decreased the body weight gain of the animals. In Experiment 2, the effect of daily administration of baclofen (4mg/kg, i.p.) for 24 days was investigated on 24h food intake in rats measured after the first, eight, fifteenth and twenty second injections. The 24h food intake of the animals was not significantly different from those of control rats on any of the measurement days (F((1,14))=1.602, ns). However, the body weight gain of the rats chronically treated with baclofen (4mg/kg) was significantly reduced. (F((1,14))=14.011, P<0.01). The observations that chronic administration of baclofen (4mg/kg) stimulates short-term food intake without affecting long term (24h) feeding, but decreases body weight gain, suggest that baclofen may act through different mechanisms to influence food intake and body weight.

  7. Effects of once-weekly semaglutide on appetite, energy intake, control of eating, food preference and body weight in subjects with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, John; Finlayson, Graham; Axelsen, Mads; Flint, Anne; Gibbons, Catherine; Kvist, Trine; Hjerpsted, Julie B

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this trial was to investigate the mechanism of action for body weight loss with semaglutide. This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover trial investigated the effects of 12 weeks of treatment with once-weekly subcutaneous semaglutide, dose-escalated to 1.0 mg, in 30 subjects with obesity. Ad libitum energy intake, ratings of appetite, thirst, nausea and well-being, control of eating, food preference, resting metabolic rate, body weight and body composition were assessed. After a standardised breakfast, semaglutide, compared with placebo, led to a lower ad libitum energy intake during lunch (-1255 kJ; P  energy intake across all ad libitum meals throughout the day (-3036 kJ; P  baseline in mean body weight of 5.0 kg, predominantly from body fat mass. After 12 weeks of treatment, ad libitum energy intake was substantially lower with semaglutide vs placebo with a corresponding loss of body weight observed with semaglutide. In addition to reduced energy intake, likely mechanisms for semaglutide-induced weight loss included less appetite and food cravings, better control of eating and lower relative preference for fatty, energy-dense foods. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Ghrelin treatment causes increased food intake and retention of lean body mass in a rat model of cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoer, Mark D; Zhu, Xin Xia; Levasseur, Peter; Meguid, Michael M; Suzuki, Susumu; Inui, Akio; Taylor, John E; Halem, Heather A; Dong, Jesse Z; Datta, Rakesh; Culler, Michael D; Marks, Daniel L

    2007-06-01

    Cancer cachexia is a debilitating syndrome of anorexia and loss of lean body mass that accompanies many malignancies. Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone with a short half-life that has been shown to improve food intake and weight gain in human and animal subjects with cancer cachexia. We used a rat model of cancer cachexia and administered human ghrelin and a synthetic ghrelin analog BIM-28131 via continuous infusion using sc osmotic minipumps. Tumor-implanted rats receiving human ghrelin or BIM-28131 exhibited a significant increase in food consumption and weight gain vs. saline-treated animals. We used dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans to show that the increased weight was due to maintenance of lean mass vs. a loss of lean mass in saline-treated animals. Also, BIM-28131 significantly limited the loss of fat mass normally observed in tumor-implanted rats. We further performed real-time PCR analysis of the hypothalami and brainstems and found that ghrelin-treated animals exhibited a significant increase in expression of orexigenic peptides agouti-related peptide and neuropeptide Y in the hypothalamus and a significant decrease in the expression of IL-1 receptor-I transcript in the hypothalamus and brainstem. We conclude that ghrelin and a synthetic ghrelin receptor agonist improve weight gain and lean body mass retention via effects involving orexigenic neuropeptides and antiinflammatory changes.

  9. Oral administration of O-2 lean, an anti-obesity herbal composition increased 5-HT metabolism, decreased food intake and body weight in overweight rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, F.; Akhtar, N.; Haleem, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Feeding behavior is complex processes controlled by the neruroendocrine system.5-HT play an important role in regulation of energy balance by suppressing food intake. Depletion of brain serotonin increase feeding behavior and develop obesity. Many serotoninergic compounds are available in market for the management of body weight. 02-Lean is an anti-obesity herbal formulation prepared by combination of different herbs. Oral administration of aqueous suspension of 02-Lean caused a significant decrease in body weight, food intake, and increase in whole brain 5-HT 5HIAA, tryptophan and plasma tryptophan in over weight rats treated with 0.096g/2ml 02-Lean in comparison to control group. (author)

  10. Induced dyadic stress and food intake: Examination of the moderating roles of body mass index and restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Marilou; Gagnon-Girouard, Marie-Pierre; Provencher, Véronique; Bégin, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    Restrained eaters and overweight and obese people are prone to increase their food intake during stressful situations. This study examines the impact of a stressful couple discussion on food intake in both spouses, while simultaneously taking into account the effect of BMI and restraint on this association. For 15min, 80 heterosexual couples discussed an aspect that they wanted their partner to change followed by an individual bogus taste test for the purpose of measuring his or her stress-induced food intake. Prior to and after the discussion, subjective mood state was assessed, as well as appetite perceptions, and the mood change before and after the discussion was calculated. Multiple regression analyses with a three-way interaction between mood change, BMI, and restraint were used to predict food intake for both men and women, while controlling for appetite perceptions. Only restrained women with a high BMI ate more when their mood worsened. For men, only appetite perceptions significantly predicted food intake. These results suggest that an induced negative mood in the form of a stressful couple discussion impacts food intake differently for men and women, and that particular attention should be given to the concomitant effect of both restraint and BMI when studying stress-induced eating among women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary intake and main food sources of vitamin D as a function of age, sex, vitamin D status, body composition, and income in an elderly German cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Jungert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elderly subjects are at risk of insufficient vitamin D status mainly because of diminished capacity for cutaneous vitamin D synthesis. In cases of insufficient endogenous production, vitamin D status depends on vitamin D intake. Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify the main food sources of vitamin D in elderly subjects and to analyse whether contributing food sources differ by sex, age, vitamin D status, body mass index (BMI, or household income. In addition, we analysed the factors that influence dietary vitamin D intake in the elderly. Design and subjects: This is a cross-sectional study in 235 independently living German elderly aged 66–96 years (BMI=27±4 kg/m2. Vitamin D intake was assessed by a 3-day estimated dietary record. Results: The main sources of dietary vitamin D were fish/fish products followed by eggs, fats/oils, bread/bakery products, and milk/dairy products. Differences in contributing food groups by sex, age, vitamin D status, and BMI were not found. Fish contributed more to vitamin D intake in subjects with a household income of <1,500 €/month compared to subjects with higher income. In multiple regression analysis, fat intake and frequency of fish consumption were positive determinants of dietary vitamin D intake, whereas household income and percentage total body fat negatively affected vitamin D intake. Other parameters, including age, sex, physical activity, smoking, intake of energy, milk, eggs and alcohol, showed no significant association with vitamin D intake. Conclusion: Low habitual dietary vitamin D intake does not affect vitamin D status in summer, and fish is the major contributor to vitamin D intake independent of sex, age, vitamin D status, BMI, and the income of subjects.

  12. [Assessing various aspects of the motivation to eat that can affect food intake and body weight control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, F

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 30 years, several questionnaires have been developed and validated in order to assess many aspects of the motivation to eat that might be susceptible to impair adequate food intake and body weight control. A few of such questionnaires are described here, in particular, the "Three Factor Eating Questionnaire" also called the "Eating Inventory", and the "Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire". Critical aspects of the motivation to eat assessed by these tools are presented, such as dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, vulnerability to eat in response to external cues or emotional states, etc. These questionnaires were developed for use in the general population with the aim to identify critical aspects of the motivation to eat that might predispose to weight gain. They have been widely used in many countries and have allowed an improved understanding of the individual characteristics that predispose to body weight gain or resistance to weight loss. Originally, poor body weight control was attributed to a high level of dietary "restraint", or in other words, the tendency to deliberately restrict one's food intake for body weight control purposes. Such dietary restraint was suspected to lead to a number of physical and psychological difficulties, among which poor self-esteem and a paradoxical tendency to gain weight, resulting from the incapacity to maintain strict restraint over time. More recent studies have established that a motivational trait called "Disinhibition" is a strong predictor of body weight gain over time and of poor outcome of dieting. "Disinhibition" corresponds to a tendency to lose control over one's eating behavior and ingest excessively large quantities of food substances, in response to a variety of cues and circumstances. In addition to its untoward effect on weight, disinhibition also predicts various risk factors and pathologies, such as hypertension and diabetes. Other potentially critical dimensions for adequate body weight

  13. Ghrelin in small intestine, its contribution to regulation of food intake and body weight in cross-intestinal parabiotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Hitoshi; Masaki, Takayuki; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Nakazato, Masamitsu; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu

    2011-01-01

    Ghrelin has been shown to be associated with feeding behavior in humans and rodents. It has been suggested that ghrelin may play a role behind the effect of bariatric surgery. Inbred rats were made into parabiotic pairs so that they shared a single abdominal cavity. A further operation is performed later in which the small intestines are transected and re-connected so that one rat continually lost nutrition to its partner. Changes in food intake and body weight were recorded. Seven weeks later, content of ghrelin in the plasma, stomach and upper intestines were measured in the paired rats. Rats which lost nutrients to its counterpart (Loss rats) ingested significantly more food than sham control rats (pgained nutrient (Gain rats) ingested less than controls (pweight, blood glucose, insulin, free fatty acids and triglycerides between the paired rats. There was significantly higher levels of ghrelin in the plasma (pGain rats, which ate less than controls. Because no remarkable changes in the ghrelin content were observed in the stomach, difference in the quality of the chime may affect the local synthesis and release of ghrelin.

  14. Changes in taste and smell function, dietary intake, food preference, and body composition in testicular cancer patients treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijpma, Irene; Renken, Remco J.; Gietema, Jourik A.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Mensink, Manon G. J.; Lefrandt, Joop D.; Ter Horst, Gert J.; Reyners, Anna K. L.

    2017-01-01

    Background & aims: Taste and smell changes due to chemotherapy May contribute to the high prevalence of overweight in testicular cancer patients (TCPs). This study investigates the taste and smell function, dietary intake, food preference, and body composition in TCPs before, during, and up to 1

  15. The endocrinology of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Denovan P; Woods, Stephen C

    2013-10-01

    Many questions must be considered with regard to consuming food, including when to eat, what to eat and how much to eat. Although eating is often thought to be a homeostatic behaviour, little evidence exists to suggest that eating is an automatic response to an acute shortage of energy. Instead, food intake can be considered as an integrated response over a prolonged period of time that maintains the levels of energy stored in adipocytes. When we eat is generally determined by habit, convenience or opportunity rather than need, and meals are preceded by a neurally-controlled coordinated secretion of numerous hormones that prime the digestive system for the anticipated caloric load. How much we eat is determined by satiation hormones that are secreted in response to ingested nutrients, and these signals are in turn modified by adiposity hormones that indicate the fat content of the body. In addition, many nonhomeostatic factors, including stress, learning, palatability and social influences, interact with other controllers of food intake. If a choice of food is available, what we eat is based on pleasure and past experience. This article reviews the hormones that mediate and influence these processes.

  16. Food intake, body reserves and reproductive success of barnacle geese Branta leucopsis staging in different habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prop, J; Black, JM; Mehlum, F; Black, JM; Madsen, J

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns the effect of habitat choice on the dynamics of deposition of body reserves in spring-staging barnacle geese Branta leucopsis. On their way to breeding areas in Spitsbergen, these geese reside for several weeks on islands off the coast of Helgeland, Norway. They use three

  17. The role of leptin and ghrelin in the regulation of food intake and body weight in humans: a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, M.D.; Jakobsdottir, S.; Drent, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Leptin and ghrelin are two hormones that have been recognized to have a major influence on energy balance. Leptin is a mediator of long-term regulation of energy balance, suppressing food intake and thereby inducing weight loss. Ghrelin on the other hand is a fast-acting hormone, seemingly playing a

  18. Intake and Dietary Food Sources of Fibre in Spain: Differences with Regard to the Prevalence of Excess Body Weight and Abdominal Obesity in Adults of the ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Liliana G; Perea Sánchez, José Miguel; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa M

    2017-03-25

    The aim was to study the intake and food sources of fibre in a representative sample of Spanish adults and to analyse its association with excess body weight and abdominal obesity. A sample of 1655 adults (18-64 years) from the ANIBES ("Anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles") cross-sectional study was analysed. Fibre intake and dietary food sources were determined by using a three-day dietary record. Misreporters were identified using the protocol of the European Food Safety Authority. Mean (standard deviation) fibre intake was 12.59 (5.66) g/day in the whole sample and 15.88 (6.29) g/day in the plausible reporters. Mean fibre intake, both in the whole sample and the plausible reporters, was below the adequate intake established by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Institute of Medicine of the United States (IOM). Main fibre dietary food sources were grains, followed by vegetables, fruits, and pulses. In the whole sample, considering sex, and after adjusting for age and physical activity, mean (standard error) fibre intake (adjusted by energy intake) was higher in subjects who had normal weight (NW) 13.40 (0.184) g/day, without abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.192) g/day or without excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.207) g/day compared to those who were overweight (OW) 12.31 (0.195) g/day, p obese (OB) 11.83 (0.266) g/day, p obesity 12.09 (0.157) g/day, p obesity 12.22 (0.148) g/day, p obesity or excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity in the plausible reporters. Fibre from afternoon snacks was higher in subjects with NW (6.92%) and without abdominal obesity (6.97%) or without excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity (7.20%), than those with OW (5.30%), p obesity (5.18%), p obesity (5.21%), p association with excess body weight and abdominal obesity only when the whole sample was considered.

  19. Taste and smell function in testicular cancer survivors treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy in relation to dietary intake, food preference, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJpma, Irene; Renken, Remco J; Gietema, Jourik A; Slart, Riemer H J A; Mensink, Manon G J; Lefrandt, Joop D; Ter Horst, Gert J; Reyners, Anna K L

    2016-10-01

    Chemotherapy can affect taste and smell function. This may contribute to the high prevalence of overweight and metabolic syndrome in testicular cancer survivors (TCS). Aims of the study were to evaluate taste and smell function and possible consequences for dietary intake, food preference, and body composition in TCS treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Fifty TCS, 1-7 years post-chemotherapy, and 50 age-matched healthy men participated. Taste and smell function were measured using taste strips and 'Sniffin' Sticks', respectively. Dietary intake was investigated using a food frequency questionnaire. Food preference was assessed using food pictures varying in taste (sweet/savoury) and fat or protein content. Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry was performed to measure body composition. Presence of metabolic syndrome and hypogonadism were assessed. TCS had a lower total taste function, a higher bitter taste threshold, higher Body Mass Index (BMI), and more (abdominal) fat than controls (p body composition in TCS (p = 0.016). Although taste function was impaired in TCS, this was not related to a different dietary intake compared to controls. Lower testosterone levels were associated with a higher BMI, fat mass, and abdominal fat distribution in TCS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes of Dietary Pattern, Food Choice, Food Consumption, Nutrient Intake and Body Mass Index of Korean American College Students with Different Length of Residence in the Los Angeles Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam; Tam, Chick F.; Poon, George; Lew, Polong; Kim, Samuel Saychang; Kim, James C.; Kim, Rachel Byungsook

    2010-01-01

    This study was to investigate how dietary pattern, food choice, food consumption, nutrient intake and body mass index (BMI) vary with length of residence for Korean American college students. The respondents were 60 Korean American residents living in the Los Angeles Area. They were divided into two groups based on the length of stay in the U.S.:…

  1. Crave, like, eat: determinants of food intake in a sample of children and adolescents with a wide range in body mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Hofmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is heterogeneous condition with obese individuals displaying different eating patterns. Growing evidence suggests that there is a subgroup of obese adults that is marked by frequent and intense food cravings and addiction-like consumption of high-calorie foods. Little is known, however, about such a subgroup of obese individuals in childhood and adolescence. In the present study, a sample of children and adolescents with a wide range in body mass was investigated and trait food craving, liking for and intake of high- and low-calorie foods was measured. One-hundred and forty-two children and adolescents (51.4% female, n = 73; Mage = 13.7 years, SD = 2.25; MBMI-SDS = 1.26, SD = 1.50 completed the Food Cravings Questionnaire - Trait, then viewed pictures of high- and low-calorie foods and rated their liking for them, and subsequently consumed some of these foods in a bogus taste test. Contrary to expectations, higher body mass was associated with lower consumption of high-calorie foods. However, there was an interaction between body mass and trait food craving when predicting food consumption: in obese participants, higher trait food craving was associated with higher consumption of high-calorie foods and this association was not found in normal-weight participants. The relationship between trait food craving and high-calorie food consumption within obese individuals was mediated by higher liking for high-calorie foods (but not by liking for low-calorie foods. Thus, similar to adults, a subgroup of obese children and adolescents - characterized by high trait food craving - seems to exist, calling for specific targeted treatment strategies.

  2. Intake and Dietary Food Sources of Fibre in Spain: Differences with Regard to the Prevalence of Excess Body Weight and Abdominal Obesity in Adults of the ANIBES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Liliana G.; Perea Sánchez, José Miguel; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to study the intake and food sources of fibre in a representative sample of Spanish adults and to analyse its association with excess body weight and abdominal obesity. A sample of 1655 adults (18–64 years) from the ANIBES (“Anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles”) cross-sectional study was analysed. Fibre intake and dietary food sources were determined by using a three-day dietary record. Misreporters were identified using the protocol of the European Food Safety Authority. Mean (standard deviation) fibre intake was 12.59 (5.66) g/day in the whole sample and 15.88 (6.29) g/day in the plausible reporters. Mean fibre intake, both in the whole sample and the plausible reporters, was below the adequate intake established by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Institute of Medicine of the United States (IOM). Main fibre dietary food sources were grains, followed by vegetables, fruits, and pulses. In the whole sample, considering sex, and after adjusting for age and physical activity, mean (standard error) fibre intake (adjusted by energy intake) was higher in subjects who had normal weight (NW) 13.40 (0.184) g/day, without abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.192) g/day or without excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.207) g/day compared to those who were overweight (OW) 12.31 (0.195) g/day, p obese (OB) 11.83 (0.266) g/day, p obesity 12.09 (0.157) g/day, p obesity 12.22 (0.148) g/day, p obesity or excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity in the plausible reporters. Fibre from afternoon snacks was higher in subjects with NW (6.92%) and without abdominal obesity (6.97%) or without excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity (7.20%), than those with OW (5.30%), p obesity (5.18%), p obesity (5.21%), p obesity only when the whole sample was considered. PMID:28346353

  3. No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2010-08-01

    The affordability of food is considered as an important factor influencing people's diet and hence health status. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that neighborhood food store availability is associated with some aspects of dietary intake and thus possibly with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in young Japanese women. Subjects were 989 female Japanese dietetic students 18 to 22 years of age. Neighborhood food store availability was defined as the number of food stores within a 0.5-mile (0.8-km) radius of residence (meat stores, fish stores, fruit and vegetable stores, confectionery stores/bakeries, rice stores, convenience stores, and supermarkets/grocery stores). Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, comprehensive self-administered diet history questionnaire. No association was seen between any measure of neighborhood food store availability and dietary intake, except for a positive association between confectionery and bread availability (based on confectionery stores/bakeries, convenience stores, and supermarkets/grocery stores) and intake of these items (P for trend = .02). Further, no association was seen for BMI or waist circumference, except for an inverse relationship between availability of convenience stores and BMI and a positive relationship between store availability for meat (meat stores and supermarkets/grocery stores) and fish (fish stores and supermarkets/grocery stores) and waist circumference. In conclusion, this study of young Japanese women found no meaningful association between neighborhood food store availability and dietary intake, BMI, or waist circumference, with the exception of a positive relationship between availability and intake for confectionery and bread. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chronic delivery of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in rat hypothalamus using albumin-alginate microparticles: effects on food intake and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, N; Legrand, R; Breton, J; Déchelotte, P; Edwards-Lévy, F; Fetissov, S O

    2015-04-02

    Chronic delivery of neuropeptides in the brain is a useful experimental approach to study their long-term effects on various biological parameters. In this work, we tested albumin-alginate microparticles, as a potential delivery system, to study if continuous release in the hypothalamus of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), an anorexigenic neuropeptide, may result in a long-term decrease in food intake and body weight. The 2-week release of α-MSH from peptide-loaded particles was confirmed by an in vitro assay. Then, daily food intake and body weight were studied for 18 days in rats injected bilaterally into the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus with particles loaded or not with α-MSH. A decrease in body weight gain, persisting throughout the study, was found in rats injected with α-MSH-charged particles as compared with rats receiving non-charged particles and with rats injected with the same dose of α-MSH in solution. Food intake was significantly decreased for 3 days in rats receiving α-MSH-loaded particles and it was not followed by the feeding rebound effect which appears after food restriction. The presence of α-MSH-loaded particles in the hypothalamus was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, our study validates albumin-alginate microparticles as a new carrier system for long-term delivery of neuropeptides in the brain and demonstrates that chronic delivery of α-MSH in the hypothalamus results in a prolonged suppression of food intake and a decrease of body weight gain in rats. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of serotonin1A receptor on female mice body weight and food intake are associated with the differential expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides and the GABAA receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Isma; Hong, Andrew; Di, Jing; Aracena, Sonia; Banerjee, Probal; Shen, Chang-Hui

    2014-10-01

    Both common eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are characteristically diseases of women. To characterize the role of the 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1A-R) in these eating disorders in females, we investigated the effect of saline or 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) treatment on feeding behavior and body weight in adult WT female mice and in adult 5-HT1A-R knockout (KO) female mice. Our results showed that KO female mice have lower food intake and body weight than WT female mice. Administration of 8-OH-DPAT decreased food intake but not body weight in WT female mice. Furthermore, qRT-PCR was employed to analyze the expression levels of neuropeptides, γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor subunit β (GABAA β subunits) and glutamic acid decarboxylase in the hypothalamic area. The results showed the difference in food intake between WT and KO mice was accompanied by differential expression of POMC, CART and GABAA β2, and the difference in body weight between WT and KO mice was associated with significantly different expression levels of CART and GABAA β2. As such, our data provide new insight into the role of 5-HT1A-R in both feeding behavior and the associated expression of neuropeptides and the GABAA receptor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. PF-05231023, a long-acting FGF21 analogue, decreases body weight by reduction of food intake in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W Clayton; Zhou, Yingjiang; Talukdar, Saswata; Musante, Cynthia J

    2016-08-01

    PF-05231023, a long-acting FGF21 analogue, is a promising potential pharmacotherapy for the treatment of obesity and associated comorbidities. Previous studies have shown the potential of FGF21 and FGF21-like compounds to decrease body weight in mice, non-human primates, and humans; the precise mechanisms of action remain unclear. In particular, there have been conflicting reports on the degree to which FGF21-induced weight loss in non-human primates is attributable to a decrease in food intake versus an increase in energy expenditure. Here, we present a semi-mechanistic mathematical model of energy balance and body composition developed from similar work in mice. This model links PF-05231023 administration and washout to changes in food intake, which in turn drives changes in body weight. The model is calibrated to and compared with recently published data from cynomolgus macaques treated with PF-05231023, demonstrating its accuracy in describing pharmacotherapy-induced weight loss in these animals. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that PF-05231023 decreases body weight in cynomolgus macaques solely by a reduction in food intake, with no direct effect on energy expenditure.

  7. 5-HT1A receptor antagonists reduce food intake and body weight by reducing total meals with no conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, M Joelle; Shaw, Janice; Cramer, Jeff; Sindelar, Dana K

    2013-11-01

    Serotonin acts through receptors controlling several physiological functions, including energy homeostasis regulation and food intake. Recent experiments demonstrated that 5-HT1A receptor antagonists reduce food intake. We sought to examine the microstructure of feeding with 5-HT1A receptor antagonists using a food intake monitoring system. We also examined the relationship between food intake, inhibition of binding and pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of the antagonists. Ex vivo binding revealed that, at doses used in this study to reduce food intake, inhibition of binding of a 5-HT1A agonist by ~40% was reached in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice with a trend for higher binding in DIO vs. lean animals. Additionally, PK analysis detected levels from 2 to 24h post-compound administration. Male DIO mice were administered 5-HT1A receptor antagonists LY439934 (10 or 30 mg/kg, p.o.), WAY100635 (3 or 10mg/kg, s.c.), SRA-333 (10 or 30 mg/kg, p.o.), or NAD-299 (3 or 10mg/kg, s.c.) for 3 days and meal patterns were measured. Analyses revealed that for each antagonist, 24-h food intake was reduced through a specific decrease in the total number of meals. Compared to controls, meal number was decreased 14-35% in the high dose. Average meal size was not changed by any of the compounds. The reduction in food intake reduced body weight 1-4% compared to Vehicle controls. Subsequently, a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) assay was used to determine whether the feeding decrease might be an indicator of aversion, nausea, or visceral illness caused by the antagonists. Using a two bottle preference test, it was found that none of the compounds produced a CTA. The decrease in food intake does not appear to be a response to nausea or malaise. These results indicate that 5-HT1A receptor antagonist suppresses feeding, specifically by decreasing the number of meals, and induce weight loss without an aversive side effect. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Peripherally administered baclofen reduced food intake and body weight in db/db as well as diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ikuko; Arima, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Ozaki, Nobuaki; Watanabe, Minemori; Goto, Motomitsu; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Masayuki; Banno, Ryouichi; Nagasaki, Hiroshi; Oiso, Yutaka

    2007-10-16

    Peripheral administration of baclofen significantly reduced food intake and body weight increase in both diabetic (db/db) and diet-induced obese mice for 5 weeks, whereas it had no significant effects on energy balance in their lean control mice. Despite the decreased body weight, neuropeptide Y expression in the arcuate nucleus was significantly decreased, whereas pro-opiomelanocortin expression was significantly increased by baclofen treatment. These data demonstrate that the inhibitory effects of baclofen on body weight in the obese mice were mediated via the arcuate nucleus at least partially, and suggest that GABA(B) agonists could be a new therapeutic reagent for obesity.

  9. Central and peripheral control of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, M M I

    2017-01-01

    The maintenance of the body weight at a stable level is a major determinant in keeping the higher animals and mammals survive. Th e body weight depends on the balance between the energy intake and energy expenditure. Increased food intake over the energy expenditure of prolonged time period results in an obesity. Th e obesity has become an important worldwide health problem, even at low levels. The obesity has an evil effect on the health and is associated with a shorter life expectancy. A complex of central and peripheral physiological signals is involved in the control of the food intake. Centrally, the food intake is controlled by the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and endocannabinoids and peripherally by the satiety and adiposity signals. Comprehension of the signals that control food intake and energy balance may open a new therapeutic approaches directed against the obesity and its associated complications, as is the insulin resistance and others. In conclusion, the present review summarizes the current knowledge about the complex system of the peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of food intake and their potential therapeutic implications in the treatment of obesity.

  10. Central and peripheral control of food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla M. M. I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of the body weight at a stable level is a major determinant in keeping the higher animals and mammals survive. Th e body weight depends on the balance between the energy intake and energy expenditure. Increased food intake over the energy expenditure of prolonged time period results in an obesity. Th e obesity has become an important worldwide health problem, even at low levels. The obesity has an evil effect on the health and is associated with a shorter life expectancy. A complex of central and peripheral physiological signals is involved in the control of the food intake. Centrally, the food intake is controlled by the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and endocannabinoids and peripherally by the satiety and adiposity signals. Comprehension of the signals that control food intake and energy balance may open a new therapeutic approaches directed against the obesity and its associated complications, as is the insulin resistance and others. In conclusion, the present review summarizes the current knowledge about the complex system of the peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of food intake and their potential therapeutic implications in the treatment of obesity.

  11. Food intake of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greyce Luci BERNARDO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This narrative literature review aimed to analyze the results of studies on the food intake of university students. A literature search was conducted in July 2014 and updated in July 2016 in the Scopus, MedLine/PubMed, and SciELO databases, using descriptors related to university students and food intake in English and Portuguese. Overall, 37 studies that analyzed university students’ food intake were included in this review, eight of which were conducted in Brazil. The results demonstrated that most university students have unhealthy eating behaviors, such as high intake of fast foods, snacks, sweets, soft drinks, and alcoholic beverages, and low intake of fruits, vegetables, fish, whole grains, and legumes. Undergraduate students of health sciences, such as nursing, nutrition, and medicine, did not have healthier diets. University students’ food intake was characterized as unhealthy, regardless of undergraduate program or sex, especially among students who left the parents’ home and became responsible for their own food. Therefore, there is a need of developing public policies that promote healthy eating habits among students, such as interventions to change their eating habits and increase their access to healthy foods at the university environment.

  12. Measuring food intake with digital photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C K; Nicklas, T; Gunturk, B; Correa, J B; Allen, H R; Champagne, C

    2014-01-01

    The digital photography of foods method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, images of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared with images of 'standard' portions of food using computer software. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. In the present review, we describe this method, as well as a related method called the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM), which relies on smartphones to estimate food intake in near real-time in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, participants capture images of food selection and leftovers using a smartphone and these images are wirelessly transmitted in near real-time to a server for analysis. Because data are transferred and analysed in near real-time, the RFPM provides a platform for participants to quickly receive feedback about their food intake behaviour and to receive dietary recommendations for achieving weight loss and health promotion goals. The reliability and validity of measuring food intake with the RFPM in adults and children is also reviewed. In sum, the body of research reviewed demonstrates that digital imaging accurately estimates food intake in many environments and it has many advantages over other methods, including reduced participant burden, elimination of the need for participants to estimate portion size, and the incorporation of computer automation to improve the accuracy, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the method. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  13. Ileal transposition surgery produces ileal length-dependent changes in food intake, body weight, gut hormones and glucose metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzy, A R; Nausheen, S; Chelikani, P K

    2014-03-01

    Enhanced stimulation of the lower gut is hypothesized to play a key role in the weight loss and resolution of diabetes following bariatric surgeries. Ileal transposition (IT) permits study of the effects of direct lower gut stimulation on body weight, glucose homeostasis and other metabolic adaptations without the confounds of gastric restriction or foregut exclusion. However, the underlying mechanisms and the length of the ileum sufficient to produce metabolic benefits following IT surgery remain largely unknown. To determine the effects of transposing varying lengths of the ileum to upper jejunum on food intake, body weight, glucose tolerance and lower gut hormones, and the expression of key markers of glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=9/group) were subjected to IT surgery with translocation of 5, 10 or 20 cm of the ileal segment to proximal jejunum or sham manipulations. Daily food intake and body weight were recorded, and an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was performed. Blood samples were assayed for hormones and tissue samples for mRNA (RT-qPCR) and/or protein abundance (immunoblotting) of regulatory metabolic markers. We demonstrate that IT surgery exerts ileal length-dependent effects on multiple parameters including: (1) decreased food intake and weight gain, (2) improved glucose tolerance, (3) increased tissue expression and plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY), and decreased leptin concentrations and (4) upregulation of key markers of glucose metabolism (glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), hexokinase (HK) and phosphofructokinase (PFK)) together with a downregulation of lipogenic markers (fatty acid synthase (FAS)) in muscle and adipose tissue. Together, our data demonstrate that the reduction in food intake and weight gain, increase in lower

  14. Food compensation: do exercise ads change food intake?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food intake at a lunch meal as compared to the effects of control commercials. Methods Prior to eating lunch, 125 participants (71 women, 54 men watched 8 commercials, either all related to exercise or fitness (n = 67 or neutral products (i.e. car insurance (n = 58. The meal consisted of a pasta dish with tomato sauce, salad and chocolate pudding. The post-lunch questionnaire included questions about body mass index, exercise habits, motivation and dietary restraint. Results Participants exposed to exercise commercials reduced their caloric intake by 21.7% relative to the control condition. Additionally, watching exercise messages increased the perceived healthiness and liking of the meal. Although exercise habits and intentions did not moderate the effect of commercial condition on food intake, we also found that this intake reduction was driven by participants with higher body mass index levels. Conclusions These results imply that exercise messages may serve as a reminder of the link between food and physical activity and affect food consumption. It also highlights the need for increased awareness that these messages have powerful influences not only on exercise behavior, but also on closely related behaviors such as eating.

  15. Food compensation: do exercise ads change food intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Wansink, Brian

    2011-01-28

    Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food intake at a lunch meal as compared to the effects of control commercials. Prior to eating lunch, 125 participants (71 women, 54 men) watched 8 commercials, either all related to exercise or fitness (n=67) or neutral products (i.e. car insurance) (n=58). The meal consisted of a pasta dish with tomato sauce, salad and chocolate pudding. The post-lunch questionnaire included questions about body mass index, exercise habits, motivation and dietary restraint. Participants exposed to exercise commercials reduced their caloric intake by 21.7% relative to the control condition. Additionally, watching exercise messages increased the perceived healthiness and liking of the meal. Although exercise habits and intentions did not moderate the effect of commercial condition on food intake, we also found that this intake reduction was driven by participants with higher body mass index levels. These results imply that exercise messages may serve as a reminder of the link between food and physical activity and affect food consumption. It also highlights the need for increased awareness that these messages have powerful influences not only on exercise behavior, but also on closely related behaviors such as eating.

  16. PYY(3-36) reduces food intake and body weight and improves insulin sensitivity in rodent models of diet-induced obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrang, Niels; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Tang-Christensen, Mads

    2006-01-01

    The gut hormone peptide YY (PYY) was recently proposed to comprise an endogenous satiety factor. We have studied acute anorectic functions of PYY(3-36) in mice and rats, as well as metabolic effects of chronic PYY(3-36) administration to diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and rats. A single intraperit......The gut hormone peptide YY (PYY) was recently proposed to comprise an endogenous satiety factor. We have studied acute anorectic functions of PYY(3-36) in mice and rats, as well as metabolic effects of chronic PYY(3-36) administration to diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and rats. A single...... intraperitoneal injection of PYY(3-36) inhibited food intake in mice, but not in rats. We next investigated the effects of increasing doses (100, 300, and 1,000 microg.kg-1.day-1) of PYY(3-36) administered subcutaneously via osmotic minipumps on food intake and body weight in DIO C57BL/6J mice. Whereas only...... the highest dose (1,000 microg.kg-1.day-1) of PYY(3-36) significantly reduced food intake over the first 3 days, body weight gain was dose dependently reduced, and on day 28 the group treated with 1,000 microg.kg-1.day-1 PYY(3-36) weighed approximately 10% less than the vehicle-treated group. Mesenteric...

  17. Effects of sleeve gastrectomy and ileal transposition, alone and in combination, on food intake, body weight, gut hormones, and glucose metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nausheen, S; Shah, I H; Pezeshki, A; Sigalet, D L; Chelikani, P K

    2013-08-15

    Bariatric surgeries are hypothesized to produce weight loss and improve diabetes control by multiple mechanisms including gastric restriction and lower gut stimulation; the relative importance of these mechanisms remains poorly understood. We compared the effects of a typical foregut procedure, sleeve gastrectomy, (SG) with a primarily hindgut surgery, ileal transposition (IT), alone and together (SGIT), or sham manipulations, on food intake, body weight, gut hormones, glucose tolerance, and key markers of glucose homeostasis in peripheral tissues of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (450-550 g, n = 7-9/group). SG, IT, and SGIT surgeries produced transient reduction in food intake and weight gain; the effects of SG and IT on intake and body weight were nonadditive. SG, IT, and SGIT surgeries resulted in increased tissue expression and plasma concentrations of the lower gut hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY and decreased plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, insulin, and leptin concentrations. Despite transient effects on intake and weight gain, the SG, IT, and SGIT surgeries produced a significant improvement in glucose tolerance. In support of glycemic improvements, the protein abundance of key markers of glucose metabolism (e.g., GLUT4, PKA, IRS-1) in muscle and adipose tissue were increased, whereas the expression of key gluconeogenic enzyme in liver (G-6-Pase) were decreased following the surgeries. Therefore, our data suggest that enhanced lower gut stimulation following SG, IT, and SGIT surgeries leads to transient reduction in food intake and weight gain together with enhanced secretion of lower gut hormones and improved glucose clearance by peripheral tissues.

  18. Induced Ablation of Ghrelin Cells in Adult Mice Does Not Decrease Food Intake, Body Weight, or Response to High Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Matthew R.; Brown, Michael S.; Goldstein, Joseph L.; Zhao, Tong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Injection of the peptide hormone ghrelin stimulates food intake in mice and humans. However, mice born without ghrelin demonstrate no significant loss of appetite. This paradox suggests either that compensation develops in mice born without ghrelin or that ghrelin is not essential for appetite control. To distinguish these possibilities, we generated transgenic mice (Ghrl-DTR) that express the diphtheria toxin receptor in ghrelin-secreting cells. Injection of diphtheria toxin in adulthood ablated ghrelin cells and reduced plasma ghrelin by 80-95%. Ghrelin cell-ablated mice exhibited no loss of appetite or body weight and no resistance to a high fat diet. To stimulate food intake in mice by ghrelin injection, we had to raise plasma levels many-fold above normal. Like germline ghrelin-deficient mice, the ghrelin cell-ablated mice developed profound hypoglycemia when subjected to prolonged calorie restriction, confirming that ghrelin acts to maintain blood glucose under famine conditions. PMID:24836560

  19. Insulin detemir attenuates food intake, body weight gain and fat mass gain in diet-induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, J M; Printz, R L; Niswender, K D

    2011-07-04

    Initiation and intensification of insulin therapy commonly causes weight gain, a barrier to therapy. A contrasting body of evidence indicates that insulin functions as an adiposity negative feedback signal and reduces food intake, weight gain and adiposity via action in the central nervous system. Basal insulin analogs, detemir (Det) and glargine (Glar), have been associated with less hypoglycemia compared with neutral protamine hagedorn insulin, and Det with less weight gain, especially in patients with higher body mass index (BMI). We sought to determine whether insulin therapy per se causes body weight and fat mass gain when delivered via a clinically relevant subcutaneous (SC) route in the absence of hypoglycemia and glycosuria in non-diabetic lean and diet-induced obese rats. Rats were exposed to either a low-fat diet (LFD; 13.5% fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 60% fat), and received Det (0.5 U kg(-1)), Glar (0.2 U kg(-1)) or vehicle (Veh) SC once daily for 4 weeks. These dosages of insulin were equipotent in rats with respect to blood-glucose concentration and did not induce hypoglycemia. As predicted by current models of energy homeostasis, neither insulin Det nor Glar therapy affected food intake and weight gain in LFD rats. Det treatment significantly attenuated food intake, body weight gain and fat mass gain relative to the Glar and Veh in high-fat fed animals, mirroring observations in humans. That neither insulin group gained excess weight, suggests weight gain with SC basal insulin therapy may not be inevitable. Our data further suggest that Det possesses a unique property to attenuate the development of obesity associated with a HFD.

  20. Patterns of dairy food intake, body composition and markers of metabolic health in Ireland: results from the National Adult Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, E L; O'Sullivan, A; Nugent, A P; McNulty, B; Walton, J; Flynn, A; Gibney, E R

    2017-02-20

    Studies examining the association between dairy consumption and metabolic health have shown mixed results. This may be due, in part, to the use of different definitions of dairy, and to single types of dairy foods examined in isolation. The objective of the study was to examine associations between dairy food intake and metabolic health, identify patterns of dairy food consumption and determine whether dairy dietary patterns are associated with outcomes of metabolic health, in a cross-sectional survey. A 4-day food diary was used to assess food and beverage consumption, including dairy (defined as milk, cheese, yogurt, cream and butter) in free-living, healthy Irish adults aged 18-90 years (n=1500). Fasting blood samples (n=897) were collected, and anthropometric measurements taken. Differences in metabolic health markers across patterns and tertiles of dairy consumption were tested via analysis of covariance. Patterns of dairy food consumption, of different fat contents, were identified using cluster analysis. Higher (total) dairy was associated with lower body mass index, %body fat, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (Pblood pressure. Similar trends were observed when milk and yogurt intakes were considered separately. Higher cheese consumption was associated with higher C-peptide (Pblood lipid profiles are less favourable when eaten as part of a low-fat high-carbohydrate dietary pattern. More research is needed to better understand this association. Overall, these results suggest that although milk and yogurt consumption is associated with a favourable body phenotype, the blood lipid profiles are less favourable when eaten as part of a low-fat high-carbohydrate dietary pattern. More research is needed to better understand this association.

  1. Association between food insecurity and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Melissa Luciana de; Mendonça, Raquel de Deus; Lopes Filho, José Divino; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza

    2018-03-28

    We aim to identify the prevalence of food insecurity and to ascertain the association between food insecurity and food intake. A cross-sectional survey. The study included users of a primary healthcare service in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, from 2013 to 2014. Socioeconomic, health, and food intake data were gathered using a questionnaire and the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Individuals 20 years old or older (n = 2817). The prevalence of food insecurity among families with individuals under 18 years was 41.0%, and 26.4% in other households. After adjusting for potential confounders, the households in food insecurity with members under 18 years old, the consumption of fruits and vegetables (RP = 0.70, 95%IC: 0.58-0.84), and fruits (RP = 0.74, 95%IC: 0.59-0.93) was lower; and consumption of beans was higher (RP = 1.49, 95%IC: 1.06-2.09) compared to those with food security. In households without members under 18 years old, the consumption of fruits and vegetables (RP = 0.68, 95%IC: 0.58-0.79), fruits (RP = 0.61, 95%IC: 0.50-0.74), and beans (RP = 0.78, 95%IC: 0.63-0.97) was lower; and the consumption of tubers (RP = 1.36, 95%IC: 1.03-1.79) was higher. However, the state of food insecurity did not affect the consumption of ultra-processed foods, independently of age, sex, marital status, educational level, and employed status. Food insecurity negatively affected the fruit and vegetable consumption in both types of families tested. The consumption of beans was higher in households with children and adolescents, and the consumption of tubers was higher in households without children and adolescents. However, food insecurity did not change the intake of ultraprocessed foods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates fat, sugar, and umami taste preference and food intake and body weight regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camandola, Simonetta; Mattson, Mark P

    2017-07-01

    Immune and inflammatory pathways play important roles in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders. This study investigated the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in orosensory detection of dietary lipids and sugars. Taste preferences of TLR4 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) male mice under a standard and a high-fat, high-sugar diet were assessed with two-bottle tests. Gene expression of taste signaling molecules was analyzed in the tongue epithelium. The role of TLR4 in food intake and weight gain was investigated in TLR4 KO and WT mice fed a high-fat and high-sugar diet for 12 weeks. Compared to WT mice, TLR4 KO mice showed reduced preference for lipids, sugars, and umami in a two-bottle preference test. The altered taste perception was associated with decreased levels of key taste regulatory molecules in the tongue epithelium. TLR4 KO mice on a high-fat and high-sugar diet consumed less food and drink, resulting in diminished weight gain. TLR4 signaling promotes ingestion of sugar and fat by a mechanism involving increased preference for such obesogenic foods. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  3. Impulsivity, "advergames," and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Westerik, Henk; Buijzen, Moniek

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have focused on the effect of food advertisements on the caloric intake of children. However, the role of individual susceptibility in this effect is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the role of impulsivity in the effect of advergames that promote energy-dense snacks on children's snack intake. First, impulsivity scores were assessed with a computer task. Then a randomized between-subject design was conducted with 261 children aged 7 to 10 years who played an advergame promoting either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. As an extra manipulation, half of the children in each condition were rewarded for refraining from eating, the other half were not. Children could eat freely while playing the game. Food intake was measured. The children then completed questionnaire measures, and were weighed and measured. Overall, playing an advergame containing food cues increased general caloric intake. Furthermore, rewarding children to refrain from eating decreased their caloric intake. Finally, rewarding impulsive children to refrain from eating had no influence when they were playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks, whereas it did lead to reduced intake among low impulsive children and children who played nonfood advergames. Playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks contributes to increased caloric intake in children. The advergame promoting energy-dense snacks overruled the inhibition task to refrain from eating among impulsive children, making it more difficult for them to refrain from eating. The findings suggest that impulsivity plays an important role in susceptibility to food advertisements. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Effects of once-weekly semaglutide on appetite, energy intake, control of eating, food preference and body weight in subjects with obesity.

    OpenAIRE

    Blundell, J; Finlayson, G; Axelsen, MB; Flint, A; Gibbons, C; Kvist, T; Hjerpsted, J

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of this trial was to investigate the mechanism of action for body weight loss with semaglutide. Materials and methods This randomised, double?blind, placebo?controlled, two?period crossover trial investigated the effects of 12?weeks of treatment with once?weekly subcutaneous semaglutide, dose?escalated to 1.0?mg, in 30 subjects with obesity. Ad libitum energy intake, ratings of appetite, thirst, nausea and well?being, control of eating, food preference, resting metabolic rate, bod...

  5. Hap1 and GABA: thinking about food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J

    2006-06-01

    GABA stimulation of hypothalamic GABAA receptors increases food intake and body weight. Huntingtin-associated protein-1 (Hap1), is highly expressed in the hypothalamus and increases activity at GABAA receptors; mice lacking Hap1 are hypophagic. A recent paper (Sheng et al.,2006) further explores the role of Hap1 in the control of food intake.

  6. Melanocortin-4 receptor activation stimulates hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor release to regulate food intake, body temperature and cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, J R; Peter, J-C; Lecourt, A-C; Barde, Y-A; Hofbauer, K G

    2007-12-01

    In the present study, we aimed to investigate the neuromodulatory role played by hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the regulation of acute cardiovascular and feeding responses to melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) activation. In vitro, a selective MC4R agonist, MK1, stimulated BDNF release from isolated rat hypothalami and this effect was blocked by preincubation with the MC3/4R antagonist SHU-9119. In vivo, peripheral administration of MK1 decreased food intake in rats and this effect was blocked by pretreatment with an anti-BDNF antibody administered into the third ventricle. When anorexia was induced with the cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) antagonist AM251, the anti-BDNF antibody did not prevent the reduction in food intake. Peripheral administration of MK1 also increased mean arterial pressure, heart rate and body temperature. These effects were prevented by pretreatment with the anti-BDNF antibody whereas the intracerebroventricular administration of BDNF caused changes similar to those of MK1. These findings demonstrate for the first time that activation of MC4R leads to an acute release of BDNF in the hypothalamus. This release is a prerequisite for MC4R-induced effects on appetite, body temperature and cardiovascular function. By contrast, CB1R antagonist-mediated anorexia is independent of the MC4R/BDNF pathway. Overall, these results show that BDNF is an important downstream mediator of the MC4R pathway.

  7. Focusing on media body ideal images triggers food intake among restrained eaters: a test of restraint theory and the elaboration likelihood model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G

    2014-04-01

    Although research consistently shows that images of thin women in the media (media body ideals) affect women negatively (e.g., increased weight dissatisfaction and food intake), this effect is less clear among restrained eaters. The majority of experiments demonstrate that restrained eaters - identified with the Restraint Scale - consume more food than do other participants after viewing media body ideal images; whereas a minority of experiments suggest that such images trigger restrained eaters' dietary restraint. Weight satisfaction and mood results are just as variable. One reason for these inconsistent results might be that different methods of image exposure (e.g., slideshow vs. film) afford varying levels of attention. Therefore, we manipulated attention levels and measured participants' weight satisfaction and food intake. We based our hypotheses on the elaboration likelihood model and on restraint theory. We hypothesised that advertent (i.e., processing the images via central routes of persuasion) and inadvertent (i.e., processing the images via peripheral routes of persuasion) exposure would trigger differing degrees of weight dissatisfaction and dietary disinhibition among restrained eaters (cf. restraint theory). Participants (N = 174) were assigned to one of four conditions: advertent or inadvertent exposure to media or control images. The dependent variables were measured in a supposedly unrelated study. Although restrained eaters' weight satisfaction was not significantly affected by either media exposure condition, advertent (but not inadvertent) media exposure triggered restrained eaters' eating. These results suggest that teaching restrained eaters how to pay less attention to media body ideal images might be an effective strategy in media-literary interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary intake of cadmium from Bangladeshi foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rmalli, S W; Jenkins, R O; Haris, P I

    2012-01-01

    Human exposure to cadmium (Cd) is associated with various diseases and high levels of Cd have been detected in Bangladeshi population warranting further research to identify the source of this exposure. In this study, Cd levels in 327 and 94 samples of Bangladeshi food and non-food samples, respectively, were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This is the largest number of Bangladeshi food and nonfood samples investigated for their Cd content. High Cd levels were detected in leafy vegetables (mean 31 [SD 29]μg/kg). Of these vegetables, lal shak (Amaranthus tricolor) contained the highest Cd level (303 μg/kg [wet weight]; mean 100.5 [SD 95]μg/kg). Bangladeshi rice also showed significant concentration of Cd (mean 37.2 [SD 30]μg/kg). Of particular concern is the very high level of Cd detected in some puffed rice, which we attribute to the illegal practice of using urea for whitening the puffed rice. Tobacco leaves, which are commonly consumed during betel quid chewing by Bangladeshis, contain significant levels of Cd (mean 95 [SD 87]μg/kg). The total daily intake (TDI) of Cd from foods for Bangladeshis was estimated to be 34.55 μg/d. This is rather high when compared to the TDI of Cd for other populations. Our analysis reveals that this is mainly due to the very high intake of rice and vegetables, and lower consumption of animal products (which are low in Cd), by the Bangladeshis. We also determined the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake and target hazard quotients values for Cd. Clearly a more balanced diet is necessary to reduce the Cd intake in the Bangladeshi population, especially by reducing the very high intake of rice and certain leafy vegetables. Food manufacturing and agricultural practices needs to be altered to reduce the entry of Cd into the food chain. Exposure to high levels of Cd can be harmful to human health and this study provides a comprehensive analysis of Cd levels in a variety of food items from

  9. Physiological and psychosocial age-related changes associated with reduced food intake in older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Antina; Ter Horst, Gert J.; Lorist, Monicque M.

    Dietary intake changes during the course of aging. Normally an increase in food intake is observed around 55 years of age, which is followed by a reduction in food intake in individuals over 65 years of age. This reduction in dietary intake results in lowered levels of body fat and body weight, a

  10. p53-upregulated-modulator-of-apoptosis (PUMA) deficiency affects food intake but does not impact on body weight or glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwak, Sara A.; Loh, Kim; Stanley, William J.; Pappas, Evan G.; Wali, Jibran A.; Selck, Claudia; Strasser, Andreas; Thomas, Helen E.; Gurzov, Esteban N.

    2016-01-01

    BCL-2 proteins have been implicated in the control of glucose homeostasis and metabolism in different cell types. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the role of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein, p53-upregulated-modulator-of-apoptosis (PUMA), in metabolic changes mediated by diet-induced obesity, using PUMA deficient mice. At 10 weeks of age, knockout and wild type mice either continued consuming a low fat chow diet (6% fat), or were fed with a high fat diet (23% fat) for 14–17 weeks. We measured body composition, glucose and insulin tolerance, insulin response in peripheral tissues, energy expenditure, oxygen consumption, and respiratory exchange ratio in vivo. All these parameters were indistinguishable between wild type and knockout mice on chow diet and were modified equally by diet-induced obesity. Interestingly, we observed decreased food intake and ambulatory capacity of PUMA knockout mice on high fat diet. This was associated with increased adipocyte size and fasted leptin concentration in the blood. Our findings suggest that although PUMA is dispensable for glucose homeostasis in lean and obese mice, it can affect leptin levels and food intake during obesity. PMID:27033313

  11. Ramadan fasting influences on food intake consumption, sleep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... Key words: Ramadan fasting, food intake consumption, sleep schedule, body weight, plasma parameters, ... month of intermittent fasting (Nomani et al. ..... ponses to exercise, fluid, and energy balances during Ramadan in.

  12. The effect of diet, exercise, and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene on food intake, body composition, and carcass energy levels in virgin female BALB/c mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Keith, Robert E.; Strahan, Susan; White, Marguerite T.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of diet, exercise, and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), a mammary-tumor carcinogen, on food intake, energy consumption, body weight, and body composition in virgin female BALB/c mice are investigated. Diet, exercise, and DMBA all had pronounced effects on energy consumption, which in turn affected body composition. These treatments may influence manifestations of breast cancer via their effects on body composition.

  13. FTO genetic variants, dietary intake and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qi, Qibin; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Downer, Mary K

    2014-01-01

    FTO is the strongest known genetic susceptibility locus for obesity. Experimental studies in animals suggest the potential roles of FTO in regulating food intake. The interactive relation among FTO variants, dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) is complex and results from previous often small...

