WorldWideScience

Sample records for food industry waste

  1. Conversion of food industrial wastes into bioplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, P H; Chua, H; Huang, A L; Lo, W; Chen, G Q

    1998-01-01

    The usage of plastics in packaging and disposable products, and the generation of plastic waste, have been increasing drastically. Broader usage of biodegradable plastics in packaging and disposable products as a solution to environmental problems would heavily depend on further reduction of costs and the discovery of novel biodegradable plastics with improved properties. In the authors' laboratories, various carbohydrates in the growth media, including sucrose, lactic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, and various combinations of butyric and valeric acids, were utilized as the carbon (c) sources for the production of bioplastics by Alcaligenes eutrophus. As the first step in pursuit of eventual usage of industrial food wastewater as nutrients for microorganisms to synthesize bioplastics, the authors investigated the usage of malt wastes from a beer brewery plant as the C sources for the production of bioplastics by microorganisms. Specific polymer production yield by A. Latus DSM 1124 increased to 70% polymer/cell (g/g) and 32 g/L cell dry wt, using malt wastes as the C source. The results of these experiments indicated that, with the use of different types of food wastes as the C source, different polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymers could be produced with distinct polymer properties.

  2. Exergetic comparison of food waste valorization in industrial bread production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisopoulos, F.K.; Moejes, S.N.; Rossier Miranda, F.J.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the thermodynamic performance of three industrial bread production chains: one that generates food waste, one that avoids food waste generation, and one that reworks food waste to produce new bread. The chemical exergy flows were found to be much larger than the physical exergy

  3. Challenges in packaging waste management in the fast food industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarnio, Teija [Digita Oy, P.O. Box 135, FI-00521 Helsinki (Finland); Haemaelaeinen, Anne [Department of Energy and Environmental Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FI-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2008-02-15

    The recovery of solid waste is required by waste legislation, and also by the public. In some industries, however, waste is mostly disposed of in landfills despite of its high recoverability. Practical experiences show that the fast food industry is one example of these industries. A majority of the solid waste generated in the fast food industry is packaging waste, which is highly recoverable. The main research problem of this study was to find out the means of promoting the recovery of packaging waste generated in the fast food industry. Additionally, the goal of this article was to widen academic understanding on packaging waste management in the fast food industry, as the subject has not gained large academic interest previously. The study showed that the theoretical recovery rate of packaging waste in the fast food industry is high, 93% of the total annual amount, while the actual recovery rate is only 29% of the total annual amount. The total recovery potential of packaging waste is 64% of the total annual amount. The achievable recovery potential, 33% of the total annual amount, could be recovered, but is not mainly because of non-working waste management practices. The theoretical recovery potential of 31% of the total annual amount of packaging waste cannot be recovered by the existing solid waste infrastructure because of the obscure status of commercial waste, the improper operation of producer organisations, and the municipal autonomy. The research indicated that it is possible to reach the achievable recovery potential in the existing solid waste infrastructure through new waste management practices, which are designed and operated according to waste producers' needs and demands. The theoretical recovery potential can be reached by increasing the consistency of the solid waste infrastructure through governmental action. (author)

  4. Exploitation of Food Industry Waste for High-Value Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    A growing global population leads to an increasing demand for food production and the processing industry associated with it and consequently the generation of large amounts of food waste. This problem is intensified due to slow progress in the development of effective waste management strategies and measures for the proper treatment and disposal of waste. Food waste is a reservoir of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nutraceuticals and can form the raw materials for commercially important metabolites. The current legislation on food waste treatment prioritises the prevention of waste generation and least emphasises disposal. Recent valorisation studies for food supply chain waste opens avenues to the production of biofuels, enzymes, bioactive compounds, biodegradable plastics, and nanoparticles among many other molecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analytical methods for waste minimisation in the convenience food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, R; Staikos, T; Rahimifard, S

    2009-04-01

    Waste creation in some sectors of the food industry is substantial, and while much of the used material is non-hazardous and biodegradable, it is often poorly dealt with and simply sent to landfill mixed with other types of waste. In this context, overproduction wastes were found in a number of cases to account for 20-40% of the material wastes generated by convenience food manufacturers (such as ready-meals and sandwiches), often simply just to meet the challenging demands placed on the manufacturer due to the short order reaction time provided by the supermarkets. Identifying specific classes of waste helps to minimise their creation, through consideration of what the materials constitute and why they were generated. This paper aims to provide means by which food industry wastes can be identified, and demonstrate these mechanisms through a practical example. The research reported in this paper investigated the various categories of waste and generated three analytical methods for the support of waste minimisation activities by food manufacturers. The waste classifications and analyses are intended to complement existing waste minimisation approaches and are described through consideration of a case study convenience food manufacturer that realised significant financial savings through waste measurement, analysis and reduction.

  6. Food waste generation and industrial uses: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Francesca; Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2015-11-01

    Food waste is made up of materials intended for human consumption that are subsequently discharged, lost, degraded or contaminated. The problem of food waste is currently on an increase, involving all sectors of waste management from collection to disposal; the identifying of sustainable solutions extends to all contributors to the food supply chains, agricultural and industrial sectors, as well as retailers and final consumers. A series of solutions may be implemented in the appropriate management of food waste, and prioritised in a similar way to waste management hierarchy. The most sought-after solutions are represented by avoidance and donation of edible fractions to social services. Food waste is also employed in industrial processes for the production of biofuels or biopolymers. Further steps foresee the recovery of nutrients and fixation of carbon by composting. Final and less desirable options are incineration and landfilling. A considerable amount of research has been carried out on food waste with a view to the recovery of energy or related products. The present review aims to provide an overview of current debate on food waste definitions, generation and reduction strategies, and conversion technologies emerging from the biorefinery concept. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exergetic comparison of food waste valorization in industrial bread production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Moejes, Sanne N.; Rossier-Miranda, Francisco J.; Goot, Atze Jan van der; Boom, Remko M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the thermodynamic performance of three industrial bread production chains: one that generates food waste, one that avoids food waste generation, and one that reworks food waste to produce new bread. The chemical exergy flows were found to be much larger than the physical exergy consumed in all the industrial bread chains studied. The par-baked brown bun production chain had the best thermodynamic performance because of the highest rational exergetic efficiency (71.2%), the lowest specific exergy losses (5.4 MJ/kg brown bun), and the almost lowest cumulative exergy losses (4768 MJ/1000 kg of dough processed). However, recycling of bread waste is also exergetically efficient when the total fermented surplus is utilizable. Clearly, preventing material losses (i.e. utilizing raw materials maximally) improves the exergetic efficiency of industrial bread chains. In addition, most of the physical (non-material related) exergy losses occurred at the baking, cooling and freezing steps. Consequently, any additional improvement in industrial bread production should focus on the design of thermodynamically efficient baking and cooling processes, and on the use of technologies throughout the chain that consume the lowest possible physical exergy. - Highlights: • Preventing material losses is the best way to enhance the exergetic efficiency. • Most of the physical exergy losses occur at the baking, cooling and freezing steps. • Par-baking “saves” chemical exergy but consumes an equal amount of physical exergy

  8. Use of food waste, fish waste and food processing waste for China's aquaculture industry: Needs and challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Wing Yin; Man, Yu Bon; Wong, Ming Hung

    2018-02-01

    China's aquaculture industry is growing dramatically in recent years and now accounts for 60.5% of global aquaculture production. Fish protein is expected to play an important role in China's food security. Formulated feed has become the main diet of farmed fish. The species farmed have been diversified, and a large amount of 'trash fish' is directly used as feed or is processed into fishmeal for fish feed. The use of locally available food waste as an alternative protein source for producing fish feed has been suggested as a means of tackling the problem of sourcing safe and sustainable feed. This paper reviews the feasibility of using locally available waste materials, including fish waste, okara and food waste. Although the fishmeal derived from fish waste, okara or food waste is less nutritious than fishmeal from whole fish or soybean meal, most fish species farmed in China, such as tilapia and various Chinese carp, grow well on diets with minimal amounts of fishmeal and 40% digestible carbohydrate. It can be concluded that food waste is suitable as a component of the diet of farmed fish. However, it will be necessary to revise regulations on feed and feed ingredients to facilitate the use of food waste in the manufacture of fish feed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Conversion of industrial food wastes by Alcaligenes latus into polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, P H; Chua, H; Huang, A L; Ho, K P

    1999-01-01

    Broader usage of biodegradable plastics in packaging and disposable products as a solution to environmental problems would heavily depend on further reduction of costs and the discovery of novel biodegradable plastics with improved properties. As the first step in our pursuit of eventual usage of industrial food wastewater as nutrients for microorganisms to synthesise environmental-friendly bioplastics, we investigated the usage of soya wastes from a soya milk dairy, and malt wastes from a beer brewery plant as the carbon sources for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by selected strain of microorganism. Bench experiments showed that Alcaligenes latus DSM 1124 used the nutrients from malt and soya wastes to biosynthesise PHAs. The final dried cell mass and specific polymer production of A. latus DSM 1124 were 32g/L and 70% polymer/cells (g/g), 18.42 g/L and 32.57% polymer/cell (g/g), and 28 g/L and 36% polymer/cells (g/g), from malt waste, soya waste, and from sucrose, respectively. These results suggest that many types of food wastes might be used as the carbon source for the production of PHA.

  10. Optimum Resource Allocation and Eliminating Waste Inside Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandru Nagarajan Sathiyabama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to allocate optimum resources for wrapping section and suggesting a suitable method that need to be in place for successful elimination of waste inside the food industry wrapping section. It also includes identifying the main reasons for various types of wastages inside wrapping section and cost of all the wastages. The paper is based on the observation and research using the approach of lean tools and techniques. The methodology used for evaluating data is value stream mapping and some statistical SPSS tools for analysis. Data’s are real and are gathered from three different production shifts inside a food industry wrapping section. The main reasons for wastages inside the wrapping section are highlighted. Finally, the paper was concluded by estimating total cost of wastages and recommended suitable way to save the wastage costs. The need of change of jaws inside the wrapping machines, regular maintenance of all machines throughout the industry and training the personnel are recommended. The possible methods along with its benefits to reduce waste, operators, improve productivity and business growth was also highlighted.

  11. Deep Eutectic Solvents pretreatment of agro-industrial food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procentese, Alessandra; Raganati, Francesca; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Russo, Maria Elena; Rehmann, Lars; Marzocchella, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Waste biomass from agro-food industries are a reliable and readily exploitable resource. From the circular economy point of view, direct residues from these industries exploited for production of fuel/chemicals is a winning issue, because it reduces the environmental/cost impact and improves the eco-sustainability of productions. The present paper reports recent results of deep eutectic solvent (DES) pretreatment on a selected group of the agro-industrial food wastes (AFWs) produced in Europe. In particular, apple residues, potato peels, coffee silverskin, and brewer's spent grains were pretreated with two DESs, (choline chloride-glycerol and choline chloride-ethylene glycol) for fermentable sugar production. Pretreated biomass was enzymatic digested by commercial enzymes to produce fermentable sugars. Operating conditions of the DES pretreatment were changed in wide intervals. The solid to solvent ratio ranged between 1:8 and 1:32, and the temperature between 60 and 150 °C. The DES reaction time was set at 3 h. Optimal operating conditions were: 3 h pretreatment with choline chloride-glycerol at 1:16 biomass to solvent ratio and 115 °C. Moreover, to assess the expected European amount of fermentable sugars from the investigated AFWs, a market analysis was carried out. The overall sugar production was about 217 kt yr -1 , whose main fraction was from the hydrolysis of BSGs pretreated with choline chloride-glycerol DES at the optimal conditions. The reported results boost deep investigation on lignocellulosic biomass using DES. This investigated new class of solvents is easy to prepare, biodegradable and cheaper than ionic liquid. Moreover, they reported good results in terms of sugars' release at mild operating conditions (time, temperature and pressure).

  12. Food waste in the Swiss food service industry - Magnitude and potential for reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Alexandra; Buchli, Jürg; Göbel, Christine; Müller, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Food losses occur across the whole food supply chain. They have negative effects on the economy and the environment, and they are not justifiable from an ethical point of view. The food service industry was identified by Beretta et al. (2013) as the third largest source of food waste based on food input at each stage of the value added chain. The total losses are estimated 18% of the food input, the avoidable losses 13.5%. However, these estimations are related with considerable uncertainty. To get more reliable and detailed data of food losses in this sector, the waste from two companies (in the education and business sectors) was classified into four categories (storage losses, preparation losses, serving losses, and plate waste) and seven food classes and measured for a period of five days. A questionnaire evaluated customer reaction, and a material flow analysis was used to describe the mass and monetary losses within the process chain. The study found that in company A (education sector) 10.73% and in company B (business sector) 7.69% of the mass of all food delivered was wasted during the process chain. From this, 91.98% of the waste in company A and 78.14% in company B were classified as avoidable. The highest proportion of waste occurred from serving losses with starch accompaniments and vegetables being the most frequently wasted items. The quantities of waste per meal were 91.23 g (value CHF 0.74) and 85.86 g (value CHF 0.44) for company A and company B, respectively. The annual loss averaged 10.47 tonnes (value CHF 85,047) in company A and 16.55 tonnes (value CHF 85,169) in company B. The customer survey showed that 15.79% (n=356) of the respondents in company A and 18.32% (n=382) in company B produced plate waste. The main causes of plate waste cited were 'portion served by staff too large' and 'lack of hunger'. Sustainable measures need to be implemented in the food service industry to reduce food waste and to improve efficiency. Copyright © 2014

  13. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnar, F.; Lunberg, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    A study to assess the potential for waste heat recovery in the food industry and to evaluate prospective waste heat recovery system concepts employing thermal energy storage was conducted. The study found that the recovery of waste heat in canning facilities can be performed in significant quantities using systems involving thermal energy storage that are both practical and economical. A demonstration project is proposed to determine actual waste heat recovery costs and benefits and to encourage system implementation by the food industry.

  14. Waste Management, Treatment, and Disposal for the Food Processing Industry. Special Circular 113.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This publication contains information relating to waste prevention, treatment and disposal, and waste product utilization. Its primary purpose is to provide information that will help the food industry executive recognize waste problems and make wise management decisions. The discussion of the methods, techniques, and the state-of-the-art is…

  15. Potentialities of biotechnology for the reduction and utilization for energy purposes of wastes generated by food industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-10-19

    The study dealt with the present trends in biotechnology related to the methods for the reduction and utilization, for energy purposes, of wastes generated by food industry and to the methods for controlling the emission of pollutants from industrial plants with emphasis on meat industry, dairy industry, food-packing trade, sugar industry, vinification, fatty foods, fish meal, beverage industry.

  16. Low-temperature waste-heat recovery in the food and paper industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foell, W.K.; Lund, D.; Mitchell, J.W.; Ray, D.; Stevenson, R.; TenWolde, A.

    1980-11-01

    The potential of low-temperature waste-heat recovery technology is examined. An examination of barriers to impede waste-heat recovery is made and research programs are identified. Extensive information and data are presented in the following chapters: Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Food Industry; Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Pulp and Paper Industry; Industries' Economic Analysis of Energy Conservation Projects; Industrial Waste Heat Recovery (selection of heat-recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, simplified procedure for selection of heat recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, selection of heat pumps for industrial applications); Institutional Aspects of Industrial Energy Conservation (economic motivation for energy conservation and the industrial response, intrafirm idea channels and their sources, evaluation and approval of plant improvement projects, reported barriers to adopting waste heat recovery projects and recommendations for government involvement, and the final chapter is a summary with major conclusions given. Additional information is given in two appendices on the potential waste heat recovery in a cheese plant (calculation) and conditions for optimum exchanger size and break-even fuel cost. (MCW)

  17. Food-Processing Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Val S; Cummings, Gregg A; Maillacheruvu, K Y; Tang, Walter Z

    2017-10-01

    Literature published in 2016 and early 2017 related to food processing wastes treatment for industrial applications are reviewed. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following food processing industries and applications: general, meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, dairy and beverage, and miscellaneous treatment of food wastes.

  18. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...... of the system industry has to inform at the planning stage and afterwards in yearly reports on their waste arising and how the waste is managed. If available such information is very helpful in obtaining information about that specific industry. However, in many countries there is very little information...

  19. APPLICATIONS OF THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE TO WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN THE FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, W. L.; Christenson, James A.

    1979-07-31

    A project is discussed in which the possibilities for economical waste heat recovery and utilization in the food industry were examined. Waste heat availability and applications surveys were performed at two manufacturing plants engaged in low temperature (freezing) and high temperature (cooking, sterilizing, etc.) food processing. The surveys indicate usable waste heat is available in significant quantities which could be applied to existing, on-site energy demands resulting in sizable reductions in factory fuel and energy usage. At the high temperature plant, the energy demands involve the heating of fresh water for boiler make-up, for the food processes and for the daily clean-up operation. Clean-up poses an opportunity for thermal energy storage since waste heat is produced during the one or two production shifts of each working day while the major clean-up effort does not occur until food production ends. At the frozen food facility, the clean-up water application again exists and, in addition, refrigeration waste heat could also be applied to warm the soil beneath the ground floor freezer space. Systems to recover and apply waste heat in these situations were developed conceptually and thermal/economic performance predictions were obtained. The results of those studies indicate the economics of waste heat recovery can be attractive for facilities with high energy demand levels. Small factories, however, with relatively low energy demands may find the economics marginal although, percentagewise, the fuel and energy savings are appreciable.

  20. Assessment of Food Processing and Pharmaceutical Industrial Wastes as Potential Biosorbents: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sayed, Hanan E. M.; El-Sayed, Mayyada M. H.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for the use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents in water/wastewater treatment applications. Conventional adsorbents as well as biosorbents from different natural and agricultural sources have been extensively studied and reviewed. However, there is a lack of reviews on biosorption utilizing industrial wastes, particularly those of food processing and pharmaceuticals. The current review evaluates the potential of these wastes as biosorbents for the removal of some ha...

  1. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebilcox, G. J.; Lundberg, W. L.

    1981-03-01

    The canning segment of the food processing industry is a major energy user within that industry. Most of its energy demand is met by hot water and steam and those fluids, in addition to product cooling water, eventually flow from the processes as warm waste water. To minimize the possibility of product contamination, a large percentage of that waste water is sent directly to factory drains and sewer systems without being recycled and in many cases the thermal energy contained by the waste streams also goes unreclaimed and is lost from further use. Waste heat recovery in canning facilities can be performed economically using systems that employ thermal energy storage (TES). A project was proposed in which a demonstration waste heat recovery system, including a TES feature, would be designed, installed and operated.

  2. Biodiesel production using fatty acids from food industry waste using corona discharge plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, A L V; Machado, M M; Pinto, C R S C; Moecke, E H S; Dutra, A R A

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to describe an alternative and innovative methodology to transform waste, frying oil in a potential energy source, the biodiesel. The biodiesel was produced from fatty acids, using a waste product of the food industry as the raw material. The methodology to be described is the corona discharge plasma technology, which offers advantages such as acceleration of the esterification reaction, easy separation of the biodiesel and the elimination of waste generation. The best conditions were found to be an oil/methanol molar ratio of 6:1, ambient temperature (25 °C) and reaction time of 110 min and 30 mL of sample. The acid value indicates the content of free fatty acids in the biodiesel and the value obtained in this study was 0.43 mg KOH/g. Peaks corresponding to octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecenoic acid methyl ester, from the biodiesel composition, were identified using GC-MS. A major advantage of this process is that the methyl ester can be obtained in the absence of chemical catalysts and without the formation of the co-product (glycerin). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Recovery of Bio-Oil from Industrial Food Waste by Liquefied Dimethyl Ether for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Sakuragi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of new energy sources has become particularly important from the perspective of energy security and environmental protection. Therefore, the utilization of waste resources such as industrial food wastes (IFWs in energy production is expected. The central research institute of electric power industry (CRIEPI, Tokyo, Japan has recently developed an energy-saving oil-extraction technique involving the use of liquefied dimethyl ether (DME, which is an environmentally friendly solvent. In this study, three common IFWs (spent coffee grounds, soybean, and rapeseed cakes were evaluated with respect to oil yield for biodiesel fuel (BDF production by the DME extraction method. The coffee grounds were found to contain 16.8% bio-oil, whereas the soybean and rapeseed cakes contained only approximately 0.97% and 2.6% bio-oil, respectively. The recovered oils were qualitatively analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The properties of fatty acid methyl esters derived from coffee oil, such as kinematic viscosity, pour point, and higher heating value (HHV, were also determined. Coffee grounds had the highest oil content and could be used as biofuel. In addition, the robust oil extraction capability of DME indicates that it may be a favourable alternative to conventional oil extraction solvents.

  4. Quantitative Characterization of Aqueous Byproducts from Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Municipal Wastes, Food Industry Wastes, and Biomass Grown on Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddi, Balakrishna; Panisko, Ellen; Wietsma, Thomas; Lemmon, Teresa; Swita, Marie; Albrecht, Karl; Howe, Daniel

    2017-01-27

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a viable thermochemical process for converting wet solid wastes into biocrude which can be hydroprocessed to liquid transportation fuel blendstocks and specialty chemicals. The aqueous byproduct from HTL contains significant amounts (20 to 50%) of the feed carbon, which must be used to enhance economic sustainability of the process on an industrial scale. In this study, aqueous fractions produced from HTL of industrial and municipal waste were characterized using a wide variety of analytical approaches. Organic chemical compounds present in these aqueous fractions were identified using two-dimensional gas chromatography equipped with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Identified compounds include organic acids, nitrogen compounds, alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. Conventional gas chromatography and liquid chromatography methods were employed to quantify the identified compounds. Inorganic species, in the aqueous stream of hydrothermal liquefaction of these aqueous byproducts, also were quantified using ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The concentrations of organic chemical compounds and inorganic species are reported, and the significance of these results is discussed in detail.

  5. Enzymes and microorganisms in food industry waste processing and conversion to useful products: literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroad, P A [Univ. of California, Davis; Wilke, C R

    1978-01-01

    Bioconversion of food processing wastes is receiving increased attention with the realization that waste components represent an available and utilizable resource for conversion to useful products. Liquid wastes are characterized as dilute streams containing sugars, starches, proteins and fats. Solid wastes are generally cellulosic, but may contain other polymers. The greatest potential for economic bioconversion is represented by processes to convert cellulose to glucose, glucose to alcohol and protein, starch to invert sugar, and dilute waste streams to methane by anaerobic digestion. Microbial or enzymatic processes to accomplish these conversions are described.

  6. Potential for energy conservation in the food and beverage industries through anaerobic digestion of wastes to methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The Canadian food and beverage industry is the fourth largest consumer of energy among manufacturers. An area of energy use which has received little attention in the past is that of waste treatment. Conventional aerobic treatment systems tend to be energy-intensive, unlike new high-rate anaerobic processes which often have better balances because they produce recoverable methane that can be used for fuel. For these reasons, anaerobic systems may be attractive to food and beverage industries seeking an economical means of waste treatment. A number of factors will determine whether anaerobic treatment is a feasible option for a given plant. Chief among these are waste strength, waste temperature, waste flow rate, consistent production of waste, and need for and cost of treatment. This study attempted to determine for what proportion of Canadian food and beverage companies anaerobic treatment is likely to be a feasible option in the near to middle term. It was found that the general plant effluents of several industries appear in many cases to be economically treatable by anaerobic processes, and practical considerations involved in methane end-use were briefly considered. A number of barriers to the application of anaerobic technology were revealed, including high capital costs, the dilution of high strength effluents, misconception about anaerobic processes, ignorance of the state of the art and the ambiguities in regulations and standards concerning biogas. 108 refs., 22 figs., 45 tabs.

  7. Assessment of Food Processing and Pharmaceutical Industrial Wastes as Potential Biosorbents: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Hanan E. M.; El-Sayed, Mayyada M. H.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for the use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents in water/wastewater treatment applications. Conventional adsorbents as well as biosorbents from different natural and agricultural sources have been extensively studied and reviewed. However, there is a lack of reviews on biosorption utilizing industrial wastes, particularly those of food processing and pharmaceuticals. The current review evaluates the potential of these wastes as biosorbents for the removal of some hazardous contaminants. Sources and applications of these biosorbents are presented, while factors affecting biosorption are discussed. Equilibrium, kinetics, and mechanisms of biosorption are also reviewed. In spite of the wide spread application of these biosorbents in the treatment of heavy metals and dyes, more research is required on other classes of pollutants. In addition, further work should be dedicated to studying scaling up of the process and its economic feasibility. More attention should also be given to enhancing mechanical strength, stability, life time, and reproducibility of the biosorbent. Environmental concerns regarding disposal of consumed biosorbents should be addressed by offering feasible biosorbent regeneration or pollutant immobilization options. PMID:25110656

  8. Assessment of food processing and pharmaceutical industrial wastes as potential biosorbents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Hanan E M; El-Sayed, Mayyada M H

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for the use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents in water/wastewater treatment applications. Conventional adsorbents as well as biosorbents from different natural and agricultural sources have been extensively studied and reviewed. However, there is a lack of reviews on biosorption utilizing industrial wastes, particularly those of food processing and pharmaceuticals. The current review evaluates the potential of these wastes as biosorbents for the removal of some hazardous contaminants. Sources and applications of these biosorbents are presented, while factors affecting biosorption are discussed. Equilibrium, kinetics, and mechanisms of biosorption are also reviewed. In spite of the wide spread application of these biosorbents in the treatment of heavy metals and dyes, more research is required on other classes of pollutants. In addition, further work should be dedicated to studying scaling up of the process and its economic feasibility. More attention should also be given to enhancing mechanical strength, stability, life time, and reproducibility of the biosorbent. Environmental concerns regarding disposal of consumed biosorbents should be addressed by offering feasible biosorbent regeneration or pollutant immobilization options.

  9. A comprehensive review on pre-treatment strategy for lignocellulosic food industry waste: Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulose is a generic term used to describe plant biomass. It is the most abundant renewable carbon resource in the world and is mainly composed of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses. Most of the food and food processing industry waste are lignocellulosic in nature with a global estimate of up to 1.3 billion tons/year. Lignocellulose, on hydrolysis, releases reducing sugars which is used for the production of bioethanol, biogas, organic acids, enzymes and biosorbents. However, structural conformation, high lignin content and crystalline cellulose hinder its use for value addition. Pre-treatment strategies facilitate the exposure of more cellulose and hemicelluloses for enzymatic hydrolysis. The present article confers about the structure of lignocellulose and how it influences enzymatic degradation emphasising the need for pre-treatments along with a comprehensive analysis and categorisation of the same. Finally, this article concludes with a detailed discussion on microbial/enzymatic inhibitors that arise post pre-treatment and strategies to eliminate them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bio-processing of Agro-industrial Wastes for Production of Food-grade Enzymes: Progress and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmjit S Panesar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In the era of global industrialization, enzymes are being used extensively in the various sectors including food processing. Owing to the high price of enzymes, various initiatives have been undertaken by the R&D sector for the development of new processes or improvement in the existing processes for production of cost effective enzymes. With the advancement in the field of biotechnology, different bioprocesses are being used for utilization of different agro-industrial residues for the production of various enzymes. This review focuses on different types of agro-industrial wastes and their utilization in the production of enzymes. The present scenario as well as the future scope of utilization of enzymes in the food industry has also been discussed.Results and Conclusion: The regulations from the various governmental as well as environmental agencies for the demand of cleaner environment have led to the advancement in various technologies for utilization of the wastes for the production of value-added products such as enzymes. Among the different types of fermentation, maximum work has been carried under solid state conditions by batch fermentation. The research has indicated the significant potential of agro-industrial wastes for production of food-grade enzymes in order to improve the economics of the process.Conflict of interests: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  11. Household food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Winkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is debated not only in the light of sustainable consumption in research and policy, but also in the broader public. This article focuses on food waste in household contexts, what is widely believed the end of the food chain. However, household food waste is far more complex and intricate

  12. Improving food preservation to reduce food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Gronert, Alicja; Bikova, Borislava; Salce, Luca; Nogués, Marc; Batistelli, Patryk; Farid, Yomna

    2014-01-01

    The theme and issue of ‘Improving food preservation to reduce food waste’ is associated with all group members participating in this research project. This topic covers multiple processes including purchasing, preserving, preparing and storing food. The industry of fresh fruits and vegetables is an enormous market, which will not disappear any time soon. Food waste is mostly disregarded as fresh fruits and vegetables are mostly inexpensive. All group members believe that this mindset needs to...

  13. Impact of food industrial waste on anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murto, M; Björnsson, L; Mattiasson, B

    2004-02-01

    The performance of an anaerobic digestion process is much dependent on the type and the composition of the material to be digested. The effects on the degradation process of co-digesting different types of waste were examined in two laboratory-scale studies. In the first investigation, sewage sludge was co-digested with industrial waste from potato processing. The co-digestion resulted in a low buffered system and when the fraction of starch-rich waste was increased, the result was a more sensitive process, with process overload occurring at a lower organic loading rate (OLR). In the second investigation, pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, vegetable waste and various kinds of industrial waste were digested. This resulted in a highly buffered system as the manure contributed to high amounts of ammonia. However, it is important to note that ammonia might be toxic to the micro-organisms. Although the conversion of volatile fatty acids was incomplete the processes worked well with high gas yields, 0.8-1.0 m3 kg(-1) VS.

  14. Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of an Anaerobic Codigestion Facility Processing Dairy Manure and Industrial Food Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Jacqueline H; Labatut, Rodrigo A; Rankin, Matthew J; Pronto, Jennifer L; Gooch, Curt A; Williamson, Anahita A; Trabold, Thomas A

    2015-09-15

    Anaerobic codigestion (AcoD) can address food waste disposal and manure management issues while delivering clean, renewable energy. Quantifying greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to implementation of AcoD is important to achieve this goal. A lifecycle analysis was performed on the basis of data from an on-farm AcoD in New York, resulting in a 71% reduction in GHG, or net reduction of 37.5 kg CO2e/t influent relative to conventional treatment of manure and food waste. Displacement of grid electricity provided the largest reduction, followed by avoidance of alternative food waste disposal options and reduced impacts associated with storage of digestate vs undigested manure. These reductions offset digester emissions and the net increase in emissions associated with land application in the AcoD case relative to the reference case. Sensitivity analysis showed that using feedstock diverted from high impact disposal pathways, control of digester emissions, and managing digestate storage emissions were opportunities to improve the AcoD GHG benefits. Regional and parametrized emissions factors for the storage emissions and land application phases would reduce uncertainty.

  15. EXOPOLYSACCHARIDES SYNTHESIS ON INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.P.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Data from the literature and our own studies on the synthesis of microbial exopolysaccharides on various industrial waste (food industry, agricultural sector, biodiesel production, etc. are reviewed here. Utilization of industrial waste to obtain exopolysaccharides will solve not only the problem of secondary raw materials accumulation, but also will reduce the costs of the biosynthesis of practically valuable metabolites. In addition, some kinds of waste have a number of advantages compared to traditional carbohydrate substrates: aside from environmental health benefits, there are technological ones, like the presence of growth factors. There is also no need to use anti-foam substances and substrate sterilization in the latter case.

  16. Utilization of Paper Sludge Wastes for Treatment of Wastewater from Food Processing Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohru Suzuki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The food processing industries usually produced large amount of wastewater containing fine and small particles. It takes long time for complete settlement of the fine and small particles in the wastewater. The coagulation method appears to become one of the useful treatments. New inorganic coagulant named “Agoclean‒P” has been developed from paper sludge ash. The treatment by coagulation and flocculation were carried out for the wastewater from three different food processing industries namely soup, tofu, and natto. “Hi‒Biah‒System”, which is an in‒situ solidification system, was used for the continuous treatment of wastewater. The parameters for the water quality were pH, five‒day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solids (TSS, total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP. These parameters after the treatment became much lower values relative to those obtained before the treatment.

  17. Biofuels from food processing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhanying; O'Hara, Ian M; Mundree, Sagadevan; Gao, Baoyu; Ball, Andrew S; Zhu, Nanwen; Bai, Zhihui; Jin, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Food processing industry generates substantial high organic wastes along with high energy uses. The recovery of food processing wastes as renewable energy sources represents a sustainable option for the substitution of fossil energy, contributing to the transition of food sector towards a low-carbon economy. This article reviews the latest research progress on biofuel production using food processing wastes. While extensive work on laboratory and pilot-scale biosystems for energy production has been reported, this work presents a review of advances in metabolic pathways, key technical issues and bioengineering outcomes in biofuel production from food processing wastes. Research challenges and further prospects associated with the knowledge advances and technology development of biofuel production are discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Population dynamics of Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Brachionidae) in waste water from food-processing industry in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Arévalo Stevenson, Raymundo Alfredo; Sarma, S.S.S.; Nandini, S.

    1998-01-01

    Waste water from Mexico's largest food processing industrial sector (based on maize, nejayote water) was used for growing Brachionus calyciflorus isolated from Lake Chapultepec in the Federal District of Mexico (D.F.). Nejayote water was collected from Colonia Providencia, D.F. Experiments were conducted at 25°C in 25 ml capacity vials with 20 ml of medium into which we introduced B. calyciflorus at an initial density of 1 ind ml-1. The experimental design consisted a total of 33 test vessels...

  19. Flexible Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for Food and Beverage Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Ruijie

    2013-12-30

    Food and beverage plants inherently consume a large quantity of water and generate a high volume of wastewater rich in organic content. On one hand, water discharge regulations are getting more stringent over the time, necessitating the use of different technologies to reduce the amount of wastewater and improve the effluent water quality. On the other hand, growing energy and water costs are driving the plants to extract and reuse valuable energy and water from the wastewater stream. An integrated waste-tovalue system uses a combination of anaerobic digester (AD), reciprocating gas engine/boiler, membrane bioreactor (MBR), and reverse osmosis (RO) to recover valuable energy as heat and/or electricity as well as purify the water for reuse. While individual anaerobic digestion and membrane bioreactors are being used in increasing numbers, there is a growing need to integrate them together in a waste-to-value system for enhanced energy and water recovery. However, currently operation of these systems relies heavily on the plant operator to perform periodic sampling and off-line lab analysis to monitor the system performance, detect any abnormal condition due to variations in the wastewater and decide on appropriate remedial action needed. This leads to a conservative design and operation of these systems to avoid any potential upsets that can destabilize the system.

  20. Population dynamics of Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Brachionidae in waste water from food-processing industry in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo Alfredo Arévalo Stevenson

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Waste water from Mexico's largest food processing industrial sector (based on maize, nejayote water was used for growing Brachionus calyciflorus isolated from Lake Chapultepec in the Federal District of Mexico (D.F.. Nejayote water was collected from Colonia Providencia, D.F. Experiments were conducted at 25°C in 25 ml capacity vials with 20 ml of medium into which we introduced B. calyciflorus at an initial density of 1 ind ml-1. The experimental design consisted a total of 33 test vessels (2 food combinations X 5 densities X 3 replicates = 30 plus 3 replicates as controls that contained only algae. Experiments were terminated after day 16. Waste water in original concentration did nt rotifes. However, when diluted to 5 oncentrations (ranging from 2% to 32% and pH adjusted to 7.0, rotifer density increased with increasing concentration of waste water. Green algae (at constant density of 2 X 10 6 cells-1 of Chlorella in combination with waste water resulted in a higher abundance of rotifers only at higher concentration (above 8 % of waste water. The maximum peak density of rotifers (238-50 ind ml -1 was obtained at 16% dilution of waste water nd with addition of Chlorella. The rate of population increase per day ® (mean-SD varied from 0.355-0.059 to 0.457-0.048 depending on food combination and concetration.Se usó aguas de desecho de la industria de la masa y la tortilla (aguas de nixtamal o nejayote para crecer rotíferos de agua dulce, Brachionus calyciflorus. El nejayote sin dilución no permitió el desarrollo del rotífero. Sin embargo, cuando se diluyó, B. calyciflorus aprovechó la materia orgánica. El agua de desecho por sí misma (sin alimento algal adicional fue comparable al agua con densidades del alga Chlorella de 2 X 10(6 células ml-1. Concentraciones de nejayote por encima del 8% no permitieron el crecimiento poblacional. Sin embargo, la presencia de alga permitió el desarrollo del rotífero a concentraciones de 8% y 16

  1. Addressing food waste reduction in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Clement, Jesper; Kornum, Niels

    2014-01-01

    , improvements in technology have made it more efficient to utilize food waste for biogas and compost, which improves nutrient cycling through the food system. Major efforts to address food waste in Denmark have mainly been promoted through civil society groups with governmental support, as well as by industry...

  2. Hazardous industrial waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada, Hilda; Salas, Juan Carlos; Romero, Luis Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    The appropriate managing of hazardous wastes is a problem little dealed in the wastes management in the country. A search of available information was made about the generation and handling to internal and external level of the hazardous wastes by national industries. It was worked with eleven companies of different types of industrial activities for, by means of a questionnaire, interviews and visits, to determine the degree of integral and suitable handling of the wastes that they generate. It was concluded that exist only some isolated reports on the generation of hazardous industrial wastes and handling. The total quantity of wastes generated in the country was impossible to establish. The companies consulted were deficient in all stages of the handling of their wastes: generation, accumulation and storage, transport, treatment and final disposition. The lack of knowledge of the legislation and of the appropriate managing of the wastes is showed as the principal cause of the poor management of the residues. The lack of state or private entities entrusted to give services of storage, transport, treatment and final disposition of hazardous wastes in the country was evident. (author) [es

  3. Production of wax esters via microbial oil synthesis from food industry waste and by-product streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Aikaterini; Mallouchos, Athanasios; Efthymiou, Maria-Nefeli; Gardeli, Chryssavgi; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Aguieiras, Erika C G; Freire, Denise M G; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2017-12-01

    The production of wax esters using microbial oils was demonstrated in this study. Microbial oils produced from food waste and by-product streams by three oleaginous yeasts were converted into wax esters via enzymatic catalysis. Palm oil was initially used to evaluate the influence of temperature and enzyme activity on wax ester synthesis catalysed by Novozyme 435 and Lipozyme lipases using cetyl, oleyl and behenyl alcohols. The highest conversion yields (up to 79.6%) were achieved using 4U/g of Novozyme 435 at 70°C. Transesterification of microbial oils to behenyl and cetyl esters was achieved at conversion yields up to 87.3% and 69.1%, respectively. Novozyme 435 was efficiently reused for six and three cycles during palm esters and microbial esters synthesis, respectively. The physicochemical properties of microbial oil derived behenyl esters were comparable to natural waxes. Wax esters from microbial oils have potential applications in cosmetics, chemical and food industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Steel Industry Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, N. W.; Averill, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from steel industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) coke production; (2) iron and steel production; (3) rolling operations; and (4) surface treatment. A list of 133 references is also presented. (NM)

  5. Food Waste Avoidance Actions in Food Retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulikovskaja, Viktorija; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Food waste occurs throughout the entire food supply chain, from production to consumption of food in households. Retailers are in a unique position to contribute to food waste avoidance, not only by minimizing the amount of waste in their distribution channels but also by influencing consumer...... attitudes and behaviors. This explorative study aims to identify which food waste avoidance actions are conducted by retailers in Denmark, to which extent, and how they vary across food categories and supermarket chain. Based on an analysis of secondary and empirical data collected via observations...... at retail stores, the authors identify 22 food waste avoidance actions in Danish retail. The results provide new insights into food waste avoidance in retail. Based on the findings, suggestions for further research directions are developed that should serve to identify the most efficient customer targeted...

  6. Radioactive wastes of Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This conference studies the radioactive waste of nuclear industry. Nine articles and presentations are exposed here; the action of the direction of nuclear installations safety, the improvement of industrial proceedings to reduce the waste volume, the packaging of radioactive waste, the safety of radioactive waste disposal and environmental impact studies, a presentation of waste coming from nuclear power plants, the new waste management policy, the international panorama of radioactive waste management, the international transport of radioactive waste, finally an economic analysis of the treatment and ultimate storage of radioactive waste. (N.C.)

  7. Consumer food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stancu, Violeta; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. Dokumentet over linket er selve leveringen til ministeriet med følgebrev. Household food waste is one of the main contributors to the food waste amounts across the food supply chain. This report is based on a study conducted...... in September 2017 by MAPP Research Centre – Research on Value Creation in the Food Sector. The study aimed to examine consumer food waste, with a focus on consumer perceptions and practices related to food waste. A survey was completed by 508 respondents in Denmark to provide insights into self......-reported consumer food waste, consumer understanding and perceptions of food waste, household food-related practices as well as individual and household characteristics with a role in food waste....

  8. Investigation of hydrogenase molecular marker to optimize hydrogen production from organic wastes and effluents of agro-food industries [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years policy makers have started looking for alternatives to fossil fuels, not only to counter the threat of global warming, but also to reduce the risk of overdependence on imported oil and gas supplies. By contrast with hydrocarbon fuels, hydrogen (H2, whether burned directly or used in fuel cells, is intrinsically a clean energy vector with near zero emission. However the main current method of producing hydrogen, steam reforming of methane, involves the release of large quantities of greenhouse gases. So although hydrogen already accounts for around 2% of world consumption of energy, its more widespread adoption is limited by several challenges. Therefore new processes are investigated, especially those using renewable raw material, e.g. woods and organic wastes, and/or involving microorganisms. Indeed, for some algae and bacteria, the generation of molecular hydrogen is an essential part of their energy metabolism. The approach with the greatest commercial potential is fermentative hydrogen generation (dark fermentation by bacteria from the Clostridium genus. This biological process, as a part of the methane-producing anaerobic digestion process, is very promising since it allows the production of hydrogen from a wide variety of renewable resources such as carbohydrate waste from the agricultural and agro-food industries or processed urban waste and sewage. To date most publications on hydrogen production by Clostridium strains have focused on the effects of operating parameters (such as temperature, pH, dilution rate, etc.. We now need to extend this knowledge by identifying and monitoring the various different metabolic agents involved in high H2 activity. Consequently the aim of this research at the CWBI in the University of Liege is to investigate the role of [Fe] hydrogenases, the key enzymes that remove excess electrons accumulating during fermentation. Clostridium butyricum CWBI1009, the strain used for these investigations

  9. Start-up phase of a two-stage anaerobic co-digestion process: Hydrogen and methane production from food waste and vinasse from ethanol industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Náthia-Neves, Grazielle; Neves, Thiago de Alencar; Berni, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    The start-up conditions of mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of restaurant food waste and vinasse, a waste from sugarcane industry, was investigated for efficient biogas production. A pilot plant, containing two reactors, was designed and used sequentially and semi-continuously for biogas...... production. All effective operational parameters were controlled in both reactors over the course of the study. The results indicated that the organic matters were quickly decreased during the start-up phase in the first reactor, resulting in 52% and 64% reduction in total solids and total volatile solids...

  10. E-beam Irradiation and Activated Sludge System for Treatment of Textiles and Food Base Industrial Waste Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Selambakkanu, S.; Jamaliah Sharif

    2011-01-01

    The combination of irradiation and biological technique was chosen to study COD, BOD5 and colour removal from textiles effluent in the presence of food industry wastewater. Two biological treatments, the first consisting a mix of non irradiated textile and food industry wastewater and the second a mix of irradiated textiles wastewater and food industry wastewater were operated in parallel. Reduction percentage of COD in textiles wastewater increased from 29.4 % after radiation only to 62.4 % after further undergoing biological treatment. After irradiation the BOD5 of textiles wastewater reduced by 22.1 %, but reverts to the original value of 36 mg/l after undergoing biological treatment. Colour had decreased from 899.5 ADMI to 379.3 ADMI after irradiation and continued to decrease to 109.3 ADMI after passing through biological treatment. (author)

  11. Exploring Food Waste : The Role of Health Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, Marit; van Doorn, Jenny; van Ittersum, Koert; Moreau, Page; Puntoni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    One-third of all edible food products for human consumption is wasted or lost in the supply chain, with negative social, economic and environmental consequences. Although consumers are the single largest contributors to food waste in industrialized countries, food waste has not received much

  12. Microbial population dynamics during startup of a full-scale anaerobic digester treating industrial food waste in Kyoto eco-energy project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ike, Michihiko; Inoue, Daisuke; Miyano, Tomoki; Liu, Tong Tong; Sei, Kazunari; Soda, Satoshi; Kadoshin, Shiro

    2010-06-01

    The microbial community in a full-scale anaerobic digester (2300m3) treating industrial food waste in the Kyoto Eco-Energy Project was analyzed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism for eubacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes. Both thermophilic and mesophilic sludge of treated swine waste were seeded to the digestion tank. During the 150-day startup period, coffee grounds as a main food waste, along with potato, kelp and boiled beans, tofu, bean curd lees, and deep-fried bean curd were fed to the digestion process step-by-step (max. 40t/d). Finally, the methane yield reached 360m3/t-feed with 40days' retention time, although temporary accumulation of propionate was observed. Eubacterial communities that formed in the thermophilic digestion tank differed greatly from both thermophilic and mesophilic types of seed sludge. Results suggest that the Actinomyces/Thermomonospora and Ralstonia/Shewanella were contributors for hydrolyzation and degradation of food waste into volatile fatty acids. Acetate-utilizing methanogens, Methanosaeta, were dominant in seed sludges of both types, but they decreased drastically during processing in the digestion tank. Methanosarcina and Methanobrevibacter/Methanobacterium were, respectively, possible main contributors for methane production from acetate and H2 plus CO2. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Nazlina Haiza Mohd; Mumtaz, Tabassum; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Abd Rahman, Nor'Aini

    2013-11-30

    Food waste and food processing wastes which are abundant in nature and rich in carbon content can be attractive renewable substrates for sustainable biohydrogen production due to wide economic prospects in industries. Many studies utilizing common food wastes such as dining hall or restaurant waste and wastes generated from food processing industries have shown good percentages of hydrogen in gas composition, production yield and rate. The carbon composition in food waste also plays a crucial role in determining high biohydrogen yield. Physicochemical factors such as pre-treatment to seed culture, pH, temperature (mesophilic/thermophilic) and etc. are also important to ensure the dominance of hydrogen-producing bacteria in dark fermentation. This review demonstrates the potential of food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production and provides a brief overview of several physicochemical factors that affect biohydrogen production in dark fermentation. The economic viability of biohydrogen production from food waste is also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Consumer-Related Food Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hooge, Ilona de; Normann, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Food waste has received increasing attention in recent years. As part of their corporate social responsibility strategies, food supply chain actors have started to act towards avoiding and reducing food waste. Based on a literature review, an expert interview study, and example cases, we discuss...... food marketing and the role and responsibility of retail. Food marketing and retailing contribute to consumer-related food waste via decisions on date labeling, packaging sizes and design elements, and pricing strategies encouraging overpurchase, as well as communication shifting consumer priorities...... to the disadvantage of food waste avoidance. Potential actions to tackle food waste relate to improved packaging and information, altering pricing strategies, and cooperation with other actors across the supply chain. Three cases highlight the extent to which moral and strategic motives are interlinked...

  15. Food irradiation: a reply to the food industry; and reply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynjolfsson, Ari; Piccioni, R.

    1989-01-01

    In a reply to a critical article on food irradiation, Dr Ari Brynjolfsson of the International Facility of Food Irradiation Technology contends that the food industry has no interest in supporting the nuclear industry by using nuclear wastes as radiation sources - high voltage electron generators are more practical and economic. Also World Health Organization Toxicologists have concluded irradiated food is safe toxicologically, nutritionally and microbiologically. A study in India found no difference in polyploidy in children fed irradiated or non-irradiated food. In reply Dr Richard Piccioni suggests that the cancer risk from irradiated food is high, that the Indian study showed that irradiated food can cause an increase in polyploidy in well-fed adults, and suggests that Cs-137 from nuclear reactors will be used in food irradiation. (U.K.)

  16. Polish food industry 2008-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Mroczek, Robert; Drożdż, Jadwiga; Tereszczuk, Mirosława; Urban, Roman

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the functioning of the food industry and its various sectors in 2008-2013. Meat and poultry industry. Dairy industry. Fishing industry. Milling industry. Sugar industry. Oil-mill industry. Processing of fruit, vegetables and potatoes. Bakery industry. Confectionery industry. Feed industry. Production of other food products. Production of alcoholic beverages.Tobacco industry. Food industry.

