WorldWideScience

Sample records for food handling practices

  1. Survey of domestic food handling practices in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, S E; Whyte, R; Bayne, G; Paulin, S M; Lake, R J; van der Logt, P

    2007-07-15

    The purpose of this survey was to obtain information on the domestic meat and poultry handling practices of New Zealanders in order to support the development of quantitative risk models, as well as providing data to underpin food safety campaigns to consumers. A sample of 1000 New Zealand residents, over 18 years of age, were randomly selected from the electoral roll and asked to participate in a national postal food safety study during 2005. Three hundred and twenty six respondents completed and returned questionnaires containing usable answers, and most of these respondents 'always' prepared the main meal within the household. The majority of meat (84.6%) and poultry (62.9%) purchased by New Zealanders was fresh (rather than frozen), and most consumers (94.4%) claimed that the time taken from food selection to reaching their home was 1 h or less. The majority (approximately 64%) of fresh meat and poultry was frozen in the home and the most favoured method of thawing was at room temperature for up to 12 h. The most common time period for storing cooked or raw meat and poultry in domestic refrigerators was up to 2 days. Most survey respondents preferred their meat and poultry to be cooked either medium or well done. The most popular cooking method for chicken was roasting or baking, while most respondents preferred to pan-fry steak/beef cuts, minced beef or sausages/hamburgers. The potential for undercooking was greatest with pan-fried steak with 19.8% of respondents preferring to consume this meat raw or rare. In answer to questions relating to food handling hygiene practices, 52.2% of respondents selected a hand washing sequence that would help prevent cross contamination. However, it was estimated that 41% and 28% of respondents would use knives and kitchen surfaces respectively in a manner that could allow cross contamination. The data in this survey are self-reported and, particularly for the hygiene questions, respondents may report an answer that they

  2. Food Handling Practices and Food Safety Messaging Preferences of African American and Latino Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Patten

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research on consumer food handling has identified common practices that could negatively impact food safety. Limited research has considered if food handling practices differ among diverse groups or if unique approaches are needed to provide food safety education for different audiences. This study examined food handling practice differences between African-American and Latino consumers and differing responses to food safety messages. Four focus groups were conducted, two with African-American participants and two with Latino participants, with each focus group consisting of 10-15 participants. Focus group transcripts were reviewed, coded, and grouped into themes using an iterative process. The 50 participants self-identified as either African-American or Latino, had home meal preparation experience, and were 18 years or older. Each focus group was multigenerational and included males and females. Risky food handling practices reported by both groups included rinsing poultry before cooking and limited food thermometer use. African-American participants preferred informational food safety messages, whereas Latino participants were split in preferring informational, guilt-inducing, and fear-inducing messages.

  3. Factors affecting food handling Practices among food handlers of Dangila town food and drink establishments, North West Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Food borne diseases are major health problems in developed and developing countries including Ethiopia. The problem is more noticeable in developing countries due to prevailing poor food handling and sanitation practices, inadequate food safety laws, weak regulatory systems, lack of financial resources to invest on safer equipments, and lack of education for food handlers. Methods The objective of this study was to assess food handling practice and associated factors among food handlers working in food and drinking establishments of Dangila town, North West Ethiopia. Cross-sectional quantitative study design was conducted among 406 food handlers working in 105 food and drink establishments from July to August 2013 in Dangila town. Data were collected using face to face interview with pretested structured questionnaire and physical observation. Result The mean age of the respondents was 22.7 ± 4.2 years of which 62.8% of the food handlers were females. Two hundred thirteen (52.5%) of food handlers had good food handling practices. Marital status (AOR = 7.52, 95% CI, 1.45-38.97), monthly income (AOR = 0.395, 95% CI, 0.25-0.62), knowledge about food handling (AOR = 1.69, 95% CI, 1.05-2.73), existence of shower facility (AOR = 1.89, 95% CI, 1.12-3.21) and separate dressing room (AOR = 1.97, 95% CI, 1.11-3.49) were found to be significantly associated with good food handling Practices. Conclusion Above half of food handlers had good food handling practices. Marital status, monthly income, knowledge status, existence of shower facility, existence of separate dressing room and presence of insect and rodent were factors associated with food handling Practices. PMID:24908104

  4. Knowledge and Food Handling Practices of Nurses in a Tertiary Health Care Hospital in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oludare, Aluko Olufemi; Ogundipe, Abiodun; Odunjo, Abimbola; Komolafe, Janet; Olatunji, Ibukun

    2016-01-01

    Food safety in hospitals is important to protect patients whose immunity may be compromised by their illness. The safety of food served to patients is dependent on its handling acquisition of raw food items, to preparation, packaging, and distribution. The study described in this article assessed the knowledge and food handling practices of nurses in the food chain to patients in the hospital wards. The mean age of respondents was 33.7 ± 9.3 years and 180 (56.6%) had worked in the hospital for 1-5 years. While respondents had good knowledge scores overall, only 22 (6.5%) knew the correct temperature for maintaining hot, ready-to-eat food. Also, 332 (97.6%) respondents knew the importance of hand washing before handling food while 279 (84.1%) always wash hands before handling food. The study revealed a decline in performance over time, from knowledge and attitudes to practice in food handling. Therefore, regular training on safe food handling procedures should be mainstreamed into the training curriculum of staff nurses in health care institutions.

  5. Microbiological Safety and Food Handling Practices of Seed Sprout Products in the Australian State of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Sally; Goldsmith, Paul; Haines, Heather

    2015-07-01

    Seed sprouts have been implicated as vehicles for numerous foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Seed sprouts pose a unique food safety concern because of the ease of microbiological seed contamination, the inherent ability of the sprouting process to support microbial growth, and their consumption either raw or lightly cooked. To examine seed sprout safety in the Australian state of Victoria, a survey was conducted to detect specific microbes in seed sprout samples and to investigate food handling practices relating to seed sprouts. A total of 298 seed sprout samples were collected from across 33 local council areas. Escherichia coli was detected in 14.8%, Listeria spp. in 12.3%, and Listeria monocytogenes in 1.3% of samples analyzed. Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the samples. A range of seed sprout handling practices were identified as potential food safety issues in some food businesses, including temperature control, washing practices, length of storage, and storage in proximity to unpackaged ready-to-eat potentially hazardous foods.

  6. Evaluation of the Implementation of Good Handling Practices in Food and Beverage Areas of Hotels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafim, A L; Hecktheuer, L H R; Stangarlin-Fiori, L; Medeiros, L B; Martello, L; Machado, C E

    2015-11-01

    Because of the major international-level events that have recently been held in Brazil, concerns about the sensory and hygienic-sanitary conditions of food have increased. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of good handling practices in food and beverage areas of hotels, with and without outsourced professional intervention. We evaluated 19 food and beverage areas in hotels in Porto Alegre, Rio do Sul, Brazil, using a checklist that was developed by a municipal surveillance team based on existing laws for good handling practices. The evaluation was done by a skilled professional in the food safety area on two occasions, at the beginning of the study (January to May 2013) and at the end (July to November 2014), and the establishments were classified as good, regular, or poor. After the baseline evaluation, an action plan listing the noncompliance found at each location was given to those responsible for the establishments, and a period of 1 year 6 months was stipulated for improvements to be made. In the repeat evaluation, those responsible for the establishments were asked whether they had hired an outsourced professional to assist them in the improvements. The hotels showed improvement during the repeat evaluation, but a significant increase in the percentage of overall adequacy was seen only in the food and beverages areas of the 12 hotels that used the intervention of an outsourced professional. The better percentage of adequacy in establishments with outsourced professional intervention underlines the importance of an external and impartial view of routine activities in the implementation of good handling practices.

  7. Varying influences of motivation factors on employees' likelihood to perform safe food handling practices because of demographic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jason D; Arendt, Susan W; Strohbehn, Catherine H; Meyer, Janell; Paez, Paola

    2010-11-01

    Food safety training has been the primary avenue for ensuring food workers are performing proper food handling practices and thus, serving safe food. Yet, knowledge of safe food handling practices does not necessarily result in actual performance of these practices. This research identified participating food service employees' level of agreement with four factors of motivation (internal motivations, communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and determined if respondents with different demographic characteristics reported different motivating factors. Data were collected from 311 food service employees who did not have any supervisory responsibilities. Intrinsic motivation agreement scores were consistently the highest of all four motivational factors evaluated and did not differ across any of the demographic characteristics considered. In contrast, motivation agreement scores for communication, reward-punishment, and resources did differ based on respondents' gender, age, place of employment, job status, food service experience, completion of food handler course, or possession of a food safety certification. In general, respondents agreed that these motivation factors influenced their likelihood to perform various safe food handling procedures. This research begins to illustrate how employees' demographic characteristics influence their responses to various motivators, helping to clarify the complex situation of ensuring safe food in retail establishments. Future research into why employee willingness to perform varies more for extrinsic motivation than for intrinsic motivation could assist food service managers in structuring employee development programs and the work environment, in a manner that aids in improving external motivation (communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and capitalizing on internal motivation.

  8. Practices of Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ræbild, Ulla

    to touch, pick up, carry, or feel with the hands. Figuratively it is to manage, deal with, direct, train, or control. Additionally, as a noun, a handle is something by which we grasp or open up something. Lastly, handle also has a Nordic root, here meaning to trade, bargain or deal. Together all four...... meanings seem to merge in the fashion design process, thus opening up for an embodied engagement with matter that entails direction giving, organizational management and negotiation. By seeing processes of handling as a key fashion methodological practice, it is possible to divert the discourse away from...... introduces four ways whereby fashion designers apply their own bodies as tools for design; a) re-activating past garment-design experiences, b) testing present garment-design experiences c) probing for new garment-design experiences and d) design of future garment experiences by body proxy. The paper...

  9. Toward Improving Food Safety in the Domestic Environment: A Multi-Item Rasch Scale for the Measurement of the Safety Efficacy of Domestic Food-Handling Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Frewer, L.J.; Nauta, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    To reduce consumer health risks from foodborne diseases that result from improper domestic food handling, consumers need to know how to safely handle food. To realize improvements in public health, it is necessary to develop interventions that match the needs of individual consumers. Successful

  10. Development of Safe Food Handling Guidelines for Korean Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Jin; Lee, Min-Woo; Hwang, In-Kyeong; Kim, Jeong-Weon

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines for Korean consumers with regard to safe food handling practices at home by identifying current food handling issues. Korean consumers' behaviors regarding their safe food handling were identified via survey questionnaires that included items on individual hygiene practices, prepreparation steps when cooking, the cooking process, and the storage of leftover foods. The subjects were 417 Korean parents with elementary school children living in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province in the central area of Korea. The survey results revealed gaps between the knowledge or practices of Korean consumers and scientific evidence pertaining to safe food handling practices. Based on these findings, a leaflet on safe food handling guidelines was developed in accordance with Korean food culture. These guidelines suggest personal hygiene practices as well as fundamental principles and procedures for safe food handling from the stage of food purchase to that of keeping leftover dishes. A pilot application study with 50 consumers revealed that the guidelines effectively improved Korean consumers' safe food handling practices, suggesting that they can serve as practical educational material suitable for Korean consumers.