  14. Antiobesity effects of the beta-cell hormone amylin in diet-induced obese rats: effects on food intake, body weight, composition, energy expenditure, and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jonathan D; Hughes, Heather; Kendall, Eric; Baron, Alain D; Anderson, Christen M

    2006-12-01

    Effects of amylin and pair feeding (PF) on body weight and metabolic parameters were characterized in diet-induced obesity-prone rats. Peripherally administered rat amylin (300 microg/kg.d, 22d) reduced food intake and slowed weight gain: approximately 10% (Pcontrols; VEH), amylin did not. During wk 1, amylin and PF reduced 24-h respiratory quotient (mean+/-se, 0.82+/-0.0, 0.81+/-0.0, respectively; PEnergy expenditure (EE mean+/-se) tended to be reduced by PF (5.67+/-0.1 kcal/h.kg) and maintained by amylin (5.86+/-0.1 kcal/h.kg) relative to VEH (5.77+/-0.0 kcal/h.kg). By wk 3, respiratory quotient no longer differed; however, EE increased with amylin treatment (5.74+/-0.09 kcal/.kg; Pmetabolic effects.

  15. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder is characterized by eating very little food and/or avoiding eating certain foods. People with this disorder eat ...

  16. Associations of body mass index and obesity with physical activity, food choices, alcohol intake, and smoking in the 1982-1997 FINRISK Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti-Koski, Marjaana; Pietinen, Pirjo; Heliövaara, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki

    2002-05-01

    Recent increases in the prevalence of obesity worldwide are suggested to be caused largely by an environment that promotes sedentariness and excessive food intake. We investigated associations of body mass index (BMI) and obesity with physical activity, food choices, alcohol consumption, and smoking history. In addition, we examined the consistency of these associations over time, with the aim of assessing whether the significance of lifestyle variables as correlates of obesity increased over a 15-y period. Independent cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 1982, 1987, 1992, and 1997. Altogether, 24604 randomly selected men and women (aged 25-64 y) participated in these surveys. The subjects' weights and heights were measured, and data on lifestyle were collected with self-administered questionnaires. In men and women, perceived general health, leisure-time physical activity, and daily vegetable consumption were inversely associated with obesity, as were bread consumption in women and activity at work in men. Consumption of sausages, milk, and sour milk and heavy work (in women only) were positively associated with obesity. Obesity was also associated with alcohol consumption and smoking history. Most associations were constant over the 15-y period. However, the inverse associations of BMI with physical activity in women and with perceived health in men seemed to strengthen over time. A physically active lifestyle with abstention from smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, and consumption of healthy foods maximizes the chances of having a normal weight. The significance of avoiding sedentariness increases over time as a factor associated with normal weight.

  17. Measuring food intake with digital photography

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Corby K.; Nicklas, Theresa; Gunturk, Bahadir; Correa, John B.; Allen, H. Raymond; Champagne, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The Digital Photography of Foods Method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, imags of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared to images of “standard” portions of food using a computer application. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. Herein, we describe th...

  18. The effects of leptin in combination with a cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist, AM 251, or cannabidiol on food intake and body weight in rats fed a high-fat or a free-choice high sugar diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierucka-Rybak, M; Wolak, M; Bojanowska, E

    2014-08-01

    High intake of fats and sugars has prompted a rapid growth in the number of obese individuals worldwide. To further investigate whether simultaneous pharmacological intervention in the leptin and cannabinoid system might change food and water intake, preferences for palatable foods, and body weight, we have examined the effects of concomitant intraperitoneal administration of leptin and AM 251, a cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist, or cannabidiol (CBD), a plant cannabinoid, in rats maintained on either a high-fat (HF) diet (45% energy from fat) or free-choice (FC) diet consisting of high-sucrose and normal rat chow (83% and 61% energy from carbohydrates, respectively). Leptin at a dose of 100 μg/kg injected individually for 3 subsequent days to rats fed a HF diet reduced significantly the daily caloric intake and inhibited body weight gain. The hormone had no significant effects, however, on either caloric intake, body weight or food preferences in rats fed an FC diet. Co-injection of leptin and 1 mg/kg AM 251 resulted in a further significant decrease in HF diet intake and a profound reduction in body weight gain both in HF diet- and FC diet-fed rats. This drug combination, however, had no effect on the consumption of high-sucrose chow. In contrast, 3mg/kg of CBD co-injected with leptin did not modify leptin effects on food intake in rats maintained on an FC or HF diet. None of the drug combinations affected water consumption. It is concluded that the concomitant treatment with leptin and AM 251 attenuated markedly body weight gain in rats maintained on high-calorie diets rich in fat and carbohydrates but did not affect preferences for sweet food.

  19. Body and Mind: Mindfulness Helps Consumers to Compensate for Prior Food Intake by Enhancing the Responsiveness to Physiological Cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van de E.; Herpen, van E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    External cues regularly override physiological cues in food consumption resulting in mindless eating. In a series of experiments, this study shows that mindfulness, an enhanced attention state, improves consumers’ reliance on physiological cues across consumption episodes. Consumers who are

  20. Body weight, weight perceptions and food intake patterns. A cross-sectional study among male recruits in the Norwegian National Guard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglem, Solveig; Stea, Tonje H; Frølich, Wenche; Wandel, Margareta

    2011-05-19

    Young men tend to have a low intake of vegetables and fruit. Unfortunately, this group is difficult to reach with health information. Furthermore, knowledge about weight perceptions and the relationship to food behaviour among young men is scant. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between BMI, health and weight perceptions and food intake patterns among young men in the military. Data were collected with a 4-day food diary among 578 male recruits (age 18-26, mean 19.7) in the Norwegian National Guard (response rate 78%), in addition to a questionnaire, including questions about health and weight perceptions, and food frequency when still living at home. Weight and height were objectively measured. Food patterns were explored with principal component analysis, based on the diary data. A multivariate linear regression analysis determined the association between BMI and food patterns, and attitudes to health and slenderness, adjusting for smoking, physical activity and phase of data collection. Twenty eight percent of the recruits were overweight/obese (BMI > 25 kg/m(2)). Two-thirds meant that it is important for them to be slender, and these recruits reported more of both light (p = 0.025) and hard (p = 0.016) physical activity than the others. It was a positive association between the recruits' food frequency at home, and the amount of intake in the military camp for several food items. A principal component analysis identified three distinct food patterns, loading on 1) plant foods, 2) fast food/soft drinks, 3) milk/cereals. Those who stated that it is important for them to be slender, or to have good health, did not have significantly different food intake patterns than the others. BMI was inversely related to scores on the plant food pattern, and positive attitudes to slenderness. The majority of the recruits find it important to be slender. This orientation had a bearing on their physical activity pattern, but less on the food intake

  1. Maternal Predictors of Preschool Child-Eating Behaviours, Food Intake and Body Mass Index: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Dell'Aquila, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eating behaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study. "International Journal of Pediatric Obesity", Early Online, 1-5.] McPhie et al. (2011)'s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and…

  2. Lack of negative autocorrelations of daily food intake on successive days challenges the concept of the regulation of body weight in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitsky, David A; Raea Limb, Ji Eun; Wilkinson, Lua; Sewall, Anna; Zhong, Yingyi; Olabi, Ammar; Hunter, Jean

    2017-09-01

    According to most theories, the amount of food consumed on one day should be negatively related to intake on subsequent days. Several studies have observed such a negative correlation between the amount consumed on one day and the amount consumed two to four days later. The present study attempted to replicate this observation by re-examining data from a previous study where all food ingested over a 30-day observation period was measured. Nine male and seven female participants received a vegan diet prepared, dispensed, and measured in a metabolic unit. Autocorrelations were performed on total food intake consume on one day and that consumed one to five days later. A significant positive correlation was detected between the weight of food eaten on one day and on the amount consumed on the following day (r = 0.29, 95% CI [0.37, 0.20]). No correlation was found between weights of food consumed on one day and up to twelve days later (r = 0.09, 95% CI [0.24, -0.06]), (r = 0.11, 95% CI [0.26, -0.0.26]) (r = 0.02, 95% CI [0.15, -0.7]) (r = -0.08, 95% CI [0.11, -0.09]). The same positive correlation with the previous day's intake was observed at the succeeding breakfast but not at either lunch or dinner. However, the participants underestimated their daily energy need resulting in a small, but statistically significant weight loss. Daily food intake increased slightly (13 g/day), but significantly, across the 30-day period. An analysis of the previous studies revealed that the negative correlations observed by others was caused by a statistical artifact resulting from normalizing data before testing for the correlations. These results, when combined with the published literature, indicate that there is little evidence that humans precisely compensate for the previous day's intake by altering the amount consumed on subsequent days. Moreover, the small but persistent increase in food intake suggests that physiological mechanisms that affect food intake

  3. N-acylethanolamines, anandamide and food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S; Diep, Thi Ai

    2009-01-01

    in their biosynthesis in specific tissues are not clarified. It has been suggested that endogenous anandamide could stimulate food intake by activation of cannabinoid receptors in the brain and/or in the intestinal tissue. On the other hand, endogenous OEA and PEA have been suggested to inhibit food intake by acting...... on receptors in the intestine. At present, there is no clear role for endogenous anandamide in controlling food intake via cannabinoid receptors, neither centrally nor in the gastrointestinal tract. However, OEA, PEA and perhaps also LEA may be involved in regulation of food intake by selective prolongation...... OEA is less clear. Prolonged intake of dietary fat (45 energy%) may promote over-consumption of food by decreasing the endogenous levels of OEA, PEA and LEA in the intestine....

  4. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Kor...

  5. Measuring food intake with digital photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Digital Photography of Foods Method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. With this method, images of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared with images of 'standard' portions of food using computer...

  6. Hippocampal leptin signaling reduces food intake and modulates food-related memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoski, Scott E; Hayes, Matthew R; Greenwald, Holly S; Fortin, Samantha M; Gianessi, Carol A; Gilbert, Jennifer R; Grill, Harvey J

    2011-08-01

    The increase in obesity prevalence highlights the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the neural systems controlling food intake; one that extends beyond food intake driven by metabolic need and considers that driven by higher-order cognitive factors. The hippocampus, a brain structure involved in learning and memory function, has recently been linked with food intake control. Here we examine whether administration of the adiposity hormone leptin to the dorsal and ventral sub-regions of the hippocampus influences food intake and memory for food. Leptin (0.1 μg) delivered bilaterally to the ventral hippocampus suppressed food intake and body weight measured 24 h after administration; a higher dose (0.4 μg) was needed to suppress intake following dorsal hippocampal delivery. Leptin administration to the ventral but not dorsal hippocampus blocked the expression of a conditioned place preference for food and increased the latency to run for food in an operant runway paradigm. Additionally, ventral but not dorsal hippocampal leptin delivery suppressed memory consolidation for the spatial location of food, whereas hippocampal leptin delivery had no effect on memory consolidation in a non-spatial appetitive response paradigm. Collectively these findings indicate that ventral hippocampal leptin signaling contributes to the inhibition of food-related memories elicited by contextual stimuli. To conclude, the results support a role for hippocampal leptin signaling in the control of food intake and food-related memory processing.

  7. Consumption Frequency of Foods Away from Home Linked with Higher Body Mass Index and Lower Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Seguin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Consumption of foods prepared away from home (FAFH has grown steadily since the 1970s. We examined the relationship between FAFH and body mass index (BMI and fruit and vegetable (FV consumption. Methods. Frequency of FAFH, daily FV intake, height and weight, and sociodemographic data were collected using a telephone survey in 2008-2009. Participants included a representative sample of 2,001 adult men and women (mean age 54±15 years residing in King County, WA, with an analytical sample of 1,570. Frequency of FAFH was categorized as 0-1, 2–4, or 5+ times per week. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight. We examined the relationship between FAFH with FV consumption and BMI using multivariate models. Results. Higher frequency of FAFH was associated with higher BMI, after adjusting for age, income, education, race, smoking, marital status, and physical activity (women: p=0.001; men: p=0.003. There was a negative association between frequency of FAFH and FV consumption. FAFH frequency was significantly (p<0.001 higher among males than females (43.1% versus 54.0% eating out 0-1 meal per week, resp.. Females reported eating significantly (p<0.001 more FV than males. Conclusion. Among adults, higher frequency of FAFH was related to higher BMI and less FV consumption.

  8. Consumption Frequency of Foods Away from Home Linked with Higher Body Mass Index and Lower Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Aggarwal, Anju; Vermeylen, Francoise; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Consumption of foods prepared away from home (FAFH) has grown steadily since the 1970s. We examined the relationship between FAFH and body mass index (BMI) and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption. Methods. Frequency of FAFH, daily FV intake, height and weight, and sociodemographic data were collected using a telephone survey in 2008-2009. Participants included a representative sample of 2,001 adult men and women (mean age 54 ± 15 years) residing in King County, WA, with an analytical sample of 1,570. Frequency of FAFH was categorized as 0-1, 2–4, or 5+ times per week. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight. We examined the relationship between FAFH with FV consumption and BMI using multivariate models. Results. Higher frequency of FAFH was associated with higher BMI, after adjusting for age, income, education, race, smoking, marital status, and physical activity (women: p = 0.001; men: p = 0.003). There was a negative association between frequency of FAFH and FV consumption. FAFH frequency was significantly (p < 0.001) higher among males than females (43.1% versus 54.0% eating out 0-1 meal per week, resp.). Females reported eating significantly (p < 0.001) more FV than males. Conclusion. Among adults, higher frequency of FAFH was related to higher BMI and less FV consumption. PMID:26925111

  9. Taste and smell function in testicular cancer survivors treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy in relation to dietary intake, food preference, and body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJpma, Irene; Renken, Remco J.; Gietema, Jourik A.; Slart, Riemer H.J.A.; Mensink, Manon G.J.; Lefrandt, Joop D.; Horst, ter Gert J.; Reyners, Anna K.L.

    2016-01-01

    Background

    Chemotherapy can affect taste and smell function. This may contribute to the high prevalence of overweight and metabolic syndrome in testicular cancer survivors (TCS). Aims of the study were to evaluate taste and smell function and possible consequences for dietary intake, food

  10. Taste and smell function in testicular cancer survivors treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy in relation to dietary intake, food preference, and body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJpma, Irene; Renken, Remco J.; Gietema, Jourik A.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Mensink, Manon G. J.; Lefrandt, Joop D.; Ter Horst, Gert J.; Reyners, Anna K. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chemotherapy can affect taste and smell function. This may contribute to the high prevalence of overweight and metabolic syndrome in testicular cancer survivors (TCS). Aims of the study were to evaluate taste and smell function and possible consequences for dietary intake, food

  11. Triazole GHS-R1a antagonists JMV4208 and JMV3002 attenuate food intake, body weight, and adipose tissue mass in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holubová, Martina; Nagelová, Veronika; Lacinová, Z.; Haluzík, M.; Sýkora, D.; Moulin, A.; Blayo, A. L.; Fehrentz, J. A.; Martinez, J.; Stofková, A.; Jurčovičová, J.; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 393, 1/2 (2014), s. 120-128 ISSN 0303-7207 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : GHS-R1a antagonists * diet-induced obesity * food intake * JMV4208 * JMV3002 * male C57BL/6 mice Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.405, year: 2014

  12. [Food intake regulation - 2nd part].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunerová, Ludmila; Anděl, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The review article summarizes the principles of hedonic regulation of food intake which represents the food intake independent on the maintenance of homeostasis. The theory describing hedonic regulation, so called Incentive Salience Theory, comprises three major processes: liking (positive attribution to food stimulus), wanting (motivation to gain it) and learning (identification of these stimuli and distinguishing them from those connected with aversive reaction). Neuronal reward circuits are the anatomical and functional substrates of hedonic regulation. They react to gustatory and olfactory (or visual) stimuli associated with food intake. A food item is preferred in case its consumption is connected with a pleasant feeling thus promoting the behavioural reaction. The probability of this reaction after repetitive exposure to such a stimulus is increased (learned preference). On the contrary, learned aversion after repetitive exposure is connected with avoidance of a food item associated with a negative feeling. Main mediators of hedonic regulation are endocannabinoids, opioids and monoamines (dopamine, serotonin). Dopamine in dorsal striatum via D2 receptors generates food motivation as a key means of survival, however in ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) is responsible for motivation to food bringing pleasure. Serotonin via its receptors 5-HT1A a T-HT2C decreases intake of palatable food. It plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of eating disorders, particularly mental anorexia. There, a food restriction represents a kind of automedication to constitutionally pathologically increased serotonin levels. Detailed understanding of processes regulating food intake is a key to new pharmacological interventions in eating disorders.

  13. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  14. Food compensation: do exercise ads change food intake?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Shimizu, M.; Wansink, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food

  15. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Jacqueline; Fisher, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is an entirely new diagnosis in the DSM-5. ARFID replaces "feeding disorder of infancy or early childhood," which was a diagnosis in the DSM-IV restricted to children 6 years of age or younger; ARFID has no such age limitations and it is distinct from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in that there is no body image disturbance. ARFID involves a complex and heterogenous etiology, which is reviewed herein. What is known to date regarding the characteristics and medical and psychiatric comorbidities of this patient population are described and compared to other eating disorders. Evaluation and management strategies are also discussed. No data yet exist regarding ARFID׳s prognosis and prevention; however, recommendations to guide parents in establishing appropriate infant and child feeding practices are provided. Copyright © 2017 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of feather wear and temperature on prediction of food intake and residual food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herremans, M; Decuypere, E; Siau, O

    1989-03-01

    Heat production, which accounts for 0.6 of gross energy intake, is insufficiently represented in predictions of food intake. Especially when heat production is elevated (for example by lower temperature or poor feathering) the classical predictions based on body weight, body-weight change and egg mass are inadequate. Heat production was reliably estimated as [35.5-environmental temperature (degree C)] x [Defeathering (=%IBPW) + 21]. Including this term (PHP: predicted heat production) in equations predicting food intake significantly increased accuracy of prediction, especially under suboptimal conditions. Within the range of body weights tested (from 1.6 kg in brown layers to 2.8 kg in dwarf broiler breeders), body weight as an independent variable contributed little to the prediction of food intake; especially within strains its effect was better included in the intercept. Significantly reduced absolute values of residual food consumption were obtained over a wide range of conditions by using predictions of food intake based on body-weight change, egg mass, predicted heat production (PHP) and an intercept, instead of body weight, body-weight change, egg mass and an intercept.

  17. Central Administration of 1-Deoxynojirimycin Attenuates Hypothalamic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Regulates Food Intake and Body Weight in Mice with High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jongwan; Yun, Eun-Young; Quan, Fu-Shi; Park, Seung-Won; Goo, Tae-Won

    2017-01-01

    The α-glucosidase inhibitor, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), is widely used for its antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. Researchers have demonstrated that DNJ regulates body weight by increasing adiponectin levels, which affects energy intake and prevents diet-induced obesity. However, the mechanism by which centrally administered DNJ exerts anorexigenic effects has not been studied until now. We investigated the effect of DNJ in the hypothalamus of mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Result...

  18. Relationships between food neophobia and food intake and preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, S. R.; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Prescott, J.

    2017-01-01

    and preference data, in each case the food items were condensed into patterns described in terms of the foods/beverages with highest factor loadings. We then determined the impact of season and participant age, gender, education and income on these factors, as well as the interaction of these variables with FN......Food neophobia (FN) has been shown to be a strong influence on food preferences using primarily small data sets. This has limited the explanatory power of FN and the extent to which it can be related to other factors that influence food choice. To address these limitations, we collected Food...... Neophobia Scale data from 1167 adults from New Zealand over a 45-month period. Participants also completed a 112-item food preference questionnaire and a self-report 24 h, a 145 item food intake recall survey, and the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ). As a way of providing a structure to the food intake...

  19. Stress Exposure, Food Intake, and Emotional State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, “Stress, Palatable Food and Reward”, that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr. Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr. Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr. Mark Wilson describes his group’s research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Lastly, Dr. Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical–amygdalar–hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e., fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential, and environmental factors. PMID:26303312

  20. Stress exposure, food intake and emotional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, "Stress, Palatable Food and Reward", that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr Mark Wilson describes his group's research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Finally, Dr Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical-amygdalar-hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e. fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential and environmental factors on these interactions.

  1. Dental caries and childhood obesity: analysis of food intakes, lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costacurta, M; DiRenzo, L; Sicuro, L; Gratteri, S; De Lorenzo, A; Docimo, R

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional statistical study were to evaluate the association between obesity and dental caries and to assess the impact of food intake, oral hygiene and lifestyle on the incidence of dental caries in obese paediatric patients, analysed by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). A sample of 96 healthy patients, aged between 6 and 11 years (mean age 8.58±1.43) was classified in relation to body composition assessment and McCarthy growth charts and cut- offs. Body composition analysis, to obtain body fat mass (FM) and body fat free mass (FFM) measurements, was determined by means of a DXA fan beam scanner. The subjects underwent dental examination to assess the dmft/DMFT, and completed a questionnaire on food intake, oral hygiene habits and lifestyle. The sample was subsequently subdivided into four groups: Group A (normal weight - caries-free), Group B (normal weight with caries), Group C (pre-obese/obese - caries-free), Group D (pre-obese/obese with caries). The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 16; SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA). Spearman's correlation was performed to evaluate the correlation between dmft/DMFT and FM%. The chi-square test was performed to assess the categorical variables, while the non-parametric Kruskal Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test were employed for the quantitive variables. Statististical significance was set at a P-value of 0.05. The preobese-obese children had higher indexes of dental caries than normal weight subjects, both for deciduous teeth (dmft 2.5 ± 0.54 vs 1.4 ± 0.38; p=0.030) and permanent teeth (DMFT 2.8 ± 0.24 vs 1.93 ± 1.79; p=0.039). The correlations between dmft/DMFT indexes and body composition parameters were analysed and a significant correlation between dmft/DMFT indexes and FM% was observed (p=0.031 for dmft, p=0.022 for DMFT). According to the data recorded, there was no statistically significant difference between Groups A, B, C and D in terms of food intake between

  2. Food intake in patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaiana Marques Filizola Vaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the intake of energy and nutrients by individuals on hemodialysis, following especific recommendations for this population and according to Food Guide for the Brazilian Population. Methods: A cross-sectional study, 118 adult patients, considered stable from, ten dialysis centers in Goiânia, Goiás. Dietary intake was estimated by six 24-hour recalls, and classified as adequate or inadequate, according to specific recommendations for individuals undergoing dialysis and that recommended for a healthy diet. A descriptive analysis was performed. Results: Average dietary intake of 2022.40 ± 283.70 kcal/day; 31.18 kcal/kg/day; 55.03 ± 4.20% carbohydrate; 30.23 ± 3.71% lipid, 1.18 ± 0.23 g protein/kg/day. Important prevalences of inadequacy were observed for the intake of calories (39.0%, protein (39.0% and other nutrients such as retinol (94.9%, saturated fat (87.3%, cholesterol (61,9%, iron (61.0%, potassium (60.2% and zinc (45.0%. Patients had a low intake of fruit food group (1.22 ± 0.89 servings and vegetables (1.76 ± 1.01 servings, dairy products (0.57 ± 0.43 servings and high intake of food group of oils and fats (3.45 ± 0.95 servings, sugars and sweets (1.55 ± 0.77 servings. Conclusion: Observed food consumption imbalance, characterized by excess of oils and fats, especially saturated oils and cholesterol, sugars and sweets, parallel to low intake of fruits and vegetables and dairy products. A considerable percentage of patients did not intake the minimum recommended of calories, protein, retinol, iron, zinc and potassium.

  3. Food insecurity and dietary intake of immigrant food bank users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Timothy J; Ng, Victor; Irwin, Jennifer D; Stitt, Larry W; He, Meizi

    2007-01-01

    The degree of food insecurity and dietary intake was examined in adult Colombians who are new immigrants to Canada and use a food bank. In-person surveys were conducted on a convenience sample of 77 adult Colombian immigrant food bank users in London, Ontario. Degree of food insecurity was measured by the Radimer/Cornell questionnaire, food intakes by 24-hour recall, sociodemographics, and questionnaires about changes in dietary patterns before and after immigration. Thirty-six men and 41 women participated in the study. Despite being highly educated, all respondents had experienced some form of food insecurity within the previous 30 days. The degree of food insecurity seems to be inversely associated with income and length of residency in Canada. Total daily energy intake was low, with a mean value of 1,568.3 +/- 606.0 kcal (6,217.5 +/- 2,336.4 kJ). In particular, a large proportion of participants consumed a diet low in fruits and vegetables (73%) and milk and dairy products (58%). Colombian immigrant food bank users new to Canada experience various degrees of food insecurity, which is associated with inadequate food intake. Interventions are needed to assist this population with adapting to society while concurrently sustaining healthy eating patterns.

  4. Food intake and nutritional status after gastrectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisballe, S; Buus, S; Lund, B

    1986-01-01

    Food intake and nutritional status was studied in 67 patients, who had had a gastrectomy 2-30 years earlier, and in a randomly selected, matched group of healthy persons. The gastrectomized patients weighed less than the control persons (women 56.4 +/- 9.5 vs 61.4 +/- 6.9 kg; P less than 0.05; men.......01). The serum concentration of alkaline phosphatase was raised and the concentration of calcium, phosphorus and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol reduced in the gastrectomized group. None of these results could be explained from the nutritional study as both the intake of energy and protein and the intake of calcium...

  5. Obesity, food intake and exercise: Relationship with ghrelin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiryaki-Sonmez Gul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, a disorder of body composition, is defined by a relative or absolute excess of body fat. In general adult population, obesity has been associated with a diverse array of adverse health outcomes, including major causes of death such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, as well as functional impairment from problems such as osteoarthritis and sleep apnea. Ghrelin is a newly discovered peptide hormone which plays an important role in obesity. It is a powerful, endogenous orexigenic peptide and has a crucial function in appetite regulation, as well as short – and long-term energy homeostasis. In the presence of increased obesity, decreased physical activity, and high food consumption, the relationship between exercise, appetite, food intake and ghrelin levels has important implications. In this review, we discuss the effect of acute and chronic exercise performance on appetite, food intake and ghrelin and their relationships.

  6. Hypothalamic food intake regulation in a cancer-cachectic mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Dwarkasing, Jvalini T.; van Dijk, Miriam; Dijk, Francina J.; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Faber, Joyce; Argilès, Josep M.; Laviano, Alessandro; Müller, Michael; Witkamp, Renger F.; van Norren, Klaske

    2013-01-01

    Background Appetite is frequently affected in cancer patients leading to anorexia and consequently insufficient food intake. In this study, we report on hypothalamic gene expression profile of a cancer-cachectic mouse model with increased food intake. In this model, mice bearing C26 tumour have an increased food intake subsequently to the loss of body weight. We hypothesise that in this model, appetite-regulating systems in the hypothalamus, which apparently fail in anorexia, are still able t...

  7. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Won Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean

  8. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  9. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O

    2016-10-04

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  10. Central Administration of 1-Deoxynojirimycin Attenuates Hypothalamic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Regulates Food Intake and Body Weight in Mice with High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwan; Yun, Eun-Young; Quan, Fu-Shi; Park, Seung-Won; Goo, Tae-Won

    2017-01-01

    The α -glucosidase inhibitor, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), is widely used for its antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. Researchers have demonstrated that DNJ regulates body weight by increasing adiponectin levels, which affects energy intake and prevents diet-induced obesity. However, the mechanism by which centrally administered DNJ exerts anorexigenic effects has not been studied until now. We investigated the effect of DNJ in the hypothalamus of mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Results showed that intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of DNJ reduced hypothalamic ER stress, which activated the leptin-induced Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway to cause appetite suppression. We conclude that DNJ may reduce obesity by moderating feeding behavior and ER stress in the hypothalamic portion of the central nervous system (CNS).

  11. Central Administration of 1-Deoxynojirimycin Attenuates Hypothalamic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Regulates Food Intake and Body Weight in Mice with High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongwan Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The α-glucosidase inhibitor, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ, is widely used for its antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. Researchers have demonstrated that DNJ regulates body weight by increasing adiponectin levels, which affects energy intake and prevents diet-induced obesity. However, the mechanism by which centrally administered DNJ exerts anorexigenic effects has not been studied until now. We investigated the effect of DNJ in the hypothalamus of mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Results showed that intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of DNJ reduced hypothalamic ER stress, which activated the leptin-induced Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3 signaling pathway to cause appetite suppression. We conclude that DNJ may reduce obesity by moderating feeding behavior and ER stress in the hypothalamic portion of the central nervous system (CNS.

  12. Puberty is delayed in male mice with dextran sodium sulfate colitis out of proportion to changes in food intake, body weight, and serum levels of leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboer, Mark D; Li, Yongli

    2011-01-01

    In boys, inflammatory bowel disease often results in delayed puberty associated with decreased bone mineral density and decreased linear growth. Our goal was to investigate whether pubertal timing and levels of leptin differed between prepubertal male mice with colitis and food-restricted (FR) mice maintained at a similar weight. We induced colitis in 32-d-old male mice using dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), resulting in 10 d of worsening colitis. We followed up these mice for separation of the prepuce from the glans penis as a marker of pubertal progression. Compared with free-feeding control mice, DSS and FR mice had significantly lower weight on d 7-10 of treatment. DSS mice had later puberty than control and FR mice. DSS mice also had smaller testes, lower FSH levels, increased systemic cytokines, and increased colonic inflammation by histology. Leptin levels were similar between DSS and FR mice, whereas both had decreases in leptin compared with controls. We conclude that DSS colitis causes delayed puberty in sexually immature male mice beyond what is seen among FR mice of similar weight, food intake, and leptin levels. These experiments provide support for the hypothesis that pubertal delay in colitis is influenced by factors beyond poor weight gain alone.

  13. Effects of Recording Food Intake Using Cell Phone Camera Pictures on Energy Intake and Food Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Rita; Long, JoAnn; Kazandjian, Chant; Gharibeh, Nathalie; Karam, Lina; Song, Huaxin; Boswell, Carol; Zeeni, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    The well-documented increases in obesity and unhealthy dietary practices substantiate the need for evidence-based tools that can help people improve their dietary habits. The current spread of mobile phone-embedded cameras offers new opportunities for recording food intake. Moreover, the act of taking pictures of food consumed may enhance visual consciousness of food choice and quantity. The present study aimed to assess the effect of using cell phone pictures to record food intake on energy intake and food choice in college students. The effectiveness and acceptability of cell phone picture-based diet recording also was assessed. A repeated measures crossover design was used. One group of participants entered their food intake online during 3 days based on their memory, although a second group recorded their food intake using cell phone pictures as their reference. Participants then crossed over to complete 3 more days of diet recording using the alternate method. Focus groups were conducted to obtain feedback on the effectiveness and acceptability of cell phone picture-based diet recording. Intake of meat and vegetable servings were significantly higher in the memory period compared with the cell phone period, regardless of the order. Results from the focus group indicated a positive attitude toward the use of cell phone pictures in recording food intake and an increased awareness of food choice and portion size. Cell phone pictures may be an easy, relevant, and accessible method of diet self-monitoring when aiming at dietary changes. Future trials should combine this technique with healthy eating education. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  14. Comparison of Body Composition and Energy Intake of Young Female Ballet Dancers and Ordinary School Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Kalniņa Līga; Selga Guntars; Sauka Melita; Randoha Aija; Krasovska Eva; Lāriņš Viesturs

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess body fat level, energy and nutrient intake of adolescent ballet dancers and to compare these results with those of adolescents from ordinary school. Participants included 39 ballet dancers and 70 adolescents from ordinary school. Body composition was measured using a multi-frequency 8-polar bioelectrical impedance leg-to-hand analyser (X-Scan Plus II, Korea). Dietary intakes were assessed using a three-day estimated food record. Nutritional intake was calcul...

  15. Food intake and dietary diversity of farming households in Morogoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intake of fat was also low by 53% compared to the recommended intake for adults. The intake of iron, zinc, and calcium was 40, 53 and 64%, respectively, which was not sufficient to meet daily requirements. Low intake of nutrients was generally attributed to inadequate food intake due to low feeding frequency, poorly ...

  16. Gender differences in the association between stop-signal reaction times, body mass indices and/or spontaneous food intake in pre-school children: an early model of compromised inhibitory control and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, R D; Rivera, J; Silveira, P P; Steiner, M; Gaudreau, H; Hamilton, J; Kennedy, J L; Davis, C; Dube, L; Fellows, L; Wazana, A; Matthews, S; Meaney, M J

    2015-04-01

    Poor inhibitory control is associated with overeating and/or obesity in school-age children, adolescents and adults. The current study examined whether an objective and reliable marker of response inhibition, the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT), is associated with body mass index (BMI) z-scores and/or food intake during a snack test in pre-school children. The current sample consisted of 193 pre-school children taking part in a longitudinal study of early brain development (Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (the MAVAN project)). Linear mixed-effect models were used to examine whether the SSRT measured at age 48 months associated with BMI z-scores and/or dietary intake during a laboratory-based snack test. After controlling for significant covariates including maternal BMI, there was a significant gender by SSRT interaction effect in predicting 48-month BMI z-scores. Post-hoc analysis revealed an association between longer SSRTs (poor response inhibition) and higher BMIs in girls but not boys. Across both girls and boys, longer SSRTs were associated with greater intake of carbohydrates and sugars during the snack test. The association between SSRT scores and BMI z-scores in girls was not statistically mediated by carbohydrate or sugar intake. At 48 months of age, slower response inhibition on the Stop-Signal Task associates with higher BMI z-scores in girls, and with higher intake of carbohydrates and sugars during a snack test across both genders. Ongoing follow-up of these children will help clarify the implications of these associations for longer term macronutrient intake, eating-related pathology and/or pathological weight gain over time.

  17. Economic policies for healthier food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2011-01-01

    initial consumption share of fiber-rich products— families with children—appear to gain the least financially from the reforms: they pay more food taxes and face relatively high increases in price levels. Further, in general they experience an increase in fiber intake smaller than that of the average......This paper simulates the impact across household types of fully funded tax reforms designed to increase consumers’ fiber intake from grain consumption. Our results suggest that household types with the highest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products—i.e., households without children...... (seniors, couples without children, and single women without children)—experience the highest increase in fiber intake from these reforms. However, they also experience high increases in unhealthy nutrients from the reforms, making the net health effects difficult to evaluate. Seniors and couples without...

  18. Economic policies for healthier food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    with the lowest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products - families with children - appear to gain the least financially from the reforms: they pay more food taxes and face relatively high increases in price levels. Further, in general they experience an increase in fiber intake smaller than the average......This paper simulates the impact across household types of fully funded tax reforms designed to increase consumers' fiber intake from grain consumption. Our results suggest that household types with the highest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products - i.e., households without children...... (seniors, couples without children, and single women without children) - experience the highest increase in fiber intake from these reforms. However, they also experience high increases in unhealthy nutrients from the reforms, making the net health effects difficult to evaluate. Seniors and couples without...

  19. urban dietary heavy metal intake from protein foods and vegetables

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Contamination of food and food products by heavy metals has made dietary intake as one of the ... metals cadmium, copper, lead and zinc from protein-foods (beans, meat, fish, milk) and green ..... on food additives Technical report series. No.

  20. Food intake and gestational weight gain in Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärebring, Linnea; Brembeck, Petra; Löf, Marie; Brekke, Hilde K; Winkvist, Anna; Augustin, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if food intake (dairy, snacks, caloric beverages, bread, cheese, margarine/butter, potato/rice/pasta/grains, red meat, fish and fruit/berries/vegetables) is associated with gestational weight gain (GWG) in Swedish women. Four day food records from 95 pregnant Swedish women were collected in the last trimester. GWG was calculated as weighed body weight in the last trimester (median gestational week 36) minus self-reported pre-pregnancy body weight. Excessive GWG was defined according to the guidelines by the Institute of Medicine. Food groups tested for association with GWG were dairy (milk, yoghurt and sour milk), snacks (sweets, crisps, popcorn, ice cream and cookies, but not nuts and seeds), caloric beverages (soft drinks, juice, lemonade and non-alcoholic beer), bread, cheese, margarine/butter, potato/rice/pasta/grains, red meat, fish and fruit/berries/vegetables. Median (lower-upper quartiles) GWG was 12.1 kg (10.0-15.3). In total, 28 % had an excessive GWG. Excessive GWG was most common among pre-pregnancy overweight and obese women, where 69 % had an excessive GWG. Median daily intake of fruits and vegetables was 352 g (212-453), caloric beverages was 238 g (100-420) and snacks was 111 g (69-115). Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that intake of caloric beverages, snacks, fish, bread and dairy in the last trimester of pregnancy were positively related to GWG (R(2) = 0.32). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that intake of caloric beverages, snacks, fish, and bread was associated with higher odds ratios for excessive GWG. Intake of caloric beverages, snacks, fish and bread were positively related to excessive GWG. Thus, these results indicate that maternal dietary intake should be given higher attention in the antenatal care.

  1. Autophagy in the control of food intake

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Rajat

    2012-01-01

    The cellular nutrient sensing apparatus detects nutritional depletion and transmits this information to downstream effectors that generate energy from alternate sources. Autophagy is a crucial catabolic pathway that turns over redundant cytoplasmic components in lysosomes to provide energy to the starved cell. Recent studies have described a role for hypothalamic autophagy in the control of food intake and energy balance. Activated autophagy in hypothalamic neurons during starvation mobilized...

  2. Fenofibrate reduces food intake via cholecystokinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Yu Vorotnikova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по статье: Park MK, Han Y, Kim MS, Seo E, Kang S, Park SY, Koh H, Kim DK, Lee HJ. Reduction of Food Intake by Fenofibrate is Associated with Cholecystokinin Release in Long-Evans Tokushima Rats. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2012 Jun;16(3:181-6.

  3. Smaller food item sizes of snack foods influence reduced portions and caloric intake in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    2011-05-01

    Studies considering the impact of food-size variations on consumption have predominantly focused on portion size, whereas very little research has investigated variations in food-item size, especially at snacking occasions, and results have been contradictory. This study evaluated the effect of altering the size of food items (ie, small vs large candies) of equal-size food portions on short-term energy intake while snacking. The study used a between-subjects design (n=33) in a randomized experiment conducted in spring 2008. In a psychology laboratory (separate cubicles), participants (undergraduate psychology students, 29 of 33 female, mean age 20.3±2 years, mean body mass index 21.7±3.7) were offered unlimited consumption of candies while participating in an unrelated computerized experiment. For half of the subjects, items were cut in two to make the small food-item size. Food intake (weight in grams, kilocalories, and number of food items) was examined using analysis of variance. Results showed that decreasing the item size of candies led participants to decrease by half their gram weight intake, resulting in an energy intake decrease of 60 kcal compared to the other group. Appetite ratings and subject and food characteristics had no moderating effect. A cognitive bias could explain why people tend to consider that one unit of food (eg, 10 candies) is the appropriate amount to consume, regardless of the size of the food items in the unit. This study suggests a simple dietary strategy, decreasing food-item size without having to alter the portion size offered, may reduce energy intake at snacking occasions. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ketosis, ketogenic diet and food intake control: a complex relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Bosco, Gerardo; Camporesi, Enrico M; Mangar, Devanand

    2015-01-01

    Though the hunger-reduction phenomenon reported during ketogenic diets is well-known, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain uncertain. Ketosis has been demonstrated to exert an anorexigenic effect via cholecystokinin (CCK) release while reducing orexigenic signals e.g., via ghrelin. However, ketone bodies (KB) seem to be able to increase food intake through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the release and production of adiponectin. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of our current knowledge of the effects of ketogenic diet (KD) on food control in an effort to unify the apparently contradictory data into a coherent picture.

  5. Consistent relationships between sensory properties of savory snack foods and calories influence food intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithers, S E; Doerflinger, A; Davidson, T L

    2006-11-01

    Determine the influence of experience with consistent or inconsistent relationships between the sensory properties of snack foods and their caloric consequences on the control of food intake or body weight in rats. Rats received plain and BBQ flavored potato chips as a dietary supplement, along with ad lib rat chow. For some rats the potato chips were a consistent source of high fat and high calories (regular potato chips). For other rats, the chips provided high fat and high calories on some occasions (regular potato chips) and provided no digestible fat and fewer calories at other times (light potato chips manufactured with a fat substitute). Thus, animals in the first group were given experiences that the sensory properties of potato chips were strong predictors of high calories, while animals in the second group were given experiences that the sensory properties of potato chips were not predictors of high calories. Juvenile and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Following exposure to varying potato chip-calorie contingencies, intake of a novel, high-fat snack food and subsequent chow intake were assessed. Body weight gain and body composition as measured by DEXA were also measured. In juvenile animals, exposure to a consistent relationship between potato chips and calories resulted in reduced chow intake, both when no chips were provided and following consumption of a novel high-fat, high-calorie snack chip. Long-term experience with these contingencies did not affect body weight gain or body composition in juveniles. In adult rats, exposure to an inconsistent relationship between potato chips and calories resulted in increased consumption of a novel high-fat, high-calorie snack chip premeal along with impaired compensation for the calories contained in the premeal. Consumption of foods in which the sensory properties are poor predictors of caloric consequences may alter subsequent food intake.

  6. [Food intakes in breast-feeding mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, F; Bermond, S; Bonfante, G; Gallo, E; Oggero, R

    2001-06-01

    The relation between mother's diet and breastmilk composition is still an open issue. Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason breast feeding women usually pay attention about their alimentary practices and about their style of life during breast-feeding period. This research was conducted to verify the adequacy of lactating mother's diet in comparison with the Italian recommended daily assumption levels of nutrients (LARN 1996) for this category. We have also compared food intake of not breast feeding mothers with the LARN, and analyzed the differences between these groups of mothers. Forty-eight healthy infants were selected, 23 bottle fed, 25 breast fed. Mothers's diet in the previous 48 hours was investigated using a structured questionnaire. The data collected were processed using software Dietosystem to obtain the daily nutrient intakes. The wetnurses's diet in comparison with the LARN 1996 resulted hypocaloric and hyperproteic, deficient in Calcium, Iron, folic acid and vitamin E. Surprisingly not breast feeding mothers's intake of nutrients is closer to LARN levels than that of breast feeding mothers. Mothers are not informed enough about their alimentation during lactating period. Pediatricians must improve their knowledge about this subject and give the mothers the information they need to achieve the recommended food requirements.

  7. Elemental constituent of food and the daily intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazumasa

    1976-01-01

    Constituent of element in foods and it's daily intake was discussed. In tables were shown instances of analysed values of major elements in Japanese foods, daily dietary intake of 8 elements in Japan (analysed value of total diet and estimated amounts of daily dietary intake of 32 elements. (J.P.N.)

  8. Corticotropin-releasing factor overexpression in mice abrogates sex differences in body weight, visceral fat, and food intake response to a fast and alters levels of feeding regulatory hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixin; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Yuan, Pu-Qing; Stengel, Andreas; Taché, Yvette

    2017-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor overexpressing (CRF-OE) male mice showed an inhibited feeding response to a fast, and lower plasma acyl ghrelin and Fos expression in the arcuate nucleus compared to wild-type (WT) mice. We investigated whether hormones and hypothalamic feeding signals are impaired in CRF-OE mice and the influence of sex. Male and female CRF-OE mice and WT littermates (4-6 months old) fed ad libitum or overnight fasted were assessed for body, adrenal glands and perigonadal fat weights, food intake, plasma hormones, blood glucose, and mRNA hypothalamic signals. Under fed conditions, compared to WT, CRF-OE mice have increased adrenal glands and perigonadal fat weight, plasma corticosterone, leptin and insulin, and hypothalamic leptin receptor and decreased plasma acyl ghrelin. Compared to male, female WT mice have lower body and perigonadal fat and plasma leptin but higher adrenal glands weights. CRF-OE mice lost these sex differences except for the adrenals. Male CRF-OE and WT mice did not differ in hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC), while female CRF-OE compared to female WT and male CRF-OE had higher NPY mRNA levels. After fasting, female WT mice lost more body weight and ate more food than male WT, while CRF-OE mice had reduced body weight loss and inhibited food intake without sex difference. In male WT mice, fasting reduced plasma insulin and leptin and increased acyl ghrelin and corticosterone while female WT showed only a rise in corticosterone. In CRF-OE mice, fasting reduced insulin while leptin, acyl ghrelin and corticosterone were unchanged with no sex difference. Fasting blood glucose was higher in CRF-OE with female > male. In WT mice, fasting increased hypothalamic NPY expression in both sexes and decreased POMC only in males, while in CRF-OE mice, NPY did not change, and POMC decreased in males and increased in females. These data indicate that CRF-OE mice have abnormal basal and fasting

  9. Activity-Based Anorexia Reduces Body Weight without Inducing a Separate Food Intake Microstructure or Activity Phenotype in Female Rats—Mediation via an Activation of Distinct Brain Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharner, Sophie; Prinz, Philip; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Kobelt, Peter; Hofmann, Tobias; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is accompanied by severe somatic and psychosocial complications. However, the underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood, treatment is challenging and often hampered by high relapse. Therefore, more basic research is needed to better understand the disease. Since hyperactivity often plays a role in AN, we characterized an animal model to mimic AN using restricted feeding and hyperactivity. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: no activity/ad libitum feeding (ad libitum, AL, n = 9), activity/ad libitum feeding (activity, AC, n = 9), no activity/restricted feeding (RF, n = 12) and activity/restricted feeding (activity-based anorexia, ABA, n = 11). During the first week all rats were fed ad libitum, ABA and AC had access to a running wheel for 24 h/day. From week two ABA and RF only had access to food from 9:00 to 10:30 a.m. Body weight was assessed daily, activity and food intake monitored electronically, brain activation assessed using Fos immunohistochemistry at the end of the experiment. While during the first week no body weight differences were observed (p > 0.05), after food restriction RF rats showed a body weight decrease: −13% vs. day eight (p 0.05). Similarly, the daily physical activity was not different between AC and ABA (p > 0.05). The investigation of Fos expression in the brain showed neuronal activation in several brain nuclei such as the supraoptic nucleus, arcuate nucleus, locus coeruleus and nucleus of the solitary tract of ABA compared to AL rats. In conclusion, ABA combining physical activity and restricted feeding likely represents a suited animal model for AN to study pathophysiological alterations and pharmacological treatment options. Nonetheless, cautious interpretation of the data is necessary since rats do not voluntarily reduce their body weight as observed in human AN. PMID:27826222

  10. Activity-based anorexia reduces body weight without inducing a separate food intake microstructure or activity phenotype in female rats – mediation via an activation of distinct brain nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Scharner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa (AN is accompanied by severe somatic and psychosocial complications. However, the underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood, treatment is challenging and often hampered by high relapse. Therefore, more basic research is needed to better understand the disease. Since hyperactivity often plays a role in AN, we characterized an animal model to mimic AN using restricted feeding and hyperactivity. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: no activity/ad libitum feeding (ad libitum, AL, n=9, activity/ad libitum feeding (activity, AC, n=9, no activity/restricted feeding (RF, n=12 and activity/restricted feeding (activity-based anorexia, ABA, n=11. During the first week all rats were fed ad libitum, ABA and AC had access to a running wheel for 24h/d. From week two ABA and RF only had access to food from 9:00-10:30 am. Body weight was assessed daily, activity and food intake monitored electronically, brain activation assessed using Fos immunohistochemistry at the end of the experiment. While during the first week no body weight differences were observed (p>0.05, after food restriction RF rats showed a body weight decrease: -13% vs. day eight (p0.05. Similarly, the daily physical activity was not different between AC and ABA (p>0.05. The investigation of Fos expression in the brain showed neuronal activation in several brain nuclei such as the supraoptic nucleus, arcuate nucleus, locus coeruleus and nucleus of the solitary tract of ABA compared to AL rats. In conclusion, ABA combining physical activity and restricted feeding likely represents a suited animal model for AN to study pathophysiological alterations and pharmacological treatment options. Nonetheless, cautious interpretation of the data is necessary since rats do not voluntarily reduce their body weight as observed in human AN.

  11. Food Intake and Success or Failure of Dietary Restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Strien, T. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Determination of success and failure of dietary restraint in relation to food intake in 510 females. Methods: Food intake as measured with the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was assessed in low vs. high restrained eaters and overeaters, as measured with the DEBQ (Dutch Eating

  12. Behavioral and body size correlates of energy intake underreporting by obese and normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretsch, M J; Fong, A K; Green, M W

    1999-03-01

    To examine behavioral and body size influences on the underreporting of energy intake by obese and normal-weight women. Seven-day estimated food records were kept by subjects before they participated in a 49-day residential study. Self-reported energy intake was compared with energy intake required to maintain a stable body weight during the residential study (reference standard). Energy intake bias and its relationship to various body size and behavioral measures were examined. Twenty-two, healthy, normal-weight (mean body mass index [BMI] = 21.3) and obese (mean BMI = 34.2) women aged 22 to 42 years were studied. Analysis of variance, paired t test, simple linear regression, and Pearson correlation analyses were conducted. Mean energy intake from self-reported food records was underreported by normal-weight (-9.7%) and obese (-19.4%) women. BMI correlated inversely with the energy intake difference for normal-weight women (r = -.67, P = .02), whereas the Beck Depression Inventory correlated positively with the energy intake difference for obese women (r = .73, P behavioral traits play a role in the ability of women to accurately self-report energy intake. BMI appears to be predictive of underreporting of energy intake by normal-weight women, whereas emotional factors related to depression appear to be more determinant of underreporting for obese women. Understanding causative factors of the underreporting phenomenon will help practicing dietitians to devise appropriate and realistic diet intervention plans that clients can follow to achieve meaningful change.

  13. Hypothalamic mTOR signaling regulates food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cota, Daniela; Proulx, Karine; Smith, Kathi A Blake; Kozma, Sara C; Thomas, George; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J

    2006-05-12

    The mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) protein is a serine-threonine kinase that regulates cell-cycle progression and growth by sensing changes in energy status. We demonstrated that mTOR signaling plays a role in the brain mechanisms that respond to nutrient availability, regulating energy balance. In the rat, mTOR signaling is controlled by energy status in specific regions of the hypothalamus and colocalizes with neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus. Central administration of leucine increases hypothalamic mTOR signaling and decreases food intake and body weight. The hormone leptin increases hypothalamic mTOR activity, and the inhibition of mTOR signaling blunts leptin's anorectic effect. Thus, mTOR is a cellular fuel sensor whose hypothalamic activity is directly tied to the regulation of energy intake.

  14. The neurobiology of food intake in an obesogenic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this non-systematic review of the literature is to highlight some of the neural systems and pathways that are affected by the various intake-promoting aspects of the modern food environment and explore potential modes of interaction between core systems such as hypothalamus and brainstem primarily receptive to internal signals of fuel availability and forebrain areas such as the cortex, amygdala and meso-corticolimbic dopamine system, primarily processing external signals. The modern lifestyle with its drastic changes in the way we eat and move puts pressure on the homoeostatic system responsible for the regulation of body weight, which has led to an increase in overweight and obesity. The power of food cues targeting susceptible emotions and cognitive brain functions, particularly of children and adolescents, is increasingly exploited by modern neuromarketing tools. Increased intake of energy-dense foods high in fat and sugar is not only adding more energy, but may also corrupt neural functions of brain systems involved in nutrient sensing as well as in hedonic, motivational and cognitive processing. It is concluded that only long-term prospective studies in human subjects and animal models with the capacity to demonstrate sustained over-eating and development of obesity are necessary to identify the critical environmental factors as well as the underlying neural systems involved. Insights from these studies and from modern neuromarketing research should be increasingly used to promote consumption of healthy foods.

  15. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P = 0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Food intake monitoring: an acoustical approach to automated food intake activity detection and classification of consumed food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Päßler, Sebastian; Fischer, Wolf-Joachim; Wolff, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and nutrition-related diseases are currently growing challenges for medicine. A precise and timesaving method for food intake monitoring is needed. For this purpose, an approach based on the classification of sounds produced during food intake is presented. Sounds are recorded non-invasively by miniature microphones in the outer ear canal. A database of 51 participants eating seven types of food and consuming one drink has been developed for algorithm development and model training. The database is labeled manually using a protocol with introductions for annotation. The annotation procedure is evaluated using Cohen's kappa coefficient. The food intake activity is detected by the comparison of the signal energy of in-ear sounds to environmental sounds recorded by a reference microphone. Hidden Markov models are used for the recognition of single chew or swallowing events. Intake cycles are modeled as event sequences in finite-state grammars. Classification of consumed food is realized by a finite-state grammar decoder based on the Viterbi algorithm. We achieved a detection accuracy of 83% and a food classification accuracy of 79% on a test set of 10% of all records. Our approach faces the need of monitoring the time and occurrence of eating. With differentiation of consumed food, a first step toward the goal of meal weight estimation is taken. (paper)

  17. Effect of food intake on the tissue distribution of gallium-67: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, R.L.; Szymendera, J.J.; Byrd, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    Fasting affects the body retention and tissue distribution of Ga-67 in experimental animals. In Ga-67 experiments, therefore, a difference in food intake between treated and control animals might result in confusing side effects. We have observed this in irradiation studies. It is suggested that a fasting regimen should be imposed in any Ga-67 animal study where an alteration in food intake might be experienced in the treated group

  18. Side effects of television food commercials on concurrent nonadvertised sweet snack food intakes in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Strien, Tatjana

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to food commercials is assumed to be related to children's food preferences and snack food intake patterns. However, surprisingly few studies tested whether watching food commercials actually leads to elevated snack food intake. OBJECTIVE: We experimentally tested the side

  19. Side effects of television food commercials on concurrent nonadvertised sweet snack food intakes in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Strien, T. van

    2009-01-01

    Background - Exposure to food commercials is assumed to be related to children's food preferences and snack food intake patterns. However, surprisingly few studies tested whether watching food commercials actually leads to elevated snack food intake. Objective - We experimentally tested the side

  20. Genome-Wide Interactions with Dairy Intake for Body Mass Index in Adults of European Descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Caren E; Follis, Jack L; Dashti, Hassan S

    2018-01-01

    SCOPE: Body weight responds variably to the intake of dairy foods. Genetic variation may contribute to inter-individual variability in associations between body weight and dairy consumption. METHODS AND RESULTS: A genome-wide interaction study to discover genetic variants that account for variati...