  17. The problem of industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan, Fouad

    1998-01-01

    The paper is the result of a feasibility study conducted for the Green peace Office in Lebanon. The overall goal of the study was to work towards implementing a national waste management plan and to combat the import of hazardous wastes from developing countries.The author focuses on the illegal trade of industrial wastes from developed to under developed countries. The trade of toxic wastes causes on environmental pollution. As for Lebanese industries, the main problem is toxic industrial wastes. About 4000 tones/day of domestic wastes are produced in Lebanon. 326000 tones of industrial wastes contain toxic substances are annually produced and wastes growth rate is expected to increase to one million tone/year in 2010. A disaster is threatening Lebanon especially that no policy were taken to deal with the huge growth of wastes. This problem affect on population health especially in the region of Bourj Hammoud. Analysis of ground water in the region of Chekka, confirm the existence of water pollution caused by toxic materials In addition, analysis of Petro coke used in the National Lebanese Cement Industry, contain a high rate of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Green peace is aware of the danger of wastes in air, water and land pollution and preventing environment of any source of pollution this will certainly lead to a sustainable development of the country

  18. Ironing out industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, M.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes a hazardous waste treatment known as the catalytic extraction process, which also stabilizes and reduces low-level radioactive wastes to a fraction of their original volume, easing their disposal. It uses molten iron and other metals to convert hazardous wastes into useful materials

  19. The food waste hierarchy as a framework for the management of food surplus and food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papargyropoulou, Effie; Lozano, Rodrigo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/36412380X; K. Steinberger, Julia; Wright, Nigel; Ujang, Zaini Bin

    2014-01-01

    The unprecedented scale of food waste in global food supply chains is attracting increasing attention due to its environmental, social and economic impacts. Drawing on interviews with food waste specialists, this study construes the boundaries between food surplus and food waste, avoidable and

  20. Smaller plates, less food waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Schmidt, Karsten; Skov, Laurits Rhoden

    With roughly one-third of food produced for human consumption lost or wasted globally (about 1.3 billion tons per year), the impact on the environment cannot be anymore neglected. Actions at all points in the production chain are now urgent, including reductions in food waste at home, by retailers...... the hypothesis that dishware size plays an important role in the amount of food wasted among Danish adults in a self-service eating setting. This finding has PHN implications: slight changes in the foodscape can contribute to sustainable food consumption goals....

  1. Radioactive wastes. Their industrial management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper introduces a series that will review the present situation in the field of long-term management of radioactive wastes. Both the meaning and the purposes of an industrial management of radioactive wastes are specified. This short introduction is complemented by outline of data on the French problem [fr

  2. Food waste and the food-energy-water nexus: A review of food waste management alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, Kelly M; Reinhart, Debra; Hawkins, Christopher; Motlagh, Amir Mohaghegh; Wright, James

    2018-04-01

    Throughout the world, much food produced is wasted. The resource impact of producing wasted food is substantial; however, little is known about the energy and water consumed in managing food waste after it has been disposed. Herein, we characterize food waste within the Food-Energy-Water (FEW) nexus and parse the differential FEW effects of producing uneaten food and managing food loss and waste. We find that various food waste management options, such as waste prevention, landfilling, composting, anaerobic digestion, and incineration, present variable pathways for FEW impacts and opportunities. Furthermore, comprehensive sustainable management of food waste will involve varied mechanisms and actors at multiple levels of governance and at the level of individual consumers. To address the complex food waste problem, we therefore propose a "food-waste-systems" approach to optimize resources within the FEW nexus. Such a framework may be applied to devise strategies that, for instance, minimize the amount of edible food that is wasted, foster efficient use of energy and water in the food production process, and simultaneously reduce pollution externalities and create opportunities from recycled energy and nutrients. Characterization of FEW nexus impacts of wasted food, including descriptions of dynamic feedback behaviors, presents a significant research gap and a priority for future work. Large-scale decision making requires more complete understanding of food waste and its management within the FEW nexus, particularly regarding post-disposal impacts related to water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbial biosurfactants as additives for food industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Jenyffer Medeiros; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; de Luna, Juliana Moura; Rufino, Raquel Diniz; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2013-01-01

    Microbial biosurfactants with high ability to reduce surface and interfacial surface tension and conferring important properties such as emulsification, detergency, solubilization, lubrication and phase dispersion have a wide range of potential applications in many industries. Significant interest in these compounds has been demonstrated by environmental, bioremediation, oil, petroleum, food, beverage, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries attracted by their low toxicity, biodegradability and sustainable production technologies. Despite having significant potentials associated with emulsion formation, stabilization, antiadhesive and antimicrobial activities, significantly less output and applications have been reported in food industry. This has been exacerbated by uneconomical or uncompetitive costing issues for their production when compared to plant or chemical counterparts. In this review, biosurfactants properties, present uses and potential future applications as food additives acting as thickening, emulsifying, dispersing or stabilising agents in addition to the use of sustainable economic processes utilising agro-industrial wastes as alternative substrates for their production are discussed. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  4. Characterization of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    This paper presents a methodology and the results of compositional analysis of food waste from Danish families living in single-family houses. Residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted from 211 single-family houses in the suburb of Copenhagen. The main fractions contributing...... to the household food waste were avoidable vegetable food waste and non-avoidable vegetable food waste. Statistical analysis found a positive linear relationship between household size and the amount of the household food waste....

  5. Smaller plates, less food waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Schmidt, Karsten; Skov, Laurits Rhoden

    With roughly one-third of food produced for human consumption lost or wasted globally (about 1.3 billion tons per year), the impact on the environment cannot be anymore neglected. Actions at all points in the production chain are now urgent, including reductions in food waste at home, by retailer...... the hypothesis that dishware size plays an important role in the amount of food wasted among Danish adults in a self-service eating setting. This finding has PHN implications: slight changes in the foodscape can contribute to sustainable food consumption goals.......With roughly one-third of food produced for human consumption lost or wasted globally (about 1.3 billion tons per year), the impact on the environment cannot be anymore neglected. Actions at all points in the production chain are now urgent, including reductions in food waste at home, by retailers...... and producers. Northern European consumers are among the most environmentally concerned consumers, however, their concerns do not always translate in more sustainable food-related behaviours. Furthermore, food choices are not always rational and could be non-reflective. Hence, the objective of this pilot study...

  6. Smaller plates, less food waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Schmidt, Karsten; Skov, Laurits Rhoden

    and producers. Northern European consumers are among the most environmentally concerned consumers, however, their concerns do not always translate in more sustainable food-related behaviours. Furthermore, food choices are not always rational and could be non-reflective. Hence, the objective of this pilot study......With roughly one-third of food produced for human consumption lost or wasted globally (about 1.3 billion tons per year), the impact on the environment cannot be anymore neglected. Actions at all points in the production chain are now urgent, including reductions in food waste at home, by retailers...... was to investigate whether the size of the dishware would non-reflectively influence the amount of foods taken from an “ad-libitum” buffet and the resulting amount of waste. Sample consisted of Danish business leaders that took part in a congress in Copenhagen, Denmark. Two buffet tables were set up on two separate...

  7. Avoiding food waste by Romanian consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefan, Violeta; van Herpen, Erica; Tudoran, Ana Alina

    2013-01-01

    of disapproval towards food waste, and perceived behavioural control on consumers’ self-reported food waste. Results show that consumers’ planning and shopping routines are important predictors of food waste. Planning and shopping routines are determined by moral attitudes towards food waste and perceived......Food waste is generated in immense amounts across the food life cycle, imposing serious environmental, social and economic consequences. Although consumers are the single biggest contributor to this volume, little is known about the drivers of food waste in households. This exploratory study aims...... to investigate the role of food choices and other food-related activities in producing food waste. A survey of 244 Romanian consumers examined the influence of intentions not to waste food, planning and shopping routines, as well as moral attitudes and lack of concern towards wasting food, a subjective norm...

  8. Advantages and limits to the fermentation of easily-degradable industrial and food wastes in sewage treatment works; Vorteile und Grenzen der Vergaerung von leicht abbaubaren Industrie- und Lebensmittelabfaellen in Abwasserreinigungsanlagen. Vergleich zu landwirtschaftlichen Anlagen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, N.; Wellinger, A. [Nova Energie GmbH, Aadorf (Switzerland); Bachmann, N. [EREP SA, Aclens (Switzerland)

    2009-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the advantages and limits that apply to the fermentation of industrial and food wastes in sewage treatment facilities in comparison to agricultural installations. For this ecological review, a material-flow analysis was made which permitted the nutrient loss to be quantified. The report presents data on the energy and carbon dioxide balances for the method and also looks at the method from an economical point of view. Co-fermentation in the wastewater treatment plant in Berne, Switzerland, and in agricultural plant are examined.

  9. Environmental impacts of waste management in the hospitality industry: Creating a waste management plan for Bergvik Kartano

    OpenAIRE

    Adigwe, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Many hospitality industries find it difficult to control or manage solid wastes, such as food, containers, paper, cardboard and scrap metals, which are waste generated on a daily basis depending on the industry. Most hospitality industries tend to lag behind when it comes to the collection of waste. Only a fraction of the¬¬ waste collected receives proper disposal. When waste is not collected sufficiently and the disposal is inappropriate the waste can accumulate and cause water, land and air...

  10. Industrial management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This article deals with the present situation in France concerning radioactive waste management. For the short and medium term, that is to say processing and disposal of low and medium level radioactive wastes, there are industrial processes giving all the guarantees for a safe containment, but improvements are possible. For the long term optimization of solution requires more studies of geologic formations. Realization emergency comes less from the waste production than the need to optimize the disposal techniques. An international cooperation exists. All this should convince the public opinion and should develop planning and realization [fr

  11. Waste audit pada industri penyamakan kulit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prayitno Prayitno

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Waste audit is new environmental activities. to the Indonesia public and the large part of industrial community it is one of the environmental audit activities. Waste audit aims to identify whether the waste that by the industry waste so that metods for minimizing the waste can be found. In the leather tanning industry wasted audit is performend for every step pg the process, started from the raw material strage to the fishing ptocess.

  12. Waste Management in Industrial Construction: Investigating Contributions from Industrial Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa A. R. U. Freitas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The need for effective construction waste management is growing in importance, due to the increasing generation of construction waste and to its adverse impacts on the environment. However, despite the numerous studies on construction waste management, recovery of construction waste through Industrial Symbiosis and the adoption of other inter-firm practices, comprised within Industrial Ecology field of study, have not been fully explored. The present research aims to investigate Industrial Ecology contributions to waste management in industrial construction. The waste management strategies adopted in two industrial construction projects in Brazil are analyzed. The main waste streams generated are identified, recycling and landfilling diversion rates are presented and waste recovery through Industrial Symbiosis is discussed. A SWOT analysis was carried out. Results demonstrate that 9% of the waste produced in one of the projects was recovered through Industrial Symbiosis, while in the other project, waste recovery through Industrial Symbiosis achieved the rate of 30%. These data reveal Industrial Symbiosis’ potential to reduce landfilling of industrial construction wastes, contributing to waste recovery in construction. In addition, results show that industrial construction projects can benefit from the following synergies common in Industrial Ecology place-based approaches: centralized waste management service, shared waste management infrastructure and administrative simplification.

  13. Glassceramics obtained from industrial waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimdins, R.; Rozenstrauha, I.; Berzina, L. [Riga Technical University, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Biomaterials R and D Laboratory, 14/24 Azenes St., LV-1048 Riga (Latvia); Bossert, J.; Buecker, M. [Technisches Institut Materialwissenschaft, Friedrich-Schiller Universitaet, Loebdegraben 32, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2000-06-01

    Large areas of Latvia are contaminated with industrial waste: metallurgical slag, fly-ash, etching refuse, peat, and coal ash as well as glass waste which often contain dangerous substances. From the environmental point of view this waste should be neutralised. As this waste also contains valuable chemical compounds, it can be considered as a raw material for the generation of new materials. One method of utilisation is to produce recycled materials - street plates, decorative tiles, or floor tiles. Dense sintered glassceramics with a water uptake of 0.34-3.23 wt.%, a final density of 2.93-3.05 g/cm{sup 3}, and a bending strength of 80-96 MPa have been created from industrial waste. The mast chemically durable glassceramics contained clay additions. Thus, the material containing only waste had a durability (mass loss) of 3.02% in 0.1 N HCl, while the composition containing 30% clay addition had a durability of 0.2% in 0.1 N HCl.

  14. Tracer techniques in food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertsovskij, E.S.; Sakharov, Eh.V.; Dolinin, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    The appicability of radioactive tracer techniques to process control in food industry are considered. Investigations in the field of food industry carried out using the above method are classified. The 1 class included investigations with preliminary preparation of a radioactive indicator and its following introduction in the system studied. The 2 class includes investigations based on the introduction in the system studied of a non-active indicator which is activated in a neutron flux being in samples selected in or after the process investigated. The 3 class includes studies based on investigations of natural radioactivity of certain nuclides in food stuff. The application of tracer techniques to the above classes of investigations in various fields of food industry and the equipment applied are considered in detail [ru

  15. Glasses obtained from industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortoluzzi, D.; Oliveira Fillho, J.; Uggioni, E.; Bernardin, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of the vitrification mechanism as an inertization method for industrial wastes contaminated with heavy metals. Ashes from coal (thermoelectric), wastes from mining (fluorite and feldspar) and plating residue were used to compose vitreous systems planed by mixture design. The chemical composition of the wastes was determined by XRF and the formulations were melted at 1450 deg C for 2h using 10%wt of CaCO 3 (fluxing agent). The glasses were poured into a mold and annealed (600 deg C). The characteristic temperatures were determined by thermal analysis (DTA, air, 20 deg C/min) and the mechanical behavior by Vickers microhardness. As a result, the melting temperature is strongly dependent on silica content of each glass, and the fluorite residue, being composed mainly by silica, strongly affects Tm. The microhardness of all glasses is mainly affected by the plating residue due to the high iron and zinc content of this waste. (author)

  16. Utilization of Industrial Waste for the Production of Bio-Preservative from Bacillus licheniformis Me1 and Its Application in Milk and Milk-Based Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithya, Vadakedath; Prakash, Maya; Halami, Prakash M

    2018-06-01

    The bio-preservative efficacy of a partially purified antibacterial peptide (ppABP) produced by Bacillus licheniformis Me1 in an economical medium developed using agro-industry waste was evaluated by direct application in milk and milk-based food products. The addition of ppABP in milk samples stored at 4 ± 2 °C and 28 ± 2 °C resulted in the growth inhibition of pathogens Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, and Staphylococcus aureus FRI 722. The shelf life of milk samples with added ppABP increased to 4 days at 28 ± 2 °C, whereas curdling and off-odor were noticed in samples without ppABP. Furthermore, the milk samples with ppABP were sensorily acceptable. Antilisterial effect was also observed in cheese and paneer samples treated with ppABP. These results clearly indicate that the ppABP of B. licheniformis Me1 can be utilized as a bio-preservative to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, thereby reducing the risk of food-borne diseases.

  17. Food industry hungry for energy savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackburn, D

    1989-04-01

    The United Kingdom food and drink industry is a significant user of energy. Energy use figures are given showing the breakdown in terms of different sectors of the industry and also in terms of the fuel used. Four energy monitoring and target setting demonstration projects are outlined at factories typical of their type in different sectors. The projects have resulted in a much greater awareness by management in the factories involved of energy consumption and waste. Examples are given of improved energy efficiency and consequent energy savings which have resulted from this awareness. (U.K.).

  18. Environmental and health impacts of using food waste as animal feed: a comparative analysis of food waste management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Zu Ermgassen, Erasmus K H J; Kim, Mi Hyung; Balmford, Andrew; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2017-01-01

    The disposal of food waste is a large environmental problem. In the United Kingdom (UK), approximately 15 million tonnes of food are wasted each year, mostly disposed of in landfill, via composting, or anaerobic digestion (AD). European Union (EU) guidelines state that food waste should preferentially be used as animal feed though for most food waste this practice is currently illegal, because of disease control concerns. Interest in the potential diversion of food waste for animal feed is however growing, with a number of East Asian states offering working examples of safe food waste recycling - based on tight regulation and rendering food waste safe through heat treatment. This study investigates the potential benefits of diverting food waste for pig feed in the UK. A hybrid, consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to compare the environmental and health impacts of four technologies for food waste processing: two technologies of South Korean style-animal feed production (as a wet pig feed and a dry pig feed) were compared with two widespread UK disposal technologies: AD and composting. Results of 14 mid-point impact categories show that the processing of food waste as a wet pig feed and a dry pig feed have the best and second-best scores, respectively, for 13/14 and 12/14 environmental and health impacts. The low impact of food waste feed stems in large part from its substitution of conventional feed, the production of which has substantial environmental and health impacts. While the re-legalisation of the use of food waste as pig feed could offer environmental and public health benefits, this will require support from policy makers, the public, and the pig industry, as well as investment in separated food waste collection which currently occurs in only a minority of regions.

  19. Methanization of domestic and industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After having recalled that methanization helps meeting objectives of the Grenelle de l'Environnement regarding waste valorisation and production of renewable heat and electricity, this publication presents the methanization process which produces a humid product (digestate) and biogas by using various wastes (from agriculture, food industry, cities, households, sludge and so on). The numbers of existing and planned methanization units are evoked. The publication discusses the main benefits (production of renewable energy, efficient waste processing, and compact installations), drawbacks (costs, necessary specific abilities, impossibility to treat all organic materials) and associated recommendations. Actions undertaken by the ADEME are evoked. In conclusion, the publication outlines some priorities related to the development of this sector, its benefits, and the main strategic recommendations

  20. Industrial waste heat for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitner, K.L.; Brooks, P.P.

    1982-01-01

    Presents 2 bounding evaluations of industrial waste heat availability. Surveys waste heat from 29 major industry groups at the 2-digit level in Standard Industrial Codes (SIC). Explains that waste heat availability in each industry was related to regional product sales, in order to estimate regional waste heat availability. Evaluates 4 selected industries at the 4-digit SIC level. Finds that industrial waste heat represents a significant energy resource in several urban areas, including Chicago and Los Angeles, where it could supply all of these areas residential heating and cooling load. Points out that there is a strong need to evaluate the available waste heat for more industries at the 4-digit level. Urges further studies to identify other useful industrial waste heat sources as well as potential waste heat users

  1. Biodegradable bioplastics from food wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    An estimated 1.8 billion tons of waste are created annually from food processing in the US, including the peels, pulp, and pomace (PPP) generated from fruits and vegetables when they are converted into frozen or canned products or pressed into juice. PPP currently is sold as animal feed at low cost,...

  2. More value from food waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Mi Sun; Na, Jeong-Geol; Lee, Mo-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the traditional technologies for treating organic solid wastes, but its economic benefit is sometimes questioned. To increase the economic feasibility of the treatment process, the aim of this study was to recover not only biogas from food waste but lactic acid...... the supernatant by the combined process of nanofiltration and water-splitting electrodialysis. The process could recover highly purified LA by removing 85% of mineral ions such as Naþ, Kþ, Mg2þ, and Ca2þ and 90% of residual carbohydrates. Meanwhile, the solid residue remained after centrifugation was further...... (LA) as well. At first, LA fermentation of food waste (FW) was conducted using an indigenous mixed culture. During the operation, temperature was gradually increased from 35 C to 55 C, with the highest performance attained at 50 C. At 50 C and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.0 d, LA concentration...

  3. Food industry: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, D

    2014-01-01

    Open discourse and tolerance between the food industry and public sector is limited. As a result, the public and private sectors are reluctant to collaborate on pressing nutritional issues. Those in the public sector have never heard what they could do to encourage a food company's transition towards healthier foods and beverages, whereas many in the private sector dismissed policies and actions initiated within the public sector. During my career, I have sought to engage the broadest possible stakeholder groups required to develop evidence-based policies and with the aim of improving public health. My recent experience in industry confirmed my view about the need for scientific exchange regardless of the disagreements about policy. Open discourse and partnering is essential if we are to tackle complex food and health issues and improve the global food system. Private-public engagement can provide faster and more sustainable results than government alone without impacting profits. Moreover, a high-quality product in smaller portions will have higher profit margins than a bargain-sized product of lower quality. The food industry and private sector must come together to implement innovative strategies to address urgent nutritional needs. © 2013 The Author. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  4. FOOD SAFETY IN CATERING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cattaneo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Catering industry plays a very important role in public health management, because about 30% of total daily meals are consumed in catering industry (restaurants, bar. In this work food safety was evaluated in 20 catering centres throughout microbiological analyses of different categories of meals. Results demonstrate that there was an important decrease of microbial contamination between 2006 and 2007, no pathogens were found in 217 samples examined: this was obtained by improving voluntary controls.

  5. Sports Nutrition Food Industry Chain Development Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Yin

    2015-01-01

    Through the study of Henan sports nutrition food industry chain optimization, the study analyses development advantage and competitive advantage of Henan in sports nutrition food industry chain and existing problems and challenges in Henan sports nutrition food industry chain and at the same time introduces the theory of supply chain management to the development of sports nutrition food industry chain, clearly optimizes countermeasures of sports nutrition food industry chain. Pointing out sp...

  6. Waste Management in Industrial Construction: Investigating Contributions from Industrial Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa A. R. U. Freitas; Alessandra Magrini

    2017-01-01

    The need for effective construction waste management is growing in importance, due to the increasing generation of construction waste and to its adverse impacts on the environment. However, despite the numerous studies on construction waste management, recovery of construction waste through Industrial Symbiosis and the adoption of other inter-firm practices, comprised within Industrial Ecology field of study, have not been fully explored. The present research aims to investigate Industrial Ec...

  7. Green perspective in food industry production line design: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, C. Y.; Sin, T. C.; Liyana, M. R. N.; Awang, A.; Fathullah, M.

    2017-09-01

    The design of green manufacturing process in food industries is currently a hot research topic in the multidisciplinary area of applied chemistry, biology and technology. Several process such as freezing, cutting, drying, tempering, bleaching, sterilization, extraction and filtering have been applied efficiency in the food industry. Due to the rapid development of food and peripheral technology, the use of new physical processing or auxiliary processing methods can maintain food inherent nutrients, texture, color, and freshness and also reduce environmental pollution and energy consumption in food processing. Hence, this review paper will study and summarize the effects of green manufacturing process in food industries in term of waste reduction, materials and sustainability manufacturing. In any case, All the food processing equipment must comply with strict standards and regulation, this action will ensure the securing the food quality and safety of food products to consumers.

  8. Elements affecting food waste in the food service sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Lotta; Reinikainen, Anu; Katajajuuri, Juha-Matti; Silvennoinen, Kirsi; Hartikainen, Hanna

    2016-10-01

    Avoidable food waste is produced in the food service sector, with significant ecological and economical impacts. In order to understand and explain better the complex issue of food waste a qualitative study was conducted on the reasons for its generation in restaurants and catering businesses. Research data were collected during three participatory workshops for personnel from three different catering sector companies in Finland. Based on synthesized qualitative content analysis, eight elements influencing production and reduction of food waste were identified. Results revealed the diversity of managing food waste in the food service sector and how a holistic approach is required to prevent and reduce it. It is crucial to understand that food waste is manageable and should be an integral component of the management system. The model of eight factors provides a framework for recognition and management of food waste in the food service sector. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Household food waste in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Gaiani, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    such as climate change and unjust distribution of food resources, needs to be based on an appreciative and relational understanding of nature and food and not only on economic and moralizing arguments. This is done by drawing on an ecocentric perspective where food is seen as one of the areas where new narratives......This study focuses on food waste generated by households in four Nordic countries: Finland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Based on existing literature we present (A) comparable data on amounts and monetary value of food waste; (B) explanations for food waste at household level; (C) a number...... of public and private initiatives at national levels aiming to reduce food waste; and (D) a discussion of ethical issues related to food waste with a focus on possible contributions from ecocentric ethics. We argue that reduction of food waste at household level, which has an impact on issues...

  10. Energetic conversion (biogas) of used edible oils by means of co-digestion together with various waste materials from the food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membrez, Y.; Fruteau de Laclos, H.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this project was the valorisation of used edible oils by co-digestion together with agricultural or food waste, without any risk for human and animal health. It included the technical economical aspects. In the bibliographic part a state-of-the-art on fat digestion in Switzerland and Europe was done. The possible co-substrates were examined, under a biological aspect as well as economical and strategic aspects. Food waste from restaurants and canteens, that are used up to now for pig feeding, were retained. The co-digestion gives a new perspective for the valorisation of this kind of waste, whose traditional way of valorisation is compromised by the new EU directives. The experimental part aimed to define the possibilities and limits for the co-digestion of used edible oil with food waste as co-substrate. The study was done in a 690 litres bio-reactor. The results showed that co-digestion of edible oil with food waste is feasible with interesting performances, if oil doesn't account for more than 15% of the mixture (on dry matter). Biogas production amounted to 400-450 litres per kg input COD (chemical oxygen demand), with 60-65% CH 4 . Based on the observed results a tender document was done, in order to consult manufacturers of co-digestion plants. An economical simulation was realised on the basis of the most complete offer. This simulation revealed that a benefit of CHF 3500 per year can be obtained for a plant processing 200 t/y edible oil and 9000 t/y food waste. Co-digestion allows for valorisation of edible oil, together with a co-substrate whose traditional utilisation will not be possible in the future. It leads to the production of renewable energy, with a positive economical balance. (author)

  11. Costs of food waste in South Africa: Incorporating inedible food waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Lange, Willem J

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic, social and environmental costs of food waste are being increasingly recognised. Food waste consists of both edible and inedible components. Whilst wastage of edible food is problematic for obvious reasons, there are also costs...

  12. Cutting Food Waste through Cooperation along the Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Göbel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Food produced but not used for human consumption is a waste of natural resources. In order to prevent and reduce food waste, the main causes have to be identified systematically along the food supply chain (FSC. The aim of this study is (1 to shed light on the causes and effects of food waste through the analysis of 44 qualitative expert interviews examining the processes and intermediaries along the German food chain and (2 to find methods to reduce it. Results indicate that food waste occurs at all stages in the food chain. Thus, there is no single culprit to be blamed. Besides, the identified reasons for food waste differ between product groups; not a single solution can cause notable change. Furthermore, the analysis demonstrates that the causes and effects of food waste are to be found at different stages of the value chain. Hence, it is of high importance to improve communication and to raise a new appreciation for food among all stakeholders of the food supply chain in order to develop a more sustainable food system. Information on the topic of food waste needs to be shared among all actors of the supply chain. They need to share responsibility and work together to reduce food waste.

  13. Recovery of biomolecules from food wastes--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiano, Antonietta

    2014-09-17

    Food wastes are produced by a variety of sources, ranging from agricultural operations to household consumption. About 38% occurs during food processing. At present, the European Union legislation encourages the exploitation of co-products. This valorisation can be achieved through the extraction of high-value components such as proteins, polysaccharides, fibres, flavour compounds, and phytochemicals, which can be re-used as nutritionally and pharmacologically functional ingredients. Extraction can proceed according to solid-liquid extraction, Soxhlet extraction, pressurized fluid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field extraction, and enzyme-assisted extraction. Nevertheless, these techniques cannot be used indiscriminately and their choice depends on the type of biomolecules and matrix, the scale processing (laboratory or industrial), the ratio between production costs and economic values of the compounds to be extracted. The vegetable wastes include trimmings, peelings, stems, seeds, shells, bran, residues remaining after extraction of oil, starch, sugar, and juice. The animal-derived wastes include wastes from bred animals, wastes from seafood, wastes from dairy processing. The recovered biomolecules and by-products can be used to produce functional foods or as adjuvants in food processing or in medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. This work is an overview of the type and amounts of food wastes; food waste legislation; conventional and novel techniques suitable for extracting biomolecules; food, medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of the recovered biomolecules and by-products, and future trends in these areas.

  14. Recovery of Biomolecules from Food Wastes — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Baiano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food wastes are produced by a variety of sources, ranging from agricultural operations to household consumption. About 38% occurs during food processing. At present, the European Union legislation encourages the exploitation of co-products. This valorisation can be achieved through the extraction of high-value components such as proteins, polysaccharides, fibres, flavour compounds, and phytochemicals, which can be re-used as nutritionally and pharmacologically functional ingredients. Extraction can proceed according to solid-liquid extraction, Soxhlet extraction, pressurized fluid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field extraction, and enzyme-assisted extraction. Nevertheless, these techniques cannot be used indiscriminately and their choice depends on the type of biomolecules and matrix, the scale processing (laboratory or industrial, the ratio between production costs and economic values of the compounds to be extracted. The vegetable wastes include trimmings, peelings, stems, seeds, shells, bran, residues remaining after extraction of oil, starch, sugar, and juice. The animal-derived wastes include wastes from bred animals, wastes from seafood, wastes from dairy processing. The recovered biomolecules and by-products can be used to produce functional foods or as adjuvants in food processing or in medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. This work is an overview of the type and amounts of food wastes; food waste legislation; conventional and novel techniques suitable for extracting biomolecules; food, medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of the recovered biomolecules and by-products, and future trends in these areas.

  15. Industrial waste and pollution in Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgormaa, L. [Minstry of Nature and Environment, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

    1996-12-31

    This paper very briefly outlines hazardous waste management issues, including regulations, in Mongolia. Air, water, and soil pollutants are identified and placed in context with climatic, social, and economic circumstances. The primary need identified is technology for the collection and disposal of solid wastes. Municipal waste problems include rapid urbanization and lack of sanitary landfills. Industrial wastes of concern are identified from the mining and leather industries. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Food Waste Composting Study from Makanan Ringan Mas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Ismail, S. N. M.; Jamaludin, S. N.

    2016-07-01

    The poor management of municipal solid waste in Malaysia has worsened over the years especially on food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% of the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Composting is one of low cost alternative method to dispose the food waste. This study is conducted to compost the food waste generation in Makanan Ringan Mas, which is a medium scale industry in Parit Kuari Darat due to the lack knowledge and exposure of food waste recycling practice. The aim of this study is to identify the physical and chemical parameters of composting food waste from Makanan Ringan Mas. The physical parameters were tested for temperature and pH value and the chemical parameter are Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium. In this study, backyard composting was conducted with 6 reactors. Tapioca peel was used as fermentation liquid and soil and coconut grated were used as the fermentation bed. Backyard composting was conducted with six reactors. The overall results from the study showed that the temperature of the reactors were within the range which are from 30° to 50°C. The result of this study revealed that all the reactors which contain processed food waste tend to produce pH value within the range of 5 to 6 which can be categorized as slightly acidic. Meanwhile, the reactors which contained raw food waste tend to produce pH value within the range of 7 to 8 which can be categorized as neutral. The highest NPK obtained is from Reactor B that process only raw food waste. The average value of Nitrogen is 48540 mg/L, Phosphorus is 410 mg/L and Potassium is 1550 mg/L. From the comparison with common chemical fertilizer, it shows that NPK value from the composting are much lower than NPK of the common chemical fertilizer. However, comparison with NPK of organic fertilizer shown only slightly difference value in NPK.

  17. The potential of food preservation to reduce food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Wayne

    2017-02-01

    While we state it seems unthinkable to throw away nearly a third of the food we produce, we still continue to overlook that we are all very much part of this problem because we all consume meals. The amount of food wasted clearly has an impact on our view of what we think a sustainable meal is and our research suggests food waste is a universal function that can help us determine the sustainability of diets. Achieving sustainability in food systems depends on the utilisation of both culinary skills and knowledge of how foods make meals. These are overlooked by the current food waste debate that is concerned with communicating the problem with food waste rather than solutions to it. We aim to change this oversight with the research presented here that demonstrates the need to consider the role of food preservation to reduce food waste and the requirement for new marketing terms associated with sustainability actions that can be used to stimulate changes in consumption behaviours. We have chosen frozen food to demonstrate this because our research has shown that the use of frozen foods results in 47 % less household food waste than fresh food categories. This has created a step-change in how we view food consumption and has stimulated consumer movements that act across different products and supply chains to enable the consumption of the sustainable meal.

  18. The impact of food preservation on food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Wayne; Schiebel, Walter

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the relationship between food preservation and reducing consumer waste is of value in developing sustainable meal options. The research reports insights into Austrian marketplace for frozen and fresh foods that have been obtained from a consumer survey. The consumer survey methodologies indicate how preservation can change meal planning and lower food waste across frozen and fresh and ambient food purchases using freezing preservation methods. The results show food waste can be reduced by six-fold when frozen foods are compared with fresh foods. This study highlights the requirement for a greater understanding of the probability that specific foods will be wasted with respect to the frequency of purchase. This is a limitation of the current study that has been investigated by other researchers. This research has enabled the identification of different food waste amounts for different food product categories. The data presented could be used to guide food product development so that less consumer waste is produced. The research suggests a decision matrix approach can be used to can guide new product development and a model of this matrix is presented so that it may provide fit-for-purpose food preservation options for consumers. This paper will continue to highlight the overlooked value of food preservation during processing and manufacturing of foods and their preparation in households.

  19. Compositional data analysis of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus

    waste. Although, food waste composition carries relative information, no attempt was made to analysis food waste composition as compositional data. Thus the relationship between food waste fractions has been analysed by mean of Pearson correlation test and log-ratio analysis. The food waste data...... household per week), (b) percentage composition of food waste based on the total food waste, and (c) percentage composition of food waste based on the total residual household waste. The Pearson correlation test showed different results when different datasets are used, whereas the log-ratio analysis showed...... was collected by sampling and sorting residual household waste in Denmark. The food waste was subdivided into three fractions: (1) avoidable vegetable food waste, (2) avoidable animal-derive food waste, and (3) avoidable food waste. The correlation was carried out using: (a) the amount of food waste (kg per...

  20. Determinants of consumer food waste behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stancu, Violeta; Haugaard, Pernille; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    . Yet, there is still little evidence regarding the determinants of consumers' food waste behaviour. The present study examines the effect of psycho-social factors, food-related routines, household perceived capabilities and socio-demographic characteristics on self-reported food waste. Survey data...... gathered among 1062 Danish respondents measured consumers' intentions not to waste food, planning, shopping and reuse of leftovers routines, perceived capability to deal with household food-related activities, injunctive and moral norms, attitudes towards food waste, and perceived behavioural control....... Results show that perceived behavioural control and routines related to shopping and reuse of leftovers are the main drivers of food waste, while planning routines contribute indirectly. In turn, the routines are related to consumers' perceived capabilities to deal with household related activities...

  1. Irradiation in industrial waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkowski, J. (Politechnika Lodzka (Poland). Katedra Chemii Radiacyjnej); Kos, L.; Rouba, J. (Research and Development Centre of the Knitting Industry, Lodz (Poland))

    1984-09-01

    In this paper, the treatment by irradiation of some surface active agents (SAA) contained in aqueous solutions and industrial wastes, has been shown. Studies were carried out on selected SAA, namely Rokafenol N-6 and Pretepon G-extra, representatives of nonionic and anionic SAA, respectively. The aqueous solutions of these compounds were irradiated in radiation chamber, at the Institute of Applied Radiation Chemistry, in Lodz Polytechnic. Co/sup 60/ was used as a source of radiation. The kinetics and degree of destruction of these compounds at the doses ranging from 2 kGy to 110 kGy were investigated. The study was extended to attempts to remove SAA from textile effluents. Reduction of other parameters of contamination, including measurements of toxicity, were also evaluated.

  2. Composting of food wastes: Status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Alejandra; Artola, Adriana; Font, Xavier; Barrena, Raquel; Gea, Teresa; Sánchez, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    This review analyses the main challenges of the process of food waste composting and examines the crucial aspects related to the quality of the produced compost. Although recent advances have been made in crucial aspects of the process, such composting microbiology, improvements are needed in process monitoring. Therefore, specific problems related to food waste composting, such as the presence of impurities, are thoroughly analysed in this study. In addition, environmental impacts related to food waste composting, such as emissions of greenhouse gases and odours, are discussed. Finally, the use of food waste compost in soil bioremediation is discussed in detail. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determinants of consumer food waste behaviour: Two routes to food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancu, Violeta; Haugaard, Pernille; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    Approximately one quarter of the food supplied for human consumption is wasted across the food supply chain. In the high income countries, the food waste generated at the household level represents about half of the total food waste, making this level one of the biggest contributors to food waste. Yet, there is still little evidence regarding the determinants of consumers' food waste behaviour. The present study examines the effect of psycho-social factors, food-related routines, household perceived capabilities and socio-demographic characteristics on self-reported food waste. Survey data gathered among 1062 Danish respondents measured consumers' intentions not to waste food, planning, shopping and reuse of leftovers routines, perceived capability to deal with household food-related activities, injunctive and moral norms, attitudes towards food waste, and perceived behavioural control. Results show that perceived behavioural control and routines related to shopping and reuse of leftovers are the main drivers of food waste, while planning routines contribute indirectly. In turn, the routines are related to consumers' perceived capabilities to deal with household related activities. With regard to intentional processes, injunctive norms and attitudes towards food waste have an impact while moral norms and perceived behavioural control make no significant contribution. Implications of the study for initiatives aimed at changing consumers' food waste behaviour are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Industrial ecology: Environmental chemistry and hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-01-01

    Industrial ecology may be a relatively new concept -- yet it`s already proven instrumental for solving a wide variety of problems involving pollution and hazardous waste, especially where available material resources have been limited. By treating industrial systems in a manner that parallels ecological systems in nature, industrial ecology provides a substantial addition to the technologies of environmental chemistry. Stanley E. Manahan, bestselling author of many environmental chemistry books for Lewis Publishers, now examines Industrial Ecology: Environmental Chemistry and Hazardous Waste. His study of this innovative technology uses an overall framework of industrial ecology to cover hazardous wastes from an environmental chemistry perspective. Chapters one to seven focus on how industrial ecology relates to environmental science and technology, with consideration of the anthrosphere as one of five major environmental spheres. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with hazardous substances and hazardous waste, as they relate to industrial ecology and environmental chemistry.

  5. Kraft pulping of industrial wood waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz. Ahmed; Masood. Akhtar; Gary C. Myers; Gary M. Scott

    1998-01-01

    Most of the approximately 25 to 30 million tons of industrial wood waste generated in the United States per year is burned for energy and/or landfilled. In this study, kraft pulp from industrial wood waste was evaluated and compared with softwood (loblolly pine, Douglas-fir) and hardwood (aspen) pulp. Pulp bleachability was also evaluated. Compared to loblolly pine...

  6. Quantifying food waste in Hawaii's food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Matthew K; Leung, PingSun

    2015-12-01

    Food waste highlights a considerable loss of resources invested in the food supply chain. While it receives a lot of attention in the global context, the assessment of food waste is deficient at the sub-national level, owing primarily to an absence of quality data. This article serves to explore that gap and aims to quantify the edible weight, economic value, and calorie equivalent of food waste in Hawaii. The estimates are based on available food supply data for Hawaii and the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) loss-adjusted food availability data for defined food groups at three stages of the food supply chain. At its highest aggregated level, we estimate Hawaii's food waste generation at 237,122 t or 26% of available food supply in 2010. This is equivalent to food waste of 161.5 kg per person, per annum. Additionally, this food waste is valued at US$1.025 billion annually or the equivalent of 502.6 billion calories. It is further evident that the occurrence of food waste by all three measures is highest at the consumer stage, followed by the distribution and retail stage, and is lowest at the post-harvest and packing stage. The findings suggest that any meaningful intervention to reduce food waste in Hawaii should target the consumer, and distribution and retail stages of the food supply chain. Interventions at the consumer stage should focus on the two protein groups, as well as fresh fruits and fresh vegetables. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Domestic food practices: A study of food management behaviors and the role of food preparation planning in reducing waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Simona; Grappi, Silvia; Bagozzi, Richard P; Barone, Ada Maria

    2018-02-01

    Recent research has started to show the key role of daily food provision practices in affecting household food waste. Building on and extending these previous contributions, the objective of this paper is to investigate how individuals' everyday practices regarding food (e.g., shopping, cooking, eating, etc.) lead to food waste, and how policy makers and the food industry can implement effective strategies to influence such practices and ultimately help consumers reduce food waste. The research performs three Studies; a critical incident qualitative study (Study 1; N = 514) and a quantitative, survey-based study (Study 2; N = 456) to identify and examine relevant food management behaviors associated with domestic waste. Lastly, findings from a field experiment (Study 3; N = 210) suggest that a specific educational intervention, directed at increasing consumers' perceived skills related to food preparation planning behaviors, reduces domestic food waste. Implications of the research for policy makers and the food industry are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ionizing radiations in food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, M.; Tata, A.

    1999-01-01

    Foodstuffs treatment by ionization is able to produce both a shelf-life extension and/or a food borne diseases control through the pathogenic population reduction/elimination. The main process goal is to ensure the hygienic quality and the wholesomeness of products to be marketed, in order to limit food borne diseases originated mainly through the cross contamination process. In fact several products may contain pathogenic agents or bacteria (e.g. Salmonella and Campylbacter in poultry meat), whose associated pathologies are world-wide increasing. At present, over 40 countries provide clearances for the treatment of about 45 different types of foodstuffs and in over 20 of them the ionizing process is already industrially utilized for spices, poultry, shrimps and vegetables. As it refers to process economic aspects, market researches have shown cost figures ranging from few tens to some hundreds Lit/kg, depending on the dose to products. The costs are competitive with alternative treatments, beyond the recovery of economic productivity reduction caused by food borne diseases

  9. Minimising food waste: a call for multidisciplinary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamar, Maria Del Carmen; Falagán, Natalia; Aktas, Emel; Terry, Leon A

    2018-01-01

    Food losses and waste have always been a significant global problem for mankind, and one which has become increasingly recognised as such by policy makers, food producers, processors, retailers, and consumers. It is, however, an emotive subject whereby the extent, accuracy and resolution of available data on postharvest loss and waste are questionable, such that key performance indicators on waste can be misinformed. The nature and extent of food waste differ among developed economies, economies in transition and developing countries. While most emphasis has been put on increasing future crop production, far less resource has been and is still channelled towards enabling both established and innovative food preservation technologies to reduce food waste while maintaining safety and quality. Reducing food loss and waste is a more tractable problem than increasing production in the short to medium term, as its solution is not directly limited, for instance, by available land and water resources. Here we argue the need for a paradigm shift of current funding strategies and research programmes that will encourage the development, implementation and translation of collective biological, engineering and management solutions to better preserve and utilise food. Such multidisciplinary thinking across global supply chains is an essential element in the pursuit of achieving sustainable food and nutritional security. The implementation of allied technological and management solutions is reliant on there being sufficient skilled human capital and resources. There is currently a lack of robust postharvest research networks outside of the developed world, and insufficient global funding mechanisms that can support such interdisciplinary collaborations. There is, thus, a collective need for schemes that encourage inter-supply chain research, knowledge exchange and capacity building to reduce food losses and waste. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical

  10. Behavioral approach to food waste: an experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagau, H.; Vyrastekova, J.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of behavioral interventions and nudging in dealing with the food waste problem. In particular, the authors implement an information campaign aiming to increase consumers’ awareness of the food waste problem. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH:

  11. Energy from wastes and the private waste contracting industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    The focus of this ongoing work is the utilisation of general non hazardous industrial and commercial waste as an energy or fuel source. Whereas much of the existing experience in energy from waste (EFW) is related to municipal solid wastes (MSW), there is very little direct experience with these other waste streams and the shortage of reliable information in this field is notoriously lacking. It is important to have a good understanding of the private waste contracting industry (pwci) in order to establish the conditions under which energy from waste technologies may play an economically and technically feasible role within that industry's development. The Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) has encouraged entrepreneurial interest through premium payments for electricity generated from renewable sources. (author)

  12. Flocculent Settling of Food Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohammad Monirul Islam; Kim, Mingu; Haroun, Basem Mikhaeil; Nakhla, George; Keleman, Michael

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the flocculent settling in water and municipal wastewater (MWW) in a 10.6 ft deep column. A total of eight runs at three different testing conditions involving MWW alone, food waste (FW) alone, and FW in MWW (FW+MWW) were conducted. Total suspended solid (TSS), total BOD (TBOD), total COD (TCOD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP) removal efficiencies after 3 hours of settling were 62%, 46%, 49%, 46% and 62% for FW, and 50%, 43%, 39%, 37% and 24% for MWW. Removal efficiencies of particulate COD (PCOD) and particulate BOD (PBOD) at the lowest surface overflow rate (SOR) of 1.1 m3/m2/hr corresponding to the longest settling time of 3 hours were 59% and 64% for FW, and 65% and 70% for FW with MWW samples. On the other hand, no significant variation between FW and FW with MWW was observed for PN removal after 3 hours of settling.

  13. Solid waste management in Khartoum industrial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsidig, N. O. A.

    2004-05-01

    This study was conducted in Khartoum industrial area (KIA). The study discusses solid waste generation issues in KIA as well as solid waste collection, storage, transport and final disposal methods. A focus on environmental impact resulting from the accumulation of solid waste was presented by reviewing solid waste management in developed as well as developing countries starting from generation to final disposal. Environmental health legislation in Sudan was investigated. The study covers all the (eight) industrial sub-sectors presented in KIA. The main objective of the study is to assess the situation of solid waste in KIA. To fulfill the objectives of the study the researcher deemed it necessary to explore problems related to solid waste generation and solid waste arrangement with special emphasis on final disposal methods. Practically, 31 (thirty-one) factories representing the different industrial sub-sectors in KIA were studied. This represents 25% of the total number of factories located in KIA. Data were obtained by, questionnaires, interviews and observations mainly directed to concerned officials, solid waste workers, pickers and brokers. Obtained data were stored, coded, tabulated and analyzed using the computer systems (excel and SPSS programmes). The obtained results should clear deficiency in the management of solid waste which led to great environmental deterioration in KIA and neighboring residential areas. The environment in studied area is continuously polluted due to high pollution loads and unproved solid waste management. In order to maintain health environment operating factories have to pretreated their solid waste according to the recognized standards and waste minimization techniques such as recycling and re use should be widely applied, moreover, running crash programme for environmental sanitation in Khartoum state should be expanded and improved to include special characteristics of solid waste from industries. Finally, increase awareness

  14. The applications of nanotechnology in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Ladan; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush

    2011-09-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential of application in the food industry and processing as new tools for pathogen detection, disease treatment delivery systems, food packaging, and delivery of bioactive compounds to target sites. The application of nanotechnology in food systems will provide new methods to improve safety and the nutritional value of food products. This article will review the current advances of applications of nanotechnology in food science and technology. Also, it describes new current food laws for nanofood and novel articles in the field of risk assessment of using nanotechnology in the food industry.

  15. Assessment of industrial liquid waste management in Omdurman Industrial Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnasri, R. A. A.

    2003-04-01

    This study was conducted mainly to investigate the effects of industrial liquid waste on the environment in the Omdurman area. Various types of industries are found around Omdurman. According to the ISC the major industries are divided into eight major sub-sectors, each sub-sector is divided into types of industries. Special consideration was given to the liquid waste because of its effects. In addition to the available data, personal observation supported by photographs, laboratory analyses were carried on the industrial effluents. The investigated parameters in the analysis were, BOD, COD, O and G, Cr, TDS, TSS, pH, temp and conductivity. Interviews were conducted with waste handling workers in the industries, in order to assess the effects of industrial pollution. The results obtained showed that pollutants produced by all the factories were found to exceed the accepted levels of the industrial pollution control. The effluents disposed of in the sites allotted by municipal authorities have adverse effects on the surrounding environment and public health and amenities. Accordingly the study recommends that the waste water must be pretreated before being disposed of in site allotted by municipal authorities. Develop an appropriate system for industrial waste proper management. The study established the need to construct a sewage system in the area in order to minimize the pollutants from effluents. (Author)

  16. Assessment of industrial liquid waste management in Omdurman Industrial Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elnasri, R A. A. [Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2003-04-15

    This study was conducted mainly to investigate the effects of industrial liquid waste on the environment in the Omdurman area. Various types of industries are found around Omdurman. According to the ISC the major industries are divided into eight major sub-sectors, each sub-sector is divided into types of industries. Special consideration was given to the liquid waste because of its effects. In addition to the available data, personal observation supported by photographs, laboratory analyses were carried on the industrial effluents. The investigated parameters in the analysis were, BOD, COD, O and G, Cr, TDS, TSS, pH, temp and conductivity. Interviews were conducted with waste handling workers in the industries, in order to assess the effects of industrial pollution. The results obtained showed that pollutants produced by all the factories were found to exceed the accepted levels of the industrial pollution control. The effluents disposed of in the sites allotted by municipal authorities have adverse effects on the surrounding environment and public health and amenities. Accordingly the study recommends that the waste water must be pretreated before being disposed of in site allotted by municipal authorities. Develop an appropriate system for industrial waste proper management. The study established the need to construct a sewage system in the area in order to minimize the pollutants from effluents. (Author)

  17. The food industry and provincial economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Greg; Li, Duo

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the significance of the food industry for the Zhejiang provincial economy and for provincial economies generally. It is suggested that the strong ties between the food industry and provincial economies in China means that the food industry can be a key influence in the economic development of regional China. Moreover, the geographically diffuse nature of the food industry in China gives the industry a strategic significance in countering regional inequality within and between provinces, a by-product of China's rapid growth over the past 25 years. For these reasons, change in the food industry, whether it has its origins in the introduction of western fast foods, or in environmental, technological or economic trends, not only assumes significance for the health of the Chinese people (as other papers presented to the International Cuisine and Health Workshop at Hangzhou have pointed out), but also for the wealth of the nation and the way that wealth is distributed.