  11. Practices of Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ræbild, Ulla

    Abstract While few will dispute the idea that fashion designers relate to the notion of the body in their work practice, the actual embodied engagement of the designer, and the role that the personal bodies of the designers play in processes of fashion design, is an underexposed although nascent...... introduces four ways whereby fashion designers apply their own bodies as tools for design; a) re-activating past garment-design experiences, b) testing present garment-design experiences c) probing for new garment-design experiences and d) design of future garment experiences by body proxy. The paper...... is based on the Ph.D. thesis Addressing the Body – methodological practises in professional fashion design finalised October 2014 (Ræbild, in press)...

  12. Consumer food handling in the home: a review of food safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Elizabeth C; Griffith, Christopher J

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological data from Europe, North America, Australia, and New Zealand indicate that a substantial proportion of foodborne disease is attributable to improper food preparation practices in consumers' homes. International concern about consumer food safety has prompted considerable research to evaluate domestic food-handling practices. The majority of consumer food safety studies in the last decade have been conducted in the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland (48%) and in the United States (42%). Surveys (questionnaires and interviews), the most frequent means of data collection, were used in 75% of the reviewed studies. Focus groups and observational studies have also been used. One consumer food safety study examined the relationship between pathogenic microbial contamination from raw chicken and observed food-handling behaviors, and the results of this study indicated extensive Campylobacter cross-contamination during food preparation sessions. Limited information about consumers' attitudes and intentions with regard to safe food-handling behaviors has been obtained, although a substantial amount of information about consumer knowledge and self-reported practices is available. Observation studies suggest that substantial numbers of consumers frequently implement unsafe food-handling practices. Knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and self-reported practices did not correspond to observed behaviors, suggesting that observational studies provide a more realistic indication of the food hygiene actions actually used in domestic food preparation. An improvement in consumer food-handling behavior is likely to reduce the risk and incidence of foodborne disease. The need for the development and implementation of food safety education strategies to improve specific food safety behaviors is reviewed in this paper.

  13. Effective Teaching Practices in Handling Non Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacklyn S. Dacalos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study determined the effective teaching practices in handling nonreaders. This seeks to answer the following objectives: describe the adjustments, effective strategies, and scaffolds utilized by teachers in handling nonreaders; differentiate the teachers’ reading adjustments, strategies and scaffolds in teaching nonreaders; analyze the teaching reading efficiency of nonreaders using effective teaching reading strategies; and find significant correlation of nonreaders’ grades and reading teachers’ reading adjustments, strategies and scaffolds. This study utilized mixed methods of research. Case studies of five public schools teachers were selected as primary subjects, who were interviewed in handling nonreaders in the areas of adjustments, strategies, and reading scaffolds. Actual teaching observation was conducted according to the five subjects’ most convenient time. In ascertaining the nonreaders’ academic performance, the students’ grades in English subject was analyzed using T-Test within subject design. Handling nonreaders in order to read and understand better in the lesson is an arduous act, yet; once done with effectiveness and passion, it yielded a great amount of learning success. Effective teaching practices in handling nonreaders comprised the use of teachers’ adjustments, strategies, and scaffolds to establish reading mastery, exposing them to letter sounds, short stories, and the use of follow-up. WH questions enhanced their reading performance significantly. Variations of reading teachers’ nature as: an enabler, a facilitator, a humanist, a behaviorist, and an expert, as regards to their teaching practices, were proven significant to students’ reading effectiveness.

  14. 21 CFR 1250.35 - Health of persons handling food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health of persons handling food. 1250.35 Section 1250.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE...

  15. Observation of High School Students' Food Handling Behaviors: Do They Improve following a Food Safety Education Intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diplock, Kenneth J; Dubin, Joel A; Leatherdale, Scott T; Hammond, David; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Majowicz, Shannon E

    2018-06-01

    Youth are a key audience for food safety education. They often engage in risky food handling behaviors, prepare food for others, and have limited experience and knowledge of safe food handling practices. Our goal was to investigate the effectiveness of an existing food handler training program for improving safe food handling behaviors among high school students in Ontario, Canada. However, because no schools agreed to provide control groups, we evaluated whether behaviors changed following delivery of the intervention program and whether changes were sustained over the school term. We measured 32 food safety behaviors, before the intervention and at 2-week and 3-month follow-up evaluations by in-person observations of students ( n = 119) enrolled in grade 10 and 12 Food and Nutrition classes ( n = 8) and who individually prepared recipes. We examined within-student changes in behaviors across the three time points, using mixed effects regression models to model trends in the total food handling score (of a possible 32 behaviors) and subscores for "clean" (17 behaviors), "separate" (14 behaviors), and "cook" (1 behavior), adjusting for student characteristics. At baseline, students ( n = 108) averaged 49.1% (15.7 of 32 behaviors; standard deviation = 5.8) correct food handling behaviors, and only 5.5% (6) of the 108 students used a food thermometer to check the doneness of the chicken (the "cook" behavior). All four behavior score types increased significantly ∼2 weeks postintervention and remained unchanged ∼3 months later. Student characteristics (e.g., having taken a prior food handling course) were not significant predictors of the total number of correctly performed food handling behaviors or of the "clean" or "separate" behaviors, working or volunteering in a food service establishment was the only characteristic significantly associated with food thermometer use (i.e., "cook"). Despite the significant increase in correct behaviors, students continued to

  16. Restaurant food cooling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Blade, Henry; Reimann, Dave; Everstine, Karen; Nicholas, Dave; Egan, Jessica; Koktavy, Nicole; Quilliam, Daniela N

    2012-12-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study.

  17. Irradiated food: too hot to handle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coghlan, Andy.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses current arguments for and against the irradiation of food for human consumption. The technique, which involves bombarding batches of food with gamma rays, x rays or accelerated electrons, is claimed to halt spoilage, kill bacteria and thus extend the shelf-life of various foodstuffs. Irradiated foods are at present indistinguishable from non-irradiated food and this problem may not be solved before the government's bill legalizes the process. Opponents claim the technique may not be safe and that the food industry may use it to fool consumers into buying rotten foods. Proponents say that even though many foods, such as poultry, seafood, fruits, vegetables and spices may be treated, it is unlikely that more than a small proportion will be. They reject safety worries as alarmist exaggeration. (UK)

  18. PRN 73-4: Residual Insecticides in Food Handling Establishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This notice provides a copy of a Federal Register notice published July 6, 1973, regarding certain insecticides used in food-handling establishments. It establishes certain definitions and requirements related to approval for crack and crevice treatment.

  19. Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibbing, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to

  20. Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sibbing, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determine the specializations for some food types and the consequent restrictions for others. Such information improves our understanding of the trophic interrelations between different fish species living...

  1. Handling of bulk solids theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shamlou, P A

    1990-01-01

    Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

  2. Food Safety Posters for Safe Handling of Leafy Greens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Lakshman; Arendt, Susan W.; Shaw, Angela M.; Strohbehn, Catherine H.; Sauer, Kevin L.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes food safety educational tools depicting safe handling of leafy greens that are available as downloadable posters to Extension educators and practitioners (www.extension.iastate.edu). Nine visual-based minimal-text colored posters in English, Chinese, and Spanish were developed for use when formally or informally educating…

  3. Survey of tritiated oil sources and handling practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    Tritium interactions with oil sources (primarily associated with pumps) in tritium-handling facilities can lead to the incorporation of tritium in the oil and the production of tritiated hydrocarbons. This results in a source of radiological hazard and the need for special handling considerations during maintenance, decontamination, decommissioning and waste packaging and storage. The results of a general survey of tritiated-oil sources and their associated characteristics, handling practices, analysis techniques and waste treatment/storage methods are summarized here. Information was obtained from various tritium-handling laboratories, fusion devices, and CANDU plants. 38 refs., 1 fig

  4. Factors affecting vaccine handling and storage practices among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Assessing the factors associated with vaccine handling and storage practices. Methods: This was a .... Others include insufficient/unavailable backup refrigerators (52%) .... Human Vaccines 2010; 6(3): 270-278. 5. Joao Carlos de ...

  5. Food safety practices among Norwegian consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røssvoll, Elin Halbach; Lavik, Randi; Ueland, Øydis; Jacobsen, Eivind; Hagtvedt, Therese; Langsrud, Solveig

    2013-11-01

    An informed consumer can compensate for several potential food safety violations or contaminations that may occur earlier in the food production chain. However, a consumer can also destroy the work of others in the chain by poor food handling practices, e.g., by storing chilled ready-to-eat foods at abusive temperatures. To target risk-reducing strategies, consumer groups with high-risk behavior should be identified. The aim of this study was to identify demographic characteristics associated with high-risk food handling practices among Norwegian consumers. More than 2,000 randomly selected Norwegian consumers were surveyed, and the results were analyzed with a risk-based grading system, awarding demerit points for self-reported food safety violations. The violations were categorized into groups, and an ordinary multiple linear regression analysis was run on the summarized demerit score for each group and for the entire survey group as a whole. Young and elderly men were identified as the least informed consumer groups with the most unsafe practices regarding food safety. Single persons reported poorer practices than those in a relationship. People with higher education reported poorer practices than those with lower or no education, and those living in the capital of Norway (Oslo) reported following more unsafe food practices than people living elsewhere in Norway. Men reported poorer food safety practices than women in all categories with two exceptions: parboiling raw vegetables before consumption and knowledge of refrigerator temperature. These findings suggest that risk-reducing measures should target men, and a strategy is needed to change their behavior and attitudes.

  6. Food safety knowledge and practice among child caregivers in Ijebu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6.7±1.3), poor safety knowledge of changing baby clothing (6.5±1.0), safe food handling and preparation 4.6±0.6, cross contamination and hand washing techniques (4.2±0). They also had poor food safety practice on hand washing practice ...