  1. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Stafleu, A.; Griffioen-Roose, S.; Graaf, C. de; Witkamp, R.F.; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, R.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or

  2. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; Graaf, de Kees; Witkamp, R.F.; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or

  3. Apelin-13 increased food intake with serum ghrelin and leptin levels in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saral, S; Alkanat, M; Sumer, A; Canpolat, S

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to explain the role of apelin-13 on body weight, food and water intake with serum leptin, ghrelin, neuropeptid Y (NPY) and peptid YY (PYY) levels in male rat. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley male rats were used for the study. The rats were injected SP (0.9 %) intraperitoneally (i.p) in the control group and 30 (AP30), 100 (AP100) and 300 (AP300) µg/kg apelin-13 in the study groups, respectively, 10 min before the transition to dark period, for 10 days. During the experimental period, with light and dark periods of food and water intake, body weights were recorded in rats. Rats were euthanized and serum samples were obtained. In serum samples leptin, ghrelin, NPY and PYY levels were measured with specific ELISA kit. Apelin-13 was increased body weights in all three (AP30, AP100 and AP300) groups compared with the control group. AP100 and AP300 groups had increased food intake in the dark and the cumulative period, but in the light period food intake values were not significantly increased (p > 0.05). As for the value of water intake, compared with the control group, all dose of apelin-13 increased water intake during the dark and the cumulative period. There was no significant change in water intake in the light period. On the other hand, compared with the control group, serum leptin levels were found to increase in the groups administered 100 and 300 µg/kg of apelin-13 (p Ghrelin levels were found high in all groups treated with apelin-13. Serum levels of NPY decreased only in the 300 µg/kg apelin-13 treated group (p 0.05). Apelin-13 increases body weight in rats as well as food and water intake (dark and cumulative period). Additionally, ghrelin can mediate the orexigenic effect of apelin-13 in the regulation of food intake (Fig. 4, Ref. 37).

  4. Setting a social norm regarding food intake in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    People use other's food intake as a social norm indicating how much they are 'allowed' to eat. Ample experimental research showed the impact of peer modeling on food intake in adolescents and adults, whereas few studies focused on young children. This study used an innovative design in a

  5. Acute partial sleep deprivation increases food intake in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondel, Laurent; Romer, Michael A; Nougues, Pauline M; Touyarou, Peio; Davenne, Damien

    2010-06-01

    Acute partial sleep deprivation increases plasma concentrations of ghrelin and decreases those of leptin. The objective was to observe modifications in energy intake and physical activity after acute partial sleep deprivation in healthy men. Twelve men [age: 22 +/- 3 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 22.30 +/- 1.83] completed a randomized 2-condition crossover study. During the first night of each 48-h session, subjects had either approximately 8 h (from midnight to 0800) or approximately 4 h (from 0200 to 0600) of sleep. All foods consumed subsequently (jam on buttered toast for breakfast, buffet for lunch, and a free menu for dinner) were eaten ad libitum. Physical activity was recorded by an actimeter. Feelings of hunger, perceived pleasantness of the foods, desire to eat some foods, and sensation of sleepiness were also evaluated. In comparison with the 8-h sleep session, subjects consumed 559 +/- 617 kcal (ie, 22%) more energy on the day after sleep restriction (P < 0.01), and preprandial hunger was higher before breakfast (P < 0.001) and dinner (P < 0.05). No change in the perceived pleasantness of the foods or in the desire to eat the foods was observed. Physical activity from 1215 to 2015 was higher after sleep restriction than after 8 h of sleep (P < 0.01), even though the sensation of sleepiness was more marked (P < 0.01). One night of reduced sleep subsequently increased food intake and, to a lesser extent, estimated physical activity-related energy expenditure in healthy men. These experimental results, if confirmed by long-term energy balance measurements, suggest that sleep restriction could be a factor that promotes obesity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00986492.

  6. Central dopaminergic circuitry controlling food intake and reward: implications for the regulation of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucetic, Zivjena; Reyes, Teresa M

    2010-01-01

    Prevalence of obesity in the general population has increased in the past 15 years from 15% to 35%. With increasing obesity, the coincident medical and social consequences are becoming more alarming. Control over food intake is crucial for the maintenance of body weight and represents an important target for the treatment of obesity. Central nervous system mechanisms responsible for control of food intake have evolved to sense the nutrient and energy levels in the organism and to coordinate appropriate responses to adjust energy intake and expenditure. This homeostatic system is crucial for maintenance of stable body weight over long periods of time of uneven energy availability. However, not only the caloric and nutritional value of food but also hedonic and emotional aspects of feeding affect food intake. In modern society, the increased availability of highly palatable and rewarding (fat, sweet) food can significantly affect homeostatic balance, resulting in dysregulated food intake. This review will focus on the role of hypothalamic and mesolimbic/mesocortical dopaminergic (DA) circuitry in coding homeostatic and hedonic signals for the regulation of food intake and maintenance of caloric balance. The interaction of dopamine with peripheral and central indices of nutritional status (e.g., leptin, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y), and the susceptibility of the dopamine system to prenatal insults will be discussed. Additionally, the importance of alterations in dopamine signaling that occur coincidently with obesity will be addressed.

  7. Reorganization of a hospital catering system increases food intake in patients with inadequate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freil, M; Nielsen, MA; Blitz, B

    2006-01-01

    Background : Low food intake is a frequent problem in undernourished hospital patients. Objective: To study whether a reorganization of a hospital catering system enabling patients to choose their evening meal individually, in combination with an increase in the energy density of the food....... Conclusions: Reorganization of a hospital catering system can increase energy and protein intake and reduce waste substantially....

  8. Ketosis, ketogenic diet and food intake control: a complex relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio ePaoli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Though the hunger-reduction phenomenon reported during ketogenic diets is well known, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain uncertain. Ketosis has been demonstrated to exert an anorexigenic effect via cholecystokinin (CCK release while reducing orexigenic signals e.g. via ghrelin. However ketone bodies (KB seem to be able to increase food intake through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA and the release and production of adiponectin. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of our current knowledge of the effects of ketogenic diet (KD on food control in an effort to unify the apparently contradictory data into a coherent picture.

  9. Ketosis, ketogenic diet and food intake control: a complex relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Bosco, Gerardo; Camporesi, Enrico M.; Mangar, Devanand

    2015-01-01

    Though the hunger-reduction phenomenon reported during ketogenic diets is well-known, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain uncertain. Ketosis has been demonstrated to exert an anorexigenic effect via cholecystokinin (CCK) release while reducing orexigenic signals e.g., via ghrelin. However, ketone bodies (KB) seem to be able to increase food intake through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the release and production of adiponectin. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of our current knowledge of the effects of ketogenic diet (KD) on food control in an effort to unify the apparently contradictory data into a coherent picture. PMID:25698989

  10. The bogus taste test: Validity as a measure of laboratory food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Haynes, Ashleigh; Hardman, Charlotte A; Kemps, Eva; Higgs, Suzanne; Jones, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Because overconsumption of food contributes to ill health, understanding what affects how much people eat is of importance. The 'bogus' taste test is a measure widely used in eating behaviour research to identify factors that may have a causal effect on food intake. However, there has been no examination of the validity of the bogus taste test as a measure of food intake. We conducted a participant level analysis of 31 published laboratory studies that used the taste test to measure food intake. We assessed whether the taste test was sensitive to experimental manipulations hypothesized to increase or decrease food intake. We examined construct validity by testing whether participant sex, hunger and liking of taste test food were associated with the amount of food consumed in the taste test. In addition, we also examined whether BMI (body mass index), trait measures of dietary restraint and over-eating in response to palatable food cues were associated with food consumption. Results indicated that the taste test was sensitive to experimental manipulations hypothesized to increase or decrease food intake. Factors that were reliably associated with increased consumption during the taste test were being male, have a higher baseline hunger, liking of the taste test food and a greater tendency to overeat in response to palatable food cues, whereas trait dietary restraint and BMI were not. These results indicate that the bogus taste test is likely to be a valid measure of food intake and can be used to identify factors that have a causal effect on food intake. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Is dietary intake able to explain differences in body fatness in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Gerardo; Moreno, Luis A

    2006-05-01

    Obesity is the result of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Controversial information exists about what are the strongest energy balance aspects influencing body fatness. This article is focused on food consumption facts that could be related to the risk of being obese in children and adolescents. It reviews whether energy intake, macronutrient composition of diet, eating patterns or other dietary intake factors are able to explain differences in body composition when obesity has been already developed or even in subjects at risk to become obese. There is not enough evidence to clarify the importance of diet on overweight children and adolescents, and conclusions derived are somewhat controversial. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies do not show clear relationships between energy intake or food composition and body fatness. To find relations between dietary factors and childhood obesity perhaps eating patterns or different types of foods must be considered: meal patterns and meal frequency, snacking and beverage consumption, fast food intake, portion sizes, etc. There is no clear association between different aspects of dietary intake and the development of obesity in children and adolescents. Longitudinal and experimental studies are needed in the future.

  12. Intake at a single, palatable buffet test meal is associated with total body fat and regional fat distribution in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnbach, S Nicole; Thivel, David; Meyermann, Karol; Keller, Kathleen L

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies testing the relationship between short-term, ad libitum test-meal intake and body composition in children have shown inconsistent relationships. The objective of this study was to determine whether children's intake at a palatable, buffet meal was associated with body composition, assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A sample of 71 children (4-6 years) participated in 4 sessions where ad libitum food intake was measured. Children's intake at two of the test-meals was retained for the present analysis: a baseline meal consisting of moderately palatable foods and a highly palatable buffet including sweets, sweet-fats, and savory-fats. On the last visit, anthropometrics and DXA were assessed to determine child body composition. Children consumed significantly more calories at the palatable buffet compared to the baseline test-meal. Children's total fat-free mass was positively associated with intake at both the baseline meal and the palatable buffet meal. Total energy intake at both meals and intake of savory-fats at the palatable buffet were positively associated with children's total fat mass, total percent body fat, and percent android fat. Intake of sweet-fats was associated with child fat-free mass index. Intake of sweets was not correlated with body composition. Children's intake at a palatable test-meal, particularly of savory-fat foods, was associated with measures of total and regional body fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Puberty Is Delayed in Male Mice With Dextran Sodium Sulfate Colitis Out of Proportion to Changes in Food Intake, Body Weight, and Serum Levels of Leptin

    OpenAIRE

    DEBOER, MARK D.; LI, YONGLI

    2011-01-01

    In boys, inflammatory bowel disease often results in delayed puberty associated with decreased bone mineral density and decreased linear growth. Our goal was to investigate whether pubertal timing and levels of leptin differed between prepubertal male mice with colitis and food-restricted (FR) mice maintained at a similar weight. We induced colitis in 32-d-old male mice using dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), resulting in 10 d of worsening colitis. We followed up these mice for separation of the ...

  14. Role of Hypothalamic Melanocortin System in Adaptation of Food Intake to Food Protein Increase in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillot, Bruno; Duraffourd, Céline; Bégeot, Martine; Joly, Aurélie; Luquet, Serge; Houberdon, Isabelle; Naville, Danielle; Vigier, Michèle; Gautier-Stein, Amandine; Magnan, Christophe; Mithieux, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    The hypothalamic melanocortin system—the melanocortin receptor of type 4 (MC4R) and its ligands: α-melanin-stimulating hormone (α-MSH, agonist, inducing hypophagia), and agouti-related protein (AgRP, antagonist, inducing hyperphagia)—is considered to play a central role in the control of food intake. We tested its implication in the mediation of the hunger-curbing effects of protein-enriched diets (PED) in mice. Whereas there was a 20% decrease in food intake in mice fed on the PED, compared to mice fed on an isocaloric starch-enriched diet, there was a paradoxical decrease in expression of the hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin gene, precursor of α-MSH, and increase in expression of the gene encoding AgRP. The hypophagia effect of PED took place in mice with invalidation of either MC4R or POMC, and was even strengthened in mice with ablation of the AgRP-expressing neurons. These data strongly suggest that the hypothalamic melanocortin system does not mediate the hunger-curbing effects induced by changes in the macronutrient composition of food. Rather, the role of this system might be to defend the body against the variations in food intake generated by the nutritional environment. PMID:21544212

  15. Role of hypothalamic melanocortin system in adaptation of food intake to food protein increase in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Pillot

    Full Text Available The hypothalamic melanocortin system--the melanocortin receptor of type 4 (MC4R and its ligands: α-melanin-stimulating hormone (α-MSH, agonist, inducing hypophagia, and agouti-related protein (AgRP, antagonist, inducing hyperphagia--is considered to play a central role in the control of food intake. We tested its implication in the mediation of the hunger-curbing effects of protein-enriched diets (PED in mice. Whereas there was a 20% decrease in food intake in mice fed on the PED, compared to mice fed on an isocaloric starch-enriched diet, there was a paradoxical decrease in expression of the hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin gene, precursor of α-MSH, and increase in expression of the gene encoding AgRP. The hypophagia effect of PED took place in mice with invalidation of either MC4R or POMC, and was even strengthened in mice with ablation of the AgRP-expressing neurons. These data strongly suggest that the hypothalamic melanocortin system does not mediate the hunger-curbing effects induced by changes in the macronutrient composition of food. Rather, the role of this system might be to defend the body against the variations in food intake generated by the nutritional environment.

  16. Food concentrations and dietary intakes of elements for Chinese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hongda; Wang Jixian; Chen Rusong

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To obtain concentrations of elements in Chinese current foods and their dietary intakes by adult man in order to provide a basis on intake parameters of Chinese Reference Man and make related hygienic evaluation. Methods: With mixed food sample method of total diet study, determination of element concentrations in constituent foods of diets for 4 areas with different diet types was carried out by using NAA, ICP-MS, ICP-AES, AAS and necessary QA measures, and estimation of their daily intakes and hygienic evaluation were also made. Results: The concentrations of 42 elements in 12 categories of foods, their intakes and hygienic evaluation for adult man were obtained. Conclusion: The data on element concentrations in Chinese foods and their dietary intakes were updated and widened. These data provided a new basis for developing the parameters of Chinese Reference Man and revealed some current hygienic problems. For example, from viewpoint of nutrition hygiene the Ca, Zn, and Cu intakes for Chinese Reference Man are insufficient, and from consideration of food hygiene the intakes of Pb,Cd and Na are excessive.. Especially, and Cd average daily intakes of Pb, Cd and Hg have been increased during recent years, those of Pb exceed their ADIs, which should be paid attention to

  17. Circulating irisin in healthy, young individuals: day-night rhythm, effects of food intake and exercise, and associations with gender, physical activity, diet, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasilakis, Athanasios D; Polyzos, Stergios A; Saridakis, Zacharias G; Kynigopoulos, Georgios; Skouvaklidou, Elpida C; Molyvas, Dimitrios; Vasiloglou, Maria F; Apostolou, Aggeliki; Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomai; Siopi, Aikaterina; Mougios, Vassilis; Chatzistavridis, Panagiotis; Panagiotou, Grigorios; Filippaios, Andreas; Delaroudis, Sideris; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2014-09-01

    The myokine irisin may increase energy expenditure and affect metabolism. The objective of the study was to elucidate predictors of irisin and study whether circulating irisin may have day-night rhythm in humans. This was an observational, cross-sectional study with an additional 24-hour prospective observational arm (day-night rhythm substudy) and two prospective interventional arms (mixed meal substudy and exercise substudy). The study was conducted at the Hellenic Military School of Medicine (Thessaloniki, Greece). One hundred twenty-two healthy, young individuals were subjected to anthropometric and body composition measurements, and their eating and exercise behavior profiles were assessed with validated questionnaires. Subgroups were subjected to day-night rhythm, standardized meal ingestion, and 30-minute aerobic exercise studies. Circulating irisin levels were measured. Ιrisin levels were lower in males than females (P = .02) after adjustment for lean body mass, which was its major determinant. Irisin levels followed a day-night rhythm (P day-night rhythm, is correlated with lean body mass, and increases acutely after exercise.

  18. Reorganization of a hospital catering system increases food intake in patients with inadequate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freil, M.; Nielsen, M. A.; Biltz, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Low food intake is a frequent problem in undernourished hospital patients. Objective: To study whether a reorganization of a hospital catering system enabling patients to choose their evening meal individually, in combination with an increase in the energy density of the food, increases......: Reorganization of a hospital catering system can increase energy and protein intake and reduce waste substantially. Keywords: hospital food; nutritional risk; undernutrition...

  19. Taking control: Working memory training in overweight individuals increases self-regulation of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Katrijn; Dassen, Fania C M; Jansen, Anita

    2016-10-01

    Working memory (WM) plays a critical role in cognitive control by shielding self-regulatory goals from distraction by desire-related thoughts and emotions. This study examined whether training WM increases self-regulation in overweight participants. It was hypothesized that WM training would decrease psychopathological eating-related thoughts, (over)consumption of food in response to emotions and external cues, food intake and body weight. Overweight participants (n = 50) performed 20-25 sessions of WM training or control/sham training. The dependent measures were self-reported eating-related psychopathology, self-reported emotional/external eating behavior, food intake during a bogus taste test, and body weight, assessed before training, immediately following training, and at one-month follow-up. Relative to control, WM training reduced psychopathological eating-related thoughts and emotional eating (but not external eating). These effects were still present at follow-up, one month later. Food intake and body weight did not show an overall effect of training, though WM training did reduce food intake among highly restrained participants. WM training effectively reduced eating-related thoughts, overeating in response to negative emotions, and food intake among participants with strong dietary restraint goals. Hence, these findings indicate that WM training may strengthen self-regulation by shielding dieting goals from distraction by unwanted eating-related thoughts and emotions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual's ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released the final report, Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual’s Diet Based on USDA’s 1994-1996, 98 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). The consumption of food by the general population is a significant route of potential exposure to hazardous substances that are present in the environment. For this reason, a thorough analysis of the dietary habits of the American public would aid in the identification of potential exposure pathways. To that end, the EPA developed per capita food intake rates for various food items and food categories using databases developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). These intake rates were incorporated into EPA's 1997 Exposure Factors Handbook. Since that time, EPA has recommended that the food intake study be updated and expanded to include a more comprehensive analysis of food intake. That analysis is presented in this document. The purpose of this study is to characterize the consumption of food by the people of the United States.

  1. Intraventricular administration of Tenebrio molitor larvae extract regulates food intake and body weight in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Minchul; Kim, Jongwan; Moon, Seong-Su; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Kim, Mi-Ae

    2017-08-01

    We recently reported the in vitro and in vivo antiobesity effects of Tenebrio molitor larvae, a traditional food in many countries, but it remains unknown how the larvae affect appetite regulation in mice with diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that the extract of T molitor larvae mediates appetite by regulating neuropeptide expression. We investigated T molitor larvae extract's (TME's) effects on anorexigenesis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced orexigenic neuropeptide expression in the hypothalami of obese mice. Intracerebroventricular TME administration suppressed feeding by down-regulating the expression of the orexigenic neuropeptides neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein. T molitor larvae extract significantly reduced the expression of ER stress response genes. These results suggest that TME and its bioactive components are potential therapeutics for obesity and ER stress-driven disease states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Beyond-brand effect of television (TV) food advertisements/commercials on caloric intake and food choice of 5-7-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Hughes, Georgina; Oliveira, Lorraine P; Dovey, Terence M

    2007-07-01

    Food advert exposure has been shown to influence calorie intake and food choice in 9-11 year olds. However, little is known about the effect of food advertisements on feeding behaviour in younger children. Therefore, we conducted a study with 93 children aged 5-7 years, 28 of whom were over weight or obese. The children were exposed to 10 non-food adverts and 10 food adverts in a repeated measures design. Their consumption of sweet and savoury, high and low fat snack foods, and fruit were measured following both sessions. Food advert exposure produced a significant increase in total food intake in young children. The collection of recognition data was incomplete. These data replicate previous findings in that exposure to food adverts increases food intake in all children, but recognition of food adverts is related to body mass index (BMI). Beyond their effects on brand choice, exposure to food advertisements (commercials) promotes over-consumption in younger children.

  3. Food intake regulation in children. Fat and sugar substitutes and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, L L; Fisher, J O

    1997-05-23

    A series of experiments exploring children's responsiveness to manipulations of energy density and macronutrient content of foods have been reviewed to assess the nutritional impact of macronutrient substitutes on children's intake. In these experiments, the focus is on the extent to which the energy content of foods was a salient factor influencing children's food intake, and macronutrient substitutes were used as tools to investigate this issue. Therefore, although several different macronutrient substitutes have been used in this research, we do not have a parametric set of experiments systematically assessing the impact of a variety of macronutrient substitutes. Given this, what can we conclude from the existing data? When the energy density and macronutrient content of foods is altered through the use of macronutrient substitutes that reduce the energy content of foods, children tend to adjust for the missing energy, although this adjustment may be partial and incomplete. This suggests the possibility that when macronutrient substitutes are used to reduce the energy content of foods, children's energy intake may be reduced. This adjustment, however, will most likely be less than a "calorie for calorie" reduction. In addition, even among young children, there are individual differences in the extent to which children adjust their intake in response to macronutrient and energy manipulations. The data are more extensive and particularly clear for cases in which CHO manipulations are used to alter energy density, but there is evidence for adjustments in energy intake in response to alterations of the fat content of the diet. The compensation for energy is not macronutrient specific; that is, when the fat content of food is reduced to reduce energy density of foods, children do not selectively consume fat in subsequent meals. This means that manipulations of macronutrient content of foods that reduce foods' energy content may not result in alterations of energy

  4. Voluntary feed intake, body composition and efficiency of two Merino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    individually on a diet with a metabolizable energy content of 10,26 MJ/kg. Measurements were made continuously of livemass, voluntary intake and body composition wsing tritium dilution. The growth results were analysed and interpreted relative to percentage of mature mass to account for differences in size. The intake of ...

  5. Effect of food intake on left ventricular wall stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gårdinger, Ylva; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Björgell, Ola; Dencker, Magnus

    2014-01-28

    Left ventricular wall stress has been investigated in a variety of populations, but the effect of food intake has not been evaluated. We assessed whether left ventricular wall stress is affected by food intake in healthy subjects. Twenty-three healthy subjects aged 25.6 ± 4.5 years were investigated. Meridional end-systolic wall stress (ESS) and circumferential end-systolic wall stress (cESS) were measured before, 30 minutes after, and 110 minutes after a standardised meal. Both ESS and cESS decreased significantly (P stress is affected by food intake in healthy subjects.

  6. Eating addiction? The nerves and fibers that control food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, J.W. de

    2015-01-01

    Subtle cues in our environment, like the smell of palatable food or the logo of a popular food chain, might provoke feelings of hunger and cravings for food. When exposed to a palatable treat it takes self-control to inhibit intake. These behaviors are reminiscent of addictive behavior. Indeed the

  7. Characteristics and factors influencing fast food intake of young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic group (SEG) and gender were significantly related to fast food intake (p < 0.01), with a larger proportion of participants (65%, n = 76) in the lower socio-economic group (LSEG) showing more frequent use. Males consumed fast food more frequently than females. The most popular fast foods consumed were ...

  8. Food intake rate and delivery strategy in aquaculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In aquaculture, it is important to estimate in advance how much food cultured animals would take. The rate of food consumption by cultured animals to available food amount is defined as the food intake rate (FIR) in this paper. To some extents, FIR reflects the quality of food, the health of cultured animals and the delivery efficiency. In practice, it is difficult to estimate in advance the accurate quantity of food that cultured animal needs. Usually, food is provided more than the need by animals, causing excess food that may pollute water and environment. Our experiments in past years show that FIR at 80% is recommended.

  9. Food Group Intake and Micronutrient Adequacy in Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Loring Bradlee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the contribution of food group intakes to micronutrient adequacy among 2379 girls in the National Growth and Health Study during three age periods (9–13, 14–18, and 19–20 years. Data on food and nutrient intakes from 3-day diet records over 10 years were used to estimate mean intakes and percent meeting Dietary Guidelines (DGA recommendations for food intakes and Institute of Medicine’s recommendations for vitamins and minerals. More than 90% of girls failed to consume the recommended amounts of fruit, vegetables and dairy; 75% consumed less than the recommended amounts in the “meat” group. The vast majority of girls of all ages had inadequate intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins D and E. In contrast, they consumed >750 kcal/day (~40% of total energy from the DGA category of solid fat and added sugars, about five times the recommended maximum intakes. This study shows the importance of consuming a variety of foods in all five food groups, including those that are more energy dense such as dairy and meats, in order to meet a broad range of nutrient guidelines. Diet patterns that combined intakes across food groups led to greater improvements in overall nutritional adequacy.

  10. Food Group Intake and Micronutrient Adequacy in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lynn L.; Singer, Martha R.; Qureshi, M. Mustafa; Bradlee, M. Loring; Daniels, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the contribution of food group intakes to micronutrient adequacy among 2379 girls in the National Growth and Health Study during three age periods (9–13, 14–18, and 19–20 years). Data on food and nutrient intakes from 3-day diet records over 10 years were used to estimate mean intakes and percent meeting Dietary Guidelines (DGA) recommendations for food intakes and Institute of Medicine’s recommendations for vitamins and minerals. More than 90% of girls failed to consume the recommended amounts of fruit, vegetables and dairy; 75% consumed less than the recommended amounts in the “meat” group. The vast majority of girls of all ages had inadequate intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins D and E. In contrast, they consumed >750 kcal/day (~40% of total energy) from the DGA category of solid fat and added sugars, about five times the recommended maximum intakes. This study shows the importance of consuming a variety of foods in all five food groups, including those that are more energy dense such as dairy and meats, in order to meet a broad range of nutrient guidelines. Diet patterns that combined intakes across food groups led to greater improvements in overall nutritional adequacy. PMID:23201841

  11. Liraglutide suppression of caloric intake competes with the intake-promoting effects of a palatable cafeteria diet, but does not impact food or macronutrient selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Kellie M; Blonde, Ginger D; le Roux, Carel W; Spector, Alan C

    2017-08-01

    Liraglutide, a Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, is used as a treatment for Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity because it improves glycemia and decreases food intake. Here, we tested whether chronic activation of the GLP-1 receptor system with liraglutide would induce decreases in intake accompanied by changes in proportional food or macronutrient intake similar to those seen following RYGB in rats when a variety of palatable food options are available. A "cafeteria diet" was used that included: laboratory rodent chow, refried beans (low-fat/low-sugar), low-fat yogurt (low-fat/high-sugar), peanut butter (high-fat/low-sugar) and sugar-fat whip (high-fat/high-sugar). Liraglutide (1mg/kg daily, sc, n=6) induced significant reductions in body weight and total caloric intake compared to saline-injected control rats (n=6). Although access to a cafeteria diet induced increases in caloric intake in both groups relative to chow alone, liraglutide still effectively decreased intake compared with saline-injected rats suggesting that chronic GLP-1 activation competes with the energy density and palatability of available food options in modulating ingestive behavior. Even with the substantial effects on overall intake, liraglutide did not change food choice or relative macronutrient intake when compared to pre-treatment baseline. When drug treatment was discontinued, the liraglutide group increased caloric intake and rapidly gained body weight to match that of the saline group. These results demonstrate that, while liraglutide effectively decreases caloric intake and body weight in rats, it does not cause adjustments in relative macronutrient consumption. Our data also show that drug-induced decreases in intake and body weight are not maintained following termination of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pavlovian influences over food and drug intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, S C; Ramsay, D S

    2000-06-01

    Consuming food and taking drugs share several important characteristics. In particular, each causes changes in important physiological parameters that are constantly being monitored and regulated by the brain. As examples, blood glucose increases after meals; and body temperature decreases after ethanol is taken. Such changes elicit neurally-mediated homeostatic responses that serve to reduce the magnitude and duration of the perturbation. It is argued that when an individual can accurately anticipate pending meals or drugs, it can make appropriate responses to minimize or totally neutralize the meal/drug-elicited perturbations. This phenomenon, which is the basis for meal and drug tolerance, relies upon Pavlovian conditioning. Literature is reviewed which documents the role of conditioning processes in the development of tolerance. The argument is made that conditioned responses enable individuals to derive necessary or desirable aspects of food and drugs while minimizing some of their negative effects. In a final section, drug tolerance is discussed as a natural consequence of evolution-derived, meal-related learning processes, with associated negative consequences.

  13. Salt Reductions in Some Foods in The Netherlands: Monitoring of Food Composition and Salt Intake.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, Elisabeth H M; Hendriksen, Marieke A H; Milder, Ivon E J; Toxopeus, Ido B; Westenbrink, Susanne; Brants, Henny A M; van der A, Daphne L

    2017-01-01

    High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement) may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011-2016) and

  14. US acculturation, food intake, and obesity among Asian-Pacific hotel workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Rachel; Williams, Andrew E; Vinoya, Aleli C; Oshiro, Caryn E S; Vogt, Thomas M

    2009-10-01

    Both obesity and immigration continue to increase in the United States. Studies suggest that a transition in lifestyle patterns, such as food intake, may mediate the relationship between immigration and obesity. We examine obesity among hotel workers in relation to age, sex, race/ethnicity, and indicators of food intake, immigration, and acculturation. Four thousand five hundred thirty hotel workers in 30 hotels were studied from the first year of the Work, Weight and Wellness program, before intervention (during 2005-2006). Weight and height were measured, whereas race/ethnicity, language, education, immigration, acculturation, and food intake variables were assessed by questionnaire. The study included 43% male and 57% female hotel workers (mean age 44.4+/-11.3 years; 42% Filipino, 32% other Asian, 13% Pacific Islander, 9% white, 1% black/African American, and 3% other race/ethnicity). On average (mean value), 55% of participants were born outside the United States; 57% were overweight or obese (body mass index [BMI] >25). The BMI of those born in the United States was 1.3 higher than that of those born in another country, adjusting for sex and race/ethnicity. Intake of sweet drinks and meat was positively associated with BMI while intake of fruit was negatively associated with BMI. Age at arrival in United States ("generation") was negatively associated with BMI, whereas greater acculturation was positively associated with BMI. Food intake behaviors are probably related to place of birth, generation of migration to the United States, and acculturation. Direct measures of food intake added explanatory power to models, suggesting the importance of food intake to obesity. Further study of the influence of immigration, acculturation, and food intake on obesity using longitudinal study designs is warranted.

  15. Food intakes and preferences of hospitalised geriatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Chik Wan Chak

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cross sectional survey was carried out on 120 hospitalised geriatric patients aged 60 and above in Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur to investigate their nutrient intakes and food preferences. Methods Food intakes were recorded using a one day weighed method and diet recall. Food preferences were determined using a five point hedonic score. Food wastages and factors affecting dietary adequacy were also investigated. Results The findings indicated that the mean intakes of energy and all nutrients investigated except for vitamin C and fluid were below the individual requirement for energy, protein and fluid, and the Malaysian Recommendation of Dietary Allowances (RDA for calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and acid ascorbic. In general, subjects preferred vegetables, fruits and beans to red meat, milk and dairy products. There was a trend of women to have a higher percentage for food wastage. Females, diabetic patients, subjects who did not take snacks and subjects who were taking hospital food only, were more likely to consume an inadequate diet (p Conclusions Food service system in hospital should consider the food preferences among geriatric patients in order to improve the nutrient intake. In addition, the preparation of food most likely to be rejected such as meat, milk and dairy products need some improvements to increase the acceptance of these foods among geriatric patients. This is important because these foods are good sources of energy, protein and micronutrients that can promote recovery from disease or illness.

  16. Food intakes and preferences of hospitalised geriatric patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Suzana; Chee, Kan Yin; Wan Chik, Wan Chak Pa'

    2002-01-01

    Background A cross sectional survey was carried out on 120 hospitalised geriatric patients aged 60 and above in Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur to investigate their nutrient intakes and food preferences. Methods Food intakes were recorded using a one day weighed method and diet recall. Food preferences were determined using a five point hedonic score. Food wastages and factors affecting dietary adequacy were also investigated. Results The findings indicated that the mean intakes of energy and all nutrients investigated except for vitamin C and fluid were below the individual requirement for energy, protein and fluid, and the Malaysian Recommendation of Dietary Allowances (RDA) for calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and acid ascorbic. In general, subjects preferred vegetables, fruits and beans to red meat, milk and dairy products. There was a trend of women to have a higher percentage for food wastage. Females, diabetic patients, subjects who did not take snacks and subjects who were taking hospital food only, were more likely to consume an inadequate diet (p Food service system in hospital should consider the food preferences among geriatric patients in order to improve the nutrient intake. In addition, the preparation of food most likely to be rejected such as meat, milk and dairy products need some improvements to increase the acceptance of these foods among geriatric patients. This is important because these foods are good sources of energy, protein and micronutrients that can promote recovery from disease or illness. PMID:12165100

  17. Guidelines for Biomarker of Food Intake Reviews (BFIRev)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praticò, Giulia; Gao, Qian; Scalbert, Augustin; Vergères, Guy; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Manach, Claudine; Brennan, Lorraine; Pedapati, Sri Harsha; Afman, Lydia A.; Wishart, David S.; Vázquez-Fresno, Rosa; Lacueva, Cristina Andres; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Verhagen, Hans; Feskens, Edith J.M.; Dragsted, Lars O.

    2018-01-01

    Identification of new biomarkers of food and nutrient intake has developed fast over the past two decades and could potentially provide important new tools for compliance monitoring and dietary intake assessment in nutrition and health science. In recent years, metabolomics has played an important

  18. Added sugar and dietary sodium intake from purchased fast food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, males and females consumed on average three times the recommended daily intake of added sugar, and more than half of the recommended daily salt intake from these purchased foods alone. These dietary patterns during adolescence may exacerbate the risk of obesity and hypertension in later adult life.

  19. A comparison of the effect of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on food intake, body weight, blood lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants levels and haemostasis variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weststrate, J.A.; Hof, K.H. van het; Berg, H. van den; Velthuis-te-Wierik, E.J.M. te; Graaf, C. de; Zimmermanns, N.J.H.; Westerterp, K.R.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Verboeket-Venne, W.P.H.G. van de

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on fat and energy intake, body weight, plasma lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants concentrations and haemostasis variables. Design: A multicentre open randomised controlled trial in which

  20. Food prices and poverty negatively affect micronutrient intakes in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora L; Robles, Miguel; Pachón, Helena; Chiarella, Cristina

    2012-08-01

    Limited empirical evidence exists for how economic conditions affect micronutrient nutrition. We hypothesized that increasing poverty and rising food prices would reduce consumption of high-quality "luxury" foods, leading to an increased probability of inadequacy for several nutrients. The 2006 Guatemala National Living Conditions Survey was analyzed. First, energy and nutrient intakes and adequacy levels were calculated. Second, the income-nutrient relationships were investigated by assessing disparities in intakes, determining income-nutrient elasticities, and modeling nutrient intakes by reductions in income. Third, the food price-nutrient relationships were explored through determination of price-nutrient elasticities and modeling 2 price scenarios: an increase in food prices similar in magnitude to the food price crisis of 2007-2008 and a standardized 10% increase across all food groups. Disparities in nutrient intakes were greatest for vitamin B-12 (0.38 concentration index) and vitamin A (0.30 concentration index); these nutrients were highly and positively correlated with income (r = 0.22-0.54; P < 0.05). Although the baseline probability of inadequacy was highest for vitamin B-12 (83%), zinc showed the greatest increase in probability of inadequacy as income was reduced, followed by folate and vitamin A. With rising food prices, zinc intake was most acutely affected under both scenarios (P < 0.05) and folate intake in the poorest quintile (+7 percentage points) under the 10% scenario. Price-nutrient elasticities were highest for vitamin B-12 and the meat, poultry, and fish group (-0.503) and for folate and the legumes group (-0.343). The economic factors of food prices and income differentially influenced micronutrient intakes in Guatemala, notably zinc and folate intakes.

  1. Using metabolomics to evaluate food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manach, Claudine; Brennan, Lorraine; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    Improving dietary assessment is essential for modern nutritional epidemiology. This chapter discusses the potential of metabolomics for the identification of new biomarkers of intake and presents the first candidate biomarkers discovered using this approach. It then describes the challenges...

  2. Dietary, food service, and mealtime interventions to promote food intake in acute care adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Grace; Pizzola, Lisa; Keller, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition is common in acute care hospitals. During hospitalization, poor appetite, medical interventions, and food access issues can impair food intake leading to iatrogenic malnutrition. Nutritional support is a common intervention with demonstrated effectiveness. "Food first" approaches have also been developed and evaluated. This scoping review identified and summarized 35 studies (41 citations) that described and/or evaluated dietary, foodservice, or mealtime interventions with a food first focus. There were few randomized control trials. Individualized dietary treatment leads to improved food intake and other positive outcomes. Foodservices that promote point-of-care food selection are promising, but further research with food intake and nutritional outcomes is needed. Protected mealtimes have had insufficient implementation, leading to mixed results, while mealtime assistance, particularly provided by volunteers or dietary staff, appears to promote food intake. A few innovative strategies were identified but further research to develop and evaluate food first approaches is needed.

  3. Food & Nutrition: Nourish Your Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food & Nutrition: Nourish Your Body; food & nutrition; food and nutrition; food and nutrition articles; information about nutrition; health & nutrition; health and nutrition; health and nutrition articles; health and nutrition facts; health nutrition; nutrition and health; nutrition health; nutrition health articles; healthy; a healthy diet; diet healthy; eating healthy; healthy diet; healthy diets; nutrition diet; diet and nutrition; diet and nutrition articles; diet and nutrition article; diet nutrition; nutrition and diet; article on nutrition; article about nutrition; articles on nutrition; facts about nutrition; good nutrition; nutrition article; nutrition articles; healthy tips; eat healthy tips; eating healthy tips; healthy diet tips; healthy eating tip; healthy eating tips; healthy food tips; should eat; reasons why you should eat healthy; why people should eat healthy; why should I eat healthy; why should people eat healthy; why should we eat healthy; why should you eat healthy; why we should eat healthy; why you should eat healthy; healthy diet; a healthy diet; diets healthy eating; eat a healthy diet; eat healthy diet; eating a healthy diet; eating healthy diet; eating healthy diets; healthy diet; way to eat; best way to eat healthy; easy way to eat healthy; easy ways to eat healthy; healthy way of eating; healthy way to eat; healthy ways of eating; healthy ways to eat; ways to eat healthy; benefits; benefits eating healthy; benefits for eating healthy; benefits from eating healthy; benefits of eating healthy; benefits of healthy eating; benefits on eating healthy; benefits to eating healthy; eating healthy benefits; health benefits of eating healthy; eat healthier; eat healthier; eating healthier; healthier eating; healthier ways to eat; how can I eat healthier; how do I eat healthier; how to eat healthier; how to start eating healthier; tips to eat healthier; ways to start eating healthier

  4. No efficacy of processed Fabuless (Olibra) in suppressing appetite or food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, H J; Keenan, E; Kovacs, E M R; Wiseman, S A; Peters, H P F; Mela, D J; Rogers, P J

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of Fabuless (previously called Olibra and Reducal) as a food ingredient for food intake and appetite reduction, by assessing the effects of food processing on efficacy. In total, 24 healthy volunteers (16 female, 8 male; age: 18-43 years; body mass index: 18-37 kg/m(2)) took part in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, cross-over trial. Yoghurt-based meal replacement drinks (containing processed or unprocessed Fabuless, or a control fat) were followed by an ad libitum lunch and evening meal (dinner). Key outcome measures were energy intake and self-reported appetite ratings. Compared with control, only unprocessed Fabuless reduced subsequent energy intake, although only during dinner (P processed and unprocessed: 4.3, 3.9 and 4.2 MJ, respectively) and not during lunch (3.6, 3.7 and 3.6 MJ). Self-reported appetite scores did not differ between treatments. Although modest effects of unprocessed Fabuless were seen on food intake, but not on appetite, the ingredient was not robust to common food-manufacturing processes (thermal and shear processing). Claims on reduced food intake and appetite relating to this ingredient in food products are, therefore, only valid if functionality has been demonstrated after all relevant processing and storage steps.

  5. Phoenixin-14 injected intracerebroventricularly but not intraperitoneally stimulates food intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalla, Martha; Prinz, Philip; Friedrich, Tiemo; Scharner, Sophie; Kobelt, Peter; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Phoenixin, a recently discovered 20-amino acid peptide was implicated in reproduction. However, the expression in food intake-regulatory nuclei such as the paraventricular nucleus, the arcuate nucleus and the nucleus of the solitary tract suggests an implication of phoenixin in food intake regulation. Therefore, we investigated the effects of phoenixin-14, the shorter form of phoenixin, on food intake following intracerebroventricular (icv) and intraperitoneal (ip) injection in ad libitum fed male Sprague-Dawley rats. Phoenixin-14 injected icv (0.2, 1.7 or 15nmol/rat) during the light phase induced a dose-dependent increase of light phase food intake reaching significance at a minimum dose of 1.7 nmol/rat (+72%, pfood intake microstructure showed an icv phoenixin-14-induced increase in meal size (+51%), meal duration (+157%), time spent in meals (+182%) and eating rate (+123%), while inter-meal intervals (-42%) and the satiety ratio (-64%) were decreased compared to vehicle (pfood intake was observed (p>0.05). The light phase icv phoenixin-14-induced increase of water intake did not reach statistical significance compared to vehicle (+136%, p>0.05). The increase of food intake following icv phoenixin-14 was not associated with a significant alteration of grooming behavior (0.4-fold, p=0.377) or locomotion (6-fold, p=0.066) compared to vehicle. When injected ip at higher doses (0.6, 5nmol/kg or 45nmol/kg body weight) during the light phase, phoenixin-14 did not affect food intake (p>0.05). In summary, phoenixin-14 exerts a centrally-mediated orexigenic effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hunger, taste, and normative cues in predictions about food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Reily, Natalie M; Spanos, Samantha; McGuirk, Lucy C; Herman, C Peter; Polivy, Janet

    2017-09-01

    Normative eating cues (portion size, social factors) have a powerful impact on people's food intake, but people often fail to acknowledge the influence of these cues, instead explaining their food intake in terms of internal (hunger) or sensory (taste) cues. This study examined whether the same biases apply when making predictions about how much food a person would eat. Participants (n = 364) read a series of vignettes describing an eating scenario and predicted how much food the target person would eat in each situation. Some scenarios consisted of a single eating cue (hunger, taste, or a normative cue) that would be expected to increase intake (e.g., high hunger) or decrease intake (e.g., a companion who eats very little). Other scenarios combined two cues that were in conflict with one another (e.g., high hunger + a companion who eats very little). In the cue-conflict scenarios involving an inhibitory internal/sensory cue (e.g., low hunger) with an augmenting normative cue (e.g., a companion who eats a lot), participants predicted a low level of food intake, suggesting a bias toward the internal/sensory cue. For scenarios involving an augmenting internal/sensory cue (e.g., high hunger) and an inhibitory normative cue (e.g., a companion who eats very little), participants predicted an intermediate level of food intake, suggesting that they were influenced by both the internal/sensory and normative cue. Overall, predictions about food intake tend to reflect a general bias toward internal/sensory cues, but also include normative cues when those cues are inhibitory. If people are systematically biased toward internal, sensory, and inhibitory cues, then they may underestimate how much food they or other people will eat in many situations, particularly when normative cues promoting eating are present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Picky eating: Associations with child eating characteristics and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Deming, Denise M; Lesniauskas, Ruta; Carr, B Thomas; Reidy, Kathleen C

    2016-08-01

    Food rejection behaviors such as picky eating are of concern for many parents and attempts to increase healthy food intake can cause distress at mealtimes. An important limitation in most of the picky eating studies is that they cover few characteristics of picky eating behaviors and use limited measures of food intake. The objective of this study was to explore the associations between picky eating, child eating characteristics, and food intake among toddlers 12-47.9 months old (n = 2371) using data from the 2008 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS). Logistic regression was used to examine associations between demographic and feeding characteristics and picky eater status. Differences in food group intake between picky and non-picky eaters were analyzed. Picky eaters were more likely to be neophobic, texture resistant, and to eat only favorite foods, In addition, the parents of picky eaters tend to offer new food a greater number of times than those of non-picky eaters before deciding that the child does not like it. Picky eaters showed significant lower intakes of eggs, burritos/tacos/enchiladas/nachos and sandwiches than non-picky eaters. Picky eaters consumed fewer vegetables from the "other vegetables" category and less raw vegetables than non-picky eaters. Neophobia, eating only favorite foods and difficulties with texture are all important characteristics of picky eaters which need to be integrated in studies measuring picky eating behaviors. Food intake of picky eaters differs only slightly from non-picky eaters. Because picky eating is a major parental concern, feeding strategies and advice related to the relevant characteristics of picky eating behavior need to be developed and assessed for their effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Good mood food. Positive emotion as a neglected trigger for food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke; de Ridder, Denise T D; de Witt Huberts, Jessie C

    2013-09-01

    Research on emotions as a trigger for food intake has mainly been focused on the role of negative emotions. In the present studies the role of positive emotions as a trigger for food intake is investigated in a sample of healthy participants with a normal weight. Two laboratory studies were conducted in which positive emotions or no emotions were induced (Study 1) or in addition negative emotions were induced (Study 2) after which unhealthy food intake was assessed by bogus taste tests. In Study 3, food intake was assessed by registering snack intake in a 7-day diary study together with the emotions accompanying each snacking episode to provide a more ecologically valid test of our hypothesis. Studies 1 and 2 showed that positive emotions, compared to the control conditions, evoked more caloric intake. Dietary restraint did not moderate this effect. Study 2 additionally showed that positive emotions evoked caloric intake to the same extent as negative emotions. Study 3 showed that snack intake in daily life was reported to result from positive emotions more frequently than from negative emotions. Positive emotions serve as an important but under-investigated trigger for unhealthy food intake that deserves further scrutiny. Future research should further investigate whether food intake results from emotional arousal in general, or from emotional valence in particular. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Measuring Food Intake and Nutrient Absorption in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Amaro, Rafael L; Valentine, Elizabeth R; Carretero, Maria; LeBoeuf, Sarah E; Rangaraju, Sunitha; Broaddus, Caroline D; Solis, Gregory M; Williamson, James R; Petrascheck, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans has emerged as a powerful model to study the genetics of feeding, food-related behaviors, and metabolism. Despite the many advantages of C. elegans as a model organism, direct measurement of its bacterial food intake remains challenging. Here, we describe two complementary methods that measure the food intake of C. elegans. The first method is a microtiter plate-based bacterial clearing assay that measures food intake by quantifying the change in the optical density of bacteria over time. The second method, termed pulse feeding, measures the absorption of food by tracking de novo protein synthesis using a novel metabolic pulse-labeling strategy. Using the bacterial clearance assay, we compare the bacterial food intake of various C. elegans strains and show that long-lived eat mutants eat substantially more than previous estimates. To demonstrate the applicability of the pulse-feeding assay, we compare the assimilation of food for two C. elegans strains in response to serotonin. We show that serotonin-increased feeding leads to increased protein synthesis in a SER-7-dependent manner, including proteins known to promote aging. Protein content in the food has recently emerged as critical factor in determining how food composition affects aging and health. The pulse-feeding assay, by measuring de novo protein synthesis, represents an ideal method to unequivocally establish how the composition of food dictates protein synthesis. In combination, these two assays provide new and powerful tools for C. elegans research to investigate feeding and how food intake affects the proteome and thus the physiology and health of an organism. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  10. Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated (FTO Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Physical Activity, Food Intake, Eating Behaviors, Psychological Health, and Modeled Change in Body Mass Index in Overweight/Obese Caucasian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janetta Harbron

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO gene is currently recognized as the most robust predictor of polygenic obesity. We investigated associations between the FTO rs1421085 and rs17817449 polymorphisms and the FTO rs1421085–rs17817449 haplotype and dietary intake, eating behavior, physical activity, and psychological health, as well as the effect of these associations on BMI. N = 133 treatment seeking overweight/obese Caucasian adults participated in this study. Genotyping was performed from whole blood samples. Weight and height was measured and a non-quantified food frequency questionnaire was completed to assess food group intake. Validated questionnaires were completed to assess physical activity (Baecke questionnaire, psychological health (General Health questionnaire, Rosenburg self-esteem scale and Beck Depression Inventory, and eating behavior (Three Factor Eating questionnaire. The risk alleles of the FTO polymorphisms were associated with poorer eating behaviors (higher hunger, internal locus for hunger, and emotional disinhibition scores, a higher intake of high fat foods and refined starches and more depressive symptoms. The modeled results indicate that interactions between the FTO polymorphisms or haplotypes and eating behavior, psychological health, and physical activity levels may be associated with BMI. The clinical significance of these results for implementation as part of weight management interventions needs further investigation.

  11. Aqueous Extract of Ipomoea batatas Reduces Food Intake in Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    have examined the effects on satiety, that is, how fixed amounts of carbohydrate or ... can reduce food intake: High-fiber foods take longer to eat; fiber decreases ... oxidative stress and to prevent the development of chronic diseases (such as ...

  12. Street foods contribute to nutrient intakes among children from rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contribution of Street Foods (SF) to the energy and nutrient intakes of young children in rural African communities has been understudied. Under the Enhancing Child Nutrition through Animal Source Food Management (ENAM) project, a microcredit and nutrition education intervention with caregivers of children 2-to ...

  13. Dietary intake of fruit in relation to body weight management among adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alinia, Sevil

    and relatively nutrient-dense foods and beverages such as vegetables, fruit juice and processed fruit and an inverse association between fruit intake and relatively nutrient-dilute foods and beverages such as soft drinks and snack foods as well as energy density and E% from fat. The feasibility study showed......The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults worldwide is high with an increasing trend. Therefore, effective strategies in relation to body weight management, targeting to maintain normal body weight and prevent excessive weight gain, are warranted. Reducing the energy density of the diet...... may aid to achieve these goals. Energy density of the diet can be reduced by substituting energy-dense food items with less energy-dense food items such as fruit and vegetables. Fruit and vegetables are considered as relatively low energy-dense food groups due to their high content of water...

  14. Protein Enrichment of Familiar Foods as an Innovative Strategy to Increase Protein Intake in Institutionalized Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beelen, J; de Roos, N M; de Groot, L C P G M

    2017-01-01

    To increase the protein intake of older adults, protein enrichment of familiar foods and drinks might be an effective and attractive alternative for oral nutritional supplements (ONS). We performed a pilot study to test whether these products could help institutionalized elderly to reach a protein intake of 1.2 gram per kg body weight per day (g/kg/d). Intervention study with one treatment group (no control group). Dietary assessment was done before and at the end of a 10-day intervention. Two care facilities in Gelderland, the Netherlands: a residential care home and a rehabilitation center. 22 elderly subjects (13 women, 9 men; mean age 83.0±9.4 years). We used a variety of newly developed protein enriched regular foods and drinks, including bread, soups, fruit juices, and instant mashed potatoes. Dietary intake was assessed on two consecutive days before and at the end of the intervention, using food records filled out by research assistants. Energy and macronutrient intake was calculated using the 2013 Dutch food composition database. Changes in protein intake were evaluated using paired t-tests. Protein intake increased by 11.8 g/d (P=0.003); from 0.96 to 1.14 g/kg/d (P=0.002). This increase is comparable to protein provided by one standard portion of ONS. The intake of energy and other macronutrients did not change significantly. At the end of the intervention more elderly reached a protein intake level of 1.2 g/kg/d than before (9 vs 4). Protein intake significantly increased during breakfast (+3.7 g) and during the evening (+2.2 g). Including familiar protein enriched foods and drinks in the menu helped to meet protein recommendations in institutionalized elderly.