  18. Investment Attractiveness of Food Industries in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. О.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Effective investment is a factor for long-term company development. As enhancement of investment attractiveness is a required condition for economic growth and improvement of living standards, it needs to be on the agenda at government and company level. The article’s objective is to study investment attractiveness of food industries in Ukraine over 2012–2015. Investment attractiveness of food industries can be measured by indicators of liquidity, financial sustainability, and profit rate. Basically, food industries in Ukraine are attractive for investment, which is demonstrated by assessment of the financial indicators. The investment attractiveness worsened slightly in 2015 compared with 2014. The essential problems faced by food industries are shortage of internal funds and negative profit rate of all the activities, assets and own capital. Official statistical data and software package SPSS are used to build the dendrogram, allowing for dividing food industries by level of investment attractiveness into three groups: industries with high, medium and low level of investment attractiveness. It is found that meat industry is the one with the highest level of investment attractiveness. Also, investors should look positively at food-canning industry, oil and animal fat industry, flour-milling industry, starch and starch products industry, and other foods industry.

  19. Analysis of the European Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Banse, Martin; McDonald, Scott; Joint Research Centre; Institute for Prospective Technological Studies; Kaditi, Eleni

    2008-01-01

    This report is based on a study assigned to the Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS) by the European Commission¿s Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (JRC-IPTS) to investigate recent developments in the European food industry and the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade flows on the food industry in the EU-25. The report illustrates trends in and the structure of the European food industry. Past and possible future developments are ana...

  20. Rural development policy and food industry development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Derek; Abildtrup, Jens; Hedetoft, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Food industry firms in remote areas face a set of constraints, which have motivated the form and function of assistance instruments under various regional and rural development programmes. Recent food industry developments present new challenges to these firms, for which available assistance may...... be less appropriate. This paper employs telephone interviews and workshop discussions with firms in isolated locations to investigate their satisfaction with assistance programmes, their ability to innovate (through product introductions) and respond to challenges in the food industry (the emergence...

  1. Irradiation and the food industry in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisseau, P.

    1994-01-01

    Part of a special section on food irradiation. The historical development in France of some industrial applications of food irradiation resulting from efficient technology transfer to the food industry is discussed. The 4 basic steps in successfully marketing any technology transfer, including irradiated foods, are that research must define conditions of the product's application, legislation must specify conditions of its application, consumers must accept the product, and appropriate processing capacity must exist

  2. Linking Food Industry and Agriculture: The Case of Fruit-Juice Industry and Korean Food Franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sounghun; Choi, Ji-Hyeon

    2008-01-01

    In Korea, the portion of food industry has increased, while the portion of agriculture keeps decreasing. The alliance between agriculture and food industry results in the synergy between both industries as well as higher farmers' income. The goal of this study is to analyze the current status of the linkages between two food industries (fruit-juice industry and Korean-style meal franchise industry) and agriculture, and then to present the ways to strengthen the linkages. The discussion in thi...

  3. Food loss and waste management in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Guray; Salihoglu, Nezih Kamil; Ucaroglu, Selnur; Banar, Mufide

    2018-01-01

    Food waste can be an environmental and economic problem if not managed properly but it can meet various demands of a country if it is considered as a resource. The purpose of this report is to review the existing state of the field in Turkey and identify the potential of food waste as a resource. Food loss and waste (FLW) was examined throughout the food supply chain (FSC) and quantified using the FAO model. Edible FLW was estimated to be approximately 26milliontons/year. The amount of biodegradable waste was estimated based on waste statistics and research conducted on household food waste in Turkey. The total amount of biodegradable waste was found to be approximately 20milliontons/year, where more than 8.6milliontons/year of this waste is FLW from distribution and consumption in the FSC. Options for the end-of-life management of biodegradable wastes are also discussed in this review article. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Food Waste to Energy: An Overview of Sustainable Approaches for Food Waste Management and Nutrient Recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paritosh, Kunwar; Kushwaha, Sandeep K; Yadav, Monika; Pareek, Nidhi; Chawade, Aakash; Vivekanand, Vivekanand

    2017-01-01

    Food wastage and its accumulation are becoming a critical problem around the globe due to continuous increase of the world population. The exponential growth in food waste is imposing serious threats to our society like environmental pollution, health risk, and scarcity of dumping land. There is an urgent need to take appropriate measures to reduce food waste burden by adopting standard management practices. Currently, various kinds of approaches are investigated in waste food processing and management for societal benefits and applications. Anaerobic digestion approach has appeared as one of the most ecofriendly and promising solutions for food wastes management, energy, and nutrient production, which can contribute to world's ever-increasing energy requirements. Here, we have briefly described and explored the different aspects of anaerobic biodegrading approaches for food waste, effects of cosubstrates, effect of environmental factors, contribution of microbial population, and available computational resources for food waste management researches.

  5. Thermal energy storage for industrial waste heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, H. W.; Kedl, R. J.; Duscha, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The potential is examined for waste heat recovery and reuse through thermal energy storage in five specific industrial categories: (1) primary aluminum, (2) cement, (3) food processing, (4) paper and pulp, and (5) iron and steel. Preliminary results from Phase 1 feasibility studies suggest energy savings through fossil fuel displacement approaching 0.1 quad/yr in the 1985 period. Early implementation of recovery technologies with minimal development appears likely in the food processing and paper and pulp industries; development of the other three categories, though equally desirable, will probably require a greater investment in time and dollars.

  6. The potential of food preservation to reduce food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Martindale, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    While we state it seems unthinkable to throw away nearly a third of the food we produce, we still continue to overlook that we are all very much part of this problem because we all consume meals. The amount of food wasted clearly has an impact on our view of what we think a sustainable meal is and our research suggests food waste is a universal function that can help us determine the sustainability of diets. Achieving sustainability in food systems depends on the utilisation of both culinary ...

  7. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops......, and gives examples of the unique challenges faced by the SME food industry....

  8. Ecofeed, animal feed produced from recycled food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the price hike of imported grains for feed, the production of Ecofeed, feed produced from recycled food waste, has increased in recent years. Food dregs from the food and beverage processing industry and out-of-date food from supermarkets and convenience stores are most often used as raw materials for Ecofeed. As food waste usually contains a lot of moisture and is easily spoiled, guidelines prescribing measures to be taken when collecting, transporting and storing raw materials, and for the production, shipment, storage and use of Ecofeed products, have been developed to ensure the safety of Ecofeed. The guidelines also include measures that should be taken to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy when producing and using Ecofeed. A certification system was introduced in March 2009 to ensure the quality and safety of Ecofeed and thus promote its use.

  9. Ecofeed, animal feed produced from recycled food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Katsuaki; Yamatani, Shoich; Watahara, Masashi; Onodera, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Due to the price hike of imported grains for feed, the production of Ecofeed, feed produced from recycled food waste, has increased in recent years. Food dregs from the food and beverage processing industry and out-of-date food from supermarkets and convenience stores are most often used as raw materials for Ecofeed. As food waste usually contains a lot of moisture and is easily spoiled, guidelines prescribing measures to be taken when collecting, transporting and storing raw materials, and for the production, shipment, storage and use of Ecofeed products, have been developed to ensure the safety of Ecofeed. The guidelines also include measures that should be taken to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy when producing and using Ecofeed. A certification system was introduced in March 2009 to ensure the quality and safety of Ecofeed and thus promote its use.

  10. Consumer and food industries education on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Z.

    2001-01-01

    A survey was conducted on Malaysian food industries to determine the interest and potential applications of food irradiation as an alternative or to complement existing food preservation treatments. A total of 37 food processors representing 5 subsectors of the food industry participated in the survey. Information collected showed that majority of respondents were aware of food irradiation but the level of knowledge was low. Half of respondents perceived food irradiation as safe and 23% will consider using it for commercial purposes. Main concerns of the food processors were safety of the process, safety of irradiated food, efficacy of the process and consumer acceptance. Food irradiation applications considered to have the most potential for use by the food industry, were those which would improve the hygienic quality of food products. Despite the limited knowledge, respondents strongly supported the need to promote food irradiation technology in Malaysia. In view of this finding. various promotional activities have been continuously carried out to increase public awareness and understanding of the technology so as to facilitate acceptance of food irradiation in Malaysia. (author)

  11. INDUSTRIAL FOOD – THE DAILY TOXIN SERVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrodita BORMA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the opposition between industrial and organic food. The method used focuses on an extensive documentation based on statistical data, documentary films, books and articles that provide us various information about the devastating effect of chemicals used by the food industry. Most of the documents used are based on case studies and concrete examples that condemn the current food industry, which “forces” the population of the globe to consume artificial food, (lacking vitamins and minerals, which, according to specialists, “keeps us alive but hurries the end”. In order to change this cruel reality, a growing number of activists (physicians, economists, biologists, chemists, etc. fight to stop the food chaos created by the current food industry, seeking and offering viable solutions for protecting the environment and the public health.

  12. Conceptual framework for the study of food waste generation and prevention in the hospitality sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papargyropoulou, Effie; Wright, Nigel; Lozano, Rodrigo; Steinberger, Julia; Padfield, Rory; Ujang, Zaini

    2016-03-01

    Food waste has significant detrimental economic, environmental and social impacts. The magnitude and complexity of the global food waste problem has brought it to the forefront of the environmental agenda; however, there has been little research on the patterns and drivers of food waste generation, especially outside the household. This is partially due to weaknesses in the methodological approaches used to understand such a complex problem. This paper proposes a novel conceptual framework to identify and explain the patterns and drivers of food waste generation in the hospitality sector, with the aim of identifying food waste prevention measures. This conceptual framework integrates data collection and analysis methods from ethnography and grounded theory, complemented with concepts and tools from industrial ecology for the analysis of quantitative data. A case study of food waste generation at a hotel restaurant in Malaysia is used as an example to illustrate how this conceptual framework can be applied. The conceptual framework links the biophysical and economic flows of food provisioning and waste generation, with the social and cultural practices associated with food preparation and consumption. The case study demonstrates that food waste is intrinsically linked to the way we provision and consume food, the material and socio-cultural context of food consumption and food waste generation. Food provisioning, food consumption and food waste generation should be studied together in order to fully understand how, where and most importantly why food waste is generated. This understanding will then enable to draw detailed, case specific food waste prevention plans addressing the material and socio-economic aspects of food waste generation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Guide for Industrial Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the Guide is to provide facility managers, state and tribal regulators, and the interested public with recommendations and tools to better address the management of land-disposed, non-hazardousindustrial wastes.

  14. Industrial Water Waste, Problems and the Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alif Noor Anna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the long term development in Indonesia has changed agricultural sector to the industrial sector. This development can apparently harm our own people. This is due to the waste that is produced from factories. The waste from various factories seems to have different characteristics. This defference encourages us to be able to find out different of methods of managing waste so that cost can be reduced, especially in water treatment. In order that industrial development and environmental preservation can run together in balance, many institutions involved should be consider, especially in the industrial chain, the environment, and human resource, these three elements can be examined in terms of their tolerance to waste.

  15. Compositional data analysis of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus

    Food waste is a growing public concern because the food production and distribution exert enormous pressure on natural resources such as land, water and energy, and leads to significant environmental, societal and economic impacts. Thus, the European Commission has aimed to reduce to 50% the total...... amount of discarded edible food waste by 2020 within the European Union (EU) Member States. Reliable data on food waste and a better understanding of the food waste generation patterns are crucial for planning the avoidable food waste reduction and an environmental sound treatment of unavoidable food...... waste. Although, food waste composition carries relative information, no attempt was made to analysis food waste composition as compositional data. Thus the relationship between food waste fractions has been analysed by mean of Pearson correlation test and log-ratio analysis. The food waste data...

  16. Renewable energy recovery through selected industrial wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengchong

    Typically, industrial waste treatment costs a large amount of capital, and creates environmental concerns as well. A sound alternative for treating these industrial wastes is anaerobic digestion. This technique reduces environmental pollution, and recovers renewable energy from the organic fraction of those selected industrial wastes, mostly in the form of biogas (methane). By applying anaerobic technique, selected industrial wastes could be converted from cash negative materials into economic energy feed stocks. In this study, three kinds of industrial wastes (paper mill wastes, brown grease, and corn-ethanol thin stillage) were selected, their performance in the anaerobic digestion system was studied and their applicability was investigated as well. A pilot-scale system, including anaerobic section (homogenization, pre-digestion, and anaerobic digestion) and aerobic section (activated sludge) was applied to the selected waste streams. The investigation of selected waste streams was in a gradually progressive order. For paper mill effluents, since those effluents contain a large amount of recalcitrant or toxic compounds, the anaerobic-aerobic system was used to check its treatability, including organic removal efficiency, substrate utilization rate, and methane yield. The results showed the selected effluents were anaerobically treatable. For brown grease, as it is already well known as a treatable substrate, a high rate anaerobic digester were applied to check the economic effect of this substrate, including methane yield and substrate utilization rate. These data from pilot-scale experiment have the potential to be applied to full-scale plant. For thin stillage, anaerobic digestion system has been incorporated to the traditional ethanol making process as a gate-to-gate process. The performance of anaerobic digester was applied to the gate-to-gate life-cycle analysis to estimate the energy saving and industrial cost saving in a typical ethanol plant.

  17. Processing- and product-related causes for food waste and implications for the food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raak, Norbert; Symmank, Claudia; Zahn, Susann; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Rohm, Harald

    2017-03-01

    Reducing food waste is one of the prominent goals in the current research, which has also been set by the United Nations to achieve a more sustainable world by 2030. Given that previous studies mainly examined causes for food waste generation related to consumers, e.g., expectations regarding quality or uncertainties about edibility, this review aims at providing an overview on losses in the food industry, as well as on natural mechanisms by which impeccable food items are converted into an undesired state. For this, scientific literature was reviewed based on a keyword search, and information not covered was gathered by conducting expert interviews with representatives from 13 German food processing companies. From the available literature, three main areas of food waste generation were identified and discussed: product deterioration and spoilage during logistical operations, by-products from food processing, and consumer perception of quality and safety. In addition, expert interviews revealed causes for food waste in the processing sector, which were categorised as follows: losses resulting from processing operations and quality assurance, and products not fulfilling quality demands from trade. The interviewees explained a number of strategies to minimise food losses, starting with alternative tradeways for second choice items, and ending with emergency power supplies to compensate for power blackouts. It became clear that the concepts are not universally applicable for each company, but the overview provided in the present study may support researchers in finding appropriate solutions for individual cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Production of single cell protein (SCP) from food and agricultural waste by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasi, Teresa; Pellizzeri, Vito; Calabrese, Giorgio; Di Bella, Giuseppa; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo

    2018-03-01

    Food waste is the single-largest component of the waste stream, in order to protect and safeguard the public health, useful and innovative recycling methods are investigated. The conversion of food wastes in value-added products is becoming a more economically viable and interesting practice. Food waste, collected in the distribution sector and citrus industries, was characterised for its potential as a raw material to use in fermentation processes. In this study, the production of single-cell protein (SCP) using food waste as a substrate was investigated. The purpose of this study has been to produce SCP from mixtures of food waste using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The main fermentation test was carried out using a 25 l bioreactor. The utilisation of food waste can allow us to not only to reduce environmental pollution, but also to obtain value-added products such as protein supply for animal feed.

  19. Food waste reduction practices in German food retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsdorf, David; Rombach, Meike; Bitsch, Vera

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate food retailers food waste reduction practices in Germany. The focus is on selling and redistributing agricultural produce with visual impairments and other surplus food items. In addition, drivers and barriers regarding the implementation of both waste reduction practices are explored. In total, 12 in-depth interviews with managerial actors in the food retail sector and a food bank spokesperson were recorded, transcribed and analyzed through a qualitative content analysis. In contrast to organic retailers, conventional retailers were reluctant to include agricultural produce with visual impairments in their product assortments, due to fears of negative consumer reactions. Another obstacle was EU marketing standards for specific produce. All retailers interviewed engaged in redistribution of surplus food. Logistics and the regulatory framework were the main barriers to food redistribution. The present study adds to the existing body of literature on food waste reduction practices as it explores selling produce with visual impairments and elaborates on the legal background of food redistribution in German retail. The results are the foundation for providing recommendations to policy makers and charitable food organizations.

  20. Combustion stability and thermal efficiency in a porous media burner for LPG cooking in the food industry using Al_2O_3 particles coming from grinding wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, Bernardo; Cacua, Karen; Olmos-Villalba, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Cooking is one of the most thermal-energy consuming processes in the food industry and development of devices that contribute to decrease the consumption of fossil fuel is a matter of great importance. This decreasing in consumption can both enlarge competitiveness in the enterprises of this sector and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and other toxic combustion by products such as, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. A porous burner made of a bed of Al_2O_3 particles coming from grinding residues and combined with ceramic foam of SiSiC has been evaluated respect to Liquefied Petroleum Gas combustion stability and thermal efficiency for cooking in food industry. The results showed that for specific heat input rate lower than 154 kW/m"2, the upper and lower equivalence ratio on the stability limit follow approximately a linear trend, as well as the wide of the range of stability remains constant. But this trend is broken when higher heat input rate is applied. Also, every equivalence ratio for stable combustion was in the lean ratio and stoichiometric combustion values were not feasible because flashback occurred. Emissions of CO were in acceptable values lower than 25 ppm for specific heat input rate lower than 154 kW/m"2 but an important rising in the CO emissions could be seen when the burner worked at higher heat input rate due to a moderate lift-off and quenching on the surface of the burner. Thermal efficiency was calculated in two different working ways: the “radiation–convection” and “conduction”. Thermal efficiency in the “radiation–convection” was between 15.7% and 23.6%, which are lower than the average thermal efficiency of the conventional free-flame burner. But the “conduction” mode showed a significant advantage respect to free flame conventional burners, since it could improve the thermal efficiency between 7% and 14%. The improvement in efficiency and the possibility of interrupting the flow of fuel in a cyclical operation

  1. Scenario research: The food industry in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey, Julia; Sonne, Anne-Mette; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    2001-01-01

    What kind of foods will the consumers choose to buy in 2010? Will they be buying organic foods, functional foods or go for the cheapest products? Nobody can predict the future. However, by using scenario techniques qualified indications on future developments can be put together. Researchers at MAPP and the Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management, The Technical University of Denmark have constructed three scenarios about the Danish food industry in 2010. The aim has been to ide...

  2. Animal and industrial waste anaerobic digestion: USA status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.D. [Resource Development Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Pollutants from unmanaged animal and bio-based industrial wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing wastes may contribute to global climate change. One waste management system prevents pollution and converts a disposal problem into a new profit center. Case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes is a commercially available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel. Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities to properly dispose of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Beyond the farm, extension of the anaerobic digestion process to recover methane has considerable potential for certain classified industries - with a waste stream characterization similar to livestock manures. More than 35 example industries have been identified, and include processors of chemicals, fiber, food, meat, milk, and pharmaceuticals. Some of these industries already recover methane for energy. This status report examines some current opportunities for recovering methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes in the US. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s {open_quotes}lessons learned,{close_quotes} are included as a reality check. Factors necessary for successful projects, as well as a list of reasons explaining why some anaerobic digestion projects fail, are provided. The role of management is key; not only must digesters be well engineered and built with high-quality components, they must also be sited at facilities willing to incorporate the uncertainties of a new technology. Anaerobic digestion can provide monetary benefits and mitigate possible pollution problems, thereby sustaining development while maintaining environmental quality.

  3. Solid waste management in the hospitality industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirani, Sanaa I; Arafat, Hassan A

    2014-12-15

    Solid waste management is a key aspect of the environmental management of establishments belonging to the hospitality sector. In this study, we reviewed literature in this area, examining the current status of waste management for the hospitality sector, in general, with a focus on food waste management in particular. We specifically examined the for-profit subdivision of the hospitality sector, comprising primarily of hotels and restaurants. An account is given of the causes of the different types of waste encountered in this sector and what strategies may be used to reduce them. These strategies are further highlighted in terms of initiatives and practices which are already being implemented around the world to facilitate sustainable waste management. We also recommended a general waste management procedure to be followed by properties of the hospitality sector and described how waste mapping, an innovative yet simple strategy, can significantly reduce the waste generation of a hotel. Generally, we found that not many scholarly publications are available in this area of research. More studies need to be carried out on the implementation of sustainable waste management for the hospitality industry in different parts of the world and the challenges and opportunities involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy use in the food manufacturing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, A.C.; Earle, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    A survey was conducted to find the level of energy consumption in the food manufacturing industry, which is the food processing industry excluding meat, dairy, and brewing. Data were used from 74 factories. The manufacturing industry was divided into 14 industry groups and the 4 major energy consumers were found to be fruit and vegetable processing, sugar refining, animal feed production, and bread and pastry baking. The present report summarizes results from the survey. It determined the following: the sources of energy used by the insu industry and the annual consumption of each energy form; the consumption of fuel and electricity in the production of the various manufactured food products; the minimum practical energy requirement for processing the various food products; and the potential for conservation and the methods for achieving savings.

  5. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE's Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit

  6. Scenario research: The food industry in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacey, Julia; Sonne, Anne-Mette; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    2001-01-01

    What kind of foods will the consumers choose to buy in 2010? Will they be buying organic foods, functional foods or go for the cheapest products? Nobody can predict the future. However, by using scenario techniques qualified indications on future developments can be put together. Researchers...... at MAPP and the Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management, The Technical University of Denmark have constructed three scenarios about the Danish food industry in 2010. The aim has been to identify the demands the food industry can expect to meet in the future plus which research areas...... the public research should prioritise in order to support the development of competences within the food industry. The scenarios are isolated developments. In practise, the future is likely to be a combination of the different tendencies within the scenarios. The first scenario 'Naturalness' has focus...

  7. Current state of waste and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1979-01-01

    Research and industrial applications are briefly described of irradiation technology in Czechoslovakia and in other countries. Intensive research into the irradiation of meat, grain, fruit and vegetables is going on; it has not, however, been widely applied in practice. The objective of the research into industrial and agricultural waste irradiation is to make the wastes usable as fertilizers or feed additives for farm animals. (M.S.)

  8. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12 tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food...... waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434 ± 18 kg per household per year, of which 183...... ± 10 kg per year was food waste. Unavoidable food waste amounted to 80 ± 6 kg per household per year, and avoidable food waste was 103 ± 9 kg per household per year. Food waste mass was influenced significantly by the number of occupants per household (household size) and the housing type. The results...

  9. An essay on: management of industrial waste, an engineer's viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Industrial waste and industrial waste management are described, with economic considerations and recommendations for an industrial waste management program applicable in Lebanon. Different conceptual systems for industrial waste management are presented: - The O effluent industrial plant, an electric manufacturing plant with mass and energy balance. - The industrial complexing concept where environmentally balanced and compatible, industries are located in one area. Waste effluents from one plant can be used as raw material for another plant. - A standard petroleum waste recovery plant to cope with local requirements complementary to the proposed sanitary waste treatment plant in Lebanon. Major sources of industrial waste in Lebanon are analyzed:local process industries, hospitals, laboratories, petroleum industries and power generation, are the major sources cited. For each source the level of treatment is indicated. Tables and appendixes on waste treatment and management along with the ISO 9000 series are presented. 10 refs. 3 figs

  10. Scenarios for the food industry in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Hanne; Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Sonne, Anne-Mette

    2001-01-01

    visions of the future of the food industry and to assess their implications for competence requirements. Given the uncertain nature of the environment, food companies cannot rely on today's competencies being sufficient to fulfil the demands of tomorrow's markets. However, predicting the determinants......Predicting the future is impossible; corporate decision-makers have, however, to decide which competencies to develop precisely on this basis. This article presents the results of a research project on scenario analyses in the Danish food industry. The aim of the study is to look at alternative...... of success in the food industry 10 years hence is a daunting task. Scenario techniques can be very useful in this respect (von Reibnitz, 1988). The contribution of the article is the methodological approach to scenario building, which combines academic and industry input and translates the scenarios...

  11. Bioenergy Potential from Food Waste in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, Hanna M; Jin, Ling; Robinson, Alastair; Scown, Corinne D

    2017-02-07

    Food waste makes up approximately 15% of municipal solid waste generated in the United States, and 95% of food waste is ultimately landfilled. Its bioavailable carbon and nutrient content makes it a major contributor to landfill methane emissions, but also presents an important opportunity for energy recovery. This paper presents the first detailed analysis of monthly food waste generation in California at a county level, and its potential contribution to the state's energy production. Scenarios that rely on excess capacity at existing anaerobic digester (AD) and solid biomass combustion facilities, and alternatives that allow for new facility construction, are developed and modeled. Potential monthly electricity generation from the conversion of gross food waste using a combination of AD and combustion varies from 420 to 700 MW, averaging 530 MW. At least 66% of gross high moisture solids and 23% of gross low moisture solids can be treated using existing county infrastructure, and this fraction increases to 99% of high moisture solids and 55% of low moisture solids if waste can be shipped anywhere within the state. Biogas flaring practices at AD facilities can reduce potential energy production by 10 to 40%.

  12. Investment Attractiveness of Food Industries in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    L. О.

    2017-01-01

    Effective investment is a factor for long-term company development. As enhancement of investment attractiveness is a required condition for economic growth and improvement of living standards, it needs to be on the agenda at government and company level. The article’s objective is to study investment attractiveness of food industries in Ukraine over 2012–2015. Investment attractiveness of food industries can be measured by indicators of liquidity, financial sustainability, and profit rate...

  13. Waste Material Management: Energy and materials for industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This booklet describes DOE`s Waste Material Management (WMM) programs, which are designed to help tap the potential of waste materials. Four programs are described in general terms: Industrial Waste Reduction, Waste Utilization and Conversion, Energy from Municipal Waste, and Solar Industrial Applications.

  14. Consumer Information in the food service industry vs. food retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Rogge, C.B.E.; Becker, Tilman C.

    2008-01-01

    In order to define consumer expectations over a traceability and information system for the entire food supply chain, the information behaviour of consumers in the food service industry has been subject to an analysis for the first time. In comparison to consumers in retailing, significant differences appear in information seeking behaviour as well as in the information desired.

  15. Safety of Nanotechnology in Food Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Seyed Mohammad; Gilaki, Marzieh; Karchani, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    The arrival of nanotechnology in various industries has been so rapid and widespread because of its wide-ranging applications in our daily lives. Nutrition and food service is one of the biggest industries to be affected by nanotechnology in all areas, changing even the nature of food itself. Whether it’s farming, food packaging, or the prevention of microbial contamination the major food industries have seen dramatic changes because of nanotechnology. Different nanomaterials such as nanopowders, nanotubes, nano-fibers, quantum dots, and metal and metal-oxide nanoparticles are globally produced in large quantities due to their broad applicability in food-related industries. Because of the unique properties of nanostructures and nanomaterials – such as a large surface area, high activity, and small size, there is some concern about the potential for harmful adverse effects of used nanomaterials on health or the environment. However, because of tremendous advances in different industries, this concern may be unnecessary. This paper presents some uses of nanomaterials in food and related industries and their possible side-effects. This review covers the various aspects of nanomaterials and their impact on human exposure, safety, and environmental concerns. PMID:25763176

  16. Exergy analysis in industrial food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisopoulos, F.K.

    2016-01-01

    The sustainable provision of food on a global scale in the near future is a very serious challenge. This thesis focuses on the assessment and design of sustainable industrial food production chains and processes by using the concept of exergy which is an objective metric based on the first and

  17. Challenges facing the food industry: Examples from the baked goods sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Jacobsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry, illustrated by a case study from the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to address in order to limit waste, improve productivity and increase profitability.......This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry, illustrated by a case study from the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to address in order to limit waste, improve productivity and increase profitability....

  18. Hygienic Design in the Food Processing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Hjelm, M.

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are of major concern in food production and processing industry. In 1998 a Danish co-operation programme under the title Centre for Hygienic Design was funded to combine the skills of universities, research institutes and industry to focus on the following...

  19. CONSUMER ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS FOOD WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Radzymińska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the attitudes and behaviour of young consumers towards food waste based on a pilot qualitative research and data published in the literature. Qualitative research was conducted with the use of focus grou p method, with approximately 8–10 selected students per group. Four focus group sessions were held, with open discussion led by a moderator and the scenario containing problematic issues. The study included a total of thirty-seven students, aged 22– 25 years. Studies have shown that negative attitude of household towards food waste is not frequently refl ected in consumers’ behaviour, despite their fundamental knowledge on how to reduce food waste. Respondents emphasized the need for educational campaigns. Properly selected and presented information will stimulate both consumer’s attitude and behaviour.

  20. Innovation in the Food Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traill, W.B.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.

    2002-01-01

    Twelve food-manufacturing companies in six European countries have been studied with respect to the way in which they innovate, their motivations, and their emphasis on product or process innovation. It is suggested that the traditional demand-pull versus technology-push versus a mixture of both

  1. Clearance level and industrial waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Toichi

    1999-01-01

    Defining the clearance level enables the radioactive waste with lower radioactivity than a certain level to be the general industrial waste and therefore consideration for public acceptance is essential. For this, it is necessary to understand laws concerning not only atomic power and radioactivity but also disposal and cleaning of general waste. It is also necessary that the waste below the clearance level should be as much as possible handled in the modern common concept of recycling of resources. In 1996, the weight of industrial waste was about 400 million tons, of which 40% was disposed by burning and dehydration, 39% was re-used and 21% was subjected to the final disposal like reclamation. Reduction, re-use and recycling of the generated waste are required for making the society with recycling of resources. Scrap concrete materials below the clearance level of 0.6 million tons are estimated to be generated by dismantling the light water reactor of 1 million kW output and profitable technology for recycling the scrap is under investigation. (K.H.)

  2. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This document consists of page replacements for the Y-12 industrial waste landfill. The cover page is to replace the old page, and a new set of text pages are to replace the old ones. A replacement design drawing is also included

  3. Acoustic barriers obtained from industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Valles, M; Avila, G; Martinez, S; Terradas, R; Nogués, J M

    2008-07-01

    Acoustic pollution is an environmental problem that is becoming increasingly more important in our society. Likewise, the accumulation of generated waste and the need for waste management are also becoming more and more pressing. In this study we describe a new material--called PROUSO--obtained from industrial wastes. PROUSO has a variety of commercial and engineering, as well as building, applications. The main raw materials used for this environmentally friendly material come from slag from the aluminium recycling process, dust from the marble industry, foundry sands, and recycled expanded polystyrene from recycled packaging. Some natural materials, such as plastic clays, are also used. To obtain PROUSO we used a conventional ceramic process, forming new mineral phases and incorporating polluted elements into the structure. Its physical properties make PROUSO an excellent acoustic and thermal insulation material. It absorbs 95% of the sound in the frequency band of the 500 Hz. Its compressive strength makes it ideal for use in ceramic wall building.

  4. Energy conservation status in Taiwanese food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Chih-Ming; Chen, Ming-Hue; Hong, Gui-Bing

    2012-01-01

    The food industry in Taiwan is labor intensive, the cost of raw materials is high, and there is much product diversification. Although this industry is primarily small and medium scale, it is a large user of electricity in Taiwan's manufacturing sector. The concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from manufacturing activities and vehicle emissions has increased remarkably. Energy audits are a basic and direct means by which energy efficiency can be improved, energy consumption reduced, and carbon dioxide emissions inhibited. This work summarizes the energy saving potential of 76 firms and the energy savings implemented by 23 firms as determined by energy audit tracking and from the on-line energy declaration system in Taiwan's food industry. The results of this study can serve as a benchmark for developing a quantified list in terms of potential energy savings and opportunities for improving the efficiency of the food industry. - Highlights: ► This work summarizes the energy saving potential and the energy savings implemented in food industry. ► The results of this study can serve as a benchmark for developing a quantified list in terms of potential energy savings. ► The opportunities for improving the efficiency of the food industry can be a reference.

  5. Chemical Industry Waste water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, F.A.; Doma, H.S.; El-Shafai, S.A.; Abdel-HaJim, H.S.

    2004-01-01

    Treatment of chemical industrial wastewater from building and construction chemicals factory and plastic shoes manufacturing factory was investigated. The two factories discharge their wastewater into the public sewerage network. The results showed the wastewater discharged from the building and construction chemicals factory was highly contaminated with organic compounds. The average values of COD and BOD were 2912 and 150 mg O 2 /l. Phenol concentration up to 0.3 mg/l was detected. Chemical treatment using lime aided with ferric chloride proved to be effective and produced an effluent characteristics in compliance with Egyptian permissible limits. With respect to the other factory, industrial wastewater was mixed with domestic wastewater in order to lower the organic load. The COD, BOD values after mixing reached 5239 and 2615 mg O 2 /l. The average concentration of phenol was 0.5 mg/l. Biological treatment using activated sludge or rotating biological contactor (RBe) proved to be an effective treatment system in terms of producing an effluent characteristic within the permissible limits set by the law

  6. An eco friendly solution to the food waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, G. Reddy; Kumar, G. Madhav

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, waste disposal at workmen camp is one of the major problems being faced by many nations across the world. In the workmen colony at Chittapur, a series of kitchens were built for cooking purpose and a number of small canteens are also functioning. Considerable quantity of food waste is collected daily from these eateries and disposed at a faraway place. Food waste is highly degradable in nature, if not disposed properly it causes problems related to environmental pollution. Hence, it is very important to identify an environment friendly process rather than opt for land filling or any disposal method. We worked together to find a suitable eco-friendly solution for the food waste disposal at Chittapur site and suggested that biogas production through anaerobic digestion is a solution for the disposal and utilization of food waste for better purpose. This resulted in setting up a 500 kg per day food waste treatment biogas plant at Chittapur. This establishment is the first time in the construction industry at workmen camp in India. Anaerobic Digestion has been recognized as one of the best options that is available for treating food waste, as it generates two valuable end products, biogas and compost. Biogas is a mixture of CH4 and CO2 about (55:45). Biogas generated can be used for thermal applications such as cooking or for generating electricity. The digested slurry is a well stabilized organic manure and can be used as soil fertilizer. Plant design is to handle 500 kg of food waste /day. 27 kg LPG is obtained from 500kg of kitchen waste. The Value of 27 kg of LPG is Rs.2700/day. Daily 1000 litres of digested effluent was obtained. It is good organic manure with plant micro nutrients and macro nutrients. This can be used for growing plants and in agriculture. The value of manure per day is Rs.250/-. The annual revenue is Rs.10.62 lakhs and the annual expenditure is 1.8 lakhs. The net benefit is 8.82 lakhs. Payback period is 2.1 years. This process

  7. From alternative Agriculture to the Food Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thorkild; Kristensen, Niels Heine

    1997-01-01

    for organic agriculture over the last decade.Organic food production is now developing fast in some EU member states. This recent development is not only marked by more positive attitudes towards organic products from the food industry but also by an increasing need for a matching response in terms of food...... policy. Relevance: The EU regulation 2092/91/EEC is mainly focused on organic agriculture, but as the food industryenters this field the need emerges for a more specific interpretation, development and implementation of the organic principles and methods in processing, handling and distribution. Whether...

  8. Bioremediation of industrial waste through mushroom cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep; Jain, B L

    2010-07-01

    Handmade paper and cardboard industries are involved in processing of cellulosic and ligno-cellulosic substances for making paper by hand or simple machinery. In the present study solid sludge and effluent of both cardboard and handmade paper industries was collected for developing a mushroom cultivation technique to achieve zero waste discharges. Findings of present research work reveals that when 50% paper industries waste is used by mixing with 50% (w/w) wheat straw, significant increase (96.38%) in biological efficiency over control of wheat straw was observed. Further, cultivated basidiocarps showed normal morphology of stipe and pileus. Cross section of lamellae did not show any abnormality in the attachment of basidiospores, hymenal trama and basidium. No toxicity was found when fruiting bodies were tested chemically.

  9. Unsustainability of Obesity: Metabolic Food Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, Mauro; Toti, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    The obesity burden, with 1.5 billion overweight (OW) and 500 million obese (OB) worldwide, significantly increased the risk of degenerative diseases. Excessive consumption of foods that are energy dense lead to obesity, which represents a titanic cost for not only the world?s health systems but also a substantial ecological cost to the environment. The waste of resources and the unnecessary green house gas emissions (GHGs) emission, due to ?obesigen? consumption of foods, have been ignored so...

  10. Solutions for energy recovery of animal waste from leather industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaroiu, Gheorghe; Pană, Constantin; Mihaescu, Lucian; Cernat, Alexandru; Negurescu, Niculae; Mocanu, Raluca; Negreanu, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Animal fats in blend with diesel fuel for energy valorification through combustion. • Animal waste from tanneries as fuel and for biogas production. • Experimental tests using animal fats as fuel for diesel engines. • Experimental tests modifying the characteristic parameters. - Abstract: Secondary products from food and leather industries are regarded as animal wastes. Conversion of these animal wastes into fuels represents an energy recovery solution not only because of their good combustion properties, but also from the viewpoint of supply stability. A tannery factory usually processes 60–70 t/month of crude leathers, resulting in 12–15 t/month of waste. Fats, which can be used as the input fuel for diesel engines (in crude state or as biodiesel), represent 10% of this animal waste, while the rest are proteins that can be used to generate biogas through anaerobic digestion. Herein, we analyse two approaches to the use of animal waste from tanneries: as fuel for diesel engines and for biogas generation for heat production. Diesel fuelling and fuelling by animal wastes are compared in terms of the engine performance and pollutant emissions. The effects of animal waste usage on the pollutant emissions level, exhaust gas temperature, indicated mean effective pressure, maximum pressure, and engine efficiency are analysed. The energy recovery technologies for animal waste, which are analysed in this work, can be easily implemented and can simultaneously solve the problem posed by animal wastes by using them as an alternative to fossil fuels. Animal fats can be considered an excellent alternative fuel for diesel engines without major constructive modifications.

  11. An industrial radiation source for food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadat, R.

    1986-01-01

    The scientific linacs realized by CGR MeV in France have been installed in several research centers, the medical accelerators of CGR MeV have been installed in radiotherapy centers all over the world, and the industrial linacs have been used for radiography in heavy industries. Based on the experience for 30 years, CGR MeV has realized a new industrial radiation source for food processing. CARIC is going to install a new machine of CGR MeV, CASSITRON, as the demand for radiation increased. This machine has been devised specially for industrial irradiation purpose. Its main features are security, simplicity and reliability, and it is easy to incorporate it into a production line. The use of CASSITRON for food industry, the ionizing effect on mechanically separated poultry meat, the capital and processing cost and others are explained. Only 10 % of medical disposable supplies is treated by ionizing energy in France. The irradiation for food decontamination, and that for industrial treatment are demanded. Therefore, CARIC is going to increase the capacity by installing a CASSITRON for sterilization. The capital and processing cost are shown. The start of operation is expected in March, 1986. At present, a CASSITRON is being installed in the SPI food processing factory, and starts operation in a few weeks. (Kako, I.)

  12. Bioenergy Potential from Food Waste in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breunig, Hanna M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Jin, Ling [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Robinson, Alastair [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Scown, Corinne D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States)

    2017-01-25

    This paper presents the first detailed analysis of monthly food waste generation in California at a county level, and its potential contribution to the state's energy production. Scenarios that rely on excess capacity at existing anaerobic digester (AD) and solid biomass combustion facilities, and alternatives that allow for new facility construction, are developed and modeled. Potential monthly electricity generation from the conversion of gross food waste using a combination of AD and combustion varies from 420 to 700 MW, averaging 530 MW. At least 66% of gross high moisture solids and 23% of gross low moisture solids can be treated using existing county infrastructure, and this fraction increases to 99% of high moisture solids and 55% of low moisture solids if waste can be shipped anywhere within the state. Biogas flaring practices at AD facilities can reduce potential energy production by 10 to 40%.

  13. The opportunity of tracking food waste in school canteens: Guidelines for self-assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derqui, Belén; Fernandez, Vicenc

    2017-11-01

    Reducing food waste is one of the key challenges of the food system and addressing it in the institutional catering industry can be a quick win. In particular, school canteens are a significant source of food waste and therefore embody a great opportunity to address food waste. The goal of our research is the development of guidelines for audit and self-assessment in measuring and managing food waste produced at school canteens. The purpose of the tool is to standardise food waste audits to be executed either by scholars, school staff or by catering companies with the objective of measuring and reducing food waste at schools. We performed a research among public and private schools and catering companies from which we obtained the key performance indicators to be measured and then pilot-tested the resulting tool in four schools with over 2900 pupil participants, measuring plate waste from over 10,000 trays. This tool will help managers in their efforts towards more sustainable organisations at the same time as the standardisation of food waste audits will provide researchers with comparable data. The study suggests that although there is low awareness on the amount of food wasted at school canteens, managers and staff are highly interested in the topic and would be willing to implement audits and reduction measures. The case study also showed that our tool is easy to implement and not disruptive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Applications of Microbial Enzymes in Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Parameswaran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of enzymes or microorganisms in food preparations is an age-old process. With the advancement of technology, novel enzymes with wide range of applications and specificity have been developed and new application areas are still being explored. Microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast and fungi and their enzymes are widely used in several food preparations for improving the taste and texture and they offer huge economic benefits to industries. Microbial enzymes are the preferred source to plants or animals due to several advantages such as easy, cost-effective and consistent production. The present review discusses the recent advancement in enzyme technology for food industries. A comprehensive list of enzymes used in food processing, the microbial source of these enzymes and the wide range of their application are discussed.

  15. Progressive technologies in the food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chyleova, L.; Sukova, I.

    1987-01-01

    The collection of papers presented at the training of food industry specialists contains 14 papers, of which 3 were incorporated in INIS. All deal with the radiation treatment of foods and feeds, various equipment and technologies used for the purpose, major radiation effects and the advantages of irradiation techniques. Also discussed are adverse effects of radiation on foodstuffs, questions of legislation and future prospects. (M.D.)

  16. A Study on the Evaluation of Industrial Solid Waste Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial solid waste is a serious health concern in Aba, South East Nigeria. This study was undertaken to assess the approaches of some industries toward some aspects of waste management in Aba. Interviews, observation and questionnaires administered to industry executives and waste managers were used to ...

  17. Waste energy boosts tomato industry at distillery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McColl, J

    1989-04-01

    A trial project aimed at using waste hot water from the cooling process at a Scottish whisky distillery to heat a glasshouse for tomato production is described. Later developments have involved the installation of a waste heat boiler to make use of the heat from the still burner flue gases. Steam from the boiler is used within the distillery and to supplement the glasshouse system. The payback within the distillery industry has been excellent, but tomato production, though continuing, was adversely affected by severe cutbacks in distillery production in the early eighties. Recently further significant savings have been made in the distillery industry by the installation of a regenerative burner in one of the stills and thermo-compressors in the cooling tower condensers to produce low pressure steam which can be fed back into the system. (U.K.).

  18. Food irradiation combined with refrigeration in food industrial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisseau, P.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation and refrigeration are both physical treatments used for food preservation. The complementarity of their effects on food is the best reason for their combination. Irradiation is essentially used for disinfestation and refrigeration to protect food against non microbial degradations. Refrigeration and irradiation could be combined for shelf life extension of fresh fruits and vegetables or reduction of microflora in animal products, without loss of quality. Freezing must be combined with ionizing treatments if high doses are necessary as it is the case with destruction of pathogens in meat or food sterilization. Some examples of combination of refrigeration and irradiation are routinely applied in some industrial plants in France but it is expected that more and more combined treatments will be used thanks to research

  19. Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry. ... From the processes, wastes are generated which include wastewater effluents, solid wastes, and hazardous wastes. In developing countries including Ethiopia, many ... The solid waste inventory of the factory has been carried out. The major problems ...

  20. Book Review, Waste: Uncovering the Global Food Scandal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Could curbing food waste significantly reduce world hunger and environmental pressures? Tristram Stuart argues cogently that it could in his book Waste, which details the global food-waste scandal and delves into questions such as how much food is available globally? How much is needed and used, a...

  1. Phage therapy in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endersen, Lorraine; O'Mahony, Jim; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul; McAuliffe, Olivia; Coffey, Aidan

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in modern technologies, the food industry is continuously challenged with the threat of microbial contamination. The overuse of antibiotics has further escalated this problem, resulting in the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant foodborne pathogens. Efforts to develop new methods for controlling microbial contamination in food and the food processing environment are extremely important. Accordingly, bacteriophages (phages) and their derivatives have emerged as novel, viable, and safe options for the prevention, treatment, and/or eradication of these contaminants in a range of foods and food processing environments. Whole phages, modified phages, and their derivatives are discussed in terms of current uses and future potential as antimicrobials in the traditional farm-to-fork context, encompassing areas such as primary production, postharvest processing, biosanitation, and biodetection. The review also presents some safety concerns to ensure safe and effective exploitation of bacteriophages in the future.

  2. Does industrial waste taxation contribute to reduction of landfilled waste? Dynamic panel analysis considering industrial waste category in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasao, Toshiaki

    2014-11-01

    Waste taxes, such as landfill and incineration taxes, have emerged as a popular option in developed countries to promote the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, and recycle). However, few studies have examined the effectiveness of waste taxes. In addition, quite a few studies have considered both dynamic relationships among dependent variables and unobserved individual heterogeneity among the jurisdictions. If dependent variables are persistent, omitted variables cause a bias, or common characteristics exist across the jurisdictions that have introduced waste taxes, the standard fixed effects model may lead to biased estimation results and misunderstood causal relationships. In addition, most existing studies have examined waste in terms of total amounts rather than by categories. Even if significant reductions in total waste amounts are not observed, some reduction within each category may, nevertheless, become evident. Therefore, this study analyzes the effects of industrial waste taxation on quantities of waste in landfill in Japan by applying the bias-corrected least-squares dummy variable (LSDVC) estimators; the general method of moments (difference GMM); and the system GMM. In addition, the study investigates effect differences attributable to industrial waste categories and taxation types. This paper shows that industrial waste taxes in Japan have minimal, significant effects on the reduction of final disposal amounts thus far, considering dynamic relationships and waste categories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Complexity management in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Jacobsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The many stakeholders in the food industry with their diverse interests make this industry complex and interesting to work with. There are four main stakeholders; 1) The customers with their increased demand for customized products, quick delivery times and increased responsiveness, 2) The author......The many stakeholders in the food industry with their diverse interests make this industry complex and interesting to work with. There are four main stakeholders; 1) The customers with their increased demand for customized products, quick delivery times and increased responsiveness, 2...... this complexity and finding a method for using these complexity factors in economic calculations. The research question this paper seeks to address is therefore “Which complexity factors can be quantified in the food industry and how can they be used in economic calculations?” A case study of a SME Danish bread...... producer will address the research question due to the explorative nature of this study and the limited amount of previous research within this field....

  4. Reducing ethylene levels along the food supply chain: a key to reducing food waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    food waste. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Logistic paradigm for industrial solid waste treatment processes

    OpenAIRE

    Janusz Grabara; Ioan Constantin Dima

    2014-01-01

    Due to the fact that industrial waste are a growing problem, both economic and environmental as their number is increasing every year, it is important to take measures to correctly dealing wi th industrial waste. This article presents the descriptive model of logistics processes concerning the management of industrial waste. In this model the flow of waste begins in the place of production and ends at their disposal. The article presents the concept of logistics model in graphical form...