  7. Barriers and Facilitators to Safe Food Handling among Consumers: A Systematic Review and Thematic Synthesis of Qualitative Research Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Young

    Full Text Available Foodborne illness has a substantial health and economic burden on society, and most cases are believed to be due to unsafe food handling practices at home. Several qualitative research studies have been conducted to investigate consumers' perspectives, opinions, and experiences with safe food handling at home, and these studies provide insights into the underlying barriers and facilitators affecting their safe food handling behaviours. We conducted a systematic review of previously published qualitative studies in this area to synthesize the main across-study themes and to develop recommendations for future consumer interventions and research. The review was conducted using the following steps: comprehensive search strategy; relevance screening of abstracts; relevance confirmation of articles; study quality assessment; thematic synthesis of the results; and quality-of-evidence assessment. A total of 39 relevant articles reporting on 37 unique qualitative studies were identified. Twenty-one barriers and 10 facilitators to safe food handling were identified, grouped across six descriptive themes: confidence and perceived risk; knowledge-behaviour gap; habits and heuristics; practical and lifestyle constraints; food preferences; and societal and social influences. Our overall confidence that each barrier and facilitator represents the phenomenon of interest was rated as high (n = 11, moderate (11, and low (9. Overarching analytical themes included: 1 safe food handling behaviours occur as part of a complex interaction of everyday consumer practices and habituation; 2 most consumers are not concerned about food safety and are generally not motivated to change their behaviours based on new knowledge about food safety risks; and 3 consumers are amenable to changing their safe food handling habits through relevant social pressures. Key implications and recommendations for research, policy and practice are discussed.

  8. Barriers and Facilitators to Safe Food Handling among Consumers: A Systematic Review and Thematic Synthesis of Qualitative Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian; Waddell, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness has a substantial health and economic burden on society, and most cases are believed to be due to unsafe food handling practices at home. Several qualitative research studies have been conducted to investigate consumers’ perspectives, opinions, and experiences with safe food handling at home, and these studies provide insights into the underlying barriers and facilitators affecting their safe food handling behaviours. We conducted a systematic review of previously published qualitative studies in this area to synthesize the main across-study themes and to develop recommendations for future consumer interventions and research. The review was conducted using the following steps: comprehensive search strategy; relevance screening of abstracts; relevance confirmation of articles; study quality assessment; thematic synthesis of the results; and quality-of-evidence assessment. A total of 39 relevant articles reporting on 37 unique qualitative studies were identified. Twenty-one barriers and 10 facilitators to safe food handling were identified, grouped across six descriptive themes: confidence and perceived risk; knowledge-behaviour gap; habits and heuristics; practical and lifestyle constraints; food preferences; and societal and social influences. Our overall confidence that each barrier and facilitator represents the phenomenon of interest was rated as high (n = 11), moderate (11), and low (9). Overarching analytical themes included: 1) safe food handling behaviours occur as part of a complex interaction of everyday consumer practices and habituation; 2) most consumers are not concerned about food safety and are generally not motivated to change their behaviours based on new knowledge about food safety risks; and 3) consumers are amenable to changing their safe food handling habits through relevant social pressures. Key implications and recommendations for research, policy and practice are discussed. PMID:27907161

  9. Safer handling practice: influence of staff education on older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Christine Brown

    The purpose of this small-scale survey was to explore the level of moving and handling training undertaken by nurses within private sector continuing care environments and the potential this training had to influence the care of older people. This study uses a definition of safer handling practice derived from existing literature to examine how nurses report the application of this training and whether they observe changes to the mobility of older people within their care. The limitations of this study indicate that generalizations must be made cautiously. However, this study tentatively suggests that potential exists to influence positively the use of safer handling practice as defined within this study. Recommendations for further study are made.

  10. Analysis of Personal Hygiene and Food Handling on Patients Food Managementt in Rsup Dr. Mohammad Hoesin Palembang

    OpenAIRE

    Mirawati, Mirawati; Sitorus, Rico Januar; Hasyim, Hamzah

    2011-01-01

    Background : Hospital food hygiene and sanitation are generally less awake, which originated in the less hygienic food processing particularly related to personal hygiene of food handlers and poor food handling at every stage of implementation. This study aims to analyze the personal hygiene and food handling on Patients Food management in RSUP Dr. Mohammad Hoesin Palembang, 2010. Method : This study was descriptive using a qualitative approach. Sources of information in this study amounted...

  11. Ground beef handling and cooking practices in restaurants in eight States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, April K; Fuller, Candace C; Radke, Vincent; Selman, Carol A; Smith, Kirk E

    2013-12-01

    Eating in table-service restaurants has been implicated as a risk factor for Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection. To explore this association and learn about the prevalence of risky ground beef preparation practices in restaurants, the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) assessed ground beef handling policies and practices in restaurants in California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee. Eligible restaurants prepared and served hamburgers. EHS-Net specialists interviewed a restaurant employee with authority over the kitchen (defined as the manager) using a standard questionnaire about food safety policies, hamburger preparation policies, and use of irradiated ground beef. Interviews were followed by observations of ground beef preparation. Data from 385 restaurants were analyzed: 67% of the restaurants were independently owned and 33% were chain restaurants; 75% of the restaurants were sit down, 19% were quick service or fast food, and 6% were cafeteria or buffet restaurants. Eighty-one percent of restaurants reported determining doneness of hamburgers by one or more subjective measures, and 49% reported that they never measure the final cook temperatures of hamburgers. At least two risky ground beef handling practices were observed in 53% of restaurants. Only 1% of restaurants reported purchasing irradiated ground beef, and 29% were unfamiliar with irradiated ground beef. Differences in risky ground beef handling policies and practices were noted for type of restaurant ownership (independently owned versus chain) and type of food service style (sit down versus quick service or fast food). This study revealed the pervasiveness of risky ground beef handling policies and practices in restaurants and the need for educational campaigns targeting food workers and managers. These results highlight the importance of continued efforts to reduce the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef.

  12. Knowledge and Attitudes towards Handling Eggs in the Home: An Unexplored Food Safety Issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne illness is a global public health issue, with food handling in the home identified as an underestimated source. In Australia, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of salmonellosis with the majority of outbreaks linked to eggs. This study investigated Australian eggs consumer attitudes, behaviours and risk perceptions associated with the handling of raw eggs in the home. It was identified that 67% of participants chose free range eggs, 11% kept poultry, 7% did not have any preference, 7% cage eggs, 4% barn eggs, 2% organic eggs and 1% pasteurized eggs. The majority of participants (91% reported they stored eggs in the fridge. It was identified that there is an underestimation of “risky behaviour” associated with the consumption of raw eggs in the home, as 84% of participants indicated that they did not consume raw eggs, but subsequently 86% indicated that they had eaten mixture/batter containing raw eggs. Participants’ responses relating to food safety were also examined in relation to their profession and gender. Safer food handling practices were identified by Environmental Health Officers (EHO and Food handlers compared to all other professions (p < 0.05. However, the gender of participants did not significantly affect (p > 0.05 their responses.

  13. Knowledge and Attitudes towards Handling Eggs in the Home: An Unexplored Food Safety Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Clarke, Beverley; Ross, Kirstin

    2017-01-06

    Foodborne illness is a global public health issue, with food handling in the home identified as an underestimated source. In Australia, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of salmonellosis with the majority of outbreaks linked to eggs. This study investigated Australian eggs consumer attitudes, behaviours and risk perceptions associated with the handling of raw eggs in the home. It was identified that 67% of participants chose free range eggs, 11% kept poultry, 7% did not have any preference, 7% cage eggs, 4% barn eggs, 2% organic eggs and 1% pasteurized eggs. The majority of participants (91%) reported they stored eggs in the fridge. It was identified that there is an underestimation of "risky behaviour" associated with the consumption of raw eggs in the home, as 84% of participants indicated that they did not consume raw eggs, but subsequently 86% indicated that they had eaten mixture/batter containing raw eggs. Participants' responses relating to food safety were also examined in relation to their profession and gender. Safer food handling practices were identified by Environmental Health Officers (EHO) and Food handlers compared to all other professions ( p 0.05) their responses.

  14. Novel Additive Manufacturing Pneumatic Actuators and Mechanisms for Food Handling Grippers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Blanes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional pneumatic grippers are widely used in industrial pick and place robot processes for rigid objects. They are simple, robust and fast, but their design, motion and features are limited, and they do not fulfil the final purpose. Food products have a wide variety of shapes and textures and are susceptible to damaged. Robot grippers for food handling should adapt to this wide range of dimensions and must be fast, cheap, reasonably reliable, and with cheap and reasonable maintenance costs. They should not damage the product and must meet hygienic conditions. The additive manufacturing (AM process is able to manufacture parts without significant restrictions, and is Polyamide approved as food contact material by FDA. This paper presents that, taking the best of plastic flexibility, AM allows the implementation of novel actuators, original compliant mechanisms and practical grippers that are cheap, light, fast, small and easily adaptable to specific food products. However, if they are not carefully designed, the results can present problems, such as permanent deformations, low deformation limits, and low operation speed. We present possible solutions for the use of AM to design proper robot grippers for food handling. Some successful results, such as AM actuators based on deformable air chambers, AM compliant mechanisms, and grippers developed in a single part will be introduced and discussed.

  15. Hygienic food handling behaviours. An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Barbara A; Wong, Cara L

    2009-06-01

    It is estimated that 5.4 million Australians get sick annually from eating contaminated food and that up to 20% of this illness results from food handling behaviour. A study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) including past behaviour in predicting safe food handling intention and behaviour. One hundred and nine participants completed questionnaires regarding their attitudes, perceived behavioural control (PBC), subjective norm, intentions and past behaviour. Behaviour was measured 4 weeks later. The TPB predicted a high proportion of variance in both intentions and behaviour, and past behaviour/habit was found to be the strongest predictor of behaviour. The results of the present study suggest interventions aimed at increasing safe food handling intentions should focus on the impact of normative influences and perceptions of control over their food handling environment; whereas interventions to change actual behaviour should attempt to increase hygienic food handling as a habitual behaviour.