  15. Effects of nicotine on homeostatic and hedonic components of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojakovic, Andrea; Espinosa, Enma P; Farhad, Osman T; Lutfy, Kabirullah

    2017-10-01

    Chronic tobacco use leads to nicotine addiction that is characterized by exaggerated urges to use the drug despite the accompanying negative health and socioeconomic burdens. Interestingly, nicotine users are found to be leaner than the general population. Review of the existing literature revealed that nicotine affects energy homeostasis and food consumption via altering the activity of neurons containing orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides in the brain. Hypothalamus is one of the critical brain areas that regulates energy balance via the action of these neuropeptides. The equilibrium between these two groups of peptides can be shifted by nicotine leading to decreased food intake and weight loss. The aim of this article is to review the existing literature on the effect of nicotine on food intake and energy homeostasis and report on the changes that nicotine brings about in the level of these peptides and their receptors that may explain changes in food intake and body weight induced by nicotine. Furthermore, we review the effect of nicotine on the hedonic aspect of food intake. Finally, we discuss the involvement of different subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the regulatory action of nicotine on food intake and energy homeostasis. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. FTO polymorphisms moderate the association of food reinforcement with energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Jennifer L; Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D; Sucheston, Lara; Singh, Prashant K; Salis, Robbert; Erbe, Richard W; Faith, Myles S; Allison, David B; Epstein, Leonard H

    2014-06-10

    Food reinforcement (RRVfood) is related to increased energy intake, cross-sectionally related to obesity, and prospectively related to weight gain. The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is related to elevated body mass index and increased energy intake. The primary purpose of the current study was to determine whether any of 68 FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or a FTO risk score moderate the association between food reinforcement and energy or macronutrient intake. Energy and macronutrient intake was measured using a laboratory ad libitum snack food consumption task in 237 adults of varying BMI. Controlling for BMI, the relative reinforcing value of reading (RRVreading) and proportion of African ancestry, RRVfood predicted 14.2% of the variance in energy intake, as well as predicted carbohydrate, fat, protein and sugar intake. In individual analyses, six FTO SNPs (rs12921970, rs9936768, rs12446047, rs7199716, rs8049933 and rs11076022, spanning approximately 251kbp) moderated the relationship between RRVfood and energy intake to predict an additional 4.9-7.4% of variance in energy intake. We created an FTO risk score based on 5 FTO SNPs (rs9939609, rs8050136, rs3751812, rs1421085, and rs1121980) that are related to BMI in multiple studies. The FTO risk score did not increase variance accounted for beyond individual FTO SNPs. rs12921970 and rs12446047 served as moderators of the relationship between RRVfood and carbohydrate, fat, protein, and sugar intake. This study shows for the first time that the relationship between RRVfood and energy intake is moderated by FTO SNPs. Research is needed to understand how these processes interact to predict energy and macronutrient intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Intake of probiotic food and risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Ronny; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Myking, Solveig; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian; Sengpiel, Verena; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Haugen, Margaretha; Jacobsson, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Preterm delivery represents a substantial problem in perinatal medicine worldwide. Current knowledge on potential influences of probiotics in food on pregnancy complications caused by microbes is limited. We hypothesized that intake of food with probiotics might reduce pregnancy complications caused by pathogenic microorganisms and, through this, reduce the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. This study was performed in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort on the basis of answers to a food-frequency questionnaire. We studied intake of milk-based products containing probiotic lactobacilli and spontaneous preterm delivery by using a prospective cohort study design (n = 950 cases and 17,938 controls) for the pregnancy outcome of spontaneous preterm delivery (delivery were associated with any intake of milk-based probiotic products in an adjusted model [odds ratio (OR): 0.857; 95% CI: 0.741, 0.992]. By categorizing intake into none, low, and high intakes of the milk-based probiotic products, a significant association was observed for high intake (OR: 0.820; 95% CI: 0.681, 0.986). Women who reported habitual intake of probiotic dairy products had a reduced risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.

  18. Selection of methodology to assess food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biró, G.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Ovesen, L.; Amorim Cruz, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the EFCOSUM project was to develop a method to estimate both acute and usual consumption levels in European countries and for the sake of comparison, a common basic method for dietary assessment was needed. The method should allow a reliable comparison of the intake of relevant

  19. Intake of bisphenol A from canned beverages and foods on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geens, Tinne; Apelbaum, Tali Zipora; Goeyens, Leo; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2010-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a contaminant which may be present in the coating of cans, was determined in 45 canned beverages and 21 canned food items from the Belgian market. Beverages had an average BPA concentration of 1.0 ng/ml, while canned foods had a higher average concentration of 40.3 ng/g. The amount of BPA present in food items was dependent on the type of can and sterilisation conditions rather than the type of food. For example, BPA was not detected in non-canned beverages (canned food items had a very low average concentration of 0.46 ng/g. Using detailed information from the Belgian food consumption survey, the BPA intake of adults through canned foods and beverages was estimated to be 1.05 µg/day or 0.015 µg/kg body weight/day (assuming an average adult weight of 70 kg). Intake assessments, based on urinary metabolite concentrations from the literature, resulted in slightly higher BPA intakes (range 0.028-0.059 µg/kg body weight/day). This suggests that sources other than canned foods and beverages contribute to BPA exposure in humans.

  20. Macronutrient and Major Food Group Intake in a Cohort of Southern Italian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Mulè

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary intake of macronutrient and foods is considered crucial to decrease the risk of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Methods: The aim of this study was to describe the intake of major food groups and macronutrients in a random sample of 1838 southern Italian adults. Results: No significant differences of macronutrient consumption between sexes were found. By contrast, younger individuals had significantly higher intake of animal protein than older ones. Men reported consuming significantly more total processed meats and less eggs than women; egg consumption significantly increased by age groups. Significantly lower intake of fruit in the younger age group compared to older ones was found. Various patterns of correlation between food groups were described. More than half of individuals reached the suggested recommendations for carbohydrate and fiber intake, and about two-thirds met the recommendations for total protein and cholesterol intake, while only a minority met for total fat intake. Total and plant protein, monounsaturated and omega-6 fatty acids, were significantly inversely related with BMI (body mass index, while trans fatty acids and cholesterol were directly correlated. A direct association with unprocessed meats and an inverse association with processed meats was also found. Conclusions: The overall findings suggest that relatively healthy dietary habits are common in southern Italy.

  1. Eating behavior dimensions. Associations with energy intake and body weight. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A; Epstein, Leonard H; Jeffery, Robert W; Blundell, John E; Wardle, Jane

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to spark integrative thinking in the area of eating behaviors by critically examining research on exemplary constructs in this area. The eating behaviors food responsiveness, enjoyment of eating, satiety responsiveness, eating in the absence of hunger, reinforcing value of food, eating disinhibition and impulsivity/self-control are reviewed in relation to energy intake, body mass index and weight gain over time. Each of these constructs has been developed independently, and little research has explored the extent to which they overlap or whether they differentially predict food choices, energy intake and weight gain in the naturalistic environment. Most available data show positive cross-sectional associations with body mass index, but fewer studies report associations with energy intake or food choices. Little prospective data are available to link measures of eating behaviors with weight gain. Disinhibition has the largest and most consistent body of empirical data that link it prospectively with weight gain. An overarching conceptual model to integrate the conceptual and empirical research base for the role of eating behavior dimensions in the field of obesity research would highlight potential patterns of interaction between individual differences in eating behaviors, specific aspects of the individual's food environment and individual variation in state levels of hunger and satiety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Eating Behavior Dimensions: Associations With Energy Intake And Body Weight: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A.; Epstein, Leonard H; Jeffery, Robert W.; Blundell, John E.; Wardle, Jane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to spark integrative thinking in the area of eating behaviors by critically examining research on exemplary constructs in this area. The eating behaviors food responsiveness, enjoyment of eating, satiety responsiveness, eating in the absence of hunger, reinforcing value of food, eating disinhibition and impulsivity/self-control are reviewed in relation to energy intake, body mass index and weight gain over time. Each of these constructs has been developed independently, and little research has explored the extent to which they overlap or whether they differentially predict food choices, energy intake and weight gain in the naturalistic environment. Most available data show positive cross-sectional associations with body mass index, but fewer studies report associations with energy intake or food choices. Little prospective data are available to link measures of eating behaviors with weight gain. Disinhibition has the largest and most consistent body of empirical data that link it prospectively with weight gain. An overarching conceptual model to integrate the conceptual and empirical research base for the role of eating behavior dimensions in the field of obesity research would highlight potential patterns of interaction between individual differences in eating behaviors, specific aspects of the individual’s food environment and individual variation in state levels of hunger and satiety. PMID:22796186

  3. Body composition and dietary intake in neoplasic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Gartenhaus, W.; Vartsky, D.; Sawitsky, A.; Zanzi, I.; Vaswani, A.; Yasummure, S.; Rai, K.; Cartes, E.; Ellis, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Changes in body composition in 37 cancer patients were studied over a period of 6 months. Initially, the patients were divided into two groups: those who lost body weight (over 10%) and those who maintained or gained body weight before the study. Analysis of body composition indicated that patients who lost body weight has caloric and protein intakes markedly below ''normal'' levels at the beginning of the study. There also appears to be a direct relationship between the protein intake and the total body potassium/total body water ratio in the cancer patients. At the end of the 6-month study, the patients were again placed into two groups on the basis of weight loss or gain (and maintenance). Changes in body composition over the period were analyzed in terms of lean body mass, its protein constituent, water, and fat. Weight loss was found to reflect primarily the loss of fat, water, lean body mass (potassium), and only to a minor extent the protein component of lean body mass (nitrogen). Further, on the basis of the values of the ratios of total body nitrogen/total body potassium/total body water, it was possible to ascertain the relative normalcy of the body tissue gained or lost in the 6-month period. The results of the study suggest that the ratio total body nitrogen/total body potassium may serve as the best indicator of recent or ongoing catabolism or anabolism of the neoplastic process. By means of the application of the techniques used for the determination of body composition, it should be possible to assess regimes of hyperalimentation of cancer patients who lose body weight

  4. A novel approach for food intake detection using electroglottography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Fontana, Juan M; Sazonov, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Many methods for monitoring diet and food intake rely on subjects self-reporting their daily intake. These methods are subjective, potentially inaccurate and need to be replaced by more accurate and objective methods. This paper presents a novel approach that uses an electroglottograph (EGG) device for an objective and automatic detection of food intake. Thirty subjects participated in a four-visit experiment involving the consumption of meals with self-selected content. Variations in the electrical impedance across the larynx caused by the passage of food during swallowing were captured by the EGG device. To compare performance of the proposed method with a well-established acoustical method, a throat microphone was used for monitoring swallowing sounds. Both signals were segmented into non-overlapping epochs of 30 s and processed to extract wavelet features. Subject-independent classifiers were trained, using artificial neural networks, to identify periods of food intake from the wavelet features. Results from leave-one-out cross validation showed an average per-epoch classification accuracy of 90.1% for the EGG-based method and 83.1% for the acoustic-based method, demonstrating the feasibility of using an EGG for food intake detection. (paper)

  5. Fatty acid-induced astrocyte ketone production and the control of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Foll, Christelle; Levin, Barry E

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and Type 2 diabetes are major worldwide public health issues today. A relationship between total fat intake and obesity has been found. In addition, the mechanisms of long-term and excessive high-fat diet (HFD) intake in the development of obesity still need to be elucidated. The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is a major site involved in the regulation of glucose and energy homeostasis where "metabolic sensing neurons" integrate metabolic signals from the periphery. Among these signals, fatty acids (FA) modulate the activity of VMH neurons using the FA translocator/CD36, which plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis. During low-fat diet (LFD) intake, FA are oxidized by VMH astrocytes to fuel their ongoing metabolic needs. However, HFD intake causes VMH astrocytes to use FA to generate ketone bodies. We postulate that these astrocyte-derived ketone bodies are exported to neurons where they produce excess ATP and reactive oxygen species, which override CD36-mediated FA sensing and act as a signal to decrease short-term food intake. On a HFD, VMH astrocyte-produced ketones reduce elevated caloric intake to LFD levels after 3 days in rats genetically predisposed to resist (DR) diet-induced obesity (DIO), but not leptin-resistant DIO rats. This suggests that, while VMH ketone production on a HFD can contribute to protection from obesity, the inherent leptin resistance overrides this inhibitory action of ketone bodies on food intake. Thus, astrocytes and neurons form a tight metabolic unit that is able to monitor circulating nutrients to alter food intake and energy homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Food design strategies to increase vegetable intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliviero, Teresa; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Public campaigns promoting consumption of fruits and vegetables had limited results as consumers habits are difficult to modify. The incorporation of fruits and vegetables into regularly eaten products is a food design strategy that leads to several advantages. Pasta is a staple food

  7. Dietary Intake Contributions of Food and Beverages by Source and Food Security Status in US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spees, Colleen K; Clark, Jill E; Hooker, Neal H; Watowicz, Rosanna P; Taylor, Christopher A

    2017-09-01

    To compare the consumption patterns and diet quality of foods and beverages obtained from various sources by food security status. Cross-sectional analysis of 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. A total of 4,789 adults (aged >19 years) with dietary intake and food security data. The contribution of foods and beverages to energy, nutrients, and diet quality by locations where food was obtained was compared across food security status. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression. Almost all US adults consumed food and beverages obtained from grocery stores, regardless of food security status (about 95%), which accounted for one half to two thirds of total macronutrient intakes. The diet quality of foods from grocery stores was better in highly food-secure adults. Convenience stores are used most by very low food-secure adults; those foods had the poorest diet quality profile. Dietary patterns of marginally food-secure adults more closely resembled sources and intakes of low and very low food-secure adults. Food-insecure adults use food sources differently, resulting in diet quality differences of foods and beverages obtained. Place-based interventions in the food environment may have differential effects by food security status. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The combined effects of exercise and food intake on adipose tissue and splanchnic metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Simonsen, L; Macdonald, I A

    2004-01-01

    were measured by Fick's Principle. Food intake before exercise reduced whole-body lipid combustion during exercise to about 50% of the combustion rate found during exercise in the fasted state. The increase in subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis during exercise was not influenced...... by preexercise food intake, while the fatty acid mobilization was increased by only 1.5-fold during postprandial exercise compared to a fourfold increase during exercise in the fasted state. During exercise, catecholamine concentrations increased similarly in the fasted and the postprandial state, while...... for by changes in the regional splanchnic tissue or adipose tissue triacylglycerol metabolism. Exercise was able to increase hepatic glucose production irrespective of food intake before exercise. It is concluded that exercise performed in the fasted state shortly before a meal leads to a more favourable lipid...

  9. Alleviation in the rat of a GABA-induced reduction in food intake and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tews, J K; Repa, J J; Harper, A E

    1984-07-01

    Cold exposure and diet dilution which stimulate food intake of normal rats lessened depressions of food intake and growth induced by dietary GABA. During a 3-day adaptation to the cold, rats fed a diet containing 4.5% GABA lost weight; thereafter, food intake and growth rate differed little from those of cold control rats and were usually greater than those of normal rats fed GABA. Hepatic GABA-aminotransferase activity of cold-exposed rats fed the GABA diet increased to about twice that of normal control rats. Rats fed a control diet diluted by half with cellulose ate 50% more of this diet than of the undiluted diet but gained only 20% less weight. Rats ate twice as much of a diluted, 9% GABA diet as of an undiluted, 4.5% GABA diet (thus doubling their GABA intake) and gained three times as much weight. A novel food (condensed milk) barely lessened the adverse responses to GABA. These results show that conditions requiring rats to increase their food intake in order to maintain body weight can also increase their acceptance of a diet high in GABA.

  10. Food intake and blood cholesterol levels of community-based adults with mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davison Karen M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of literature links nutrition to mood, especially in epidemiological surveys, but there is little information characterizing food intake in people with diagnosed mood disorders. Methods Food intake obtained from 3-day food records was evaluated in 97 adults with mood disorders, whose diagnoses were confirmed in structured interviews. Information from a population nutrition survey, national guidelines for nutritional intakes (Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide and North American dietary guidelines (Dietary Reference Intakes was utilized to evaluate the quality of their food intake. Results Compared to the regional nutrition survey data and national guidelines, a greater proportion of study participants consumed fewer of the recommended servings of grains (p p p p p p 5.2 and ≤ 6.2 mmol/L and 21% had hypercholesterolemia (> 6.2 mmol/L. Conclusions Much research has proposed multiple ways in which healthier diets may exert protective effects on mental health. The results of this study suggest that adults with mood disorders could benefit from nutritional interventions to improve diet quality.

  11. Hunger and food intake following consumption of low-calorie foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, B J; Laster, L J; Summerfelt, A

    1989-10-01

    Although high-intensity sweeteners are widely used to decrease the energy density of foods, little is known about how this affects hunger and food intake. We have studied the effects of consumption of commercially available foods sweetened with either sucrose or aspartame on subjective appetite ratings and food intake. When normal-weight non-dieting males and females were given large portions of either a high- or low-calorie pudding or jello and instructed to eat as much as they liked, they ate similar weights of the different caloric versions of each food. Despite the resulting difference in caloric intake (up to 206 kcal), subjects showed only a non-significant trend towards caloric compensation when presented with a variety of foods 2 h later. Total caloric intake (preload plus test meal) did not differ between conditions. Ratings of hunger, desire to eat, the amount subjects wanted to eat, and the pleasantness of the taste of the eaten food were similarly decreased and fullness similarly increased by consumption of the different caloric versions of the foods. Awareness of the caloric content of the foods did not influence intake or appetite in that both informed and uniformed subjects responded similarly in the tests. Thus reduced calorie foods suppressed ratings of hunger for several hours after consumption, but were not associated with a significant reduction in total energy intake.

  12. The effects of specified chemical meals on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, H S; Maggio, C A

    1978-10-01

    Rats received intragastric infusions of various specified chemical meals and were subsequently tested for a reduction in food intake. A second experiment, using a novel technique, tested for conditioned aversion to the meal infusions. The nonnutritive substances, kaolin clay and emulsified fluorocarbon, had no significant effect on food intake. Infusions of 1 M glucose and 1 M sorbitol reduced feeding behavior, but the 1 M sorbitol infusion also produced a conditioned aversion to flavored pellets paired with the sorbitol infusion, showing that the reduced feeding could have been caused by discomfort. Infusion of a high-fat meal consisting of emulsified triolein mixed with small amounts of sugar and protein or the rat's normal liquid diet, Nutrament, also reduced food intake, and both infusions failed to produce a conditioned aversion. The use of specified meals to understand the chemical basis of satiety requires a sensitive behavioral test to establish that the meal does not cause discomfort or other nonspecific effects.

  13. Neuromedin U inhibits food intake partly by inhibiting gastric emptying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbøge, Louise S; Pedersen, Søren L; Secher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    the use of a NMU analog as drug candidate for treatment of obesity and diabetes. Finally mRNA expression of NMU and NMUR1 in the gut and NMUR2 in the hypothalamus was investigated using a novel chromogen-based in situ hybridization (ISH) assay. Effects on food intake (6 and 18h post dosing) were addressed......Neuromedin U (NMU) is a gut-brain peptide, implicated in energy and glucose homeostasis via the peripherally expressed NMU receptor 1 (NMUR1) and the central NMUR2. We investigated the effects of a lipidated NMU analog on gastric emptying (GE), glucose homeostasis and food intake to evaluate...... in both mice and rats. The effects on GE and glycaemic control were assessed in mice, immediately after the first dose and after seven days of bidaily (BID) dosing. The lipidated NMU analog exerted robust reductions in GE and food intake in mice and improved glycaemic control when measured immediately...

  14. Container size influences snack food intake independently of portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Corneille, Olivier; Klein, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    While larger containers have been found to increase food intake, it is unclear whether this effect is driven by container size, portion size, or their combination, as these variables are usually confounded. The study was advertised as examining the effects of snack food consumption on information processing and participants were served M&M's for free consumption in individual cubicles while watching a TV show. Participants were served (1) a medium portion of M&M's in a small (n=30) or (2) in a large container (n=29), or (3) a large portion in a large container (n=29). The larger container increased intake by 129% (199 kcal) despite holding portion size constant, while controlling for different confounding variables. This research suggests that larger containers stimulate food intake over and above their impact on portion size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of caffeine and Bombesin on ethanol and food intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietze, M.A.; Kulkosky, P.J. (Univ. of Southern Colorado, Pueblo (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The methylxanthine caffeine and ethyl alcohol are widely used and powerful psychotropic drugs, but their interactions are not well understood. Bombesin is a brain-gut neuropeptide which is thought to function as a neurochemical factor in the inhibitory control of voluntary alcohol ingestion. We assessed the effects of combinations of intraperitoneal doses of caffeine and bombesin on 5% w/v ethanol solution and food intake in deprived rats. Deprived male and female Wistar rats received access to 5% ethanol or Purina chow for 30 minutes after i.p. injections. In single doses, CAF and BBS significantly decreased both ethanol and food consumption, at 50 mg/kg and 10 {mu}g/kg, respectively. CAF and BBS combinations produced infra-additive, or less-than-expected inhibitory effects on ethanol intake, but simple additive inhibitory effects on food intake. This experimental evidence suggests a reciprocal blocking of effects of CAF and BBS on ethanol intake but not food intake. Caffeine, when interacting and bombesin, increases alcohol consumption beyond expected values. Caffeine could affect the operation of endogenous satisfy signals for alcohol consumption.

  16. Dietary Intake and Associated Body Weight in Canadian Undergraduate Students Enrolled in Nutrition Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frehlich, Levi C; Eller, Lindsay K; Parnell, Jill A; Fung, Tak S; Reimer, Raylene A

    2017-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to describe dietary intakes among Canadian undergraduate students enrolled in an Introductory Nutrition course. A secondary objective was to determine food group servings associated with meeting more Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) of select nutrients and with a lower body mass index (BMI). Participants (n = 124, 20.7±3.2yrs) provided output from a 3-day dietary record and completed a physical activity/demographics questionnaire. Linear regression showed that the dietary intake associated with meeting the most DRIs included vegetables, fruits, protein foods, and dairy (p = 0.001). Protein foods were a positive predictor and fruit a negative predictor of BMI (p = 0.001 and p = 0.023 respectively). Males consumed more grains (p = 0.001), dairy (p = 0.04), protein foods (p empty calories (p = 0.007) and total calories than females (p < 0.001). A diet characterized by greater intake of vegetables, fruits, protein foods, and dairy was associated with a Canadian undergraduate population meeting the greatest number of nutrient requirements.

  17. Effect of day-night cycle on distribution of food intake and economic choice among imposed food opportunities in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaya, Dulce M; Rowland, Neil E; Robertson, Kimberly L

    2016-10-01

    We have shown previously that mice given access to four discrete feeding opportunities (FOs) per day show a characteristic sequence of sizes across ordinal FOs. The purpose of the present experiments was to determine the relative contributions of external and internal factors on the sequencing of FO size. The external factors were the light:dark Zeitgeber and the cost of food, imposed via different fixed unit prices (FUP) in a closed operant economy, and the internal factors were signals relating to energy status including time since last food and weight loss. In the first experiment, mice were given 4 FOs spaced 4-h apart, but with the timing of the FOs relative to the Zeitgeber altered by a 4-h Zeitgeber advance or delay of the cycle. Food intake, and associated body weight, declined as price increased, but the temporal order of FO size was invariant within a Zeitgeber condition. The Zeitgeber advanced group showed clear evidence of a shift in meal sequence relating to the light:dark cycle. Thus, external factors seem to be a more important determinant of total intake and sequencing than internal factors. In the second experiment, mice were given the choice between continuous costly (CC) and intermittent inexpensive (II) food. II food was available for four-15min intervals every 4-h, and the timing of the 15min intervals was varied relative to the Zeitgeber cycle. In spite of a 20-fold difference in price between CC and II food, mice took approximately equal amounts from each, and all food intake took place during the dark phase. Mice consumed II food only if it was available during the dark phase. Food intake was strongly linked to the light:dark cycle, largely independent of food cost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of food intake on left ventricular wall stress

    OpenAIRE

    Gårdinger, Ylva; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Björgell, Ola; Dencker, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Left ventricular wall stress has been investigated in a variety of populations, but the effect of food intake has not been evaluated. We assessed whether left ventricular wall stress is affected by food intake in healthy subjects. Methods: Twenty-three healthy subjects aged 25.6 +/- 4.5 years were investigated. Meridional end-systolic wall stress (ESS) and circumferential end-systolic wall stress (cESS) were measured before, 30 minutes after, and 110 minutes after a standardised me...

  19. Fast food intake in Canada: Differences among Canadians with diverse demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Billette, Jean-Michel

    2015-02-03

    To estimate the contribution of fast food to daily energy intake, and compare intake among Canadians with varied demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics. Using the National Cancer Institute method, nationally representative estimates of mean usual daily caloric intake from fast food were derived from 24-hour dietary recall data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2 (n = 17,509) among participants age ≥ 2 years. Mean daily intake and relative proportion of calories derived from fast food were compared among respondents with diverse demographic (age, sex, provincial and rural/urban residence), socio-economic (income, education, food security status) and health and lifestyle characteristics (physical activity, fruit/vegetable intake, vitamin/ mineral supplement use, smoking, binge drinking, body mass index (BMI), self-rated health and dietary quality). On average, Canadians reported consuming 146 kcal/day from fast food, contributing to 6.3% of usual energy intake. Intake was highest among male teenagers (248 kcal) and lowest among women ≥ 70 years of age (32 kcal). Fast food consumption was significantly higher among respondents who reported lower fruit and vegetable intake, poorer dietary quality, binge drinking, not taking vitamin/mineral supplements (adults only), and persons with higher BMI. Socio-economic status, physical activity, smoking and self-rated health were not significantly associated with fast food intake. While average Canadian fast food consumption is lower than national US estimates, intake was associated with lower dietary quality and higher BMI. Findings suggest that research and intervention strategies should focus on dietary practices of children and adolescents, whose fast food intakes are among the highest in Canada.

  20. Influence of Percieved body Image on Nutrient Intake and Nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the perceived body image of Moi University undergraduate female students and its influence on their nutrient intake and nutritional health. Methods: Cross sectional Survey was done on 260 female students of Moi University aged 20-25. Stratified followed by systematic ...

  1. Feed intake, live mass-gain, body composition and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed intake, live mass-gain, body composition and protein deposition in pigs fed three protein levels. E.H. Kemm,* F.K. Siebrits, M.N. Ras and H.A. Badenhorst. Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene 1675, Republic of South Africa. A group of 82 genetically lean and 90 obese Landrace pigs was ...

  2. Inhibitory effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have previously shown, using a 99m-Tc scrambled egg meal, that pentose sugars (i.e. xylose and arabinose) markedly prolong gastric emptying. Others have reported that slowing of gastric emptying may decrease appetite and thus decrease food intake. In the present study, the authors utilized the effects of xylitol (an FDA-approved pentose sugar) on gastric emptying to study the correlation between gastric emptying and food intake. Initially, gastric emptying was measured in human volunteers utilizing a standardized 99m-Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in food intake (892 +- 65 kcal with water vs 654 +- 26 kcal following the ingestion of 25 gm xylitol (p<0.05). We conclude that the effect of pentose sugars in prolonging gastric emptying directly influences food intake and contributes to early satiety. The data suggest a role of xylitol as an essentially non-caloric food additive potentially important in diet control

  3. Inhibitory effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have previously shown, using a 99m-Tc scrambled egg meal, that pentose sugars (i.e. xylose and arabinose) markedly prolong gastric emptying. Others have reported that slowing of gastric emptying may decrease appetite and thus decrease food intake. In the present study, the authors utilized the effects of xylitol (an FDA-approved pentose sugar) on gastric emptying to study the correlation between gastric emptying and food intake. Initially, gastric emptying was measured in human volunteers utilizing a standardized 99m-Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in food intake (892 +- 65 kcal with water vs 654 +- 26 kcal following the ingestion of 25 gm xylitol (p<0.05). We conclude that the effect of pentose sugars in prolonging gastric emptying directly influences food intake and contributes to early satiety. The data suggest a role of xylitol as an essentially non-caloric food additive potentially important in diet control.

  4. Preference or fat? Revisiting opioid effects on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Sharif A

    2010-07-14

    It is well established that opioid signaling in the central nervous system constitutes a powerful stimulus for food intake. The role of opioids in determining food preference, however, is less well defined. Opioids have been proposed to promote intake of preferred foods, or, alternatively, to preferentially increase consumption of fat. In the present manuscript, I comprehensively review results from previous studies investigating this issue. Data from these studies suggests a mechanism for opioid action that may reconcile the previously proposed hypotheses: opioid effects on food intake do appear to be largely specific for fat consumption, but individual animals' sensitivity to this effect may be dependent on baseline food preferences. In addition, I highlight the possibility that the selectivity of endogenous opioid effects may importantly differ from that of exogenous agonists in the degree to which baseline preferences, rather than macronutrient intake, are altered. The paper represents an invited review by a symposium, award winner or keynote speaker at the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior [SSIB] Annual Meeting in Portland, July 2009. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Daily intakes of naturally occurring radioisotopes in typical Korean foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Min-Seok; Lin Xiujing; Lee, Sun Ah; Kim, Wan; Kang, Hee-Dong; Doh, Sih-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Lee, Dong-Myung

    2008-01-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radioisotopes ( 232 Th, 228 Th, 230 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, and 40 K) in typical Korean foods were evaluated. The daily intakes of these radioisotopes were calculated by comparing concentrations in typical Korean foods and the daily consumption rates of these foods. Daily intakes were as follows: 232 Th, 0.00-0.23; 228 Th, 0.00-2.04; 230 Th, 0.00-0.26; 228 Ra, 0.02-2.73; 226 Ra, 0.01-4.37 mBq/day; and 40 K, 0.01-5.71 Bq/day. The total daily intake of the naturally occurring radioisotopes measured in this study from food was 39.46 Bq/day. The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotopes in food was 109.83 μSv/y, and the radioisotope with the highest daily intake was 40 K. These values were same level compiled in other countries

  6. Dioxins: validation of food frequency questionnaire and intake in a group of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Joanna; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata; Helbin, Jadwiga; Potocki, Artur

    2017-09-21

    A lot of has been heard about dioxins and dioxins-like compounds. These molecules are typically connected in public awareness with affairs. The main source of dioxins for humans is food (90% of typical exposition); thus, assessment of dioxins intake and monitoring of levels of dioxins in food remain an important issue. The aim of the presented work was checking the reproducibility of the authors' semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, focusing on products that may contain dioxins and related compounds among adolescents. The uptake of these compounds was also assessed using obtained data. For survey purposes, an album of food products from the questionnaire was constructed. A modified semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was constructed and distributed twice in a 2-week time span among 55, 15-year-old, students of secondary schools. The correlation coefficient for both declared frequencies and assessed amounts in the case of the majority of food items was above 0.70. The average assessed intake of dioxins and related compounds was 1.57pgWHO-TEQ/kg body weight per day, and 1.85 pgWHO-TEQ/kg body weight per day, during test and retest, respectively. The modified semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire is a reproducible tool that can be used for adolescents. Average intake in the analyzed group was lower than the Tolerable Daily Intake, but in contrast to other countries remains one of the highest intakes in a comparable age group. The main sources of dioxins exposition were fish (38%), and meat products.

  7. Sensory influences on food intake control: moving beyond palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrickerd, K; Forde, C G

    2016-01-01

    The sensory experience of eating is an important determinant of food intake control, often attributed to the positive hedonic response associated with certain sensory cues. However, palatability is just one aspect of the sensory experience. Sensory cues based on a food's sight, smell, taste and texture are operational before, during and after an eating event. The focus of this review is to look beyond palatability and highlight recent advances in our understanding of how certain sensory characteristics can be used to promote better energy intake control. We consider the role of visual and odour cues in identifying food in the near environment, guiding food choice and memory for eating, and highlight the ways in which tastes and textures influence meal size and the development of satiety after consumption. Considering sensory characteristics as a functional feature of the foods and beverages we consume provides the opportunity for research to identify how sensory enhancements might be combined with energy reduction in otherwise palatable foods to optimize short-term energy intake regulation in the current food environment. Moving forward, the challenge for sensory nutritional science will be to assess the longer-term impact of these principles on weight management. © 2015 World Obesity.

  8. Food intake patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese adults: analyses from the 2012 National Health and nutrition survey, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Htun, Nay Chi; Suga, Hitomi; Imai, Shino; Shimizu, Wakana; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2017-01-01

    Background There is an increasing global interest in the role of Japanese diet as a possible explanation for the nation?s healthy diet, which contributes to the world?s highest life-expectancy enjoyed in Japan. However, nationwide studies on current food intake status among general Japanese population have not been established yet. This study examined the association between food intake patterns and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) such as waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), bl...

  9. Hemodialysis duration impairs food intake and nutritional parameters in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekki, Khedidja; Remaoun, Mustapha; Belleville, Jacques; Bouchenak, Malika

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hemodialysis (HD) duration on food intake and nutritional markers in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Twenty CKD patients received maintenance HD over a 9-year period. At the beginning of the study (T0) and at 3-year intervals (T1, T2, and T3) during the 9-year follow-up, a nutritional survey using the 24-h recall and record method was repeated for 4 days, and the blood samples were drawn. The results from T0 were used as references. Nutritional status was assessed through food intake, nutritional markers (urea, uric acid, creatinine, cholesterol, total protein, and albumin), and anthropometric measurements (height, dry weight, and body mass index). HD duration was correlated with energy intake (r = -0.89, P protein intake (r = -0.50, P intakes were noted in patients at T1 (-8%), T2 (-38%), and T3 (-59%) with decreased fiber intakes. Lipid intake was diminished by 11, 17, and 25% in patients, respectively, at T1, T2, and T3. The consumption of milk and dairy products, meats, fish, eggs, fruits, vegetables, and fat was reduced at T1, T2, and T3. In conclusion, long-term HD fails to correct undernutrition caused by CKD. Long-term dialysis complications could be reduced with preventive measures, including the use of biocompatible membranes and high-dose dialysis. Consequently, patients could experience a decreased prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition.

  10. Understanding the Relationship Between Food Variety, Food Intake, and Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A; Vadiveloo, Maya

    2018-03-01

    In accordance with US dietary guidance, incorporating variety into the diet can align with energy balance, though greater food variety in some categories may make energy balance more challenging. Thus, experimental and epidemiologic evidence is summarized on the relationship between food variety, food and energy intake, and energy balance. Lab-based, experimental research consistently demonstrates that greater variety within foods or sensory characteristics of food increases food and energy intake within an eating occasion. Epidemiologic evidence is less consistent, potentially driven by differing methodologies, particularly in defining and measuring food variety. Moreover, the effect of variety on energy balance appears to be moderated by food energy density. Integrating insights from experimental and epidemiologic research are essential for strengthening food variety guidance including developing evidence-based definitions of food variety, understanding moderators of the relationship, and developing practical guidance interpretable to consumers.

  11. Incorporation of air into a snack food reduces energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterholt, Kathrin M; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2007-05-01

    This study investigated how the air content of a familiar snack food affected energy intake and whether varying the method of serving the snack modified intake. We tested two versions of an extruded snack (cheese puffs) that were equal in energy density (5.7 kcal/g), but differed in energy per volume (less-aerated snack: 1.00 kcal/ml; more-aerated snack: 0.45 kcal/ml). In a within-subjects design, 16 women and 12 men consumed the snacks ad libitum in the laboratory during four afternoon sessions. A standard volume (1250 ml) of each snack was served once in a bowl and once in an opaque bag. Results showed significant differences in intake of the two snacks by energy (p=0.0003) and volume (psnack than the less-aerated snack, although they consumed a 73% greater volume of the more-aerated snack (239+/-24 ml). These findings suggest that subjects responded to both the weight and volume of the snack. Despite differences in intake, hunger and fullness ratings did not differ across conditions. The serving method did not significantly affect intake. Results from this study indicate that incorporating air into food provides a strategy to reduce energy intake from energy-dense snacks.

  12. The role of sweet and savoury taste in food intake and food preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Griffioen-Roose, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aim The sensory attributes of food play a key role in the selection and termination of meals and their rewarding properties. The majority of our foods are either sweet or savoury tasting. In addition, within our food range, savoury-tasting foods contain in general higher levels of protein. The effect of specific taste modalities on human food intake, however, requires further clarification. The primary aim of this thesis was to investigate the role of sweet and savoury taste ...

  13. Ghrelin affects stopover decisions and food intake in a long-distance migrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goymann, Wolfgang; Lupi, Sara; Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Fusani, Leonida

    2017-02-21

    Billions of birds migrate long distances to either reach breeding areas or to spend the winter at more benign places. On migration, most passerines frequently stop over to rest and replenish their fuel reserves. To date, we know little regarding how they decide that they are ready to continue their journey. What physiological signals tell a bird's brain that its fuel reserves are sufficient to resume migration? A network of hormones regulates food intake and body mass in vertebrates, including the recently discovered peptide hormone, ghrelin. Here, we show that ghrelin reflects body condition and influences migratory behavior of wild birds. We measured ghrelin levels of wild garden warblers ( Sylvia borin ) captured at a stopover site. Further, we manipulated blood concentrations of ghrelin to test its effects on food intake and migratory restlessness. We found that acylated ghrelin concentrations of garden warblers with larger fat scores were higher than those of birds without fat stores. Further, injections of unacylated ghrelin decreased food intake and increased migratory restlessness. These results represent experimental evidence that appetite-regulating hormones control migratory behavior. Our study lays a milestone in migration physiology because it provides the missing link between ecologically dependent factors such as condition and timing of migration. In addition, it offers insights in the regulation of the hormonal system controlling food intake and energy stores in vertebrates, whose disruption causes eating disorders and obesity.

  14. Quantitative food frequency questionnaire and assessment of dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, S; Goyle, A; Gupta, R

    1998-01-01

    India is a land of varied foods and food habits. This makes the task of collecting dietary and nutrient intake data difficult. Methods need to be devised to improve the accuracy in reporting intakes by various population subgroups. There is an urgent need to develop a questionnaire that is simple enough to be administered on a large sample and whose validity and reproducibility has been quantified. Regional differences in food habits and availability will have to be taken into account in the questionnaire design. Packaging of food items with definite portion sizes is not a common practice in Indian markets and labels on food products are neither very informative nor descriptive. Epidemiologists addressing the effects of diet have generally used questionnaires that inquire about the frequency of specified foods consumed and sometimes also attempt to quantify usual portion sizes. A number of investigators have conveyed, apparently independently, that the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) as a method of dietary assessment is best suited for most epidemiological applications. A food frequency list can form the basis for nutrition education and allows the dietician and the patient to relate individual eating patterns to specific foods. Other advantages of the FFQ are that it is independent of the ability or inclination of an individual to maintain a diary and also provides immediate feedback to patients, physicians and counsellors.

  15. Radioactive contamination of food and the intake by man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frissel, M.J.; Blaauboer, R.O.; Koester, H.W.; Leenhouts, H.P.; Stoutjesdijk, J.F.; Vaas, L.H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the different pathways by which food is contaminated after a release of radionuclides into the environment. Equations to calculate the contamination level, as well as the most important parameters used in these equations, are included. Thereupon is explained how the radiation dose can be calculated from the intake of radioactivity. The principles which are used to derive criteria for the amounts of radioactivity which are allowed in food are described. (author)

  16. Meal Microstructure Characterization from Sensor-Based Food Intake Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul Doulah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To avoid the pitfalls of self-reported dietary intake, wearable sensors can be used. Many food ingestion sensors offer the ability to automatically detect food intake using time resolutions that range from 23 ms to 8 min. There is no defined standard time resolution to accurately measure ingestive behavior or a meal microstructure. This paper aims to estimate the time resolution needed to accurately represent the microstructure of meals such as duration of eating episode, the duration of actual ingestion, and number of eating events. Twelve participants wore the automatic ingestion monitor (AIM and kept a standard diet diary to report their food intake in free-living conditions for 24 h. As a reference, participants were also asked to mark food intake with a push button sampled every 0.1 s. The duration of eating episodes, duration of ingestion, and number of eating events were computed from the food diary, AIM, and the push button resampled at different time resolutions (0.1–30s. ANOVA and multiple comparison tests showed that the duration of eating episodes estimated from the diary differed significantly from that estimated by the AIM and the push button (p-value <0.001. There were no significant differences in the number of eating events for push button resolutions of 0.1, 1, and 5 s, but there were significant differences in resolutions of 10–30s (p-value <0.05. The results suggest that the desired time resolution of sensor-based food intake detection should be ≤5 s to accurately detect meal microstructure. Furthermore, the AIM provides more accurate measurement of the eating episode duration than the diet diary.

  17. Sex differences in young adults' snack food intake after food commercial exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; van der Zwaluw, Carmen S; van Strien, Tatjana

    Exposure to food commercials on television is considered to be related to elevated snack food intake in front of the television. However, this assumed relation has as yet not been fully established. The present study, therefore examined the direct effects of watching television food commercials on

  18. Sex differences in young adults’ snack food intake after food commercial exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; van der Zwaluw, C.S.; van Strien, T.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to food commercials on television is considered to be related to elevated snack food intake in front of the television. However, this assumed relation has as yet not been fully established. The present study, therefore examined the direct effects of watching television food commercials on

  19. Community Food Environment, Home Food Environment, and Fruit and Vegetable Intake of Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F.; Norman, Gregory J.; Saelens, Brian E.; Harris, Sion Kim; Kerr, Jacqueline; Rosenberg, Dori; Durant, Nefertiti; Glanz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (1) reliability of new food environment measures; (2) association between home food environment and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake; and (3) association between community and home food environment. Methods: In 2005, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with readministration to assess test-retest reliability. Adolescents,…

  20. Flavor enhancement of food as a stimulant for food intake in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essed, N.H.

    2009-01-01

    It is often speculated that the age related decline in taste and smell performance can add to the decreased food intake among elderly by causing a change in liking of food. Flavor enhancement (by adding a taste and/or an odor to enhance or intensify the flavor of the food) has been suggested to

  1. Dietary intake and body content of natural uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The members of the uranium series found in the body that arise primarily from dietary intake are 238 U, 234 U, 226 Ra and 210 Pb. Lead 210, the predominant series radionuclide in the body, decays to the alpha emitter 210 Po, while the others are alpha emitters themselves. While 210 Pb primarily enters the body through diet, inhalation must also be considered, especially in smokers. The primary site of deposition for these nuclides is the skeleton and the dose to bone is the critical factor. In this section, the average background, elevated natural and enhanced dietary intakes of the uranium series radionuclides are discussed. Human skeletal levels and consequent alpha doses are summarized

  2. Ceruletide decreases food intake in non-obese man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacher, G; Steinringer, H; Schmierer, G; Schneider, C; Winklehner, S

    1982-01-01

    Cholecystokinin decreases food intake in animals and in man. This study investigated whether the structurally related ceruletide reduces food intake in healthy non-obese man. Twelve females and 12 males participated, after an over-night fast, in each of two experiments. During the basal 40 min, saline was infused IV. Thereafter, the infusion was, in random double blind fashion, either continued with saline or switched to 60 or 120 ng/kg b. wt/hr ceruletide. Butter was melted in a pan and scrambled eggs with ham were prepared in front of the subjects, who were instructed to eat, together with bread and mallow tea, as much as they wanted. With 120 ng/kg/hr ceruletide, the subjects ate significantly less (16.8 percent) than with saline (3725 kJ +/- 489 SEM and 4340 kJ +/- 536, respectively; p less than 0.025). They also reported less hunger (p less than 0.005) and activation (p less than 0.005) and activation (p less than 0.01), and had longer reaction times (p less than 0.01) and a weaker psychomotor performance (p less than 0.025). 60 ng/kg/hr ceruletide decreased food intake only slightly (6.6%; 3089 kJ +/- 253 and 3292 kJ +/- 300 respectively) and no significant changes in the above measures occurred. In conclusion, ceruletide reduces food intake in man, thus resembling the effects of cholecystokinin.

  3. Self-reported overeating and attributions for food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Reily, Natalie M; Spanos, Samantha; Herman, C Peter; Polivy, Janet

    2017-04-01

    We examined whether people's attributions for their eating behaviour differ according to whether they believe they have eaten more, less or about the same as they normally would. Participants were served a small or large portion of pasta for lunch. Afterwards, they were asked to compare how much they ate in the study to how much they normally eat for lunch, resulting in three intake-evaluation categories: 'ate less', 'ate about the same' or 'ate more'. How much participants ate; the extent to which they attributed their food intake to an internal cue (i.e. hunger) and an external cue (i.e. the amount of food served). Participants served a large portion ate more than those served a small portion, but the magnitude of the portion-size effect did not vary across intake-evaluation categories. Furthermore, although participants in all groups indicated that their hunger influenced how much they ate, only those in the 'ate more' group indicated that the amount of food available influenced how much they ate. People appear to be willing to explain their food intake in terms of an external cue only when they believe that they have eaten more than they normally would.

  4. Executive Cognitive Function and Food Intake in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated relations among neurocognitive skills important for behavioral regulation, and the intake of fruit, vegetables, and snack food in children. Design: Participants completed surveys at a single time point. Setting: Assessments took place during school. Participants: Participants were 107 fourth-grade children…

  5. Geographic and socioeconomic diversity of food and nutrient intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, Elly; Kuijsten, Anneleen; Dofková, Marcela; Mistura, Lorenza; D’Addezio, Laura; Turrini, Aida; Dubuisson, Carine; Favret, Sandra; Havard, Sabrina; Trolle, Ellen; van’t Veer, Pieter; Geleijnse, Johanna M.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Public health policies and actions increasingly acknowledge the climate burden of food consumption. The aim of this study is to describe dietary intakes across four European countries, as baseline for further research towards healthier and environmentally-friendlier diets for Europe.

  6. Hypothalamic inflammation and food intake regulation during chronic illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dwarkasing, J.T.; Marks, D.L.; Witkamp, R.F.; Norren, van K.

    2016-01-01

    Anorexia is a common symptom in chronic illness. It contributes to malnutrition and strongly affects survival and quality of life. A common denominator of many chronic diseases is an elevated inflammatory status, which is considered to play a pivotal role in the failure of food-intake regulating

  7. The role of food intake regulating peptides in cardiovascular regulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulášková, Barbora; Maletínská, Lenka; Zicha, J.; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 436, Nov 15 (2016), s. 78-92 ISSN 0303-7207 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : obesity * sympathetic nervous system * food intake * blood pressure * orexigenic peptides * anorexigenic peptides Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.754, year: 2016

  8. The role of food intake regulating peptides in cardiovascular regulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulášková, Barbora; Maletínská, L.; Zicha, Josef; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 436, Nov 15 (2016), s. 78-92 ISSN 0303-7207 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : obesity * sympathetic nervous system * food intake * blood pressure * orexigenic peptides * anorexigenic peptides Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.754, year: 2016

  9. [Food habits and body composition of Spanish elite athletes in combat sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, N; Palacios Gil-Antuñano, N; Montalvo Zenarruzabeitia, Z; García Juan, B; García, A; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, E

    2010-01-01

    There is a scarcity of information about the dietary intake and food selection of combat sport people. Optimizing nutritional status, body weight, and body composition are key factors for their performance. The assessment of dietary intake, food habits, and body composition in elite combat sport people. 22 sportsmen were recruited from the Spanish National Teams of Tae kwon do, Judo, and Boxing. Food intake (FFQ), food habits and body composition (DXA and Bioimpedance) were analyzed. Weight and body composition of the individuals assessed were similar to that previously described, although almost half of them were moderately over their desired competition weight. A lower than the recommended intake of vegetables (77% of individuals), cereals, bread, rice, potatoes, and pasta (73%), while red meat and derivatives intake exceeded the recommendations. Their main preferences were pasta, meat, and cereals. Legumes, vegetables, and fish were their main dislikes. A statistically significant relationship between food preferences and intakes was only observed for legumes, yogurt, and nuts. The athletes reported that reducing the intake of biscuits and confectionery (68% of individuals), high-fat foods (36%), and/or bread (27%) would be a good dietetic strategy for losing weight. None of them reported that voluntary dehydration would be a good strategy for this purpose. food offer to which this sport people have access and their choices are adequate, although the intake of some food groups (vegetables, red meat and derivatives) does not follow the recommendations. Their body weight slightly exceeds their competition weight, what it is frequently found in these sports. Nevertheless, their knowledge about nutrition and dietetics applied to exercise are acceptable.

  10. Fast food consumption in Iranian adults; dietary intake and cardiovascular risk factors: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Golzarand, Mahdieh; Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-06-01

    Although fast food consumption has drastically increased in Iran in recent years; there is a paucity of data in relation to the association between fast food consumption, dietary intake, and cardiovascular risk factors. This study aims to determine fast food consumption status among young and middle-aged Iranian adults, and to assess its impact on dietary intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted on 1944 young and middle-aged adults (840 men and 1104 women), who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008). We collected dietary data by using a validated 168 item, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Total fast food consumption was calculated by summing up weekly consumption of the most commonly consumed fast foods in Iran. Mean consumption of fast food was 161g/week (95% CI: 147-175) for young adults and 108 g/week (95% CI: 101-115) for middle-aged adults. Mean dietary intakes of energy, fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, meat, and soft drinks increased significantly (P consumption decreased (P fast food in both age groups. In young adults, dietary energy density and protein intake increased significantly (P fast food tertiles (P fast food consumption and body mass index (BMI; β = 0.104; P consumption of fast foods is associated with poor dietary intake and some of the CVD risk factors in Iranian adults.

  11. Quantifying food intake in socially housed monkeys: social status effects on caloric consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Fisher, Jeff; Fischer, Andrew; Lee, Vanessa; Harris, Ruth B.; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Obesity results from a number of factors including socio-environmental influences and rodent models show that several different stressors increase the preference for calorically dense foods leading to an obese phenotype. We present here a non-human primate model using socially housed adult female macaques living in long-term stable groups given access to diets of different caloric density. Consumption of a low fat (LFD; 15% of calories from fat) and a high fat diet (HFD; 45% of calories from fat) was quantified by means of a custom-built, automated feeder that dispensed a pellet of food when activated by a radiofrequency chip implanted subcutaneously in the animal’s wrist. Socially subordinate females showed indices of chronic psychological stress having reduced glucocorticoid negative feedback and higher frequencies of anxiety-like behavior. Twenty-four hour intakes of both the LFD and HFD were significantly greater in subordinates than dominates, an effect that persisted whether standard monkey chow (13% of calories from fat) was present or absent. Furthermore, although dominants restricted their food intake to daylight, subordinates continued to feed at night. Total caloric intake was significantly correlated with body weight change. Collectively, these results show that food intake can be reliably quantified in non-human primates living in complex social environments and suggest that socially-subordinate females consume more calories, suggesting this ethologically relevant model may help understand how psychosocial stress changes food preferences and consumption leading to obesity. PMID:18486158

  12. Evaluation of a mobile application for estimation of food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Bittencourt MESCOLOTO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Evaluate the use of the Nutrabem (São Paulo, Brasil mobile application as a tool for measurement of food intake among university students. Methods: Cross-sectional study of a random sample of 40 undergraduate students at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Campus Baixada Santista. Food intake data were estimated using the Nutrabem app and the 24-hour dietary recall. Intakes of energy, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, calcium, iron, and vitamin C were calculated. The intake of food groups and diet quality were evaluated by the Diet Quality Index associated with the Digital Food Guide. The agreement between the methods was assessed using the Pearson's correlation coefficient and the Student' t-test. Results: Strong correlations were observed between energy (0.77, carbohydrates (0.82 and protein (0.83. The groups: poultry, fish, and eggs; beef and pork; refined grains and breads; and fruits and legumes showed strong correlations (between 0.76 and 0.85. There were moderate correlations (0.59 and 0.71 between the groups sugars and sweets; whole grains, tubers and roots, milk and dairy products, animal fats, and the Diet Quality Index associated with the Digital Food Guide scores. Vegetables and leafy greens, nuts, and vegetable oils showed weak correlations (0.31 and 0.43. Homogeneity assessment revealed similarity between the results obtained by both methods (p>0.05 . Conclusion: The Nutrabem app can be used as a tool to assess dietary intake among university students since it produces results similar to those obtained by the 24-hour dietary recall method.

  13. An interactive internet-based plate for assessing lunchtime food intake: a validation study on male employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Madeleine; Bellocco, Rino; Bakkman, Linda; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva

    2013-01-18

    Misreporting food intake is common because most health screenings rely on self-reports. The more accurate methods (eg, weighing food) are costly, time consuming, and impractical. We developed a new instrument for reporting food intake--an Internet-based interactive virtual food plate. The objective of this study was to validate this instrument's ability to assess lunch intake. Participants were asked to compose an ordinary lunch meal using both a virtual and a real lunch plate (with real food on a real plate). The participants ate their real lunch meals on-site. Before and after pictures of the composed lunch meals were taken. Both meals included identical food items. Participants were randomized to start with either instrument. The 2 instruments were compared using correlation and concordance measures (total energy intake, nutritional components, quantity of food, and participant characteristics). A total of 55 men (median age: 45 years, median body mass index [BMI]: 25.8 kg/m(2)) participated. We found an overall overestimation of reported median energy intake using the computer plate (3044 kJ, interquartile range [IQR] 1202 kJ) compared with the real lunch plate (2734 kJ, IQR 1051 kJ, P<.001). Spearman rank correlations and concordance correlations for energy intake and nutritional components ranged between 0.58 to 0.79 and 0.65 to 0.81, respectively. Although it slightly overestimated, our computer plate provides promising results in assessing lunch intake.