  6. Applying Value Stream Mapping to reduce food losses and wastes in supply chains: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Steur, Hans; Wesana, Joshua; Dora, Manoj K; Pearce, Darian; Gellynck, Xavier

    2016-12-01

    The interest to reduce food losses and wastes has grown considerably in order to guarantee adequate food for the fast growing population. A systematic review was used to show the potential of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) not only to identify and reduce food losses and wastes, but also as a way to establish links with nutrient retention in supply chains. The review compiled literature from 24 studies that applied VSM in the agri-food industry. Primary production, processing, storage, food service and/or consumption were identified as susceptible hotspots for losses and wastes. Results further revealed discarding and nutrient loss, most especially at the processing level, as the main forms of loss/waste in food, which were adapted to four out of seven lean manufacturing wastes (i.e. defect, unnecessary inventory, overproduction and inappropriate processing). This paper presents the state of the art of applying lean manufacturing practices in the agri-food industry by identifying lead time as the most applicable performance indicator. VSM was also found to be compatible with other lean tools such as Just-In-Time and 5S which are continuous improvement strategies, as well as simulation modelling that enhances adoption. In order to ensure successful application of lean practices aimed at minimizing food or nutrient losses and wastes, multi-stakeholder collaboration along the entire food supply chain is indispensable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The unsustainability of obesity: Metabolic food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Serafini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The obesity burden, with 1.5 billion overweight and 500 million obese worldwide, significantly increased the risk for degenerative diseases. Excessive consumption of foods that are energy dense lead to obesity, which represents a titanic cost for not only the world’s health systems but also a substantial ecological cost to the environment. The waste of resources and the unnecessary GHGs emission, due to obesigen consumption of foods, have been ignored so far in practical assessments of ecological impacts. Our position is that food eaten above physiological needs, manifesting as obesity, should be considered waste. In this study, we developed a new indicator, Metabolic Food Waste (MFW(kg of food, corresponding to the amount of food leading to Excess Body Fat (EBF and its impact on environment expressed as carbon (MFW(kgCO2eq, water (MFW(x 10 L and land footprint (MFW(x10 m2. Results shows that the average amount of MFW(kg of food was of 63.1 and 127.2 kg per capita in a observational study on sixty overweight and obese subjects. Animal products contributed mostly to MFW(kg of food in both OW (24.3 kg and OB (46.5 kg, followed by cereals, legumes and starchy roots (19.4 kg OW; 38.9 kg OB, sugar and sweets (9.0 kg OW; 16.4 kg OB and alcoholic beverages (7.5 kg OW; 20.1 kg OB. When dietary intake corresponding to MFW was transformed in ecological indexes, animal products displayed the highest values for carbon emissions, water consumption and land use in both OW and OB followed by cereals, legumes and starchy roots. The estimated MFW(kg of food of the Italian population resulted to be 2.081 million kg of food for OB and OW. Reducing obesity will make a contribution toward achieving sustainable and functional diets, preserving and re-allocating natural resources for fighting hunger and malnutrition and reducing GHGs emissions. Although further evidences in epidemiological studies are needed, MFW represents an innovative and reliable tool to unravel

  8. Unsustainability of Obesity: Metabolic Food Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Mauro; Toti, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    The obesity burden, with 1.5 billion overweight (OW) and 500 million obese (OB) worldwide, significantly increased the risk of degenerative diseases. Excessive consumption of foods that are energy dense lead to obesity, which represents a titanic cost for not only the world’s health systems but also a substantial ecological cost to the environment. The waste of resources and the unnecessary green house gas emissions (GHGs) emission, due to “obesigen” consumption of foods, have been ignored so far in practical assessments of ecological impacts. Our position is that food eaten above physiological needs, manifesting as obesity, should be considered waste. In this study, we developed a new indicator, metabolic food waste [MFW(kg of food)], corresponding to the amount of food leading to excess body fat and its impact on environment expressed as carbon [MFW(kgCO2eq)], water [MFW(×10 L)], and land footprint [MFW(×10m2)]. Results shows that the average amount of MFW(kg of food) was of 63.1 and 127.2 kg/capita in a observational study on 60 OW and OB subjects. Animal products contributed mostly to MFW(kg of food) in both OW (24.3 kg) and OB (46.5 kg), followed by cereals, legumes and starchy roots (19.4 kg OW; 38.9 kg OB), sugar and sweets (9.0 kg OW; 16.4 kg OB), and alcoholic beverages (7.5 kg OW; 20.1 kg OB). When dietary intake corresponding to MFW was transformed in ecological indexes, animal products displayed the highest values for carbon emissions, water consumption, and land use in both OW and OB followed by cereals, legumes, and starchy roots. The estimated MFW(kg of food) of the Italian population resulted to be 2.081 million kilograms of food for OB and OW. Reducing obesity will make a contribution toward achieving sustainable and functional diets, preserving and re-allocating natural resources for fighting hunger and malnutrition, and reducing GHGs emissions. Although further evidences in epidemiological studies are needed, MFW

  9. Comparing Food Provided and Wasted before and after Implementing Measures against Food Waste in Three Healthcare Food Service Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Strotmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to reduce food waste in a hospital, a hospital cafeteria, and a residential home by applying a participatory approach in which the employees were integrated into the process of developing and implementing measures. Initially, a process analysis was undertaken to identify the processes and structures existing in each institution. This included a 2-week measurement of the quantities of food produced and wasted. After implementing the measures, a second measurement was conducted and the results of the two measurements were compared. The average waste rate in the residential home was significantly reduced from 21.4% to 13.4% and from 19.8% to 12.8% in the cafeteria. In the hospital, the average waste rate remained constant (25.6% and 26.3% during the reference and control measurements. However, quantities of average daily food provided and wasted per person in the hospital declined. Minimizing overproduction, i.e., aligning the quantity of meals produced to that required, is essential to reducing serving losses. Compliance of meal quality and quantity with customer expectations, needs, and preferences, i.e., the individualization of food supply, reduces plate waste. Moreover, establishing an efficient communication structure involving all actors along the food supply chain contributes to decreasing food waste.

  10. Harvesting biogas from wastewater sludge and food waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, K H; Cheah, W L; Leong, Y P; Tan, C F

    2013-01-01

    Wastewater sludge and food waste are good source of biogas. Anaerobic treatment of slude and food waste able to produce biogas which is a potential renewable energy source. This study looks into the potential biogas generation and the effects of temperature on biogas generation. A lab scale reactor was used to simulate the biogas generation. The results show that wastewater sludge able to produced upto 44.82 ml biogas/kg of sludge. When mixed with food waste at a ratio of 30:70 (food waste), the biogas generated were 219.07 ml/kg of waste. Anaerobic of food waste alone produced biogas amount to 59.75 ml/kg of food waste. Anaerobic treatment also reduces the volume of waste. The effect of temperature shows that higher temperature produces more biogas than lower temperature.

  11. Food reformulation: the challenges to the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttriss, Judith L

    2013-02-01

    The role of the food industry (retailers, manufacturers and food service) in helping consumers eat healthily and sustainably has been receiving considerable attention in recent years. This paper focuses on the challenges facing the food industry and the role of food reformulation in meeting these challenges, through the lens of a public health nutritionist. Attention has been heightened by the Government's Responsibility Deal, launched in early 2011 by the Department of Health (England), by the UK's engagement with the global food security and food supply sustainability agendas and by the Government Office of Science's Foresight report. The Responsibility Deal's food network has to date focused on reduction of trans fatty acids, salt and calories and out-of-home calorie labelling (in food service settings). New pledges are expected soon on increasing fruit and vegetable intakes. Reformulation is a major feature of the Responsibility Deal's approach, and along with other approaches such as portion control, choice editing and information provision, there is potential to increase the breadth of healthier choices available to the public. With the exception of fruit and vegetables, the emphasis has been almost exclusively on aspects of the diet that are in excess for many of the population (e.g. energy and salt). Evidence of low consumption of some key micronutrients by some groups of the population, particularly adolescents and young adults, often alongside excess energy intake compared with expenditure, is all too often overlooked. This paper summarises the progress made to date, the challenges faced and the opportunities that exist, with particular focus on reformulation. One of the biggest challenges is the relatively poor understanding of how to effect positive and long-term dietary behaviour change. The paper concludes that, in isolation, reformulation is unlikely to provide a complete solution to the challenge of improving eating patterns and nutrient provision

  12. Food waste management using an electrostatic separator with corona discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Koonchun; Lim, Sooking; Teh, Pehchiong

    2015-05-01

    In Malaysia, municipal solid waste contains a high portion of organic matters, typically contributed by food waste. It is estimated that about 45% of the municipal waste are food waste, followed by the non-food waste such as plastics, metals, glass and others. Food waste, while being properly sorted and contamination free from non-food waste, can be reused (e.g. fertiliser) instead of being landfilled. Therefore, recycling of food waste is crucial not only from the view point of waste management, but also with respect to the reduction of resource losses and greenhouse gases emission. A new waste separation process involved food particles, non-food particles and electrostatic discharge was investigated in this study. The empirical results reveal that the corona electrostatic separation is an environmental-friendly way in recovering foods from municipal waste. The efficiency of the separator, under same operating conditions, varies with the particle size of the food and non-food particles. The highest efficiency of 82% is recorded for the particle sizes between 1.5 and 3.0 mm.

  13. Food waste management using an electrostatic separator with corona discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Koonchun; Teh, Pehchiong; Lim, Sooking

    2015-01-01

    In Malaysia, municipal solid waste contains a high portion of organic matters, typically contributed by food waste. It is estimated that about 45% of the municipal waste are food waste, followed by the non-food waste such as plastics, metals, glass and others. Food waste, while being properly sorted and contamination free from non-food waste, can be reused (e.g. fertiliser) instead of being landfilled. Therefore, recycling of food waste is crucial not only from the view point of waste management, but also with respect to the reduction of resource losses and greenhouse gases emission. A new waste separation process involved food particles, non-food particles and electrostatic discharge was investigated in this study. The empirical results reveal that the corona electrostatic separation is an environmental-friendly way in recovering foods from municipal waste. The efficiency of the separator, under same operating conditions, varies with the particle size of the food and non-food particles. The highest efficiency of 82% is recorded for the particle sizes between 1.5 and 3.0 mm

  14. Relationship between food waste, diet quality, and environmental sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Meredith T.; Neher, Deborah A.; Roy, Eric D.; Tichenor, Nicole E.; Jahns, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Improving diet quality while simultaneously reducing environmental impact is a critical focus globally. Metrics linking diet quality and sustainability have typically focused on a limited suite of indicators, and have not included food waste. To address this important research gap, we examine the relationship between food waste, diet quality, nutrient waste, and multiple measures of sustainability: use of cropland, irrigation water, pesticides, and fertilizers. Data on food intake, food waste, and application rates of agricultural amendments were collected from diverse US government sources. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2015. A biophysical simulation model was used to estimate the amount of cropland associated with wasted food. This analysis finds that US consumers wasted 422g of food per person daily, with 30 million acres of cropland used to produce this food every year. This accounts for 30% of daily calories available for consumption, one-quarter of daily food (by weight) available for consumption, and 7% of annual cropland acreage. Higher quality diets were associated with greater amounts of food waste and greater amounts of wasted irrigation water and pesticides, but less cropland waste. This is largely due to fruits and vegetables, which are health-promoting and require small amounts of cropland, but require substantial amounts of agricultural inputs. These results suggest that simultaneous efforts to improve diet quality and reduce food waste are necessary. Increasing consumers’ knowledge about how to prepare and store fruits and vegetables will be one of the practical solutions to reducing food waste. PMID:29668732

  15. Food waste management using an electrostatic separator with corona discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Koonchun; Teh, Pehchiong [Faculty of Engineering and Green Technology, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Malaysia); Lim, Sooking [Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    In Malaysia, municipal solid waste contains a high portion of organic matters, typically contributed by food waste. It is estimated that about 45% of the municipal waste are food waste, followed by the non-food waste such as plastics, metals, glass and others. Food waste, while being properly sorted and contamination free from non-food waste, can be reused (e.g. fertiliser) instead of being landfilled. Therefore, recycling of food waste is crucial not only from the view point of waste management, but also with respect to the reduction of resource losses and greenhouse gases emission. A new waste separation process involved food particles, non-food particles and electrostatic discharge was investigated in this study. The empirical results reveal that the corona electrostatic separation is an environmental-friendly way in recovering foods from municipal waste. The efficiency of the separator, under same operating conditions, varies with the particle size of the food and non-food particles. The highest efficiency of 82% is recorded for the particle sizes between 1.5 and 3.0 mm.

  16. Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hooge, Ilona de; Amani, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    behaviors. We identify actions that governments, societal stakeholders and retailers can undertake to reduce consumer-related food waste, highlighting that synergistic actions between all parties are most promising. Further research should focus on exploring specific food waste contexts and interactions......In the past decade, food waste has received increased attention on both academic and societal levels. As a cause of negative economic, environmental and social effects, food waste is considered to be one of the sustainability issues that needs to be addressed. In developed countries, consumers...... are one of the biggest sources of food waste. To successfully reduce consumer-related food waste, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the factors influencing food waste-related consumer perceptions and behaviors. The present paper presents the results of a literature review and expert...

  17. Encapsulation in the food industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, B F; Kermasha, S; Alli, I; Mulligan, C N

    1999-05-01

    Encapsulation involves the incorporation of food ingredients, enzymes, cells or other materials in small capsules. Applications for this technique have increased in the food industry since the encapsulated materials can be protected from moisture, heat or other extreme conditions, thus enhancing their stability and maintaining viability. Encapsulation in foods is also utilized to mask odours or tastes. Various techniques are employed to form the capsules, including spray drying, spray chilling or spray cooling, extrusion coating, fluidized bed coating, liposome entrapment, coacervation, inclusion complexation, centrifugal extrusion and rotational suspension separation. Each of these techniques is discussed in this review. A wide variety of foods is encapsulated--flavouring agents, acids bases, artificial sweeteners, colourants, preservatives, leavening agents, antioxidants, agents with undesirable flavours, odours and nutrients, among others. The use of encapsulation for sweeteners such as aspartame and flavours in chewing gum is well known. Fats, starches, dextrins, alginates, protein and lipid materials can be employed as encapsulating materials. Various methods exist to release the ingredients from the capsules. Release can be site-specific, stage-specific or signalled by changes in pH, temperature, irradiation or osmotic shock. In the food industry, the most common method is by solvent-activated release. The addition of water to dry beverages or cake mixes is an example. Liposomes have been applied in cheese-making, and its use in the preparation of food emulsions such as spreads, margarine and mayonnaise is a developing area. Most recent developments include the encapsulation of foods in the areas of controlled release, carrier materials, preparation methods and sweetener immobilization. New markets are being developed and current research is underway to reduce the high production costs and lack of food-grade materials.

  18. Reducing food waste through direct surplus food redistribution : the Norwegian case

    OpenAIRE

    Capodistrias, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Food waste is a global problem with significant economic and environmental consequences. Food waste management approaches include production of biogas, animal feed and compost and surplus food redistribution. From a sustainability point of view, surplus food redistribution is the most favorable approach. Surplus food redistribution can be either direct (between suppliers of surplus food and charity food services) or indirect (Through Food banks). This paper is a case study on direct surplus f...

  19. Source segregation of food waste in office areas: Factors affecting waste generation rates and quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Existing legislation mandates that the amount of waste being recycled should be increased. Among others, in its Resource Strategy Plan, the Danish Government decided that at least 60% of food waste generated by the service sector, including in office areas, should be source-sorted and collected...... separately by 2018. To assess the achievability of these targets, source-sorted food waste and residual waste from office areas was collected and weighed on a daily basis during 133 working days. Waste composition analyses were conducted every week to investigate the efficiency of the source-sorting campaign...... and the purity of the source-sorted food waste. The moisture content of source-sorted food waste and residual waste fractions, and potential methane production from source-sorted food waste, was also investigated.Food waste generation equated to 23. ±. 5. kg/employee/year, of which 20. ±. 5. kg...

  20. Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Aschemann-Witzel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, food waste has received increased attention on both academic and societal levels. As a cause of negative economic, environmental and social effects, food waste is considered to be one of the sustainability issues that needs to be addressed. In developed countries, consumers are one of the biggest sources of food waste. To successfully reduce consumer-related food waste, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the factors influencing food waste-related consumer perceptions and behaviors. The present paper presents the results of a literature review and expert interviews on factors causing consumer-related food waste in households and supply chains. Results show that consumers’ motivation to avoid food waste, their management skills of food provisioning and food handling and their trade-offs between priorities have an extensive influence on their food waste behaviors. We identify actions that governments, societal stakeholders and retailers can undertake to reduce consumer-related food waste, highlighting that synergistic actions between all parties are most promising. Further research should focus on exploring specific food waste contexts and interactions more in-depth. Experiments and interventions in particular can contribute to a shift from analysis to solutions.

  1. Production of Enzymes From Agricultural Wastes and Their Potential Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathiraja, S; Suriya, J; Krishnan, M; Manivasagan, P; Kim, S-K

    Enzymatic hydrolysis is the significant technique for the conversion of agricultural wastes into valuable products. Agroindustrial wastes such as rice bran, wheat bran, wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse, and corncob are cheapest and plentifully available natural carbon sources for the production of industrially important enzymes. Innumerable enzymes that have numerous applications in industrial processes for food, drug, textile, and dye use have been produced from different types of microorganisms from agricultural wastes. Utilization of agricultural wastes offers great potential for reducing the production cost and increasing the use of enzymes for industrial purposes. This chapter focuses on economic production of actinobacterial enzymes from agricultural wastes to make a better alternative for utilization of biomass generated in million tons as waste annually. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prospects of robotics in food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshed IQBAL

    Full Text Available Abstract Technological advancements in various domains have broadened the application horizon of robotics to an incredible extent. Highlighting a very recent application area, this paper presents a comprehensive review of robotics application in food industry. Robots essentially have the potential to transform the processes in food processing and handling, palletizing and packing and food serving. Therefore, recent years witnessed tremendously increased trend of robots deployment in food sector. Consequently, the aspects related with robot kinematics, dynamics, hygiene, economic efficiency, human-robot interaction, safety and protection and operation and maintenance are of critical importance and are discussed in the present review. A comparison of actual robots being used in the industry is also presented. The review reveals that the food serving sector is the new potential area in which ample research opportunities exist by integrating advancements from various technology domains. It is anticipated that wider dissemination of research developments in ‘robo-food’ will stimulate more collaborations among the research community and contribute to further developments.

  3. Waste management to improve food safety and security for health advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Huang, Susana Tzy-Ying; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2009-01-01

    Economic growth inevitably influences the food chain. Growing demand with changes in lifestyle and health consciousness encourage use of packaged and pre-prepared foods. The needs of environmental protection from waste generated are largely overlooked, and a lack of knowledge about the impact on the environment and its health effects constitute food security/safety problems. Food production and waste generation directly affect resource (i.e., energy and water) consumption and often contaminate the environment. More pressure on food production has inculcated the use of pesticides, herbicides, antibiotics and chemical fertilizers which add to current global pollution. At least half of food grown is discarded before and after it reaches consumers. It is estimated that one third to half of landfill waste comes from the food sector. This landfill releases green house gases (GHG) as well as leachate which worsen soil and water quality and safety. Pharmaceutical and chemical contaminations from residential, industrial and agricultural sources make their way into nearby water and soil and can eventually affect our food systems. Phthalates, PFOA, BPA, commonly used in plastics and personal care products, are found in unacceptable concentrations in Taiwanese waters. They, too, contribute to food contamination and long-term health risk. Existing waste management strategies warrant more stringent norms for waste reduction at source. Awareness through education could reduce food waste and its consequences. This review encompasses impacts of food production systems on the environment, pollution which results from food waste, costs and economic advantages in food waste management, and health consequences of waste.

  4. Sustainable diets: The interaction between food industry, nutrition, health and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaffar, Ayten Aylin

    2016-03-01

    Everyday great amounts of food are produced, processed, transported by the food industry and consumed by us and these activities have direct impact on our health and the environment. The current food system has started causing strain on the Earth's natural resources and that is why sustainable food production systems are needed. This review article discusses the need for sustainable diets by exploring the interactions between the food industry, nutrition, health and the environment, which are strongly interconnected. The most common environmental issues in the food industry are related to food processing loss, food wastage and packaging; energy efficiency; transportation of foods; water consumption and waste management. Among the foods produced and processed, meat and meat products have the greatest environmental impact followed by the dairy products. Our eating patterns impact the environment, but the environment can impact dietary choices as well. The foods and drinks we consume may also affect our health. A healthy and sustainable diet would minimise the consumption of energy-dense and highly processed and packaged foods, include less animal-derived foods and more plant-based foods and encourage people not to exceed the recommended daily energy intake. Sustainable diets contribute to food and nutrition security, have low environmental impacts and promote healthy life for present and future generations. There is an urgent need to develop and promote strategies for sustainable diets; and governments, United Nations agencies, civil society, research organisations and the food industry should work together in achieving this. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Assessment of logistic outlays in industrial solid waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Grabara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Out of concern for environmental protection is an increasingly common practice. Companies thus have an additional task which is the correct organization of the industrial waste management. This is achieved through the use of logistics processes in industrial waste management, mainly such as warehousing, transport, storage and recovery. These processes involve the formation of logistics costs resulting from waste management. The paper presents a mathematical model for cost of logistics management of industrial waste resulting from the above-mentioned processes. It also shows the interpretation of these costs and the relations between them. The model can increase costefficiency in companies managing industrial waste, while increasing attention to the environment.

  6. Anaerobic treatment with biogas recovery of beverage industry waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciari, E.; Zanoni, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the application, by a leading Italian non-alcoholic beverage firm, of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket process in the treatment of waste water deriving from the production and bottling of beverages. In addition to describing the key design, operation and performance characteristics of the treatment process, the paper focuses on the economic benefits being obtained through the use of the innovative expansive sludge bed anaerobic digestion system which has proven itself to be particularly suitable for the treatment of food and beverage industry liquid wastes. The system, which has already been operating, with good results, for six months, has shown itself to be capable of yielding overall COD removal efficiencies of up to 94.8% and of producing about 0.43 Ncubic meters of biogas per kg of removed COD

  7. Anaerobic treatment with biogas recovery of beverage industry waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacciari, E; Zanoni, G [Passavant Impianti, Novate Milanese (Italy)

    1992-03-01

    This paper briefly describes the application, by a leading Italian non-alcoholic beverage firm, of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket process in the treatment of waste water deriving from the production and bottling of beverages. In addition to describing the key design, operation and performance characteristics of the treatment process, the paper focuses on the economic benefits being obtained through the use of the innovative expansive sludge bed anaerobic digestion system which has proven itself to be particularly suitable for the treatment of food and beverage industry liquid wastes. The system, which has already been operating, with good results, for six months, has shown itself to be capable of yielding overall COD removal efficiencies of up to 94.8% and of producing about 0.43 Ncubic meters of biogas per kg of removed COD.

  8. Gamma radiation treatment of waste waters from textile industries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of gamma irradiation alone, and in combination with chemical treatment on color, odor, chemical oxyg-en demand (COD) and suspended solids in waste waters from textile industries in Ghana were studied to explore the potential of alternative and innovative processes for treatment of industrial waste waters. Waste ...

  9. Analyzing Human Behaviour Toward Food Waste in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Hussain, Shaema Mohd Hassan

    Food waste is a major issue in many countries due to the impact of waste on the environment and the cost of producing food and water. Food waste not only constitutes a hazard to the environment through the emission of greenhouse gases, but billions of dollars are also lost as a result of production, distribution and waste management costs. In view of this, this study examined factors that have potential to influence intent to waste food and food waste behavior among consumers in Qatar. The main objective of the study was to find a suitable model that explains food waste behavior in Qatar and compare it to an international model in order to understand region specific factors and try to replicate a hypothesized model of the causal effects of some factors (i.e., subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and personal attitude) on intent to waste food and food waste behavior. Three research questions were developed and answers were provided by random selection of 139 respondents from the Qatar Foundation and Georgetown University Qatar databases gathered through a survey with 139 complete questionnaires in order to test the hypothesized model, which was created based on literature. The Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approach was the main statistical tool of the investigation and was used to carry out the path analysis. The findings of the study revealed that factors, including, planning routine, Ramadan, gender task, and personal norm were strong predictors of intention to waste food and food waste behavior.

  10. Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nges, Ivo Achu; Escobar, Federico; Fu, Xinmei; Björnsson, Lovisa

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas production is limited under Swedish conditions; therefore, adding crops to existing industrial waste digestion could be a viable alternative to ensure a constant/reliable supply of feedstock to the anaerobic digester. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The industrial waste landfill of Bonfol (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, C.G.; Bentz, R. [Ciba Specialty Chemicals Inc., Basel (Switzerland); Fischer, M.; Huerzeler, R.A.; Matter, B.; Munz, C.D.

    2003-07-01

    The landfill for industrial waste in Bonfol (Switzerland) was installed in 1961 in an waterproof clay pit and was run until 1976 by the bci, the Basel chemical industry, to dispose off their industrial waste originating from chemical production. For the first time in Europe chemical wastes were deposited in a special area selected according to geological criteria. Groundwater and surface waters have been continuously supervised since the beginning of the activities in Bonfol in 1961. After the landfill was totally filled up, it was covered by a clay layer. In the years 1980/81 the monitoring program discovered that the cover of the landfill was leaking and that the pit was slowly filled up with water. Some exfiltrations resulted. It was important to overcome the critical situation by the implementation of immediate measures, e.g. pumping and removal of leachate. Different remediation options were studied at that time, among other the excavation and final disposal of the contents of the landfill. On October 17, 2000 a voluntary agreement between the authorities and bci ws signed. On May 15, 2001, bci presented the result of the study of remedial options. Excavation / incineration in European incinerators or in-situ vitrification, with a suboption excavation/on-site vitrification, were seen as the most promising ones. At the end of 2001 the option of the in-situ vitrification was dropped because of the resulting public and political resistance towards this technology. The remaining options are being evaluated thoroughly at the moment to prepare the basis for a decision on the clean-up project. (orig.)

  12. Boulder Food Rescue: An Innovative Approach to Reducing Food Waste and Increasing Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewald, Craig A; Kuo, Elena S; Dansky, Hana

    2018-05-01

    Food waste and food insecurity are both significant issues in communities throughout the U.S., including Boulder, Colorado. As much as 40% of the food produced in the U.S. goes uneaten and ends up in landfills. Nearly 13% of people in the Boulder region experience some level of food insecurity. Founded in 2011, Boulder Food Rescue supports community members to create their own food security through a participatory approach to an emergency food system. The organization uses a web-application "robot" to manage a schedule of volunteers. They coordinate with individuals at low-income senior housing sites, individual housing sites, family housing sites, after-school programs, and pre-schools to set up no-cost grocery programs stocked with food from local markets and grocers that would otherwise go to waste. Each site coordinator makes decisions about how, when, and where food delivery and distribution will occur. The program also conducts robust, real-time data collection and analysis. Boulder Food Rescue is a member and manager of the Food Rescue Alliance, and its model has been replicated and adapted by other cities, including Denver, Colorado Springs, Seattle, Jackson Hole, Minneapolis, Binghamton, and in the Philippines. Information for this special article was collected through key informant interviews with current and former Boulder Food Rescue staff and document review of Boulder Food Rescue materials. Boulder Food Rescue's open source software is available to other communities; to date, 40 cities have used the tool to start their own food rescue organizations. Boulder Food Rescue hopes to continue spreading this model to other cities that are considering ways to reduce food waste and increase food security. This article is part of a supplement entitled Building Thriving Communities Through Comprehensive Community Health Initiatives, which is sponsored by Kaiser Permanente, Community Health. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by

  13. Quantitative and qualitative investigation of industrial solid waste in industrial plants located between Tehran and Karaj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Gohari

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Rapid population growth, industrial development, urbanization culture propagation and excessive material consumption are the most important factor which caused over increasing of municipal, industrial and agricultural waste in human society. Inappropriate disposal of generated waste in recent years created several environmental menace and crisis in human society.   methods   For investigation about existent situation of industrial waste generation questionnaire had been used. This questionnaire was catered by Iran environmental protection organization. Aforementioned questionnaire contained 45 questions about combination, quality and quantity of industrial waste. Total number of more than 50 personnel industry was 287 . But sample contained 50 randomly selected industries. Gathered data have been analyzed with spss 18.   Results  Total generated industrial waste was 123451KG per day which had volume equal to 781 cubic meters per day. Generated waste capitation per every worker was 5.8 KG. Maximum frequency of industrial was related to machinery and equipment group which maximum generated waste was related to this industrial group too. Maximum hazardous waste was for inflammable waste with 34 weight percent. Major hazardous waste generating industrial was chemical and plastic making industry.   Conclusion  yielded result from this investigation has shown that significant relation existed between waste production rate and personnel number. The more personnel are, the more waste production increase.

  14. Biotechnology: Challenge for the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Popov Stevan

    2007-01-01

    According to the broadest definition, biotechnology is the use of living matter (plants, animals and microorganisms) in industry, environment protection, medicine and agriculture. Biotechnology takes a key position in the field of food processing during thousands of years. Last about fifty years brought dynamical development of knowledges in the natural sciences especially in domain of genetics and manipulation of genes. Biotechnology for which active role in the on-coming times could be fore...

  15. Conversion of Food waste to Single Cell Protein using Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The utilization of food waste into products like single cell protein is an alternative solution to global protein shortage and to alleviate pollution problems. This investigation was carried out with food wastes such as orange, pineapple, banana, watermelon and cucumber waste as growth media for A. niger using standard ...

  16. Food waste-to-energy conversion technologies: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Phuong Thuy; Kaushik, Rajni; Parshetti, Ganesh K; Mahmood, Russell; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2015-04-01

    Food waste represents a significantly fraction of municipal solid waste. Proper management and recycling of huge volumes of food waste are required to reduce its environmental burdens and to minimize risks to human health. Food waste is indeed an untapped resource with great potential for energy production. Utilization of food waste for energy conversion currently represents a challenge due to various reasons. These include its inherent heterogeneously variable compositions, high moisture contents and low calorific value, which constitute an impediment for the development of robust, large scale, and efficient industrial processes. Although a considerable amount of research has been carried out on the conversion of food waste to renewable energy, there is a lack of comprehensive and systematic reviews of the published literature. The present review synthesizes the current knowledge available in the use of technologies for food-waste-to-energy conversion involving biological (e.g. anaerobic digestion and fermentation), thermal and thermochemical technologies (e.g. incineration, pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal oxidation). The competitive advantages of these technologies as well as the challenges associated with them are discussed. In addition, the future directions for more effective utilization of food waste for renewable energy generation are suggested from an interdisciplinary perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mottin Demiate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch is a valued raw material for producing many kinds of modified starches for food applications. Its physicochemical properties, as well as its availability, have made it an interesting and challenging ingredient for the food industry. In the present work, food grade modified cassava starches were purchased from producers and analyzed for selected physicochemical characteristics. Samples of sour cassava starch were included, as well as one sample of native cassava starch. Results showed that almost all modified starches were resistant to syneresis, produced pastes more stable to stirred cooking, and some of them were difficult to cook. The sour cassava starches presented high acidity and resulted in clear and unstable pastes during stirred cooking, susceptible to syneresis.

  18. Immobilization of industrial waste in cement–bentonite clay matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Immobilization of industrial waste in cement–bentonite clay matrix. I B PLECAS* and S ... high structural integrity and minimizing the risk of escape by leaching. ..... Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Fuel Cycle 14. 195. Plecas I ...

  19. Recycled industrial and construction waste for mutual beneficial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Instead of going to landfills, certain waste materials from industry and building construction can be recycled in transportation infrastructure projects, such as roadway paving. The beneficial use of waste materials in the construction of transportat...

  20. Energetic conversion (biogas) of used edible oils by means of co-digestion together with various waste materials from the food industry; Valorisation energetique (biogaz) d'huiles comestibles usagees par codigestion avec differents dechets d'origine agroalimentaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Membrez, Y; Fruteau de Laclos, H

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this project was the valorisation of used edible oils by co-digestion together with agricultural or food waste, without any risk for human and animal health. It included the technical economical aspects. In the bibliographic part a state-of-the-art on fat digestion in Switzerland and Europe was done. The possible co-substrates were examined, under a biological aspect as well as economical and strategic aspects. Food waste from restaurants and canteens, that are used up to now for pig feeding, were retained. The co-digestion gives a new perspective for the valorisation of this kind of waste, whose traditional way of valorisation is compromised by the new EU directives. The experimental part aimed to define the possibilities and limits for the co-digestion of used edible oil with food waste as co-substrate. The study was done in a 690 litres bio-reactor. The results showed that co-digestion of edible oil with food waste is feasible with interesting performances, if oil doesn't account for more than 15% of the mixture (on dry matter). Biogas production amounted to 400-450 litres per kg input COD (chemical oxygen demand), with 60-65% CH{sub 4}. Based on the observed results a tender document was done, in order to consult manufacturers of co-digestion plants. An economical simulation was realised on the basis of the most complete offer. This simulation revealed that a benefit of CHF 3500 per year can be obtained for a plant processing 200 t/y edible oil and 9000 t/y food waste. Co-digestion allows for valorisation of edible oil, together with a co-substrate whose traditional utilisation will not be possible in the future. It leads to the production of renewable energy, with a positive economical balance. (author)

  1. Industrial waste utilization for foam concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Gokul; Anand, K. B.

    2018-02-01

    Foam concrete is an emerging and useful construction material - basically a cement based slurry with at least 10% of mix volume as foam. The mix usually containing cement, filler (usually sand) and foam, have fresh densities ranging from 400kg/m3 to 1600kg/m3. One of the main drawbacks of foam concrete is the large consumption of fine sand as filler material. Usage of different solid industrial wastes as fillers in foam concrete can reduce the usage of fine river sand significantly and make the work economic and eco-friendly. This paper aims to investigate to what extent industrial wastes such as bottom ash and quarry dust can be utilized for making foam concrete. Foam generated using protein based agent was used for preparing and optimizing (fresh state properties). Investigation to find the influence of design density and air-void characteristics on the foam concrete strength shows higher strength for bottom ash mixes due to finer air void distribution. Setting characteristics of various mix compositions are also studied and adoption of Class C flyash as filler demonstrated capability of faster setting.

  2. Radioactive waste management in the VS military nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobal'chuk, O.V.; Kruglov, A.K.; Sokolova, I.D.; Smirnov, Yu.V.

    1989-01-01

    Organization and plans of radioactive waste management in the US military nuclear industry, determining transition from the policy of temporal waste storage to their final and safe disposal are presented. Programs of long-term management of high-level, transuranium and low-level wastes, the problems of the work financing and the structure of management activities related to the radioactive waste processing military nuclear industry enterprises are considered

  3. Estimating the magnitude of food waste generated in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the developed world, food is treated as a disposable commodity. Between one third and half of all food produced for human consumption globally is estimated to be wasted. However, attempts to quantify the actual magnitude of food wasted...

  4. The costs of household food waste in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nahman, Anton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Food waste is problematic for a number of reasons, including the loss of a potentially valuable food source or resource for use in other processes (e.g. energy generation or composting), wasted resources and emissions in the food supply chain...

  5. Food waste drivers in Europe, from identification to possible interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canali, Massimo; Amani, Pegah; Aramyan, Lusine; Gheoldus, Manuela; Moates, Graham; Östergren, Karin; Silvennoinen, Kirsi; Waldron, Keith; Vittuari, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    The growing volumes of food globally lost or wasted and implications for food security and sustainability have raised the concern of researchers, governments, international organizations and grass-root movements. Much research and experiences investigating food waste causes and drivers focus on

  6. The grumpy bin : reducing food waste through playful social interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altarriba, F.; Funk, M.; Lanzani, S.E.; Torralba, A.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic food waste is a world-wide problem that is complex and difficult to tackle as it touches diverse habits and social behaviors. This paper introduces the Grumpy Bin, a smart food waste bin designed for the context of student housing. The Grumpy Bin1 contributes to the state of the art of food

  7. Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, M.-C.; Lin, Jim Juimin

    2008-01-01

    Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the fact that it is not flexible and hence increases cost. This study presents an overview of current management practices for handling infectious industrial waste in Taiwan, and addresses the current waste disposal methods. The number of small clinics in Taiwan increased from 18,183 to 18,877 between 2003 and 2005. Analysis of the data between 2003 and 2005 showed that the majority of medical waste was general industrial waste, which accounted for 76.9%-79.4% of total medical waste. Infectious industrial waste accounted for 19.3%-21.9% of total medical waste. After the SARS event in Taiwan, the amount of infectious waste reached 19,350 tons in 2004, an increase over the previous year of 4000 tons. Waste minimization was a common consideration for all types of waste treatment. In this study, we summarize the percentage of plastic waste in flammable infectious industrial waste generated by medical units, which, in Taiwan was about 30%. The EPA and Taiwan Department of Health have actively promoted different recycling and waste reduction measures. However, the wide adoption of disposable materials made recycling and waste reduction difficult for some hospitals. It has been suggested that enhancing the education of and promoting communication between medical units and recycling industries must be implemented to prevent recyclable waste from entering the incinerator

  8. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  9. Waste incineration industry and development policies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Zhao, Xingang; Li, Yanbin; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-12-01

    The growing pollution from municipal solid waste due to economic growth and urbanization has brought great challenge to China. The main method of waste disposal has gradually changed from landfill to incineration, because of the enormous land occupation by landfills. The paper presents the results of a study of the development status of the upstream and downstream of the waste incineration industry chain in China, reviews the government policies for the waste incineration power industry, and provides a forecast of the development trend of the waste incineration industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Industrial aspects of radioactive waste management in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, F.R.

    1976-01-01

    Various aspects of waste management are discussed from the viewpoint of the nuclear industry. Future amounts of waste generated in the 15 Foratom countries in Western Europe are estimated. Industrial waste questions--as seen by electricity producers, reprocessors, and waste operators--are discussed; questions concerning decommissioning are also dealt with. A number of recommendations for further action, primarily on the part of national authorities and international organizations, are put forward. One conclusion of the study is that there is no reason for waste-management problems to impede the timely development of nuclear energy as a large-scale industrial activity in Western Europe

  11. Development of a master plan for industrial solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamouz, M.; Zahraie, B.; Kerachian, R.; Mahjouri, N.; Moridi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid industrial growth in the province of Khuzestan in the south west of Iran has resulted in disposal of about 1750 tons of solid waste per day. Most of these industrial solid wastes including hazardous wastes are disposed without considering environmental issues. This has contributed considerably to the pollution of the environment. This paper introduces a framework in which to develop a master plan for industrial solid waste management. There are usually different criteria for evaluating the existing solid waste pollution loads and how effective the management schemes are. A multiple criteria decision making technique, namely Analytical Hierarchy Process, is used for ranking the industrial units based on their share in solid waste related environmental pollution and determining the share of each unit in total solid waste pollution load. In this framework, a comprehensive set of direct, indirect, and supporting projects are proposed for solid waste pollution control. The proposed framework is applied for industrial solid waste management in the province of Khuzestan in Iran and a databank including GIS based maps of the study area is also developed. The results have shown that the industries located near the capital city of the province, Ahwaz, produce more than 32 percent of the total solid waste pollution load of the province. Application of the methodology also has shown that it can be effectively used for development of the master plan and management of industrial solid wastes

  12. CHNS ANALYSIS TOWARDS FOOD WASTE IN COMPOSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High food waste generation in Malaysia that reached up to 15, 000 tonnes per day assign for major problems towards environment, economy and social aspect. Alternative method had been studied for the past years, but composting was seen among the best possible solution to treat this matter. Composting not only has an environmentally method but it also produces a valuable end product that will benefit in agricultural sector. Further studies had been done in this paper to represent their macro and micro nutrient quality as well as their bioavailability towards plant and the analysis of data collected in both CHNS analyser and mathematical method using ultimate analysis. This study also applied enhanced composting process with its segregation, drying, grinding and standard aeration time. Each container has been rotated for 5 minutes yet different resting time was applied which are 25, 55, 155 minutes namely A, B, C and D within 2 hours period. Result shown that overall Carbon (C, Nitrogen (N and Sulphur (S concentration increases as the higher aeration was applied while the Hydrogen vice versa. The highest elemental percentage distribution recorded is carbon (31% while the lowest recorded is S (0.115%. The data collected from Ultimate Analysis was seen not applicable to be use as it has the same content as food waste after composting. The compound molecular formula recorded was C29H7N5S. Regarding ratio of carbon to nitrogen results, it was found that it ranged from 5.39 to 5.71% for different compost treatment under study, where the lowest value of C and N ratio (5.39% for sample C and the highest value (5.71% was obtained for sample B with all has the same C/N ratio which is 6: 1 which suitable range in application of soil amendment. Therefore, this study found a significant relationship between chemical factors and compost formation which contribute to better analysis, especially to food waste management.

  13. Quantifying and analysing food waste generated by Indonesian undergraduate students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandasari, P.

    2018-03-01

    Despite the fact that environmental consequences derived from food waste have been widely known, studies on the amount of food waste and its influencing factors have relatively been paid little attention. Addressing this shortage, this paper aimed to quantify monthly avoidable food waste generated by Indonesian undergraduate students and analyse factors influencing the occurrence of avoidable food waste. Based on data from 106 undergraduate students, descriptive statistics and logistic regression were applied in this study. The results indicated that 4,987.5 g of food waste was generated in a month (equal to 59,850 g yearly); or 47.05 g per person monthly (equal to 564.62 g per person per a year). Meanwhile, eating out frequency and gender were found to be significant predictors of food waste occurrence.

  14. Hazardous and Industrial Wastes Management: a Case Study of Khazra Industrial Park, Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Increasing hazardous industrial wastes and lack of necessary regulations for management of them have led to serious problems in some parts of Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the situation of collection, transportation, recycling, and disposal of hazardous industrial wastes in the Khazra Industrial Park of Kerman, Iran. Materials & Methods: This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study that was done using questionnaires and local visits during year 2009. In this questionnaire, some information about the industrial wastes, production, storage on site , collection, transformation, sorting, recycling, and disposal were recorded. Results:   In the Khazra Industrial Park, 71,600 kg/day of different industrial waste is produced. The biggest proportion of waste includes metals, and construction and demolition waste which are about 16,500 tons a year. The smallest proportion is non-iron metal waste, which is produced at a rate of 8 tons per year. 88.7 percent of the active industries at the Khazra Industrial Park produce solid industrial waste. Most of the industrial units do not use a united and coordinated system for storing waste and have no specific place for temporary storage inside the industrial park. The majority of industrial waste collection, which is about 59.8%, is done by private contractors. The industrial units transfer their waste separately, and just 9 industrial units recycle their waste. Disposal of these wastes is mainly done by selling to trading agencies. Each day, 3 tons of hazardous industrial waste is produced in this park. The highest production belongs to the oil factory (Keyhan Motor. Conclusions: According to the results, the Khazra Industrial Park needs a unified system for storing, transporting and collecting the sorted waste, and it also needs to have a transportation station with basic facilities. The wastes of most industrial units at the Khazra Industrial Park have the

  15. New paradigms on how to achieve zero food waste in future cities : Optimizing food use by waste prevention and valorization

    OpenAIRE

    Redlingshofer, Barbara; Guilbert, Stéphane; Fuentes, Claire; Gracieux, Mélanie

    2015-01-01

    Cities currently manage uneaten food and other food system based biowaste quite inefficiently. The organic compound, despite its high nutriment value, is only to a small extent recycled and returned to farm soil and therefore, does not contribute to closing ecological nutrient cycles and to supporting sustainable food production [1]. In the US, over 97% of food waste is estimated to be buried in landfills [2]. Forkes has shown for Toronto that only 4.7% at most of food waste nitrogen (includi...

  16. INDUSTRIAL WASTE MANAGEMENT TO IMPROVE ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Perfilov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Disposal of industrial waste to improve the environmental safety by means of recycling and reusing in the manufacture of building materials.Materials and methods. We made a selection of new optimum compositions of fiber-concretes using industrial carbon black from heat generating productions, glass fibers, plasticizers, activated mixing water produced using an ultrasonic unit.Results. New fiber-reinforced concrete compositions were developed using carbon black as an additive. As a result of the processing of the experimental data, it has been revealed that introduction of carbon black as an additive contributed to the increase of the strength characteristics of nearly all fiber-reinforced concrete compositions. It has been found that microparticles of carbon black accumulate the products of hydration of portlandcement-hydrosilicate calcium on the surface and contribute to the formation of a solid microarming concrete structure.Conclusions. The use of industrial carbon black in fibrous concrete mixture using restructured water improves its rheological properties, reduces its segregation and improves the homogeneity of the concrete. Recycling and re-using carbon black in the production of building materials will improve the environmental ecology.

  17. Food waste volume and origin: Case studies in the Finnish food service sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvennoinen, Kirsi; Heikkilä, Lotta; Katajajuuri, Juha-Matti; Reinikainen, Anu

    2015-12-01

    We carried out a project to map the volume and composition of food waste in the Finnish food service sector. The amount, type and origin of avoidable food waste were investigated in 51 food service outlets, including schools, day-care centres, workplace canteens, petrol stations, restaurants and diners. Food service outlet personnel kept diaries and weighed the food produced and wasted during a one-week or one-day period. For weighing and sorting, the food waste was divided into two categories: originally edible (OE) food waste was separated from originally inedible (OIE) waste, such as vegetable peelings, bones and coffee grounds. In addition, food waste (OE) was divided into three categories in accordance with its origins: kitchen waste, service waste and customer leftovers. According to the results, about 20% of all food handled and prepared in the sector was wasted. The findings also suggest that the main drivers of wasted food are buffet services and overproduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cleansing and Disinfection in the Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhtan Baskaya

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the applications of industrial hygiene, it is of utmost importance to define the potential risk factors in the business enterprise in question, to pay sufficient consideration to those factors, and to spend every effort for their checking and elimination. In that sense, cleansing and disinfection applications have a basic importance. Food hygiene covers all the efforts spent in order to ensure the proper conditions for the production of healthy food at every stage of the production process, extending from the farm to the table. Cleansing is the removal of the dirt or food leftovers found on the tools and equipment contacting food, and preventing their conversion into a convenient millieu for the reproduction of microorganisms. Cleansing is the process of removing not only the visible dirts and leftovers, but also a large part of the visible microorganisms. Disinfection is applied after cleansing; it is the process of disintegration of microorganisms which can cause contamination, or reduction of those microorganisms to minimum levels so that they can not create any harmful effects. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(1.000: 93-106

  19. Energy potential in the food industry; Store energipotensialer i naeringsmiddelindustrien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, E; Risberg, T M; Mydske, H J; Helgerud, H E

    2007-07-01

    The food industry is one of the most power consuming industries (excluding the heavy industry) and has large potential for reducing the energy consumption. This report explains the most energy efficient measures and if the injunctions are followed

  20. Installation and Setup of Whole School Food Waste Composting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A.; Forder, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Hong Kong, one of the busiest trading harbors in the world, is also a city of 8 million of people. The biggest problem that the government faces is the lack of solid waste landfill space. Hong Kong produces around 13,500 tons of waste per day. There are three landfills in Hong Kong in operation. These three landfills will soon be exhausted in around 2020, and the solid waste in Hong Kong is still increasing. Out of the 13,500 tons of solid waste, 9,000 tons are organic solid waste or food waste. Food waste, especially domestic waste, is recyclable. The Independent Schools Foundation Academy has a project to collect domestic food waste (from the school cafeteria) for decomposition. Our school produces around 15 tons of food waste per year. The project includes a sub-project in the Primary school, which uses the organic soil produced by an aerobic food waste machine, the Rocket A900, to plant vegetables in school. This not only helps our school to process the waste, but also helps the Primary students to study agriculture and have greater opportunities for experimental learning. For this project, two types of machines will be used for food waste processing. Firstly, the Dehydra made by Tiny Planet reduces the volume and the mass of the food waste, by dehydrating the food waste and separating the ground food waste and the excessive water inside machine for further decomposition. Secondly, the A900 Rocket, also made by Tidy Planet; this is used to process the dehydrated ground food waste for around 14 days thereby producing usable organic soil. It grinds the food waste into tiny pieces so that it is easier to decompose. It also separates the wood chips inside the ground food waste. This machine runs an aerobic process, which includes O2 and will produce CO2 during the process and is less harmful to the environment. On the other hand, if it is an anaerobic process occurs during the operation, it will produce a greenhouse gas- CH4 -and smells bad.

  1. Biotechnology: Challenge for the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Stevan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the broadest definition, biotechnology is the use of living matter (plants, animals and microorganisms in industry, environment protection, medicine and agriculture. Biotechnology takes a key position in the field of food processing during thousands of years. Last about fifty years brought dynamical development of knowledges in the natural sciences especially in domain of genetics and manipulation of genes. Biotechnology for which active role in the on-coming times could be foreseen, not only with respect of R&D, but also in general technological development represents scope of priority in the USA and in European Union (EU as well. It is accepted that the results achieved in biotechnology oversize scientific domain and find their entrance into economics, legislation, quality of life and even of politics. Corresponding with the definition of biotechnology as "the integration of natural sciences and engineering in the application of microorganisms, cells, their components and molecular analogues in production (General assembly of the European federation for Biotechnology, 1989 European Commission (1999 adopted the biotechnological taxonomy, i.e. fields and sub-fields of biotechnology. R&D activities in this domain are oriented to eight fields and branched through them. Fields of biotechnology (EC, 1999 are: 1 Plant biotechnology (agricultural cultivars, trees, bushes etc; 2 Animal biotechnology; 3 Biotechnology in environment protection; 4 Industrial biotechnology (food, feed, paper, textile, pharmaceutical and chemical productions; 5 Industrial biotechnology (production of cells and research of cells - producers of food and of other commodities; 6 Development of humane and veterinarian diagnostics (therapeutical systems 7 Development of the basic biotechnology, and 8 Nontechnical domains of biotechnology. In concordance with some judgments, in the World exist about 4000 biotechnological companies. World market of biotechnological

  2. Food waste in South Africa: Opportunities and challenges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available © CSIR 2014 www.csir.co.za Slide 2 • Food is treated as a disposable commodity • Food waste has a triple negative effect: • It impacts on food security • Resources used in food production and distribution are wasted... and stage of the supply chain © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Slide 3 Estimated waste percentage for each commodity group in each step of the food supply chain for sub-Saharan Africa © CSIR 2014 www...