  16. Handling radioactivity: a practical approach for scientists and engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present an overall view in a descriptive and essentially nonmathematical way of the practicalities of handling radioactivity. It is hoped that the material will be particularly helpful to those entering the nuclear field for the first time and to those working in related areas whose responsibilities require them to have a general knowledge of the subject of radioactivity handling and its vocabulary. The presentation is primarily for bench-scale operations. There is a considerable emphasis on facilities since these are fundamental to the safe handling of active materials. Facility design and detail is also unfortunately an area where the relevant information is largely scattered through literature sources that are not accessible to most readers. Some of the topics surveyed - such as dosimetry, shielding and nuclear criticality - are extremely complex and no pretense is made that the treatment here represents more than bare bone summaries of the fields. A considerable effort has been made to cite the key references in each area where more detailed information can be found. A few additional useful references not cited directly in the text appear in an abbreviated bibliography at the end of the book

  17. Consumer Shell Egg Consumption and Handling Practices: Results from a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosa, Katherine M; Cates, Sheryl C; Bradley, Samantha; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores

    2015-07-01

    Numerous cases and outbreaks of Salmonella infection are attributable to shell eggs each year in the United States. Safe handling and consumption of shell eggs at home can help reduce foodborne illness attributable to shell eggs. A nationally representative Web survey of 1,504 U.S. adult grocery shoppers was conducted to describe consumer handling practices and consumption of shell eggs at home. Based on self-reported survey data, most respondents purchase shell eggs from a grocery store (89.5%), and these eggs were kept refrigerated (not at room temperature; 98.5%). As recommended, most consumers stored shell eggs in the refrigerator (99%) for no more than 3 to 5 weeks (97.6%). After cracking eggs, 48.1% of respondents washed their hands with soap and water. More than half of respondents who fry and/or poach eggs cooked them so that the whites and/or the yolks were still soft or runny, a potentially unsafe practice. Among respondents who owned a food thermometer (62.0%), only 5.2% used it to check the doneness of baked egg dishes when they prepared such a dish. Consumers generally followed two of the four core "Safe Food Families" food safety messages ("separate" and "chill") when handling shell eggs at home. To prevent Salmonella infection associated with shell eggs, consumers should improve their practices related to the messages "clean" (i.e., wash hands after cracking eggs) and "cook" (i.e., cook until yolks and whites are firm and use a food thermometer to check doneness of baked egg dishes) when preparing shell eggs at home. These findings will be used to inform the development of science-based consumer education materials that can help reduce foodborne illness from Salmonella infection.

  18. 76 FR 50740 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Procedures for Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0514] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Procedures for Handling Section 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice...

  19. Safe meat-handling knowledge, attitudes and practices of private and government meat processing plants' workers: implications for future policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesokan, H K; Raji, A O Q

    2014-03-01

    Food-borne disease outbreaks remain a major global health challenge and cross-contamination from raw meat due to poor handling is a major cause in developing countries. Adequate knowledge of meat handlers is important in limiting these outbreaks. This study evaluated and compared the safe meat-handling knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of private (PMPP) and government meat processing plants' (GMPP) workers in south-western Nigeria. This cross sectional study comprised 190 meat handlers (PMPP = 55; GMPP = 135). Data concerning their safe meat-handling knowledge, attitudes and practices as well as their socio-demographic characteristics, such as age, gender and work experience were collected. A significant association was observed between the type of meat processing plants and their knowledge (p = 0.000), attitudes (p = 0.000) and practices (p = 0.000) of safe meat-handling. Meat handlers in the GMPP were respectively, about 17 times (OR = 0.060, 95% CI: 0.018-0.203), 57 times (OR = 0.019, 95% CI: 0.007-0.054) and 111 times (OR = 0.009, 95% CI: 0.001- 0.067) less likely to obtain good knowledge, attitude and practice level of safe meat-handling than those from PMPP. Further, KAP levels were significantly associated with age group, education and work experience (p < 0.05). Study findings suggest the need for future policy in food industry in developing countries to accommodate increased involvement of private sector for improved food safety and quality delivery. Public health education on safe food handling and hygiene should be on the front burner among food handlers in general.

  20. Air-handling energy efficiency and design practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Lars J.

    1993-12-31

    With good design practices and life-cycle cost optimization, specific fan power for individual fans will be between 0.5 and 1kW/m{sup 3}/s. Data from nearly 1000 audited fans in Sweden show that the average measured SFPI weighted by drawn motor power is 1.5 kW/m{sup 3}/s and the situation appears to be similar in other countries. Contract forms used by Swedish builders, and consultants` design practices are analyzed here to search for an explanation to the low performance of installed systems. Identified as two major barriers to efficient system design are the lack of performance specifications when procuring systems and the incentive structure in the building sector. As a consequence, duct design methods, rules of thumb, and vendor recommendations are not leading to system optimization. The broad minima in life cycle costs over a range of air-handling unit sizes show that potential economic welfare losses from efficiency standards are likely to be smaller than the losses that result from today`s design practices. 73 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  1. Air-handling energy efficiency and design practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Lars J

    1994-12-31

    With good design practices and life-cycle cost optimization, specific fan power for individual fans will be between 0.5 and 1kW/m{sup 3}/s. Data from nearly 1000 audited fans in Sweden show that the average measured SFPI weighted by drawn motor power is 1.5 kW/m{sup 3}/s and the situation appears to be similar in other countries. Contract forms used by Swedish builders, and consultants` design practices are analyzed here to search for an explanation to the low performance of installed systems. Identified as two major barriers to efficient system design are the lack of performance specifications when procuring systems and the incentive structure in the building sector. As a consequence, duct design methods, rules of thumb, and vendor recommendations are not leading to system optimization. The broad minima in life cycle costs over a range of air-handling unit sizes show that potential economic welfare losses from efficiency standards are likely to be smaller than the losses that result from today`s design practices. 73 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  2. 21 CFR 1250.38 - Toilet and lavatory facilities for use of food-handling employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-handling employees. Railroad dining car crew lavatory facilities are regulated under § 1250.45. (b) Signs directing food-handling employees to wash their hands after each use of toilet facilities shall be posted so as to be readily observable by such employees. Hand washing facilities shall include soap, sanitary...

  3. Food Handling Behaviors Observed in Consumers When Cooking Poultry and Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Chambers, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Cates, Sheryl; Koppel, Kadri

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that many consumers do not follow recommended food safety practices for cooking poultry and eggs, which can lead to exposure to Salmonella and Campylobacter. Past research has been done primarily through surveys and interviews, rather than observations. The objective of this project was to determine through observations whether consumers follow food safety guidelines. Consumers (n = 101) divided among three locations (Manhattan, KS; Kansas City, MO area; and Nashville, TN) were observed as they prepared a baked whole chicken breast, a pan-fried ground turkey patty, a fried egg, and scrambled eggs. The end point temperature for the cooked products was taken (outside the view of consumers) within 30 s after the consumers indicated they were finished cooking. Thermometer use while cooking was low, although marginally higher than that of some previous studies: only 37% of consumers used a thermometer for chicken breasts and only 22% for turkey patties. No one used a thermometer for fried or scrambled eggs. Only 77% of the chicken and 69% of the turkey was cooked to a safe temperature (165°F [74°C]), and 77% of scrambled and 49% of fried eggs reached a safe temperature (160°F [71°C]). Safe hand washing was noted in only 40% of respondents after handling the chicken breast and 44% after handling the ground turkey patty. This value decreased to 15% after handling raw eggs for fried eggs and to 17% for scrambled eggs. These results show that there is a high prevalence of unsafe behaviors (undercooking and poor hand washing technique) when cooking poultry and eggs and a great need for improvement in consumer behavior with poultry and eggs.

  4. Review: Lyn Richards (2005. Handling Qualitative Data: A Practical Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Miller

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Handling Qualitative Data: A Practical Guide is an introductory textbook covering all stages of qualitative research from the initial conceptualisation of a project, through data collection and analysis, to writing up. The author, Lyn RICHARDS, is a well-known developer of two key qualitative software analysis packages, NUD*IST and NVivo. While RICHARDS clearly advocates the use of qualitative analysis software, the text is "generic" and could be used in tandem with any qualitative software package. The book concentrates on practical advice about the use of software to manage and analyse qualitative data, and provides insights in these areas. The consideration of issues around team-based qualitative research is another strong point. However, due in part to its short length, the overall coverage of topics tends to be superficial. In itself, the book does not provide sufficient detailed support for a student who would like to use it as her/his main source of guidance for carrying out a qualitative research project. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0602244

  5. Food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices of institutional food-handlers in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akabanda, Fortune; Hlortsi, Eli Hope; Owusu-Kwarteng, James

    2017-01-06

    In large scale cooking, food is handled by many individuals, thereby increasing the chances of food contamination due to improper handling. Deliberate or accidental contamination of food during large scale production might endanger the health of consumers, and have very expensive repercussions on a country. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the food safety knowledge, attitudes, and practices among institutional food- handlers in Ghana. The study was conducted using a descriptive, cross-sectional survey of 29 institutions by conducting face to face interview and administration of questionnaire to two hundred and thirty-five (235) institutional food-handlers. The questionnaire was peer-reviewed and pilot tested in three institutions in the Upper East Region of Ghana, before the final version was distributed to food-handlers. The questionnaire was structured into five distinctive parts to collect information on (i) demographic characteristics, (ii) employees' work satisfaction, (iii) knowledge on food safety, (iv) attitudes towards food safety and (v) food hygiene practices. Majority of the food-handlers were between 41-50 years (39.1%). Female respondents were (76.6%). In our study, the food-handlers were knowledgeable about hygienic practices, cleaning and sanitation procedures. Almost all of the food-handlers were aware of the critical role of general sanitary practices in the work place, such as hand washing (98.7% correct answers), using gloves (77.9%), proper cleaning of the instruments/utensils (86.4%) and detergent use (72.8%). On disease transmission, the results indicates that 76.2% of the food- handlers did not know that Salmonella is a food borne pathogens and 70.6% did not know that hepatitis A is a food borne pathogen. However, 81.7% handlers agreed that typhoid fever is transmitted by food and 87.7% agreed that bloody diarrhea is transmitted by food. Logistic regression analysis testing four models showed statistically significant differences

  6. Food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices of institutional food-handlers in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortune Akabanda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In large scale cooking, food is handled by many individuals, thereby increasing the chances of food contamination due to improper handling. Deliberate or accidental contamination of food during large scale production might endanger the health of consumers, and have very expensive repercussions on a country. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the food safety knowledge, attitudes, and practices among institutional food- handlers in Ghana. Methods The study was conducted using a descriptive, cross-sectional survey of 29 institutions by conducting face to face interview and administration of questionnaire to two hundred and thirty-five (235 institutional food-handlers. The questionnaire was peer-reviewed and pilot tested in three institutions in the Upper East Region of Ghana, before the final version was distributed to food-handlers. The questionnaire was structured into five distinctive parts to collect information on (i demographic characteristics, (ii employees’ work satisfaction, (iii knowledge on food safety, (iv attitudes towards food safety and (v food hygiene practices. Results Majority of the food-handlers were between 41–50 years (39.1%. Female respondents were (76.6%. In our study, the food-handlers were knowledgeable about hygienic practices, cleaning and sanitation procedures. Almost all of the food-handlers were aware of the critical role of general sanitary practices in the work place, such as hand washing (98.7% correct answers, using gloves (77.9%, proper cleaning of the instruments/utensils (86.4% and detergent use (72.8%. On disease transmission, the results indicates that 76.2% of the food- handlers did not know that Salmonella is a food borne pathogens and 70.6% did not know that hepatitis A is a food borne pathogen. However, 81.7% handlers agreed that typhoid fever is transmitted by food and 87.7% agreed that bloody diarrhea is transmitted by food. Logistic regression analysis testing four models