  14. Intake of energy and nutrients; harmonization of Food Composition Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Victoria, Emilio; Martinez de Victoria, Ignacio; Martinez-Burgos, M Alba

    2015-02-26

    Food composition databases (FCDBs) provide detailed information about the nutritional composition of foods. The conversion of food consumption into nutrient intake need a Food composition database (FCDB) which lists the mean nutritional values for a given food portion. The limitations of FCDBs are sometimes little known by the users. Multicentre studies have raised several methodology challenges which allow to standardize nutritional assessments in different populations and geographical areas for food composition and nutrient intake. Differences between FCDBs include those attributed to technical matters, such as description of foods, calculation of energy and definition of nutrients, analytical methods, and principles for recipe calculation. Such differences need to be identified and eliminated before comparing data from different studies, especially when dietary data is related to a health outcome. There are ongoing efforts since 1984 to standardize FCDBs over the world (INFOODS, EPIC, EuroFIR, etc.). Food composition data can be gathered from different sources like private company analysis, universities, government laboratories and food industry. They can also be borrowed from scientific literature or even from the food labelling. There are different proposals to evaluate the quality of food composition data. For the development of a FCDB it is fundamental document in the most detailed way, each of the data values of the different components and nutrients of a food. The objective of AECOSAN (Agencia Española de Consumo Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutrición) and BEDCA (Base de Datos Española de Composición de Alimentos) association was the development and support of a reference FCDB in Spain according to the standards to be defined in Europe. BEDCA is currently the only FCDB developed in Spain with compiled and documented data following EuroFIR standards. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2015. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. The color red reduces snack food and soft drink intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genschow, Oliver; Reutner, Leonie; Wänke, Michaela

    2012-04-01

    Based on evidence that the color red elicits avoidance motivation across contexts (Mehta & Zhu, 2009), two studies investigated the effect of the color red on snack food and soft drink consumption. In line with our hypothesis, participants drank less from a red labeled cup than from a blue labeled cup (Study 1), and ate less snack food from a red plate than from a blue or white plate (Study 2). The results suggest that red functions as a subtle stop signal that works outside of focused awareness and thereby reduces incidental food and drink intake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of satiety sensations and food intake after different preloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrini, M; Crovetti, R; Testolin, G; Silva, S

    1995-08-01

    The reproducibility of three questions, related to fullness, satiety and desire to eat, rated on an unmarked triangle was verified. In four sessions 12 volunteers ate pasta with tomato sauce (520 kcal) and were asked to rate the sensations felt. There was no difference in rating scores of the replications so the proposed questionnaire provides a stable measure of sensations related to satiety. Subsequently three satiety conditions were studied. Two foods, one rich in carbohydrate, pasta (baked macaroni) and the other in protein, polpette (meatballs), were used as loads at two calorie levels and as preload before an "ad libitum" meal. All the three questions proved useful in discriminating between the different satiety conditions. The food intake underlines the specificity of satiety: subjects, after eating a preload which previously had satiated them, ate other foods in different amounts depending on the kind of preload eaten. Food intake was significantly higher after the pasta preload, furthermore "fullness" and "satiety" ratings were significantly highest after the meatball preload, suggesting that in our experimental conditions, meatballs were more satiating than pasta. In conclusion, this study highlights the validity of using several quite different questions to study hunger and satiety, together with the actual food intake.

  17. Dietary tin intake and association with canned food consumption in Japanese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbo, Shinichiro; Watanabe, Takao; Nakatsuka, Haruo; Yaginuma-Sakurai, Kozue; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2013-05-01

    Dietary intake of tin has seldom been studied in children although they probably have a high intake. This study was initiated to investigate dietary tin intake (Sn-D) of children in Japan. In this study, 24-h food duplicate samples were collected from 296 preschool children in Miyagi prefecture, Japan. Sn in the samples were analyzed by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry, after homogenization and wet digestion. Sn-D by the children was low, with 4.2 μg/day as a median. The distribution was however wide, from 0.4 μg/day up to >3 μg/day. Canned foods were the major dietary Sn source, whereas rice contributed essentially little. Sn-D among canned food consumers was 30.2 μg/day as a geometric mean (10.6 μg/day as a median), whereas Sn-D among the non-consumers of canned foods was distributed log-normally, with 3.3 μg/day as a geometric mean (2.5 μg/day as a median). Sn levels in urine did not differ between children who consumed canned foods on the day previous to urine collection and those who did not. The Sn-D was far below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (14 mg/kg body weight/week) set by the 2001 Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee. Nevertheless, children took more Sn than adults when compared on a body-weight basis. Canned foods were the major source of dietary Sn intake for preschool children studied. Thus, median Sn-D was higher for the canned food consumers (10.6 μg/day) than for non-consumers of canned foods (2.5 μg/day). Sn-D by canned food-consuming children was, however, substantially lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake. No difference was detected in Sn levels in urine between canned food-consuming and non-consuming children.

  18. Timing of fat and liquid sugar intake alters substrate oxidation and food efficiency in male Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, Johanneke E; Foppen, Ewout; van der Spek, Rianne; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, A.; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the amount of ingested calories, both timing of food intake and meal composition are determinants of body weight gain. However, at present, it is unknown if the inappropriate timing of diet components is responsible for body weight gain. In the present study, we therefore studied a

  19. Watching TV and food intake: the role of content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D Chapman

    Full Text Available Obesity is a serious and growing health concern worldwide. Watching television (TV represents a condition during which many habitually eat, irrespective of hunger level. However, as of yet, little is known about how the content of television programs being watched differentially impacts concurrent eating behavior. In this study, eighteen normal-weight female students participated in three counter-balanced experimental conditions, including a 'Boring' TV condition (art lecture, an 'Engaging' TV condition (Swedish TV comedy series, and a no TV control condition during which participants read (a text on insects living in Sweden. Throughout each condition participants had access to both high-calorie (M&Ms and low-calorie (grapes snacks. We found that, relative to the Engaging TV condition, Boring TV encouraged excessive eating (+52% g, P = 0.009. Additionally, the Engaging TV condition actually resulted in significantly less concurrent intake relative to the control 'Text' condition (-35% g, P = 0.05. This intake was driven almost entirely by the healthy snack, grapes; however, this interaction did not reach significance (P = 0.07. Finally, there was a significant correlation between how bored participants were across all conditions, and their concurrent food intake (beta = 0.317, P = 0.02. Intake as measured by kcals was similarly patterned but did not reach significance. These results suggest that, for women, different TV programs elicit different levels of concurrent food intake, and that the degree to which a program is engaging (or alternately, boring is related to that intake. Additionally, they suggest that emotional content (e.g. boring vs. engaging may be more associated than modality (e.g. TV vs. text with concurrent intake.

  20. Watching TV and food intake: the role of content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Colin D; Nilsson, Victor C; Thune, Hanna Å; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Le Grevès, Madeleine; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Benedict, Christian; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a serious and growing health concern worldwide. Watching television (TV) represents a condition during which many habitually eat, irrespective of hunger level. However, as of yet, little is known about how the content of television programs being watched differentially impacts concurrent eating behavior. In this study, eighteen normal-weight female students participated in three counter-balanced experimental conditions, including a 'Boring' TV condition (art lecture), an 'Engaging' TV condition (Swedish TV comedy series), and a no TV control condition during which participants read (a text on insects living in Sweden). Throughout each condition participants had access to both high-calorie (M&Ms) and low-calorie (grapes) snacks. We found that, relative to the Engaging TV condition, Boring TV encouraged excessive eating (+52% g, P = 0.009). Additionally, the Engaging TV condition actually resulted in significantly less concurrent intake relative to the control 'Text' condition (-35% g, P = 0.05). This intake was driven almost entirely by the healthy snack, grapes; however, this interaction did not reach significance (P = 0.07). Finally, there was a significant correlation between how bored participants were across all conditions, and their concurrent food intake (beta = 0.317, P = 0.02). Intake as measured by kcals was similarly patterned but did not reach significance. These results suggest that, for women, different TV programs elicit different levels of concurrent food intake, and that the degree to which a program is engaging (or alternately, boring) is related to that intake. Additionally, they suggest that emotional content (e.g. boring vs. engaging) may be more associated than modality (e.g. TV vs. text) with concurrent intake.

  1. Reward systems and food intake: role of opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosnell, B A; Levine, A S

    2009-06-01

    Humans eat for many reasons, including the rewarding qualities of foods. A host of neurotransmitters have been shown to influence eating behavior and some of these appear to be involved in reward-induced eating. Endogenous opioid peptides and their receptors were first reported more than 30 years ago, and studies suggesting a role of opioids in the regulation of food intake date back nearly as far. Opioid agonists and antagonists have corresponding stimulatory and inhibitory effects on feeding. In addition to studies aimed at identifying the relevant receptor subtypes and sites of action within the brain, there has been a continuing interest in the role of opioids on diet/taste preferences, food reward, and the overlap of food reward with others types of reward. Data exist that suggest a role for opioids in the control of appetite for specific macronutrients, but there is also evidence for their role in the stimulation of intake based on already-existing diet or taste preferences and in controlling intake motivated by hedonics rather than by energy needs. Finally, various types of studies indicate an overlap between mechanisms mediating drug reward and palatable food reward. Preference or consumption of sweet substances often parallels the self-administration of several drugs of abuse, and under certain conditions, the termination of intermittent access to sweet substances produces symptoms that resemble those observed during opiate withdrawal. The overconsumption of readily available and highly palatable foods likely contributes to the growing rates of obesity worldwide. An understanding of the role of opioids in mediating food reward and promoting the overconsumption of palatable foods may provide insights into new approaches for preventing obesity.

  2. Food Photography Is Not an Accurate Measure of Energy Intake in Obese, Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Jasper; Vallo, Porsha M; Altazan, Abby D; Gilmore, Linda Anne; Sutton, Elizabeth F; Cain, Loren E; Burton, Jeffrey H; Martin, Corby K; Redman, Leanne M

    2018-04-01

    To improve weight management in pregnant women, there is a need to deliver specific, data-based recommendations on energy intake. This cross-sectional study evaluated the accuracy of an electronic reporting method to measure daily energy intake in pregnant women compared with total daily energy expenditure (TDEE). Twenty-three obese [mean ± SEM body mass index (kg/m2): 36.9 ± 1.3] pregnant women (aged 28.3 ±1.1 y) used a smartphone application to capture images of their food selection and plate waste in free-living conditions for ≥6 d in early (13-16 wk) and late (35-37 wk) pregnancy. Energy intake was evaluated by the smartphone application SmartIntake and compared with simultaneous assessment of TDEE obtained by doubly labeled water. Accuracy was defined as reported energy intake compared with TDEE (percentage of TDEE). Ecological momentary assessment prompts were used to enhance data reporting. Two-one-sided t tests for the 2 methods were used to assess equivalency, which was considered significant when accuracy was >80%. Energy intake reported by the SmartIntake application was 63.4% ± 2.3% of TDEE measured by doubly labeled water (P = 1.00). Energy intake reported as snacks accounted for 17% ± 2% of reported energy intake. Participants who used their own phones compared with participants who used borrowed phones captured more images (P = 0.04) and had higher accuracy (73% ± 3% compared with 60% ± 3% of TDEE; P = 0.01). Reported energy intake as snacks was significantly associated with the accuracy of SmartIntake (P = 0.03). To improve data quality, excluding erroneous days of likely underreporting (<60% TDEE) improved the accuracy of SmartIntake, yet this was not equivalent to TDEE (-22% ± 1% of TDEE; P = 1.00). Energy intake in obese, pregnant women obtained with the use of an electronic reporting method (SmartIntake) does not accurately estimate energy intake compared with doubly labeled water. However, accuracy improves by

  3. Incorporation of air into a snack food reduces energy intake

    OpenAIRE

    Osterholt, Kathrin M.; Roe, Liane S.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated how the air content of a familiar snack food affected energy intake and whether varying the method of serving the snack modified intake. We tested two versions of an extruded snack (cheese puffs) that were equal in energy density (5.7 kcal/g), but differed in energy per volume (less-aerated snack: 1.00 kcal/ml; more- aerated snack: 0.45 kcal/ml). In a within-subjects design, 16 women and 12 men consumed the snacks ad libitum in the laboratory during four afternoon sess...

  4. Inhibiting food reward: delay discounting, food reward sensitivity, and palatable food intake in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Woolf, Kathleen; Pagoto, Sherry L; Schneider, Kristin L; Whited, Matthew C; Liebman, Rebecca

    2011-11-01

    Overeating is believed to result when the appetitive motivation to consume palatable food exceeds an individual's capacity for inhibitory control of eating. This hypothesis was supported in recent studies involving predominantly normal weight women, but has not been tested in obese populations. The current study tested the interaction between food reward sensitivity and inhibitory control in predicting palatable food intake among energy-replete overweight and obese women (N = 62). Sensitivity to palatable food reward was measured with the Power of Food Scale. Inhibitory control was assessed with a computerized choice task that captures the tendency to discount large delayed rewards relative to smaller immediate rewards. Participants completed an eating in the absence of hunger protocol in which homeostatic energy needs were eliminated with a bland preload of plain oatmeal, followed by a bogus laboratory taste test of palatable and bland snacks. The interaction between food reward sensitivity and inhibitory control was a significant predictor of palatable food intake in regression analyses controlling for BMI and the amount of preload consumed. Probing this interaction indicated that higher food reward sensitivity predicted greater palatable food intake at low levels of inhibitory control, but was not associated with intake at high levels of inhibitory control. As expected, no associations were found in a similar regression analysis predicting intake of bland foods. Findings support a neurobehavioral model of eating behavior in which sensitivity to palatable food reward drives overeating only when accompanied by insufficient inhibitory control. Strengthening inhibitory control could enhance weight management programs.

  5. Impact of medium and long chain triglycerides consumption on appetite and food intake in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, M-P; Mayrsohn, B; O'Keeffe, M; Kissileff, H R; Choudhury, A R; Laferrère, B

    2014-10-01

    Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) enhance thermogenesis and may reduce food intake relative to long chain triglycerides (LCT). The goal of this study was to establish the effects of MCT on appetite and food intake and determine whether differences were due to differences in hormone concentrations. Two randomized, crossover studies were conducted in which overweight men consumed 20 g of MCT or corn oil (LCT) at breakfast. Blood samples were obtained over 3 h. In Study 1 (n=10), an ad lib lunch was served after 3 h. In Study 2 (n=7), a preload containing 10 g of test oil was given at 3 h and lunch was served 1 h later. Linear mixed model analyses were performed to determine the effects of MCT and LCT oil on change in hormones and metabolites from fasting, adjusting for body weight. Correlations were computed between differences in hormones just before the test meals and differences in intakes after the two oils for Study 1 only. Food intake at the lunch test meal after the MCT preload (Study 2) was (mean±s.e.m.) 532±389 kcal vs 804±486 kcal after LCT (Ptriglycerides (P=0.014) and glucose (P=0.066) and a higher rise in peptide YY (PYY, P=0.017) and leptin (P=0.036) compared with LCT (combined data). Correlations between differences in hormone levels (glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), PYY) and differences in food intake were in the opposite direction to expectations. MCT consumption reduced food intake acutely but this does not seem to be mediated by changes in GLP-1, PYY and insulin.

  6. Soya food intake and risk of endometrial cancer among Chinese women in Shanghai: population based case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wang Hong; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong Bing; Ruan, Zhi Xian; Cheng, Jia Rong; Dai, Qi; Gao, Yu Tang; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2004-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of intake of soya food, a rich source of phytoestrogens, with the risk of endometrial cancer. Design Population based case-control study, with detailed information on usual soya food intake over the past five years collected by face to face interview using a food frequency questionnaire. Setting Urban Shanghai, China. Participants 832 incident cases of endometrial cancer in women aged of 30 to 69 years diagnosed during 1997-2001 and identified from the Shanghai Cancer Registry; 846 control women frequency matched to cases on age and randomly selected from the Shanghai Residential Registry. Main outcome measures Odds ratios for risk of endometrial cancer in women with different intakes of soya foods. Results Regular consumption of soya foods, measured as amount of either soya protein or soya isoflavones, was inversely associated with the risk of endometrial cancer. Compared with women with the lowest quarter of intake, the adjusted odds ratio of endometrial cancer was reduced from 0.93 to 0.85 and 0.67 with increasing quarter of soya protein intake (P for trend 0.01). A similar inverse association was observed for soya isoflavones and soya fibre intake. The inverse association seemed to be more pronounced among women with high body mass index and waist:hip ratio. Conclusion Regular intake of soya foods is associated with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer. PMID:15136343

  7. Increased salt consumption induces body water conservation and decreases fluid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakova, Natalia; Kitada, Kento; Lerchl, Kathrin; Dahlmann, Anke; Birukov, Anna; Daub, Steffen; Kopp, Christoph; Pedchenko, Tetyana; Zhang, Yahua; Beck, Luis; Johannes, Bernd; Marton, Adriana; Müller, Dominik N; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2017-05-01

    The idea that increasing salt intake increases drinking and urine volume is widely accepted. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in salt intake of 6 g/d would change fluid balance in men living under ultra-long-term controlled conditions. Over the course of 2 separate space flight simulation studies of 105 and 205 days' duration, we exposed 10 healthy men to 3 salt intake levels (12, 9, or 6 g/d). All other nutrients were maintained constant. We studied the effect of salt-driven changes in mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid urinary excretion on day-to-day osmolyte and water balance. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake increased urine osmolyte excretion, but reduced free-water clearance, indicating endogenous free water accrual by urine concentration. The resulting endogenous water surplus reduced fluid intake at the 12-g/d salt intake level. Across all 3 levels of salt intake, half-weekly and weekly rhythmical mineralocorticoid release promoted free water reabsorption via the renal concentration mechanism. Mineralocorticoid-coupled increases in free water reabsorption were counterbalanced by rhythmical glucocorticoid release, with excretion of endogenous osmolyte and water surplus by relative urine dilution. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake decreased the level of rhythmical mineralocorticoid release and elevated rhythmical glucocorticoid release. The projected effect of salt-driven hormone rhythm modulation corresponded well with the measured decrease in water intake and an increase in urine volume with surplus osmolyte excretion. Humans regulate osmolyte and water balance by rhythmical mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid release, endogenous accrual of surplus body water, and precise surplus excretion. Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology/DLR; the Interdisciplinary Centre for Clinical Research; the NIH; the American Heart Association (AHA); the Renal Research Institute; and the TOYOBO Biotechnology Foundation. Food products were donated by APETITO

  8. Room service improves patient food intake and satisfaction with hospital food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R; Virtue, K; Adkins, A

    1998-07-01

    Cancer therapy causes side effects that interfere with oral intake. Frequently, patients undergoing such therapy suffer from anorexia, nausea, vomiting, food aversions, dysgeusia, and xerostomia, all which adversely affect oral intake. Adequate nutrition intake is an important part of therapy for the cancer patient, especially when that patient is a child. Children who are well nourished are better able to withstand infection and tolerate therapy. Parents and staff at our hospital have worked diligently to improve patient's oral intake with limited success. Hence, a multidisciplinary team was organized to develop a new approach to food services that would improve patients' oral intake. The team initiated patient "room service," and patients were allowed to call the kitchen when they were ready to eat. The system works much like room service in a hotel. After the introduction of room service, patients' caloric intake improved significantly (P = .008), and protein intake increased by 18%. Patient satisfaction with hospital food service also improved; excellent ratings increased by as much as 35%. We conclude that room service is a viable alternative to traditional food services in the pediatric oncology setting and may be useful in other patient populations, such as maternity and general pediatrics.

  9. Hunger and Satiety Mechanisms and Their Potential Exploitation in the Regulation of Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tehmina; Mercer, Julian G

    2016-03-01

    Effective strategies to combat recent rises in obesity levels are limited. The accumulation of excess body fat results when energy intake exceeds that expended. Energy balance is controlled by hypothalamic responses, but these can be overridden by hedonic/reward brain systems. This override, combined with unprecedented availability of cheap, energy-dense, palatable foods, may partly explain the increase in overweight and obesity. The complexity of the processes that regulate feeding behaviour has driven the need for further fundamental research. Full4Health is an EU-funded project conceived to advance our understanding of hunger and satiety mechanisms. Food intake has an impact on and is also affected by the gut-brain signalling which controls hunger and appetite. This review describes selected recent research from Full4Health and how new mechanistic findings could be exploited to adapt and control our physiological responses to food, potentially providing an alternative solution to addressing the global problems related to positive energy balance.

  10. Is maternal food security a predictor of food and drink intake among toddlers in Oregon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Barradas, Danielle T; Rosenberg, Kenneth D; May, Ashleigh L; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Ahluwalia, Indu B

    2012-12-01

    Food insecurity has detrimental effects on the mental, physical, and behavioral health of developing children. Few studies, however, have sought to determine whether associations exist between food insecurity and intake of vegetables, fresh or canned fruit, candy or cookies, French fries, fast food, water, milk, fruit juices, fruit drinks, soda, and sports drinks. To identify independent associations that exist between maternal food insecurity and food and drink intake among toddlers, population-based data from the 2006-2008 Oregon Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System follow-back survey (Oregon PRAMS-2) of 1,522 mothers of 2-year-old children were analyzed. Maternal food insecurity was defined as mothers' report of eating less because of lack of money for food. Typical weekly child food and drink intake was examined using polytomous logistic regression: 0-1 days/week, 2-3 days/week, and 4-7 days/week. Maternal food insecurity prevalence was 11.7 %. Compared to toddlers of food secure mothers, toddlers of food insecure mothers consumed vegetables (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for 4-7 days/week = 0.31; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.12, 0.79) and fruit (AOR for 4-7 days/week = 0.25; 95 % CI 0.08, 0.75) fewer days of the week. Toddlers of food insecure mothers consumed soda (AOR for 4-7 days/week = 3.21; 95 % CI 1.12, 9.14) more days of the week. Maternal food insecurity is associated with weekly intake of certain foods and drinks. Among toddlers, consumption of fewer vegetables and fruit, and more soda may help explain the link between food insecurity and poor health.

  11. Associations Between Swedish Mothers' and 3- and 5-Year-Old Children's Food Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, L. M.; Heitmann, B. L.; Larsson, Christel

    2016-01-01

    ' and children's intake of savoury snacks, as did place of residence for pizza intake. Conclusions and Implications There were substantial correlations between children's and mothers' intake of various foods. Modeling of mothers' intake might be more effective in influencing young children's intake of certain...

  12. Hunger and Satiety Mechanisms and Their Potential Exploitation in the Regulation of Food Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Tehmina; Mercer, Julian G.

    2016-01-01

    Effective strategies to combat recent rises in obesity levels are limited. The accumulation of excess body fat results when energy intake exceeds that expended. Energy balance is controlled by hypothalamic responses, but these can be overridden by hedonic/reward brain systems. This override, combined with unprecedented availability of cheap, energy-dense, palatable foods, may partly explain the increase in overweight and obesity. The complexity of the processes that regulate feeding behaviour...

  13. Body Weight Status and Dietary Intakes of Urban Malay Primary School Children: Evidence from the Family Diet Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Yew Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is experiencing a rise in the prevalence of childhood obesity. Evidence for the relationship between dietary intake and body weight among Malaysian children is limited, with the impact of energy intake misreporting rarely being considered. This paper describes the dietary intakes of urban Malay children in comparison to national recommendations and by weight status. This cross-sectional Family Diet Study (n = 236 was conducted in five national primary schools in Malaysia (August 2013–October 2014. Data on socio-demographics, anthropometrics, 24-h dietary recalls, and food habits were collected from Malay families, consisting of a child aged 8 to 12 years and their main caregiver(s. Multivariable analyses were used to assess dietary intake-body weight relationships. The plausibility of energy intake was determined using the Black and Cole method. Approximately three in 10 Malay children were found to be overweight or obese. The majority reported dietary intakes less than national recommendations. Children with obesity had the lowest energy intakes relative to body weight (kcal/kg compared to children in other weight categories (F = 36.21, p < 0.001. A positive moderate correlation between energy intake and weight status was identified (r = 0.53, p < 0.001 after excluding energy intake mis-reporters (n = 95, highlighting the need for the validation of dietary assessment in obesity-related dietary research in Malaysia.

  14. Body Weight Status and Dietary Intakes of Urban Malay Primary School Children: Evidence from the Family Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wai Yew; Burrows, Tracy; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Williams, Lauren T; Collins, Clare E; Chee, Winnie Siew Swee; Colyvas, Kim

    2017-01-20

    Malaysia is experiencing a rise in the prevalence of childhood obesity. Evidence for the relationship between dietary intake and body weight among Malaysian children is limited, with the impact of energy intake misreporting rarely being considered. This paper describes the dietary intakes of urban Malay children in comparison to national recommendations and by weight status. This cross-sectional Family Diet Study ( n = 236) was conducted in five national primary schools in Malaysia (August 2013-October 2014). Data on socio-demographics, anthropometrics, 24-h dietary recalls, and food habits were collected from Malay families, consisting of a child aged 8 to 12 years and their main caregiver(s). Multivariable analyses were used to assess dietary intake-body weight relationships. The plausibility of energy intake was determined using the Black and Cole method. Approximately three in 10 Malay children were found to be overweight or obese. The majority reported dietary intakes less than national recommendations. Children with obesity had the lowest energy intakes relative to body weight (kcal/kg) compared to children in other weight categories (F = 36.21, p < 0.001). A positive moderate correlation between energy intake and weight status was identified ( r = 0.53, p < 0.001) after excluding energy intake mis-reporters ( n = 95), highlighting the need for the validation of dietary assessment in obesity-related dietary research in Malaysia.

  15. Dietary taurine and nutrients intake and anthropometric and body composition data by abdominal obesity in Korean male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Min Jung; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal obesity and dietary taurine intake, nutrient intake, anthropometric data and body composition in Korean male college students. One hundred seventy four subjects were divided into 2 groups based on abdominal obesity as estimated by waist circumference (cm) (Lee et al. 2006): normal group (waist circumference (cm): obese group (waist circumference (cm): > or = 90 cm, n = 33). A three day-recall method was used to assess diet (2 weekdays and 1 weekend). Anthropometric data and body composition were measured with Inbody 3.0 (Bioelectrical Impedance Fatness Analyzer). Average dietary intake of taurine in the normal and obese groups was 123.1 +/- 78.8 mg/day and 128.4 +/- 79.6 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary taurine and nutrient intake between the normal and obese groups. However, data of anthropometric measurements and body composition in the obese group were significantly elevated compared to those of the normal group. In the normal group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with nutrient intake (p obese group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with the intake of energy foods and of animal lipid (p obese group. Therefore, the data suggest that further study is warranted to examine the relationship between dietary taurine intake and abdominal obesity.

  16. Increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, metabolic risk factors and dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvi, A; Karlström, B; Vessby, B; Becker, W

    2016-05-28

    A diet rich in fruits and vegetables has been associated with several health benefits. However, the effects on body weight (BW) and metabolic markers are not fully known. The present study investigated the effects of increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight and obese men and women on dietary habits, anthropometry and metabolic control. In a 16-week controlled intervention, thirty-four men and thirty-four women aged 35-65 years (BMI>27 kg/m2) were randomised to an intervention (IN) or a reference (RG) group. All participants received general dietary advice, and subjects in the IN group received fruits and vegetables for free, of which ≥500 g had to be eaten daily. BW, waist circumference (WC), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), plasma insulin, blood glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), serum lipids, blood pressure, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, urinary isoprostane (iso-8-PGF 2α) and serum carotenoids were measured. Diet was assessed using 3-d weighed food records. In all, thirty subjects in the IN group and thirty-two in the RG group completed the intervention. Intake of fruits and vegetables doubled in the IN group, whereas intake of fruits increased in the RG group. Serum α- and β-carotene concentrations and intakes of folate and vitamin C increased significantly in the IN group. Energy intake, BW, WC and SAD decreased significantly in both groups. Supine systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the IN group, with no between-group differences. No significant changes were observed for other metabolic markers. Provision of fruits and vegetables led to substantially increased intakes, with subsequent favourable changes in anthropometry and insulin levels, which tended to be more pronounced in the IN group. The observed improvements may, in combination with improved nutritional markers, have health benefits in the long term.

  17. Involving children in meal preparation. Effects on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Ferrage, Aurore; Rytz, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    The question of how to promote healthy eating habits in children is relevant because most children do not meet the recommended vegetable intake. Involving children in food preparation could be an opportunity to develop healthy eating behaviors and to increase vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of children's involvement in meal preparation on their food and vegetable intake. A between-subject experiment was conducted with 47 children aged 6 to 10 years. In condition 1 (n = 25), children prepared a lunch meal (pasta, breaded chicken, cauliflower, and salad) with the assistance of a parent. In condition 2 (n = 22), the meal was prepared by the parent alone. Independent samples t-tests were conducted to compare intake in the "child cooks" and "parent cooks" conditions. Children in the child cooks condition ate significantly more salad 41.7 g (76.1%), more chicken 21.8 g (27.0%), and more calories 84.6 kcal (24.4%) than children in the parent cooks condition. Between before cooking and directly after cooking the meal, children in the child cooks condition reported significantly increased feelings of valence (feeling positive) and dominance (feeling in control). This study confirms that involving children in meal preparation can increase vegetable intake. Because of the potential effect on energy intake, parents need to be made aware of appropriate portion sizes for their children. Taking this into account, encouraging parents to involve their children in the preparation of healthy and balanced meals could be a valuable intervention strategy to improve the diets and vegetable intake of children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Salt Reductions in Some Foods in The Netherlands: Monitoring of Food Composition and Salt Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Elisabeth H M; Hendriksen, Marieke A H; Milder, Ivon E J; Toxopeus, Ido B; Westenbrink, Susanne; Brants, Henny A M; van der A, Daphne L

    2017-07-22

    High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement) may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011-2016) and differences in estimated salt intake over a 10-year period (2006-2015). To assess the salt contents of foods; we obtained recent data from chemical analyses and from food labels. Salt content of these foods in 2016 was compared to salt contents in the 2011 version Dutch Food Composition Database (NEVO, version 2011), and statistically tested with General Linear Models. To estimate the daily dietary salt intake in 2006, 2010, and 2015, men and women aged 19 to 70 years were recruited through random population sampling in Doetinchem, a small town located in a rural area in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The characteristics of the study population were in 2006: n = 317, mean age 49 years, 43% men, in 2010: n = 342, mean age 46 years, 45% men, and in 2015: n = 289, mean age 46 years, 47% men. Sodium and potassium excretion was measured in a single 24-h urine sample. All estimates were converted to a common metric: salt intake in grams per day by multiplication of sodium with a factor of 2.54. In 2016 compared to 2011, the salt content in certain types of bread was on average 19 percent lower and certain types of sauce, soup, canned vegetables and legumes, and crisps had a 12 to 26 percent lower salt content. Salt content in other types of foods had not changed significantly. Between 2006, 2010 and 2015 the estimated salt intake among adults in Doetinchem remained unchanged. In 2015, the median estimated salt intake was 9.7 g per day for men and 7.4 g per day for women. As in 2006 and 2010, the estimated salt intake in 2015 exceeded the recommended maximum intake of 6 g per day set by the Dutch Health Council. In the Netherlands, the salt content of bread, certain sauces, soups

  19. Salt Reductions in Some Foods in The Netherlands: Monitoring of Food Composition and Salt Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth H. M. Temme

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives. High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011–2016 and differences in estimated salt intake over a 10-year period (2006–2015. Methods. To assess the salt contents of foods; we obtained recent data from chemical analyses and from food labels. Salt content of these foods in 2016 was compared to salt contents in the 2011 version Dutch Food Composition Database (NEVO, version 2011, and statistically tested with General Linear Models. To estimate the daily dietary salt intake in 2006, 2010, and 2015, men and women aged 19 to 70 years were recruited through random population sampling in Doetinchem, a small town located in a rural area in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The characteristics of the study population were in 2006: n = 317, mean age 49 years, 43% men, in 2010: n = 342, mean age 46 years, 45% men, and in 2015: n = 289, mean age 46 years, 47% men. Sodium and potassium excretion was measured in a single 24-h urine sample. All estimates were converted to a common metric: salt intake in grams per day by multiplication of sodium with a factor of 2.54. Results. In 2016 compared to 2011, the salt content in certain types of bread was on average 19 percent lower and certain types of sauce, soup, canned vegetables and legumes, and crisps had a 12 to 26 percent lower salt content. Salt content in other types of foods had not changed significantly. Between 2006, 2010 and 2015 the estimated salt intake among adults in Doetinchem remained unchanged. In 2015, the median estimated salt intake was 9.7 g per day for men and 7.4 g per day for women. As in 2006 and 2010, the estimated salt intake in 2015 exceeded the recommended maximum intake of 6 g per day set by the Dutch Health Council

  20. Food and nutrient intake among workers with different shift systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemiö, Katri; Puttonen, Sampsa; Viitasalo, Katriina; Härmä, Mikko; Peltonen, Markku; Lindström, Jaana

    2015-07-01

    Over 20% of employees in Europe work in shifts. Shift work increases the risk for chronic diseases, but a healthy lifestyle may attenuate the adverse effect of shift work. The aim of this study was to explore food and nutrient intake differences between working time groups. The participants were 1478 employees (55% of men) of an airline divided into three working time groups: day work (n=608), shift work without in-flight work (n=541) and in-flight work (n=329). Measures included laboratory tests, physical measurements, a questionnaire, and food and nutrient intake estimations by a validated 16-item food intake questionnaire. Shift working men were less likely to consume vegetables (p<0.001) and fruits (p=0.049) daily than male day and in-flight workers. In women, energy intake from saturated fat was higher among shift workers compared with day workers (12.6 vs 12.2 E%, p=0.023). In older female participants, energy intake from fat and saturated fat was higher in the shift work and in-flight work groups than in the day work group (p<0.001). In this study, shift work and working environment were associated with dietary habits, and this association was not explained by other characteristics such as workers' educational level. Shift workers' increased risk for chronic diseases should be taken into account and lifestyle counselling including advice in nutrition should be incorporated in routine occupational healthcare of shift workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. The estimation of annual limit on intake for tritiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Kenshi; Okumura, Yutaka

    1992-01-01

    Tritium incorporation into tissues and DNA of mice was studied after daily ingestion of tritiated food or tritiated water. The tritiated food used was a commercial preparation mixed with brine shrimp which had been reared in tritiated sea water. After ingestion of tritiated food or water for up to 22 d, the specific activity of tritium in tissues was measured as tissue-free-water tritium, tissue-bound tritium and DNA-bound tritium. In order to compare the tritium intake from food with that from water, 14 C-glucose was added to food and drinking water. The specific activity of tritium of tissues obtained was then corrected by the specific activity of 14 C in tissues in order to analyse the tritium incorporation from the same amount of ingested food and water. DNA-bound tritium after the ingestion of tritiated food was 4.6 times higher than that of tritiated water, while tissue-bound tritium was 2.2 times higher. The radiation dose to liver from tritium incorporated through food was two-fold higher than through tritiated water, which was mainly due to the high incorporation of tritium into DNA. Our results demonstrated that the dose calculation based on tissue-free-water tritium alone would underestimate the radiation exposure of the human population exposed to tritiated food. (author)

  2. Lunch-time food choices in preschoolers: Relationships between absolute and relative intakes of different food categories, and appetitive characteristics and weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, S; Pryor, K; Mais, L A; Warkentin, S; Benson, L; Cheng, R

    2016-08-01

    Children's appetitive characteristics measured by parent-report questionnaires are reliably associated with body weight, as well as behavioral tests of appetite, but relatively little is known about relationships with food choice. As part of a larger preloading study, we served 4-5year olds from primary school classes five school lunches at which they were presented with the same standardized multi-item meal. Parents completed Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) sub-scales assessing satiety responsiveness (CEBQ-SR), food responsiveness (CEBQ-FR) and enjoyment of food (CEBQ-EF), and children were weighed and measured. Despite differing preload conditions, children showed remarkable consistency of intake patterns across all five meals with day-to-day intra-class correlations in absolute and percentage intake of each food category ranging from 0.78 to 0.91. Higher CEBQ-SR was associated with lower mean intake of all food categories across all five meals, with the weakest association apparent for snack foods. Higher CEBQ-FR was associated with higher intake of white bread and fruits and vegetables, and higher CEBQ-EF was associated with greater intake of all categories, with the strongest association apparent for white bread. Analyses of intake of each food group as a percentage of total intake, treated here as an index of the child's choice to consume relatively more or relatively less of each different food category when composing their total lunch-time meal, further suggested that children who were higher in CEBQ-SR ate relatively more snack foods and relatively less fruits and vegetables, while children with higher CEBQ-EF ate relatively less snack foods and relatively more white bread. Higher absolute intakes of white bread and snack foods were associated with higher BMI z score. CEBQ sub-scale associations with food intake variables were largely unchanged by controlling for daily metabolic needs. However, descriptive comparisons of lunch intakes with

  3. Lunch-time food choices in preschoolers: relationships between absolute and relative intake of different food categories, and appetitive characteristics and weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, S; Pryor, K; Mais, LA; Warkentin, S; Benson, L; Cheng, R

    2016-01-01

    Children’s appetitive characteristics measured by parent-report questionnaires are reliably associated with body weight, as well as behavioral tests of appetite, but relatively little is known about relationships with food choice. As part of a larger preloading study, we served 4-5y olds from primary school classes five school lunches at which they were presented with the same standardized multi-item meal. Parents completed Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) sub-scales assessing satiety responsiveness (CEBQ-SR), food responsiveness (CEBQ-FR) and enjoyment of food (CEBQ-EF), and children were weighed and measured. Despite differing preload conditions, children showed remarkable consistency of intake patterns across all five meals with day-to-day intra-class correlations in absolute and percentage intake of each food category ranging from .78 to .91. Higher CEBQ-SR was associated with lower mean intake of all food categories across all five meals, with the weakest association apparent for snack foods. Higher CEBQ-FR was associated with higher intake of white bread and fruits and vegetables, and higher CEBQ-EF was associated with greater intake of all categories, with the strongest association apparent for white bread. Analyses of intake of each food group as a percentage of total intake, treated here as an index of the child’s choice to consume relatively more or relatively less of each different food category when composing their total lunch-time meal, further suggested that children who were higher in CEBQ-SR ate relatively more snack foods and relatively less fruits and vegetables, while children with higher CEBQ-EF ate relatively less snack foods and relatively more white bread. Higher absolute intakes of white bread and snack foods were associated with higher BMI z score. CEBQ sub-scale associations with food intake variables were largely unchanged by controlling for daily metabolic needs. However, descriptive comparisons of lunch intakes with

  4. Is there a relationship between the playing position of soccer players and their food and macronutrient intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; García, Angela; García-Zapico, Pedro; Pérez-Landaluce, Javier; Patterson, Angeles M; García-Rovés, Pablo Miguel

    2012-04-01

    Many authors have proposed the necessity of the design and implementation of dietary and nutrition education programs for soccer players, although little information is available about the determinants of food selection and nutrient intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional intake and eating patterns of soccer players according to their playing position in the team. Eighty-seven young male soccer players (aged 16-21 years) were recruited from the junior teams of a Spanish First Division Soccer League Club and divided into 6 positional categories (goalkeepers, full-backs, centre-backs, midfielders, wingers, and forwards). Body composition (height, weight, and body fat), performance in soccer-specific tests (jumping, sprinting, and intermittent endurance), and dietary intake (weighed food intake method) were assessed. A spontaneous higher carbohydrate intake was observed for full-backs, midfielders, and wingers (g·kg(-1) body mass: 4.9 ± 1.0, 4.9 ± 1.3, 4.9 ± 0.8; % of energy intake: 47 ± 5, 46 ± 6, 46 ± 4), compared with goalkeepers and centre-backs (g·kg(-1) of body mass: 3.9 ± 1.0, 4.3 ± 1.1; % of energy intake: 44 ± 3, 42 ± 4). These differences were related to food selection patterns, and a higher contribution to daily energy intake of cereals, derivatives, and potatoes was observed between full-backs compared with goalkeepers and centre-backs (33% vs. 27% and 25%). The magnitude of these differences is limited considering the whole diet, and an inadequate nutrient intake were observed in most individuals of every group. The design and implementation of nutrition intervention programs, taking into consideration positional differences in nutritional intake, would be useful for these players.

  5. Sex differences in diurnal rhythms of food intake in mice caused by gonadal hormones and complement of sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuqi; Wang, Lixin; Loh, Dawn H; Colwell, Christopher S; Taché, Yvette; Reue, Karen; Arnold, Arthur P

    2015-09-01

    We measured diurnal rhythms of food intake, as well as body weight and composition, while varying three major classes of sex-biasing factors: activational and organizational effects of gonadal hormones, and sex chromosome complement (SCC). Four Core Genotypes (FCG) mice, comprising XX and XY gonadal males and XX and XY gonadal females, were either gonad-intact or gonadectomized (GDX) as adults (2.5months); food intake was measured second-by-second for 7days starting 5weeks later, and body weight and composition were measured for 22weeks thereafter. Gonadal males weighed more than females. GDX increased body weight/fat of gonadal females, but increased body fat and reduced body weight of males. After GDX, XX mice had greater body weight and more fat than XY mice. In gonad-intact mice, males had greater total food intake and more meals than females during the dark phase, but females had more food intake and meals and larger meals than males during the light phase. GDX reduced overall food intake irrespective of gonad type or SCC, and eliminated differences in feeding between groups with different gonads. Diurnal phase of feeding was influenced by all three sex-biasing variables. Gonad-intact females had earlier onset and acrophase (peak) of feeding relative to males. GDX caused a phase-advance of feeding, especially in XX mice, leading to an earlier onset of feeding in GDX XX vs. XY mice, but earlier acrophase in GDX males relative to females. Gonadal hormones and SCC interact in the control of diurnal rhythms of food intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Food and nutrient intake in relation to mental wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albanes Demetrius

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied food consumption and nutrient intake in subjects with depressed mood, anxiety and insomnia as indices of compromised mental wellbeing. Methods The study population consisted of 29,133 male smokers aged 50 to 69 years who entered the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study in 1985–1988. This was a placebo-controlled trial to test whether supplementation with alpha-tocopherol or beta-carotene prevents lung cancer. At baseline 27,111 men completed a diet history questionnaire from which food and alcohol consumption and nutrient intake were calculated. The questionnaire on background and medical history included three symptoms on mental wellbeing, anxiety, depression and insomnia experienced in the past four months. Results Energy intake was higher in men who reported anxiety or depressed mood, and those reporting any such symptoms consumed more alcohol. Subjects reporting anxiety or depressed mood had higher intake of omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids. Conclusions Our findings conflict with the previous reports of beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on mood.

  7. Online dietary intake estimation: the Food4Me food frequency questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Hannah; Fallaize, Rosalind; Gallagher, Caroline; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Walsh, Marianne C; Macready, Anna L; Lovegrove, Julie A; Mathers, John C; Gibney, Michael J; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R

    2014-06-09

    Dietary assessment methods are important tools for nutrition research. Online dietary assessment tools have the potential to become invaluable methods of assessing dietary intake because, compared with traditional methods, they have many advantages including the automatic storage of input data and the immediate generation of nutritional outputs. The aim of this study was to develop an online food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary data collection in the "Food4Me" study and to compare this with the validated European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) Norfolk printed FFQ. The Food4Me FFQ used in this analysis was developed to consist of 157 food items. Standardized color photographs were incorporated in the development of the Food4Me FFQ to facilitate accurate quantification of the portion size of each food item. Participants were recruited in two centers (Dublin, Ireland and Reading, United Kingdom) and each received the online Food4Me FFQ and the printed EPIC-Norfolk FFQ in random order. Participants completed the Food4Me FFQ online and, for most food items, participants were requested to choose their usual serving size among seven possibilities from a range of portion size pictures. The level of agreement between the two methods was evaluated for both nutrient and food group intakes using the Bland and Altman method and classification into quartiles of daily intake. Correlations were calculated for nutrient and food group intakes. A total of 113 participants were recruited with a mean age of 30 (SD 10) years (40.7% male, 46/113; 59.3%, 67/113 female). Cross-classification into exact plus adjacent quartiles ranged from 77% to 97% at the nutrient level and 77% to 99% at the food group level. Agreement at the nutrient level was highest for alcohol (97%) and lowest for percent energy from polyunsaturated fatty acids (77%). Crude unadjusted correlations for nutrients ranged between .43 and .86. Agreement at the food group level was highest for "other

  8. Impression management and food intake. Current directions in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R

    2015-03-01

    This paper reviews recent research on consumption stereotypes (judgments of others based on what they eat) and impression management (modifying one's eating behavior in order to create a particular impression). A major recent focus in the literature has been on masculinity and meat eating, with research showing that meat is strongly associated with masculinity, and that individuals who follow a meat-based diet are perceived as more masculine than are individuals who follow a vegetarian diet. Although direct evidence for impression management through food intake remains sparse, a number of methodological approaches (including priming techniques and ecological valid assessments) are described that could be used in future research to identify the motives underlying people's eating behavior. Consumption stereotypes and impression management may be important influences on people's eating behavior, but the complexities of how, when, and for whom these factors influence food intake are still not well understood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Protein status elicits compensatory changes in food intake and food preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen-Roose, S.; Mars, M.; Siebelink, E.; Finlayson, G.; Tome, D.; Graaf, de C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Protein is an indispensable component within the human diet. It is unclear, however, whether behavioral strategies exist to avoid shortages. Objective: The objective was to investigate the effect of a low protein status compared with a high protein status on food intake and food

  10. Participant characteristics associated with errors in self-reported energy intake from the Women's Health Initiative food-frequency questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Neilann K; Patterson, Ruth E; Neuhouser, Marian L; Lampe, Johanna W; Beresford, Shirley A; Prentice, Ross L

    2002-10-01

    Errors in self-reported dietary intake threaten inferences from studies relying on instruments such as food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs), food records, and food recalls. The objective was to quantify the magnitude, direction, and predictors of errors associated with energy intakes estimated from the Women's Health Initiative FFQ. Postmenopausal women (n = 102) provided data on sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics that relate to errors in self-reported energy intake. Energy intake was objectively estimated as total energy expenditure, physical activity expenditure, and the thermic effect of food (10% addition to other components of total energy expenditure). Participants underreported energy intake on the FFQ by 20.8%; this error trended upward with younger age (P = 0.07) and social desirability (P = 0.09) but was not associated with body mass index (P = 0.95). The correlation coefficient between reported energy intake and total energy expenditure was 0.24; correlations were higher among women with less education, higher body mass index, and greater fat-free mass, social desirability, and dissatisfaction with perceived body size (all P diet and disease association studies.

  11. Divergent circuitry underlying food reward and intake effects of ghrelin: dopaminergic VTA-accumbens projection mediates ghrelin's effect on food reward but not food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibicka, Karolina P; Shirazi, Rozita H; Rabasa-Papio, Cristina; Alvarez-Crespo, Mayte; Neuber, Corinna; Vogel, Heike; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2013-10-01

    Obesity has reached global epidemic proportions and creating an urgent need to understand mechanisms underlying excessive and uncontrolled food intake. Ghrelin, the only known circulating orexigenic hormone, potently increases food reward behavior. The neurochemical circuitry that links ghrelin to the mesolimbic reward system and to the increased food reward behavior remains unclear. Here we examine whether VTA-NAc dopaminergic signaling is required for the effects of ghrelin on food reward and intake. In addition, we examine the possibility of endogenous ghrelin acting on the VTA-NAc dopamine neurons. A D1-like or a D2 receptor antagonist was injected into the NAc in combination with ghrelin microinjection into the VTA to investigate whether this blockade attenuates ghrelin-induced food reward behavior. VTA injections of ghrelin produced a significant increase in food motivation/reward behavior, as measured by sucrose-induced progressive ratio operant conditioning, and chow intake. Pretreatment with either a D1-like or D2 receptor antagonist into the NAc, completely blocked the reward effect of ghrelin, leaving chow intake intact. We also found that this circuit is potentially relevant for the effects of endogenously released ghrelin as both antagonists reduced fasting (a state of high circulating levels of ghrelin) elevated sucrose-motivated behavior but not chow hyperphagia. Taken together our data identify the VTA to NAc dopaminergic projections, along with D1-like and D2 receptors in the NAc, as essential elements of the ghrelin responsive circuits controlling food reward behavior. Interestingly results also suggest that food reward behavior and simple intake of chow are controlled by divergent circuitry, where NAc dopamine plays an important role in food reward but not in food intake. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Food and the body politic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Americans are in the midst of a food-consciousness revival: on television, in the mouth of the First Lady, in endless articles celebrating urban agriculture can be found a sudden enthusiasm for the politically and, perhaps, spiritually curated dinner table. In this special section, writers explore the perilous state of food and food politics in America and a wide range of responses on the Left. Marion Nestle, in her essay on the farm bill, describes how the existing policy disaster came to be, along with the relationship between Reagan-era deregulation and the obesity epidemic. Mark Engler describes both the successes and coopting of the strands of left-wing responses—buying organic, eating local, and agitating for fair trade—and asks, "What's a radical to eat?" Laurie Woolever uncovers the kind of labor exploitation endemic to the elite dining experience. Karen Bakker Le Billon compares American to French school lunches, unpacking the relationship between food and citizenship. Juliana DeVries explores vegetarianism and the politics of everyday life.

  13. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess food group intake by pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, P; Crivellenti, L C; Nishimura, R Y; Sartorelli, D S

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies conducted among pregnant women to test the accuracy of food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) for estimating food group intake were restricted to one specific trimester of pregnancy. The present study aimed to validate a FFQ for assessing the intake of food groups throughout pregnancy. In total, 75 adult pregnant Brazilian women were evaluated. Dietary intake was assessed by the FFQ (completed at the third trimester of pregnancy) and by three 24-h dietary recalls; one in each trimester of pregnancy. The food items were classified into 20 groups. Adequate deatenuatted Pearson correlation coefficients (>0.4) were observed for the intake of bread/cake, butter/margarine; milk/dairy products; soft drinks/artificial juices; coffee/tea; and pastries/sandwiches. The FFQ served poorly for estimating fruit and vegetable intake. A high percentage (>70%) of women were classified into the same or adjacent quartiles for estimates of cookies/crackers, butter/margarine, milk/dairy products, fruit juices, soft drinks/artificial juices, coffee/tea, roots, rice, beans, meat/chicken/sausages, fried foods, fish, eggs, sweets/sugars, and pastries/sandwiches. Nevertheless, the agreement of joint classification between the dietary methods was mostly into adjacent quartiles, rather than in the same quartile, and low values of kappa were found. The data reported in the present study suggest that the FFQ might not be an appropriate dietary method for evaluating food group intake throughout pregnancy. The joint classification between methods by categories of intake of food groups was mostly into adjacent quartiles, which could lead to attenuated associations when investigating diet-disease relationships during pregnancy. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  14. Slimming starters. Intake of a diet-congruent food reduces meal intake in active dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Nicola J; Finlayson, Graham; Hetherington, Marion M

    2013-12-01

    Dietary restraint is known to break down in the face of tempting foods. Previous research suggests exposure to cues associated with slimming such as images or odours act as prompts to restrict intake of a tempting snack in dieters. The effects of consuming diet-congruent foods on subsequent intake of a meal have not yet been investigated. Thus, using a repeated measures design 26 female participants (dieters or non-dieters) consumed a diet-congruent (100 kcal salad), hedonic (100 kcal garlic bread) or neutral (0 kcal water) preload. A lexical decision task measured the salience of diet and hedonic thoughts and participants were then offered pizza as a main meal. Appetite sensations were measured throughout the study. Compared to the hedonic and neutral preload, a diet-congruent preload reduced dieters' entire meal intake by 21%. In contrast, non-dieters consumed 9% more in the hedonic preload condition compared to the neutral preload, yet showed no differences between the diet-congruent and other conditions. Salad lowered participants desire to eat and increased fullness compared to garlic bread and water preloads. Dieters were also less hungry after the salad compared to the garlic bread and water preloads. Consuming a diet-congruent first course may prompt lower intake at a meal, in part due to facilitating resolve to refrain from overeating a tempting second course. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Warm Ambient Temperature Decreases Food Intake in a Simulated Office Setting: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Molly C; Li, Peng; Allison, David B; Gohlke, Julia M

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that exposure to temperatures above the thermoneutral zone (TNZ) would decrease food intake in young adults in a sedentary office environment over a 2-h period. Participants wearing standardized clothing were randomized to perform routine office work in the TNZ, considered control (19-20°C), or above the TNZ considered warmer (26-27°C) using a parallel-group design (n = 11 and 9, respectively). Thermal images of the inner canthus of their eye and middle finger nail bed, representing proxies of core and peripheral temperatures, respectively, were taken at baseline, first, and second hour during this lunchtime study. Heat dissipation was estimated using peripheral temperature. General linear models were built to examine the effects of thermal treatment on caloric intake and potential mediation by heat dissipation. Researchers conducted the trial registered as NCT02386891 at Clinicaltrials.gov during April to May 2014. During the 2-h stay in different ambient temperatures, the participants in the control conditions ate 99.5 kcal more than those in the warmer conditions; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Female participants ate about 350 kcal less than the male participants (p = 0.024) in both groups and there was no significant association between caloric intake and participant's body mass index (BMI). After controlling for thermal treatment, gender and BMI, the participant's peripheral temperature was significantly associated with caloric intake (p = 0.002), suggesting a mediating effect. Specifically, for every 1°C increase in peripheral temperature suggesting increased heat dissipation, participants ate 85.9 kcal less food. This pilot study provided preliminary evidence of effects of thermal environment on food intake. It suggests that decreased food intake in the experimental (warmer) environment is potentially mediated through thermoregulatory mechanisms.