  3. Household food waste to wastewater or to solid waste? That is the question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggelman, Carol; Ham, Robert K

    2003-12-01

    Decision makers need sound analyses of economic and environmental impacts of options for managing household food waste. Food waste impacts public health (it rots, smells, and attracts rodents) and costs (it drives collection frequency). A life cycle inventory is used to quantify total materials, energy, costs and environmental flows for three municipal solid waste systems (collection followed by compost, waste-to-energy or landfill) and two wastewater systems (kitchen food waste disposer followed by rural on-site or municipal wastewater treatment) for food waste management. Inventory parameters are expressed per 100 kg of food waste (wet weight) to place data on a normalised basis for comparison. System boundaries include acquisition, use and decommissioning. Parameters include inputs (land, materials, water) and output emissions to air, water and land. Parameters are ranked simply from high to low. Ranking highest overall was the rural wastewater system, which has a high amount of food waste and carrier water relative to the total throughput over its design life. Waste-to-energy was second; burning food waste yields little exportable energy and is costly. Next, municipal wastewater tied with landfill. Municipal wastewater is low for land, material, energy and cost, but is highest for food waste by-product (sludge). Landfill ranks low for air emissions and cost. Compost ranks lowest; it has the lowest material and water inputs and generates the least wastewater and waterborne waste.

  4. Industrial and urban wastes in relation to Cadmium pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varavipour, M.; Akhondi, M.

    2002-01-01

    Disposal of urban, agricultural and industrial wastes is becoming a major problem in recent times. Ocean dumping, land fill applications and incineration are being considered as unsuitable. so application to agricultural lands is being increasingly used for this purpose. Application of wastes to soils can be beneficial in providing plant nutrients and organic matter. But, it also leads to harmful effects like introduction of heavy metals, toxic organics, danger of ground water pollution, etc. Cadmium buildup in soil and absorption into plants and then entering into food chain due to these wastes is of concern because of its higher mobility than most other heavy metals. Although discontinuation of sewage sludge disposal on crop land would stop further soil contamination, potential danger from metal accumulation by crops grown after termination of the practice is still a concern. Trace metals are relatively immobile in soil. Therefore, depending on biological and chemical equilibria established following terminal sludge application, sludge-borne Cd might change in plant availability with time

  5. Bioremediation of Industrial Waste Through Enzyme Producing Marine Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaperumal, P; Kamala, K; Rajaram, R

    Bioremediation process using microorganisms is a kind of nature-friendly and cost-effective clean green technology. Recently, biodegradation of industrial wastes using enzymes from marine microorganisms has been reported worldwide. The prospectus research activity in remediation area would contribute toward the development of advanced bioprocess technology. To minimize industrial wastes, marine enzymes could constitute a novel alternative in terms of waste treatment. Nowadays, the evidence on the mechanisms of bioremediation-related enzymes from marine microorganisms has been extensively studied. This review also will provide information about enzymes from various marine microorganisms and their complexity in the biodegradation of comprehensive range of industrial wastes. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Decolorization of Industrial Waste Using Fenton Process and Photo Fenton

    OpenAIRE

    Wardiyati, Siti; Dewi, Sari Hasnah; Fisli, Adel

    2013-01-01

    Industrial waste water decolorization has been done using the method of Fenton and Photo Fenton. The experiment was conducted in order to obtain the optimum process conditions for industrial waste treatment method with Fenton and Photo Fenton. Industrial waste used in this experiment waste of blue batik making process derived from Rara Djograng Batik Yogyakarta. Factors were studied in this research are the effect of the amount of catalyst FeSO4.7H2O, the amount of oxidant H2O2, and the time ...

  7. Ecology shapes moral judgments towards food-wasting behavior: Evidence from the Yali of West Papua, the Ngorongoro Maasai, and Poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiak, Michał; Butovskaya, Marina; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2018-06-01

    People judge food wasting as an immoral behavior. Although moral concerns vary widely across cultures, to this date, food wasting moral judgments were investigated only among rich and industrialized ones. This study reports first evidence of cultural variability on moral judgments of food wasting between modern and traditional cultures. We conducted our study among the Maasai - pastoralists of Ngorongoro, Yali - horticulturalists of West Papua, and among citizens of Poland. According to the results, Maasai judge food wasting as more immoral compared to Yali and Poles. What's more, Yali judge food wasting harsher than Poles. These results suggest that there are cultural differences in moral judgments of food wasting. These differences might reflect the impact of unstable ecology on food economy of a given society. We hypothesize that harsh moral judgment concerning food waste may serve as a cultural adaptation for food insecurity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization study of industrial waste glass as starting material ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In present study, an industrial waste glass was characterized and the potential to assess as starting material in development of bioactive materials was investigated. A waste glass collected from the two different glass industry was grounded to fine powder. The samples were characterized using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), ...

  9. Fresh, frozen, or ambient food equivalents and their impact on food waste generation in Dutch households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Anke M; Nijenhuis-de Vries, Mariska A; Boer, Eric P J; Kremer, Stefanie

    2017-09-01

    In Europe, it is estimated that more than 50% of total food waste - of which most is avoidable - is generated at household level. Little attention has been paid to the impact on food waste generation of consuming food products that differ in their method of food preservation. This exploratory study surveyed product-specific possible impacts of different methods of food preservation on food waste generation in Dutch households. To this end, a food waste index was calculated to enable relative comparisons of the amounts of food waste from the same type of foods with different preservation methods on an annual basis. The results show that, for the majority of frozen food equivalents, smaller amounts were wasted compared to their fresh or ambient equivalents. The waste index (WI) proposed in the current paper confirms the hypothesis that it may be possible to reduce the amount of food waste at household level by encouraging Dutch consumers to use (certain) foods more frequently in a frozen form (instead of fresh or ambient). However, before this approach can be scaled to population level, a more detailed understanding of the underlying behavioural causes with regard to food provisioning and handling and possible interactions is required. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Logistic paradigm for industrial solid waste treatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Grabara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that industrial waste are a growing problem, both economic and environmental as their number is increasing every year, it is important to take measures to correctly dealing wi th industrial waste. This article presents the descriptive model of logistics processes concerning the management of industrial waste. In this model the flow of waste begins in the place of production and ends at their disposal. The article presents the concept of logistics model in graphical form together with an analysis of individual processes and their linkages, and opportunities to improve flow of industrial waste streams. Furthermore, the model allows for justification of the relevance of use logistics and its processes for waste management

  11. Long term industrial management of radioactive wastes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.

    1981-01-01

    All human activities including energy generation entail the wastes. This definitely applies also to nuclear power generation. Currently the nuclear power program is very extensive, and the plans of fuel reprocessing proceed along this line. In consequence, the Government has decided on tackling the problem of industrial radioactive waste management in earnest. For the purpose, the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) was created in November, 1979, within the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). Its main functions are the design, siting and construction of waste disposal centers and their management, the establishment of waste treatment and disposal standards, and the research and development. The following matters are described: the need for comprehensive industrial approach, the concept of industrial management, ANDRA business program, the industrial policy on waste disposal, and ANDRA financing. (J.P.N.)

  12. Skin protection in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A; Kelterer, D; Bartsch, R; Stadeler, M; Elsner, P

    2007-01-01

    In food occupations, like in many other skin risk occupations, the regular use of personal protection equipment, i.e. of skin protection ointments and protective gloves, is recommended as well as regular skin care for the prevention of occupational hand dermatitis. We investigated the uptake and maintenance of different prevention strategies (instructions for skin protection and skin care, prevocational skin hardening with UV light) in food occupations and their efficacy in the primary prevention of vocationally caused hand dermatitis. We could show that the acceptance and regular use of skin protection and care measures could be significantly increased by theoretical and practical instructions in food industry trainees. The highest acceptance was seen with skin protection ointment (100%) and skin care (90%). Protective gloves (43.3%) were used to a lesser extent. The hand dermatitis point prevalence in the groups after 6 months was 13.3% (skin protection), 19.4% (UV hardening) and 29.1% (controls). These clinical trends were supported by statistically significant differences in the basal TEWL values. Adequate skin protection and regular skin care seem to be promising for the prevention of occupationally caused hand dermatitis. The experimental approach using UV hardening prevocationally did not fulfil the expectations.

  13. Quantifying food losses in South Africa and the costs of household food waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Food waste is problematic for a number of reasons, including the loss of a potentially valuable food source or resource for use in other processes (e.g. energy generation or composting); wasted resources and emissions in the food supply chain...

  14. Arsenic in industrial waste water from copper production technological process

    OpenAIRE

    Biljana Jovanović; Milana Popović

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of arsenic in industrial waste water is of a great importance for environment. Discharge of untreated waste water from a copper production process results in serious pollution of surface water, which directly affects flora and fauna, as well as humans. There is a need for efficient and environmentally acceptable treament of waste waters containing heavy metals and arsenic. The paper presents an analyisis of the waste water from The Copper Smelter which is discharged into the Bor...

  15. Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aschemann-Witzel, J.; Hooge, de I.E.; Amani, P.; Bech-Larsen, T.; Oostindjer, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, food waste has received increased attention on both academic and societal levels. As a cause of negative economic, environmental and social effects, food waste is considered to be one of the sustainability issues that needs to be addressed. In developed countries, consumers are

  16. The Utilization of Banana Peel in the Fermentation Liquid in Food Waste Composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Rahman, N. A.; Azhari, N. W.

    2016-07-01

    Municipal solid waste in Malaysia contains a high amount of organic matters, particularly food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% from the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Food waste can be converted into useful materials such as compost. However, source separation of food waste for recycling is not commonly practiced in Malaysia due to various constraints. These constraints include low awareness among the waste generators and low demand of the products produced from the food waste such as composts. Composting is one of the alternatives that can be used in food waste disposal from Makanan Ringan Mas. The aim of the study is to convert food waste generated from Makanan Ringan Mas which is a medium sale industry located at Parit Kuari Darat, Batu Pahat by using composting method. The parameters which include temperature, pH value, NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium) values has been examined. Banana peel is being used as the fermentation liquid whilst soil and coconut husk were used as the composting medium. Based on the results during the composting process, most of the pH value in each reactor is above 5 and approximately at neutral. This shown that the microbial respiration in the well controlled composting reactor was inhibited and had approached the mature phase. On the other hand, during the period of composting, the overall temperature range from 25 °C to 47 °C which shown the active phase for composting will occoured. As for NPK content Nitrogen value range is 35325 mg/L to 78775 mg/L, Phosphorus, 195.83 mg/L to 471 mg/L and potassium is 422.3 mg/L to 2046 mg/L which is sufficient to use for agricultural purpose. The comparison was made with available organic compost in the market and only showed slightly difference. Nevertheless, in comparison with common fertilizer, the NPK value of organic compost are considerably very low.

  17. Industrial waste heat utilization for low temperature district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Hao; Xia, Jianjun; Zhu, Kan; Su, Yingbo; Jiang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Large quantities of low grade waste heat are discharged into the environment, mostly via water evaporation, during industrial processes. Putting this industrial waste heat to productive use can reduce fossil fuel usage as well as CO 2 emissions and water dissipation. The purpose of this paper is to propose a holistic approach to the integrated and efficient utilization of low-grade industrial waste heat. Recovering industrial waste heat for use in district heating (DH) can increase the efficiency of the industrial sector and the DH system, in a cost-efficient way defined by the index of investment vs. carbon reduction (ICR). Furthermore, low temperature DH network greatly benefits the recovery rate of industrial waste heat. Based on data analysis and in-situ investigations, this paper discusses the potential for the implementation of such an approach in northern China, where conventional heat sources for DH are insufficient. The universal design approach to industrial-waste-heat based DH is proposed. Through a demonstration project, this approach is introduced in detail. This study finds three advantages to this approach: (1) improvement of the thermal energy efficiency of industrial factories; (2) more cost-efficient than the traditional heating mode; and (3) CO 2 and pollutant emission reduction as well as water conservation. -- Highlights: •We review situation of industrial waste heat recovery with a global perspective. •We present a way to analyze the potential to utilize industrial waste heat for DH. •Northern China has huge potential for using low-grade industrial waste heat for DH. •A demonstration project is introduced using the universal approach we propose. •It proves huge benefits for factories, heat-supply companies and the society

  18. Attitudes and behaviour towards convenience food and food waste in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Lucy J; Russell, Jean M; Barker, Margo E

    2016-08-01

    Households in the UK discard much food. A reduction in such waste to mitigate environmental impact is part of UK government policy. This study investigated whether household food waste is linked to a lifestyle reliant on convenience food in younger consumers. A survey of 928 UK residents aged 18-40 years and responsible for the household food shopping (male n = 278; female n = 650) completed an online questionnaire designed to measure attitudes to convenience food and to quantify household food waste. Cluster analysis of 24 food-related lifestyle factors identified 5 consumer groups. General linear modelling techniques were used to test relationships between the purchase frequency of convenience food and household food waste. From the cluster analysis, five distinct convenience profiles emerged comprising: 'epicures' (n = 135), 'traditional consumers' (n = 255), 'casual consumers' (n = 246), 'food detached consumers' (n = 151) and 'kitchen evaders' (n = 141). Casual consumers and kitchen evaders were the most reliant on convenience food and notably were the most wasteful. The demographic profile of kitchen evaders matched the population groups currently targeted by UK food waste policy. Casual consumers represent a new and distinct group characterised by "buy a lot and waste a lot" behaviour. Household size, packaging format, price-awareness and marketing all appear to influence levels of food waste. However, it seems that subtle behavioural and sociocultural factors also have impact. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors that mediate the positive association between the purchase of convenience food and reported food waste in order to inform food waste policy and initiatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Green-Lean Synergy - Root-Cause Analysis in Food Waste Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Amani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose_The goal of this paper is to explore the possible synergetic effects between lean philosophy and green endeavors in improving resource efficiency in the food sector. To that end, it is investigated how a proper and tailor-made adaptation of the lean six sigma root cause analysis method could help in overcoming the complexities of increased resource efficiency in food production.Design/methodology/approach_The case study concerned reduction of waste at an industrial production line of a dough-based product, through the implementation of the lean six sigma tool.Findings_An achievement of a 50% reduction of waste on the studied process line was reached, thus exceeding the initial improvement goal.Research limitations/implications (if applicable_While the explicit findings on the specific root causes of waste on this actual production line are not immediately transferrable to other cases, they show that applying this method to identifying and eliminating root causes of waste for other products and processes in the food sector could not only reduce costs but also contribute to more resource-efficient and sustainable industrial food production.Practical implications (if applicable_ Political and public high interest in environmental and social sustainability associated with food waste render this an important development.Originality/value_ While the potential of linking green and lean efforts has been acknowledged, the application of the lean six sigma methodology for more sustainable food production has not yet been explored. This paper contributes to this research

  20. Can we always ignore ship-generated food waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polglaze, John

    2003-01-01

    Considerable quantities of food waste can be generated at a rapid rate in ships, particularly those with large numbers of people onboard. By virtue of the amounts involved and its nature, food waste is potentially the most difficult to manage component of a ship's garbage stream, however, in most sea areas it may be dealt with by the simple expedient of direct discharge to sea. As a consequence, only minimal attention is paid to food waste management by many ship and port operators and advisory bodies, and there is a paucity of information in the available literature. The determination that management of ships' food waste is inconsequential is, however, incorrect in many circumstances. Disposal to sea is not always possible due to restrictions imposed by MARPOL 73/78 and other marine pollution control instruments. Effective management of food waste can be critical for ships that operate in areas where disposal is restricted or totally prohibited

  1. Anaerobic digestion of food waste - Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fuqing; Li, Yangyang; Ge, Xumeng; Yang, Liangcheng; Li, Yebo

    2018-01-01

    The disposal of large amounts of food waste has caused significant environmental pollution and financial costs globally. Compared with traditional disposal methods (i.e., landfilling, incineration, and composting), anaerobic digestion (AD) is a promising technology for food waste management, but has not yet been fully applied due to a few technical and social challenges. This paper summarizes the quantity, composition, and methane potential of various types of food waste. Recent research on different strategies to enhance AD of food waste, including co-digestion, addition of micronutrients, control of foaming, and process design, is discussed. It is envisaged that AD of food waste could be combined with an existing AD facility or be integrated with the production of value-added products to reduce costs and increase revenue. Further understanding of the fundamental biological and physicochemical processes in AD is required to improve the technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Top of the food chain: Product services in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Andrew M.; Simon, Matthew

    2001-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the environmental impact of the food industry supply chain and explore the potential for new product-service systems in the food sector, which has not been subject to a great deal of eco-design research. Data from a cross-sector analysis of UK industry, concentrating on the sectors representing the food industry supply chain, is utilised. These sectors are agriculture, food processing, retailing, food services, and kitchen equipment. The analysis combines economic ...

  3. Quality Regimes in Agro-Food Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staricco, Juan Ignacio; Ponte, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine the transformative potential of changing quality regimes in agro-food industries through the analysis of whether Fair Trade wine in Argentina provides a meaningful economic alternative that goes beyond the impact it has on direct beneficiaries. The wine sector has a long...... history in valorizing a variety of quality dimensions, and has developed one of the most complex and sophisticated quality infrastructures, making it an ideal terrain of analysis. Furthermore, it is going through a major process of restructuring in which the battle-lines are drawn along the application......, challenge and re-interpretation of different quality content. Through the lenses of a sector-adjusted version of regulation theory, we show that the Fair Trade wine sector does not substantially deviate from the conventional wine economy in Argentina. Instead of empowering the most vulnerable groups, those...

  4. Potential of waste heat in Croatian industrial sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bišćan Davor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste heat recovery in Croatian industry is of the highest significance regarding the national efforts towards energy efficiency improvements and climate protection. By recuperation of heat which would otherwise be wasted, the quantity of fossil fuels used for production of useful energy could be lowered thereby reducing the fuel costs and increasing the competitiveness of examined Croatian industries. Another effect of increased energy efficiency of industrial processes and plants is reduction of greenhouse gases i.e. the second important national goal required by the European Union (EU and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC. Paper investigates and analyses the waste heat potential in Croatian industrial sector. Firstly, relevant industrial sectors with significant amount of waste heat are determined. Furthermore, significant companies in these sectors are selected with respect to main process characteristics, operation mode and estimated waste heat potential. Data collection of waste heat parameters (temperature, mass flow and composition is conducted. Current technologies used for waste heat utilization from different waste heat sources are pointed out. Considered facilities are compared with regard to amount of flue gas heat. Mechanisms for more efficient and more economic utilization of waste heat are proposed. [Acknoledgment. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support provided by the UNITY THROUGH KNOWLEDGE FUND (UKF of the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of the Republic of Croatia and the World Bank, under the Grant Agreement No. 89/11.

  5. Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure: effects of food waste particle size and organic loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyeman, Fred O; Tao, Wendong

    2014-01-15

    This study was to comprehensively evaluate the effects of food waste particle size on co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure at organic loading rates increased stepwise from 0.67 to 3 g/L/d of volatile solids (VS). Three anaerobic digesters were fed semi-continuously with equal VS amounts of food waste and dairy manure. Food waste was ground to 2.5 mm (fine), 4 mm (medium), and 8 mm (coarse) for the three digesters, respectively. Methane production rate and specific methane yield were significantly higher in the digester with fine food waste. Digestate dewaterability was improved significantly by reducing food waste particle size. Specific methane yield was highest at the organic loading rate of 2g VS/L/d, being 0.63, 0.56, and 0.47 L CH4/g VS with fine, medium, and coarse food waste, respectively. Methane production rate was highest (1.40-1.53 L CH4/L/d) at the organic loading rate of 3 g VS/L/d. The energy used to grind food waste was minor compared with the heating value of the methane produced. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Principles of development of the industry of technogenic waste processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Bayeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify and substantiate the principles of development of the industry of technogenic waste processing. Methods systemic analysis and synthesis method of analogy. Results basing on the analysis of the Russian and foreign experience in the field of waste management and environmental protection the basic principles of development activities on technogenic waste processing are formulated the principle of legal regulation the principle of efficiency technologies the principle of ecological safety the principle of economic support. The importance of each principle is substantiated by the description of the situation in this area identifying the main problems and ways of their solution. Scientific novelty the fundamental principles of development of the industry of the industrial wastes processing are revealed the measures of state support are proposed. Practical value the presented theoretical conclusions and proposals are aimed primarily on theoretical and methodological substantiation and practical solutions to modern problems in the sphere of development of the industry of technogenic waste processing.

  7. Olefin Recovery from Chemical Industry Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.R. Da Costa; R. Daniels; A. Jariwala; Z. He; A. Morisato; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans

    2003-11-21

    The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process to separate olefins from paraffins in waste gas streams as an alternative to flaring or distillation. Flaring these streams wastes their chemical feedstock value; distillation is energy and capital cost intensive, particularly for small waste streams.

  8. Hydrogen from food processing wastes via photofermentation using Purple Non-sulfur Bacteria (PNSB) – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Shiladitya; Dairkee, Umme Kulsoom; Chowdhury, Ranjana; Bhattacharya, Pinaki

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Food processing wastes/wastewaters are potential feedstocks for PNSB-bioH_2 systems. • Several bottlenecks exist in efficient usage of food processing wastes/wastewaters by PNSBs. • Pretreatment of feedstocks is a challenging issue. • Genetic modification significantly enhances the H_2 outcome of PNSBs. • Food waste/wastewater - PNSB is a sustainable combination for production of H_2. - Abstract: Purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) mediated production of biohydrogen utilizing solid food waste and food processing wastewater possess enormous potential to be implemented as an ideal “green energy technology”. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art utilization of solid wastes and wastewaters of several food and beverage processing industries in photofermentative H_2 production systems. Detailed accounts of the complex composition of various solid food wastes and food processing wastewaters along with the pretreatments used for enhancement of H_2 production by PNSBs have been presented. Factors like compositional complexity, presence of inhibitory compounds and resistance to light penetration are identified as the prime bottlenecks hindering the efficient utilization of food waste and wastewaters in photofermentative H_2 production. Genetic manipulation of the PNSBs to overcome the inherent metabolic complications has been discussed as a probable amelioration strategy for enhancement of H_2 yield. Based on profound discussions the scopes for upgradation of the photofermentative biohydrogen systems using food waste/wastewater have been highlighted and recommended for the overall enhancement of the sustainability of the processes.

  9. Development of the innovative food industry in the conditions of ensuring food security

    OpenAIRE

    Berdiev S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to ensure the safety of food and through the development of innovative food industry and learning to increase the production of food. Work to ensure food security of the Republic of Uzbekistan has its own characteristics and analysis of trends and problems identified in this area. As well as ensuring the safety of food and food industry offer based on the priority directions of scientific and practical recommendations developed.

  10. WATER CONDITIONING FOR FOOD INDUSTRY USES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAISA NASTAS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Water conditioning for food industry uses. Tap (drinkingwater from many localities of Moldova doesn’t always correspond to the “Sanitarystandards for drinking water quality” or to the requirements of the “Regulation fornon-alcoholic beverages”, requiring the need for additional purification/conditioning. This paper presents research regarding the removal/adsorption of themain pollutants in tap water (iron, manganese, aluminum, humic substances,trihalomethanes on supports of local carbon adsorbents made from vegetableproducts (stones of peach and plum, walnut shells. Experiments were performedin dynamic conditions in columns of carbon adsorbents. As work solutions wasused tap water where pollutants have been introduced in amounts equivalent to 3maximum allowable concentrations. Carbonaceous adsorbents used forremoval/adsorption of pollutants in dynamic conditions, reveal a capacity of up to1:400 volumes adsorbent: solution before breakthrough. Combined filter, utilizingactive carbons, was constructed and tested for conditioning of tap water forbeverage and food production. The results demonstrated efficient remove oforganic substances and heavy metals by filtering of about 700 volumes of waterper volume of filter.

  11. Economic analysis of waste-to-energy industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Gang; Jiang, Gui-Wu; Li, Ang; Wang, Ling

    2016-02-01

    The generation of municipal solid waste is further increasing in China with urbanization and improvement of living standards. The "12th five-year plan" period (2011-2015) promotes waste-to-energy technologies for the harmless disposal and recycling of municipal solid waste. Waste-to-energy plant plays an important role for reaching China's energy conservation and emission reduction targets. Industrial policies and market prospect of waste-to-energy industry are described. Technology, cost and benefit of waste-to-energy plant are also discussed. Based on an economic analysis of a waste-to-energy project in China (Return on Investment, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, and Sensitivity Analysis) the paper makes the conclusions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A comprehensive review on food waste anaerobic digestion: Research updates and tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuanyuan; Yu, Miao; Wu, Chuanfu; Wang, Qunhui; Gao, Ming; Huang, Qiqi; Liu, Yu

    2018-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion has been practically applied in agricultural and industrial waste treatment and recognized as an economical-effective way for food waste disposal. This paper presented an overview on the researches about anaerobic digestion of food waste. Technologies (e.g., pretreatment, co-digestion, inhibition and mitigation, anaerobic digestion systems, etc.) were introduced and evaluated on the basis of bibliometric analysis. Results indicated that ethanol and aerobic prefermentation were novel approaches to enhance substrates hydrolysis and methane yield. With the promotion of resource recovery, more attention should be paid to biorefinery technologies which can produce more useful products toward zero emissions. Furthermore, a technological route for food waste conversion based on anaerobic digestion was proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Latest research progress on food waste management: a comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shangzhen; Gao, Hetong; Duan, Lunbo

    2018-05-01

    Since a large amount of food supplying is provided as a basic line measuring increasing residents’ life standard, food waste has become progressively numeral considerable. Much attention has been drawn to this problem. This work gave an overview on latest researches about anaerobic digestion, composting, generalized management and other developments on management of food waste. Different technologies were introduced and evaluated. Further views on future research in such a field were proposed.

  14. 2016 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cafferty, Kara Grace [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016.

  15. 2016 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cafferty, Kara Grace

    2017-01-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016.

  16. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Wendi L.; Love, H. Alan; Capps, Oral, Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Determinants of merger and acquisition activity in the food industry are analyzed using logit regression analysis. Factors affecting the food processing, food retailing and food service sectors are considered. Results indicate merger and acquisition activity in all three sectors are significantly influenced by antitrust activity, profitability and real gross domestic product.

  17. The Hidden Burden of Food Waste: The Double Energy Waste in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Vittuari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The energy intensity of modern food systems represents a major issue in a scenario of decreasing oil resources and increasing population. Beside the use of renewable energy, an increased efficiency in food systems could contribute to reduce fossil fuels dependence. In this sense, food losses and waste (FLW have crucial consequences on the energy balance. Based on the concept of “embodied energy”, food wastage can be framed as a double waste of energy, both in terms of non-consumed food energy and the inputs used for production. Secondary data regarding direct and indirect energy inputs and FLW have been collected for the Italian food chain to estimate the embodied energy of food waste. Since in 2011 the production and distribution of food implied the use of 822 PJ and 18 Mt of food was discarded, 67 PJ of food energy and 100 PJ of embodied energy were wasted. These figures are equivalent to 12.2% of the total nutritional energy output and to 1.3% of the final energy use in Italy, respectively. The concept of double energy waste sheds new light on the intertwined relationship between energy and food security, suggesting that appropriate food waste reduction policies could result in a higher food production level and relevant energy savings.

  18. Food waste disposal units in UK households: The need for policy intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacovidou, Eleni; Ohandja, Dieudonne-Guy; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    The EU Landfill Directive requires Member States to reduce the amount of biodegradable waste disposed of to landfill. This has been a key driver for the establishment of new waste management options, particularly in the UK, which in the past relied heavily on landfill for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). MSW in the UK is managed by Local Authorities, some of which in a less conventional way have been encouraging the installation and use of household food waste disposal units (FWDs) as an option to divert food waste from landfill. This study aimed to evaluate the additional burden to water industry operations in the UK associated with this option, compared with the benefits and related savings from the subsequent reductions in MSW collection and disposal. A simple economic analysis was undertaken for different FWD uptake scenarios, using the Anglian Region as a case study. Results demonstrated that the significant savings from waste collection arising from a large-scale uptake of FWDs would outweigh the costs associated with the impacts to the water industry. However, in the case of a low uptake, such savings would not be enough to cover the increased costs associated with the wastewater provision. As a result, this study highlights the need for policy intervention in terms of regulating the use of FWDs, either promoting them as an alternative to landfill to increase savings from waste management, or banning them as a threat to wastewater operations to reduce potential costs to the water industry. - Highlights: ► FWDs can be a less conventional way for diverting food waste from landfill. ► We compared water industry costs to savings from MSW collection and treatment. ► A large-scale uptake of FWDs would outweigh the costs to the water industry. ► At a low uptake, MSW collection savings are not enough to cover these costs. ► Findings highlight the need for policy intervention, regulating the use of FWDs.

  19. The development of Corporate social responsibility in Lithuanian food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Navickas, Valentinas; Kontautienė, Rima

    2014-01-01

    The authors of the article analyze the development of corporate social responsibility in Lithuanian food industry. By emphasize the importance of food industry as one of the largest manufacturing group in Lithuania and its strong impact and high dependence on the economy, the environment and on society, implementation of principles and practice of corporate social responsibility is of high relevance for this sector. The paper deals with the main indicators of Lithuanian food industry in...

  20. Household food waste in Nordic countries: Estimations and ethical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickey Gjerris

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on food waste generated by households in four Nordic countries: Finland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Based on existing literature we present (A comparable data on amounts and monetary value of food waste; (B explanations for food waste at household level; (C a number of public and private initiatives at national levels aiming to reduce food waste; and (D a discussion of ethical issues related to food waste with a focus on possible contributions from ecocentric ethics. We argue that reduction of food waste at household level, which has an impact on issues such as climate change and unjust distribution of food resources, needs to be based on an appreciative and relational understanding of nature and food and not only on economic and moralizing arguments. This is done by drawing on an ecocentric perspective where food is seen as one of the areas where new narratives need to be developed to establish cultural habits replacing a focus on affluence and individual choice with a focus on participatory embeddedness in a more-than-human lifeworld.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v7i1.1786

  1. Food Waste Drivers in Europe, from Identification to Possible Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Canali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing volumes of food globally lost or wasted and implications for food security and sustainability have raised the concern of researchers, governments, international organizations and grass-root movements. Much research and experiences investigating food waste causes and drivers focus on one specific segment of the food supply chain and limit the analysis to the situation of one or few countries, while the few studies of wider geographical scope also target other relevant and diversified objectives (e.g., food waste definition, quantification, environmental and economic impacts, and recommendations for interventions. This study, carried out by a network of European institutions involved in research and initiatives against food waste, focuses on the analysis of a broad area, Europe, through a wide and systematic literature review and consultation with stakeholders in international focus groups. The food supply chain was divided into seven segments and three main contexts were defined for the examination of food waste sources: Technological, Institutional (related to organisational factors, i.e., business management, economy, legislation, and policy, and Social (related to consumers’ behaviours and lifestyles. Results suggest a wide and multifaceted problem, interconnected across all stages of the food supply chain, from primary production, to final consumption. Within each context, the identified drivers have been grouped according to the possibilities and the type of interventions for food waste reduction. A final cross-contextual prioritization distinguished food waste sources related to (A inherent characteristics of food; (B social and economic factors; (C individual non-readily changeable behaviours; (D other priorities targeted by private and public stakeholders; (E diversified factors, such as mismanagement, inefficient legislation, lack of awareness or information; and sub-optimal use of available technologies, which could be

  2. Digestion of frozen/thawed food waste in the hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabnikova, O.; Liu, X.Y.; Wang, J.Y.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid (HASL) system, which is a modified two-phase anaerobic digester, is to be used in an industrial scale operation to minimize disposal of food waste at incineration plants in Singapore. The aim of the present research was to evaluate freezing/thawing of food waste as a pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system. The hydrolytic and fermentation processes in the acidogenic reactor were enhanced when food waste was frozen for 24 h at -20 deg. C and then thawed for 12 h at 25 deg. C (experiment) in comparison with fresh food waste (control). The highest dissolved COD concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 16.9 g/l on day 3 in the control and 18.9 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The highest VFA concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 11.7 g/l on day 3 in the control and 17.0 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The same volume of methane was produced during 12 days in the control and 7 days in the experiment. It gave the opportunity to diminish operational time of batch process by 42%. The effect of freezing/thawing of food waste as pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system was comparable with that of thermal pre-treatment of food waste at 150 deg. C for 1 h. However, estimation of energy required either to heat the suspended food waste to 150 deg. C or to freeze the same quantity of food waste to -20 deg. C showed that freezing pre-treatment consumes about 3 times less energy than thermal pre-treatment

  3. Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Yaqout, Anwar F.

    2003-01-01

    Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14±1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85±0.19 million t representing 37.22±6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait

  4. Valorization of waste streams, "From food by-products to worm biomass"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, B.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    A new technology is investigated to produce a high quality animal feed source by converting safe industrial food wastes into worm biomass. The freshwater worm Lumbriculus variegatus (common name: blackworm) has been selected for this purpose. This species can be used to reduce and concentrate

  5. Household food waste separation behavior and the importance of convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad, Anna

    2014-07-01

    Two different strategies aiming at increasing household source-separation of food waste were assessed through a case-study in a Swedish residential area (a) use of written information, distributed as leaflets amongst households and (b) installation of equipment for source-segregation of waste with the aim of increasing convenience food waste sorting in kitchens. Weightings of separately collected food waste before and after distribution of written information suggest that this resulted in neither a significant increased amount of separately collected food waste, nor an increased source-separation ratio. After installation of sorting equipment in households, both the amount of separately collected food waste as well as the source-separation ratio increased vastly. Long-term monitoring shows that results where longstanding. Results emphasize the importance of convenience and existence of infrastructure necessary for source-segregation of waste as important factors for household waste recycling, but also highlight the need of addressing these aspects where waste is generated, i.e. already inside the household. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimal waste heat recovery and reuse in industrial zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stijepovic, Mirko Z.; Linke, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Significant energy efficiency gains in zones with concentrated activity from energy intensive industries can often be achieved by recovering and reusing waste heat between processing plants. We present a systematic approach to target waste heat recovery potentials and design optimal reuse options across plants in industrial zones. The approach first establishes available waste heat qualities and reuse feasibilities considering distances between individual plants. A targeting optimization problem is solved to establish the maximum possible waste heat recovery for the industrial zone. Then, a design optimization problem is solved to identify concrete waste heat recovery options considering economic objectives. The paper describes the approach and illustrates its application with a case study. -- Highlights: → Developed a systematic approach to target waste heat recovery potentials and to design optimal recovery and reuse options across plants in industrial zones. → Five stage approach involving data acquisition, analysis, assessment, targeting and design. → Targeting optimization problem establishes the maximum possible waste heat recovery and reuse limit for the industrial zone. → Design optimization problem provides concrete waste heat recovery and reuse network design options considering economic objectives.

  7. Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nges, Ivo Achu; Escobar, Federico; Fu Xinmei; Björnsson, Lovisa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This study demonstrates the feasibility of co-digestion food industrial waste with energy crops. ► Laboratory batch co-digestion led to improved methane yield and carbon to nitrogen ratio as compared to mono-digestion of industrial waste. ► Co-digestion was also seen as a means of degrading energy crops with nutrients addition as crops are poor in nutrients. ► Batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. ► It was concluded that co-digestion led an over all economically viable process and ensured a constant supply of feedstock. - Abstract: Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas production is limited under Swedish conditions; therefore, adding crops to existing industrial waste digestion could be a viable

  8. Arsenic in industrial waste water from copper production technological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Jovanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of arsenic in industrial waste water is of a great importance for environment. Discharge of untreated waste water from a copper production process results in serious pollution of surface water, which directly affects flora and fauna, as well as humans. There is a need for efficient and environmentally acceptable treament of waste waters containing heavy metals and arsenic. The paper presents an analyisis of the waste water from The Copper Smelter which is discharged into the Bor river. The expected arsenic content in treated waste water after using HDS procedure is also presented.

  9. Microbial keratinases: industrial enzymes with waste management potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Amit; Singh, Hukum; Anwar, Shahbaz; Chattopadhyay, Anirudha; Tiwari, Kapil K; Kaur, Surinder; Dhilon, Gurpreet Singh

    2017-06-01

    Proteases are ubiquitous enzymes that occur in various biological systems ranging from microorganisms to higher organisms. Microbial proteases are largely utilized in various established industrial processes. Despite their numerous industrial applications, they are not efficient in hydrolysis of recalcitrant, protein-rich keratinous wastes which result in environmental pollution and health hazards. This paved the way for the search of keratinolytic microorganisms having the ability to hydrolyze "hard to degrade" keratinous wastes. This new class of proteases is known as "keratinases". Due to their specificity, keratinases have an advantage over normal proteases and have replaced them in many industrial applications, such as nematicidal agents, nitrogenous fertilizer production from keratinous waste, animal feed and biofuel production. Keratinases have also replaced the normal proteases in the leather industry and detergent additive application due to their better performance. They have also been proved efficient in prion protein degradation. Above all, one of the major hurdles of enzyme industrial applications (cost effective production) can be achieved by using keratinous waste biomass, such as chicken feathers and hairs as fermentation substrate. Use of these low cost waste materials serves dual purposes: to reduce the fermentation cost for enzyme production as well as reducing the environmental waste load. The advent of keratinases has given new direction for waste management with industrial applications giving rise to green technology for sustainable development.

  10. Buying less and wasting less food. Changes in household food energy purchases, energy intakes and energy density between 2007 and 2012 with and without adjustment for food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whybrow, Stephen; Horgan, Graham W; Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2017-05-01

    Consumers in the UK responded to the rapid increases in food prices between 2007 and 2009 partly by reducing the amount of food energy bought. Household food and drink waste has also decreased since 2007. The present study explored the combined effects of reductions in food purchases and waste on estimated food energy intakes and dietary energy density. The amount of food energy purchased per adult equivalent was calculated from Kantar Worldpanel household food and drink purchase data for 2007 and 2012. Food energy intakes were estimated by adjusting purchase data for food and drink waste, using waste factors specific to the two years and scaled for household size. Scotland. Households in Scotland (n 2657 in 2007; n 2841 in 2012). The amount of food energy purchased decreased between 2007 and 2012, from 8·6 to 8·2 MJ/adult equivalent per d (Pfood waste, estimated food energy intake was not significantly different (7·3 and 7·2 MJ/adult equivalent per d for 2007 and 2012, respectively; P=0·186). Energy density of foods purchased increased slightly from 700 to 706 kJ/100 g (P=0·010). While consumers in Scotland reduced the amount of food energy that they purchased between 2007 and 2012, this was balanced by reductions in household food and drink waste over the same time, resulting in no significant change in net estimated energy intake of foods brought into the home.

  11. Food waste in Central Europe – challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    den Boer Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food waste is an important issue in the global economy. In the EU many activities aimed at this topic are carried out, however in Central Europe is still quite pristine. There is lack of reliable data on food waste quantities in this region, and not many preventive actions are taken. To improve this situation the STREFOWA (Strategies to Reduce and Manage Food Waste in Central Europe was initiated. It is an international project (Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Poland, founded by the Interreg Central Europe programme, running from July 2016 to June 2019. Its main purpose is to provide solutions to prevent and manage food waste throughout the entire food supply chain. The results of STREFOWA will have positive economical, social and environmental impacts.

  12. Food waste in Central Europe - challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boer, Jan; Kobel, Przemysław; Dyjakon, Arkadiusz; Urbańska, Klaudia; Obersteiner, Gudrun; Hrad, Marlies; Schmied, Elisabeth; den Boer, Emilia

    2017-11-01

    Food waste is an important issue in the global economy. In the EU many activities aimed at this topic are carried out, however in Central Europe is still quite pristine. There is lack of reliable data on food waste quantities in this region, and not many preventive actions are taken. To improve this situation the STREFOWA (Strategies to Reduce and Manage Food Waste in Central Europe) was initiated. It is an international project (Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Poland), founded by the Interreg Central Europe programme, running from July 2016 to June 2019. Its main purpose is to provide solutions to prevent and manage food waste throughout the entire food supply chain. The results of STREFOWA will have positive economical, social and environmental impacts.

  13. Towards a More Sustainable Food Supply Chain: Opening up Invisible Waste in Food Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Derqui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Future challenges to the global food supply chain are complex. In order to embrace sustainability, companies should change their management practices towards more efficient resource use. Food waste being a misuse of resources, we identify its causes and possible ways of minimising it. To achieve this goal, we conducted explorative research with qualitative and quantitative data through in-depth semi-structured interviews and an open questionnaire with top Spanish food service companies. Results show that most businesses mainly tend to minimise food waste according to economic criteria, without taking into account the social, ethical or environmental factors. As a consequence, just “visible” food waste that has an economic impact on the results is minimised. Nevertheless, visibility of real waste is often low. At the same time, awareness of (and therefore initiatives to reduce food waste that does not directly affect a firm’s profit can be increased through multi-stakeholder collaboration. Opportunities for reducing food waste therefore arise from increasing the visibility of food that is discarded as well as addressing plate waste. We identify best practices that could lead to a reduction of the amount of food waste generated in the out of home channel in Spain.

  14. Industrial waste needs assessment. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radel, R.J.; Willis, M.P. [eds.

    1993-10-01

    In January of 1992 a team was put together to begin the process of assessing the industrial waste needs of the Tennessee Valley. The team consisted of representatives from the various TVA Resource Group organizations. This initial team recommended as a starting point in the process a two-phase market research effort. A second team was then commissioned to conduct the first phase of this market research effort. The first phase of that marketing effort is now complete. This report contains an analysis of the data obtained through interviews of more than 168 individuals representing a similar number of organizations. A total of 37 TVA Resource Group employees were involved in the contact process from various organizations. In addition, the appendices provide summaries of the data used in designing the process and the reports of the Contact Coordinators (who were responsible for a series of visits). As a result of the data analysis, the Review Team makes the following recommendations: 1. Publish this report and distribute to the new management within TVA Resource Group as well as to all those participating as contacts, visitors, and contact coordinators. 2. The Resource Group management team, or management teams within each of the respective organizations within Resource Group, appoint Phase 2 assessement teams for as many of the problem areas listed in Table III as seem appropriate. We further recommend that, where possible, cross-organizational teams be used to examine individual problem areas. 3. Make this report available within Generating and Customer Groups, especially to the Customer Service Centers. 4. Establish a process to continue follow up with each of the contacts made in this assessment.

  15. Industrial waste needs assessment. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radel, R.J.; Willis, M.P.

    1993-10-01

    In January of 1992 a team was put together to begin the process of assessing the industrial waste needs of the Tennessee Valley. The team consisted of representatives from the various TVA Resource Group organizations. This initial team recommended as a starting point in the process a two-phase market research effort. A second team was then commissioned to conduct the first phase of this market research effort. The first phase of that marketing effort is now complete. This report contains an analysis of the data obtained through interviews of more than 168 individuals representing a similar number of organizations. A total of 37 TVA Resource Group employees were involved in the contact process from various organizations. In addition, the appendices provide summaries of the data used in designing the process and the reports of the Contact Coordinators (who were responsible for a series of visits). As a result of the data analysis, the Review Team makes the following recommendations: 1. Publish this report and distribute to the new management within TVA Resource Group as well as to all those participating as contacts, visitors, and contact coordinators. 2. The Resource Group management team, or management teams within each of the respective organizations within Resource Group, appoint Phase 2 assessement teams for as many of the problem areas listed in Table III as seem appropriate. We further recommend that, where possible, cross-organizational teams be used to examine individual problem areas. 3. Make this report available within Generating and Customer Groups, especially to the Customer Service Centers. 4. Establish a process to continue follow up with each of the contacts made in this assessment

  16. Toxicological evaluation of complex industrial wastes: Implications for exposure assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMarini, D.M.; Gallagher, J.E.; Houk, V.S.; Simmons, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    A variety of short-term bioassays to construct a battery of tests that could be used for assessing the biological effects of potentially hazardous complex industrial wastes were evaluated. Ten samples were studied for hepatotoxicity: These samples and an additional five were studied for mutagenicity. Although the data are limited to these samples, the results suggest that the Salmonella assay (either TA98 or TA100) or a prophage-induction assay (both in the presence of S9) in combination with determination of relative liver weight and levels of a set of serum enzymes in rats would provide a battery of tests suitable to characterize complex industrial wastes for mutagenic and hepatotoxic potential. The biological activities exhibited by the wastes were not readily predicted by the chemical profiles of the wastes, emphasizing the importance of characterizing potentially hazardous complex industrial wastes by both chemical and biological means.

  17. The effect of food waste disposers on municipal waste and wastewater management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashlian, Natasha; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2005-02-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of introducing food waste disposers as a waste minimization option within urban waste management schemes, taking the Greater Beirut Area (GBA) as a case study. For this purpose, the operational and economic impacts of food disposers on the solid waste and wastewater streams are assessed. The integration of food waste disposers can reduce the total solid waste to be managed by 12 to 43% under market penetration ranging between 25 and 75%, respectively. While the increase in domestic water consumption (for food grinding) and corresponding increase in wastewater flow rates are relatively insignificant, wastewater loadings increased by 17 to 62% (BOD) and 1.9 to 7.1% (SS). The net economic benefit of introducing food disposers into the waste and wastewater management systems constitutes 7.2 to 44.0% of the existing solid waste management cost under the various scenarios examined. Concerns about increased sludge generation persist and its potential environmental and economic implications may differ with location and therefore area-specific characteristics must be taken into consideration when contemplating the adoption of a strategy to integrate food waste disposers in the waste-wastewater management system.

  18. Assessment of waste management in a brewing industry in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences ... in the generation of offensive by – products in terms of industrial wastes in our environment. ... The obtained values were compared with the Federal Environmental Protection Agency ...

  19. Food Waste in School Catering: An Italian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Falasconi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Food losses and waste are currently at the heart of academic debates, civil society initiatives, and political agendas. This paper investigates food waste in school catering services focusing on six schools located in the municipality of Verona (Italy. It aims to quantify food waste, as a measure of food catering inefficiency, to identify the main causes, and to suggest a set of prevention and reduction interventions. For these purposes food waste is defined as all the products discarded from the food chain while still preserving their nutritional value and complying with safety standards. The work shows a significant level of inefficiency in the school catering services, measured by the amount of food processed and still perfectly edible, but not served during the meals. On average more than 15% of the overall processed food is wasted. Among the causes identified in this study, four of them were more relevant than others because of their implications and impact on prevention: the lack of attention to dietary habits, the rigid food procurement specifications, the menu composition, and the meal presentation.

  20. The intertwine of nanotechnology with the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Alshammari Fanar; Han, Jong-Hun; Kim, Byung-Chun; Rather, Irfan A

    2018-01-01

    The past decade has proven the competence of nanotechnology in almost all known fields. The evolution of nanotechnology today in the area of the food industry has been largely and has had a lot of contribution in the food processing, food package, and food preservation. The increasing global human population has come with growing population to be fed, and food production is not adjusted to at par with the growing population. This mismatch has shown the real essence of food preservation so that food products can reach to people on a global scale. The introduction of nanotechnology in the food industry has made it easy to transport foods to different parts of the world by extending the shelf-life of most food products. Even with this beneficial aspect of nanotechnology, it has not been proven an entire full-proof measure, and the field is still open to changing technology. It suffices to note that nanotechnology has to a big extent succeed in curbing the extent of food wastage due to food spoilage by the microbial infestation. Nanotechnology has focused on fresh foods, ensuring a healthier food by employing nano-delivery systems in the process. The delivery systems are the ones, which carries the food supplements. However, these are certain sets of regulations that must be followed to tame or control the health related risks of nanotechnology in food industries. This paper outlines the role of nanotechnology at different levels of the food industry including, packaging of food, processing of food and the various preservation techniques all aiming to increase the shelf life of the food products.

  1. Chemical composition and methane potential of commercial food wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Victoria M; De la Cruz, Florentino B; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-10-01

    There is increasing interest in anaerobic digestion in the U.S. However, there is little information on the characterization of commercial food waste sources as well as the effect of waste particle size on methane yield. The objective of this research was to characterize four commercial food waste sources: (1) university dining hall waste, (2) waste resulting from prepared foods and leftover produce at a grocery store, (3) food waste from a hotel and convention center, and (4) food preparation waste from a restaurant. Each sample was tested in triplicate 8L batch anaerobic digesters after shredding and after shredding plus grinding. Average methane yields for the university dining, grocery store, hotel, and restaurant wastes were 363, 427, 492, and 403mL/dry g, respectively. Starch exhibited the most complete consumption and particle size did not significantly affect methane yields for any of the tested substrates. Lipids represented 59-70% of the methane potential of the fresh substrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimation of Pb from metal and electroplating industrial waste by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration of lead in sediment and liquid waste samples of selected metal electroplating industries was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data obtained revealed that lead content in liquid wastes varies in the range of 0.582-14.97 mg L-1 and 1.300-757.8 mg Kg-1 in sediments. Removal of ...

  3. The radioactive wastes management of the little nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Among the ANDRA customers, more than one million are little producers: hospital, research centers and industries. They are called little producers because of the low volume of produced wastes. Meanwhile these wastes management need an appropriate technology which is presented in this document. (A.L.B.)

  4. Methods for waste waters treatment in textile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Zhezhova, Silvana; Risteski, Sanja; Golomeova, Saska

    2014-01-01

    The processes of production of textiles or wet treatments and finishing processes of textile materials are huge consumers of water with high quality. As a result of these various processes, considerable amounts of polluted water are released. This paper puts emphasis on the problem of environmental protection against waste waters generated by textile industry. The methods of pretreatment or purification of waste waters in the textile industry can be: Primary (screening, sedimentation, homo...