  7. Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, Shawn M; Harrison, Mark A [Food Science and Technology Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-2610 (United States); Law, S Edward, E-mail: edlaw@engr.uga.edu [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Applied Electrostatics Laboratory www.ael.engr.uga.edu, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-4435 (United States)

    2011-06-23

    Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic

  8. Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, Shawn M; Harrison, Mark A; Law, S Edward

    2011-01-01

    Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic

  9. Food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs of primary food preparers in families with young children. A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meysenburg, Rebecca; Albrecht, Julie A; Litchfield, Ruth; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K

    2014-02-01

    Food preparers in families with young children are responsible for safe food preparation and handling to prevent foodborne illness. To explore the food safety perceptions, beliefs, and practices of primary food preparers in families with children 10 years of age and younger, a mixed methods convergent parallel design and constructs of the Health Belief Model were used. A random sampling of 72 primary food handlers (36.2±8.6 years of age, 88% female) within young families in urban and rural areas of two Midwestern states completed a knowledge survey and participated in ten focus groups. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for codes and common themes. Forty-four percent scored less than the average knowledge score of 73%. Participants believe children are susceptible to foodborne illness but perceive its severity to be low with gastrointestinal discomfort as the primary outcome. Using safe food handling practices and avoiding inconveniences were benefits of preventing foodborne illness. Childcare duties, time and knowledge were barriers to practicing food safety. Confidence in preventing foodborne illness was high, especially when personal control over food handling is present. The low knowledge scores and reported practices revealed a false sense of confidence despite parental concern to protect their child from harm. Food safety messages that emphasize the susceptibility and severity of foodborne illness in children are needed to reach this audience for adoption of safe food handling practices. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. A practical guide to handling laser diode beams

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Haiyin

    2015-01-01

    This book offers the reader a practical guide to the control and characterization of laser diode beams.  Laser diodes are the most widely used lasers, accounting for 50% of the global laser market.  Correct handling of laser diode beams is the key to the successful use of laser diodes, and this requires an in-depth understanding of their unique properties. Following a short introduction to the working principles of laser diodes, the book describes the basics of laser diode beams and beam propagation, including Zemax modeling of a Gaussian beam propagating through a lens.  The core of the book is concerned with laser diode beam manipulations: collimating and focusing, circularization and astigmatism correction, coupling into a single mode optical fiber, diffractive optics and beam shaping, and manipulation of multi transverse mode beams.  The final chapter of the book covers beam characterization methods, describing the measurement of spatial and spectral properties, including wavelength and linewidth meas...

  11. Seashell specialties and food handling in Slovene Istria restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara POKLAR VATOVEC

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to evaluate the offer of seashell specialties in Slovene Istria restaurants, and to assess food safety knowledge (gained through formal and informal education as well as to assess the behaviour of food handlers in preparing shell dishes. A self-administered questionnaire was designed that included four sections: a demographic section, a general section, a restaurant menu offer, and a food safety section related to preparation of seashell specialties. Seashell specialties were offered in 41 restaurants, of which the employed food handlers 24 attended formal education and 17 informal education. Seashells specialties and seashell menus are commonly part of the culinary and gastronomic specialties along the Slovene coast, with the most frequently offered main dish being “Blue Mussels alla Busara”. Results the questionnaire indicated poor food safety knowledge and poor behaviour regardless of the (informal education of those who prepared the dishes. We propose that formal education for catering workers preparing shell dishes should be much more emphasized.

  12. Nurses infection prevention practices in handling injections: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adherence to basic infection prevention procedures/aseptic techniques in handling of injections by health workers is still a concern. The adherence to aseptic techniques in handling injections is significantly associated with the nurses to patients ratios. Therefore, it is imperative to improve nurse to patient ratio in public ...

  13. Assessment of food safety practices of food service food handlers (risk assessment data): testing a communication intervention (evaluation of tools).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin; Eversley, Tiffany; Fillion, Katie; Maclaurin, Tanya; Powell, Douglas

    2010-06-01

    Globally, foodborne illness affects an estimated 30% of individuals annually. Meals prepared outside of the home are a risk factor for acquiring foodborne illness and have been implicated in up to 70% of traced outbreaks. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has called on food safety communicators to design new methods and messages aimed at increasing food safety risk-reduction practices from farm to fork. Food safety infosheets, a novel communication tool designed to appeal to food handlers and compel behavior change, were evaluated. Food safety infosheets were provided weekly to food handlers in working food service operations for 7 weeks. It was hypothesized that through the posting of food safety infosheets in highly visible locations, such as kitchen work areas and hand washing stations, that safe food handling behaviors of food service staff could be positively influenced. Using video observation, food handlers (n = 47) in eight food service operations were observed for a total of 348 h (pre- and postintervention combined). After the food safety infosheets were introduced, food handlers demonstrated a significant increase (6.7%, P < 0.05, 95% confidence interval) in mean hand washing attempts, and a significant reduction in indirect cross-contamination events (19.6%, P < 0.05, 95% confidence interval). Results of the research demonstrate that posting food safety infosheets is an effective intervention tool that positively influences the food safety behaviors of food handlers.

  14. Asymmetry in food handling behavior of a tree-dwelling rodent (Sciurus vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Polo-Cavia

    Full Text Available Asymmetry in motor patterns is present in a wide variety of animals. Many lateralized behaviors seem to depend on brain asymmetry, as it is the case of different tasks associated to food handling by several bird and mammal species. Here, we analyzed asymmetry in handling behavior of pine cones by red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris. Red squirrels devote most of their daily activity to feeding, thus this species constitutes an appropriate model for studying asymmetry in food processing. We aimed to explore 1 the potential lateralization in handling of pine cones by squirrels, 2 the dominant pattern for this behavior (left- vs. right-handed, and 3 whether this pattern varies among populations and depending on the pine tree species available. Results revealed that red squirrels handle pine cones in an asymmetrical way, and that direction of asymmetry varies among populations and seems to be determined more by local influences rather than by the pine tree species.

  15. Uranium hexafluoride: A manual of good handling practices. Revision 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is continuing the policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies in sharing with the nuclear industry their experience in the area of uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) shipping containers and handling procedures. The USEC has reviewed Revision 6 or ORO-651 and is issuing this new edition to assure that the document includes the most recent information on UF 6 handling procedures and reflects the policies of the USEC. This manual updates the material contained in earlier issues. It covers the essential aspects of UF 6 handling, cylinder filling and emptying, general principles of weighing and sampling, shipping, and the use of protective overpacks. The physical and chemical properties of UF 6 are also described. The procedures and systems described for safe handling of UF 6 presented in this document have been developed and evaluated during more than 40 years of handling vast quantities of UF 6 . With proper consideration for its nuclear properties, UF 6 may be safely handled in essentially the same manner as any other corrosive and/or toxic chemical

  16. Uranium hexafluoride: A manual of good handling practices. Revision 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is continuing the policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies in sharing with the nuclear industry their experience in the area of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) shipping containers and handling procedures. The USEC has reviewed Revision 6 or ORO-651 and is issuing this new edition to assure that the document includes the most recent information on UF{sub 6} handling procedures and reflects the policies of the USEC. This manual updates the material contained in earlier issues. It covers the essential aspects of UF{sub 6} handling, cylinder filling and emptying, general principles of weighing and sampling, shipping, and the use of protective overpacks. The physical and chemical properties of UF{sub 6} are also described. The procedures and systems described for safe handling of UF{sub 6} presented in this document have been developed and evaluated during more than 40 years of handling vast quantities of UF{sub 6}. With proper consideration for its nuclear properties, UF{sub 6} may be safely handled in essentially the same manner as any other corrosive and/or toxic chemical.

  17. Observed Food Safety Practices in the Summer Food Service Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Emily Vaterlaus; Alcorn, Michelle; Watkins, Tracee; Cole, Kerri; Paez, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this exploratory, observational study was three-fold: 1) Determine current food safety practices at Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) sites; 2) Identify types of food served at the sites and collect associated temperatures; and 3) Establish recommendations for food safety training in the SFSP.…

  18. How to handle topography in practical geoid determination: three examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omang, O.C.D.; Forsberg, René

    2000-01-01

    Three different methods of handling topography in geoid determination were investigated. The first two methods employ the residual terrain model (RTM) remove-restore technique, yielding the quasi-geoid, whereas the third method uses the classical Helmert condensation method, yielding the geoid. All...

  19. Uranium hexafluoride: A manual of good handling practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    For many years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have shared with the nuclear industry their experience in the area of uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) shipping containers and handling procedures. The information contained in this manual updates information contained in earlier issues. It covers the essential aspects of UF 6 handling, cylinder filling and emptying, general principles of weighing and sampling, shipping, and the use of protective overpacks. The physical and chemical properties of UF 6 are also described and tabulated. The nuclear industry is responsible for furnishing its own shipping cylinders and suitable protective overpacks. A substantial effort has been made by the industry to standardize UF 6 cylinders, samples, and overpacks. The quality of feed materials is important to the safe and efficient operation of the enriching facilities, and the UF 6 product purity from the enriching facilities is equally important to the fuel fabricator, the utilities, the operators of research reactors, and other users. The requirements have been the impetus for an aggressive effort by DOE and its contractors to develop accurate techniques for sampling and for chemical and isotopic analysis. A quality control program is maintained within the DOE enriching facilities to ensure that the proper degree of accuracy and precision are obtained for all the required measurements. The procedures and systems described for safe handling of UF 6 presented in this document have been developed and evaluated in DOE facilities during more than 40 years of handling vast quantities of UF 6 . With proper consideration for its nuclear properties, UF 6 may be safely handled in essentially the same manner as any other corrosive and/or toxic chemical

  20. Food handling in the household environment as a vulnerability factor to foodborne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rosane Paz Arruda Teo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the concept of food security and nutrition is based on the regular and sufficient access to food of adequate quality and it implies food safety as one of its dimensions. Objective: to analyze the sanitary and hygienic conditions of food handling in households in Chapecó (SC, Brazil. Materials and Methods: descriptive study with 138 households selected by systematic sampling to a 5% significance level and a 4% acceptable error. We applied a questionnaire to the person who was the responsible for food handling in each household. We used descriptive and inferential statistics and we interpreted the data according to health vulnerability framework. Results: we highlight that 50.7% (n=70 reported to just wash vegetables with water, 71% (n=98 reported to wash cutting boards with detergent and cold water, 33, 3% (n=46 reported the use of raw eggs. There was no association between the source of water supply and sanitary failures observed. Conclusions: safe food handling procedures are not adopted in a reasonable proportion of households, which may explain the vulnerability to foodborne diseases in these environments.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF FOOD SAFETY PRACTICES AMONG CASSAVA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philips Olusola

    public policies on food safety management. ... in the contemporary world and a significant factor in the reduction of productivity. There is some .... adduced to the views of the majority who considered food safety practices a big ..... Contingency.