  16. The effects of calorie information on food selection and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girz, L; Polivy, J; Herman, C P; Lee, H

    2012-10-01

    To examine the effects of calorie labeling on food selection and intake in dieters and non-dieters, and to explore whether expectations about food healthfulness moderate these effects. Participants were presented with a menu containing two items, a salad and a pasta dish. The menu had (a) no calorie information, (b) information that the salad was low in calories and the pasta was high in calories, (c) information that the salad was high in calories and the pasta was low in calories or (d) information that both were high in calories (study 2 only). Calorie labels influenced food selection for dieters, but not for non-dieters. Dieters were more likely to order salad when the salad was labeled as low in calories and more likely to order pasta, even high-calorie pasta, when the salad was labeled as high in calories. Participants who chose high-calorie foods over low-calorie foods did not eat less in response to calorie information, although non-dieters reduced their intake somewhat when calorie labels were put in the context of recommended daily calories. The results suggest that the rush to provide calorie information may not prove to be the best approach to fighting the obesity epidemic.

  17. The proglucagon-derived peptide, glucagon-like peptide-2, is a neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang-Christensen, M.; Larsen, Philip J.; Thulesen, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    Neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, overweight/obesity, hypothalamus, brainstem, food intake behaviour......Neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, overweight/obesity, hypothalamus, brainstem, food intake behaviour...

  18. Impact of Perceived Healthiness of Food on Food Choices and Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Véronique; Jacob, Raphaëlle

    2016-03-01

    Healthy eating is an important determinant of health, but adherence to dietary guidelines remains a public health concern. Identifying factors that impact dietary habits is therefore important to facilitate healthy eating. One widely used strategy to help consumers make healthier food choices is nutrition information, such as labeling and claims. Despite the intention of these strategies to improve decision making, they can also be misunderstood or misinterpreted by consumers. The aim of this review is to explore food perceptions by examining how cognitive factors influence perceived healthiness of food, and the impact of perceived healthiness of food on food choices and intake. Overall findings of this review suggest that cognitive factors, such as type of food and branding, significantly contribute to judgmental bias and have an impact on perceived healthiness while not consistently or systematically influencing choice and intake.

  19. Higher Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Are Associated with Better Body Composition in the Adult Population of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans.To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study.A total of 3214 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics study were assessed. Dietary choline and betaine intakes were computed from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following a 12-hour fast. Major confounding factors including age, sex, total calorie intake and physical activity level were controlled in all analyses.Significantly inverse correlations were found between dietary choline and betaine intakes, with all obesity measurements: total percent body fat (%BF, percent trunk fat (%TF, percent android fat (%AF, percent gynoid fat (%GF and anthropometrics: weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio in both women and men (r range from -0.13 to -0.47 for choline and -0.09 to -0.26 for betaine, p<0.001 for all. Dietary choline intake had stronger association than betaine. Moreover, obese subjects had the lowest dietary choline and betaine intakes, with overweight subjects in the middle, and normal weight subjects consumed the highest dietary choline and betaine (p<0.001. Vice versa, when subjects were ranked according to dietary choline and betaine intakes, subjects with the highest intake of both had the lowest %TF, %AF, %GF, %BF and highest %LM among the groups in both sexes.Our findings indicate that high dietary choline and betaine intakes are significantly associated with favorable body

  20. Food preferences and dietary intakes of Filipino adolescents in metro Manila, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magbuhat, Rizza Marie T; Borazon, Elaine Q; Villarino, Blanca J

    2011-04-01

    This study examined differences in food preferences and dietary intake among male and female Filipino adolescents of different nutritional status as measured by body mass index (BMI). One hundred and twenty 13-17-year olds from various schools and communities in Metro Manila, The Philippines were selected through quota sampling with BMI, sex and age as criteria. Data on mean dietary intake and food preference were collected using pretested instruments--a 3-day food record and a food preference questionnaire, respectively. Resulting values were analysed using one-way ANOVA, Bonferroni test and Pearson's product-moment and Spearman's correlation using SAS Enterprise Guide version 2. Preference for cereals prepared with added sugar or fat (p=0.21, p=.0240), and low fat meat (p=0.18, p=0.420) were found to be positively correlated with BMI, while preference for fruits that are high in vitamin A (p=-0.18, p=0.430) was negatively correlated with the said variable. Overweight respondents gave lower and significantly different preference scores to donut (p=.02780), banana cue (p=.0489) and mayonnaise (p=.0291). Respondents of different nutritional status also had statistically different intakes of fibre, calcium and phosphorus, corresponding with the positive correlation of fibre (p=0.25231, p=0.0054), calcium (p=0.2529, p=0.0134) and phosphorus (p=0.25887, p=0.0043) intake with BMI. With respect to sex, male respondents gave statistically higher preference for French fries (p=.0370), tofu (p=.0005), garlic (p=.0190) and mussels (p=.0023). Also, males have significantly higher intakes of energy and carbohydrate than female respondents. Results suggest that food preferences should be considered in the nutritional care management of malnourished adolescents.

  1. Timing of food intake and obesity: a novel association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, Marta; Gómez-Abellán, Purificación

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies link energy regulation to the circadian clock at the behavioral, physiological and molecular levels, emphasizing that the timing of food intake itself may have a significant role in obesity. In this regards, there is emerging literature in animals demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation. Unusual feeding time can produce a disruption of the circadian system which might produce unhealthy consequences in humans. In a longitudinal study, we recently showed that the timing of the main meal was predictive of weight loss during a 20-week dietary intervention and that this effect was independent from total 24-h caloric intake. The importance of caloric distribution across the day on weight loss therapy was supported by a recent 12-week experimental study showing that subjects assigned to high caloric intake during breakfast lost significantly more weight than those assigned to high caloric intake during the dinner. Furthermore, one of the most influential discoveries relevant for this area of research in the last years is the presence of an active circadian clock in different organs related to food intake. This is the case for stomach, intestine, pancreas or liver. New data also suggest that there is a temporal component in the regulation of adipose tissue functions. Thus, a specific temporal order in the daily patterns of adipose tissue genes appears to be crucial for adipose tissue to exclusively either accumulate fat or to mobilize fat at the proper time. Taking into account that feeding is the source of energy for adipose tissue, the time of feeding, particularly for high-energy content meals, may be decisive, and changes in this timing could have metabolic consequences for the development of obesity and for weight loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Food-related advertisements and food intake among adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonderlich-Tierney, Anna L; Wenzel, Kevin R; Vander Wal, Jillon S; Wang-Hall, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    Television viewing may contribute to obesity via promotion of sedentary behavior and exposure to food-related commercials. However, the mechanisms by which food-related commercials promote food intake are not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of television advertisements on food intake according to sex and transportability, or the tendency to become engrossed in what one is viewing. Eighty-three undergraduate students, free of disordered eating symptoms, were stratified by sex and randomly assigned to one of three conditions (food-related advertisements, neutral advertisements, or no advertisements). They were then identified as high or low in transportability according to a median split. A significant interaction was found between advertisement condition and transportability such that those high in transportability ate more in the food than other advertisement conditions. A second interaction was found between sex and transportability with women high in transportability eating more food than women low in transportability irrespective of advertisement condition. No significant main effects of advertisement condition, sex, or transportability were found. Results suggest the importance of studying the impact of individual difference variables on the relationship between food-related advertising and food intake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship between Dietary Fat Intake, Its Major Food Sources and Assisted Reproduction Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein

    2014-10-01

    High dietary fat consumption may alter oocyte development and embryonic development. This prospective study was conducted to determine the relation between dietary fat consumption level, its food sources and the assisted reproduction parameters. A prospective study was conducted on 240 infertile women. In assisted reproduction treatment cycle, fat consumption and major food sources over the previous three months were identified. The number of retrieved oocytes, metaphase ΙΙ stage oocytes numbers, fertilization rate, embryo quality and clinical pregnancy rate were also determined. The data were analyzed using multiple regression, binary logistic regression, chi-square and t-test. The p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Total fat intake adjusted for age, body mass index, physical activity and etiology of infertility was positively associated with the number of retrieved oocytes and inversely associated with the high embryo quality rate. An inverse association was observed between sausage and turkey ham intake and the number of retrieved oocytes. Also, oil intake level had an inverse association with good cleavage rate. The results revealed that higher levels of fat consumption tend to increase the number of retrieved oocytes and were adversely related to embryonic development. Among food sources of fat, vegetable oil, sausage and turkey ham intake may adversely affect assisted reproduction parameters.

  4. Analysis of Dietary Intake and Body Composition of Female Athletes over a Competitive Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Nepocatych

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine dietary intake, body composition and bone mineral density changes at the beginning and end of a competitive season in female athletes of sports that have been less represented in the literature. NCAA Division I basketball (n=10 and softball (n=10 players mean age (20±1 years completed 3-day food records at the beginning and end of season. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Mean energy intake was significantly lower at the beginning compared to the end of the season (1925±466 vs. 2326±782 kcals/day; p=0.02. Lean, fat, and total body mass, and total and regional BMD were unaltered from the beginning to the end of season (p>0.05. Macronutrient consumption by percentage did not change across the season (p>0.05 with aggregate data equalling 3.5±1.3, 1.2±0.6, and 1.2±0.5 g/kg/day for carbohydrate, fat, and protein respectively. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were below the recommended levels. Low intake of fibre (17±6.3 g/day and high sodium (3700±1120 mg/day also raise concerns. Despite no major alterations in body composition or BMD many female athletes’ diets in the sports investigated while living on campus failed to meet recommended intake levels suggesting maximal athletic performance and health parameters may be stunted due to poor nutrient choices.

  5. Genetic Deletion of Rheb1 in the Brain Reduces Food Intake and Causes Hypoglycemia with Altered Peripheral Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchun Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive food/energy intake is linked to obesity and metabolic disorders, such as diabetes. The hypothalamus in the brain plays a critical role in the control of food intake and peripheral metabolism. The signaling pathways in hypothalamic neurons that regulate food intake and peripheral metabolism need to be better understood for developing pharmacological interventions to manage eating behavior and obesity. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase, is a master regulator of cellular metabolism in different cell types. Pharmacological manipulations of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1 activity in hypothalamic neurons alter food intake and body weight. Our previous study identified Rheb1 (Ras homolog enriched in brain 1 as an essential activator of mTORC1 activity in the brain. Here we examine whether central Rheb1 regulates food intake and peripheral metabolism through mTORC1 signaling. We find that genetic deletion of Rheb1 in the brain causes a reduction in mTORC1 activity and impairs normal food intake. As a result, Rheb1 knockout mice exhibit hypoglycemia and increased lipid mobilization in adipose tissue and ketogenesis in the liver. Our work highlights the importance of central Rheb1 signaling in euglycemia and energy homeostasis in animals.

  6. Timing of food intake predicts weight loss effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, M; Gómez-Abellán, P; Alburquerque-Béjar, J J; Lee, Y-C; Ordovás, J M; Scheer, F A J L

    2013-04-01

    There is emerging literature demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation in animals. However, whether the timing of food intake influences the success of a weight-loss diet in humans is unknown. To evaluate the role of food timing in weight-loss effectiveness in a sample of 420 individuals who followed a 20-week weight-loss treatment. Participants (49.5% female subjects; age (mean ± s.d.): 42 ± 11 years; BMI: 31.4 ± 5.4 kg m(-2)) were grouped in early eaters and late eaters, according to the timing of the main meal (lunch in this Mediterranean population). 51% of the subjects were early eaters and 49% were late eaters (lunch time before and after 1500 hours, respectively), energy intake and expenditure, appetite hormones, CLOCK genotype, sleep duration and chronotype were studied. Late lunch eaters lost less weight and displayed a slower weight-loss rate during the 20 weeks of treatment than early eaters (P=0.002). Surprisingly, energy intake, dietary composition, estimated energy expenditure, appetite hormones and sleep duration was similar between both groups. Nevertheless, late eaters were more evening types, had less energetic breakfasts and skipped breakfast more frequently that early eaters (all; Pmeal (P=0.015) with a higher frequency of minor allele (C) carriers among the late eaters (P=0.041). Neither sleep duration, nor CLOCK SNPs or morning/evening chronotype was independently associated with weight loss (all; P>0.05). Eating late may influence the success of weight-loss therapy. Novel therapeutic strategies should incorporate not only the caloric intake and macronutrient distribution - as is classically done - but also the timing of food.

  7. The effects of chronic intraperitoneal administration of the GABA B receptor agonist baclofen on food intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sunit M; Ebenezer, Ivor S

    2008-09-28

    This study was undertaken to examine the effects of repeated administration of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen on food intake in male Wistar rats. In the 1st Experiment, the effects of daily administration of physiological saline and baclofen (2 mg/kg, i.p.) for 27 days were investigated on food intake and body weight in non-deprived rats (n=6 in each group). Baclofen significantly (P<0.05) increased cumulative food intake each day over the treatment period during the 60 min measurement period following administration. Tolerance did not develop to the short-term hyperphagic effect of baclofen over the course of the experiment. In addition, treatment with baclofen did not alter body weight of the animals over the 27 day treatment period when compared with the saline control rats. In the 2nd Experiment, the effects of acute and chronic administration of baclofen (2 mg/kg) were investigated on 24 h food intake in rats. The rats were injected daily for 21 days with either saline (n=6) or baclofen (n=6). Food intake was measured in 30 min time bins for 24 h on treatment Days 1, 12 and 21 following injection. The results showed that while baclofen produced short-term increases in food consumption following injection on treatment Days 1, 12 and 21, the daily (24 h) food intake of the animals was not significantly different from those of control rats. Thus, these data reveal that while chronic administration of baclofen (2 mg/kg) produces short-term increases in feeding without the development of tolerance, daily (24 h) food consumption is not affected. These findings are consistent with the observation that chronic administration of baclofen (2 mg/kg) had no effect on the body weight of these animals.

  8. Guidelines for Biomarker of Food Intake Reviews (BFIRev): how to conduct an extensive literature search for biomarker of food intake discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praticò, Giulia; Gao, Qian; Scalbert, Augustin; Vergères, Guy; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Manach, Claudine; Brennan, Lorraine; Pedapati, Sri Harsha; Afman, Lydia A; Wishart, David S; Vázquez-Fresno, Rosa; Lacueva, Cristina Andres; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Verhagen, Hans; Feskens, Edith J M; Dragsted, Lars O

    2018-01-01

    Identification of new biomarkers of food and nutrient intake has developed fast over the past two decades and could potentially provide important new tools for compliance monitoring and dietary intake assessment in nutrition and health science. In recent years, metabolomics has played an important role in identifying a large number of putative biomarkers of food intake (BFIs). However, the large body of scientific literature on potential BFIs outside the metabolomics area should also be taken into account. In particular, we believe that extensive literature reviews should be conducted and that the quality of all suggested biomarkers should be systematically evaluated. In order to cover the literature on BFIs in the most appropriate and consistent manner, there is a need for appropriate guidelines on this topic. These guidelines should build upon guidelines in related areas of science while targeting the special needs of biomarker methodology. This document provides a guideline for conducting an extensive literature search on BFIs, which will provide the basis to systematically validate BFIs. This procedure will help to prioritize future work on the identification of new potential biomarkers and on validating these as well as other biomarker candidates, thereby providing better tools for future studies in nutrition and health.

  9. Guidelines for Biomarker of Food Intake Reviews (BFIRev: how to conduct an extensive literature search for biomarker of food intake discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Praticò

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Identification of new biomarkers of food and nutrient intake has developed fast over the past two decades and could potentially provide important new tools for compliance monitoring and dietary intake assessment in nutrition and health science. In recent years, metabolomics has played an important role in identifying a large number of putative biomarkers of food intake (BFIs. However, the large body of scientific literature on potential BFIs outside the metabolomics area should also be taken into account. In particular, we believe that extensive literature reviews should be conducted and that the quality of all suggested biomarkers should be systematically evaluated. In order to cover the literature on BFIs in the most appropriate and consistent manner, there is a need for appropriate guidelines on this topic. These guidelines should build upon guidelines in related areas of science while targeting the special needs of biomarker methodology. This document provides a guideline for conducting an extensive literature search on BFIs, which will provide the basis to systematically validate BFIs. This procedure will help to prioritize future work on the identification of new potential biomarkers and on validating these as well as other biomarker candidates, thereby providing better tools for future studies in nutrition and health.

  10. Preference and intake frequency of high sodium foods and dishes and their correlations with anthropometric measurements among Malaysian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Stella Sinn-Yee; Balan, Sumitha Nair; Chua, Leong-Siong; Say, Yee-How

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the preference and intake frequency of a list of 15 commonly available high sodium Malaysian foods/dishes, discretionary salt use, and their possible association with demographics, blood pressures and anthropometric measurements among 300 Malaysian university students (114 males, 186 females; 259 ethnic Chinese, 41 Indians; 220 lean, 80 overweight). French fries and instant soup noodle were found to be the most preferred and most frequently consumed salty food, respectively, while salted fish was least preferred and least frequently consumed. Males had a significantly higher intake frequency of at least 6 of the salty foods, but the preference of most salty foods was not significantly different between genders. Ethnic Chinese significantly preferred more and took more frequently traditional and conventional Malaysian foods like asam laksa (a Malaysian salty-sour-spicy noodle in fish stock), salted biscuits and salted vegetable, while Indians have more affinity and frequency towards eating salty Western foods. Body Mass Index was significantly negatively correlated with the intake frequency of canned/packet soup and salted fish while waist circumference was significantly positively correlated with the preference of instant noodle. Also, an increased preference of potato chips and intake frequency of salted biscuits seemed to lead to a decreased WHR. Other than these, all the other overweight/obesity indicators did not seem to fully correlate with the salty food preference and intake frequency. Nevertheless, the preference and intake frequency of asam laksa seemed to be significant negative predictors for blood pressures. Finally, increased preference and intake frequency of high sodium shrimp paste (belacan)-based foods like asam laksa and belacan fried rice seemed to discourage discretionary salt use. In conclusion, the preference and intake frequency of the high sodium belacan-based dish asam laksa seems to be a good predictor for ethnic

  11. Preference and intake frequency of high sodium foods and dishes and their correlations with anthropometric measurements among Malaysian subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Stella Sinn-Yee; Balan, Sumitha Nair; Chua, Leong-Siong

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the preference and intake frequency of a list of 15 commonly available high sodium Malaysian foods/dishes, discretionary salt use, and their possible association with demographics, blood pressures and anthropometric measurements among 300 Malaysian university students (114 males, 186 females; 259 ethnic Chinese, 41 Indians; 220 lean, 80 overweight). French fries and instant soup noodle were found to be the most preferred and most frequently consumed salty food, respectively, while salted fish was least preferred and least frequently consumed. Males had a significantly higher intake frequency of at least 6 of the salty foods, but the preference of most salty foods was not significantly different between genders. Ethnic Chinese significantly preferred more and took more frequently traditional and conventional Malaysian foods like asam laksa (a Malaysian salty-sour-spicy noodle in fish stock), salted biscuits and salted vegetable, while Indians have more affinity and frequency towards eating salty Western foods. Body Mass Index was significantly negatively correlated with the intake frequency of canned/packet soup and salted fish while waist circumference was significantly positively correlated with the preference of instant noodle. Also, an increased preference of potato chips and intake frequency of salted biscuits seemed to lead to a decreased WHR. Other than these, all the other overweight/obesity indicators did not seem to fully correlate with the salty food preference and intake frequency. Nevertheless, the preference and intake frequency of asam laksa seemed to be significant negative predictors for blood pressures. Finally, increased preference and intake frequency of high sodium shrimp paste (belacan)-based foods like asam laksa and belacan fried rice seemed to discourage discretionary salt use. In conclusion, the preference and intake frequency of the high sodium belacan-based dish asam laksa seems to be a good predictor for ethnic

  12. Effect of photoperiod on body weight gain, and daily energy intake and energy expenditure in Japanese quail (Coturnix c. Japonica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P; Visser, GH; Daan, S

    2000-01-01

    Effect of photoperiod and food duration on body weight gain, energy intake, energy expenditure, and sexual development were investigated in two strains of Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica), bred for meat (broilers) or egg production (layers), from 7 to 71 days of age. In a first experiment

  13. Fluoxetine and diclofenac interaction on food intake in goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Navid Forsatkar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the interaction of simultaneous use of fluoxetine (Flx, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and diclofenac (Dcf, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, on food intake in goldfish, Carassius auratus. Treatments with different dosage of Flx including control, 0, 1, and 10  µg/g body weight (BW were injected in the fish with mean weight of 30.16 ± 8.57 g every other day in total of 5 times. Then fish were exposed to 3 different levels of Dcf including 0, 10, and 100 mg/l for 5 days. Injection of fluoxetine significantly decreased food intake and consequently body weight. After 5 days exposure to Dcf, the amount of food intake in the Dcf receiving treatments of 1 mg/l and 10 mg/l was significantly larger than that of 0 mg/l Dcf recieving treatment in both the Flx dosage groups of 1 μg/g BW and 10 μg/g BW. Our results indicated that Dcf inhibits behavioral change effects of Flx showing the complex effects of pharmaceuticals on fish.

  14. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarelli, Jennifer; Pappas, Demetra; Welchons, Leah; Augustyn, Marilyn

    2017-01-01

    Kendra is a 4-year-old girl with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who presents for follow-up of feeding problems to her pediatric clinician. She is an only child in a family where both parents are scientists. Feeding concerns date to infancy, when she was diagnosed with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) associated with persistent bottle refusal and the acceptance of few pureed foods. At 13 months, milk and peanut allergies were diagnosed. Following a feeding clinic evaluation at 24 months, she was prescribed a soy milk supplement and an H2 blocker. There was no concern for oral-motor dysfunction. She was also referred to early intervention for feeding therapy. However, her parents terminated participation after 6 months because she became anxious and had tantrum prior to treatment groups.She was seen in another feeding program at 3 years; zinc, folate, thyroid, and a celiac panel were normal, and an endoscopy was negative for eosinophilic esophagitis. She began individual feeding therapy, where concerns for rigidity, difficulty transitioning, and limited peer interactions led to a neuropsychological evaluation. Kendra was diagnosed with an ASD and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). Her cognitive skills were average, and expressive and receptive language skills were low average.Her diet consisted of French fries, Ritz crackers, pretzels, and 32 ounces of soy formula daily. She had stopped accepting Cheerios and saltines 2 months prior. She controlled other aspects of feeding, insisting on a specific parking spot at a fast food restaurant and drinking from a particular sippy cup. Her parents accepted these demands with concern about her caloric intake, which they tracked daily.Following diagnosis with ARFID, she resumed feeding therapy using a systematic desensitization approach with rewards. At the first session, she kissed and licked 2 new foods without gagging. Her mother appeared receptive to recommendations that included continuing the "food

  15. [Nutrient intake of Chilean older people according to body mass index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Samuel A; Ulloa, Alejandra A; Reyes, Sussanne G

    2014-12-01

    An adequate consumption of micro and macro nutrients is essential to maintain an adequate health among older people. To compare the consumption of micro- and macronutrients in older people from three Chilean cities, according to their nutritional status. Body mass index (BMI) was assessed and a food consumption tendency survey was applied to 976 non-disabled older people, living in the community. Thinness was defined as a BMI < 23 kg/m². Twenty percent of females and 17% of males had a BMI < 23 kg/m². Participants with a higher BMI had a greater intake of micro- and macronutrients. In females, micronutrient intake was adequate among those with higher BMI, although mean intake of calcium and vitamin B-12 were below recommendations. In males, iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium, vitamin A, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and pantothenic acid intake were below recommendation. Thin older adults, regardless of sex, had a lower intake of calories and micro- and macronutrients. Additionally, an overall low consumption of zinc, calcium, magnesium and vitamin B12 was detected.

  16. Comparing intake estimations based on food composition data with chemical analysis in Malian women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koréissi-Dembélé, Yara; Doets, Esmee L.; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Hulshof, Paul J.M.; Moretti, Diego; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Food composition databases are essential for estimating nutrient intakes in food consumption surveys. The present study aimed to evaluate the Mali food composition database (TACAM) for assessing intakes of energy and selected nutrients at population level. Design: Weighed food records and

  17. Away-from-home food intake and risk for obesity: Examining the influence of context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Rogers, Morgan; Arredondo, Elva M.; Campbell, Nadia R.; Baquero, Barbara; Duerksen, Susan C.; Elder, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined socio-demographic and cultural determinants of away-from-home food consumption in two contexts and the influence of frequency of away-from-home food consumption on children’s dietary intake and parent and child weight status. Research Methods and Procedures Parents of children (N=708) in grades K-2 were recruited from 13 elementary schools in Southern California. Parents were asked through a questionnaire the frequency with which they eat meals away from home and the restaurant they frequented most often. The height and weight of the parents and their children were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Results Consuming foods at least once a week from relatives/neighbors/friends [RNF] homes was associated with children’s dietary intake and children’s risk for obesity. For example, children of parents with weekly or greater RNF food consumption drank more sugar sweetened beverages. Parents of families who ate at restaurants at least weekly reported that their children consumed more sugar sweetened beverages, more sweet/savory snacks and less water compared with families who did not frequent restaurants this often. The type of restaurant visited did not impact diet intake or obesity. More acculturated families exhibited less healthy dietary behaviors than less acculturated families. Discussion Restaurants remain an important setting for preventing child and adult obesity, but other settings outside the home need to be considered in future intervention research. This may especially involve eating in the homes of relatives, neighbors and friends. PMID:18309297

  18. Western-style fast food intake and cardiometabolic risk in an Eastern country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegaard, Andrew O; Koh, Woon Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Gross, Myron D; Pereira, Mark A

    2012-07-10

    Western-style fast food contributes to a dietary pattern portending poor cardiometabolic health in the United States. With globalization, this way of eating is becoming more common in developing and recently developed populations. We examined the association of Western-style fast food intake with risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease mortality in Chinese Singaporeans. This analysis included men and women 45 to 74 years of age who enrolled in the Singapore Chinese Health Study from 1993 to 1998. For CHD mortality, 52 584 participants were included and 1397 deaths were identified through December 31, 2009, via registry linkage. For type 2 diabetes mellitus, 43 176 participants were included and 2252 cases were identified during the follow-up interview (1999-2004) and validated. Hazard ratios for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease mortality were estimated with thorough adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. Chinese Singaporeans with relatively frequent intake of Western-style fast food items (≥2 times per week) had an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.54) and dying of coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-2.06) relative to their peers with little or no reported intake. These associations were not materially altered by adjustments for overall dietary pattern, energy intake, and body mass index. Western-style fast food intake is associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and of coronary heart disease mortality in an Eastern population. These findings suggest the need for further attention to global dietary acculturation in the context of ongoing epidemiological and nutrition transitions.

  19. Western-Style Fast Food Intake and Cardiometabolic Risk in an Eastern Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegaard, Andrew O.; Koh, Woon Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Gross, Myron D.; Pereira, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Western-style fast food contributes to a dietary pattern portending poor cardiometabolic health in the United States. With globalization, this way of eating is becoming more common in developing and recently developed populations. Methods and Results We examined the association of Western-style fast food intake with risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease mortality in Chinese Singaporeans. This analysis included men and women 45 to 74 years of age who enrolled in the Singapore Chinese Health Study from 1993 to 1998. For CHD mortality, 52 584 participants were included and 1397 deaths were identified through December 31, 2009, via registry linkage. For type 2 diabetes mellitus, 43 176 participants were included and 2252 cases were identified during the follow-up interview (1999 –2004) and validated. Hazard ratios for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease mortality were estimated with thorough adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. Chinese Singaporeans with relatively frequent intake of Western-style fast food items (≥2 times per week) had an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–1.54) and dying of coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.18 –2.06) relative to their peers with little or no reported intake. These associations were not materially altered by adjustments for overall dietary pattern, energy intake, and body mass index. Conclusions Western-style fast food intake is associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and of coronary heart disease mortality in an Eastern population. These findings suggest the need for further attention to global dietary acculturation in the context of ongoing epidemiological and nutrition transitions. PMID:22753304

  20. Measurement of ad libitum food intake, physical activity, and sedentary time in response to overfeeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianying He

    Full Text Available Given the wide availability of highly palatable foods, overeating is common. Energy intake and metabolic responses to overfeeding may provide insights into weight gain prevention. We hypothesized a down-regulation in subsequent food intake and sedentary time, and up-regulation in non-exercise activity and core temperature in response to overfeeding in order to maintain body weight constant. In a monitored inpatient clinical research unit using a cross over study design, we investigated ad libitum energy intake (EI, using automated vending machines, core body temperature, and physical activity (using accelerometry following a short term (3-day weight maintaining (WM vs overfeeding (OF diet in healthy volunteers (n = 21, BMI, mean ± SD, 33.2±8.6 kg/m(2, 73.6% male. During the ad libitum periods following the WM vs. OF diets, there was no significant difference in mean 3-d EI (4061±1084 vs. 3926±1284 kcal/day, p = 0.41, and there were also no differences either in core body temperature (37.0±0.2°C vs. 37.1±0.2°C, p = 0.75 or sedentary time (70.9±12.9 vs. 72.0±7.4%, p = 0.88. However, during OF (but not WM, sedentary time was positively associated with weight gain (r = 0.49, p = 0.05, adjusted for age, sex, and initial weight. In conclusion, short term overfeeding did not result in a decrease in subsequent ad libitum food intake or overall change in sedentary time although in secondary analysis sedentary time was associated with weight gain during OF. Beyond possible changes in sedentary time, there is minimal attempt to restore energy balance during or following short term overfeeding.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342732.

  1. Individual and family correlates of calcium-rich food intake among parents of early adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicks, Marla; Ballejos, Miriam Edlefsen; Goodell, L Suzanne; Gunther, Carolyn; Richards, Rickelle; Wong, Siew Sun; Auld, Garry; Boushey, Carol J; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth; Zaghloul, Sahar

    2011-03-01

    Most adults do not meet calcium intake recommendations. Little is known about how individual and family factors, including parenting practices that influence early adolescents' intake of calcium-rich foods, affect calcium intake of parents. This information could inform the development of effective nutrition education programs. To identify individual and family factors associated with intake of calcium-rich foods among parents of early adolescents (aged 10 to 13 years). A cross-sectional survey was used with 14 scales to assess attitudes/preferences and parenting practices regarding calcium-rich foods and a calcium-specific food frequency questionnaire (2006-2007). A convenience sample of self-reporting non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and Asian (n=661) parents was recruited in nine states. Parents were the primary meal planner/preparer and completed questionnaires in homes or community settings. Predictors of calcium intake from three food groupings-all food sources, dairy foods, and milk. Multivariate regression analyses identified demographic, attitude/preference, and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake. Most respondents were women (∼90%) and 38% had a college degree. Education was positively associated with calcium intake from all three food groupings, whereas having an Asian spouse compared to a non-Hispanic white spouse was negatively associated with calcium intake only from all food sources and from dairy foods. Expectations for and encouragement of healthy beverage intake for early adolescents were positively associated with calcium intake from dairy foods and milk, respectively. Parental concern regarding adequacy of intake was negatively associated, whereas perception of health benefits from calcium-rich foods was positively associated with calcium intake from all food sources and from dairy foods. Between 20% and 32% of the variance in calcium intake from all food groupings was explained in these models. Individual factors and positive

  2. Guidelines for Biomarker of Food Intake Reviews (BFIRev)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praticò, Giulia; Gao, Qian; Scalbert, Augustin

    2018-01-01

    and that the quality of all suggested biomarkers should be systematically evaluated. In order to cover the literature on BFIs in the most appropriate and consistent manner, there is a need for appropriate guidelines on this topic. These guidelines should build upon guidelines in related areas of science while......Identification of new biomarkers of food and nutrient intake has developed fast over the past two decades and could potentially provide important new tools for compliance monitoring and dietary intake assessment in nutrition and health science. In recent years, metabolomics has played an important...... and on validating these as well as other biomarker candidates, thereby providing better tools for future studies in nutrition and health....

  3. [TV, overweight and nutritional surveillance. Ads content, food intake and physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnoli, T D; Bioletti, L; Bo, C; Formigatti, M

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between television viewing and obesity in children and adults was examined in a large number of cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Some randomised, controlled trials confirmed the evidence that television viewing is a cause of increased body fatness. It seems of utility in nutritional surveillance to esteem time spent by children and adults in television watching and to evaluate ads contents and food preferences suggested by them. This editorial shows a two-years long analysis of food commercials broadcasted by the main Italian TV networks; food ads targeted on children, housewives and sport fans were evaluated; the relationship between television viewing, commercials and food intake or global lifestyle was investigated in a Piedmont's population (from Northern Italy). School projects aimed to reduce television viewing represent a promising strategy for preventing childhood obesity.

  4. Children's executive function and high-calorie, low-nutrient food intake: mediating effects of child-perceived adult fast food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Eleanor B; Unger, Jennifer B; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R

    2015-04-01

    This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Southern California elementary schools. Fourth- and fifth-grade children (N = 1,005) participating in the Pathways to Health obesity prevention program. Child EF problems were associated with higher concurrent HCLN intake (B = 0.29, SE = 0.10, p fast food intake (indirect effect = 0.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.11, 0.25], p problems did not significantly predict higher HCLN intake a year and a half later (B = 0.01, SE = 0.10, p = .92, n = 848) but did have a significant indirect effect through higher perceived parent fast food intake (indirect effect = 0.05, 95% CI = [0.02, 0.10], p fast food intake, contributing to their own unhealthy food intake. However, EF problems may not directly affect HCLN intake across time, except when problems are associated with child perception of more frequent parent consumption of convenience foods. Future research is needed to investigate the possibility that helping children perceive and understand role models' convenience food consumption may improve child dietary consumption patterns. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  5. High dietary protein intake is associated with an increased body weight and total death risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Saiz, Carmen; Bulló, Mònica

    2016-04-01

    High dietary protein diets are widely used to manage overweight and obesity. However, there is a lack of consensus about their long-term efficacy and safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of long-term high-protein consumption on body weight changes and death outcomes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. A secondary analysis of the PREDIMED trial was conducted. Dietary protein was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire during the follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for protein intake in relation to the risk of body weight and waist circumference changes, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular death, cancer death and total death. Higher total protein intake, expressed as percentage of energy, was significantly associated with a greater risk of weight gain when protein replaced carbohydrates (HR: 1.90; 95%CI: 1.05, 3.46) but not when replaced fat (HR: 1.69; 95%CI: 0.94, 3.03). However, no association was found between protein intake and waist circumference. Contrary, higher total protein intake was associated with a greater risk of all-cause death in both carbohydrate and fat substitution models (HR: 1.59; 95%CI: 1.08, 2.35; and HR: 1.66; 95%CI: 1.13, 2.43, respectively). A higher consumption of animal protein was associated with an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal outcomes when protein substituted carbohydrates or fat. Higher dietary protein intake is associated with long-term increased risk of body weight gain and overall death in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. [Food intake and colorectal cancers; an ecological study in Romania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fira-Mladinescu, Corneluţa; Fira-Mladinescu, O; Doroftei, Sorina; Sas, Felicia; Ursoniu, S; Ionuţ, R; Putnoky, Salomeia; Suciu, Oana; Vlaicu, Brigitha

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study performed in a Romanian population was to identify the food which can be either associated with or protect against colorectal carcinoma. Correlation and regression analysis were used to examine the association between dietary intake and the rate of incidence for colon, rectum and anus cancers, in study groups from 7 regions of Romania. A strong and positive association was observed for colonic cancer and the intake of coffee, tea and cocoa (r = 0.77, p = 0.042) whereas statistical significance of borderline value was found for margarine (r = 0.73, p = 0.06) and sweets (r = 0.74, p = 0.066) intake. A potential protective effect can be attributed to wine consumption ( r = -0.75, p = 0.03). The malignancies of the rectum and anus showed both a strong positive correlation with the intake of red meat ( r = 0.76, p = 0.048), sausages ( r = 0.87, p = 0.012), margarine (r = 0.97, p = 0.0004), butter ( r = 0.76, p = 0.049), sweets ( r = 0.93, p = 0.003), beverages (r = 0.97, p = 0.0003), coffee, tea, cocoa ( r = 0.94, p = 0.002). Negative correlations were reported for the recto-anal cancer and the consumption of: fish (r = -0.8, p = 0.032), cheese (r = -0.9, p = 0.006), wine (r = -0.85, p = 0.015). The need for reducing the dietary intake of margarine, red meat, sausages and sweets while the beneficial effects of wine consumption have been also confirmed.

  7. Immediate increase in food intake following exercise messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracin, Dolores; Wang, Wei; Leeper, Joshua

    2009-07-01

    Communications to stimulate weight loss include exercise-promotion messages that often produce unsatisfactory results due to compensatory behavioral and metabolic mechanisms triggered by physical activity. This research investigated potential automatic facilitation of eating immediately after exercise messages in the absence of actual exercise. Two controlled experiments demonstrated greater than control food intake following exposure to print messages typical of exercise campaigns as well as subliminal presentation of action words associated with exercise (e.g., "active"). These inadvertent effects may explain the limited efficacy of exercise-promotion programs for weight loss, particularly when systematic dietary guidelines are absent.

  8. Effect of fasting in Ramadan on body composition and nutritional intake: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzy, A; Salehi, M; Philippou, E; Arabi, H; Shiva, F; Mehrnoosh, S; Mohajeri, S M R; Mohajeri, S A Reza; Motaghedi Larijani, A; Nematy, M

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting on body weight and composition and the effects of age and sex. Body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured, body mass index (BMI) was calculated and fat mass, fat-free mass and percentage body fat were assessed by bioelectrical impedance on 240 adult subjects (male: 158) who fasted between sunrise and sunset for at least 20 days. Measurements were taken 1 week before and 1 week after Ramadan. Energy and macronutrient intakes were assessed using a 3-day food frequency questionnaire on a sub-sample of subjects before and during Ramadan. Subjects were grouped according to age and sex: ≤35 years (n = 82, males: 31) and 36-70 years (n = 158, males: 127). There were significant reductions in weight and BMI (P Ramadan, except in males whose protein intake fell during Ramadan (P = 0.032). Ramadan fasting leads to weight loss and fat-free mass reductions. Body composition changes vary depending on age and sex. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. Comparison of Body Composition and Energy Intake of Young Female Ballet Dancers and Ordinary School Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalniņa Līga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess body fat level, energy and nutrient intake of adolescent ballet dancers and to compare these results with those of adolescents from ordinary school. Participants included 39 ballet dancers and 70 adolescents from ordinary school. Body composition was measured using a multi-frequency 8-polar bioelectrical impedance leg-to-hand analyser (X-Scan Plus II, Korea. Dietary intakes were assessed using a three-day estimated food record. Nutritional intake was calculated using the Nutri Survey software. Ballet dancers were slightly shorter, lighter, with less fat and fat-free mass compared to girls from ordinary school. 51.3% (95% CI 35.59 to 66.97 of ballet dancers and 4% (95% CI; 0.27 to 11.15 of ordinary school girls had a body fat level of 12% or less. The recommended amount of 35–45 kcal energy to kg fat-free mass for aesthetic sports was not reached by 42.1% (95% CI 27.61 to 50.65% of ballet dancers. No statistically significant difference was found in percent body fat between ballet dancers who consumed energy less than the recommended amount compared to those who ate normally, but fatfree mass (p < 0.05 was lower in those who consumed 35–45 kcal energy to kg fat-free mass or less compared to those who ate more. The investigated groups had an inadequate intake of minerals and vitamins during the winter period.

  10. To what extent do food purchases reflect shoppers' diet quality and nutrient intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; French, Simone A; Tangney, Christy C; Powell, Lisa M; Wang, Yamin

    2017-04-11

    Food purchasing is considered a key mediator between the food environment and eating behavior, and food purchasing patterns are increasingly measured in epidemiologic and intervention studies. However, the extent to which food purchases actually reflect individuals' dietary intake has not been rigorously tested. This study examined cross-sectional agreement between estimates of diet quality and nutrient densities derived from objectively documented household food purchases and those derived from interviewer-administered 24-h diet recalls. A secondary aim was to identify moderator variables associated with attenuated agreement between purchases and dietary intake. Primary household food shoppers (N = 196) collected and annotated receipts for all household food and beverage purchases (16,356 total) over 14 days. Research staff visited participants' homes four times to photograph the packaging and nutrition labels of each purchased item. Three or four multiple-pass 24-h diet recalls were performed within the same 14-d period. Nutrient densities and Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) scores were calculated from both food purchase and diet recall data. HEI-2010 scores derived from food purchases (median = 60.9, interquartile range 49.1-71.7) showed moderate agreement (ρc = .57, p social desirability, household income, household size, and body mass. Concordance for individual nutrient densities from food purchases and 24-h diet recalls varied widely from ρc = .10 to .61, with the strongest associations observed for fiber (ρc = .61), whole fruit (ρc = .48), and vegetables (ρc = .39). Objectively documented household food purchases yield an unbiased and reasonably accurate estimate of overall diet quality as measured through 24-h diet recalls, but are generally less useful for characterizing dietary intake of specific nutrients. Thus, some degree of caution is warranted when interpreting food purchase data as a reflection of diet in

  11. Vitamin D Intake among Premenopausal Women Living in Jeddah: Food Sources and Relationship to Demographic Factors and Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahani A. Zareef

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Saudi women depend on food sources to maintain their serum 25(OH D concentrations because covering by traditional clothing and time spent indoors limit their sun exposure. Little is known about vitamin D intake and its main food sources in Saudi Arabia. In addition, the association between vitamin D and calcium intake and bone mineral density (BMD in young women is not well researched. Objectives. To assess the adequacy of vitamin D intake among Saudi women as compared to the estimated average requirements (EARs, to identify dietary vitamin D sources, to examine potential determinants of vitamin D intake, and to assess bone health and the association of calcium and vitamin D intake with BMD. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 257 premenopausal women aged 20–50 years in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Dietary vitamin D and calcium were assessed by the Semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA in a subset of women n=102 at the lumbar spine and femur neck. Results. Sixty-five percent of women were below the EAR for vitamin D, and 61% fell below the EAR for calcium. Dairy products, supplements, and fish contributed most to vitamin D intake. Increased age was an independent determinant of sufficient vitamin D intake p<0.001. The prevalence of osteopenia was 33% in the lumbar spine and 30% in the femur neck. There was a significant positive association between calcium intake and BMD at the lumbar spine p=0.043 after controlling for body mass index and energy intake. Vitamin D intake was not significantly different between women with low and normal bone mass. Conclusion. Premenopausal women in Jeddah have insufficient vitamin D and calcium intakes. Public health strategies to improve nutrition in young women are needed, and expanding fortification programs to include all dairy products would be useful.

  12. Changing memory of food enjoyment to increase food liking, choice and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Blissett, Jackie; Higgs, Suzanne

    2012-10-28

    Novel ways to increase liking and intake of food are needed to encourage acceptance of healthier food. How enjoyable we remember food to have been is likely to be a significant predictor of food choice. Two studies examined whether remembered enjoyment of eating a food can be increased and whether this makes individuals more likely to eat that food in the future. In Study One, a simple manipulation of instructing participants to rehearse what they found enjoyable about a food immediately after eating it was used to increase remembered enjoyment (relative to controls). In a separate study; Study Two, the effect of increasing remembered enjoyment on food choice was tested by examining whether the manipulation to increase remembered enjoyment resulted in participants choosing to eat more of a food as part of a later buffet lunch. The experimental manipulation increased remembered enjoyment for the food (Study One). A change in remembered enjoyment was shown to have a significant effect on the amount of a food participants chose to eat the following day for lunch (Study Two). The present studies suggest that remembered enjoyment can be increased via a simple act of rehearsal, resulting in a later increase in the amount of food chosen and eaten. Interventions based on altering remembered enjoyment of healthy food choices warrant further investigation.

  13. The Cross-Sectional Association of Energy Intake and Dietary Energy Density with Body Composition of Children in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We examined whether dietary energy intake (EI and dietary energy density (ED were cross-sectionally associated with body composition of children living in Southwest China. Design and Methods: Multivariate regression analyses were performed on three day, 24 h dietary recall data and information on potential confounders from 1207 participants aged 8–14 years. EI was calculated from all foods and drinks and ED was classified into five categories. Body mass index (BMI z-scores, percentage of body fat (%BF, fat mass index (FMI, fat-free mass index (FFMI and ratio of waist to hip circumference (WHR were used to describe body composition. Results: Boys with higher total EI had higher BMI z-scores, %BF, and FMI than boys with lower total EI both before and after measurements were adjusted for confounders (age, fiber intake, physical activity, the timing of adding complementary foods, paternal education level and maternal BMI (p ≤ 0.04. However, EI was not associated with body composition in girls. Dietary ED, in any category, was not associated with body composition in either gender. Conclusions: Dietary ED was not associated with body composition of children in Southwest China, while dietary EI in boys, not girls, was positively associated with body composition. Reducing dietary energy intake may help to prevent obesity and related diseases in later life among boys living in Southwest China.

  14. Diet-beverage consumption and caloric intake among US adults, overall and by body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A; Vine, Seanna; Wang, Y Claire

    2014-03-01

    We examined national patterns in adult diet-beverage consumption and caloric intake by body-weight status. We analyzed 24-hour dietary recall with National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 data (adults aged ≥ 20 years; n = 23 965). Overall, 11% of healthy-weight, 19% of overweight, and 22% of obese adults drink diet beverages. Total caloric intake was higher among adults consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) compared with diet beverages (2351 kcal/day vs 2203 kcal/day; P = .005). However, the difference was only significant for healthy-weight adults (2302 kcal/day vs 2095 kcal/day; P < .001). Among overweight and obese adults, calories from solid-food consumption were higher among adults consuming diet beverages compared with SSBs (overweight: 1965 kcal/day vs 1874 kcal/day; P = .03; obese: 2058 kcal/day vs 1897 kcal/day; P < .001). The net increase in daily solid-food consumption associated with diet-beverage consumption was 88 kilocalories for overweight and 194 kilocalories for obese adults. Overweight and obese adults drink more diet beverages than healthy-weight adults and consume significantly more solid-food calories and a comparable total calories than overweight and obese adults who drink SSBs. Heavier US adults who drink diet beverages will need to reduce solid-food calorie consumption to lose weight.

  15. Accuracy of reporting food energy intake: influence of ethnicity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feel-Ideal Difference index and Body Shape questions) and socio-economic status (SES) (household density and asset index) were also measured. Food EI in relation to estimated basal metabolic rate ratio that was less than 1.05 represented ...

  16. Food Group and Micronutrient Intake Adequacy among Children, Adults and Elderly Women in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Manios

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05. Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%–44.1% and 4.2%–7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients.

  17. Qualification of Food Intake by the Roma Population in the Region of South Bohemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Sedova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a correlation study, aimed at quantifying the food intake of the Roma population in the South Bohemian Region. To achieve the goal, we applied the method of one-day dietary recall and frequency food analysis (non-standardized. The quantification was carried out by analysis in the Nutridan program. The study involved 302 Roma persons and 298 persons in the control group. Both groups had the same representation of males and females (50:50. The age categories of both sets differed; the average age of the Roma was lower (39.2 years (p < 0.001. The probands from the Roma population were chosen with the help of the snowball method through known respondents. The statistical analysis shows differences in nutritional estimate between the Roma population and the control sample. The Roma differ in their energy intake. Both groups showed lower intake of sugars, below 50% total energy intake (TEI and higher intake of fats, above 30% TEI. The respondents from both groups consume little fruits and vegetables, which may be connected with their low dietary fiber intake. In addition to the differences in the nutritional estimates, we recorded statistically significant differences in body mass index (BMI; p < 0.001, in age (p < 0.001, regular alimentation (p = 0 and demanding physical activities (p = 0. In spite of the fact our groups differed in age (the Roma are younger, it can be assumed that the obesity of the Roma may be caused by unbalanced alimentation and lack of physical activities.

  18. Changes in Dairy Food and Nutrient Intakes in Australian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese A. O'Sullivan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study. Most adolescents did not reach age and gender specific recommended daily intakes for calcium or magnesium at 14 years, and this decreased as they aged to 17 years (from 33.0% to 29.2% meeting for calcium, P < 0.05, and from 33.6% to 20.5% meeting for magnesium, P < 0.01. Mean intakes of calcium, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin A also decreased with age (P < 0.01. Mean dairy intake decreased from 536 ± 343 g/day to 464 ± 339 g/day (P < 0.01, due mostly to a decrease in regular milk, although flavoured milk consumption increased in boys. Cheese and butter were the only products to show a significantly increased consumption over the period. Girls decreased from 2.2 to 1.9 serves/day of dairy, while boys remained relatively steady at 2.9 to 2.8 serves/day. Our findings suggest that dairy product consumption decreases over adolescence. This may have implications for bone mass, development and later health.

  19. Providing Choice in Exercise Influences Food Intake at the Subsequent Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Natalya J; Dimmock, James A; Jackson, Ben; Guelfi, Kym J

    2017-10-01

    The benefits of regular exercise for health are well established; however, certain behaviors after exercise, such as unhealthy or excessive food consumption, can counteract some of these benefits. To investigate the effect of autonomy support (through the provision of choice) in exercise-relative to a no-choice condition with matched energy expenditure-on appetite and subsequent energy intake. Fifty-eight men and women (body mass index, 22.9 ± 2.3 kg·m; peak oxygen consumption, 52.7 ± 6.4 mL·kg·min) completed one familiarization session and one experimental trial, in which they were randomized to either a choice or no-choice exercise condition using a between-subjects yoked design. Ad libitum energy intake from a laboratory test meal was assessed after exercise, together with perceptions of mood, perceived choice, enjoyment, and value. Despite similar ratings of perceived appetite across conditions (P > 0.05), energy intake was significantly higher after exercise performed under the no-choice condition (2456 ± 1410 kJ) compared with the choice condition (1668 ± 1215 kJ; P = 0.026; d = 0.60). In particular, the proportion of energy intake from unhealthy foods was significantly greater after exercise in the no-choice condition (1412 ± 1304 kJ) compared with the choice condition (790 ± 861 kJ; P = 0.037, d = 0.56). Participants in the choice condition also reported higher perceptions of choice (P 0.05). A lack of choice in exercise is associated with greater energy intake from "unhealthy" foods in recovery. This finding highlights the importance of facilitating an autonomy supportive environment during exercise prescription and instruction.

  20. Slow food: sustained impact of harder foods on the reduction in energy intake over the course of the day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Forde, Ciarán G; Cheng, Yuejiao; Xu, Haohuan; Martin, Nathalie; de Graaf, Cees

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that oral processing characteristics like bite size and oral residence duration are related to the satiating efficiency of foods. Oral processing characteristics are influenced by food texture. Very little research has been done on the effect of food texture within solid foods on energy intake. The first objective was to investigate the effect of hardness of food on energy intake at lunch, and to link this effect to differences in food oral processing characteristics. The second objective was to investigate whether the reduction in energy intake at lunch will be compensated for in the subsequent dinner. Fifty subjects (11 male, BMI: 21±2 kg/m2, age: 24±2 y) participated in a cross-over study in which they consumed ad libitum from a lunch with soft foods or hard foods on two separate days. Oral processing characteristics at lunch were assessed by coding video records. Later on the same days, subjects consumed dinner ad libitum. Hard foods led to a ∼13% lower energy intake at lunch compared to soft foods (Pfoods were consumed with smaller bites, longer oral duration per gram food, and more chewing per gram food compared to the soft foods (Pfoods led to reduced energy intake compared to soft foods, and this reduction in energy intake was sustained over the next meal. We argue that the differences in oral processing characteristics produced by the hardness of the foods explain the effect on intake. The sustained reduction in energy intake suggests that changes in food texture can be a helpful tool in reducing the overall daily energy intake.

  1. Differential effects of daily snack food intake on the reinforcing value of food in obese and nonobese women123

    OpenAIRE

    Temple, Jennifer L; Bulkley, Alison M; Badawy, Rebecca L; Krause, Nicole; McCann, Sarah; Epstein, Leonard H

    2009-01-01

    Background: Food reinforcement, ie, motivation to obtain food, is associated with energy intake and obesity. Finding ways to decrease the reinforcing value of unhealthy foods may help with adherence to diets and maintenance of weight loss. Our previous study in nonobese adults showed that daily consumption of the same snack food (food consumed apart from meals) for 14 d significantly decreased its reinforcing value.