  5. Food losses and waste in the context of sustainable food systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, A.J.M.; Ambuko, J.; Belik, W.; Huang, Jikun

    2014-01-01

    The issue of global food losses and waste has recently received much attention and has been given high visibility. According to FAO, almost one-third of food produced for human consumption – approximately 1.3 billion tonnes per year – is either lost or wasted globally: their reduction is now

  6. Solid industrial wastes and their management in Asegra (Granada, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casares, M.L.; Ulierte, N.; Mataran, A.; Ramos, A.; Zamorano, M.

    2005-01-01

    ASEGRA is an industrial area in Granada (Spain) with important waste management problems. In order to properly manage and control waste production in industry, one must know the quantity, type, and composition of industrial wastes, as well as the management practices of the companies involved. In our study, questionnaires were used to collect data regarding methods of waste management used in 170 of the 230 businesses in the area of study. The majority of these companies in ASEGRA are small or medium-size, and belong to the service sector, transport, and distribution. This was naturally a conditioning factor in both the type and management of the wastes generated. It was observed that paper and cardboard, plastic, wood, and metals were the most common types of waste, mainly generated from packaging (49% of the total volume), as well as material used in containers and for wrapping products. Serious problems were observed in the management of these wastes. In most cases they were disposed of by dumping, and very rarely did businesses resort to reuse, recycling or valorization. Smaller companies encountered greater difficulties when it came to effective waste management. The most frequent solution for the disposal of wastes in the area was dumping

  7. Energy supply of food processing plants and breweries from its specific solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behmel, U.; Leupold, G.; Meyer-Pittroff, R. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Weihenstephan (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    Disposal of solid wastes in the food processing industry causes problems. Constant utilization as animal food is not guaranteed any longer and costs for disposal will increase. Biogas production is an alternative for disposal of brewery wastes. Recent investigations have reduced retention time for hydrolysis and total retention time. Retention time is directly proportional to fermenter size consequently resulting in drastic cost reductions. Yielded energy can be utilized in the production line so that fossil fuel use can be reduced with reductions in carbon dioxide emissions. However, some problems remain: sumptous technology; highly qualified specialists; need to reduce ammonia to prevent inhibition of biogas production; cost of technology.

  8. [Food processing industry--the salt shock to the consumers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Andabaka, Damir

    2010-05-01

    Industrial food production and processing is necessarily connected with the use of salt. Salt or sodium chloride is used as a preservative, spice, agent for color maintenance, texture, and to regulate fermentation by stopping the growth of bacteria, yeast and mold. Besides kitchen salt, other types of salt that also contain sodium are used in various technological processes in food preparing industry. Most of the "hidden" salt, 70%-75%, can be brought to the body by using industrial food, which, unfortunately, has been increasingly used due to the modern way of life. Bread and bakery products, meat products, various sauces, dried fish, various types of cheese, fast food, conserved vegetables, ready-made soups and food additives are the most common industrial foods rich in sodium. Many actions have been taken all over the world to restrict salt consumption. The World Health Organization recommends the upper limit of salt input of 5 g per day. These actions appeal to food industry to reduce the proportion of salt in their products. Besides lower salt addition during manufacture, food industry can use salt substitutes, in particular potassium chloride (KCl), in combination with additives that can mask the absence of salt, and flavor intensifiers that also enhance the product salinity. However, food industry is still quite resistant to reducing salt in their products for fear from losing profits.

  9. Prevention of Waste in the Circular Economy: Analysis of Strategies and Identification of Sustainable Targets - The food waste example

    OpenAIRE

    CRISTOBAL GARCIA JORGE; VILA Marta; GIAVINI Michele; TORRES DE MATOS CRISTINA; MANFREDI SIMONE

    2016-01-01

    This report continues and further advances the work conducted by the JRC in the field of sustainable management of food waste, which resulted in the publication of the 2015 report “Improving Sustainability and Circularity of European Food Waste Management with a Life Cycle Approach”. It focuses on the broad European waste management context and, in particular, provides insight and analysis on the sustainability of food waste prevention strategies. Among other municipal waste streams, food ...

  10. Benefits of nitrogen for food, fibre and industrial production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoumann Jensen, L.; Schjoerring, J.K.; Hoek, K.W. van der; Damgaard Poulsen, H.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Pallière, C.; Lammel, J.; Brentrup, F.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Willems, J.; Grinsven, H. van

    2011-01-01

    Nature of the issue • Reactive nitrogen (N r ) has well-documented positive eff ects in agricultural and industrial production systems, human nutrition and food security. Limited N r supply was a key constraint to European food and industrial production, which has been overcome by Nr from the

  11. Comparison of high-solids to liquid anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and green waste

    OpenAIRE

    Sanati, Mehri; Chen, Xiang; Yan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Co-digestion of food waste and green waste was conducted with six feedstock mixing ratios to evaluate biogas production. Increasing the food waste percentage in the feedstock resulted in an increased methane yield, while shorter retention time was achieved by increasing the green waste percentage. Food waste/green waste ratio of 40:60 was determined as preferred ratio for optimal biogas production. About 90% of methane yield was obtained after 24.5 days of digestion, with total methane yield ...

  12. Determination of Heavy Metal Levels in Various Industrial Waste Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Şahin Dündar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Important part of the environmetal pollution consists of waste water and water pollution. The water polluted by anthropogenical, industrial, and agricultural originated sources are defined as waste waters which are the main pollution sources for reservoirs, rivers, lakes, and seas. In this work, waste waters of leather, textile, automotive side, and metal plating industries were used to determine the levels of Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb and Ni by using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. As a result, highest mean levels of copper in supernatants of plating and textile industries were observed as 377,18 ng ml-1, respectively 103 ng ml-1 lead and 963,6 ng ml-1 nickel in plating industry, 1068,2 ng ml-1 zinc and 14557,1 ng ml-1 chromium in plating and leather industries were determined.

  13. OPTIPOLYGEN - Optimum integration of polygeneration in the food industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    The expression polygeneration is defined as the use of multiple primary energy inputs to create multiple energy outputs. The aim of the project OPTIPOLYGEN is to investigate the potential of utilising and implementing polygeneration technologies in the food and drink industry. Due to its significant and simultaneous demand for process-heat, electricity and cooling, the food and drink industry is especially suitable for polygeneration. The work of the project comprised efforts covering everything from surveys of current utilisation of polygeneration to estimating the potential use in the future as well as evaluating the obstacles for further development. Moreover, the project did also have the aim to aid future implementations by developing and disseminating tools for faster evaluation of food plants applicability for polygeneration. These tools comprise technical guidelines, a web-based feasibility calculator as well as training materials for consultants and educators. All these tools are made available for interested bodies on the project website www.optipolygen.org . The results of the project reveal that whether polygeneration is applicable or not at a specific site is a complex question and depends on many details that may vary significantly by the local circumstances of each plant. Thus in order to be able to estimate the potential a thorough investigation of each plant site has to be undertaken comprising several issues such as: availability of local energy infrastructure, fuels, rules of electricity trade and transmission, district heat trade and transmission, carbon dioxide tax, regulations concerning biodegradable waste handling, subsidies, etc.. However, by disregarding these local differences and by instead extrapolating available technical and statistical data, the current potential for polygeneration in EU-15 food and drink industry is estimated to amount to 73,1 TWh{sub el}/year. The largest potentials are estimated to be in the meat and fish industry

  14. Applications of sonochemistry in Russian food processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasulya, Olga; Shestakov, Sergey; Bogush, Vladimir; Potoroko, Irina; Cherepanov, Pavel; Krasulya, Boris

    2014-11-01

    In food industry, conventional methodologies such as grinding, mixing, and heat treatment are used for food processing and preservation. These processes have been well studied for many centuries and used in the conversion of raw food materials to consumable food products. This report is dedicated to the application of a cost-efficient method of energy transfer caused by acoustic cavitation effects in food processing, overall, having significant impacts on the development of relatively new area of food processing such as food sonochemistry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of Food Waste Prevention and Recycling Strategies Using a Multilayer Systems Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Helen A; Peverill, M Samantha; Müller, Daniel B; Brattebø, Helge

    2015-12-15

    Food waste (FW) generates large upstream and downstream emissions to the environment and unnecessarily consumes natural resources, potentially affecting future food security. The ecological impacts of FW can be addressed by the upstream strategies of FW prevention or by downstream strategies of FW recycling, including energy and nutrient recovery. While FW recycling is often prioritized in practice, the ecological implications of the two strategies remain poorly understood from a quantitative systems perspective. Here, we develop a multilayer systems framework and scenarios to quantify the implications of food waste strategies on national biomass, energy, and phosphorus (P) cycles, using Norway as a case study. We found that (i) avoidable food waste in Norway accounts for 17% of sold food; (ii) 10% of the avoidable food waste occurs at the consumption stage, while industry and retailers account for only 7%; (iii) the theoretical potential for systems-wide net process energy savings is 16% for FW prevention and 8% for FW recycling; (iv) the theoretical potential for systems-wide P savings is 21% for FW prevention and 9% for FW recycling; (v) while FW recycling results in exclusively domestic nutrient and energy savings, FW prevention leads to domestic and international savings due to large food imports; (vi) most effective is a combination of prevention and recycling, however, FW prevention reduces the potential for FW recycling and therefore needs to be prioritized to avoid potential overcapacities for FW recycling.

  16. Allergen management in the food industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boye, Joyce I; Godefroy, Samuel Benrejeb

    2010-01-01

    "This book comprehensively addresses the sources of allergenic contaminants in foods, their fate during processing, and the specific measures that need to be taken to minimize their occurrence in foods...

  17. Allergen management in the food industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boye, Joyce I; Godefroy, Samuel Benrejeb

    2010-01-01

    .... Starting with an introduction to food allergens, the book follows with sections on food allergen management during production and processing, guidelines for the processing of specific allergen-free...

  18. Manual on oil-gas industry waste utilization radioecological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashev, V.A.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Tuleushev, A.Zh.; Marabaev, Zh.N.; Pasysaev, V.A.; Kayukov, P.G.; Kozhakhmetov, N.B.; Shevtsov, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    The development of a new document - 'Manual on radio-ecologically safe utilization of waste from oil-and-gas production' is carried out. This document regulates the whole cycle of environment protection measures at waste utilization for the named industry in Kazakhstan and is aimed on lowering the radiation risks and assurance of radioecological safety both at present and for the future. The document presents a set regulations necessary for radioactive wastes handling in the oil-gas industry. The normative document was agreed in both the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan (RK) and Ministry of Environment Protection of RK

  19. Food losses and waste in the French oilcrops sector

    OpenAIRE

    Fine Frédéric; Lucas Jean-Louis; Chardigny Jean-Michel; Redlingshöfer Barbara; Renard Michel

    2015-01-01

    INRA has initiated a comprehensive approach to food loss and waste for all the plant and animal sectors, from field to distribution. In this study, all comestibles that leave the human food chain and are not recycled into animal feed are considered as losses and waste. The main French oilseed sectors are studied (rapeseed, sunflower and soya, as well as tofu). In order to identify the key sources of loss, all of the various steps in the ...

  20. Empirical Findings from Dutch Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    van der Vorst, Jack G.A.J.; Peeters, Lotte; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    with environmental and social performance. Therefore, in 2012, we started a collaborative project on this topic named SCALE (Step Change in Agri-food Logistics Ecosystems). SCALE aims to improve the sustainability of food and drink supply chain logistics in the context of rising food demands, increasing energy prices and the need to reduce environmentally damaging emissions. More in particular, SCALE aims to deliver a number of tools and frameworks valuable for the agri-food sector to secure ...

  1. Training requirements for agro-food industry in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro D. Gaspar; Rita Pinheiro; Cláudia Domingues; Celestino Almeida; Teresa Paiva; Carlos D. Pereira; Manuela Vaz-Velho

    2015-01-01

    Agro-food companies are aware that the technical and soft skills of their employees directly influence business performance and, consequently, improving those skills will enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of their companies. This paper presents the main results of the AgriTraining project “Training requirements for the agro-food industry". Activities in pursuit of the objectives of this project involved: (1) analysis of the training needs in the agro-food industry in Portugal; (2) anal...

  2. Biotechnology and the food industry: some potentials for Ghana | Klu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology has played a major role in the traditional food and agriculture industry particularly in the areas of food fermentation, biological control of pests, and conventional animal vaccine production. The need to augment food production to meet the increasing population in Ghana requires that modern techniques be ...

  3. Utilization of INIS and AGRIS by the food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefflerova, J.

    1982-01-01

    The Technical Information Centre of the Food Industry has begun publishing user handbooks on various foreign services, such as Chemical Abstracts and the CAS, the International Food Information Service - Food Science and Technology Abstracts, the magnetic tape service Engineering Index - COMPENDEX, the DERWENT patent service, a handbook on the services provided by INIS and by AGRIS/FAO. (M.D.)

  4. Cooking, industrial processing and caloric density of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    During human evolution, the development of a wide range of cooking processing techniques enabled humans to provide their social group with maximum benefits from limited food resources. Industrial processing and mass market distribution made available high food calorie density foods to the world

  5. Competition for Jurisdiction Over Food Industry in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungeun Park

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the government’s multilateral effort to control food safety, there have been constantly many shock events threatening citizens’ health. This paper points out the matter of food safety management system with a view of competition for jurisdiction over food industry among the Ministry of Health and Welfare and the Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries and affiliated organizations. Use description qualitative method in research. Each ministry has separate basic positions and approaches to food industry policy: regulation and promotion.The policy image has been changed into “regulation” as public anxiety and concern for hazardous foods has grown since the end of 1990. They competeto take charge of promoting or regulating the food industry by establishing or amending laws, expanding organizations and mobilizing a coalition.Coordination by policy committee, cooperation between agencies, and integration of agencies were introduced as measures to eliminate unnecessary competition for jurisdiction.

  6. Industrialization development of food irradiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dianhua

    2004-01-01

    This report introduces present status on food irradiation at home and abroad in detail. It also introduces the scientific research and application in reducing diseases caused by food borne pathogens, quarantine control of import and export products, grain store and killing insects in traditional Chinese medicine. The report also analyzes the problems in developing food irradiation in China and gives some suggestions

  7. Pilot-Plant for Energy Recovery from Tropical Waste Food Materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experimental unit for obtaining gaseous methane from waste food materials is discussed and results are presented for experimental tests with animal wastes and tropical waste food materials. The tropical waste food considered include garri, boiled beans and plantains. As expected, the animal wastes produced higher ...

  8. Technological Proposals for Recycling Industrial Wastes for Environmental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Romero-Hermida

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A two-fold objective is proposed for this research: removing hazardous and unpleasant wastes and mitigating the emissions of green house gasses in the atmosphere. Thus, the first aim of this work is to identify, characterize and recycle industrial wastes with high contents of calcium or sodium. This involves synthesizing materials with the ability for CO2 sequestration as preliminary work for designing industrial processes, which involve a reduction of CO2 emissions. In this regard, phosphogypsum from the fertilizer industry and liquid wastes from the green olive and bauxite industries have been considered as precursors. Following a very simple procedure, Ca-bearing phosphogypsum wastes are mixed with Na-bearing liquid wastes in order to obtain a harmless liquid phase and an active solid phase, which may act as a carbon sequestration agent. In this way, wastes, which are unable to fix CO2 by themselves, can be successfully turned into effective CO2 sinks. The CO2 sequestration efficiency and the CO2 fixation power of the procedure based on these wastes are assessed.

  9. Conversion of Food waste to Single Cell Protein using Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-03-13

    Mar 13, 2018 ... as orange, pineapple, banana, watermelon and cucumber waste as growth ... compared to plant and animal proteins with good ... not affected by weather condition, short generation .... found to be the least source of chemical composition ... Food waste. Proximate composition (%). Moisture. Ash. Crude fibre.

  10. Toxicological evaluation of complex industrial wastes: Implications for exposure assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMarini, D.M.; Gallagher, J.E.; Houk, V.S.; Simmons, J.E.

    1990-07-01

    We evaluated a variety of short-term bioassays to construct a battery of tests that could be used for assessing the biological effects of potentially hazardous complex industrial wastes. Ten samples were studied for hepatotoxicity; these samples and an additional five were studied for mutagenicity. Although the data are limited to these samples, the results suggest that the Salmonella assay (strain TA98) or a prophage-induction assay (both in the presence of S9) in combination with determination of relative liver weight and levels of a set of serum enzymes in rats may provide a battery of tests suitable to characterize complex industrial wastes for mutagenic and hepatotoxic potential. The biological activities exhibited by the wastes were not readily predicted by the chemical profiles of the wastes, emphasizing the importance of characterizing potentially hazardous complex industrial wastes by both chemical and biological means. DNA from liver, lung, and bladder of rats exposed to some of the wastes was analyzed by the 32P-postlabeling technique for the presence of DNA adducts. A waste that produced mutagenic urine produced a DNA adduct in bladder DNA. The implications of this approach for assessment of exposure to complex hazardous waste mixtures are discussed.

  11. Management of radioactive waste of scientific and industrial centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, I.A.; Dmitriev, S.A.; Barinov, A.S.; Ojovan, M.I.; Timofeev, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    Available for the time being in the Russian Federation, a system of management of institutional and industrial radioactive waste (e.g. radioactive waste from industry, medicine, scientific organizations and other, which are not related to the nuclear fuel cycle or defense) provides for its collection, transportation, storage, treatment, immobilization and disposal by a network of special enterprises. Russia has 16 such enterprises. Moscow Scientific and Industrial Association Radon deals with the problems of radioactive waste from Central European part of Russia, which includes Moscow, Moscow Region and also Tverskaya, Yaroslavskaya, Vladimirskaya, Kostromskaya, Kaluzhskaya, Bryanskaya, Smolenskaya, Tulskaya, Ryazanskaya regions. The population of the central part of Russia constitutes about 40 million people. At the same time about 80% of the radioactive waste, which is collected for treatment and disposal from the territory of Russia, is included in this region. The average volume of the waste to be treated at SIA Radon is 3,000 m 3 per year for solid waste and 350 m 3 per year for liquid waste. Total radioactivity of processed waste is up to 4 PBq per year

  12. Product waste in the automotive industry : Technology and environmental management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, Peter; Hond, Frank Den

    1993-01-01

    In this article the changes in technology and industry structure forced by waste management in the automotive industry are explored. The analysis is based on (1) a characterisation of corporate response to environmental issues, and (2) the management of technology applied to the car manufacturing

  13. Biological treatment of industrial wastes; Tratamiento biologico de residuos industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz de Zarate Apodaca, J.M.; Abia Aguila, L

    1997-04-01

    There are organic elements used in industrial processes which are not able to be recovered. The biological treatment is the alternative for eliminating the organic pollutants from industrial waste water. This technology is being widely accepted because of its low environmental impact. (Author)

  14. Economic Factors Impacting Food Allergen Management: Perspectives from the Food Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Taylor, Steve L; Baumert, Joseph L; Kao, Lauren M; Schuster, Erik; Smith, Bridget M

    2017-10-01

    Food allergies affect up to 8% of children in the United States and may occasionally lead to severe life-threatening reactions. Because there is currently no cure for food allergies, strict avoidance of the allergen-containing foods is the only means of preventing an allergic reaction. Consumers rely on food manufacturers to reliably track and declare the presence of food allergens in products. Over the past 10 to 20 years, the food industry has increasingly adopted allergen control approaches in its processing facilities. However, the major industry costs related to food allergen management have not been fully described. The objective of this study was to characterize the factors that contribute to the economic impact of food allergen control practices on the food industry. A focus group (n = 100) was conducted with food industry professionals to identify key areas of cost for food allergen management. A survey based on the domains identified was then developed and disseminated to a convenience sample (n = 50) of quality control food industry specialists with knowledge of their company's food allergen management practices. Nearly all companies (92%) produced food products containing one or more of the top eight allergenic foods recognized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or sesame seeds. Cleaning procedures, employee training, and the potential for a recall due to allergen cross-contact were most frequently rated as the important factors in food allergen management. Recalls due to food allergen cross-contact, cleaning procedures, equipment and premises design, and employee training were ranked as the greatest allergen management expenses. Although 96% of companies had a food allergen control plan in place, nearly half (42%) had at least one food allergen-related recall within the past 5 years. The industry appears to endorse a willingness to unify precautionary allergen labeling to communicate a clear message more effectively to consumers.

  15. Analyzing solid waste management practices for the hotel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Pham Phu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to analyze waste characteristics and management practices of the hotel industry in Hoi An, a tourism city in the center of Vietnam. Solid wastes from 120 hotels were sampled, the face-to-face interviews were conducted, and statistical methods were carried out to analyze the data. The results showed that the mean of waste generation rate of the hotels was 2.28 kg/guest/day and strongly correlated to internal influencing factors such as the capacity, the price of the room, garden, and level of restaurant. The differences in waste generation rate of the hotels were proved to be statistically significant. The higher the scale of hotels, the higher the waste generation rate. Moreover, the waste composition of the hotels was identified by 58.5% for biodegradable waste, 25.8% for recyclables and 15.7% for others. The relative differences in the waste composition of the hotels by climate, the features of hotels, and the types of the guest were explained. Whereby, the higher size of the hotels, the higher percentage of biodegradable and less proportion of recyclable waste. Also, this study revealed that the implementation status of waste management practices of the hoteliers initially reaped quite positive achievements with 76% for sorting, 39% for recycling, 29% for reduction, and 0.8% for composting. The rate of waste management practices was proportional to the scale of the hotel. This study provided information on waste management practice of hotel industry and contributed to the overall assessment of municipal solid waste management practices of Hoi An city.

  16. Dynamic technical inefficiency and industrial concentration in the Indonesian food and beverages industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Maman; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relation between industrial concentration and technical inefficiency in the Indonesian food and beverages industry using a dynamic performance measure (dynamic technical inefficiency) that accounts for the presence of adjustment costs.

  17. Estimating household food waste in Denmark:case study of single family households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    and determine potential improvements. In Denmark, although many sorting campaigns involving household waste has been conducted, little attention has been placed on food waste. Comparison of recent studies made for examples in Austria, and the UK suggests that quantity and material composition of food waste vary...... waste and non-avoidable vegetable food waste. Furthermore, avoidable vegetable and animal food waste were the primary source of household food waste. Statistical analysis found a positive linear relationship between household size and the amount of the household food waste suggesting the amount...

  18. The Hidden Burden of Food Waste: The Double Energy Waste in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Vittuari; Fabio De Menna; Marco Pagani

    2016-01-01

    The energy intensity of modern food systems represents a major issue in a scenario of decreasing oil resources and increasing population. Beside the use of renewable energy, an increased efficiency in food systems could contribute to reduce fossil fuels dependence. In this sense, food losses and waste (FLW) have crucial consequences on the energy balance. Based on the concept of “embodied energy”, food wastage can be framed as a double waste of energy, both in terms of non-consumed food energ...

  19. An industrial ecology approach to municipal solid waste ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) can be viewed as a feedstock for industrial ecology inspired conversions of wastes to valuable products and energy. The industrial ecology principle of symbiotic processes using waste streams for creating value-added products is applied to MSW, with examples suggested for various residual streams. A methodology is presented to consider individual waste-to-energy or waste-to-product system synergies, evaluating the economic and environmental issues associated with each system. Steps included in the methodology include identifying waste streams, specific waste components of interest, and conversion technologies, plus steps for determining the economic and environmental effects of using wastes and changes due to transport, administrative handling, and processing. In addition to presenting the methodology, technologies for various MSW input streams are categorized as commercialized or demonstrated to provide organizations that are considering processes for MSW with summarized information. The organization can also follow the methodology to analyze interesting processes. Presents information useful for analyzing the sustainability of alternatives for the management of municipal solid waste.

  20. Missing Food, Missing Data? A Critical Review of Global Food Losses and Food Waste Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Li; Liu, Gang; Parfitt, Julian

    2017-01-01

    and a narrow temporal, geographical, and food supply chain coverage. In this paper, we examined 202 publications which reported FLW data for 84 countries and 52 individual years from 1933 to 2014. We found that most existing publications are conducted for a few industrialized countries (e.g., the United...

  1. Preventing type 2 diabetes: Changing the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Barry M; Kenan, W R

    2016-06-01

    Improving our global diet by working with the food industry is a fairly complex task. Previously the global food manufacturing companies and governments were the major players. However, matters have shifted rapidly so that food retailers, food manufacturers, the restaurant-food service sector, and agribusinesses are now the major players. The current modern system of packaged processed food has now penetrated the globe-rich and poor, rural and urban are all in reach of this food system. Consequently, working with this complex sector when possible and an array of governmental regulatory large-scale options to improve our diet have increased in importance. Taxation of unhealthy foods and beverages, marketing controls, and front of the package labeling are the primary current options. Evaluations of the impacts of both public and industry initiatives are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF TOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES USING CROP PLANT ASSAYS

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Alice Teacă; Ruxanda Bodîrlău

    2008-01-01

    Environmental pollution has a harmful action on bioresources, including agricultural crops. It is generated through many industrial activities such as mining, coal burning, chemical technology, cement production, pulp and paper industry, etc. The toxicity of different industrial wastes and heavy metals excess was evaluated using crop plant assays (germination and hydroponics seedlings growth tests). Experimental data regarding the germination process of wheat (from two cultivars) and rye seed...

  3. Comprehensive Planning for Classification and Disposal of Solid Waste at the Industrial Parks regarding Health and Environmental Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Hassan; Pourzamani, Hamidreza; Rahmani Samani, Bahareh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is the comprehensive planning for integrated management of solid waste at the industrial parks. The share of each industrial group including food, metal, chemical, non-metallic minerals, textile, electrical and electronical, and cellulose industries were 48.2, 14.9, 6.7, 22, 0.9, 0.6, and 6.5 percent, respectively. The results showed that nearly half of total industrial waste produced from the range of biological materials are biodegradable and discharging them without o...

  4. Release of Waste Tire Comprehensive Utilization Industry Access Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On July 31, 2012, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology released the Tire Retread- ing lndustry Access Conditions and Waste Tire Comprehensive Utilization Industry Access Condi- tions with the No. 32 announcement of 2012. The state will lay a foundation for realizing the green, safe, efficient, eco-friendly and energy saving tar- gets in the "12th Five-year Plan" of the industry by raising access conditions, regulating industrial development order, strengthening environmental protection, promoting corporate optimizing and up- grading, improving resources comprehensive utiliza- tion technology and management level and guiding the "harmless recycling and eco-friendly utiliza- tion" of the industry.

  5. Application of Ultrasound in the Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Orlando Delgado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound is an emerging technology with more research and development for food preservation, one of the qualities of is the reduction of the concentration of microorganisms, inhibition of enzyme activity without altering the physical, chemical and nutritional foods.It was conducted direffent literature sources analysis to develop a document with ultrasound applications in main food technology processing, the benefits of cavitation effect, intensity and frequency applied in each of researching works that have been made today.

  6. Geohydrology of industrial waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaynor, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    An existing desert site for hazardous chemical and low-level radioactive waste disposal is evaluated for suitability. This site is characterized using geologic, geohydrologic, geochemical, and other considerations. Design and operation of the disposal facility is considered. Site characteristics are also evaluated with respect to new and proposed regulatory requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976) regulations, 40 CFR Part 264, and the ''Licensing Requirements for Landfill Disposal of Radioactive Waste,'' 10 CRF Part 61. The advantages and disadvantages of siting new disposal facilities in similar desert areas are reviewed and contrasted to siting in humid locations

  7. Starter Cultures: Uses in the Food Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Egon Bech

    2014-01-01

    Starter cultures are preparations of microorganisms serving as inoculants for the production of fermented foods. The production of cheese, yogurt, fermented milk, wine, sauerkraut, hams, and sausages occurs through the use of starter cultures that are consistent, predictable, and safe. The cultures...... provide the food products with a multitude of properties. Acidification of the food matrix is a primary property in a large number of food fermentations. Acidification activity often will be used to define packaging size and the unit of activity, whereas other characteristics differentiate a culture from...

  8. Training requirements for agro-food industry in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro D. Gaspar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Agro-food companies are aware that the technical and soft skills of their employees directly influence business performance and, consequently, improving those skills will enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of their companies. This paper presents the main results of the AgriTraining project “Training requirements for the agro-food industry". Activities in pursuit of the objectives of this project involved: (1 analysis of the training needs in the agro-food industry in Portugal; (2 analysis of the training provision and the training organizations; (3 analysis of market trends; (4 definition of a training strategy; and (5 adjustment and development of training strategies for the agro-food sector. This last activity comprised the development of training curricula, suitable for the food sector as a whole and adjusted for the specific needs of some traditional industries, in order to promote the development and competitiveness of the agro-food industry in Portugal. Such training curricula aimed to promote the uptake of innovative technologies and methodologies, increase the ability of agro-food industries to invest and take risks, and enable adoption of European Community standards for production and marketing. Gaps in training supply were identified and the training provision was updated according to the needs of the agro-food companies. It was determined that companies need and demand knowledge and innovation to increase their competitive position for internationalization purposes. It was possible to define a training strategy based on market-orientation for agro-food differentiation.

  9. Biodiesel production from algae grown on food industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureed, Khadija; Kanwal, Shamsa; Hussain, Azhar; Noureen, Shamaila; Hussain, Sabir; Ahmad, Shakeel; Ahmad, Maqshoof; Waqas, Rashid

    2018-04-10

    Algae have an ample potential to produce biodiesel from spent wash of food industry. In addition, it is cheaper and presents an environment friendly way to handle food industry wastewater. This study was conducted to optimize the growth of microalgal strains and to assess biodiesel production potential of algae using untreated food industry wastewater as a source of nutrients. The food industry wastewater was collected and analyzed for its physicochemical characteristics. Different dilutions (10, 20, 40, 80, and 100%) of this wastewater were made with distilled water, and growth of two microalgal strains (Cladophora sp. and Spyrogyra sp.) was recorded. Each type of wastewater was inoculated with microalgae, and biomass was harvested after 7 days. The growth of both strains was also evaluated at varying temperatures, pH and light periods to optimize the algal growth for enhanced biodiesel production. After optimization, biodiesel production by Spyrogyra sp. was recorded in real food industry wastewater. The algal biomass increased with increasing level of food industry wastewater and was at maximum with 100% wastewater. Moreover, statistically similar results were found with algal growth on 100% wastewater and also on Bristol's media. The Cladophora sp. produced higher biomass than Spyrogyra sp. while growing on food industry wastewater. The optimal growth of both microalgal strains was observed at temperature 30 °C, pH: 8, light 24 h. Cladophora sp. was further evaluated for biodiesel production while growing on 100% wastewater and found that this strain produced high level of oil and biodiesel. Algae have an ample potential to produce biodiesel from spent wash of food industry. In addition, it is cheaper and presents an environment friendly way to handle food industry wastewater.

  10. Fermentation of household wastes and industrial waste water; Vergaerung von haeuslichen Abfaellen und Industrieabwaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelmann, W [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Bioenergie ' arbi' , Maschwanden (Switzerland); Engeli, H [Probag AG, Dietikon (Switzerland); Glauser, M [Biol-Conseils SA, Neuchatel (Switzerland); Hofer, H [HTH-Verfahrenstechnik, Winterthur (Switzerland); Membrez, Y [EREP SA, Aclens (Switzerland); Meylan, J -H [Lausanne (Switzerland); Schwitzguebel, J -P [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Genie biologique, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1993-07-01

    This comprehensive brochure reviews various technologies for the environment-friendly treatment of organic wastes and residues. The principles of anaerobic digestion are discussed. Authorities, planners and engineers concerned with waste treatment are provided with an overview of current technology in the organic wastes area. The brochure emphasises the importance of fermentation processes in waste treatment, discusses the legal pre-requisites for biogas production, lists the biological and process-oriented fundamentals of fermentation and examines the energy potential of biogenic wastes and waste water. Further, details are given on the treatment of both industrial waste water and solid organic wastes and, finally, the economics of fermentation is examined. Useful data is presented in table form and the various processes described are illustrated by schematics and flow diagrams. An appendix lists suggestions for further reading on the subject.

  11. Mass and element balance in food waste composting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijun; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2010-01-01

    The mass and element balance in municipal solid waste composting facilities that handle food waste was studied. Material samples from the facilities were analyzed for moisture, ash, carbon, nitrogen, and the oxygen consumption of compost and bulking material was determined. Three different processes were used in the food waste composting facilities: standard in-vessel composting, drying, and stand-alone composting machine. Satisfactory results were obtained for the input/output ash balance despite several assumptions made concerning the quantities involved. The carbon/nitrogen ratio and oxygen consumption values for compost derived only from food waste were estimated by excluding the contribution of the bulking material remaining in the compost product. These estimates seemed to be suitable indices for the biological stability of compost because there was a good correlation between them, and because the values seemed logical given the operating conditions at the facilities. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Arantzazu; Mellinas, Ana Cristina; Ramos, Marina; Garrigós, María Carmen; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2014-02-01

    The main directions in food packaging research are targeted towards improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed.

  13. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Arantzazu; Mellinas, Ana Cristina; Ramos, Marina; Garrigós, María Carmen; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The main directions in food packaging research are targeted toward improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed.

  14. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantzazu eValdés

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main directions in food packaging research are targeted towards improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed.

  15. Characterizing Early Adolescent Plate Waste Using the Mobile Food Record

    OpenAIRE

    Panizza, Chloe E.; Boushey, Carol J.; Delp, Edward J.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Lim, Eunjung; Gandhi, Krupa; Banna, Jinan C.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the amount of plate waste and how plate waste was disposed by early adolescent girls using a mobile food record (mFR). Participants were girls nine to thirteen years residing in O’ahu, Hawai’i (n = 93). Foods selected and leftover were estimated using a three day mFR. Each leftover food was then classified as thrown into the trash, fed to a pet, eaten later, or other (e.g., composted). Repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted and Tukey’s post-ho...

  16. A review of metal release in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Rasmussen, Anette Alsted; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2006-01-01

    processes, storing equipment as well as cleaning and sanitising procedures are reviewed. Stainless steel is the most widely used metallic material in the food industry; however other metals and their alloys are also briefly treated. The review deals with phenomena mainly relating to electrochemical......The objective of this review is to outline literature on metal release in the food industry. Key results are reviewed from publications with high scientific level as well as papers with focus on industrial aspects. Examples of food products with a corrosive effect are given, and cases concerning...

  17. Branding behavior in the Danish Food Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Alister Derek; Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas; Skadkær Møller, Anja

    2006-01-01

    and supporting features of the Danish food marketing chain, six econometric models are specified. Specification accounts for dependent variables' characteristics (count and fractional data, and truncated samples). Missing values are replaced using Griliches' method (Griliches, 1986). Large firms are found to own...... in the Danish food system and its employment of retailers' own-label brands...

  18. Aerobic Food Waste Composting: Measurement of Green House Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, J.

    2016-12-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are a major cause of global warming. While food waste composting can reduce the amount of waste being sent to traditional landfills, it also produces GHGs during the process. The objective of this research is to evaluate the GHGs emitted from an aerobic food composting machine, which is used in ISF. The Independent Schools Foundation Academy is a private independent school in Hong Kong with approximately 1500 students. Each academic year, the school produces 27 metric tons of food waste. In November 2013, the school installed a food waste composting system. Over the past 3 years, various improvements, such as installing a bio-filter to reduce the smell of the compost, have been made to the composting process. Meanwhile the compost is used by the primary students, as part of their experiential learning curriculum and organic farming projects. The composting process employs two machines: the Dehydra and A900 Rocket. The Dehydra reduces the mass of the food waste by separating the ground food waste and excessive water. The A900 Rocket, a composter made by Tidy Planet, processes food waste into compost in 14 days. This machine runs in an aerobic process, in which oxygen is used as an input gas and gases, such as carbon dioxide, are released. Carbon Dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases (GHGs). This research focuses on GHGs that are emitted from the A900 Rocket. The data is collected by the Gasmet DX 4015, a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) multi gas analyser. This equipment measures the concentration (ppm) of different GHGs, including N2O, CO2, CH4, NH3 and CO.

  19. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sani, Mohd Shafie; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  20. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie Sani, Mohd; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  1. Approaches of the German food industry for addressing the issue of food losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Beate; Bokelmann, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    In the food industry the subject of food losses is of great importance due to economic balance and an efficient application of resources as well as the development of an efficient food chain system. This paper presents the explorative results of a quantitative survey of leading companies of the German food industry to evaluate the relevance and handling of this issue. The investigation reveals that the topic food losses have a high significance in the food industry which will probably increase in future. A sample breakdown by branches indicates that the issue has the highest relevance for companies in the confectionery industry. These companies as well as those in the meat and fish industry want to consider the subject prospectively more powerful in their companies. Across the food industry, there is no communication to consumers of the efforts concerning food losses. And companies in the confectionery industry and in the fruit and vegetable industry rather want to engage more powerful in this topic if consumers' interest increases. But in order to minimize food losses at all stages along the supply chain, communication and collaboration at all stages is essential, especially the communication to consumers. Thus, it has to be verified whether a suitable communication can lead to advantages in competition and become an important issue for companies to differentiate from competitors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Container for processing and disposing radioactive wastes and industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Kunio; Kasahara, Yuko; Kasai, Noboru; Sudo, Giichi; Ishizaki, Kanjiro.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the performance of containers for radioactive wastes for ocean disposal and on-land disposal such as impact strength, chemical resistance, fire resistance, corrosion resistance, water impermeability and the like. Constitution: Steel fiber-reinforced concrete previously molded in a shape of a container is impregnated with polymerizable impregnating agent selected from the group consisting of a polymerizable monomer, liquid mixture of a polymerizable monomer and an oligomer, a polymer solution, a copolymer solution and the liquid mixture thereof. Then, the polymerizable impregnating agent is polymerized to solidify in the concrete by way of heat-polymerization or radiation-induced polymerization to form a waste container. The container thus obtained can be improved with the impact resistance and wear resistance and further improved with salt water resistance, acid resistance, corrosion resistance and solidity by the impregnation of the polymer, as well as can effectively be prevented from leaching out of radioactive substances. (Furukawa, Y.)

  3. Industrial aspects of radioactive waste management in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, F.R.; Seynaeve, F.

    1977-01-01

    In 1980 there will be about 120 nuclear power reactors with 70,000 MWe in operation in Western Europe, and this number will be doubled by 1985, when the nuclear capacity in operation is expected to be 180,000 MWe. Predictions are made of the waste management requirements resulting from this nuclear expansion. Until a few years ago waste from nuclear research and from the use of isotopes in medicine has been the dominating source. Now there is a much larger proportion from the day to day operation of nuclear power reactors. Waste amounts from reprocessing of spent reactor fuel will rise more slowly. Waste production in other fuel cycle industries is relatively insignificant. There will be around 30 reactors and other nuclear plants to take out of operation in Western Europe around 1990. The large-scale handling of these wastes calls for overall management schemes, based on clear policies for storage and disposal. Questions are identified which have to be answered within the next few years in order to allow the orderly development of such large-scale waste management. These questions deal with: (i) rules and regulations, (ii) new technical evidence, (iii) administrative frameworks and responsibilities. Several areas of waste management are well suited to commercial waste operating firms, already established at present in a number of European countries. The scope for waste operators may include waste transportation, operating of own or government owned treatment and storage installations, and the carrying out of disposal operations. In the paper, development needs originally suggested by the Foratom waste study group will be discussed in the light of a late 1976 review to be carried through by European industry

  4. Industrial aspects of radioactive waste management in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, F.R.; Seynaeve, F.

    1977-01-01

    In 1980 about 120 nuclear power reactors with 70,000MW(e) will be in operation in Western Europe, and this number will be doubled by the second half of the 1980s, when the nuclear capacity in operation is expected to be 180,000MW(e). Predictions are made of the waste management requirements resulting from this nuclear expansion. Until a few years ago nuclear research and the use of isotopes in medicine have been the dominating source of radioactive waste. Now there is a much larger proportion from the day-to-day operation of nuclear power reactors. The amount of waste from reprocessing spent reactor fuel will rise more slowly. Waste production in other fuel cycle industries is relatively insignificant. Approximately 30 reactors and other nuclear plants will be taken out of operation in Western Europe by about 1990. The large-scale handling of these wastes calls for overall management schemes based on clear policies for storage and disposal. Questions are identified which will have to be answered within the next few years in order to allow the orderly development of such large-scale waste management. These questions deal with (i) rules and regulations, (ii) new technical evidence, (iii) administrative framework and responsibilities. Several areas of waste management are well suited to commercial waste operating firms already established in a number of European countries. The scope for waste operators may include transport of waste, operation of own or government-owned treatment and storage installations, and disposal operations. Development requirements originally suggested by the Foratom waste study group are discussed in the light of the latest developments as seen by European industry. (author)

  5. 77 FR 20826 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Food and Drug Administration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ...] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Food and Drug Administration and Industry... Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry and Food and... written requests for single copies of the guidance document entitled ``Guidance for Industry and Food and...

  6. Evolution of Food Quality Demand in the Food Service Industry in China: The Case of Duck

    OpenAIRE

    Carnegie, Rachel Alison

    2014-01-01

    Booming economic growth and rising consumer incomes have impacted food preferences and purchasing behavior in China. At the same time, several internationally publicized food safety incidents, particularly in the animal husbandry sector, have heightened awareness of and concern for food safety and quality in meat and dairy. Rising quality demand and safety concerns have been studied at length in the food retail sector, but also appear to be important in the food service industry. This researc...

  7. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to- Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Dougall, James [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    2016-02-05

    Many U.S. manufacturing facilities generate unrecovered, low-grade waste heat, and also generate or are located near organic-content waste effluents. Bioelectrochemical systems, such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, provide a means to convert organic-content effluents into electric power and useful chemical products. A novel biochemical electrical system for industrial manufacturing processes uniquely integrates both waste heat recovery and waste effluent conversion, thereby significantly reducing manufacturing energy requirements. This project will enable the further development of this technology so that it can be applied across a wide variety of US manufacturing segments, including the chemical, food, pharmaceutical, refinery, and pulp and paper industries. It is conservatively estimated that adoption of this technology could provide nearly 40 TBtu/yr of energy, or more than 1% of the U.S. total industrial electricity use, while reducing CO2 emissions by more than 6 million tons per year. Commercialization of this technology will make a significant contribution to DOE’s Industrial Technology Program goals for doubling energy efficiency and providing a more robust and competitive domestic manufacturing base.

  8. 77 FR 64999 - Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food Product Categories in Food Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ...] Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food Product Categories in Food Facility Registrations and... industry entitled ``Necessity of the Use of Food Product Categories in Food Facility Registrations and... made available a draft guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food [[Page...

  9. 77 FR 48990 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food Categories in Food Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food Categories in Food Facility Registrations and... industry entitled ``Necessity of the Use of Food Categories in Food Facility Registrations and Updates to... announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Necessity of the Use of Food...

  10. Bioprocessing of concentrated mixed hazardous industrial waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D.; Silver, G.; Attalla, A.; Prisc, M.

    1994-01-01

    The use of selected microorganisms for the degradation and/or the detoxification of hazardous organic compounds is gaining wide acceptance as an alternative waste treatment technology. This work describes the unique capabilities of an isolated strain of Pseudomonas for metabolizing methylated aromatic compounds. This strain of Pseudomonas putida Idaho is unique in that it can tolerate and grow under a layer of neat p-xylene. A bioprocess has been developed to degrade LLW and mixed wastes containing methylated aromatic compounds, i.e., pseudocumene, toluene and p-xylene. The process is now in the demonstration phase at a DOE facility and has been running for one year. Feed concentrations of 21200 ppm of the toxic organic substrate have been fed to the bioreactor. This report describes the results obtained thus far

  11. Radioactive waste: the poisoned legacy of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousselet, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear industry produces a huge amount of radioactive waste from one end to the other of the nuclear cycle: i.e. from mining uranium to uranium enrichment through reactor operating, waste reprocessing and dismantling nuclear power plants. Nuclear power is now being 'sold' to political leaders and citizens as an effective way to deal with climate change and ensure security of energy supplies. Nonetheless, nuclear energy is not a viable solution and is thus a major obstacle to the development of clean energy for the future. In addition to safety and security issues, the nuclear industry is, above all, faced with the huge problem of how to deal with the waste it produces and for which it has no solution. This ought to put a brake on the nuclear industry, but instead, against all expectations, its development continues to gather pace. (author)

  12. Effects of moisture content of food waste on residue separation, larval growth and larval survival in black soldier fly bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jack Y K; Chiu, Sam L H; Lo, Irene M C

    2017-09-01

    In order to foster sustainable management of food waste, innovations in food waste valorization technologies are crucial. Black soldier fly (BSF) bioconversion is an emerging technology that can turn food waste into high-protein fish feed through the use of BSF larvae. The conventional method of BSF bioconversion is to feed BSF larvae with food waste directly without any moisture adjustment. However, it was reported that difficulty has been experienced in the separation of the residue (larval excreta and undigested material) from the insect biomass due to excessive moisture. In addition to the residue separation problem, the moisture content of the food waste may also affect the growth and survival aspects of BSF larvae. This study aims to determine the most suitable moisture content of food waste that can improve residue separation as well as evaluate the effects of the moisture content of food waste on larval growth and survival. In this study, pre-consumer and post-consumer food waste with different moisture content (70%, 75% and 80%) was fed to BSF larvae in a temperature-controlled rotary drum reactor. The results show that the residue can be effectively separated from the insect biomass by sieving using a 2.36mm sieve, for both types of food waste at 70% and 75% moisture content. However, sieving of the residue was not feasible for food waste at 80% moisture content. On the other hand, reduced moisture content of food waste was found to slow down larval growth. Hence, there is a trade-off between the sieving efficiency of the residue and the larval growth rate. Furthermore, the larval survival rate was not affected by the moisture content of food waste. A high larval survival rate of at least 95% was achieved using a temperature-controlled rotary drum reactor for all treatment groups. The study provides valuable insights for the waste management industry on understanding the effects of moisture content when employing BSF bioconversion for food waste recycling

  13. Classification of radioactive wastes produced by the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This document first indicates the origins of radioactive wastes (mainly electronuclear industry), and the composition of spent fuel, and that only fission products and minor actinides are considered as radioactive wastes whereas uranium and plutonium can be used as new fuel after recycling. The classification of radioactive wastes is indicated in terms of radioactivity level and radionuclide half-life: high level (0.2 per cent of the total waste volume but 96 per cent of total waste radioactivity), medium level long life (3 per cent of volume, 4 per cent of radioactivity), low level long life (7 per cent of volume, 0.1 per cent of radioactivity), low and medium level and short life (63 per cent of volume and 0.02 per cent of radioactivity), very low level (27 per cent of volume and less than 0.01 per cent of radioactivity). An overview of radioactive waste processing and storage in France is presented for each category. Current and predicted volumes are indicated for each category. The main challenges are briefly addressed: spent fuel recycling, waste valorisation by fourth-generation reactors. Processing locations in France and in the World are indicated. Some key figures are provided: 2 kg of radioactive waste are produced per inhabitant and per year, and waste management costs represent 5 per cent of the total cost of produced electricity

  14. Microbiological research and development for the food industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taormina, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    "This book serves as a primer and reference for industrial food microbiologists who typically gain the information provided through on-the-job experience or from a consultant instead of in the classroom...

  15. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: electronics recycling industry communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Julia R; Boehm, Michael W; Drummond, Charles

    2012-08-01

    Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiation microbiology relevant to the food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzapfel, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    Destruction or inactivation of most microbial cells takes place at relatively low doses of gamma irradiation, making 'pasteurising' treatment of several food commodities in the dose range of 1 to 10 kGy a feasible decontamination method. Several factors may influence the effectiveness of an irradiation process, and should be taken into account when radurisation of foods is practised. Damage to microbes is enhanced in the presence of oxygen and at low pH levels, whereas substances such as sulfhydryl compounds tend to act as protectors. Living organisms may be arranged in the order of increasing resistance to ionising radiation, as follows: higher animals, insects, vegetative bacteria, yeasts and fungi, bacterial endospores and viruses. Most food spoilage organisms as well as food-borne pathogens (D 10 -values for the majority ranging between 0,08 and 0,5 kGy) are sensitive to relatively small irradiation doses. Although several bacterial endospores may survive in radurised foods (D 10 -values ranging between 1,5 and 5,0 kGy), additional safety factors (e.g. low pH, refrigeration, reduced Eh, reduced a w , preservatives) may contribute to the shelf stability of a given food

  17. Chemical analysis for waste management in paint industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, Z.; Naveed, S.; Shiekh, N.A.; Sagheer, K.