  2. The sanitary conditions of food service establishments and food safety knowledge and practices of food handlers in bahir dar town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibret, Mulugeta; Abera, Bayeh

    2012-03-01

    Lack of basic infrastructure, poor knowledge of hygiene and practices in food service establishments can contribute to outbreaks of foodborne illnesses. The aims of this study were to investigate the food safety knowledge and practices of food handlers and to assess the sanitary conditions of food service establishments in Bahir Dar town. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bahir Dar in May 2011 and data were collected using questionnaire and observation checklist on employees' knowledge of food hygiene and their practices as well on sanitary conditions of the food service establishments The median age of the food handlers was 22 years and among the 455 subjects 99 (21.8%) have had food hygiene training. Sixty six percent of the establishments had flush toilets whereas 5.9% of the establishment had no toilet. Only 149 (33.6%) of the establishments had a proper solid waste collection receptacle and there was statistically significant association between the sanitary conditions and license status of the establishments (p=0.01). Most of all, knowledge gap in food hygiene and handling practice was observed. In addition, there was statistically significant difference between trained (professional) handlers and non-trained handlers with regard to food hygiene practices (p<0.05). While more than 50% of the handlers prepare meals ahead of the peak selling time, more than 50% of the left over was poorly managed. This study revealed poor sanitary conditions and poor food hygiene practices of handlers. Educational programs targeted at improving the attitude of food handlers and licensing and regular inspections have been recommended.

  3. Detection of Listeria spp. in food handling areas of retail food stores in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gomes Ferreira Machado de Siqueira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of Listeria spp. in food handling areas is of great concern to health surveillance agencies, and their control is often hampered by the ability of the bacteria to grow and maintain themselves even under adverse conditions. The present study aimed to isolate and identify Listeria spp. in the food handling areas of 10 retail food stores in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Eighty-six swab samples were collected from equipment, utensils and surfaces used for processing ready-to-eat meat products. The Dry and Wet Swabbing Methods (3M™ Quick Swabs and 3M™ Petrifilm™ Plates were used to identify Listeria spp. Contamination by Listeria monocytogenes was confirmed by the Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR. The hygienic and sanitary conditions of the food handling areas of each store were also assessed. Listeria spp. was isolated in eight stores (80%. Of the 86 swab samples analyzed, 27 (31.2% [confidence interval 21.81% to 42.30%] were positive for Listeria spp. and only one (3.7% was confirmed as Listeria monocytogenes. The main contamination sites were the floor (50.0%, the plastic cutting board (42.9% and the knife (40.0%. None of the hygienic and sanitary conditions assessed in the present study were associated with contamination by Listeria spp. (p = 0.700. It was concluded that Listeria spp. was widely distributed in the retail food stores studied, being a possible risk factor for public health.

  4. Canadian Consumer Food Safety Practices and Knowledge: Foodbook Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Regan; Glass-Kaastra, Shiona; Gardhouse, Christine; Marshall, Barbara; Ciampa, Nadia; Franklin, Kristyn; Hurst, Matt; Thomas, M Kate; Nesbitt, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    Understanding consumers' food safety practices and knowledge supports food safety education for the prevention of foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to describe Canadian consumer food safety practices and knowledge. This study identifies demographic groups for targeted food safety education messaging and establishes a baseline measurement to assess the effectiveness of food safety interventions over time. Questions regarding consumer food safety practices and knowledge were included in a population-based telephone survey, Foodbook, conducted from November 2014 to March 2015. The results were analyzed nationally by age group and by gender. The results showed that approximately 90% of Canadians reported taking the recommended cleaning and separating precautions when handling raw meat to prevent foodborne illness. Only 29% of respondents reported using a food thermometer when cooking any meat, and even fewer (12%) reported using a food thermometer for small cuts of meat such as chicken pieces. The majority (>80%) of Canadians were aware of the foodborne illness risks related to chicken and hamburger, but fewer (poultry.

  5. Public health implications of post-harvest fish handling practices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wide range of handling practices for harvested fish exists and they have economic as well as public health implications. This paper is a review of the existing problems in fish handling technologies at post-harvest in Nigeria. The public health aspects with the associated implications are highlighted. Status of policy on fish ...

  6. Different ways to handle topography in practical geoid determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, O.C.; Forsberg, René

    1999-01-01

    In this paper two different methods of how to handle topography in geoid determination is investigated. First method employs the Residual Terrain Model (RTM) remove-restore technique and yields the quasigeoid, whereas the second method is the classical Helmert condensation method, yielding...... the topography was represented by either a detailed (100 m) or a coarse (1000 m) digital terrain model. The inclusion of bathymetry in the terrain model was also investigated. Even if two different methods were used, they produced almost identical results at the 5 cm level in the mountains, but small systematic...

  7. Code of practice for food handler activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T A; Kanas, R P; McCoubrey, I A; Belton, M E

    2005-08-01

    The food industry regulates various aspects of food handler activities, according to legislation and customer expectations. The purpose of this paper is to provide a code of practice which delineates a set of working standards for food handler hygiene, handwashing, use of protective equipment, wearing of jewellery and body piercing. The code was developed by a working group of occupational physicians with expertise in both food manufacturing and retail, using a risk assessment approach. Views were also obtained from other occupational physicians working within the food industry and the relevant regulatory bodies. The final version of the code (available in full as Supplementary data in Occupational Medicine Online) therefore represents a broad consensus of opinion. The code of practice represents a set of minimum standards for food handler suitability and activities, based on a practical assessment of risk, for application in food businesses. It aims to provide useful working advice to food businesses of all sizes.

  8. Handling the Misalignment of Interests in Assisted Reproductive Technology Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Pierson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    One of the major problems we see in the use of reproductive technology at this time is that there is very little regulation of embryo transfer practices that lead to multigestational pregnancies. While the FDA must approve assisted reproductive technology (ART) devices and drugs that stimulate ovulation, it has no jurisdiction over the practice of medicine, how these drugs and devices are used on the ground, often in off-label procedures. The only current regulation of these practices is at...

  9. Anatomical practices of preserving, handling and management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deaths resulting from disasters as well as some unwholesome practices are major factors that affect the quality of practices. Yet, the management of human remains requires utmost attention for the purpose of health, ethics and environment. Outbreaks of diseases and the spread of such, for instance, the case of Ebola virus, ...

  10. School Food Practices of Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Melissa; Glanville, Theresa; Taylor, Jennifer; Blum, Ilya

    2007-01-01

    Background: Schoolteachers can affect students' eating habits in several ways: through nutrition knowledge, positive role modeling, and avoidance of unhealthy classroom food practices. In this study, the knowledge, attitudes, and eating behaviors of prospective teachers as determinants of intended classroom food practices and the school…

  11. FOOD ENTREPRENEUR SUSTAINABLE ORIENTATION AND FIRM PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Mark A. Gagnon; Pamela A. Heinrichs

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory research examines the relationship between food entrepreneur sustainable orientation, mindset and firm sustainable practices in a mixed methods format. In particular we seek to address if entrepreneur behavior and firm practices are congruent with founding entrepreneur espoused support of sustainability. Our survey findings with thirty specialty food entrepreneurs suggest tenuous empirical support for the relationship of entrepreneur sustainable orientation, mindset and firm ...

  12. Food waste reduction practices in German food retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsdorf, David; Rombach, Meike; Bitsch, Vera

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate food retailers food waste reduction practices in Germany. The focus is on selling and redistributing agricultural produce with visual impairments and other surplus food items. In addition, drivers and barriers regarding the implementation of both waste reduction practices are explored. In total, 12 in-depth interviews with managerial actors in the food retail sector and a food bank spokesperson were recorded, transcribed and analyzed through a qualitative content analysis. In contrast to organic retailers, conventional retailers were reluctant to include agricultural produce with visual impairments in their product assortments, due to fears of negative consumer reactions. Another obstacle was EU marketing standards for specific produce. All retailers interviewed engaged in redistribution of surplus food. Logistics and the regulatory framework were the main barriers to food redistribution. The present study adds to the existing body of literature on food waste reduction practices as it explores selling produce with visual impairments and elaborates on the legal background of food redistribution in German retail. The results are the foundation for providing recommendations to policy makers and charitable food organizations.

  13. Commercial food irradiation in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemhorst, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    Dutch research showed great interest in the potential of food irradiation at an early stage. The positive research results and the potential applications for industry encouraged the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries to construct a Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation. In 1967 the Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation in Wageningen came into operation. The objectives of the plant were: research into applications of irradiation technology in the food industry and agricultural industry; testing irradiated products and test marketing; information transfer to the public. (author)

  14. Explaining Consumer Safe Food Handling Through Behavior-Change Theories: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian; Reimer, Danielle; Greig, Judy; Meldrum, Richard; Turgeon, Patricia; Waddell, Lisa

    2017-11-01

    Consumers often engage in unsafe food handling behaviors at home. Previous studies have investigated the ability of behavior-change theories to explain and predict these behaviors. The purpose of this review was to determine which theories are most consistently associated with consumers' safe food handling behaviors across the published literature. A standardized systematic review methodology was used, consisting of the following steps: comprehensive search strategy; relevance screening of identified references; confirmation of relevance and characterization of relevant articles; risk-of-bias assessment; data extraction; and descriptive analysis of study results. A total of 20 relevant studies were identified; they were mostly conducted in Australia (40%) and the United States (35%) and used a cross-sectional design (65%). Most studies targeted young adults (65%), and none focused on high-risk consumer groups. The outcomes of 70% of studies received high overall risk-of-bias ratings, largely due to a lack of control for confounding variables. The most commonly applied theory was the Theory of Planned Behavior (45% of studies), which, along with other investigated theories of behavior change, was frequently associated with consumer safe food handling behavioral intentions and behaviors. However, overall, there was wide variation in the specific constructs found to be significantly associated and in the percentage of variance explained in each outcome across studies. The results suggest that multiple theories of behavior change can help to explain consumer safe food handling behaviors and could be adopted to guide the development of future behavior-change interventions. In these contexts, theories should be appropriately selected and adapted to meet the needs of the specific target population and context of interest.