  2. Food intake in laboratory rats provided standard and fenbendazole-supplemented diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vento, Peter J; Swartz, Megan E; Martin, Lisa Be; Daniels, Derek

    2008-11-01

    The benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole (FBZ) is a common and effective treatment for pinworm infestation in laboratory animal colonies. Although many investigators have examined the potential for deleterious biologic effects of FBZ, more subtle aspects of the treatment remain untested. Accordingly, we evaluated differences in food intake when healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were provided a standard nonmedicated laboratory rodent chow or the same chow supplemented with FBZ. We also tested for a preference for either food type when subjects were provided a choice of the 2 diets. Data from these experiments showed no differences in food intake or body weight when rats were maintained on either standard or FBZ-supplemented chow. When the rats were given access to both the standard and FBZ-supplemented diets, they showed a clear preference for the standard diet. The preference for the standard diet indicates that the rats can discriminate between the 2 foods and may avoid the FBZ-supplemented chow when possible. Investigators conducting experiments during treatment with FBZ in which differences in food preference are relevant should be aware of these data and plan their studies accordingly.

  3. Enhancement of select foods at breakfast and lunch increases energy intakes of nursing home residents with low meal intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Victoria H; Marra, Melissa Ventura; Johnson, Paulette

    2009-03-01

    Nursing facilities often provide enhanced or fortified foods as part of a "food-first" approach to increasing nutrient intakes in residents with inadequate intakes or who are experiencing weight loss. The study objective was to determine whether energy and protein enhancement of a small number of menu items would result in increased three-meal (breakfast, lunch, and supper) calorie and protein intakes in long-term care residents. A randomized cross-over design was used to compare investigator-weighed food intakes under three menu conditions: control (no meals enhanced); lunch only enhanced; and both breakfast and lunch enhanced. Two breakfast foods (juice and hot cereal) and two lunch foods (soup and potato side dish) were chosen for enhancement. Participants were 33 nursing home residents from a facility in South Florida (average age=87.3 years). Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to test the effects of the within-subjects factor (control, lunch enhanced, breakfast and lunch enhanced conditions), the between-subjects factor (smaller vs bigger eater), and the interaction on intakes (gram, kilocalories, and protein). Results revealed that bigger eaters consumed considerably more calories when breakfast foods, but not lunch foods, were enhanced. Smaller eaters achieved an increase in energy intake when either breakfast or lunch was enhanced. Overall daily protein intakes were not substantially increased by food enhancement. These data suggest that for an enhanced food program to be most effective for smaller eaters, who are at greatest risk for undernutrition and weight loss, it should include several enhanced foods at more than one meal.

  4. Eating behavior in humans, characterized by cumulative food intake curves--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2000-03-01

    Cumulative food intake curves have been obtained by monitoring eating from a plate, placed on a scale built into a table, and connected to a digital computer. They describe and integrate parameters of consumption of an ad lib single course meal, i.e. meal size, meal duration, eating rate, change in eating rate, bite size and bite frequency. It is concluded that they are an adequate tool for analyzing dietary and clinical interventions on meal size, because the cumulative food intake curve parameters: are stable and consistent within subjects; show a clear relationship with the subject characteristics dietary restraint and obesity; show a clear relationship with the physiological parameters satiation, diet-induced thermogenesis and body-temperature near the liver, and with the cognitive parameter: estimating forthcoming ingestion; are sensitive to instructions, clinical and dietary interventions (preloads, palatability, energy density, macronutrient composition), and to a state of negative energy balance. Because of possible compensatory post-prandial effects, it is suggested that assessment of meal size should be part of a 24 h appetite profile and food intake observation.

  5. Hypothalamic eIF2α Signaling Regulates Food Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Catherine Maurin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The reversible phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α is a highly conserved signal implicated in the cellular adaptation to numerous stresses such as the one caused by amino acid limitation. In response to dietary amino acid deficiency, the brain-specific activation of the eIF2α kinase GCN2 leads to food intake inhibition. We report here that GCN2 is rapidly activated in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH after consumption of a leucine-deficient diet. Furthermore, knockdown of GCN2 in this particular area shows that MBH GCN2 activity controls the onset of the aversive response. Importantly, pharmacological experiments demonstrate that the sole phosphorylation of eIF2α in the MBH is sufficient to regulate food intake. eIF2α signaling being at the crossroad of stress pathways activated in several pathological states, our study indicates that hypothalamic eIF2α phosphorylation could play a critical role in the onset of anorexia associated with certain diseases.

  6. Gastric volume rather than nutrient content inhibits food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R J; Powley, T L

    1996-09-01

    To evaluate the separate contributions of distension and nutrient stimulation of the stomach to the inhibition of short-term food intake and, particularly, to reassess previous analyses based on the inflatable gastrointestinal cuff, four experiments were performed. Rats equipped with pyloric cuffs and indwelling gastric catheters consumed a liquid diet ad libitum. Their consumption during short-term (30 min) feeding bout was measured after gastric infusions on cuff-open and cuff-closed trials. Animals taking meals (approximately 5 ml) with cuffs closed immediately after receiving intragastric infusions of 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 ml of normal saline exhibited both suppression at the smallest infusion and a dose-dependent reduction across the other volumes (experiment 1). Additionally, when the test diet concentration was varied, animals with their cuffs closed consumed a constant volume, not a constant number of calories (experiment 2). Furthermore, cuff-closed animals exhibited no more suppression to 5-ml intragastric infusions of nutrients (including, on different trials, 50 and 100% Isocal diet; 10, 20, and 40% glucose; and 40% sucrose and 40% fructose) than to the same volume of saline (experiments 3 and 4). In contrast, on cuff-open trials in which gastric contents could empty into the duodenum, these same nutrient loads were more effective (except fructose) than saline in producing suppression of food intake. In summary, although both limited gastric distension with the pylorus occluded and intestinal nutrient stimulation with the cuff open effectively reduced intake, cuff-closed gastric loads of mixed macronutrients or carbohydrate solutions of 2-8 kcal, pH from 5.8 to 6.7, and osmolarities between 117 and 2,294 mosM/kg produced only the distension-based suppression generated by the same volume of saline.

  7. Is Living near Healthier Food Stores Associated with Better Food Intake in Regional Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayyed, Hamid; Kelly, Bridget; Feng, Xiaoqi; Flood, Victoria

    2017-08-07

    High prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases is a global public health problem, in which the quality of food environments is thought to play an important role. Current scientific evidence is not consistent regarding the impact of food environments on diet. The relationship between local food environments and diet quality was assessed across 10 Australian suburbs, using Australian-based indices devised to measure the two parameters. Data of dietary habits from the participants was gathered using a short questionnaire. The suburbs' Food Environment Score (higher being healthier) was associated with higher consumption of fruit (χ² (40, 230) = 58.8, p = 0.04), and vegetables (χ² (40, 230) = 81.3, p = 0.03). The Food Environment Score identified a significant positive correlation with four of the diet scores: individual total diet score (r s = 0.30, p food score (r s = 0.15, p Food Environment Index, higher being unhealthier) showed a significant association with higher consumption of salty snacks (χ² (24, 230) = 43.9, p = 0.04). Food environments dominated by food outlets considered as 'healthier' were associated with healthier population food intakes, as indicated by a higher consumption of fruit, vegetables, and water, as well as a lower consumption of junk food, salty snacks, and sugary drinks. This association suggests that healthier diet quality is associated with healthier food environments in regional Australia.

  8. Discrete strategies to reduce intake of discretionary food choices: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieger, Jessica A; Wycherley, Thomas P; Johnson, Brittany J; Golley, Rebecca K

    2016-05-06

    On a population level, dietary improvement strategies have had limited success in preventing the surge in overweight and obesity or reducing risk factors for chronic disease. While numerous multi-component studies have examined whole-of-diet strategies, and single component (i.e. discrete) dietary intervention strategies have targeted an increase in core foods (e.g. fruits, vegetables, dairy), there is a paucity of evidence on the effectiveness of dietary intervention strategies targeting a decrease in discretionary choices. The aim of this review was to identify dietary intervention strategies that are potentially relevant to reducing intake of discretionary choices in 2-65 year olds. A scoping review was carried out to map the literature on key discrete dietary intervention strategies that are potentially applicable to reducing discretionary choices, and to identify the targeted health/nutrition effects (e.g. improve nutrient intake, decrease sugar intake, and reduce body weight) of these strategies. Studies conducted in participants aged 2-65 years and published in English by July 20, 2015, were located through electronic searches including the Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and Scopus. Three thousand two hundred and eighty three studies were identified from the search, of which 44 met the selection criteria. The dietary intervention strategies included reformulation (n = 13), substitution (n = 5), restriction/elimination (n = 9), supplementation (n = 13), and nutrition education/messages (n = 4). The key findings of the review were: restricting portion size was consistently beneficial for reducing energy intake in the acute setting; reformulating foods from higher fat to lower fat could be useful to reduce saturated fat intake; substituting discretionary choices for high fibre snacks, fruit, or low/no-calorie beverages may be an effective strategy for reducing energy intake; supplementing nutrient dense foods such as nuts and

  9. Estimation of daily food usage factors for assessing radionuclide intakes in the US population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.Y.; Nelson, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    We have statistically analyzed data from the 1977-78 USDA Nationwide Food Consumption Survey to estimate the daily average food intakes by individuals in the general population and various subpopulations of the United States. These estimates are intended for use in assessing radionuclide intake by individuals through food consumption. We have also compared our results with those from other studies

  10. Texture and savoury taste influences on food intake in a realistic hot lunch time meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forde, C.G.; Kuijk, van N.L.; Thaler, T.; Graaf, de C.; Martin, N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous studies with model foods have shown that softer textures lead to higher eating rates and higher ad libitum food intake and higher intensity of salt taste has been shown to result in a lower ad libitum food intake. These observations have yet to be replicated in the context of

  11. Dietary intake, physical activity and body mass index among postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya Ranasinghe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Nutrition plays a vital role in the quality of life in postmenopausal women. Aim: The aim is to determine the dietary intake, physical activity, and assess the body mass index (BMI among postmenopausal women. Settings and Design: A community-based sample survey. Materials and Methods: The present study included 140 postmenopausal women (40–70 years from Udupi, Manipal areas of Karnataka. The study was carried out between July and December 2013. Sociodemographic data were collected using a questionnaire. Anthropometric data included height, weight, waist, and hip circumference. Dietary intake was determined using 24 h dietary recall. Physical activity information was collected. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. Paired t-test was performed to determine the dietary adequacy. Results: Obesity was 42.1% among the study participants. Increased WHR and waist circumference were 82.1% and 77.1%. Mean daily intake of calcium and saturated fatty acids were significantly higher than recommended dietary allowance (RDA (P < 0.001. Mean intake of energy, protein, carbohydrate, mono and poly unsaturated fatty acid, fiber and sodium were significantly lower than RDA (P < 0.001. Average daily intake of cereals, pulses, roots and tubers, meat and products, fats and oils, green leafy, and other vegetables were significantly (P < 0.001 lower than RDA. Intake of fruits, milk and milk products, and sugar was significantly higher (P < 0.001 than RDA. Only 37.1% of women performed moderate or active exercises regularly. Conclusions: Even though, nutrient and food group deficiencies were observed among postmenopausal women physical inactivity and effects of menopausal transition instigate increased BMI imposing a need to educate on nutrition and physical activity.

  12. Identification of food intake patterns and associated factors in teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Márcia Oliveira Mascarenhas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify schoolchildren"s dietary patterns and investigate the demographic, social, and economic determinants of the differences found between patterns. METHODS: The sample consisted of 1,330 students aged 11 to 17 years attending the public schools of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The subjects' food intake data were collected by a semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire comprising 97 food items. All information was collected during a single interview. The exposure variables were gender, age, and socioeconomic class, and the outcome variables were categorized food consumption pattern in "mixed pattern", "traditional pattern", and "healthy pattern". The data were treated by simple and multiple linear regression analyses and the dietary patterns determined by factor analysis. RESULTS: Most participants were female (56.9% and over 13 years old (79.2%. The "mixed pattern" was positively associated with females (β=0.181, p0.0001 and classes D, C, and B (β=-0.125, p<0.023. CONCLUSION: Three dietary patterns were identified among the adolescents, namely mixed, traditional, and healthy. Gender and socioeconomic class were associated with dietary patterns. Male teenagers and those in the lower socioeconomic classes had a healthier dietary pattern than their peers of higher socioeconomic classes and females.

  13. Effects of chemosignals from sad tears and postprandial plasma on appetite and food intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Min Young; Park, Kyong Soo; Cho, Young Min

    2012-01-01

    Chemosignals from human body fluids may modulate biological functions in humans. The objective of this study was to examine whether chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma modulate appetite. We obtained fasting and postprandial plasma from male participants and sad tears and saline, which was trickled below the eyelids, from female volunteers. These samples were then randomly distributed to male participants to sniff with a band-aid containing 100 µl of each fluid on four consecutive days in a double-blind fashion. We checked appetite by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and food intake by measuring the consumption of a test meal. In addition, the serum levels of total testosterone and LH were measured. Twenty men (mean age 26.3±4.6 years) were enrolled in this study. They could not discriminate between the smell of fasting and postprandial plasma and the smell of sad tears and trickled saline. Appetite and the amount of food intake were not different between the groups. Although the VAS ratings of appetite correlated with the food intake upon sniffing fasting plasma, postprandial plasma, and trickled saline, there was no such correlation upon sniffing sad tears. In addition, the decrease in serum testosterone levels from the baseline was greater with sad tears than with the trickled saline (-28.6±3.3% vs. -14.0±5.2%; P = 0.019). These data suggest that chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma do not appear to reduce appetite and food intake. However, further studies are necessary to examine whether sad tears may alter the appetite-eating behavior relation.

  14. The motilin receptor agonist erythromycin stimulates hunger and food intake through a cholinergic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, Eveline; Vos, Rita; Janssen, Pieter; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Depoortere, Inge; Tack, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Motilin-induced phase III contractions have been identified as a hunger signal. These phase III contractions occur as part of the migrating motor complex (MMC), a contractility pattern of the gastrointestinal tract during fasting. The mechanism involved in this association between subjective hunger feelings and gastrointestinal motility during the MMC is largely unknown, however, as is its ability to stimulate food intake. We sought to 1) investigate the occurrence of hunger peaks and their relation to phase III contractions, 2) evaluate whether this relation was cholinergically driven, and 3) assess the ability of the motilin receptor agonist erythromycin to induce food intake. An algorithm was developed to detect hunger peaks. The association with phase III contractions was studied in 14 healthy volunteers [50% men; mean ± SEM age: 25 ± 2 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 23 ± 1]. The impact of pharmacologically induced phase III contractions on the occurrence of hunger peaks and the involvement of a cholinergic pathway were assessed in 14 healthy volunteers (43% men; age: 29 ± 3 y; BMI: 23 ± 1). Last, the effect of erythromycin administration on food intake was examined in 15 healthy volunteers (40% men; age: 28 ± 3 y; BMI: 22 ± 1). The occurrence of hunger peaks and their significant association with phase III contractions was confirmed (P hunger peaks (P hunger feelings through a cholinergic pathway. Moreover, erythromycin stimulated food intake, suggesting a physiologic role of motilin as an orexigenic signal from the gastrointestinal tract. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02633579. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Patterns of Food Parenting Practices and Children's Intake of Energy-Dense Snack Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Dorus W M; Kremers, Stef P J; de Vries, Nanne K; van Assema, Patricia

    2015-05-27

    Most previous studies of parental influences on children's diets included just a single or a few types of food parenting practices, while parents actually employ multiple types of practices. Our objective was to investigate the clustering of parents regarding food parenting practices and to characterize the clusters in terms of background characteristics and children's intake of energy-dense snack foods. A sample of Dutch parents of children aged 4-12 was recruited by a research agency to fill out an online questionnaire. A hierarchical cluster analysis (n = 888) was performed, followed by k-means clustering. ANOVAs, ANCOVAs and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations between cluster membership, parental and child background characteristics, as well as children's intake of energy-dense snack foods. Four distinct patterns were discovered: "high covert control and rewarding", "low covert control and non-rewarding", "high involvement and supportive" and "low involvement and indulgent". The "high involvement and supportive" cluster was found to be most favorable in terms of children's intake. Several background factors characterized cluster membership. This study expands the current knowledge about parental influences on children's diets. Interventions should focus on increasing parental involvement in food parenting.

  16. Household food insecurity and dietary intake among Mexican-American women participating in federal food assistance programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study explored the association between food insecurity and dietary intake among Mexican-American women after controlling for sociocultural and economic factors including participation in federal food assistance programs. A cross-sectional design was used. Demographics, anthropometrics, accultur...

  17. Under-reporting of food intake is frequent among Brazilian free-living older persons: a doubly labelled water study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriolli, Eduardo; Pfrimer, Karina; Moriguti, Julio C; Lima, Nereida K C; Moriguti, Eny K U; Formighieri, Paulo F; Scagliusi, Fernanda B; Marchini, Julio S

    2010-03-15

    The assessment of food intake is essential for the development of dietetic interventions. Accuracy is low when intake is assessed by questionnaires, the under-reporting of food intake being frequent. Most such studies, however, were performed in developed countries and there is little data about the older population of developing nations. This study aimed to verify the total energy expenditure (TEE) of independent older Brazilians living in an urban area, through the doubly labelled water (DLW) method and to compare it with the reported energy intake obtained through the application of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Initially, 100 volunteers aged from 60 to 75 years had their body composition determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Five volunteers of each quartile of body fat percentage had their energy expenditure determined by DLW. The mean age of the subjects included in this phase of the study was 66.4 +/- 3.5 years, and ten of the subjects were men. The mean TEE was 2565 +/- 614 and 2154 +/- 339 kcal.day(-1) for men and women, respectively. The Physical Activity Level (PAL) was 1.58 +/- 0.31 and 1.52 +/- 0.22, respectively. Under-reporting of food intake was highly prevalent, with a mean percentage of reported intake in relation to measured TEE of -17.7%. Thus, under-reporting of food intake is highly prevalent among Brazilian independent older persons. The DLW method is an important tool in nutritional studies and its use is to be recommended in developing countries. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Exploring food reward and calorie intake in self-perceived food addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddock, Helen K; Field, Matt; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2017-08-01

    Previous research indicates that many people perceive themselves to be addicted to food. These 'self-perceived food addicts' may demonstrate aberrant eating patterns which put them at greater risk of overeating. However this is yet to be empirically investigated. The current study investigated whether self-perceived food addicts would exhibit higher food reward and calorie intake in a laboratory context relative to self-perceived non-addicts. A secondary aim was to investigate whether self-perceived food addicts would demonstrate increased food liking and/or increased hunger ratings. Finally, we explored whether self-perceived food addicts demonstrate patterns of aberrant eating, beyond that predicted by measures of trait dietary disinhibition and restraint. Female participants (self-perceived food addicts n = 31, non-addicts n = 29) completed measures of hunger, food reward (desire-to-eat, willingness-to-pay ratings, and an operant response task) and liking for high- and low-fat foods. Participants completed all measures when they were hungry, and again when they were satiated after consuming a fixed-lunch meal. Finally, participants were provided with ad-libitum access to high-and low-fat foods. Results indicated that self-perceived food addicts consumed more calories from high-fat food compared to non-addicts, despite the absence of any between-group differences in hunger or overall liking ratings. Self-perceived food addicts also displayed higher desire-to-eat ratings across foods compared to non-addicts, but groups did not differ on other measures of food reward. However, the differences in calorie intake and desire-to-eat between self-perceived food addicts and non-addicts were no longer significant after controlling for dietary disinhibition and restraint. These findings suggest that self-perceived food addicts experience food as more rewarding and have a tendency to overeat. However, this may be attributable to increased dietary disinhibition and

  19. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China.

  20. No influence of sugar, snacks and fast food intake on the degree of obesity or treatment effect in childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, C; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Bøjsøe, C

    2016-01-01

    . There were no associations between the baseline intake of sweetened beverages, candy, snacks, and/or fast food and BMI SDS at baseline or the change in BMI SDS during treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The intake of sweetened beverages, candy, snacks or fast food when entering a childhood obesity treatment program......BACKGROUND: Increased consumption of sweetened beverages has previously been linked to the degree of childhood obesity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess whether the intake of sweetened beverages, candy, snacks or fast food at baseline in a multidisciplinary childhood obesity...... treatment program was associated with the baseline degree of obesity or the treatment effect. METHODS: This prospective study included 1349 overweight and obese children (body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI SDS) ≥ 1.64) enrolled in treatment at The Children's Obesity Clinic, Copenhagen University...

  1. Peripheral Signals of Food Intake in Response to Low Leptin Levels Induced by Centrifugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, M. M.; Wade, Charles E.; Stein, T. P.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The focus of the study was to examine leptin and other peripheral signals of energy balance, following hypergravity. The study was conducted in two experiments. In experiment 1 rats were centrifuged at either 1.5, 2, or remained at 1 G. During days 8 to 14 of experiment 1, mean body mass of the 1.5 and 2 G groups was significantly (p<0.05) lower than controls. No differences were found in food intake (g/day/100 g body mass). Epididymal fat in the 2 G group was 21% lower than controls and 14% lower than the 1.5 G group. Plasma leptin was reduced from controls in the 1.5 and 2 G groups by 45 and 63%, respectively. A significant correlation was found between G load and urinary catecholamines. In experiment 2, rats were centrifuged at either 1.25, 1.5, or remained at 1 G. During days 8 to 14, body mass and food intake were similar between the 1, 1.25, and 1.5 G groups. Epididymal fat was reduced from controls in the 1.25 (14%) and 1.5 (19%) G groups. Leptin was reduced from controls in the 1.25 (45%) and 1.5 (46%) G groups. No differences were found in urinary epinephrine. Urinary norepinephrine levels were significantly higher than controls in each centrifuge group. During hypergravity exposure, food intake is the result of a complex relationship between multiple pathways, which abates the importance of leptin as a primary signal.

  2. Assessment of intake of iron and nutrients that affect bioavailability of daily food rations of girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Broniecka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND AIM In a human body iron occurs at a level of 3 to 5 g, 60-70 % of which are in hemoglobin, ca. 10% in myoglobin, and ca. 3% are accumulated in enzymes of cellular respiration or enzymes degrading toxic hydrogen peroxide. The other part of iron is accumulated in liver, spleen, kidneys and bone marrow. The dietary deficiency of iron appears at its insufficient level in a diet and at impaired absorption of iron ions present in food products by a body. Groups at an especially high risk of iron deficiencies include, among others, menstruating girls in the pubescence period and women with heavy and irregular menstruations, as well as vegetarians and patients with chronic enteritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of iron and nutrients that affect its bioavailability from daily food rations of girls. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 159 girls aged 17-18, students of high schools in the city of Wroclaw. The study was conducted between November 2010 and ay 2011. Girls were divided into 3 subgroups according to the BMI score. Girls’ diets were analyzed with the method of a direct interview of the last 24 hours before the test and the interview was repeated seven times. RESULTS The present study demonstrated that the intake of iron from food rations of almost all the girls surveyed was below the requirements defined for this age group. Statistically significant differences were noted in the intake of energy and nutrients among the three distinguished subgroups of girls. CONCLUSIONS Food rations of the surveyed girls were characterized by a low, compared to dietary allowances, calorific value, which resulted in deficiencies of nutrients increasing iron bioavailability.

  3. Food intake survey of kindergarten children in Korea: Part 2 increased dietary intake of tin possibly associated with canned foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hye-Ran; Kim, Eul-Sang; Ko, Yang-Sook; Jung, Kweon; Kim, Jung-Hun; Watanabe, Takao; Nakatsuka, Haruo; Moon, Chan-Seok; Shimbo, Shinichiro; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2015-07-01

    Dietary intake of tin (Sn) may be increased in some children in kindergartens in Korea. The present study was intended to examine this possibility and clarify the extent of the elevation. 24-hour food duplicate and spot urine samples were collected in 2003-2004 from 108 4-6-year-old children (boys and girls combined) in 4 kindergartens (1 in Seoul and 3 in Jeju Island), as reported in a previous publication. These samples were employed in the present analyses to examine tin levels in the diet (including beverages) (Sn-D). A portion of the samples were wet-ashed, and the liquid samples were analyzed for Sn by the ICP-MS method. For statistical evaluation, χ (2) method and Smirnov's test for extreme value were used. Sn-D in the 108 cases distributed as extremely biased, and could be divided into two groups, i.e., those with 10 μg/day (for 10%). Sn-D in the former group was distributed quasi-normally with an AM (median) of 2.9 (2.5) μg/day. The maximum in the latter group was 3012 μg/day. No correlation was detected between Sn-D and Sn in urine (Sn-U). Comparison of the findings with published articles strongly suggested that the high Sn-D was due to consumption of foods (including beverages) preserved in tin-plated cans. No positive confirmation was however possible due to insufficient information on food records. About 10% of children surveyed had elevated Sn-D (up to 3 mg/day). It was quite possible that high Sn-D was associated with tin-canned food intake.

  4. Extended vs. brief intermittent access to palatable food differently promote binge-like intake, rejection of less preferred food, and weight cycling in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisler, A D; Garcia, M G; Spierling, S R; Hui, B E; Zorrilla, E P

    2017-08-01

    Palatable food access promotes obesity leading some to diet. Here, we modeled the roles of duration, intermittency and choice of access in bingeing, escalation of daily intake, and underacceptance of alternatives. Female rats with ("Choice") or without continuous chow access, received chow or continuous (Chocolate), intermittent (MWF) long (24h, Int-Long), or intermittent short (30min, Int-Short) access to a sucrose-rich, chocolate-flavored diet (CHOC). Int-Long rats showed cycling body weight; they overate CHOC, had increased feed efficiency on access days and underate chow and lost weight on non-access days, the latter correlating with their reduced brown fat. Int-Short rats had the greatest 30-min intake upon CHOC access, but did not underaccept chow or weight cycle. Individual vulnerability for intermittent access-induced feeding adaptations was seen. Continuous access rats gained fat disproportionate, but in direct relation, to their normalized energy intake and persistently underaccepted chow despite abstinence and return to normal weight. Abstinence reduced the binge-like CHOC intake of Int-Short rats and increased that of continuous access rats, but not to levels associated with intermittent access history. Choice increased daily CHOC intake under Continuous access and binge-like intake under Int-Short access. Intermittency and duration of past access to palatable food have dissociable, individually-vulnerable influences on its intake and that of alternatives. With extended access, daily intake reflects the palatability of available food, rather than metabolic need. Ongoing restrictedness of access or a history of intermittency each drive binge-like intake. Aspects of palatable food availability, similar and different to drug availability, promote disordered eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Defining Conditions for Optimal Inhibition of Food Intake in Rats by a Grape-Seed Derived Proanthocyanidin Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Joan; Casanova-Martí, Àngela; Blay, Mayte; Terra, Ximena; Ardévol, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat

    2016-10-20

    Food intake depends on homeostatic and non-homeostatic factors. In order to use grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPE) as food intake limiting agents, it is important to define the key characteristics of their bioactivity within this complex function. We treated rats with acute and chronic treatments of GSPE at different doses to identify the importance of eating patterns and GSPE dose and the mechanistic aspects of GSPE. GSPE-induced food intake inhibition must be reproduced under non-stressful conditions and with a stable and synchronized feeding pattern. A minimum dose of around 350 mg GSPE/kg body weight (BW) is needed. GSPE components act by activating the Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor because their effect is blocked by Exendin 9-39. GSPE in turn acts on the hypothalamic center of food intake control probably because of increased GLP-1 production in the intestine. To conclude, GSPE inhibits food intake through GLP-1 signaling, but it needs to be dosed under optimal conditions to exert this effect.

  6. Mealtime exposure to food advertisements while watching television increases food intake in overweight and obese girls but has a paradoxical effect in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G Harvey; Khodabandeh, Shokoufeh; Patel, Barkha; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Bellissimo, Nick; Mollard, Rebecca C

    2015-02-01

    Food advertisements (ads) in TV programs influence food choice and have been associated with higher energy intake from snacks in children; however, their effects at mealtime have not been reported. Therefore, we measured energy intake at a pizza meal consumed by normal weight (NW) and overweight/obese (OW/OB) children (aged 9-14 years) while they watched a TV program with or without food ads and following pre-meal consumption of a sweetened beverage with or without calories. NW and OW/OB boys (experiment 1, n = 27) and girls (experiment 2, n = 23) were randomly assigned to consume equally sweetened drinks containing glucose (1.0 g/kg body weight) or sucralose (control). Food intake was measured 30 min later while children watched a program containing food or nonfood ads. Appetite was measured before (0-30 min) and after (60 min) the meal. Both boys and girls reduced energy intake at the meal in compensation for energy in the glucose beverage (p pre-meal energy consumption in children differ by sex and body mass index.

  7. Low glycemic index breakfasts and reduced food intake in preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Janet M; Henry, C Jeya K; Simonite, Vanessa

    2003-11-01

    Recent reports have suggested that a low glycemic index (GI) diet may have a role in the management of obesity through its ability to increase the satiety value of food and modulate appetite. To date, no long-term clinical trials have examined the effect of dietary GI on body weight regulation. The majority of evidence comes from single-day studies, most of which have been conducted in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 3 test breakfasts-low-GI, low-GI with 10% added sucrose, and high-GI-on ad libitum lunch intake, appetite, and satiety and to compare these with baseline values when habitual breakfast was consumed. A 3-way crossover study using block randomization of breakfast type was conducted in a school that already ran a breakfast club. A total of 37 children aged 9 to 12 years (15 boys and 22 girls) completed the study. The proportion of nonoverweight to overweight/obese children was 70:30. Children were divided into 5 groups, and a rolling program was devised whereby, week by week, each group would randomly receive 1 of 3 test breakfasts for 3 consecutive days, with a minimum of 5 weeks between the test breakfasts. Participants acted as their own control. The 3 test breakfasts were devised to match the energy and nutritional content of an individual's habitual breakfast as far as possible. All test breakfasts were composed of fruit juice, cereal, and milk with/without bread and margarine; foods with an appropriate GI value were selected. After each test breakfast, children were instructed not to eat or drink anything until lunchtime, except water and a small serving of fruit supplying approximately 10 g of carbohydrate, which was provided. Breakfast palatability, satiation after breakfast, and satiety before lunch were measured using rating scales based on previously used tools. Lunch was a buffet-style meal, and children were allowed free access to a range of foods. Lunch was served in the school hall where the rest of the

  8. Effects on food intake and blood lipids of cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist treatment in lean rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetzen, Marianne F; Nielsen, Maria P; Richelsen, Bjørn; Pedersen, Steen B

    2008-11-01

    Endocannabinoids act through the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and has both orexigenic and peripheral metabolic effects. It is not yet fully understood whether all the beneficial effects on the metabolic profile by CB1 antagonism are induced by the weight loss or also by direct peripheral effects. The present study was intended to further elucidate this question and to investigate whether tolerance development to the hypophagic effect could be attenuated by cyclic treatment. We performed an intervention study in 40 lean rats over 4 weeks. The rats were divided in four groups: a control group, two groups treated with the CB1 antagonist Rimonabant either continuously or cyclically, and one group pair fed with the continuous Rimonabant group to obtain the same body weight. During the first 6 days, food intake was less in the continuous Rimonabant group compared to the control group (P acids (nonesterified fatty acid, NEFA) were significantly reduced in both treated groups compared to the untreated groups, and levels of triglycerides showed the same tendency. Cyclic treatment with Rimonabant is able to inhibit tolerance development on food intake, which resulted in reduction in body weight. Rimonabant treatment is associated with reduced serum levels of glycerol, NEFA, and triglyceride which seem independent of body weight changes.

  9. Effects of blood glucose on delay discounting, food intake and counterregulation in lean and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Johanna; Kubera, Britta; Eggeling, Jonas; Rädel, Christin; Wagner, Christin; Park, Soyoung Q; Peters, Achim

    2018-03-01

    Delay discounting as a measure of impulsivity has been shown to be higher in obesity with an association of increased food intake. Moreover, obese humans showed a higher wanting for high-calorie food than lean men when blood glucose concentrations were low. First studies linking blood glucose levels to delay discounting yielded mixed results. We hypothesized that obese people - in comparison to lean men - have a relative lack of energy, especially when blood glucose levels are low, that results in higher levels of delay discounting, food intake and hormonal counterregulation. We investigated 20 lean and 20 obese healthy young men in a single-blind balanced cross-over design. With a standardized glucose clamp technique, subjects underwent a hypoglycemic state in one condition and a euglycemic state in the control condition. Regularly, blood was sampled for assessment of hormonal status, and questionnaires were filled out to assess delay discounting and symptom awareness. After normalizing blood glucose concentrations, subjects were free to eat from a standardized test buffet, followed by a snack test. Delay discounting was higher in obese than in lean men throughout experiments (p  0.1). Furthermore, the discounting performance did not correlate with food intake from the test buffet or snack test (p > 0.3). As a response to hypoglycemia, hormonal counterregulation was pronounced in both weight groups (p  0.5). Our data suggest that augmented delay discounting is a robust feature in obesity that is not linked to glucose levels or actual food intake. With our systematically controlled approach, combining performance in delay discounting with regard to distinct blood glucose levels, different weight groups, counterregulatory behavior and food intake, our results imply that delay discounting is not susceptible to fluctuations of blood glucose and do not support the assumption that a low body's energy content leads to increased impulsivity. Further

  10. Social models provide a norm of appropriate food intake for young women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenny R Vartanian

    Full Text Available It is often assumed that social models influence people's eating behavior by providing a norm of appropriate food intake, but this hypothesis has not been directly tested. In three experiments, female participants were exposed to a low-intake model, a high-intake model, or no model (control condition. Experiments 1 and 2 used a remote-confederate manipulation and were conducted in the context of a cookie taste test. Experiment 3 used a live confederate and was conducted in the context of a task during which participants were given incidental access to food. Participants also rated the extent to which their food intake was influenced by a variety of factors (e.g., hunger, taste, how much others ate. In all three experiments, participants in the low-intake conditions ate less than did participants in the high-intake conditions, and also reported a lower perceived norm of appropriate intake. Furthermore, perceived norms of appropriate intake mediated the effects of the social model on participants' food intake. Despite the observed effects of the social models, participants were much more likely to indicate that their food intake was influenced by taste and hunger than by the behavior of the social models. Thus, social models appear to influence food intake by providing a norm of appropriate eating behavior, but people may be unaware of the influence of a social model on their behavior.

  11. Effect of injection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides of GAD isozymes into rat ventromedial hypothalamus on food intake and locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, M; Ichikawa, M; Nishihara, M; Takahashi, M

    1998-02-16

    In the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays a role in regulating feeding and running behaviors. The GABA synthetic enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), consists of two isozymes, GAD65 and GAD67. In the present study, the phosphorothioated antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) of each GAD isozyme were injected bilaterally into the VMH of male rats, and food intake, body weight and locomotor activity were monitored. ODNs were incorporated in the water-absorbent polymer (WAP, 0.2 nmol/microliter) so that ODNs were retained at the injection site. Each antisense ODN of GAD65 or GAD67 tended to reduce food intake on day 1 (day of injection=day 0) though not significantly. An injection combining both antisense ODNs significantly decreased food intake only on day 1, but body weight remained significantly lower than the control for 5 days. This suppression of body weight gain could be attributed to a significant increase in locomotor activity between days 3 and 5. Individual treatment with either ODNs did not change locomotor activity. The increase in daily locomotor activity in the group receiving the combined antisense ODNs occurred mainly during the light phase. Neither vehicle (WAP) nor control ODN affected food intake, body weight and locomotor activity. Histological studies indicated that antisense ODN distributed within 800 micron from the edge of the area where WAP was located 24 h after the injection gradually disappeared within days, but still remained within 300 micron m distance even 7 days after the injection. Antisense ODN was effectively incorporated by all the cell types examined, i.e., neurons, astrocytes and microglias. Further, HPLC analysis revealed that antisense ODNs of GAD isozymes, either alone or combined, decreased the content of GABA by 50% in VMH 24 h after the injection. These results indicate that suppression of GABA synthesis by either of the GAD isozymes is synergistically involved in suppressing food

  12. Validation of a Tablet Application for Assessing Dietary Intakes Compared with the Measured Food Intake/Food Waste Method in Military Personnel Consuming Field Rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavra Ahmed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement errors. Adopting smart-phone/tablet technology could overcome some of these barriers. The objective was to assess the validity of a tablet app, modified to contain detailed nutritional composition data, in comparison to a measured food intake/waste method. A sample of Canadian Armed Forces personnel, randomized to either a tablet app (n = 9 or a weighed food record (wFR (n = 9, recorded the consumption of standard military rations for a total of 8 days. Compared to the gold standard measured food intake/waste method, the difference in mean energy intake was small (−73 kcal/day for tablet app and −108 kcal/day for wFR (p > 0.05. Repeated Measures Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement for both methods (tablet app and wFR with the measured food intake/waste method. These findings demonstrate that the tablet app, with added nutritional composition data, is comparable to the traditional dietary assessment method (wFR and performs satisfactorily in relation to the measured food intake/waste method to assess energy, macronutrient, and selected micronutrient intakes in a sample of military personnel.

  13. Liquid and Solid Meal Replacement Products Differentially Affect Postprandial Appetite and Food Intake in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, April J.; Apolzan, John W.; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E.; Iglay, Heidi B.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid and solid foods are documented to elicit differential appetitive and food intake responses. This study was designed to assess the influences of liquid vs solid meal replacement products on postprandial appetite ratings and subsequent food intake in healthy older adults. This study used a randomized and crossover design with two 1-day trials (1 week between trials), and 24 adults (12 men and 12 women) aged 50 to 80 years with body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) between 22 and 30 participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects consumed meal replacement products as either a beverage (liquid) or a bar (solid). The meal replacement products provided 25% of each subject's daily estimated energy needs with comparable macro-nutrient compositions. Subjects rated their appetite on a 100 mm quasilogarithmic visual analog scale before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after consuming the meal replacement product. At minute 120, each subject consumed cooked oatmeal ad libitum to a “comfortable level of fullness.” Postprandial composite (area under the curve from minute 15 to minute 120) hunger was higher (P=0.04) for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products and desire to eat (P=0.15), preoccupation with thoughts of food (P=0.07), and fullness (P=0.25) did not differ for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products. On average, the subjects consumed 13.4% more oatmeal after the liquid vs solid (P=0.006) meal replacement product. These results indicate that meal replacement products in liquid and solid form do not elicit comparable appetitive and ingestive behavior responses and that meal replacement products in liquid form blunt the postprandial decline in hunger and increase subsequent food intake in older adults. PMID:18589034

  14. Are You Sure? Confidence about the Satiating Capacity of a Food Affects Subsequent Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiöth, Helgi B; Ferriday, Danielle; Davies, Sarah R; Benedict, Christian; Elmståhl, Helena; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S

    2015-06-24

    Expectations about a food's satiating capacity predict self-selected portion size, food intake and food choice. However, two individuals might have a similar expectation, but one might be extremely confident while the other might be guessing. It is unclear whether confidence about an expectation affects adjustments in energy intake at a subsequent meal. In a randomized cross-over design, 24 subjects participated in three separate breakfast sessions, and were served a low-energy-dense preload (53 kcal/100 g), a high-energy-dense preload (94 kcal/100 g), or no preload. Subjects received ambiguous information about the preload's satiating capacity and rated how confident they were about their expected satiation before consuming the preload in its entirety. They were served an ad libitum test meal 30 min later. Confidence ratings were negatively associated with energy compensation after consuming the high-energy-dense preload (r = -0.61; p = 0.001). The same relationship was evident after consuming the low-energy-dense preload, but only after controlling for dietary restraint, hunger prior to, and liking of the test meal (p = 0.03). Our results suggest that confidence modifies short-term controls of food intake by affecting energy compensation. These results merit consideration because imprecise caloric compensation has been identified as a potential risk factor for a positive energy balance and weight gain.

  15. Effect of resistant wheat starch on subjective appetite and food intake in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilien, Christine H; Hsu, Walter H; Hollis, James H

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of replacing standard wheat flour (SWF) with resistant wheat starch (RWS) on markers of appetite and food intake in healthy adults. A randomized, single-blind, crossover study was conducted with 27 healthy adults (ages 23 ± 2 y with a body mass index of 23.0 ± 3.0 kg/m 2 ). After an overnight fast, muffins that contained only SWF or muffins in which 40% of the SWF was replaced with RWS were consumed as part of the breakfast meal. Appetite questionnaires and plasma samples were collected before the test meal and at 10 time points after meal consumption. An ad libitum meal was provided 240 min after breakfast, and the amount eaten was recorded. Food intake was recorded over the remainder of the day using a diet diary, and appetite was measured hourly using appetite questionnaires. Plasma was assayed to measure biomarkers of satiety and glycemia. Replacing SWF with RWS had no effect on subjective appetite or energy intake at the lunch meal (P > 0.05). Total daily energy intake (including the breakfast meal) was reduced by 179 kcal when participants consumed the RWS muffins (P = 0.05). Replacing SWF with RWS reduced plasma insulin (P  0.05). These results indicate that replacing SWF with RWS decreases plasma insulin concentration and reduces energy intake over a 24-h period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary food groups intake and cooking methods associations with pancreatic cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Zeinab; Hekmatdoost, Azita; Zinab, Hassan Eini; Farrokhzad, Solmaz; Rahimi, Roya; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram

    2015-05-01

    The role of dietary habits in the etiology of pancreatic cancer (PC) has not yet been well elucidated. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of the frequency of different food groups' intake and their cooking methods with PC risk based on a well-designed case-control study. A case-control study including 307 PC patients and 322 controls referred to four tertiary endosonography centers was conducted from January 2011 to January 2014 to compare the frequency intake of different food items and their cooking methods between cases and controls. After adjustment for gender, age, body mass index, years of education, diabetes and alcohol history, smoking status, and opium use, a significant direct relationship was observed between PC risk and intake frequency (time/week) of bread (OR = 1.50; 95 % CI 1.05-2.13; p-value 0.024), rice (OR = 2.10; 95 % CI 1.15-3.82; p for trend 0.034), and red meat (OR = 2.25; 95 % CI 1.22-4.14; p for trend 0.033) (time/day), when comparing the highest category of intake frequency with the lowest, while increasing frequency of fish consumption was associated with a lower risk of PC (OR = 0.93; 95 % CI0.59-1.47; p for trend 0.009). Increasing consumption of barbecuing red meat and deep fried vegetables was associated with 67 % and 70 % increased risk of PC (p-value 0.025 and 0.006, respectively). Our results indicate that increased frequency of intake of bread, rice, and red meat (especially barbecued) and deep fried vegetables can aggregate PC risk, while increased frequency of fish consumption can protect against PC. However, more studies are still needed.

  17. Online dietary intake estimation: reproducibility and validity of the Food4Me food frequency questionnaire against a 4-day weighed food record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallaize, Rosalind; Forster, Hannah; Macready, Anna L; Walsh, Marianne C; Mathers, John C; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Michael J; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2014-08-11

    Advances in nutritional assessment are continuing to embrace developments in computer technology. The online Food4Me food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was created as an electronic system for the collection of nutrient intake data. To ensure its accuracy in assessing both nutrient and food group intake, further validation against data obtained using a reliable, but independent, instrument and assessment of its reproducibility are required. The aim was to assess the reproducibility and validity of the Food4Me FFQ against a 4-day weighed food record (WFR). Reproducibility of the Food4Me FFQ was assessed using test-retest methodology by asking participants to complete the FFQ on 2 occasions 4 weeks apart. To assess the validity of the Food4Me FFQ against the 4-day WFR, half the participants were also asked to complete a 4-day WFR 1 week after the first administration of the Food4Me FFQ. Level of agreement between nutrient and food group intakes estimated by the repeated Food4Me FFQ and the Food4Me FFQ and 4-day WFR were evaluated using Bland-Altman methodology and classification into quartiles of daily intake. Crude unadjusted correlation coefficients were also calculated for nutrient and food group intakes. In total, 100 people participated in the assessment of reproducibility (mean age 32, SD 12 years), and 49 of these (mean age 27, SD 8 years) also took part in the assessment of validity. Crude unadjusted correlations for repeated Food4Me FFQ ranged from .65 (vitamin D) to .90 (alcohol). The mean cross-classification into "exact agreement plus adjacent" was 92% for both nutrient and food group intakes, and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement for energy-adjusted macronutrient intakes. Agreement between the Food4Me FFQ and 4-day WFR varied, with crude unadjusted correlations ranging from .23 (vitamin D) to .65 (protein, % total energy) for nutrient intakes and .11 (soups, sauces and miscellaneous foods) to .73 (yogurts) for food group intake. The mean cross

  18. Underreporting of energy, protein and potassium intake in relation to body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerstrass, D W; Ocké, M C; Bueno De Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, P.H.; Seidell, J C

    BACKGROUND: Differential underreporting of dietary intake by subgroups of body mass index (BMI) will confound associations between dietary intake and BMI-related diseases. We estimated the magnitude of BMI-related underreporting for energy, protein, and potassium intake for the Dutch cohorts of the

  19. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): relative validity of a mobile phone application to measure intake of food groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Anna M; Tieleman, Laurissa; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Tang, Lie Ming; Hebden, Lana; Roy, Rajshri; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    Automation of dietary assessment can reduce limitations of established methodologies, by alleviating participant and researcher burden. Designed as a research tool, the electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA) is a food record in mobile phone application format. The present study aimed to examine the relative validity of the e-DIA with the 24-h recall method to estimate intake of food groups. A sample of eighty university students aged 19-24 years recorded 5 d of e-DIA and 3 d of recall within this 5-d period. The three matching days of dietary data were used for analysis. Food intake data were disaggregated and apportioned to one of eight food groups. Median intakes of food groups were similar between the methods, and strong correlations were found (mean: 0·79, range: 0·69-0·88). Cross-classification by tertiles produced a high level of exact agreement (mean: 71 %, range: 65-75 %), and weighted κ values were moderate to good (range: 0·54-0·71). Although mean differences (e-DIA-recall) were small (range: -13 to 23 g), limits of agreement (LOA) were relatively large (e.g. for vegetables, mean difference: -4 g, LOA: -159 to 151 g). The Bland-Altman plots showed robust agreement, with minimum bias. This analysis supports the use of e-DIA as an alternative to the repeated 24-h recall method for ranking individuals' food group intake.

  20. Organic food consumption during pregnancy is associated with different consumer profiles, food patterns and intake: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Wüst, Ana Paula; Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina; van Dongen, Martien Cjm; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Thijs, Carel

    2017-08-01

    To find out how the consumption of organic food during pregnancy is associated with consumer characteristics, dietary patterns and macro- and micronutrient intakes. Cross-sectional description of consumer characteristics, dietary patterns and macro- and micronutrient intakes associated with consumption of organic food during pregnancy. Healthy, pregnant women recruited to a prospective cohort study at midwives' practices in the southern part of the Netherlands; to enrich the study with participants adhering to alternative lifestyles, pregnant women were recruited through various specific channels. Participants who filled in questionnaires on food frequency in gestational week 34 (n 2786). Participant groups were defined based on the share of organic products within various food types. Consumers of organic food more often adhere to specific lifestyle rules, such as vegetarianism or anthroposophy, than do participants who consume conventional food only (reference group). Consumption of organic food is associated with food patterns comprising more products of vegetable origin (soya/vegetarian products, vegetables, cereal products, bread, fruits, and legumes) and fewer animal products (milk and meat), sugar and potatoes than consumed in conventional diets. These differences translate into distinct intakes of macro- and micronutrients, including higher retinol, carotene, tocopherol and folate intakes, lower intakes of vitamin D and B12 and specific types of trans-fatty acids in the organic groups. These differences are seen even in groups with low consumption of organic food. Various consumer characteristics, specific dietary patterns and types of food intake are associated with the consumption of organic food during pregnancy.

  1. Avoidant restrictive food intake disorder: an illustrative case example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant-Waugh, Rachel

    2013-07-01

    Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is a new diagnostic category in DSM-5. Although replacing Feeding Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood, it is not restricted to childhood presentations. In keeping with the broader aim of revising and updating criteria and text to better reflect lifespan issues and clinical expression across the age range, ARFID is a diagnosis relevant to children, adolescents, and adults. This case example of a 13-year old boy with ARFID illustrates key issues in diagnosis and treatment planning. The issues discussed are not exhaustive, but serve as a guide for central diagnostic and treatment issues to be considered by the clinician. It is anticipated that the inclusion of specific criteria for ARFID as a category within Feeding and Eating Disorders in DSM-5 will stimulate research into its typology, prevalence, and incidence in different populations and facilitate the development of effective, evidence-based interventions for this patient group. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Estimated dietary sodium intake in haemodialysis patients using food frequency questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkza, Anastasia; Davenport, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    In clinical practice, dietary sodium assessment requires reliable and rapid screening tools. We wished to evaluate the usefulness of food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in estimating dietary sodium intakes in haemodialysis patients. We used the Derby Salt Questionnaire (DSQ), and Scored Sodium Questionnaire (SSQ) to estimate sodium intake. Body composition was determined by bioimpedance. In total, 139 haemodialysis patients (95 men) completed the FFQs, with mean ± standard deviation age 67 ± 15 years. The mean FFQ scores were DSQ 3.5 ± 2.0 and SSQ 68.4 ± 24.5. Men had higher estimated dietary sodium intakes [DSQ median (range) 3.6 (0.6-10.1) versus female 2.2 (0.5-9.1), P = 0.007)]. Younger patients and those aged >75 years had the higher SSQ dietary sodium scores; 70.7 ± 27.8 and 76.8 ± 24.6 versus those aged 55-75 years, 61.8 ± 22.3, P = 0.04. Patients with greater estimated sodium intake had higher extracellular water (ECW) to intracellular water (ICW) ratios pre-dialysis [75.1 ±12.5 versus 67.7 ± 4.8, P sodium group (0.9 ± 13.7% versus 6.5 ± 14.1%, P = 0.04). Both questionnaires were acceptable to patients and identified higher estimated dietary sodium intake for men, those with greater ECW and, somewhat surprisingly, we found that older patients had a greater dietary sodium intake than expected. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  3. Impact of fatty acid food reformulations on intake of Dutch young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Elisabeth H M; Millenaar, Inger L; Van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Westenbrink, Susanne

    2011-12-01

    The Dutch'Task Force for the Improvement of the Fatty Acid Composition' initiated fatty acid reformulations in branches using vegetable oils and fats to reduce the trans (TFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) content of foods. This study estimates the impact of recent reformulations in the task force food groups by estimating changes in median intake of TFA and SFA in Dutch young adults. This is a modelling study with food consumption data of young adults. Intakes were estimated before reformulation using food composition data of 2001 as a reference and while including most recent fatty acid composition of foods for task force food groups. Food composition of other foods and food consumption was assumed unchanged. Average TFA intake significantly decreased from 1.0 E% in the reference to 0.8 E% in the reformulation scenario. Pastry, cakes and biscuits, and snacks contributed most to the decrease of TFA. Estimated SFA intake did not change. When solid baking and spreading fats were additionally replaced with fluid ones, SFA intake decreases from 12.9 E% to 12.1 E%. Fatty acid reformulation in the task force food groups contributed to reductions in TFA intake. For further reductions in SFA intake a different food choice is primordial.

  4. Comparison of nutrient intake in adolescents and adults with and without food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslin, K; Venter, C; MacKenzie, H; Vlieg-Boerstra, B; Dean, T; Sommer, I

    2018-04-01

    Exclusion diets for the management of food allergy pose a risk of nutritional deficiencies and inadequate growth in children, yet less is known about their effect in adolescents and adults. The present study aimed to compare the dietary intake of adolescents and adults with food allergies with that of a control group. A food allergic and a control group were recruited from Portsmouth and the Isle of Wight in the UK. Participants were recruited from a food allergy charity, allergy clinics, a local school and university, and previous research studies. Macro and micronutrient intake data were obtained using a 4-day estimated food diary. Sociodemographic and anthropometric data was collected via a constructed questionnaire. This cross-sectional study included 81 adolescents (48 food allergic and 33 controls) aged 11-18 years and 70 adults aged 19-65 years (23 food allergic and 47 controls). Overall, 19 (22.8%) adolescents and 19 (27.1%) adults took dietary supplements, with no difference according to food allergic status. Adolescents with food allergy had higher intakes of niacin and selenium than adolescents without (P food allergies had higher intakes of folate and zinc than those without (P food allergic status. The dietary intake of food allergic participants was broadly similar and, in some cases, better than that of control participants. However, suboptimal intakes of several micronutrients were observed across all participants, suggesting poor food choices. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  5. Preoperative nutritional interventions in morbid obesity: impact on body weight, energy intake, and eating quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez-Araújo, Mariana Silva; de Matos Arruda, Sérgio Lincoln; de Oliveira Kelly, Emily; de Carvalho, Kênia Mara Baiocchi

    2012-12-01

    Although the benefits of preoperative weight loss and adequacy of dietary patterns in bariatric surgery is well-recognized, the nutritional strategies in the preoperative period have been scarcely investigated. We aimed to evaluate the impact of intensive and standard nutritional interventions on body weight, energy intake, and eating quality. This is a retrospective study in which 32 patients undergoing intensive nutritional intervention, with low-calorie diet (10 kcal/kg) and biweekly visits, were pair-matched by age, sex, and body mass index with 32 patients under a standard nutritional intervention, based on a general dietary counseling. Twenty-four-hour food recall was used to assess energy intake and to derive healthy eating index (HEI). The follow-up preoperative period varied from 8 to 16 weeks. Weight loss was observed in 72% of the patients from the intensive intervention group and 75% of the patients from the standard intervention group. According to the mixed model analysis, time effect on weight loss in both groups was significant (P = 0.0002); however, no difference was found between the intervention groups (P = 0.71). The time effect was significant in both groups for energy intake reduction as well (P eating quality was expressed by the nutrient score of the HEI that increased significantly overtime (P = 0.02), also without distinction between the groups (P = 0.61). Both intensive and standard nutritional interventions promoted weight loss, energy intake reduction, and improvement of eating quality in morbidly obese patients during preoperative period.