    2005-01-01

    The chemical analysis of paint industries waste has been carried out; the main emission sources are the heating of raw materials and lacquer. Also the waste from other applications and production contains high concentration of heavy metals, VOC's, COD, TDS with notable acidity and alkalinity. Based on the analysis it was observed that the major losses of production could be minimized. Further toxic effects of the waste material can be minimized. In this reference measures to minimize production losses should be adopted along with the proper management. These laboratory results also lead to the areas of emissions and waste production during manufacturing process. Solutions have been proposed for process development and integrated waste minimization. (author)

  18. Industrial-Scale Processes For Stabilizing Radioactively Contaminated Mercury Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, T. E.; Grondin, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes two industrial-scaled processes now being used to treat two problematic mercury waste categories: elemental mercury contaminated with radionuclides and radioactive solid wastes containing greater than 260-ppm mercury. The stabilization processes were developed by ADA Technologies, Inc., an environmental control and process development company in Littleton, Colorado. Perma-Fix Environmental Services has licensed the liquid elemental mercury stabilization process to treat radioactive mercury from Los Alamos National Laboratory and other DOE sites. ADA and Perma-Fix also cooperated to apply the >260-ppm mercury treatment technology to a storm sewer sediment waste collected from the Y-12 complex in Oak Ridge, TN

  19. Biogas from organically high polluted industrial waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sixt, H

    1985-06-01

    Organically high polluted waste water sets special claims for an economical purification and the process treatment. Up to now these waste waters are being purified by anaerobic processes with simultaneous biogas generation. The fourstep anaerobic degradation is influenced by a lot of important parameters. Extensive researchers in the field of anaerobic microbiology has improved the knowledge of the fundamental principles. Parallel the reactor technology is developed worldwide. In general it seems that the fixed-film-reactor with immobilized bacteria has the best future to purify organically high polluted industrial waste water with short retention times under stable operation conditions.

  20. Analyzing solid waste management practices for the hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    S.T. Pham Phu; M.G. Hoang; T. Fujiwara

    2018-01-01

    The current study aims to analyze waste characteristics and management practices of the hotel industry in Hoi An, a tourism city in the center of Vietnam. Solid wastes from 120 hotels were sampled, the face-to-face interviews were conducted, and statistical methods were carried out to analyze the data. The results showed that the mean of waste generation rate of the hotels was 2.28 kg/guest/day and strongly correlated to internal influencing factors such as the capacity, the price of the room...

  1. School Lunch Waste among Middle School Students: Implications for Nutrients Consumed and Food Waste Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F.W.; Richardson, Scott; Austin, S. Bryn; Economos, Christina D.; Rimm, Eric B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The National School Lunch Program has been guided by modest nutrient standards, and the palatability of meals, which drives consumption, receives inadequate attention. School food waste can have important nutritional and cost implications for policy makers, students, and their families. Purpose Nutrient losses and economic costs associated with school meal waste were examined. The study also assessed if school foods served were valid proxies for foods consumed by students. Methods Plate waste measurements were collected from middle school students in Boston attending two Chef Initiative schools (n=1609) and two control schools (n=1440) during a two-year pilot study (2007-2009) where a professional chef trained cafeteria staff to make healthier school meals. The costs associated with food waste were calculated and the percent of foods consumed was compared with a gold standard of 85% consumption. Analyses were conducted in 2010-2011. Results Overall, students consumed less than the required/recommended levels of nutrients. An estimated $432,349 of food (26.1% of the total food budget) was discarded by middle school students annually at lunch in Boston middle schools. For most meal components, significantly less than 85% was consumed. Conclusions There is substantial food waste among middle school students in Boston. Overall, students' nutrient consumption levels were below school meal standards and foods served were not valid proxies for foods consumed. The costs associated with discarded foods are high; if translated nationally for school lunches, roughly $1,238,846,400 annually is wasted. Students would benefit if additional focus was given to the quality and palatability of school meals. PMID:23332326

  2. Life and health insurance industry investments in fast food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Arun V; McCormick, Danny; Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U; Boyd, J Wesley

    2010-06-01

    Previous research on health and life insurers' financial investments has highlighted the tension between profit maximization and the public good. We ascertained health and life insurance firms' holdings in the fast food industry, an industry that is increasingly understood to negatively impact public health. Insurers own $1.88 billion of stock in the 5 leading fast food companies. We argue that insurers ought to be held to a higher standard of corporate responsibility, and we offer potential solutions.

  3. Characterizing Early Adolescent Plate Waste Using the Mobile Food Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Chloe E; Boushey, Carol J; Delp, Edward J; Kerr, Deborah A; Lim, Eunjung; Gandhi, Krupa; Banna, Jinan C

    2017-01-26

    This study aimed to assess the amount of plate waste and how plate waste was disposed by early adolescent girls using a mobile food record (mFR). Participants were girls nine to thirteen years residing in O'ahu, Hawai'i ( n = 93). Foods selected and leftover were estimated using a three day mFR. Each leftover food was then classified as thrown into the trash, fed to a pet, eaten later, or other (e.g., composted). Repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted and Tukey's post-hoc test were used to adjust for multiple comparisons between times (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snack) on leftover food and leftover food thrown into the trash. The percentage of food leftover and thrown into the trash was highest at lunch. The percentage of protein, grain, vegetables, fruit, and dairy leftover at lunch were unexpectedly low compared to previous studies. The median for percentage of food thrown into the trash at lunch was <5% for all food groups, and was consistently low across the day (<10%). Average energy intake was 436 kcal (±216) at lunch, and 80% of caregivers reported total household income as ≥$70,000. Studies in real-time using technology over full days may better quantify plate waste among adolescents.

  4. Characterizing Early Adolescent Plate Waste Using the Mobile Food Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe E. Panizza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the amount of plate waste and how plate waste was disposed by early adolescent girls using a mobile food record (mFR. Participants were girls nine to thirteen years residing in O’ahu, Hawai’i (n = 93. Foods selected and leftover were estimated using a three day mFR. Each leftover food was then classified as thrown into the trash, fed to a pet, eaten later, or other (e.g., composted. Repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA were conducted and Tukey’s post-hoc test were used to adjust for multiple comparisons between times (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snack on leftover food and leftover food thrown into the trash. The percentage of food leftover and thrown into the trash was highest at lunch. The percentage of protein, grain, vegetables, fruit, and dairy leftover at lunch were unexpectedly low compared to previous studies. The median for percentage of food thrown into the trash at lunch was <5% for all food groups, and was consistently low across the day (<10%. Average energy intake was 436 kcal (±216 at lunch, and 80% of caregivers reported total household income as ≥$70,000. Studies in real-time using technology over full days may better quantify plate waste among adolescents.

  5. Breakfast Cereals: The Extreme Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Connor

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of my talk today is to review several aspects of the market structure, strategic rivalry, and economic performance of the ready-to-eat cereals industry. To do so, I will at times take a long historical view of the breakfast cereals industry because many of the behaviors we observe today seem to me to be imbedded in habits of business rivalry that were learned many decades ago and yet persist today. My perspective on the RTE breakfast cereals industry is informed by nearly twenty y...

  6. Greening Food Processing Industry in Vietnam: Putting Industrial Ecology to Work

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi My Dieu

    2003-01-01

    The significant contribution to Vietnam's gross domestic product over the years give evidence of the important role of food processing industry in the economic and industrial development of the country. This is even more relevant from now onwards, as it is Vietnam's development strategy to become one of the top agricultural countries in the world by the year 2010. However, it is not difficult to recognize that the rapid growth of food processing industry in Vietnam goes together with environm...

  7. Progress towards Sustainable Utilisation and Management of Food Wastes in the Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purabi R. Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the problem of food waste has attracted considerable interest from food producers, processors, retailers, and consumers alike. Food waste is considered not only a sustainability problem related to food security, but also an economic problem since it directly impacts the profitability of the whole food supply chain. In developed countries, consumers are one of the main contributors to food waste and ultimately pay for all wastes produced throughout the food supply chain. To secure food and reduce food waste, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the various sources of food wastes throughout the food supply chain. The present review examines various reports currently in the literature and quantifies waste levels and examines the trends in wastage for various food sectors such as fruit and vegetable, fisheries, meat and poultry, grain, milk, and dairy. Factors contributing to food waste, effective cost/benefit food waste utilisation methods, sustainability and environment considerations, and public acceptance are identified as hurdles in preventing large-scale food waste processing. Thus, we highlight the need for further research to identify and report food waste so that government regulators and food supply chain stakeholders can actively develop effective waste utilisation practices.

  8. Progress towards Sustainable Utilisation and Management of Food Wastes in the Global Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Purabi R; Fawcett, Derek; Sharma, Shashi B; Poinern, Gerrard Eddy Jai

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the problem of food waste has attracted considerable interest from food producers, processors, retailers, and consumers alike. Food waste is considered not only a sustainability problem related to food security, but also an economic problem since it directly impacts the profitability of the whole food supply chain. In developed countries, consumers are one of the main contributors to food waste and ultimately pay for all wastes produced throughout the food supply chain. To secure food and reduce food waste, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the various sources of food wastes throughout the food supply chain. The present review examines various reports currently in the literature and quantifies waste levels and examines the trends in wastage for various food sectors such as fruit and vegetable, fisheries, meat and poultry, grain, milk, and dairy. Factors contributing to food waste, effective cost/benefit food waste utilisation methods, sustainability and environment considerations, and public acceptance are identified as hurdles in preventing large-scale food waste processing. Thus, we highlight the need for further research to identify and report food waste so that government regulators and food supply chain stakeholders can actively develop effective waste utilisation practices.

  9. Progress towards Sustainable Utilisation and Management of Food Wastes in the Global Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Purabi R.; Fawcett, Derek; Sharma, Shashi B.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the problem of food waste has attracted considerable interest from food producers, processors, retailers, and consumers alike. Food waste is considered not only a sustainability problem related to food security, but also an economic problem since it directly impacts the profitability of the whole food supply chain. In developed countries, consumers are one of the main contributors to food waste and ultimately pay for all wastes produced throughout the food supply chain. To secure food and reduce food waste, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the various sources of food wastes throughout the food supply chain. The present review examines various reports currently in the literature and quantifies waste levels and examines the trends in wastage for various food sectors such as fruit and vegetable, fisheries, meat and poultry, grain, milk, and dairy. Factors contributing to food waste, effective cost/benefit food waste utilisation methods, sustainability and environment considerations, and public acceptance are identified as hurdles in preventing large-scale food waste processing. Thus, we highlight the need for further research to identify and report food waste so that government regulators and food supply chain stakeholders can actively develop effective waste utilisation practices. PMID:27847805

  10. Development of a Novel Food Waste Collection Kiosk and Waste-to-Energy Business Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Franchetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. generates more than 37 million metric tons of food waste each year, and over 95% of it is disposed of at U.S. landfills. This paper describes the development of a novel food waste collection kiosk and business model called “Greenbox” that will collect and store food waste from households and restaurants with incentives for user participation to spur food waste-to-energy production in a local community. Greenbox offers a low-cost collection point to divert food waste from landfills, reduce greenhouse gases from decomposition, and aid in generating cleaner energy. A functional prototype was successfully developed by a team of engineering students and a business model was created as part of a senior design capstone course. Each Greenbox unit has the potential to reduce 275 metric tons of food waste per year, remove 1320 kg of greenhouse gases, and create 470,000 liters of methane gas while providing a payback period of 4.2 years and a rate of return of 14.9%.

  11. Opportunities for low-grade heat recovery in the UK food processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Richard; Harvey, Adam; Reay, David

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency in the process industry is becoming an increasingly important issue due to the rising costs of both electricity and fossil fuel resources, as well as the tough targets for the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions outlined in the Climate Change Act 2008. Utilisation of waste heat sources is key to improving industrial energy efficiency, with an estimated 11.4 TWh of recoverable heat being wasted each year, a quarter of which is from the food and drinks processing sector. This paper examines the low-grade waste heat sources common to the food and drinks processing sector and the various opportunities for the use of this heat. A review of the best available technologies for recovery of waste heat is provided, ranging from heat transfer between source and sink, to novel technologies for the generation of electricity and refrigeration. Generally, the most economic option for waste heat recovery is heat exchange between nearby/same process source and sink, with a number of well-developed heat exchangers widely available for purchase. More novel options, such as the use of organic Rankine cycles for electricity generation prove to be less economical due to high capital outlays. However, with additional funding provision for demonstration of such projects and development of modular units, such technologies would become more common

  12. Identifying Competencies in the Food Service Industry. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Linda M.

    This report documents a research project conducted to ascertain what specific occupational competencies are necessary for employees in the food service industry. Questionnaires were mailed to employers, in restaurants and hospitals and to graduates of high school and postsecondary food service programs. The respondents completed 316 position…

  13. Management Science/Industrial Engineering Techniques to Reduce Food Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Murray

    This paper examines the contributions of Industrial Engineering and Management Science toward reduction in the cost of production and distribution of food. Food processing firms were requested to respond to a questionnaire which asked for examples of their use of various operations research tools and information on the number of operations…

  14. Quality function deployment in the food industry: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, A.I.A.; Dekker, M.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed literature review on the topic of the application of quality function deployment (QFD) in the food industry. This review is extended with a thorough description of the methodologies involved in the practice of QFD within food companies, exemplified with the help of a

  15. Advantage of irradiation in food industry, technical and economical constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, P.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation is an effective method to extend the conservation and to increase the hygienic security of food. Nevertheless the use of irradiation remains limited in food industry. The prospects of different applications are evaluated, referring to the other alternative technologies. The advantage of adequate irradiation facilities incorporated or not into the plants are compared [fr

  16. Hotel & Food Service Industries. Workforce & Workplace Literacy Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BCL Brief, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This brief gives an overview of the topic of workplace literacy for the hotel and food service industries and lists program contacts. The following organizations operate employee basic skills programs for hotel and food service employees, provide technical assistance, or operate grant programs: Essential Skills Resource Center; Language Training…

  17. Carbon emissions reduction in China's food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Lei, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the changes in carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption in China's food industry from 1986 to 2010 based on the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method. The results show that energy intensity (EI) and industrial activity (IA) are the main determinants of the changes in carbon dioxide. Energy intensity (EI) contributes to decrease in emissions within 25 years while industrial activity (IA) acts in a positive way to increase the emissions level. Industry scale (IS) mostly contributes to increase in emissions except for the time interval 1996–2000. However, for both carbon intensity (CI) and energy structure (ES), they have a volatile but not significant influence on emissions in the different time intervals. To further understand the effects, we analyze the cumulative emission during the whole period 1986–2010. The results further testify that energy intensity and industrial activity are the most important factors affecting reduction and growth of carbon emissions. The results indicate that efforts to reduce emission in China's food industry should focus on the enhancement of energy efficiency, the optimization of industrial scale and the restructuring energy use. Finally, recommendations are provided for the reduction of carbon dioxide in China's food industry. - Highlights: • We analyze the energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in China's food industry. • LMDI decomposition analysis is conducted for finding out the driving forces. • Industrial activity is the main driving force of CO 2 emissions in this industry. • Energy intensity is the main factor mitigating carbon emissions in this industry. • Main advice: improving energy efficiency, optimizing industrial scale.

  18. Product development in the European and overseas food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Balogh, Sandor

    2007-01-01

    In the present study various product development trends in the food industry are reviewed with the main focus on convenience, organic and functional foods. Also highlighted are differences between the U.S. and Europe in terms of consumer habits and food supply trends. Through exploring the reasons behind differences in the extent of product innovation, the author illustrates the different role convenience products have in the US and European markets. Also revealed is the relationship linking ...

  19. Hazardous waste management in Chilean main industry: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navia, Rodrigo; Bezama, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The new 'Hazardous Waste Management Regulation' was published in the Official Newspaper of the Chilean Republic on 12 June 2003, being in force 365 days after its publication (i.e., 12 June 2004). During the next 180 days after its publication (i.e., until 12 December 2004), each industrial facility was obligated to present a 'Hazardous Waste Management Plan' if the facility generates more than 12 ton/year hazardous wastes or more than 12 kg/year acute toxic wastes. Based on the Chilean industrial figures and this new regulation, hazardous waste management plans were carried out in three facilities of the most important sectors of Chilean industrial activity: a paper production plant, a Zn and Pb mine and a sawmill and wood remanufacturing facility. Hazardous wastes were identified, classified and quantified in all facilities. Used oil and oil-contaminated materials were determined to be the most important hazardous wastes generated. Minimization measures were implemented and re-use and recycling options were analyzed. The use of used oil as alternative fuel in high energy demanding facilities (i.e., cement facilities) and the re-refining of the used oil were found to be the most suitable options. In the Zn and Pb mine facility, the most important measure was the beginning of the study for using spent oils as raw material for the production of the explosives used for metals recovery from the rock. In Chile, there are three facilities producing alternative fuels from used oil, while two plants are nowadays re-refining oil to recycle it as hydraulic fluid in industry. In this sense, a proper and sustainable management of the used oil appears to be promissory

  20. From alternative Agriculture to the Food Industry, The Need for Changes in Food Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Nielsen, Thorkild

    1997-01-01

    have established rules and control systems for organic agriculture (the last decade). A break-through of organic food production is now taking place in some EU member states. This third change is indicated by more positive attitudes to organic products from the food industry but also by an increasing...... need for a more appropriate respons in the food policy....

  1. Nanotechnology: current uses and future applications in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Muthu; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Chung, Ill-Min

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology intend new and innovative applications in the food industry. Nanotechnology exposed to be an efficient method in many fields, particularly the food industry and the area of functional foods. Though as is the circumstance with the growth of any novel food processing technology, food packaging material, or food ingredient, additional studies are needed to demonstrate the potential benefits of nanotechnologies and engineered nanomaterials designed for use in foods without adverse health effects. Nanoemulsions display numerous advantages over conventional emulsions due to the small droplets size they contain: high optical clarity, excellent physical constancy against gravitational partition and droplet accumulation, and improved bioavailability of encapsulated materials, which make them suitable for food applications. Nano-encapsulation is the most significant favorable technologies having the possibility to ensnare bioactive chemicals. This review highlights the applications of current nanotechnology research in food technology and agriculture, including nanoemulsion, nanocomposites, nanosensors, nano-encapsulation, food packaging, and propose future developments in the developing field of agrifood nanotechnology. Also, an overview of nanostructured materials, and their current applications and future perspectives in food science are also presented.

  2. Monitoring Industrial Food Processes Using Spectroscopy & Chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dorthe Kjær; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade rapid spectroscopic measurements have revolutionized quality control in practically all areas of primary food and feed production. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR & NIT) has been implemented for monitoring the quality of millions of samples of cereals, milk and meat with unprec......In the last decade rapid spectroscopic measurements have revolutionized quality control in practically all areas of primary food and feed production. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR & NIT) has been implemented for monitoring the quality of millions of samples of cereals, milk and meat...

  3. Glucoamylase production from food waste by solid state fermentation and its evaluation in the hydrolysis of domestic food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Uçkun Kiran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, food wastes such as waste bread, savory, waste cakes, cafeteria waste, fruits, vegetables and potatoes were used as sole substrate for glucoamylase production by solid state fermentation. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the fermentation conditions for improving the production of high activity enzyme. It was found that waste cake was the best substrate for glucoamylase production. Among all the parameters studied, glucoamylase activity was significantly affected by the initial pH and incubation time. The highest glucoamylase activity of 108.47 U/gds was achieved at initial pH of 7.9, moisture content of 69.6% wt., inoculum loading of 5.2×105 cells/gram substrate (gs and incubation time of 6 d. The enzyme preparation could effectively digest 50% suspension of domestic food waste in 24 h with an almost complete saccharification using an enzyme dose of only 2U/g food waste at 60°C.

  4. Plating Plant Waste Utilization in Glasswork, Ceramic and Building Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, V.P.; Scheglov, M.; Korneva, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The technology allows using electroplating plant waste for recovery of fine inorganic pigments, which may be used in paintwork and ceramic industry (for coating and enamel preparation, for ceramic painting), in glasswork (colored glass) and in building industry (for producing foundation slabs, sidewalk plates and curbing, for art urban planning, for pavement and aerodrome covering and so on). For fine inorganic pigment recovery so-called sol-gel method was used

  5. What design can bring to the food industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schifferstein, H.N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Even though designers are specifically trained to create and build new products, their contribution to innovation in the food industry is relatively small. The industry seems unfamiliar with the ways in which designers operate and may be unaware of the added value they may provide. Therefore, this

  6. [Food industry funding and epidemiologic research in public health nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Tardón, Adonina; Romaguera, Dora; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Vioque, Jesús

    The interests of the food industry to fund nutrition and health research are not limited to promoting scientific advances. Recently, several systematic reviews conducted about the effect of sugar-sweetened beverages and health outcomes have shown some biased conclusions in studies that acknowledge industry sponsorship. In this context, the Nutrition Working Group of the Spanish Epidemiology Society presented a scientific session entitled Food industry and epidemiologic research at its annual meeting. In a round table, four experts in nutrition research presented their points of view about whether the food industry should fund nutrition-related research and the related potential conflicts of interest of the food industry. All the experts agreed not only on defending independence in nutritional epidemiology regarding the design, interpretation and conclusion of their studies but also on the crucial need for guaranteed scientific rigor, scientific quality of the results and measures to protect studies against potential biases related to the conflicts of interest of funding by the food industry. Drs Pérez-Farinós and Romaguera believe that the most effective way to prevent conflicts of interest would be not to allow the food industry to fund nutrition research; Drs Marcos and Martínez-González suggested the need to establish mechanisms and strategies to prevent the potential influences of the food industry in selecting researchers or institutional sponsorship and in the analysis and results of the studies, to ensure maximum independence for researchers, as well as their professional ethics. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Analytical characterization of an industrial waste treated by gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, M.D.; Larsen, D.W.; Manahan, S.E. [University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States). Chemistry Dept.

    1999-04-15

    Previous studies have shown that an effective general treatment for hazardous wastes is sorption of the waste onto a specially prepared, macroporous coal char followed by gasification of the mixture in reverse mode. In the present study, an industrial waste comprised of styrene manufacturing and petroleum byproducts was gasified, and the waste, coal, virgin char, and char/waste mixture (before and after gasification) were examined by various instrumental methods, infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and ultimate and proximate analyses, to determine which methods give useful information. The composition of the waste was found to be 38% water, 27% inorganic, and 35% organic. NMR showed that the organic components are a mixture of aliphatic and olefinic/aromatics. About 8% of the sludge is chromatographable and GC/MS revealed the presence of aromatics and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Solid-state NMR showed that the sludge components are strongly immobilized on the char up to a 1:1 (wt:wt) ratio. SEM results showed changes in the char macroporous surface as waste is incorporated by the char and as the mixture is subsequently gasified. In addition, a portion of the elemental content of the char surface was revealed by energy dispersive (EDAX) measurements. IR photoaccoustic spectroscopy showed that peaks attributable to aqueous and organic fractions of the waste disappear upon gasification. 19 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. FEATURES OF FORMATION SCENARIOS OF THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhiy Nozhenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the topic – the invention of approaches to enterprise development oil and fat industry. The goal – to identify features of formation scenarios for the food industry. The chosen methodology allowed to analyze and evaluate the functioning of state enterprises. Results are discovering the benefits of scenario planning to find ways of business development. Novelty – a rationale for the use of scenario planning for enterprise development oil and fat industry, developing a set of scenarios. The practical significance – providing specific scenarios for enterprises of oil and fat industry. Keywords: scenario planning, scenario development, enterprise, oil and fat industry outlook. JEL: L 66

  9. Evaluating Industry Self-Regulation of Food Marketing to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Dale L; Castonguay, Jessica S; Filer, Christine R

    2015-08-01

    Concern has grown about the role of televised food advertising as a contributor to childhood obesity. In response, the food industry adopted a program of self-regulation, with participating companies pledging to limit child-targeted advertising to healthier products. The implicit promise of the industry initiative is a significant improvement in the overall nutritional quality of foods marketed to children, thereby negating the need for governmental regulation to accomplish that objective. This study assesses the efficacy of industry self-regulation by comparing advertising content on children's TV programs before and after self-regulation was implemented. A systematic content analysis of food advertisements (n=625 in 2007, n=354 in 2013) appearing in children's TV programs on the most popular cable and broadcast channels was conducted. All analyses were conducted in 2014. Findings indicated that no significant improvement in the overall nutritional quality of foods marketed to children has been achieved since industry self-regulation was adopted. In 2013, 80.5% of all foods advertised to children on TV were for products in the poorest nutritional category, and thus pose high risk for contributing to obesity. The lack of significant improvement in the nutritional quality of food marketed to children is likely a result of the weak nutritional standards for defining healthy foods employed by industry, and because a substantial proportion of child-oriented food marketers do not participate in self-regulation. The lack of success achieved by self-regulation indicates that other policy actions are needed to effectively reduce children's exposure to obesogenic food advertising. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Discounting and dynamic shelf life to reduce fresh food waste at retailers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buisman, M.E.; Haijema, R.; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 89 million of tonnes of food is wasted every year in the EU along the whole food supply chain. The reasons for food waste by retailers include inappropriate quality control, overstocking and inaccurate forecasting. This study shows that food wasted by retailers can be reduced by

  11. Glass-ceramics with multibarrier structure obtained from industrial waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berzina, L.; Cimdins, R.; Rozenstrauha, I. [Riga Tech. Univ. (Latvia). Fac. of Chem. Technol.; Bossert, J. [Technisches Inst.: Materialwissenschaft, Friedrich-Schiller-Univ., Jena (Germany); Kravtchenko, I. [Inst. for Problems of Material Science, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    Recycling problem for various kind of waste is solved by processing the waste to ecological depositable products with multibarrier structure. In order to form a multibarrier structure the ecologically incompatible substances may be diluted and chemically bound until their recycling products gain a structure like natural mineral or glass (I. barrier). After that, remineralized materials are converted into a new product by melting or powder technology using an ecological compatible type of waste as a matrix phase (II. barrier). Waste which are treated this way could be applied to produce ceramic building materials and goods such as floor tiles, stone pavement and casting products. Industrial waste from the metallurgical factory in Latvia ``Liepajas metalurgs`` are metallurgical slag, filter dust, etching waste and sewage used in technologies. The main constituents of chemical compositions of these waste are: Fe, Ca, Si, Mg, Al, Mn etc. In some types of waste a small amount of ecologically risky elements such as Cr, Ni, Zr, Sn and Pb can occur. The combination of metallurgical waste with peat ashes from Riga thermal power station, oil shale ashes or glass waste under controlled sintering procedure gives bulk materials with surface or/and bulkcrystallization. The structure of glass-ceramics built this way may prevent the migration of ecologically risky elements into environment due to corrosion or friction. Physical-chemical properties and thermal behaviour (DTA, dilatometry, melting) of waste define the range of sintering for production of glass-ceramics (powder technology) and decorative glass-ceramic materials (melting and powder technology). (orig.) 5 refs.

  12. Identification of filamentous bacteria in industrial waste water treatment plants; Identificacion de bacterias filamentosas en EDAR industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, E.; Isac, L.; Fernandez, N.; Zornosa, A.; Mas, M.

    2008-07-01

    The operation of waste water treatment plants serving towns may be adversely affected by industrial effluents. To overcome this problem, industrial treatment plants should be put in place to purify such waste before it is poured into the sewer system. Twenty-seven such plants, located across Spain, mainly in the food industry, were studied and bulking found in 17 of them. Seventeen dominant morpho types were determined, of which the most important, in order of appearance, were TO21N, Thiotrix and Haliscomenobacter hydrossis. Of the other plants examined, 18% had de flocculation problems and 4% had viscosity problems. (Author) 21 refs.

  13. Industrial hazardous waste management in Turkey: Current state of the field and primary challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salihoglu, Gueray

    2010-01-01

    A holistic evaluation of a country's hazardous waste management (HWM) practices is useful in identifying the necessary actions to focus on. Based on an analysis of industrial hazardous waste (HW) generation in Turkey, this paper attempts to critically evaluate and report current Turkish HWM practices and discuss the primary challenges to be addressed. The generation of industrial HW for Turkey reported in 2004 was 1.195 million tons, which accounted for 7% of the total industrial solid waste (ISW) generated by the manufacturing industry, and for nearly 4.9% of the total solid waste generated in the country. The HW generated by the top five manufacturing product categories - basic metals, chemicals and chemical products, food and beverages, coke and refined petroleum, motor vehicles and trailers - accounted for 89.0% of total industrial HW. 21% of the HW generated in 2004 was recycled or reused, and 6% was sold or donated, whereas 73% was sent to ultimate disposal. 67% of the HW sent to ultimate disposal was disposed of at municipal landfills. The total capacity of the existing regional HW facilities is 212,500 tons/year, which accounts for about 24% of the HW to be disposed. Turkey has identified the HW problem in the country and enacted legislation, designated a lead agency, and promulgated rules and regulations. Several new initiatives are planned for improving HW management nationally; however, some HWM problems will be persistent due to previous and existing industrial development plans. These development policies led to the concentration of industry in regions marked by precious agricultural fields and high population density. This occurred because the government previously exhibited a default prioritization towards industrial development, leading to insufficient implementation of regulations on HW generators. Some of the problems may also be rooted in other countries that allow illegal transboundary HW movements despite international regulations.

  14. Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoutt, B. G.; Juliano, P.; Sanguansri, P.; Sellahewa, J.

    2009-07-01

    In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t of marketable fresh fruit, the average virtual water content (sum of green, blue and gray water) at orchard gate was 2298 l kg-1. However, due to wastage in the distribution and consumption stages of the product life cycle, the average virtual water content of one kg of Australian-grown fresh mango consumed by an Australian household was 5218 l. This latter figure compares to an Australian-equivalent water footprint of 217 l kg-1, which is the volume of direct water use by an Australian household having an equivalent potential to contribute to water scarcity. Nationally, distribution and consumption waste in the food chain of Australian-grown fresh mango to Australian households represented an annual waste of 26.7 Gl of green water and 16.6 Gl of blue water. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce food chain waste will likely have as great or even greater impact on freshwater resource availability as other water use efficiency measures in agriculture and food production.

  15. Production of Fungal Glucoamylase for Glucose Production from Food Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Sze Ki Lin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using pastry waste as resource for glucoamylase (GA production via solid state fermentation (SSF was studied. The crude GA extract obtained was used for glucose production from mixed food waste. Our results showed that pastry waste could be used as a sole substrate for GA production. A maximal GA activity of 76.1 ± 6.1 U/mL was obtained at Day 10. The optimal pH and reaction temperature for the crude GA extract for hydrolysis were pH 5.5 and 55 °C, respectively. Under this condition, the half-life of the GA extract was 315.0 minutes with a deactivation constant (kd 2.20 × 10−3minutes−1. The application of the crude GA extract for mixed food waste hydrolysis and glucose production was successfully demonstrated. Approximately 53 g glucose was recovered from 100 g of mixed food waste in 1 h under the optimal digestion conditions, highlighting the potential of this approach as an alternative strategy for waste management and sustainable production of glucose applicable as carbon source in many biotechnological processes.

  16. Production of Fungal Glucoamylase for Glucose Production from Food Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wan Chi; Pleissner, Daniel; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of using pastry waste as resource for glucoamylase (GA) production via solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied. The crude GA extract obtained was used for glucose production from mixed food waste. Our results showed that pastry waste could be used as a sole substrate for GA production. A maximal GA activity of 76.1 ± 6.1 U/mL was obtained at Day 10. The optimal pH and reaction temperature for the crude GA extract for hydrolysis were pH 5.5 and 55 °C, respectively. Under this condition, the half-life of the GA extract was 315.0 minutes with a deactivation constant (kd) 2.20 × 10−3 minutes−1. The application of the crude GA extract for mixed food waste hydrolysis and glucose production was successfully demonstrated. Approximately 53 g glucose was recovered from 100 g of mixed food waste in 1 h under the optimal digestion conditions, highlighting the potential of this approach as an alternative strategy for waste management and sustainable production of glucose applicable as carbon source in many biotechnological processes. PMID:24970186

  17. Biotreatment of industrial and hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, M.A.; Gealt, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    This book attempts to approach the topic of biodegradation of hazardous wastes in a holistic fashion. The issues of science, engineering and regulation are all addressed. As much as possible, both theoretical and practical considerations have been dealt with. Selection of bacteria for the specific purpose of degrading compounds is discussed at the bench-scale to the field level. Engineering theory as applied to growth on toxic substances is discussed. The legal issues are covered. There are also several examples of field studies indicating the current usage of biodegradation, both within reactors and in situ. The use of biodegradation is compared with other mechanisms of disposal, in terms of time limitations, degradation limitations and, perhaps most important, cost. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  18. Waste Reduction in Fresh Food Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaipia, Riikka; Loikkanen, Lauri; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies a well-known phenomenon, information sharing in supply chains, in a new context, fresh foods, with a specific goal, supporting sustainable performance in the supply chain. Fresh foods are important for retail stores, representing around half of retail sales, but form a challengi...... and heterogeneous group of products to manage. The value of the paper lies in its pointing out detailed solutions to how in real-life supply chains data can be used efficiently to improve the performance of the supply chain.......The paper studies a well-known phenomenon, information sharing in supply chains, in a new context, fresh foods, with a specific goal, supporting sustainable performance in the supply chain. Fresh foods are important for retail stores, representing around half of retail sales, but form a challenging...

  19. Food waste disposal units in UK households: the need for policy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovidou, Eleni; Ohandja, Dieudonne-Guy; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2012-04-15

    The EU Landfill Directive requires Member States to reduce the amount of biodegradable waste disposed of to landfill. This has been a key driver for the establishment of new waste management options, particularly in the UK, which in the past relied heavily on landfill for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). MSW in the UK is managed by Local Authorities, some of which in a less conventional way have been encouraging the installation and use of household food waste disposal units (FWDs) as an option to divert food waste from landfill. This study aimed to evaluate the additional burden to water industry operations in the UK associated with this option, compared with the benefits and related savings from the subsequent reductions in MSW collection and disposal. A simple economic analysis was undertaken for different FWD uptake scenarios, using the Anglian Region as a case study. Results demonstrated that the significant savings from waste collection arising from a large-scale uptake of FWDs would outweigh the costs associated with the impacts to the water industry. However, in the case of a low uptake, such savings would not be enough to cover the increased costs associated with the wastewater provision. As a result, this study highlights the need for policy intervention in terms of regulating the use of FWDs, either promoting them as an alternative to landfill to increase savings from waste management, or banning them as a threat to wastewater operations to reduce potential costs to the water industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lipases industrial applications: focus on food and agroindustries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrand David

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes developed and produced for industrial applications represent a market estimated at a global value comprised between $5000 million and $5500 million in 2016. The major applications for industrial enzymes include food and beverages (dairy, bakery, fruit juices, beer, wine, detergents, biofuel productions, animal feed, and other applications such as textiles, leather, and paper processing. Altogether, food and feed applications account for 55–60% of the global enzymes market, and market is still growing at an estimated 6–8% annual growth. The lipases category represents less than 10% of the global enzymes market, with a broad range of industrial applications: detergents, oil processing, food processing and pharmaceutical end-users. Existing applications and new development in the food and agroindustries sectors are reviewed.

  1. Emerging Food Processing Technologies and Factors Impacting their Industrial Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, Anushree; Rajauria, Gaurav; O'Donnell, Colm P; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2018-06-04

    Innovative food processing technologies have been widely investigated in food processing research in recent years. These technologies offer key advantages for advancing the preservation and quality of conventional foods, for combatting the growing challenges posed by globalization, increased competitive pressures and diverse consumer demands. However, there is a need to increase the level of adoption of novel technologies to ensure the potential benefits of these technologies are exploited more by the food industry. This review outlines emerging thermal and non-thermal food processing technologies with regard to their mechanisms, applications and commercial aspects. The level of adoption of novel food processing technologies by the food industry is outlined and the factors that impact their industrial adoption are discussed. At an industry level, the technological capabilities of individual companies, their size, market share as well as their absorptive capacity impact adoption of a novel technology. Characteristics of the technology itself such as costs involved in its development and commercialization, associated risks and relative advantage, its level of complexity and compatibility influence the technology's adoption. The review concludes that a deep understanding of the development and application of a technology along with the factors influencing its acceptance are critical for its commercial adoption.

  2. Utilization of byproducts and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish processing industries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayathilakan, K; Sultana, Khudsia; Radhakrishna, K; Bawa, A S

    2012-06-01

    India is bestowed with vast livestock wealth and it is growing at the rate of 6% per annum. The contribution of livestock industry including poultry and fish is increasing substantially in GDP of country which accounts for >40% of total agricultural sector and >12% of GDP. This contribution would have been much greater had the animal by-products been also efficiently utilized. Efficient utilization of by-products has direct impact on the economy and environmental pollution of the country. Non-utilization or under utilization of by-products not only lead to loss of potential revenues but also lead to the added and increasing cost of disposal of these products. Non-utilization of animal by-products in a proper way may create major aesthetic and catastrophic health problems. Besides pollution and hazard aspects, in many cases meat, poultry and fish processing wastes have a potential for recycling raw materials or for conversion into useful products of higher value. Traditions, culture and religion are often important when a meat by-product is being utilized for food. Regulatory requirements are also important because many countries restrict the use of meat by-products for reasons of food safety and quality. By-products such as blood, liver, lung, kidney, brains, spleen and tripe has good nutritive value. Medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of by-product are also highlighted in this review. Waste products from the poultry processing and egg production industries must be efficiently dealt with as the growth of these industries depends largely on waste management. Treated fish waste has found many applications among with which the most important are animal feed, biodiesel/biogas, dietectic products (chitosan), natural pigments (after extraction) and cosmetics (collagen). Available information pertaining to the utilization of by-products and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish and their processing industries has been reviewed here.

  3. The impact of industrial waste of Venezuelan marine water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Frank [Bechtel Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Guarino, Carmen [Guarino Engineers, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Arias, Marlene [Ministerio del Ambiente y Recursos Naturales Renovables, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1993-12-31

    The Puerto Cabello-Marron coastal area of Venezuela is an ideal location for industries that require large land areas, water, marine transportation, minimum habitation, cooling water, etc. However, mercury spills have produced concern in the entire coastal zone. The area was investigated and negative impacts were identified. Consequently, recommendations for waste water management were proceeded. 13 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Thermoexoemission detectors for monitoring radioactive contamination of industrial waste waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obukhov, V.T.; Sobolev, I.A.; Khomchik, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Detectors on base of BeO(Na) monocrystals with thermoemission to be used for monitoring radioactive contamination of industrial waste waters are suggested. The detectors advantages are sensitivity to α and low-ehergy β radiations, high mechanical strength and wide range of measurements. The main disadvantage is the necessity of working in red light

  5. The impact of industrial waste of Venezuelan marine water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Frank [Bechtel Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Guarino, Carmen [Guarino Engineers, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Arias, Marlene [Ministerio del Ambiente y Recursos Naturales Renovables, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1994-12-31

    The Puerto Cabello-Marron coastal area of Venezuela is an ideal location for industries that require large land areas, water, marine transportation, minimum habitation, cooling water, etc. However, mercury spills have produced concern in the entire coastal zone. The area was investigated and negative impacts were identified. Consequently, recommendations for waste water management were proceeded. 13 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD SECTOR AND LIMITATIONS OF FOOD LOSSES AND ITS WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Bilska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally is wasted about one third of total food produced per year. The losses are borne along the entire food chain from “farm to fork”. The phenomenon requires an analysis and monitoring of the impact due to continuous development of food sector. Food losses and its waste have an impact on the sustainability of food systems in all three dimensions: economic, social and environmental. Irrational use of food beyond the amount of losses, is a threat to our environment because of excessive consumption of natural resources and is a causes of unmet nutritional needs of societies. The aim of the study was to determine the causes of losses and wastage in the food chain and categorization as well as taking into account recovery capabilities. As follows from the analysis presented in the work some of the reasons for food losses and waste are well known, possible limitations. Therefore, we should seek ways of recovering of food products and using them as intended. One way may be the transfer of food for social purposes, which also affects the sustainability of development in this sector due to social aspects.

  7. Logistics integration processes in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez, Cristina

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses the integration process that firms follow to implement Supply Chain Management (SCM). This study has been inspired in the integration model proposed by Stevens (1989). He suggests that companies internally integrate first and then extend integration to other supply chain members, such as customers and suppliers. To analyse the integration process a survey was conducted among Spanish food manufacturers. The results show that there are companies in three different integratio...

  8. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: Electronics recycling industry communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Julia R.; Boehm, Michael W.; Drummond, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Given a large flow rate of CRT glass ∼10% of the panel glass stream will be leaded. ► The supply of CRT waste glass exceeded demand in 2009. ► Recyclers should use UV-light to detect lead oxide during the separation process. ► Recycling market analysis techniques and results are given for CRT glass. ► Academic initiatives and the necessary expansion of novel product markets are discussed. - Abstract: Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased.

  9. Recovery of Biomolecules from Food Wastes — A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Antonietta Baiano

    2014-01-01

    Food wastes are produced by a variety of sources, ranging from agricultural operations to household consumption. About 38% occurs during food processing. At present, the European Union legislation encourages the exploitation of co-products. This valorisation can be achieved through the extraction of high-value components such as proteins, polysaccharides, fibres, flavour compounds, and phytochemicals, which can be re-used as nutritionally and pharmacologically functional ingredients. Extracti...

  10. Industrial waste treatment: the leather industry; Tratamiento conjunto de aguas residuales e industriales: caso de las industrias del curtido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortacans Torre, J.A.

    1995-07-01

    The industrial waste water treatment can be presented alone or together with the urban waste water. There are special industries that cannot treat their effluents together with municipal effluents, for example the leather industry. This industry uses sulfurs and equivalent chromium. The PH value is around 10. This waste water can`t be introduce directly into municipal collectors. This article presents the general recommendations for their treatment.

  11. 75 FR 22599 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Food and Drug Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Food and Drug Administration and Industry Procedures for Section 513(g) Requests for Information Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic... and Industry Procedures for Section 513(g) Requests for Information Under the Federal Food, Drug, and...

  12. Industrial Program of Waste Management - Cigeo Project - 13033

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butez, Marc [Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs - Andra, 1-7, rue Jean Monnet 92298 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Bartagnon, Olivier; Gagner, Laurent [AREVA NC Tour AREVA 1 place de la Coupole 92084 Paris La Defense (France); Advocat, Thierry; Sacristan, Pablo [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, CEA-SACLAY 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Beguin, Stephane [Electricite de France - EDF, Division Combustible Nucleaire, 1, Place Pleyel Site Cap Ampere93282 Saint Denis (France)

    2013-07-01

    The French Planning Act of 28 June 2006 prescribed that a reversible repository in a deep geological formation be chosen as the reference solution for the long-term management of high-level and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste. It also entrusted the responsibility of further studies and design of the repository (named Cigeo) upon the French Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), in order for the review of the creation-license application to start in 2015 and, subject to its approval, the commissioning of the repository to take place in 2025. Andra is responsible for siting, designing, implementing, operating the future geological repository, including operational and long term safety and waste acceptance. Nuclear operators (Electricite de France (EDF), AREVA NC, and the French Commission in charge of Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies (CEA) are technically and financially responsible for the waste they generate, with no limit in time. They provide Andra, on one hand, with waste packages related input data, and on the other hand with their long term industrial experiences of high and intermediate-level long-lived radwaste management and nuclear operation. Andra, EDF, AREVA and CEA established a cooperation agreement for strengthening their collaborations in these fields. Within this agreement Andra and the nuclear operators have defined an industrial program for waste management. This program includes the waste inventory to be taken into account for the design of the Cigeo project and the structural hypothesis underlying its phased development. It schedules the delivery of the different categories of waste and defines associated flows. (authors)

  13. Industrial Program of Waste Management - Cigeo Project - 13033

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butez, Marc; Bartagnon, Olivier; Gagner, Laurent; Advocat, Thierry; Sacristan, Pablo; Beguin, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    The French Planning Act of 28 June 2006 prescribed that a reversible repository in a deep geological formation be chosen as the reference solution for the long-term management of high-level and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste. It also entrusted the responsibility of further studies and design of the repository (named Cigeo) upon the French Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), in order for the review of the creation-license application to start in 2015 and, subject to its approval, the commissioning of the repository to take place in 2025. Andra is responsible for siting, designing, implementing, operating the future geological repository, including operational and long term safety and waste acceptance. Nuclear operators (Electricite de France (EDF), AREVA NC, and the French Commission in charge of Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies (CEA) are technically and financially responsible for the waste they generate, with no limit in time. They provide Andra, on one hand, with waste packages related input data, and on the other hand with their long term industrial experiences of high and intermediate-level long-lived radwaste management and nuclear operation. Andra, EDF, AREVA and CEA established a cooperation agreement for strengthening their collaborations in these fields. Within this agreement Andra and the nuclear operators have defined an industrial program for waste management. This program includes the waste inventory to be taken into account for the design of the Cigeo project and the structural hypothesis underlying its phased development. It schedules the delivery of the different categories of waste and defines associated flows. (authors)

  14. A waste to energy plant for an industrial districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floreani, M.; Meneghetti, A.; Nardin, G.; Rocco, A.

    2001-01-01

    Industrial districts show characteristics that can be exploited by developing plant solutions studied for their special configuration and not simply extended from single unit models. In the paper a waste-to-energy plant for the chair industrial district in Friuli Venezia Giulia (North Eastern Italy) is described. It has been designed directly involving the University of Udine and can be considered an example of how technology innovation can be promoted by universities, especially in the case of small firms which have limited R and D resources. It is shown how industrial refuse becomes a chance of competitive advantage for the whole district due to its energy recovery in a plant unique for the type of waste processed. Input, combustion, energy recovery and cleaning sections are described in details, underlining innovative approaches and solutions [it

  15. Modeling of processing technologies in food industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkov, V. G.; Sagitov, R. F.; Popov, V. P.; Bachirov, V. D.; Akhmadieva, Z. R.; TSirkaeva, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    Currently, the society is facing an urgent need to solve the problems of nutrition (products with increased nutrition value) and to develop energy-saving technologies for food products. A mathematical modeling of heat and mass transfer of polymer materials in the extruder is rather successful these days. Mathematical description of movement and heat exchange during extrusion of gluten-protein-starch-containing material similar to pasta dough in its structure, were taken as a framework for the mathematical model presented in this paper.

  16. Application of radioimmunoassay in food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, P.; Fukal, L.; Kas, J.

    1983-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay can be used in evaluating the quality and wholesomeness of food. The method is advantageous for its speed, specificity, high sensitivity, relative ease of performance, and the possibility of performing a great number of parallel determinations using automation and computer evaluation. It can be used in determining macromolecules of proteins and enzymes. The determination of papain in beer is shown by way of example. Other possibilities of the method include: the determination of microbial toxins of the peptide nature, vitamins, hormones, antibiotics, pesticides and their residues, alkaloids, and carcinogenic materials. (M.D.)

  17. Risk Management for New Product Development Projects in Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porananond, D.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Project risk management provides a guideline for decision making in new product development (NPD projects, reducing uncertainty and increasing success rate. However, the acceptance of formal risk management applications in industry, especially for NPD projects is still in question. A study of a food conglomerate in Thailand found that only 9% of NPD projects used a systematic approach for managing risk. 61% of the projects realised the importance of risk management, while the remaining 30% did not involve risk management at all. This study aims to develop a risk management model for NPD projects in the food industry. The first section of this paper reviews the literature on risk management theory, including international standards for risk and project management (ISO31000 and ISO21500, publications for the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK, by a professional organisation the Project Management Institute (PMI, and also academic research. 182 academic papers, published between January 2002 and August 2012 were selected. The second part interviews conducted with eight NPD experts from five of the major food manufacturers in Thailand to examine their risk management practices and problems. Conclusions are made on five topics : classification of research method, project type and industrial segment, distribution of articles by region, tools & techniques for risk management and risk factors in projects. Specific requirements of risk management for NPD projects in the food industry are identified. A risk management model and the concept of risk management applications for the food industry are proposed.

  18. Opportunities, perspectives and limits in lactic acid production from waste and industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Dragana D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In line with the goals of sustainable development and environmental protection today great attention is directed towards new technologies for waste and industrial by-products utilization. Waste products represent potentially good raw material for production other valuable products, such as bioethanol, biogas, biodiesel, organic acids, enzymes, microbial biomass, etc. Since the first industrial production to the present, lactic acid has found wide application in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. In recent years, the demand for lactic acid has been increasing considerably owing to its potential use as a monomer for the production of poly-lactic acid (PLA polymers which are biodegradable and biocompatible with wide applications. Waste and industrial by-products such are whey, molasses, stillage, waste starch and lignocellulosic materials are a good source of fermentable sugars and many other substances of great importance for the growth of microorganisms, such as proteins, minerals and vitamins. Utilization of waste products for production of lactic acid could help to reduce the total cost of lactic acid production and except the economic viability of the process offers a solution of their disposal. Fermentation process depends on chemical and physical nature of feedstocks and the lactic acid producer. This review describes the characteristics, abilities and limits of microorganisms involved in lactic acid production, as well as the characteristics and types of waste products for lactic acid production. The fermentation methods that have been recently reported to improve lactic acid production are summarized and compared. In order to improve processes and productivity, fed-batch fermentation, fermentation with immobilized cell systems and mixed cultures and opportunities of open (non-sterilized fermentation have been investigated.