  15. Handling Practicalities in Agricultural Policy Optimization for Water Quality Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilevel and multi-objective optimization methods are often useful to spatially target agri-environmental policy throughout a watershed. This type of problem is complex and is comprised of a number of practicalities: (i) a large number of decision variables, (ii) at least two inte...

  16. Modern power station practice mechanical boilers, fuel-, and ash-handling plant

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2014-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Second Edition, Volume 2: Mechanical (Boilers, Fuel-, and Ash-Handling Plant) focuses on the design, manufacture and operation of boiler units and fuel-and ash-handling plants.This book is organized into five main topics-furnace and combustion equipment, steam and water circuits, ancillary plant and fittings, dust extraction and draught plant, and fuel-and ash-handling plant.In these topics, this text specifically discusses the influence of nature of coal on choice of firing equipment; oil-burner arrangements, ignition and control; disposition of the heating surf

  17. Practical aspects of handling data protection and data security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwerse, C P

    1991-01-01

    Looking at practical applications of health care information systems, we must conclude that in the field of data protection there still is too large a gap between what is feasible and necessary on one hand, and what is achieved in actual realizations on the other. To illustrate this point, we sketch the actual data protection measures in a large hospital information system, and describe the effects of changes affecting the system, such as increasing use of personal computers, and growing intensity of use of the system. Trends in the development of new and additional systems are indicated, and a summary of possible weak points and gaps in the security is given, some suggestions for improvement are made.

  18. SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE New practices bring lasting food ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-16

    Nov 16, 2010 ... Since 1970, IDRC-supported research has introduced sustainable agricultural practices to farmers and communities across the developing world. The result: higher productivity, less poverty, greater food security, and a healthier environment.

  19. Consumer knowledge, storage, and handling practices regarding Listeria in frankfurters and deli meats: results of a Web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Sheryl C; Morales, Roberta A; Karns, Shawn A; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Kosa, Katherine M; Teneyck, Toby; Moore, Christina M; Cowen, Peter

    2006-07-01

    Proper storage and handling of refrigerated ready-to-eat foods can help reduce the risk of listeriosis. A national Web-based survey was conducted to measure consumer awareness and knowledge of Listeria and to estimate the prevalence of the U.S. Department of Agriculture-recommended consumer storage and handling practices for frankfurters and deli meats. The demographic characteristics of consumers who are unaware of Listeria and who do not follow the recommended storage guidelines were also assessed. In addition, predictive models were developed to determine which consumers engage in risky storage practices. Less than half of the consumers surveyed were aware of Listeria, and most of those aware were unable to identify associated food vehicles. Awareness was lower among adults 60 years of age and older, an at-risk population for listeriosis, and individuals with relatively less education and lower incomes. Most households safely stored and prepared frankfurters. Most households stored unopened packages of vacuum-packed deli meats in the refrigerator within the U.S. Department of Agriculture-recommended storage guidelines (deli meats and freshly sliced deli meats for longer than the recommended time (< or =5 days). Men, more-educated individuals, and individuals living in metropolitan areas were more likely to engage in risky storage practices. This study identified the need to develop targeted educational initiatives on listeriosis prevention.

  20. FOOD ENTREPRENEUR SUSTAINABLE ORIENTATION AND FIRM PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Gagnon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory research examines the relationship between food entrepreneur sustainable orientation, mindset and firm sustainable practices in a mixed methods format. In particular we seek to address if entrepreneur behavior and firm practices are congruent with founding entrepreneur espoused support of sustainability. Our survey findings with thirty specialty food entrepreneurs suggest tenuous empirical support for the relationship of entrepreneur sustainable orientation, mindset and firm sustainable practices. However our qualitative results indicate positive relationships between sustainable orientation, mindset and practices. Evidence from this work highlights the critical role of founding entrepreneurs for successful implementation of sustainability along its multiple fronts including profitability.

  1. Elaboração de roteiro para inspeção das boas práticas de manipulação e comercialização de alimentos no setor informal | Preparation of a roadmap for inspection of good practices in food handling and marketing in the informal sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Cotta Lobo Leite Carneiro

    2017-02-01

    there is a lack of knowledge of handling, hygiene and sanitation techniques, by traders. Thus, the present study aimed to elaborate an itinerary of inspection of good practices of manipulation and informal food marketing. The structured script was based on current legislation and bibliographical references of the area. It was prepared, evaluated in the field and adjusted, post-evaluation, by a team composed of a health surveillance supervisor and the researchers. The script had 26 questions on environmental and structural aspects of trade, food handlers and quality and conditions of exposure and storage of ready-to-eat foods and raw materials for their preparation, as well as fresh foods. This instrument was easy to apply and adequate to evaluate the commercialization. In addition, it has the potential to collaborate with the work of sanitary agents, since it makes it possible to register the main irregularities observed in this segment, besides contributing to a uniform inspection.

  2. Effect of cooking or handling conditions on the furan levels of processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T-K; Lee, Y-K; Park, Y S; Lee, K-G

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of cooking or handling conditions on the concentration of furan in processed foods. The analytical method used to analyse furan levels in foods was optimized based on solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). In baby soups, the concentration of furan decreased by up to 22% after opening a lid for 10 min. In the baby food in retort packaging, the level of furan was reduced by 15-33% after heating the foods at 50 degrees C without a lid. Furan in rice seasonings was evaporated completely after heating the foods at 60 degrees C. Regarding powered milk, the levels of furan were too low to be compared under various conditions. The levels of furan decreased to 58% in beverage products for babies, after storing them at 4 degrees C for 1 day without a lid. The levels of furan in canned foods such as cereal and vegetable were reduced by zero to 52% when they were stored without stirring in a refrigerator at 4 degrees C for 1 day. When we boiled canned fish, the furan present was almost completely evaporated. It is recommended that canned meats be heated up to 50-70 degrees C for the reduction (26-46%) of furan levels. The levels of furan in instant and brewed coffee samples were significantly reduced after storing for 11 to 20 min at room temperature without a lid (p < 0.05).

  3. Regulation and practice of workers' protection from chemical exposures during container handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Fløe Pedersen, Randi; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Ádám, Balázs

    2014-01-01

    instructions relate to container handling, the provided information is not sufficiently detailed to conduct safe practice in many aspects. In accordance with the scientific literature, the interviewees estimate that there is a high frequency (5 to 50%) of containers with hazardous chemical exposure......Background: Fumigation of freight containers to prevent spread of pests and off-gassing of freight are sources of volatile chemicals that may constitute significant health risks when released. The aim of the study was to investigate the regulation and practice of container handling in Denmark...... with focus on preventive measures to reduce risk of chemical exposure. Methods: A comprehensive systematic search of scientific literature, legislation and recommendations related to safe work with transport containers from international and Danish regulatory bodies was performed. The practice of handling...

  4. Effect of handling and processing on pesticide residues in food- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Usha; Sandhu, Kulwant Singh

    2014-02-01

    pesticide. There is diversified information available in literature on the effect of preparation, processing and subsequent handling and storage of foods on pesticide residues which has been compiled in this article.

  5. Food Irradiation Regulations And Code Of Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimba, B.W. Centre For Energy Research And Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria,

    1996-01-01

    Official attitude towards irradiated food is determined by factors such as: level of scientific knowledge, consumer habits, food shortages, agricultural production and technological know-how. To date, 39 countries have accepted the process for one or more food items while 27 nations carry out the process on a commercial basis. Regulations and codes of practice is essential for consumer confidence while uniformity of regulations, at the international level, will enhance international trade in irradiated food items. The internationally accepted Codex Standard on irradiated food and Codes of Practice for the operation of irradiation facilities, adopted in 1983, forms the basis for International regulations and a template for nations in the development of regulations. This paper discusses the basic legal requirements for licensing the process, procedures, facility and the operator and suggests a framework for a national regulation based on experiences of Hungary, Brazil and Israel

  6. Domestic food preparation practices: a review of the reasons for poor home hygiene practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sakkaf, Ali

    2015-09-01

    New Zealand has a much higher rate of reported campylobacteriosis cases than the rest of the developed world. It has been suggested that New Zealanders have worse home hygiene practices during food preparation than the citizens of other developed countries. Thus, it is necessary to recognize and understand the reasons for consumer's poor practices in order to help develop a more effective message to improve New Zealanders' practices in the domestic environment. This could in turn lead to a reduction in the number of campylobacteriosis cases. The objective is to review cited literature on consumer practices which is related to food poisoning and to attempt to list the factors related to poor consumer practice. There are many internationally identifiable reasons for the poor practices of consumers. These reasons include psychological, demographic and socioeconomic variables; personal interest in new information; prior knowledge; cultural influence; educational background; perception of risk, control and liability; and attitude towards the addressed practices or hazards. The results have indicated that 'optimistic bias', the 'illusion of control', habits and lack of knowledge concerning food safety during domestic food preparation are prevalent among consumers. The research indicated the influence of demographic factors (age, gender, level of education, income, work hours, race, location, culture), as they play a potential role in determining domestic food safety behaviour. It appears that all these factors are applicable for New Zealand consumers and should be addressed in any future education strategy aimed at improving New Zealanders' food handling practices. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Sheep pre-slaughter handling practices and their effect on meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gerardo Ríos-Rincón

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspects related to ovine production systems in Mexico were revisited, as well as the relationship between the transport and the ante-mortem handling with ovine welfare and pre slaughter operations. Animals stress evaluation is fundamental importance for this process, where the observation of animal behavior is basic to determinate and understands the scope of this biological phenomenon. Finally, we make reference to two of the main meat quality attributes that can be affected as consequence of non-appropriated handling practice and operations that implies the un-knowledge of animal conduct. The conclusion is that the handling practices previous to slaughter of ovine specie had a considerable influence on carcass quality. In Mexico is important to focus the cattle research on the productive systems improvement in consideration to animal welfare in the different productive process steps.