  6. PGC-1α expression in murine AgRP neurons regulates food intake and energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan F. Gill

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Food intake and whole-body energy homeostasis are controlled by agouti-related protein (AgRP and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC neurons located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Key energy sensors, such as the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK or sirtuin 1 (SIRT1, are essential in AgRP and POMC cells to ensure proper energy balance. In peripheral tissues, the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α closely associates with these sensors to regulate cellular metabolism. The role of PGC-1α in the ARC nucleus, however, remains unknown. Methods: Using AgRP and POMC neurons specific knockout (KO mouse models we studied the consequences of PGC-1α deletion on metabolic parameters during fed and fasted states and on ghrelin and leptin responses. We also took advantage of an immortalized AgRP cell line to assess the impact of PGC-1α modulation on fasting induced AgRP expression. Results: PGC-1α is dispensable for POMC functions in both fed and fasted states. In stark contrast, mice carrying a specific deletion of PGC-1α in AgRP neurons display increased adiposity concomitant with significantly lower body temperature and RER values during nighttime. In addition, the absence of PGC-1α in AgRP neurons reduces food intake in the fed and fasted states and alters the response to leptin. Finally, both in vivo and in an immortalized AgRP cell line, PGC-1α modulates AgRP expression induction upon fasting. Conclusions: Collectively, our results highlight a role for PGC-1α in the regulation of AgRP neuronal functions in the control of food intake and peripheral metabolism. Author Video: Author Video Watch what authors say about their articles Keywords: PGC-1α, Agouti-related protein, Metabolism, Energy homeostasis, Pro-opiomelanocortin, Transcriptional regulation

  7. Parental eating behaviours, home food environment and adolescent intakes of fruits, vegetables and dairy foods: longitudinal findings from Project EAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcan, Chrisa; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter; van den Berg, Patricia; Story, Mary; Larson, Nicole

    2007-11-01

    To examine longitudinal associations of parental report of household food availability and parent intakes of fruits, vegetables and dairy foods with adolescent intakes of the same foods. This study expands upon the limited research of longitudinal studies examining the role of parents and household food availability in adolescent dietary intakes. Longitudinal study. Project EAT-II followed an ethnically and socio-economically diverse sample of adolescents from 1999 (time 1) to 2004 (time 2). In addition to the Project EAT survey, adolescents completed the Youth Adolescent Food-Frequency Questionnaire in both time periods, and parents of adolescents completed a telephone survey at time 1. General linear modelling was used to examine the relationship between parent intake and home availability and adolescent intake, adjusting for time 1 adolescent intakes. Associations were examined separately for the high school and young adult cohorts and separately for males and females in combined cohorts. The sample included 509 pairs of parents/guardians and adolescents. Vegetables served at dinner significantly predicted adolescent intakes of vegetables for males (P = 0.037), females (P = 0.009), high school (P = 0.033) and young adults (P = 0.05) at 5-year follow-up. Among young adults, serving milk at dinner predicted dairy intake (P = 0.002). Time 1 parental intakes significantly predicted intakes of young adults for fruit (P = 0.044), vegetables (P = 0.041) and dairy foods (P = 0.008). Parental intake predicted intake of dairy for females (P = 0.02). The findings suggest the importance of providing parents of adolescents with knowledge and skills to enhance the home food environment and improve their own eating behaviours.

  8. Assessing dietary intake in childhood cancer survivors: Food frequency questionnaire versus 24-hour diet recalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet r...

  9. Pre- and post-season dietary intake, body composition, and performance indices of NCAA division I female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mandy; Reed, Debra B; Crouse, Stephen F; Armstrong, Robert B

    2003-09-01

    Little published data describe the dietary and physiological profiles of intercollegiate female soccer players; therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to report baseline dietary data, anthropometrics, and performance indices of soccer women during rigorous pre-season training (2 sessions/day) and then during the post-competitive season. Members of a NCAA Division I women's soccer squad completed 3-day diet records, anthropometrics, and physical tests, including VO2peak. Average body mass was 62 kg with 16% body fat, and no significant pre to post differences were observed. Total energy, carbohydrate (CHO), protein, and fat intakes were significantly greater during the pre-season. Pre-season energy intake met the DRI for females with an "active" lifestyle (37 kcal/kg). While CHO intake failed to meet minimum recommendations to promote glycogen repletion (7-10 g/kg), protein and fat intakes were above minimum recommendations. Pre- and post-season intakes of several micronutrients were marginal (failed to meet minimum CHO and micronutrient recommendations. Foods higher in protein and fat displaced more CHO-rich and nutrient-dense foods within athletes' energy requirements and satiety limits.

  10. Comparing intake estimations based on food composition data with chemical analysis in Malian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koréissi-Dembélé, Yara; Doets, Esmee L; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Hulshof, Paul Jm; Moretti, Diego; Brouwer, Inge D

    2017-06-01

    Food composition databases are essential for estimating nutrient intakes in food consumption surveys. The present study aimed to evaluate the Mali food composition database (TACAM) for assessing intakes of energy and selected nutrients at population level. Weighed food records and duplicate portions of all foods consumed during one day were collected. Intakes of energy, protein, fat, available carbohydrates, dietary fibre, Ca, Fe, Zn and vitamin A were assessed by: (i) estimating the nutrient intake from weighed food records based on an adjusted TACAM (a-TACAM); and (ii) chemical analysis of the duplicate portions. Agreement between the two methods was determined using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Bland-Altman plots. Bamako, Mali. Apparently healthy non-pregnant, non-lactating women (n 36) aged 15-36 years. Correlation coefficients between estimated and analysed values ranged from 0·38 to 0·61. At population level, mean estimated and analysed nutrient intakes differed significantly for carbohydrates (203·0 v. 243·5 g/d), Fe (9·9 v. 22·8 mg/d) and vitamin A (356 v. 246 µg retinol activity equivalents). At individual level, all estimated and analysed nutrient intakes differed significantly; the differences tended to increase with higher intakes. The a-TACAM is sufficiently acceptable for measuring average intakes of macronutrients, Ca and Zn at population level in low-intake populations, but not for carbohydrate, vitamin A and Fe intakes, and nutrient densities.

  11. Food intake and nutrition in children 1-4 years of age in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuanalo de la Cerda, Heriberto E; Ochoa Estrada, Ernesto; Tuz Poot, Felipe R; Datta Banik, Sudip

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT in Spanish) reported high rates of under-nutrition in children of Yucatan. Is food intake the main cause of under-nutrition in children of the state of Yucatan, Mexico? Identify the primary causes of under-nutrition in pre-school children in Yucatan. A sample of 111 children (59 girls and 52 boys) aged 1-4 years representing Yucatan was taken from a database of ENSANUT 2006 and another national survey, a federal poverty mitigation programme for the state of Yucatan, Mexico entitled "Oportunidades". A human ecology approach together with life history theory was used to analyse anthropometric indices and food intake data from the ENSANUT 2006 and "Oportunidades". Height and weight were significantly correlated to age and total food intake. No correlations were found between age and anthropometric indices or food intake rates. The children in the sample had adequate protein intake but deficient energy intake. No correlation was identified between nutritional status and food intake rates. Pre-schoolers with higher weight-for-height values achieved greater height-for-age. These relationships can be explained by life history theory in that energy intake was used either for maintenance (combating and recovering from infections) or growth. The poor relationship between food intake rates and nutritional status is probably explained by the interaction between high disease incidence and insufficient energy intake. These conditions are endemic in Yucatan due to widespread poor housing, water and sanitation conditions.

  12. Oxytocin Acting in the Nucleus Accumbens Core Decreases Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herisson, F M; Waas, J R; Fredriksson, R; Schiöth, H B; Levine, A S; Olszewski, P K

    2016-04-01

    Central oxytocin (OT) promotes feeding termination in response to homeostatic challenges, such as excessive stomach distension, salt loading and toxicity. OT has also been proposed to affect feeding reward by decreasing the consumption of palatable carbohydrates and sweet tastants. Because the OT receptor (OTR) is expressed in the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) and shell (AcbSh), a site regulating diverse aspects of eating behaviour, we investigated whether OT acts there to affect appetite in rats. First, we examined whether direct AcbC and AcbSh OT injections affect hunger- and palatability-driven consumption. We found that only AcbC OT infusions decrease deprivation-induced chow intake and reduce the consumption of palatable sucrose and saccharin solutions in nondeprived animals. These effects were abolished by pretreatment with an OTR antagonist, L-368,899, injected in the same site. AcbC OT at an anorexigenic dose did not induce a conditioned taste aversion, which indicates that AcbC OT-driven anorexia is not caused by sickness/malaise. The appetite-specific effect of AcbC OT is supported by the real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of OTR mRNA in the AcbC, which revealed that food deprivation elevates OTR mRNA expression, whereas saccharin solution intake decreases OTR transcript levels. We also used c-Fos immunohistochemistry as a marker of neuronal activation and found that AcbC OT injection increases activation of the AcbC itself, as well as of two feeding-related sites: the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. Finally, considering the fact that OT plays a significant role in social behaviour, we examined whether offering animals a meal in a social setting would modify their hypophagic response to AcbC OT injections. We found that a social context abolishes the anorexigenic effects of AcbC OT. We conclude that OT acting via the AcbC decreases food intake driven by hunger and reward in rats offered a meal in a nonsocial setting. © 2016

  13. The bogus taste test: Validity as a measure of laboratory food intake

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Eric; Haynes, Ashleigh; Hardman, Charlotte A.; Kemps, Eva; Higgs, Suzanne; Jones, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Because overconsumption of food contributes to ill health, understanding what affects how much people eat is of importance. The ?bogus? taste test is a measure widely used in eating behaviour research to identify factors that may have a causal effect on food intake. However, there has been no examination of the validity of the bogus taste test as a measure of food intake. We conducted a participant level analysis of 31 published laboratory studies that used the taste test to measure food inta...

  14. The effect of eating frequency on appetite control and food intake: brief synopsis of controlled feeding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, Heather J; Campbell, Wayne W

    2011-01-01

    Increased eating frequency is postulated to increase metabolism, reduce hunger, improve glucose and insulin control, and reduce body weight, making it an enticing dietary strategy for weight loss and/or the maintenance of a healthy body weight. Because past research has primarily focused on the effects of eating frequency on changes in energy expenditure and body weight, limited data exist surrounding the impact of eating frequency on appetite control and energy intake. We provide a brief review of the controlled-feeding studies that primarily targeted the appetitive, hormonal, and food intake responses potentially altered with eating frequency. The 3 meal/d pattern served as the reference for defining increased or reduced eating frequency. In general, increased eating frequency led to lower peaks (P frequency. However, when examining these responses over the course of the day (i.e. using area under the curve assessments), no differences in any of these outcomes were observed. The rate of gastric emptying also appears to be unaltered with increased eating frequency. Subsequent food intake was examined in several studies with conflicting results. Regarding the effect of reduced eating frequency, several studies indicate significant increases in perceived appetite and reductions in perceived satiety when 1 or 2 meals were eliminated from the daily diet. Taken together, these findings suggest that increased eating frequency (>3 eating occasions/d) has minimal, if any, impact on appetite control and food intake, whereas reduced eating frequency(<3 eating occasions/d) negatively effects appetite control.

  15. Effects of photoperiod on food intake, activity and metabolic rate in adult neutered male cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappen, K L; Garner, L M; Kerr, K R; Swanson, K S

    2014-10-01

    With the continued rise in feline obesity, novel weight management strategies are needed. To date, strategies aimed at altering physical activity, an important factor in weight maintenance, have been lacking. Photoperiod is known to cause physiological changes in seasonal mammals, including changes in body weight (BW) and reproductive status. Thus, our objective was to determine the effect of increased photoperiod (longer days) on voluntary physical activity levels, resting metabolic rate (RMR), food intake required to maintain BW, and fasting serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations in adult cats. Eleven healthy, adult, neutered, male domestic shorthair cats were used in a randomized crossover design study. During two 12-week periods, cats were exposed to either a short-day (SD) photoperiod of 8 h light: 16 h dark or a long-day (LD) photoperiod of 16 h light: 8 h dark. Cats were fed a commercial diet to maintain baseline BW. In addition to daily food intake and twice-weekly BW, RMR (via indirect calorimetry), body composition [via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)] and physical activity (via Actical activity monitors) were measured at week 0 and 12 of each period. Fasting serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations were measured at week 0, 6 and 12 of each period. Average hourly physical activity was greater (p = 0.008) in LD vs. SD cats (3770 vs. 3129 activity counts/h), which was primarily due to increased (p dark period activity (1188 vs. 710 activity counts/h). This corresponded to higher (p energy intake (mean over 12-week period: 196 vs. 187 kcal/day), and increased (p = 0.048) RMR in LD cats (9.02 vs. 8.37 kcal/h). Body composition, serum leptin and serum ghrelin were not altered by photoperiod. More research is needed to determine potential mechanisms by which these physiological changes occurred and how they may apply to weight management strategies.

  16. Validation of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess food groups and nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Ojeda, Gabriela; Vizmanos-Lamotte, Barbara; Márquez-Sandoval, Yolanda Fabiola; Rodríguez-Rocha, Norma Patricia; López-Uriarte, Patricia Josefina; Fernández-Ballart, Joan D

    2013-11-01

    Semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) analyze average food and nutrient intake over extended periods to associate habitual dietary intake with health problems and chronic diseases. A tool of this nature applicable to both women and men is not presently available in Mexico. To validate a FFQ for adult men and women. The study was conducted on 97 participants, 61% were women. Two FFQs were administered (with a one-year interval) to measure reproducibility. To assess validity, the second FFQ was compared against dietary record (DR) covering nine days. Statistical analyses included Pearson correlations and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC). The de-attenuation of the ICC resulting from intraindividual variability was controlled. The validity analysis was complemented by comparing the classification ability of FFQ to that of DR through concordance between intake categories and Bland-Altman plots. Reproducibility: ICC values for food groups ranged 0.42-0.87; the range for energy and nutrients was between 0.34 and 0.82. ICC values for food groups ranged 0.35-0.84; the range for energy and nutrients was between 0.36 and 0.77. Most subjects (56.7-76.3%) classified in the same or adjacent quintile for energy and nutrients using both methods. Extreme misclassification was <6.3% for all items. Bland-Altman plots reveal high concordance between FFQ and DR. FFQ produced sufficient levels of reproducibility and validity to determine average daily intake over one year. These results will enable the analysis of possible associations with chronic diseases and dietary diagnoses in adult populations of men and women. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Daily Dietary Intake Patterns Improve after Visiting a Food Pantry among Food-Insecure Rural Midwestern Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breanne N. Wright

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Emergency food pantries provide food at no cost to low-resource populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate single-day dietary intake patterns before and after visiting a food pantry among food-secure and food-insecure pantry clients. This observational cohort study comprised a paired, before-and-after design with a pantry visit as the intervention. Participants (n = 455 completed a demographic and food security assessment, and two 24-h dietary recalls. Adult food security was measured using the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module. Dietary intake patterns were assessed using Automated Self-Administered 24-h Recall data and classified by Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010 scores, dietary variety, number of eating occasions, and energy intake. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests compared outcomes before and after a pantry visit. Mean dietary variety increased after the pantry visit among both food-secure (p = 0.02 and food-insecure (p < 0.0001 pantry clients. Mean energy intake (p = 0.0003, number of eating occasions (p = 0.004, and HEI-2010 component scores for total fruit (p < 0.001 and whole fruit (p < 0.0003 increased among food-insecure pantry clients only. A pantry visit may improve dietary intake patterns, especially among food-insecure pantry clients.

  18. Are You Sure? Confidence about the Satiating Capacity of a Food Affects Subsequent Food Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgi B. Schiöth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Expectations about a food’s satiating capacity predict self-selected portion size, food intake and food choice. However, two individuals might have a similar expectation, but one might be extremely confident while the other might be guessing. It is unclear whether confidence about an expectation affects adjustments in energy intake at a subsequent meal. In a randomized cross-over design, 24 subjects participated in three separate breakfast sessions, and were served a low-energy-dense preload (53 kcal/100 g, a high-energy-dense preload (94 kcal/100 g, or no preload. Subjects received ambiguous information about the preload’s satiating capacity and rated how confident they were about their expected satiation before consuming the preload in its entirety. They were served an ad libitum test meal 30 min later. Confidence ratings were negatively associated with energy compensation after consuming the high-energy-dense preload (r = −0.61; p = 0.001. The same relationship was evident after consuming the low-energy-dense preload, but only after controlling for dietary restraint, hunger prior to, and liking of the test meal (p = 0.03. Our results suggest that confidence modifies short-term controls of food intake by affecting energy compensation. These results merit consideration because imprecise caloric compensation has been identified as a potential risk factor for a positive energy balance and weight gain.

  19. Leptin and zinc relation : In regulation of food intake and immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkerim Kasim Baltaci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is synthesized and released by the adipose tissue. Leptin, which carries the information about energy reserves of the body to the brain, controls food intake by acting on neuropeptide Y (NPY, which exercises a food-intake-increasing effect through relevant receptors in the hypothalamus. Zinc deficiency is claimed to result in anorexia, weight loss, poor food efficiency, and growth impairment. The fact that obese individuals have low zinc and high leptin levels suggests that there is a relation between zinc and nutrition, and consequently also between zinc and leptin. Leptin deficiency increases the predisposition to infections and this increase is associated with the impairments in the production of cytokines. Zinc has a key role in the sustenance of immune resistance against infections. Dietary zinc deficiency negatively affects CD +4 cells, Th functions, and consequently, cell-mediated immunity by causing a decrease in the production of IL-2, IF-γ, and TNF-α, which are Th1 products. The relation between zinc and the concerned cytokines in particular, and the fact that leptin has a part in the immune responses mediated by these cytokines demonstrate that an interaction among cellular immunity, leptin and zinc is inevitable. An overall evaluation of the information presented above suggests that there are complex relations among food intake, leptin and zinc on one hand and among cellular immunity, leptin and zinc on the other. The aim of the present review was to draw attention to the possible relation between zinc and leptin in dietary regulation and cellular immunity.

  20. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nee, Roselinde L; Larsen, Junilla K; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues presented in TV advertisements. The experiment involved a 2 (TV program with or without food cues) by 2 (TV advertisements with or without food cues) between-participants design. While watching TV, participants could freely eat peanut chocolate candies and crisps (potato chips). Participants were 121 young women (mean age = 19.6 years; mean BMI = 22.5). Participants who watched a TV program with food cues tended to have a lower total energy intake and ate significantly less peanut chocolate candies than participants who watched the same TV program without food cues. This effect was particularly pronounced among participants with a higher BMI. Food advertisements did not affect energy intake. Findings may indicate that subtle continuous food cues during TV programs could make young females more aware of their own eating and/or weight, leading to reduced intake of particularly sweet snack foods during TV viewing. Considering the non-significant trend for the effect of the TV program with food cues on total energy intake, findings should be replicated to provide possible tools for prevention campaigns using food cue reminders to watch one's intake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Intake of selected nutrients from foods, from fortification and from supplements in various European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, A; Hirvonen, T; Mensik, GBM

    2009-01-01

    and evaluate recently available data on intakes of selected vitamins and minerals from conventional foods, food supplements and fortified foods in adults and children. Intake of calcium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, zinc, folic acid, niacin and total vitamin A/retinol, B6, D and E...... is generally higher in children than in adults. Conclusion: The risk of excessive intakes is relatively low for the majority of nutrients with a few exceptions. Children are the most vulnerable group as they are more likely to exhibit high intakes relative to the UL. There is a need to develop improved methods...

  2. Analysis of food intake profile among women from the oasis of southeastern Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidi, Amina; El Bouhali, Bachir; Nasri, Issad; Eddouks, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional status is the best indicator of the global well-being of women and food intake is known to reflect a healthy diet. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of socioeconomic status on the food intake in women living in the southeastern oasis of Morocco by exploring their nutritional intake through 24-h dietary recall (n=387). Analysis of the relationship between food intake and the socioeconomic characteristics in women showed a positive correlation between daily vegetable, cereals, red and white meat intake and region of residence (peducation, family size and occupation influence the daily intake of food in this region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship between pickiness and subsequent development in body mass index and diet intake in obesity prone normal weight preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanett Friis Rohde

    Full Text Available Most children have periods in their life where they reject familiar as well as non-familiar food items and this is often referred to as pickiness. The consequences of pickiness may be malnutrition and, if prolonged, potentially lower body weight. However, studies investigating the consequence of pickiness on subsequent changes in diet intake and weight are limited.To examine whether pickiness influences body mass index as well as diet intake over subsequent 15 months among obesity prone normal weight children aged 2-6 years.Data was obtained from the "Healthy Start" intervention study which included 271 children aged 2-6 years susceptible to overweight later in life. Information on pickiness was obtained from a parental questionnaire. Dietary habits were collected by 4-day dietary records filled in by the parents and height and weight were measured by trained health professionals and both measured twice over a 15 month period. Linear regression models were performed to assess the influence of pickiness on body mass index and diet with adjustments for possible confounders.No differences in mean BMI Z-score were seen between picky/non-picky (P = 0.68 and little picky/non-picky (P = 0.68 children at 15 month follow-up. Picky children had a lower intake of protein (P = 0.01 than non-picky children despite no differences in total energy intake (P = 0.74, or in the other macronutrients, or the intake of fruit and vegetables, though children being a little picky had a lower intake of starch compared to non-picky children (P = 0.05. Results were essentially similar before and after adjustment for key covariates.Our study showed that BMI Z-score after 15 months follow-up was similar for picky and non-picky children. Picky children seemed to develop a lower protein intake despite similar total energy intake and diet composition.

  4. Technology Interventions to Manage Food Intake: Where Are We Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Gemming, Luke

    2017-09-23

    This review describes the state-of-the-art for dietary assessment using smartphone apps and digital technology and provides an update on the efficacy of technology-mediated interventions for dietary change. Technology has progressed from apps requiring entry of foods consumed, to digital imaging to provide food intake data. However, these methods rely on patients being active in data collection. The automated estimation of the volume and composition of every meal consumed globally is years away. The use of text messaging, apps, social media, and combinations of these for interventions is growing and proving effective for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Effectiveness of text messaging for obesity management is improving and multicomponent interventions show promise. A stand-alone app is less likely to produce positive outcomes and social media is relatively unexplored. A concentrated effort will be needed to progress digital dietary assessment. Researcher-designed technology programs are producing positive outcomes for T2DM but further research is needed in the area of weight management.

  5. Body composition and habitual and match-day dietary intake of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of all the MVC rugby players (N=35), 18 completed the sections on body composition and match-day dietary intake, while 11 completed the habitual dietary intake section. Body composition data were collected by an International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry-accredited biokineticist. Habitual dietary ...

  6. Hypothalamic food intake regulation in a cancer-cachectic mouse model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dwarkasing, J.T.; Dijk, van M.; Dijk, F.J.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Faber, J.; Argiles, J.M.; Laviano, A.; Müller, M.R.; Witkamp, R.F.; Norren, van K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Appetite is frequently affected in cancer patients leading to anorexia and consequently insufficient food intake. In this study, we report on hypothalamic gene expression profile of a cancer-cachectic mouse model with increased food intake. In this model, mice bearing C26 tumour have an

  7. Reconstruction of the drive underlying food intake and its control by leptin and dieting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasman, J.

    2013-01-01

    The intake of food and the expenditure of calories is modelled by a system of differential equations. The state variables are the amount of calories stored in adipose tissue and the level of plasma leptin. The model has as input a drive that controls the intake of food. This drive consists of a

  8. Food, fat, family and friends : studies on the impact of the social environment on dietary intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feunekes, G.I.J.

    1996-01-01


    The impact of the social environment on food and fat intake was investigated in several samples including family members, close friends, and meal time companions in the Netherlands. Firstly, a food frequency questionnaire to assess the intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol was

  9. Salivary alpha-amylase : a measure associated with satiety and subsequent food intake in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harthoorn, L.F.

    2008-01-01

    Food intake regulation in humans involves various central and peripheral mechanisms. In this study salivary -amylase was examined for functioning as a measure of satiety and food intake. In a 1.25-h session, 32 fasted subjects were given a preload of starch-based custard (849 kJ) followed by ad

  10. Effect of food intake on pharmacokinetics of oral artemisinin in healthy Vietnamese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dien, T. K.; de Vries, P. J.; Khanh, N. X.; Koopmans, R.; Binh, L. N.; Duc, D. D.; Kager, P. A.; van Boxtel, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of food intake on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin was studied with six healthy Vietnamese male subjects. In a crossover study, artemisinin capsules (500 mg) were administered with and without food after an overnight fast. Plasma samples were obtained up to 24 h after intake of each

  11. Autonomic nervous system mediated effects of food intake. Interaction between gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Orshoven, N.P.

    2008-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis focused on the autonomic nervous system mediated interactions between the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems in response to food intake and on potential consequences of failure of these interactions. The effects of food intake on cardiovascular

  12. The lack of food intake data and the consequences thereof | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally, South African researchers working in the fields of nutrition and dietetics collect food intake data as a first step towards determining the nutritional status of various populations. However, on publication, the majority of the results obtained from these studies are expressed in terms of nutrient intake, whereas food ...

  13. Associations of Built Food Environment with Dietary Intake among Youth with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Archana P.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Puett, Robin; Bottai, Matteo; Porter, Dwayne E.; Liese, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the associations of supermarket and fast-food outlet accessibility and availability with dietary intake among youth with diabetes. Design: Subjects' residential location and dietary intake was obtained from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Food outlet data obtained from the South Carolina Department of Health and…

  14. Increasing Dietary Phosphorus Intake from Food Additives: Potential for Negative Impact on Bone Health123

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These fi...

  15. From Belly to Brain: Targeting the Ghrelin Receptor in Appetite and Food Intake Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Howick

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is the only known peripherally-derived orexigenic hormone, increasing appetite and subsequent food intake. The ghrelinergic system has therefore received considerable attention as a therapeutic target to reduce appetite in obesity as well as to stimulate food intake in conditions of anorexia, malnutrition and cachexia. As the therapeutic potential of targeting this hormone becomes clearer, it is apparent that its pleiotropic actions span both the central nervous system and peripheral organs. Despite a wealth of research, a therapeutic compound specifically targeting the ghrelin system for appetite modulation remains elusive although some promising effects on metabolic function are emerging. This is due to many factors, ranging from the complexity of the ghrelin receptor (Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor, GHSR-1a internalisation and heterodimerization, to biased ligand interactions and compensatory neuroendocrine outputs. Not least is the ubiquitous expression of the GHSR-1a, which makes it impossible to modulate centrallymediated appetite regulation without encroaching on the various peripheral functions attributable to ghrelin. It is becoming clear that ghrelin’s central signalling is critical for its effects on appetite, body weight regulation and incentive salience of food. Improving the ability of ghrelin ligands to penetrate the blood brain barrier would enhance central delivery to GHSR-1a expressing brain regions, particularly within the mesolimbic reward circuitry.

  16. Eating behaviors, mental health, and food intake are associated with obesity in older congregate meal participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter Starr, Kathryn; Fischer, Joan G; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between eating behaviors, food intake, and mental health and the occurrence of obesity in older adults has rarely been investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish the associative links of these factors with two measures of obesity: class I obesity as indicated by body mass index (OB-BMI; BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²) and class I obesity as indicated by waist circumference (OB-WC; WC ≥ 43 inches for men and ≥ 42 inches for women). Older adults participating in the Older American's Act congregate meal program (N = 113, mean age = 74 years, 74% female, 45% African American) were assessed. Eating behaviors (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating), food group choices (sweets, salty snacks, and fruits), and mental health indices (depression, anxiety, and stress) were recorded by questionnaire and related to measured occurrence of OB-BMI and OB-WC. In a series of multivariate logistical regression models, we found cognitive restraint to be consistently and robustly associated with both measures of obesity. In the fully adjusted model, cognitive restraint, consumption of sweets, anxiety, and lack of depression were associated with OB-WC. In summary, we found an association of obesity with abnormal eating behaviors, certain food group intakes, and mental health symptoms in this population. These findings may guide the development of future weight management interventions in a congregate meal setting.

  17. Study on dose calculation method for operational intervention Level. Evaluation of the intake of foods and drinks for OIL6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Shunsuke

    2017-01-01

    In the guideline for nuclear disaster countermeasures, the operational intervention level (OIL) is an index for decision making of protective measures to be applied in an urgent protective action planning zone (UPZ) and in the zone immediately outside it, for the period starting several hours after a general emergency is declared to within a week after this. In this guideline, the initialization value of OIL6 is set as the protective measure index for intake of foods and drinks. OIL is observed by using actual measurement values in a nuclear emergency, and OIL6 is the measured activity concentration of radioactive materials (Bq/kg) in foods and drinks. On the other hand, the IAEA sets the generic criteria for protective measures from the viewpoint of the radiation effects to the human body. Therefore, it has been necessary to prepare an expression for the OIL6 dose and a dose conversion factor in order to confirm whether the dose does not exceed the generic criteria from the annual intake data of foods and drinks in Japan when contaminated foods and drinks are consumed continuously for 1 year. In this work, we examined the problem about the uncertainty of the annual intake data of foods and drinks. We took the annual intake data of foods and drinks for OIL6 based on the national health and nutrition survey results by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare and we calculated a OIL6 dose when foods and drinks were contaminated at the same level as the initialization value of the restricted consumption of foods and drinks, taking into account the influences for age, gender and local area. As a result, we found the 95% upper limit value of the intake data of foods and drinks for OIL6 obtained by this study could be used. The OIL6 intake data of foods and drinks prepared by previous studies were underestimating vegetables and cereals, etc. The OIL6 dose was sufficiently below IAEA generic criteria, and the intake data of foods and drinks between the local areas had no

  18. The structure of a food product assortment modulates the effect of providing choice on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizel, Odile; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Fromentin, Gilles; Delarue, Julien; Labouré, Hélène; Benamouzig, Robert; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès

    2016-09-01

    Several authors showed that providing choice may increase food liking and food intake. However, the impact of choice may be modulated by assortment's characteristics, such as the number of alternatives or their dissimilarity. The present study compared the impact of choice on food liking and intake under the two following conditions: (1) when choosing a product to consume from among similar products versus dissimilar products; and (2) when choosing a product to consume from among pleasant products versus unpleasant products. Two experiments were carried out using the same design: the "apple puree" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among similar products (apple purees varying in texture) and the "dessert" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among dissimilar products (fruit dessert, dairy dessert, custard, pudding). During the first session, participants rated their liking for 12 products (apples purees or desserts). Then the participants were divided into a "pleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three pleasant products, and an "unpleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three unpleasant products. Finally, all of the volunteers participated in a choice session - volunteers were presented with their three assigned products and asked to choose one of the products, and a no-choice session - volunteers were served with one product that was randomly selected from among their three assigned products. Providing choice led to an increase in food liking in both experiments and an increase in food intake only for the desserts, namely only when the volunteers chose the product to consume from among "not too similar" alternatives. No effect of assortment's pleasantness was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Family environmental factors influencing the developing behavioral controls of food intake and childhood overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, L L; Davison, K K

    2001-08-01

    Although a large body of research has assessed direct genetic links between parent and child weight status, relatively little research has assessed the extent to which parents (particularly parents who are overweight) select environments that promote overweight among their children. Parents provide food environments for their children's early experiences with food and eating. These family eating environments include parents' own eating behaviors and child-feeding practices. Results of the limited research on behavioral mediators of familial patterns of overweight indicate that parents' own eating behaviors and their parenting practices influence the development of children's eating behaviors, mediating familial patterns of overweight. In particular, parents who are overweight, who have problems controlling their own food intake, or who are concerned about their children's risk for overweight may adopt controlling child-feeding practices in an attempt to prevent overweight in their children. Unfortunately, research reveals that these parental control attempts may interact with genetic predispositions to promote the development of problematic eating styles and childhood overweight. Although the authors have argued that behavioral mediators of family resemblances in weight status, such as parents' disinhibited or binge eating and parenting practices are shaped largely by environmental factors, individual differences in these behaviors also have genetic bases. A primary public health goal should be the development of family-based prevention programs for childhood overweight. The findings reviewed here suggest that effective prevention programs must focus on providing anticipatory guidance on parenting to foster patterns of preference and food selection in children more consistent with healthy diets and promote children's ability to self-regulate intake. Guidance for parents should include information on how children develop patterns of food intake in the family context

  20. Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated (FTO) Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Physical Activity, Food Intake, Eating Behaviors, Psychological Health, and Modeled Change in Body Mass Index in Overweight/Obese Caucasian Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Harbron, Janetta; Merwe, Lize van der; Zaahl, Monique; Kotze, Maritha; Senekal, Marjanne

    2014-01-01

    The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is currently recognized as the most robust predictor of polygenic obesity. We investigated associations between the FTO rs1421085 and rs17817449 polymorphisms and the FTO rs1421085–rs17817449 haplotype and dietary intake, eating behavior, physical activity, and psychological health, as well as the effect of these associations on BMI. N = 133 treatment seeking overweight/obese Caucasian adults participated in this study. Genotyping was performed ...

  1. GABAergic control of food intake in the meat-type chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonaidi, H; Babapour, V; Denbow, D M

    2002-08-01

    This study examined the effects of intracerebroventricular injections of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists on short-term food intake in meat-type cockerels. In Experiment 1, birds were injected with various doses of muscimol, a GABA(A) agonist. In Experiment 2, the birds received bicuculline, a GABA(A) antagonist, prior to injection of muscimol. In Experiment 3, the effect of varying doses of baclofen, a GABA(B) agonist, on food intake was determined. The intracerebroventricular injection of muscimol caused a dose-dependent increase in food intake. This effect was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with bicuculline. Food intake was not affected by the intracerebroventricular injection of baclofen. These results suggest that GABA acts within the brain of broilers at a GABA(A), but not GABA(B), receptor to increase voluntary food intake.

  2. Impact of food choice on sodium intake patterns from multiple NHANES surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zefeng; Gao, Zhifeng; McFadden, Brandon

    2017-02-01

    To examine how the food consumption from various food groups would impact American adults' sodium intake and whether this impact structurally changes over time, data were obtained from six-cycle National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2010. Foods were categorized by the first two digits of the USDA food code. Regression models were employed to investigate the associations between the consumption of each food group and sodium intake, and whether there were changes in the associations in consecutive six cycles. Results show that the calorie consumption of oils, beverages and water, fruit juices, fruits, lamb, fruit products, and sugars and sweets had no significant impact on individuals' sodium intake, while calorie consumption of tomatoes, fish, dark-green vegetables, and crackers contributes the most to sodium intake. The contribution to sodium intake of most food groups does not change significantly over time, with the exception of salad dressing whose contribution to sodium intake increased in four consecutive years when compared to that of 1999-2000. The sodium amount contributed by one calorie consumption (sodium density) of most food was above the daily recommendation level, 1.2 mg per calorie per day. Lowering individuals' sodium intake involves either guiding individuals to consume more fruit related products or decreasing the amount of sodium in most food groups at the production or food preparation stages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Increasing water intake influences hunger and food preference, but does not reliably suppress energy intake in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Naomi J; Belous, Ilona V; Temple, Jennifer L

    2018-04-17

    Increasing water intake is often purported to reduce energy intake, and is recommended as a weight loss strategy. The few experimental studies that have been conducted to verify these claims have examined the impact of a single pre-load of water before a meal. Although correlational data indicate a relationship between hydration, energy intake, and weight status, there is very little experimental research in this area. The current studies examined the hypothesis that elevated hydration, through increased water intake, would suppress energy intake. In Experiment 1, participants (n = 49) were asked to consume either one, two, or three 500 ml bottles of water throughout the morning before a lunch buffet in the laboratory. When participants categorized as normal weight drank three bottles of water they consumed less energy at lunch, but there was no effect on participants categorized as overweight or obese. In addition, increased water intake suppressed liking of food items in all participants and hunger in females. A follow-up study (n = 45) was conducted to test if four bottles of water throughout the morning would result in a similar energy suppression in participants categorized as overweight or obese. Surprisingly, in the second experiment, there was no effect of water intake on energy intake at lunch in any of the conditions. There was, however, a similar suppression of hunger and food liking. In conclusion, increasing water intake throughout the morning only suppressed energy intake in individuals categorized as normal weight under certain circumstances, and had no effect on individuals categorized as overweight/obese. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Children's Food Security and Intakes from School Meals. Final Report. Contractor and Cooperator Report No. 61

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamites, Elizabeth; Gordon, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Using 2005 data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment survey, this study examines the contribution of school meals to the food and nutrient intake of children in food-secure, marginally secure, and food-insecure households. The study finds that children from food-insecure and marginally secure…

  5. Ecological momentary assessment of environmental and personal factors and snack food intake in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N; Horoi, Irina; McDonald, Ashley; Corte, Colleen; Riley, Barth; Odoms-Young, Angela M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined contributions of environmental and personal factors (specifically, food availability and expense, daily hassles, self-efficacy, positive and negative affect) to within-person and between-person variations in snack food intake in 100 African American women. Participants were signaled at random five times daily for seven days to complete a survey on a study-provided smartphone. Women reported consuming snack foods at 35.2% of signals. Easier food availability accounting for one's usual level was associated with higher snack food intake. Being near outlets that predominately sell snacks (e.g., convenience stores), while accounting for one's usual proximity to them, was associated with higher snack food intake. Accounting for one's usual daily hassle level, we found that on days with more frequent daily hassles snack food intake was higher. The positive association between within-person daily hassles frequency and snack food intake was stronger when foods were easily available. Public and private policies to curb ubiquitous food availability and mobile health interventions that take into account time-varying influences on food choices and provide real-time assistance in dealing with easy food availability and coping with stressors may be beneficial in improving African American women's day to day food choices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Specific food intake, fat and fiber intake, and behavioral correlates of BMI among overweight and obese members of a managed care organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwood Nancy E

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study examined correlates of body mass index (BMI in overweight and obese members of a managed care organization seeking treatment for obesity. It assessed intake of specific foods, dietary fat or fiber, and behaviors attempted to control weight. Methods Participants were 508 men and 1293 women who were > 18 years and had a self-reported BMI > 27.0. This paper reports analyses of baseline and 24-month follow-up data from a randomized weight-loss trial. Cross-sectional and prospective relationships between BMI and behaviors were examined with regression analyses controlling for age and education. Results At baseline, hamburger and beef consumption were associated with higher BMI for men; for women, hamburger, fried chicken, hot dog, bacon or sausage, egg, French fry, and overall fat consumption were associated with higher BMI, while eating high fiber cereal, fruit, and overall fiber intake were associated with lower BMI. Virtually all forms of weight control behavior were reported more often in heavier people. Subscribing to exercise magazines, however, was associated with lower BMI. Decreased fat intake and increased fruit/vegetable/fiber intake over the course of the study were associated with reductions in BMI at 24 months. Conclusion The same behaviors that differentiate individuals with different body weight in the general population also differentiate between individuals of different body weights at the high end of the weight distribution. Educational efforts aimed at preventing weight gain and reducing obesity might benefit from focusing on specific foods known to be associated empirically with body weight and weight change over time.

  7. Crosstalk between gastrointestinal neurons and the brain in the control of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithieux, Gilles

    2014-10-01

    Recent data have emphasized that the gastrointestinal nervous system is preponderant in the sensing of nutrients and hormones and its translation in terms of control of food intake by the central nervous system. More specifically, the gastrointestinal neural system participates in the control of hunger via the sensing of at least two major macronutrients, e.g. glucose and protein, which may control hunger sensations from the portal vein. Protein are first sensed by mu-opioid receptors present in the portal vein walls to induce intestinal gluconeogenesis-via a reflex arc and next portal glucose sensing. The gastrointestinal nervous system may also account for the rapid benefits of gastric bypass surgeries on energy homeostasis (hunger and body weight) and glucose homeostasis (insulin sensitivity). This knowledge provides novel mechanisms of control of body weight, which might be useful to envision future approaches of prevention or treatment of obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relative validation of a food frequency questionnaire to estimate food intake in an adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinemann, Nina; Grize, Leticia; Ziesemer, Katrin; Kauf, Peter; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Brombach, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Background : Scientifically valid descriptions of dietary intake at population level are crucial for investigating diet effects on health and disease. Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are the most common dietary tools used in large epidemiological studies. Objective : To examine the relative validity of a newly developed FFQ to be used as dietary assessment tool in epidemiological studies. Design : Validity was evaluated by comparing the FFQ and a 4-day weighed food record (4-d FR) at nutrient and food group levels, Spearman's correlations, Bland-Altman analysis and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used. Fifty-six participants completed a paper format FFQ and a 4-d FR within 4 weeks. Results : Corrected correlations between the two instruments ranged from 0.27 (carbohydrates) to 0.55 (protein), and at food group level from 0.09 (soup) to 0.92 (alcohol). Nine out of 25 food groups showed correlations > 0.5, indicating moderate validity. More than half the food groups were overestimated in the FFQ, especially vegetables (82.8%) and fruits (56.3%). Water, tea and coffee were underestimated (-14.0%). Conclusions : The FFQ showed moderate relative validity for protein and the food groups fruits, egg, meat, sausage, nuts, salty snacks and beverages. This study supports the use of the FFQ as an acceptable tool for assessing nutrition as a health determinant in large epidemiological studies.

  9. A photographic method to measure food item intake. Validation in geriatric institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouyet, Virginie; Cuvelier, Gérard; Benattar, Linda; Giboreau, Agnès

    2015-01-01

    From both a clinical and research perspective, measuring food intake is an important issue in geriatric institutions. However, weighing food in this context can be complex, particularly when the items remaining on a plate (side dish, meat or fish and sauce) need to be weighed separately following consumption. A method based on photography that involves taking photographs after a meal to determine food intake consequently seems to be a good alternative. This method enables the storage of raw data so that unhurried analyses can be performed to distinguish the food items present in the images. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to validate a photographic method to measure food intake in terms of differentiating food item intake in the context of a geriatric institution. Sixty-six elderly residents took part in this study, which was performed in four French nursing homes. Four dishes of standardized portions were offered to the residents during 16 different lunchtimes. Three non-trained assessors then independently estimated both the total and specific food item intakes of the participants using images of their plates taken after the meal (photographic method) and a reference image of one plate taken before the meal. Total food intakes were also recorded by weighing the food. To test the reliability of the photographic method, agreements between different assessors and agreements among various estimates made by the same assessor were evaluated. To test the accuracy and specificity of this method, food intake estimates for the four dishes were compared with the food intakes determined using the weighed food method. To illustrate the added value of the photographic method, food consumption differences between the dishes were explained by investigating the intakes of specific food items. Although they were not specifically trained for this purpose, the results demonstrated that the assessor estimates agreed between assessors and among various estimates made by the same

  10. Improving children's dairy food and calcium intake: can intervention work? A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Gilly A; Brindal, Emily; Baird, Danielle; Gardner, Claire

    2013-02-01

    Strategies are needed to address the shortfall in children's dairy food and Ca intakes. The present review identified interventions targeting an increase in children's dairy food or Ca intakes, and determined characteristics associated with successful intervention. A systematic literature search identified fourteen intervention studies, published in English, between 1990 and 2010. Studies were evaluated for study population, setting and mode of delivery, dietary targets and outcome measures, measures of intervention intensity, intervention description, the use of behaviour change techniques and intervention effectiveness. Interventions targeting an increase in dairy food or Ca intake. Children aged 5-12 years. Ten of the fourteen studies were considered to be effective. Studies focusing on encouraging intake of dairy foods or Ca alone were all effective, compared with 55 % of studies promoting dairy within the context of a healthy diet. Effective interventions tended to be higher in intensity, provide dairy foods and were delivered across a variety of settings to a range of primary targets. The number of behaviour change techniques used did not differentiate effective and ineffective interventions, but the use of taste exposure and prompting practice appeared to be important for effective intervention. Interventions that target an increase in children's dairy food or Ca intake could potentially increase children's dairy food intake by about one serving daily. Research conducted outside the USA is needed. The review has identified some promising strategies likely to be part of effective interventions for improving dairy and Ca intakes in countries where children's intake is insufficient.

  11. Adult Food Intake Patterns Are Related to Adult and Childhood Socioeconomic Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Togo, Per; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the influence of adult and childhood socioeconomic status (SES) on attained adult food intake patterns. We used data from a 20- to 22-y follow-up study of 1904 Danish teenagers. The baseline survey was conducted partly in 1983 and partly in 1985 and the follow-up survey...... adult SES had higher green food pattern factor scores than those with low adult SES, regardless of childhood SES. In conclusion, socioeconomic position is important for the development of adult food intake patterns. However, childhood SES seems more important for adult female food intake patterns...

  12. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie Taguchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols’ health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%. The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183–4854 mg/day, also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2% and green tea (26.6% were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake.

  13. Feed intake, live mass-gain, body composition and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriate regression relationships were used to measure the effect of dietary protein level on the patterns of DE intake, daily gain and the deposition rates of protein (PDR) and fat (FDR) over the growth period 30-90 kg live mass. Dietary CP content had no significant effect on mean voluntary DE intakes and daily gains.

  14. Effects of daytime food intake on memory consolidation during sleep or sleep deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Herzog

    Full Text Available Sleep enhances memory consolidation. Bearing in mind that food intake produces many metabolic signals that can influence memory processing in humans (e.g., insulin, the present study addressed the question as to whether the enhancing effect of sleep on memory consolidation is affected by the amount of energy consumed during the preceding daytime. Compared to sleep, nocturnal wakefulness has been shown to impair memory consolidation in humans. Thus, a second question was to examine whether the impaired memory consolidation associated with sleep deprivation (SD could be compensated by increased daytime energy consumption. To these aims, 14 healthy normal-weight men learned a finger tapping sequence (procedural memory and a list of semantically associated word pairs (declarative memory. After the learning period, standardized meals were administered, equaling either ∼50% or ∼150% of the estimated daily energy expenditure. In the morning, after sleep or wakefulness, memory consolidation was tested. Plasma glucose was measured both before learning and retrieval. Polysomnographic sleep recordings were performed by electroencephalography (EEG. Independent of energy intake, subjects recalled significantly more word pairs after sleep than they did after SD. When subjects stayed awake and received an energy oversupply, the number of correctly recalled finger sequences was equal to those seen after sleep. Plasma glucose did not differ among conditions, and sleep time in the sleep conditions was not influenced by the energy intake interventions. These data indicate that the daytime energy intake level affects neither sleep's capacity to boost the consolidation of declarative and procedural memories, nor sleep's quality. However, high energy intake was followed by an improved procedural but not declarative memory consolidation under conditions of SD. This suggests that the formation of procedural memory is not only triggered by sleep but is also

  15. Effects of daytime food intake on memory consolidation during sleep or sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Nina; Friedrich, Alexia; Fujita, Naoko; Gais, Steffen; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Oltmanns, Kerstin M; Benedict, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sleep enhances memory consolidation. Bearing in mind that food intake produces many metabolic signals that can influence memory processing in humans (e.g., insulin), the present study addressed the question as to whether the enhancing effect of sleep on memory consolidation is affected by the amount of energy consumed during the preceding daytime. Compared to sleep, nocturnal wakefulness has been shown to impair memory consolidation in humans. Thus, a second question was to examine whether the impaired memory consolidation associated with sleep deprivation (SD) could be compensated by increased daytime energy consumption. To these aims, 14 healthy normal-weight men learned a finger tapping sequence (procedural memory) and a list of semantically associated word pairs (declarative memory). After the learning period, standardized meals were administered, equaling either ∼50% or ∼150% of the estimated daily energy expenditure. In the morning, after sleep or wakefulness, memory consolidation was tested. Plasma glucose was measured both before learning and retrieval. Polysomnographic sleep recordings were performed by electroencephalography (EEG). Independent of energy intake, subjects recalled significantly more word pairs after sleep than they did after SD. When subjects stayed awake and received an energy oversupply, the number of correctly recalled finger sequences was equal to those seen after sleep. Plasma glucose did not differ among conditions, and sleep time in the sleep conditions was not influenced by the energy intake interventions. These data indicate that the daytime energy intake level affects neither sleep's capacity to boost the consolidation of declarative and procedural memories, nor sleep's quality. However, high energy intake was followed by an improved procedural but not declarative memory consolidation under conditions of SD. This suggests that the formation of procedural memory is not only triggered by sleep but is also sensitive to the

  16. Protein and lipid accretion in body components of growing pigs : effects of body weight and nutrient intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, P.

    1994-01-01

    In pig production, optimization of the conversion of animal feeding-stuffs into body components, especially lean meat, requires knowledge of the response relationships between nutrient intake and animal performance. In this study, the separate effects of protein and energy intake on rate

  17. Evaluation for committed effective dose due to dietary foods by the intake for Japanese adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Explained are the internal exposure (IE) in Japanese adults due to the ordinary intake of food and the committed effective dose (CED) derived from it, which can be the basic reference data for estimating CED at emergency like the recent Fukushima Disaster. IE lasts as long as radioactive substances exist in the body and its health risk is assessed throughout the lifetime, 50 years in adult and in children until their age of 70 years, by CED based on consideration of the physical and biological halftimes of radionuclides involved. CED (mSv) is calculated by an equation given in International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Pub. 72, using radioactivity level (Bq/kg), intake (kg/y) and age-dependent dose coefficient (mSv/Bq). Japan MEXT in its homepage (http://www.kankyo-hoshano.go.jp/) publishes the states of environmental radioactivity levels including those of daily Japanese food. The food survey of yearly changes of radioactivity level (Bq/man/day) indicates that, when compared with the level in 2009, it is two times higher in 1970s due to old in-atmospheric nuclear experiments, and is decreased gradually with a temporary peak around 1986 by Chernobyl accident. Studies on certain natural and artificial radioisotopes in 240 kinds of current food in 1989-2005 reveal that Po-210 level in fishes and shellfishes is particularly higher than others like St-90, Cs-137, Rd-226, Pb-210 and so on. CED in adults is calculated from yearly intake of foods (kg/y), their radioactivity (Bq/y) and the coefficient above, to be 0.80 mSv, and 0.98 mSv when the contribution of K-40 is taken in calculation. The proportion of the contribution in the latter estimated CED accounts for 74% (0.73 mSv) by Po-210 and for 18% (0.18 mSv) by K-40, which is conceivably derived from intake of more seafood by Japanese than other people in the world (average 0.070 and 0.17 mSv, respectively). (T.T.)

  18. Children's Executive Function and High-Calorie, Low-Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Design: One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Setting. Southern California…

  19. Pattern of intake of food additives associated with hyperactivity in Irish children and teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, A; Hearty, A; Nugent, A; McKevitt, A; Boylan, E; Flynn, A; Gibney, M J

    2010-04-01

    A double-blind randomized intervention study has previously shown that a significant relationship exists between the consumption of various mixes of seven target additives by children and the onset of hyperactive behaviour. The present study set out to ascertain the pattern of intake of two mixes (A and B) of these seven target additives in Irish children and teenagers using the Irish national food consumption databases for children (n = 594) and teenagers (n = 441) and the National Food Ingredient Database. The majority of additive-containing foods consumed by both the children and teenagers contained one of the target additives. No food consumed by either the children or teenagers contained all seven of the target food additives. For each additive intake, estimates for every individual were made assuming that the additive was present at the maximum legal permitted level in those foods identified as containing it. For both groups, mean intakes of the food additives among consumers only were far below the doses used in the previous study on hyperactivity. Intakes at the 97.5th percentile of all food colours fell below the doses used in Mix B, while intakes for four of the six food colours were also below the doses used in Mix A. However, in the case of the preservative sodium benzoate, it exceeded the previously used dose in both children and teenagers. No child or teenager achieved the overall intakes used in the study