  19. System analysis of industrial waste management: A case study of industrial plants located between Tehran and Karaj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Karami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In this study, management of industrial waste in industries located between Tehran and Karaj in 2009-2010 was examined. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study which was done by site survey (Iranian environmental protection organization questionnaire usage and results analysis. This questionnaire was consisted of 45 questions about industrial waste, quantity, quality, and management. A total number of industries with over 50 employees was 283, and Stratified sampling method was used. Sample of size 50 was selected from 283cases. Results: The major hazardous waste-generating industries include chemical and plastic. Private sectors disposed 45% of generated waste. Majority of wastes were buried (62%, and only 17% of industrial waste was recycled. Conclusion: For hazardous waste reduction in this zone and health and economic attractions, the opportunity for reuse and recovery for these wastes must maximize in short-term and burial of industrial waste must be minimized. Industries such as chemical-plastic and electronics which have higher hazardous waste, in long-term, must be replaced with other industries such as wood cellulose and paper that have lower hazardous waste production rate.

  20. Ecological problems in the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božović Milan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In regard to the development of agricultural and food technologies Yugoslavia up till now has not had a developed strategy of "development of the environment" - an ecological strategy, nor has it in that respect had clearly defined political scientifically-based strategies. Current efforts to define developmental concepts are almost completely neglected, foremost in the "promotion of new ecologically justified technologies" and the formation of national programs of sustainable development. World trends in this area are already directed to the production and promotion of so-called "healthy food" which, designated in several ways, is becoming more and more present on the tables of developed countries. Yugoslavia, beside its current economic difficulties, has great potential and a elastic chance to follow world trends and completely satisfy the EU standards EVRO-EMA and world ecological standards ISO 14 000 by the quality implementation of well planned ecologically and economically rational programs. n order to undertake appropriate measures for "sustainable development", it s previously necessary to assess the problem and objectively establish the status.

  1. Designing Industrial Networks Using Ecological Food Web Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Astrid; Bras, Bert; Weissburg, Marc

    2016-10-18

    Biologically Inspired Design (biomimicry) and Industrial Ecology both look to natural systems to enhance the sustainability and performance of engineered products, systems and industries. Bioinspired design (BID) traditionally has focused on a unit operation and single product level. In contrast, this paper describes how principles of network organization derived from analysis of ecosystem properties can be applied to industrial system networks. Specifically, this paper examines the applicability of particular food web matrix properties as design rules for economically and biologically sustainable industrial networks, using an optimization model developed for a carpet recycling network. Carpet recycling network designs based on traditional cost and emissions based optimization are compared to designs obtained using optimizations based solely on ecological food web metrics. The analysis suggests that networks optimized using food web metrics also were superior from a traditional cost and emissions perspective; correlations between optimization using ecological metrics and traditional optimization ranged generally from 0.70 to 0.96, with flow-based metrics being superior to structural parameters. Four structural food parameters provided correlations nearly the same as that obtained using all structural parameters, but individual structural parameters provided much less satisfactory correlations. The analysis indicates that bioinspired design principles from ecosystems can lead to both environmentally and economically sustainable industrial resource networks, and represent guidelines for designing sustainable industry networks.

  2. A Carrier Bag Story of (waste) food, hens and the sharing economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjalland, Emmy Laura Perez

    2018-01-01

    flavourful food and the value of waste food. This argument is unfolded by looking deeper into the farm as a heterogeneous relational-material entanglement of infrastructures, non-human and human, Nordic food stories, waste, food and feed, diseases and risks and eating and tasting. Based on the food network...

  3. Teaching Ethos from the Dumpster: "Dive" and Food Waste Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubisar, Abby M.; Hunt, Kathleen P.

    2018-01-01

    Courses: Rhetorical Criticism, Composition, Environmental Communication. Objectives: This unit activity, for which students view a documentary to identify and evaluate persuasive ethos and then create their own rhetorical messages for reducing food waste, serves as a platform for teaching both the critique and practice of rhetoric, as well as…

  4. Decrease of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by food waste materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maděrová, Z.; Horská, K.; Kim, S.-R.; Lee, Ch.-H.; Pospíšková, K.; Šafaříková, Miroslava; Šafařík, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 9 (2016), s. 2143-2149 ISSN 0273-1223 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biofilm * food waste materials * magnetic spent grain * Pseudomonas aeruginosa Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.197, year: 2016

  5. The Recovery of Zinc Heavy Metal from Industrial Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panggabean, Sahat M.

    2000-01-01

    It had been studied the recovery of zinc heavy metal from liquid waste of electroplating industry located at East Jakarta. The aim of this study was to minimize the waste arisen from industrial activities by taking out zinc metal in order to reused on-site. The method of recovery was two steps precipitation using NaOH reagent and pH variation. The first step of precipitation at pH optimum around 6 yielded iron metal. The second step at pH optimum around 10 yielded zinc metal. The zinc metal was taken out assessed to the possibility of reused at that fabric. By applying its, it will yield the volume reduction of sludge waste about 36.1% or 53.2% of zinc metal containing in the waste. It means the cost of waste treatment will be lower. Beside its, the effluent arisen from the method had fulfill the maximum limit and it allowed to release to the environment. (author)

  6. Methods for recovering precious metals from industrial waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canda, L.; Heput, T.; Ardelean, E.

    2016-02-01

    The accelerated rate of industrialization increases the demand for precious metals, while high quality natural resources are diminished quantitatively, with significant operating costs. Precious metals recovery can be successfully made from waste, considered to be secondary sources of raw material. In recent years, concerns and interest of researchers for more increasing efficient methods to recover these metals, taking into account the more severe environmental protection legislation. Precious metals are used in a wide range of applications, both in electronic and communications equipment, spacecraft and jet aircraft engines and for mobile phones or catalytic converters. The most commonly recovered precious metals are: gold from jewellery and electronics, silver from X- ray films and photographic emulsions, industrial applications (catalysts, batteries, glass/mirrors), jewellery; platinum group metals from catalytic converters, catalysts for the refining of crude oil, industrial catalysts, nitric acid manufacturing plant, the carbon-based catalyst, e-waste. An important aspect is the economic viability of recycling processes related to complex waste flows. Hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical routes are the most important ways of processing electrical and electronic equipment waste. The necessity of recovering precious metals has opened new opportunities for future research.

  7. Market surveillance for the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen

    1993-01-01

    , intraorganizational decision processes, and organizational resources. 8. For end users, cognitive structures can be measured by the instrument food-related life style, intraorganizational decision processes refer to family decision-making, and organizational resources to households' equipment with time and money. 9....... For distributors, decision-makers' cognitive structures may be measured by an instrument termed retail supplier evaluation style, intraorganizational decision processes refer to retail purchasing routines, and organizational resources to distributors overall sales, profit, number of outlets etc. 10....... For competitors, decision-makers' cognitive structures refer to their subjective key success factors, intraorganizational decision processes to managerial decision-making, and organizational resources to companies' scores on the market's key success factors....

  8. The global economic and regulatory determinants of household food waste generation: A cross-country analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalak, Ali; Abou-Daher, Chaza; Chaaban, Jad; Abiad, Mohamad G

    2016-02-01

    Food is generally wasted all along the supply chain, with an estimated loss of 35percent generated at the consumer level. Consequently, household food waste constitutes a sizable proportion of the total waste generated throughout the food supply chain. Yet such wastes vary drastically between developed and developing countries. Using data collected from 44 countries with various income levels, this paper investigates the impact of legislation and economic incentives on household food waste generation. The obtained results indicate that well-defined regulations, policies and strategies are more effective than fiscal measures in mitigating household food waste generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Process Improvements: Aerobic Food Waste Composting at ISF Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Y. K.

    2015-12-01

    ISF Academy, a school with 1500 students in Hong Kong, installed an aerobic food waste composting system in November of 2013. The system has been operational for over seven months; we will be making improvements to the system to ensure the continued operational viability and quality of the compost. As a school we are committed to reducing our carbon footprint and the amount of waste we send to the local landfill. Over an academic year we produce approximately 27 metric tons of food waste. Our system processes the food waste to compost in 14 days and the compost is used by our primary school students in a organic farming project.There are two areas of improvement: a) if the composting system becomes anaerobic, there is an odor problem that is noticed by the school community; we will be testing the use of a bio-filter to eliminate the odor problem and, b) we will be working with an equipment vendor from Australia to install an improved grease trap system. The grease and oil that is collected will be sold to a local company here in Hong Kong that processes used cooking oil for making biofuels. This system will include a two stage filtration system and a heated vessel for separating the oil from the waste water.The third project will be to evaluate biodegradable cutlery for the compositing in the system. Currently, we use a significant quantity of non-biodegradable cutlery that is then thrown away after one use. Several local HK companies are selling biodegradable cutlery, but we need to evaluate the different products to determine which ones will work with our composting system. The food waste composting project at ISF Academy demonstrates the commitment of the school community to a greener environment for HK, the above listed projects will improve the operation of the system.

  10. Industrial long-term waste management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marque, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term industrial management of radioactive waste in France is carried out by the Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA). ANDRA is in charge of design, siting, construction and operation of disposal centers. The French national program of waste management is running on with the construction of a second near-surface disposal which is expected to be in operation in 1991 and a selection of a site for the construction of an underground laboratory for the qualification of this site for deep disposal

  11. Applications of prebiotics in food industry: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Vinti; Chakkaravarthi, S

    2017-12-01

    Benefits of prebiotics for stimulating a healthy intestinal tract are well known. From suppression of pathogens to proliferation of indigenous bacteria of intestines, prebiotics have it all. Since the research on the scope of prebiotics is expanding, new applications are coming up every day thus upgrading the choices consumer has for a healthy living. Incorporation of prebiotics in a wide range of products that food industry offers on shelf is an innovative way to replace fat and sugars along with enhancing the mouthfeel by providing better tongue lubrication. In some cases, the thermal stability of the product is improved along with other sensory, textural and physiological benefits. This paper gives an overview of the various prebiotics available from different sources and their applications in various segments of food industry, notably dairy, beverage, processed fruit-vegetable, bakery, confectionary, extruded snack, sweetener, infant formula, pet food and livestock industry. The effects observed on addition of various prebiotics are also elaborated.

  12. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Frederick

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000160-01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of special compliance conditions; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 reporting year, an estimated 6.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. Using the dissolved iron data, the concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  13. The Role of the Food Industry in Obesity Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is a complex disease of diverse etiology. Among the potential influences in the development of obesity, the food supply chain remains an important influence. We provide a conceptual overview related to the food industry's role in obesity prevention. We first discuss some limitations of current public health efforts. We then describe how a model that attends to personal autonomy in the context of supportive policy intervention can empower individuals in their efforts to navigate the food supply chain. We then provide an evidence informed overview of key areas where continued efforts to collaboratively engage the food industry, through solution-focused dialogue and action, have the potential to contribute to obesity prevention. While challenging, appropriately transparent, well-governed public-private partnerships have the demonstrated potential to benefit the communities we serve.

  14. Characteristics of food industry web sites and "advergames" targeting children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Jennifer; Bell, Robert A; Cassady, Diana

    2010-01-01

    To assess the content of food industry Web sites targeting children by describing strategies used to prolong their visits and foster brand loyalty; and to document health-promoting messages on these Web sites. A content analysis was conducted of Web sites advertised on 2 children's networks, Cartoon Network and Nickelodeon. A total of 290 Web pages and 247 unique games on 19 Internet sites were examined. Games, found on 81% of Web sites, were the most predominant promotion strategy used. All games had at least 1 brand identifier, with logos being most frequently used. On average Web sites contained 1 "healthful" message for every 45 exposures to brand identifiers. Food companies use Web sites to extend their television advertising to promote brand loyalty among children. These sites almost exclusively promoted food items high in sugar and fat. Health professionals need to monitor food industry marketing practices used in "new media." Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Save energy: using cellulosic wastes for fuel and food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Y.P.

    The development of technology to convert biomass into liquid fuels for transportation uses could reduce dependence on oil imports and make India's economy more stable. The enthusiasm for alcohol fuels, however, competes with food growing. Efforts to find unconventional sources of protein to deal with the malnutrition that accompanies overpopulation also focus on cellulosic wastes and micro-organisms that break down cellulose. India's scientists are looking at microbial proteins from cellulose wastes as a cattle and protein feed. Although micro-organisms are rich and balanced in amino acids, there are some health problems in human consumption of microbial food which need to be resolved before they can provide both economic fuel and food for developing countries.

  16. Electricity generation comparison of food waste-based bioenergy with wind and solar powers: A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Bao Dung Thi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The food waste treatment-based anaerobic digestion has been proven to play a primary role in electricity industry with high potentially economic benefits, which could reduce electricity prices in comparison with other renewable energy resources such as wind and solar power. The levelized costs of electricity were reported to be 65, 190, 130 and 204 US$ MWh−1 for food waste treatment in anaerobic landfill, anaerobic digestion biogas, solar power, and wind power, respectively. As examples, the approaches of food waste treatment via anaerobic digestion to provide a partial energy supply for many countries in future were estimated as 42.9 TWh yr−1 in China (sharing 0.87% of total electricity generation, 7.04 TWh yr−1 in Japan (0.64% of total electricity generation and 13.3 TWh yr−1 in the US (0.31% of total electricity generation. Electricity generation by treating food waste is promised to play an important role in renewable energy management. Comparing with wind and solar powers, converting food waste to bioenergy provides the lowest investment costs (500 US$ kW−1 and low operation cost (0.1 US$ kWh−1. With some limits in geography and season of other renewable powers, using food waste for electricity generation is supposedly to be a suitable solution for balancing energy demand in many countries.

  17. Harmonization of industrial and oilfield waste management issues in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halla, S.

    1999-01-01

    There has been an ongoing discussion concerning the harmonization of waste management requirements within Alberta between the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and Alberta Environment (AENV), with the ultimate goal of publishing a memorandum of understanding (MOU) that will lay out the division of responsibilities between the two authorities on this matter. An overview is included of waste management in Alberta and of the harmonization agreements attained to date, with a stress on oil field waste issues. The EUB and AENV developed a MOE on the harmonization of waste management in Alberta, and a discussion is made of the concept of equivalency, which is used in the development of 'EUB guide 58: oilfield waste management requirements for the upstream petroleum industry' and will be a guiding principle for the MOU. Although the EUB's processes for waste management will not be exactly the same as AENV's, the EUB has made the commitment that, as a minimum, the requirements will provide the same level of environmental protection and public safety equivalent to that provided by AENV

  18. Biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste in batch and continuous systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Han; Yingting Yan; Yiwen Shi; Jingjing Gu; Junhong Tang; Hongting Zhao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste was investigated. Food waste (solid-to-liquid ratio of 10%, w/v) was first hydrolyzed by commercial glucoamylase to release glucose (24.35?g/L) in the food waste hydrolysate. Then, the obtained food waste hydrolysate was used as substrate for biohydrogen production in the batch and continuous (continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR) systems. It was observed that the maximum cumulative hydrogen prod...

  19. The management of industrial wastes in hydrology; La gestion des dechets industriels en hydrologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbaz-Seboun, V.

    1998-07-08

    The industrial wastes are made of different kind of wastes: the inert wastes, the banal wastes (municipal wastes), the special wastes containing noxious elements with respect to human health and environment, and the radioactive wastes. Each industry generates its own effluents (sludges from water treatment plants and leachates from rubbish dumps). The main water pollutions are due to the fermentescible organic matters, nitrates and heavy metals from the industrial waste waters. The aim of the public water agencies is to better protect the environment and to give help to the industrialists in the management of their wastes: reduction at the source, selective collection, valorization, transportation and processing. Non-valorizable wastes must be processed: physico-chemical and biological processing (bio-filtering, coagulation-flocculation, membranes and industrial gases), incineration (organic wastes), disposal in class 1 technical burial centres after stabilization (ultimate wastes). Since July 2002, only the ultimate wastes will be disposed off and all class 2 and 3 dumps must have been rehabilitated. This work is divided into 2 parts: part 1 gives a presentation of the different types of industrial wastes and of their management (origin of wastes, effluents, heavy metals, environmental impact, legal aspects, wastes management, valorization). The second part describes the different processes for the treatment of industrial wastes (conventional processes, physico-chemical and biological processes, incineration, tipping, processing of radioactive wastes). (J.S.)

  20. Quantification of food waste in public catering services - A case study from a Swedish municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Mattias; Persson Osowski, Christine; Malefors, Christopher; Björkman, Jesper; Eriksson, Emelie

    2017-03-01

    Food waste is a major problem that must be reduced in order to achieve a sustainable food supply chain. Since food waste valorisation measures, like energy recovery, have limited possibilities to fully recover the resources invested in food production, there is a need to prevent food waste. Prevention is most important at the end of the value chain, where the largest number of sub-processes have already taken place and occur in vain if the food is not used for its intended purpose, i.e. consumption. Catering facilities and households are at the very end of the food supply chain, and in Sweden the public catering sector serves a large number of meals through municipal organisations, including schools, preschools and elderly care homes. Since the first step in waste reduction is to establish a baseline measurement in order to identify problems, this study sought to quantify food waste in schools, preschools and elderly care homes in one municipality in Sweden. The quantification was conducted during three months, spread out over three semesters, and was performed in all 30 public kitchen units in the municipality of Sala. The kitchen staff used kitchen scales to quantify the mass of wasted and served food divided into serving waste (with sub-categories), plate waste and other food waste. The food waste level was quantified as 75g of food waste per portion served, or 23% of the mass of food served. However, there was great variation between kitchens, with the waste level ranging from 33g waste per portion served (13%) to 131g waste per portion served (34%). Wasted food consisted of 64% serving waste, 33% plate waste and 3% other food waste. Preschools had a lower waste level than schools, possibly due to preschool carers eating together with the children. Kitchens that received warm food prepared in another kitchen (satellite kitchens) had a 42% higher waste level than kitchens preparing all food themselves (production units), possibly due to the latter having higher

  1. Co-management of domestic wastewater and food waste: A life cycle comparison of alternative food waste diversion strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Adilson M; Yu, Kevin; Stadler, Lauren B; Smith, Adam L

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is increasingly viewed as a resource that should be diverted from landfills. This study used life cycle assessment to compare co-management of food waste and domestic wastewater using anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) against conventional activated sludge (CAS) and high rate activated sludge (HRAS) with three disposal options for food waste: landfilling (LF), anaerobic digestion (AD), and composting (CP). Based on the net energy balance (NEB), AnMBR and HRAS/AD were the most attractive scenarios due to cogeneration of produced biogas. However, cogeneration negatively impacted carcinogenics, non-carcinogenics, and ozone depletion, illustrating unavoidable tradeoffs between energy recovery from biogas and environmental impacts. Fugitive emissions of methane severely increased global warming impacts of all scenarios except HRAS/AD with AnMBR particularly affected by effluent dissolved methane emissions. AnMBR was also most sensitive to food waste diversion participation, with 40% diversion necessary to achieve a positive NEB at the current state of development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES FOR FOOD INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER DECONTAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Krzemińska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available High organic matter content is a basic problem in food industry wastewaters. Typically, the amount and composition of the effluent varies considerably. In the article four groups of advanced processes and their combination of food industry wastewater treatment have been reviewed: electrochemical oxidation (EC, Fenton’s process, ozonation of water and photocatalytic processes. All advanced oxidation processes (AOP`s are characterized by a common chemical feature: the capability of exploiting high reactivity of HO• radicals in driving oxidation processes which are suitable for achieving decolonization and odour reduction, and the complete mineralization or increase of bioavailability of recalcitrant organic pollutants.

  3. Co-composting of green waste and food waste at low C/N ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mathava; Ou, Y.-L.; Lin, J.-G.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, co-composting of food waste and green waste at low initial carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios was investigated using an in-vessel lab-scale composting reactor. The central composite design (CCD) and response surface method (RSM) were applied to obtain the optimal operating conditions over a range of preselected moisture contents (45-75%) and C/N ratios (13.9-19.6). The results indicate that the optimal moisture content for co-composting of food waste and green waste is 60%, and the substrate at a C/N ratio of 19.6 can be decomposed effectively to reduce 33% of total volatile solids (TVS) in 12 days. The TVS reduction can be modeled by using a second-order equation with a good fit. In addition, the compost passes the standard germination index of white radish seed indicating that it can be used as soil amendment.

  4. Price Rigidity and Industrial Concentration: Evidence from the Indonesian Food and Beverages Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, M.; Emvalomatis, G.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between industrial concentration and price rigidity in the Indonesian food and beverages industry. A Cournot model of firm behavior is used in which prices adjust according to a partial adjustment mechanism. The model is applied to panel data of the

  5. Greening Food Processing Industry in Vietnam: Putting Industrial Ecology to Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi My Dieu,

    2003-01-01

    The significant contribution to Vietnam's gross domestic product over the years give evidence of the important role of food processing industry in the economic and industrial development of the country. This is even more relevant from now onwards, as it is Vietnam's development strategy to become

  6. Information processing to determine waste minimization/pollution prevention strategies in the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcon, Mariali F. de [CORPOVEN, S.A. (Venezuela)

    1993-12-31

    With the passage of the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act in the United States, industries, and particularly the petroleum industry, have become more interested in their waste management practices. This works aims to present a methodology to organize the collected data concerning waste minimization and, or, pollution prevention in the petroleum industry into a bibliographic database

  7. Information processing to determine waste minimization/pollution prevention strategies in the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcon, Mariali F. de [CORPOVEN, S.A. (Venezuela)

    1994-12-31

    With the passage of the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act in the United States, industries, and particularly the petroleum industry, have become more interested in their waste management practices. This works aims to present a methodology to organize the collected data concerning waste minimization and, or, pollution prevention in the petroleum industry into a bibliographic database

  8. Repurposing Waste Streams: Lessons on Integrating Hospital Food Waste into a Community Garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Adri M; Hanson, Ryan; George, Daniel R

    2018-04-06

    There have been increasing efforts in recent decades to divert institutional food waste into composting programs. As major producers of food waste who must increasingly demonstrate community benefit, hospitals have an incentive to develop such programs. In this article, we explain the emerging opportunity to link hospitals' food services to local community gardens in order to implement robust composting programs. We describe a partnership model at our hospital in central Pennsylvania, share preliminary outcomes establishing feasibility, and offer guidance for future efforts. We also demonstrate that the integration of medical students in such efforts can foster systems thinking in the development of programs to manage hospital waste streams in more ecologically-friendly ways.

  9. The effects of recycling loops in food waste management in Japan: based on the environmental and economic evaluation of food recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Miki; Fukushima, Kazuyo; Kino-Kimata, Noriko; Nagao, Norio; Niwa, Chiaki; Toda, Tatsuki

    2012-08-15

    In Japan, a revised Food Recycling Law went into effect in 2007 to promote a "recycling loop" that requires food industries to purchase farm products that are grown using food waste-derived compost/animal feed. To realize and expand food recycling, it is necessary to evaluate how the recycling facilities work in the recycling loop. The purpose of this study is to assess the environmental and economic efficiency of the food recycling facilities that are involved in the recycling loop, which are also known as looped facilities. The global warming potential and running cost of five looped facilities were evaluated by LCA (life cycle assessment) and LCC (life cycle cost) approaches: machine integrated compost, windrow compost, liquid feed, dry feed, and bio-gasification. The LCA results showed low total GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of -126 and -49 kg-CO(2)/t-waste, respectively, for dry feed and bio-gasification facilities, due to a high substitution effect. The LCC study showed a low running cost for composting facilities of -15,648 and -18,955 yen/t-waste, respectively, due to high revenue from the food waste collection. It was found that the mandatory reporting of food waste emitters to the government increased collection fees; however, the collection fee in animal feed facilities was relatively low because food waste was collected at a low price or nutritious food waste was purchased to produce quality feed. In the characterisation survey of various treatment methods, the composting facilities showed a relatively low environmental impact and a high economic efficiency. Animal feed facilities had a wide distribution of the total GHG emissions, depending on both the energy usage during the drying process and the substitution effect, which were related to the water content of the food waste and the number of recycled products. In comparison with incineration, the majority of the food recycling facilities showed low GHG emissions and economic effectiveness. This

  10. The effects of recycling loops in food waste management in Japan: Based on the environmental and economic evaluation of food recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Miki; Fukushima, Kazuyo; Kino-Kimata, Noriko; Nagao, Norio; Niwa, Chiaki; Toda, Tatsuki

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, a revised Food Recycling Law went into effect in 2007 to promote a “recycling loop” that requires food industries to purchase farm products that are grown using food waste-derived compost/animal feed. To realize and expand food recycling, it is necessary to evaluate how the recycling facilities work in the recycling loop. The purpose of this study is to assess the environmental and economic efficiency of the food recycling facilities that are involved in the recycling loop, which are also known as looped facilities. The global warming potential and running cost of five looped facilities were evaluated by LCA (life cycle assessment) and LCC (life cycle cost) approaches: machine integrated compost, windrow compost, liquid feed, dry feed, and bio-gasification. The LCA results showed low total GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of − 126 and − 49 kg-CO 2 /t-waste, respectively, for dry feed and bio-gasification facilities, due to a high substitution effect. The LCC study showed a low running cost for composting facilities of − 15,648 and − 18,955 yen/t-waste, respectively, due to high revenue from the food waste collection. It was found that the mandatory reporting of food waste emitters to the government increased collection fees; however, the collection fee in animal feed facilities was relatively low because food waste was collected at a low price or nutritious food waste was purchased to produce quality feed. In the characterisation survey of various treatment methods, the composting facilities showed a relatively low environmental impact and a high economic efficiency. Animal feed facilities had a wide distribution of the total GHG emissions, depending on both the energy usage during the drying process and the substitution effect, which were related to the water content of the food waste and the number of recycled products. In comparison with incineration, the majority of the food recycling facilities showed low GHG emissions and economic

  11. The effects of recycling loops in food waste management in Japan: Based on the environmental and economic evaluation of food recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takata, Miki [Graduate School of Engineering, Soka University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan); Fukushima, Kazuyo [Watanabe Oyster Laboratory Co., Ltd, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0154 (Japan); Kino-Kimata, Noriko [Graduate School of Engineering, Soka University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan); Nagao, Norio [Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Niwa, Chiaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Soka University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan); Toda, Tatsuki, E-mail: toda@soka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Soka University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    In Japan, a revised Food Recycling Law went into effect in 2007 to promote a 'recycling loop' that requires food industries to purchase farm products that are grown using food waste-derived compost/animal feed. To realize and expand food recycling, it is necessary to evaluate how the recycling facilities work in the recycling loop. The purpose of this study is to assess the environmental and economic efficiency of the food recycling facilities that are involved in the recycling loop, which are also known as looped facilities. The global warming potential and running cost of five looped facilities were evaluated by LCA (life cycle assessment) and LCC (life cycle cost) approaches: machine integrated compost, windrow compost, liquid feed, dry feed, and bio-gasification. The LCA results showed low total GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of - 126 and - 49 kg-CO{sub 2}/t-waste, respectively, for dry feed and bio-gasification facilities, due to a high substitution effect. The LCC study showed a low running cost for composting facilities of - 15,648 and - 18,955 yen/t-waste, respectively, due to high revenue from the food waste collection. It was found that the mandatory reporting of food waste emitters to the government increased collection fees; however, the collection fee in animal feed facilities was relatively low because food waste was collected at a low price or nutritious food waste was purchased to produce quality feed. In the characterisation survey of various treatment methods, the composting facilities showed a relatively low environmental impact and a high economic efficiency. Animal feed facilities had a wide distribution of the total GHG emissions, depending on both the energy usage during the drying process and the substitution effect, which were related to the water content of the food waste and the number of recycled products. In comparison with incineration, the majority of the food recycling facilities showed low GHG emissions and economic

  12. 77 FR 23751 - Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Institution of Investigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... States after importation of certain food waste disposers and components and packaging thereof by reason... States after importation of certain food waste disposers and components and packaging thereof by reason... importation of certain food waste disposers and components and packaging thereof that infringe the claim of U...

  13. Conceptual framework for the study of food waste generation and prevention in the hospitality sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papargyropoulou, Effie; Wright, Nigel; Lozano, Rodrigo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/36412380X; Steinberger, Julia; Padfield, Rory; Ujang, Zaini

    2016-01-01

    Food waste has significant detrimental economic, environmental and social impacts. The magnitude and complexity of the global food waste problem has brought it to the forefront of the environmental agenda; however, there has been little research on the patterns and drivers of food waste generation,

  14. A survey of food allergen control practices in the U.S. food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendel, Steven M; Khan, Nazleen; Yajnik, Monali

    2013-02-01

    Despite awareness of the importance of food allergy as a public health issue, recalls and adverse reactions linked to undeclared allergens in foods continue to occur with high frequency. To reduce the overall incidence of such problems and to ensure that food-allergic consumers have the information they need to prevent adverse reactions, it is important to understand which allergen control practices are currently used by the food industry. Therefore, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration carried out directed inspections of registered food facilities in 2010 to obtain a broader understanding of industry allergen control practices in the United States. The results of these inspections show that allergen awareness and the use of allergen controls have increased greatly in the last decade, but that small facilities lag in implementing allergen controls.

  15. Alpha waste incineration prototype incinerator and industrial project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caramelle, D.; Meyere, A.

    1988-01-01

    To meet our requirements with respect to the processing of solid alpha wastes, a pilot cold incinerator has been used for R and D. This unit has a capacity of 5 kg/hr. The main objectives assigned to this incineration process are: a good reduction factor, controlled combustion, ash composition compatible with plutonium recovery, limited secondary solid and fluid wastes, releases within the nuclear and chemical standards, and in strict observance of the confinement and criticality safety rules. After describing the process we will discuss the major results of the incineration test campaigns with representative solid wastes (50 % PVC). We will then give a description of an industrial project with a capacity of 7 kg/hr, followed by a cost estimate

  16. The Efficiency of Halal Processed Food Industry in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ali Mohd Noor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency is indispensable for an industry to ensure cost reduction and profit maximization. It also helps the industry to be competitive and remain in the market. In 2010, Malaysia aims to be the world halal hub. The hub should capture at least five percent of the world halal market with at least 10,000 exporting firms. However the hub failed due to the small number of firms efficiency that finally contribute to less number of firms export. Thus, this study aimed to measure the efficiency of halal processed food industry in Malaysia using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. Input variables used were local raw inputs, labour, and monetary assets of halal food industry in Malaysia. Meanwhile the output used was the total sales revenue of the halal industry in Malaysia. The study shows that very few indusries are efficient in each category led by meat, dairy, cordials and juices, marine products, food crops, and grains industry. Therefore, the government needs to emphasize on industry’s efficiency to be competitive and be the world halal hub in the future.

  17. Much Ado about Nothing?- The Influence of Functional Food on Profitability of German Food Industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittkopp, Antje

    2002-01-01

    Product innovation is a competitive strategy in food industry. Successful product development management is a key determinant of a firm?s performance. In recent years functional foods, which are innovative food products that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition, have become increasingly important in Germany. Using the structure-conductperformance approach it can be argued that product innovation raises barriers to entry and thus improve profitability. This study examines the effect ...

  18. Market forces in municipal and industrial waste-to-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makansi, J.

    1991-01-01

    The market for municipal and industrial waste-to-energy can be characterized simply as currently soft with continued excellent long-term prospects. But as in all markets large and small, niche opportunities exist now which can be profitable with proper definition and strategy. Economics of several projects have proven marginal, cost overruns are common, and revenue projections are sometimes overstates. Also contributing to poorer economics of late are lower prices for the electric power produced from these plants. New environmental restrictions are adding 10-15% to the capital costs of a given project. On the industrial front, the strength of waste-fuel firing continues to be evident for independent power production. Important fuel-niche markets have sprung up over the last decade including petroleum coke, coal-mining wastes, hospital or redbag wastes, biomass, used tires, and so on. Another fuel niche is hazardous waste incineration. In the municipal arena, realism has not yet hit the recycling and source reduction enthusiasts. Only 25-35% recycling is considered practical by experts. There are also limits to how often material can be recycled. Finally, in spite of the best efforts of the population to control the amount of refuse generated and to recycle that which is, population and economic growth may overtake any new sense of environmental responsibility. And, yes, the additional refuse still has to go somewhere exclamation point The best somewhere option continues to be a waste-to-energy plant. Current market opportunities and two other market forces (international activities and the role of US utilities) are discussed

  19. Biofilms in the Food Industry: Health Aspects and Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galié, Serena; García-Gutiérrez, Coral; Miguélez, Elisa M.; Villar, Claudio J.; Lombó, Felipe

    2018-01-01

    Diverse microorganisms are able to grow on food matrixes and along food industry infrastructures. This growth may give rise to biofilms. This review summarizes, on the one hand, the current knowledge regarding the main bacterial species responsible for initial colonization, maturation and dispersal of food industry biofilms, as well as their associated health issues in dairy products, ready-to-eat foods and other food matrixes. These human pathogens include Bacillus cereus (which secretes toxins that can cause diarrhea and vomiting symptoms), Escherichia coli (which may include enterotoxigenic and even enterohemorrhagic strains), Listeria monocytogenes (a ubiquitous species in soil and water that can lead to abortion in pregnant women and other serious complications in children and the elderly), Salmonella enterica (which, when contaminating a food pipeline biofilm, may induce massive outbreaks and even death in children and elderly), and Staphylococcus aureus (known for its numerous enteric toxins). On the other hand, this review describes the currently available biofilm prevention and disruption methods in food factories, including steel surface modifications (such as nanoparticles with different metal oxides, nanocomposites, antimicrobial polymers, hydrogels or liposomes), cell-signaling inhibition strategies (such as lactic and citric acids), chemical treatments (such as ozone, quaternary ammonium compounds, NaOCl and other sanitizers), enzymatic disruption strategies (such as cellulases, proteases, glycosidases and DNAses), non-thermal plasma treatments, the use of bacteriophages (such as P100), bacteriocins (such us nisin), biosurfactants (such as lichenysin or surfactin) and plant essential oils (such as citral- or carvacrol-containing oils). PMID:29867809

  20. Biofilms in the Food Industry: Health Aspects and Control Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Galié

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Diverse microorganisms are able to grow on food matrixes and along food industry infrastructures. This growth may give rise to biofilms. This review summarizes, on the one hand, the current knowledge regarding the main bacterial species responsible for initial colonization, maturation and dispersal of food industry biofilms, as well as their associated health issues in dairy products, ready-to-eat foods and other food matrixes. These human pathogens include Bacillus cereus (which secretes toxins that can cause diarrhea and vomiting symptoms, Escherichia coli (which may include enterotoxigenic and even enterohemorrhagic strains, Listeria monocytogenes (a ubiquitous species in soil and water that can lead to abortion in pregnant women and other serious complications in children and the elderly, Salmonella enterica (which, when contaminating a food pipeline biofilm, may induce massive outbreaks and even death in children and elderly, and Staphylococcus aureus (known for its numerous enteric toxins. On the other hand, this review describes the currently available biofilm prevention and disruption methods in food factories, including steel surface modifications (such as nanoparticles with different metal oxides, nanocomposites, antimicrobial polymers, hydrogels or liposomes, cell-signaling inhibition strategies (such as lactic and citric acids, chemical treatments (such as ozone, quaternary ammonium compounds, NaOCl and other sanitizers, enzymatic disruption strategies (such as cellulases, proteases, glycosidases and DNAses, non-thermal plasma treatments, the use of bacteriophages (such as P100, bacteriocins (such us nisin, biosurfactants (such as lichenysin or surfactin and plant essential oils (such as citral- or carvacrol-containing oils.

  1. Potential application of lipid organogels for food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Kamila Ferreira; Barrera-Arellano, Daniel; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Badan

    2018-03-01

    Controversial issues regarding the role of trans fatty acids in food have led to progressive changes in the legislation of several countries to include more information for consumers. In response, the industries decided to gradually replace trans fat in various products with the development of fatty bases of equivalent functionality and economic viability to partially hydrogenated fats, causing, however, a substantial increase in the content of saturated fatty acids in foods. Today, the lipid science aims to define alternatives to a problem that is widely discussed by health organizations worldwide: limit the saturated fat content in food available to the population. In this context, organogels have been indicated as a viable alternative to obtain semi-solid fats with reduced content of saturated fatty acids and compatible properties for food application. The objective of this review was to present the studies that address the lipid organogels as an alternative for food application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cogeneration from poultry industry wastes: Indirectly fired gas turbine application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, M.; Cherubini, F.; De Pascale, A.; Peretto, A.; Elmegaard, B.

    2006-01-01

    The availability of wet biomass as waste from a lot of industrial processes, from agriculture and farms and the need to meet the environmental standards force to investigate all options in order to dispose this waste. The possible treatments usually strongly depend on biomass characteristics, namely water content, density, organic content, heating value, etc. In particular, some of these wastes can be burnt in special plants, using them as energy supply for different processes. The study carried out with this paper is concerned with the promising utilization of the organic wastes from an existing poultry industry as fuel. Different plant configurations have been considered in order to make use of the oil and of the meat and bone meal, which are the by-products of the chicken cooking process. In particular, the process plant can be integrated with an energy supply plant, which can consist of an indirectly fired gas turbine. Moreover, a steam turbine plant or a simplified system for the supply of the only technological steam are investigated and compared. Thermodynamic and economic analysis have been carried out for the examined configurations in order to outline the basic differences in terms of energy savings/production and of return of the investments

  3. Hot particles in industrial waste and mining tailings

    CERN Document Server

    Selchau-Hansen, K; Freyer, K; Treutler, C; Enge, W

    1999-01-01

    Industrial waste was studied concerning its radioactive pollution. Using known properties of the solid state nuclear track detector CR-39 we found among a high concentration of more or less homogeneously distributed single alpha-tracks discrete spots of very high enrichments of alpha-particles created by so called hot particles. We will report about the alpha-activity, the concentration of hot particles and about their ability to be air borne.

  4. An Assessment of Radioactivity of Selected Industrial Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huwait, M. A.; ElMongy, S.A.; Abdo, A.A.A.; Hassan, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    phosphogypsum (phph) is a by-product in the manufacture of phosphoric acid for the artificial fertilizer industry. In the present work, qualitative and quantitative radioactive analysis are carried for phph of National Company of Abuzabal for chemical fertilizers. Gamma ray spectroscopy techniques are applied. The present study reveals that the radioactivity resulted from these wastes is out of the international standards, and it is strongly not recommended to be used as a construction material or for dwellings

  5. In-flight food delivery and waste collection service: the passengers’ perspective and potential improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, F. I.; Rahman, K. Abdul; Ishak, F. D.

    2016-10-01

    Increased competition in the commercial air transportation industry has made service quality of the airlines as one of the key competitive measures to attract passengers against their rivals. In-flight services, particularly food delivery and waste collection, have a notable impact on perception of the overall airline's service quality because they are directly and interactively provided to passengers during flight. An online public survey is conducted to explore general passengers' perception of current in-flight food delivery and waste collection services, and to identify potential rooms for improvement. The obtained survey results indicate that in-flight service does have an effect on passengers' choice of airlines. Several weaknesses of the current service method and possible improvements have been established from the collected responses.

  6. Food waste valorization options: opportunities from the bioeconomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imbert Enrica

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The world is confronted with the depletion of natural resources due to their unsustainable use, increased global competiveness, increasing population and other environmental and economic challenges. Under the European 2020 growth strategy launched in 2010, Europe has set itself the goal of shifting from linear to circular models of production and consumption. In this context, food waste management poses a great challenge. This study focusses on the possible destinations for food waste, specifically, on the most sustainable practices that turn waste into valuable resources. Particular attention is devoted to the potential offered by fast-growing sectors such as the bioeconomy, which is contributing to increased energy and materials production with reduced environmental impact, at the same time creating new job opportunities. In this paper we will argue that an holistic approach considering the issue of food wastage as part of a broader emerging bio-economy and circular-economic model, might provide win-win solutions able to minimize wastage, promote income growth and job creation, and prompt sustainable local development. However, in order to enable an effective transition to a circular bioeconomy able to minimize the impact of food wastage, the economic, social, and environmental sustainability of this new model must be properly evaluated through appropriate tools, e.g. through an overall Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA.

  7. Effect of industrial, municipal and agricultural wastes on peanut in lateritic sandy loam soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.; Khan, A.R.

    2002-06-01

    Modern agriculture, worldwide, depends upon the external application of plant nutrients supplied mostly through chemical fertilizer to meet the crop needs. The natural recycling cannot provide the very large amount of nutrients needed year after year in an intensive cropping system and nutrients being a major constraint harvesting the nutrient energy from biological and industrial waste are of prime importance for maximizing the food grain production in the world. A number of industrial wastes like fly ash from thermal power plants, paper factory sludge from paper factory, sewage sludge from municipal source and farmyard manure from livestock farming are the important waste resources, having potentiality in recycling in agricultural land. When these wastes are recycled through soil for crop production, due to the degradative and assimilative capacity of soil, the pollution hazards of these wastes can be minimized to a greater extent as compared to direct disposing of at the site. Fly ash is a waste product residue resulting from the combustion of pulverised coal in coal-fired power generating station. Physico - chemical analysis of fly ash has revealed the presence of both macro-micro nutrients, which can sustain plant growth. Its application in the agricultural land acts as a liming material and improves crop growth by neutralizing the soil acidity, increasing the water availability for the plants and supplement of nutrients (Adriano et al, 1980, Molliner and Street, 1982, Schnappinger et al, 1975). Application of paper factory sludge has been reported to increase the organic carbon content in soil and nutrient content like P, K, Ca, Mg and micronutrients (Guerini et al, 1994, Muse and Mitchell, 1995). Sludge application also improves the organic carbon content of the soil and availability of nutrients like Ca, K and Mg besides improvement of physical properties (Pitchel and Hayes, 1990). Much is known regarding crop performance and changes in physical and

  8. Food and waste management biotechnology for the space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.; Schelkopf, J. D.; Hunt, S. R.; Sauer, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    Space-crew facilities for preparation, eating, personal hygiene and waste management are contained in one small area of the Shuttle Orbiter Mid-Deck, all the functional systems being interconnected. The paper discusses three major systems: (1) the Galley, which includes the personal hygiene station and food packages; (2) the Waste Collector, which includes provisions for male and female users, urine, feces and emesis collection in both a normal and contigency mode of operation; and (3) Biowaste Monitoring, which includes mass measurement and sampling. The technology improvement continues by assuring that the Orbiter systems have sufficient design flexibility to permit later improvements in operation and in function.

  9. An environmental analysis of options for utilising wasted food and food residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Thomas L; White, Eoin; Holden, Nicholas M

    2016-12-01

    The potential environmental impact of wasted food minimisation versus its utilisation in a circular bioeconomy is investigated based on a case study of Ireland. The amount of wasted food and food residue (WFFR) produced in 2010 was used for business-as-usual, (a) and four management options were assessed, (b) minimisation, (c) composting, (d) anaerobic digestion and (e) incineration. The environmental impacts Global Warming Potential (GWP), Acidification Potential (AP) and Eutrophication Potential (EP) were considered. A carbon return on investment (CRoI) was calculated for the three processing technologies (c-e). The results showed that a minimisation strategy for wasted food would result in the greatest reduction of all three impacts, -4.5 Mt CO 2 -e (GWP), -11.4 kt PO 4 3 -e (EP) and -43.9 kt SO 2 -e (AP) compared to business as usual. For WFFR utilisation in the circular bioeconomy, anaerobic digestion resulted in the lowest environmental impact and best CRoI of -0.84 kg CO 2 -e per Euro. From an economic perspective, for minimisation to be beneficial, 0.15 kg of wasted food would need to be reduced per Euro spent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biodegradable polymeric foam with food waste; Shokumotsu zansa wo mochiita seibunkai kobunshi hahhotai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishima, Kenji; Matsuyama, Kiyoshi; Yamauchi, Satoru; Takarabe, Shin' ichi

    1999-09-01

    A huge amount of food waste such as tea and beer dregs becomes a serious problem because of the lack of industrial waste space in Japan. On the other hand, the new polymeric foam is expected to be developed since the dangerous pollution of endorphin disrupters from industrial polymer foam is pointed out. In this work, we try to develop the biodegradable polymeric foam using the tea and beer dregs as secondary resources. And we examined the degradability of biodegradable polymer in the hydrothermal water for fundamental knowledge of polymeric foam production. We used an extruder equipped with a high pressure device to make the polymeric foam. And we examined the effect of the component ratio on the foam properties, foaming rate, strength, shrinkage rate, water-resistant. As a result, it was found that the amount of polymer is effective of quality of form and the biodegradability can be controlled by the amount of water and temperature. (author)

  11. Protein recovery from dairy industry wastes with aerobic biofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheatley, A D; Mitra, R I; Hawkes, H A

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to improve the economics of effluent treatment by the recovery of single cell protein. Field observations showed that acidic strong wastes, such as those from the dairy industry, produced a predominantly fungal biomass. Mixtures of dairy waste and domestic sewage did not produce fungal films. The most common fungi isolated were Fusarium and Geotrichum, but the species was affected by local conditions, i.e. creamery, yoghurt, milk or cheese wastes and the load to the plant. Batch culture was used to determine the growth requirements of Fusarium and Geotrichum and continuous culture, on vertical and horizontal fixed films, to determine growth and sloughing at different organic loads. The fungi grew well on acidic strong wastes which would discourage other organisms. A 1 cubic metre/hour pilot plant was built to treat the wastes from cheese, butter and cream production. The plant was run at pH 4-5 and at between 5 and 10 kg of BOD/day/cubic metres. BOD removal was between 30 and 50% and biomass production between 0.1 and 0.5 kg of dry solids/day. The filamentous fungal growth was separated from the tower effluent by an inclined screen. The amino acid content of the product was similar to other single-cell protein. Feeding trials are being carried out. (Refs. 14).

  12. High rate composting of herbal pharmaceutical industry solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M; Duba, K S; Kalamdhad, A S; Bhatia, A; Khursheed, A; Kazmi, A A; Ahmed, N

    2012-01-01

    High rate composting studies of hard to degrade herbal wastes were conducted in a 3.5 m(3) capacity rotary drum composter. Studies were spread out in four trials: In trial 1 and 2, one and two turns per day rotation was observed, respectively, by mixing of herbal industry waste with cattle (buffalo) manure at a ratio of 3:1 on wet weight basis. In trial 3 inocula was added in raw waste to enhance the degradation and in trial 4 composting of a mixture of vegetable market waste and herbal waste was conducted at one turn per day. Results demonstrated that the operation of the rotary drum at one turn a day (trial 1) could provide the most conducive composting conditions and co-composting (trial 4) gave better quality compost in terms of temperature, moisture, nitrogen, and Solvita maturity index. In addition a FT-IR study also revealed that trial 1 and trial 4 gave quality compost in terms of stability and maturity due to the presence of more intense peaks in the aromatic region and less intense peaks were found in the aliphatic region compared with trial 2 and trial 3.

  13. Characteristics of Food Industry Web Sites and "Advergames" Targeting Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Jennifer; Bell, Robert A.; Cassady, Diana

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the content of food industry Web sites targeting children by describing strategies used to prolong their visits and foster brand loyalty; and to document health-promoting messages on these Web sites. Design: A content analysis was conducted of Web sites advertised on 2 children's networks, Cartoon Network and Nickelodeon. A…

  14. Behavioral Safety in the Food Services Industry: Challenges and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebbon, Angela; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur Oli; Austin, John

    2012-01-01

    During the course of a 6-year behavioral safety consult at a food and drink industry site, data were collected on the number of Occupational Safety Health Administration (OSHA) recordable incidents, number of lost and restricted days, and number of peer safety observations. Employees were trained to identify safe and unsafe behavior, conduct peer…

  15. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Grunow, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates are

  16. Logistics outsourcing by Taiwanese and Dutch food processing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsin-I Hsiao, L.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to investigate outsourcing of different types of logistics activities in Taiwanese food industry, and benchmark with practices in The Netherlands. Design/methodology/approach – The outsourcing of four levels of logistics activities is investigated: transportation (level 1),

  17. Customer-driven manufacturing in the food processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donk, D.P. van

    2000-01-01

    Food processing industry copes with high logistical demands from its customers. This paper studies a company changing to more customer (order) driven manufacturing. In order to help decide which products should be made to order and which made to stock, a frame is developed and applied to find and

  18. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates...

  19. The utilization of irradiation techniques in food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    Irradiation technical researches and the main areas of nuclear technical applications are surveyed, and the main areas where nuclear techniques are used are reported. Then an overview on radiation techniques including radiostimulation, radiomutation, radurization, radioecology and isotope techniques used in the food industry is presented. (author) 4 refs

  20. Successful new product development in the food packaging industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... In the context of the food industry, process and product innovations are usually the ... The analysis is proposed in the form of a case study-based research, which was carried out ...