  8. Food safety knowledge, attitudes and self-reported practices among Ontario high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majowicz, Shannon E; Diplock, Kenneth J; Leatherdale, Scott T; Bredin, Chad T; Rebellato, Steven; Hammond, David; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Dubin, Joel A

    2016-03-16

    To measure the food safety knowledge, attitudes and self-reported practices of high school students in Ontario. We administered a school-wide paper survey to the student body (n = 2,860) of four Ontario high schools. We developed the survey by selecting questions from existing, validated questionnaires, prioritizing questions that aligned with the Canadian Partnership for Consumer Food Safety Education's educational messages and the food safety objectives from the 2013 Ontario High School Curriculum. One in five students reported currently handling food in commercial or public-serving venues; of these, 45.1% had ever taken a course that taught them how to prepare food (e.g., food and nutrition classes, food handler certification). Food safety knowledge among respondents was low. For example, 17.3% knew that the best way to determine whether hamburgers were cooked enough to eat was to measure the temperature with a food thermometer. Despite low knowledge, most respondents (72.7%) reported being confident that they could cook safe, healthy meals for themselves and their families. Safe food handling practices were frequently self-reported. Most students (86.5%) agreed that being able to cook safe, healthy meals was an important life skill, although their interest in learning about safe food handling and concern about foodborne disease were less pronounced. Our findings suggest that food safety knowledge is low, yet confidence in preparing safe, healthy meals is high, among high school students. Because work and volunteer opportunities put students in contact with both the public and food, this group is important to target for increased education about safe food handling.

  9. Norovirus Transmission between Hands, Gloves, Utensils, and Fresh Produce during Simulated Food Handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, E.; Mikkelä, A.; Ranta, J.; Tuominen, P.; Rättö, M.; Maunula, L.

    2014-01-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs), a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide, are easily transferred via ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, often prepared by infected food handlers. In this study, the transmission of HuNoV and murine norovirus (MuNoV) from virus-contaminated hands to latex gloves during gloving, as well as from virus-contaminated donor surfaces to recipient surfaces after simulated preparation of cucumber sandwiches, was inspected. Virus transfer was investigated by swabbing with polyester swabs, followed by nucleic acid extraction from the swabs with a commercial kit and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. During gloving, transfer of MuNoV dried on the hand was observed 10/12 times. HuNoV, dried on latex gloves, was disseminated to clean pairs of gloves 10/12 times, whereas HuNoV without drying was disseminated 11/12 times. In the sandwich-preparing simulation, both viruses were transferred repeatedly to the first recipient surface (left hand, cucumber, and knife) during the preparation. Both MuNoV and HuNoV were transferred more efficiently from latex gloves to cucumbers (1.2% ± 0.6% and 1.5% ± 1.9%) than vice versa (0.7% ± 0.5% and 0.5% ± 0.4%). We estimated that transfer of at least one infective HuNoV from contaminated hands to the sandwich prepared was likely to occur if the hands of the food handler contained 3 log10 or more HuNoVs before gloving. Virus-contaminated gloves were estimated to transfer HuNoV to the food servings more efficiently than a single contaminated cucumber during handling. Our results indicate that virus-free food ingredients and good hand hygiene are needed to prevent HuNoV contamination of RTE foods. PMID:24951789

  10. Effect of Education by Text Messaging Based on Health Belief Model on Food Handling Behaviors in Health Volunteers\\' Yazd City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Morowatisharifabad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The text message can be presented as a way to change patterns of behavior-based prevention programs, such as the theory of planned behavior and health belief model to be used., And as an alternative approach to the individual and group training programs should be considered. The present study examined the effectiveness of this new method in promoting food handling behavior of a team of health volunteers on health belief model was based. Methods: This study was an evaluation of an intervention in which 16 health centers, 200 health volunteers who were actively involved Yazd city who were randomly divided into two groups. After the initial test, chi-square test, t test were analyzed. The intervention group received an educational package on the SMS regarding  food handling behavior on health Belief Model was designed for codification; wantonly within a month and a half a day and after 8 weeks of the last SMS sent from any intervention and control groups was performed in a secondary assessment. Tool for data gathering questionnaire consisting of structures of health belief model including demographic variables, respectively. Data were using 18spss and employing applied, statistical tests of non-parametric Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-square and correlation coefficient the analysis was. Results: The overall food handling behavior, after training significantly increased in the intervention group (p =0/01, while the control group was not significant (p=0/21. Cooling behavior after training in the experimental group and the control group was significantly increased (p =0/00. Cooking behavior, after training in the intervention group (p =0/11 and control group( p =0/17 was not significantly increased. Individual health behavior, after training in the intervention group (p =0/13 and control group (p =0/07 was not significantly increased. Separation behavior after training has not significantly increased in the

  11. Handling Diversity of Visions and Priorities in Food Chain Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Galli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Food chain sustainability assessment is challenging on several grounds. Handling knowledge and information on sustainability performance and coping with the diversity of visions around “what counts as sustainable food” are two key issues addressed by this study. By developing a comparative case study on local, regional and global wheat-to-bread chains, and confronting the multidimensionality of sustainability, this work focuses on the differing visions and perspectives of stakeholders. We integrate qualitative and quantitative data, stakeholder consultation and multi-criteria analysis to align the visions and the multiple meanings of sustainability. Because of the complexity and the dynamicity of the food system, the multidimensionality of the sustainability concept and its pliability to stakeholders priorities, sustainability is an object of competition for firms in the agro-food sector and has major implications in the governance of food chains. Results identify key propositions in relation to: (i the value of combining science-led evidence with socio-cultural values; (ii multidimensional sustainability assessment as a self diagnosis tool; and (iii the need to identify shared assessment criteria by communities of reference.

  12. A survey on knowledge and self-reported formula handling practices of parents and child care workers in Palermo, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mammina Caterina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Powdered infant formula (PIF is not a sterile product, but this information appears to be poorly diffused among child caregivers. Parents and child care workers may behave in an unsafe manner when handling PIF. Methods This study involved parents and child care workers in the 24 municipal child care centres of Palermo. Knowledge and self-reported practices about PIF handling were investigated by a structured questionnaire. A Likert scale was used to measure the strength of the respondent's feelings. Association of knowledge and self-reported practices with demographic variables was also evaluated. Results 42.4% of parents and 71.0% of child care workers filled in the questionnaire. Significant differences were found between parents and child care workers for age and education. 73.2% of parents and 84.4% of child care workers were confident in sterility of PIF. Generally, adherence to safe procedures when reconstituting and handling PIF was more frequently reported by child care workers who, according to the existing legislation, are regularly subjected to a periodic training on food safety principles and practices. Age and education significantly influenced the answers to the questionnaire of both parents and child care workers. Conclusion The results of the study reveal that parents and child care workers are generally unaware that powdered formulas may contain viable microorganisms. However, child care workers consistently chose safer options than parents when answering the questions about adherence to hygienic practices. At present it seems unfeasible to produce sterile PIF, but the risk of growth of hazardous organisms in formula at the time of administration should be minimized by promoting safer behaviours among caregivers to infants in both institutional settings and home.

  13. Milk postharvest handling practices across the supply chain in Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadele Amentie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to assess hygienic cow milk handling practices of milk producers, traders (informal collectors, transporters and vendors and consumers across the milk supply chain in the Eastern Ethiopia. Materials and methods: A total of 160 milk producers in Babile district were selected using multistage stratified sampling technique. Moreover, a total of 54 milk collectors and transporters (5, 40, 9 from Jigjiga, Harar and Dire Dawa town, respectively, 152 vendors (40 from Bable, Harar and Dire Dawa town and 32 from Jigjiga town and 160 consumers (40 from each town were selected using snowball sampling technique. Data from the selected actors were collected using focus group discussion, questionnaire survey and observations. Results: The study revealed that the majority of milk handling operations in the study area is carried out by females. The majority of respondent milk producers (87.5-92.5%, collectors and transporters (88.9-100%, vendors (77.5-90.7% and some consumers (37.5-47.5% performing milk handling operations were illiterate. Most of the observed actors in the study area perform malpractices (such as failure to stop milk handling while showing disease symptoms, improper hand washing and handling of risk factors while working with milk. Majority of respondent milk producers (87.5-97.5%, all traders and some consumers (12.5-32.5% use plastic containers for milk handling. Milk handling equipments were commonly washed using warm water, detergent and sand; however, in most case they were not properly protected from risk factors after washing. Majority of respondent milk producers (55-65%, collectors and transporters (60-66.7%, and some vendors (0-50% and consumers (0-55% use water from non-tap sources for hygienic practices. Conclusion: In general; the findings indicated that milk handling practices performed across the supply chain in the study area were unhygienic and therefore suggested the need for improving

  14. Food nutrition labelling practice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yexuan; Li, Ji; Lo, Y Martin; Tang, Qingya; Wang, Youfa

    2011-03-01

    The present study aimed to scrutinize the food nutrition labelling practice in China before the Chinese Food Nutrition Labeling Regulation (CFNLR) era. Nutrition information of pre-packaged foods collected from a supermarket between December 2007 and January 2008 was analysed and compared with findings from a survey conducted in Beijing. Information collected from a supermarket in Shanghai. A total of 850 pre-packaged foods. In the Shanghai survey, the overall labelling rate was 30·9 %, similar to that found in the Beijing study (29·7 %). While only 20·5 % of the snacks in Shanghai had nutrition labelling, the percentage of food items labelled with SFA (8·6 %), trans fatty acid (4·7 %) or fibre (12·1 %) was very low. Of those food items with nutrition labels, a considerable proportion (7-15 %) did not label energy, fat, carbohydrate or protein. Food products manufactured by Taiwan and Hong Kong companies had a lower labelling rate (13·6 %) than those manufactured by domestic (31·6 %) or international manufacturers (33·8 %). The very low food nutrition labelling rate among products sold in large chain supermarkets in major cities of China before CFNLR emphasizes the need for such critical regulations to be implemented in order to reinforce industrial compliance with accurate nutrition labelling.

  15. Observational study of food safety practices in retail deli departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubran, M B; Pouillot, R; Bohm, S; Calvey, E M; Meng, J; Dennis, S

    2010-10-01

    In order to improve the safety of refrigerated ready-to-eat food products prepared at retail deli departments, a better understanding of current practices in these establishments is needed. Food employees in deli departments at six chain and three independent retail establishments in Maryland and Virginia were observed, using notational analysis, as they prepared deli products for sale. The frequency of contact with objects and deli products before sale, hand washing and glove changing during preparation, and equipment, utensil, and surface cleaning and sanitizing was determined. Compliance with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 2005 model Food Code recommendations, which must be adopted by the individual state and local jurisdictions that are responsible for directly regulating retail establishments, was also assessed. Observations indicated there were a large number of actions for which hand washing was recommended at independent and chain stores (273 recommended of 1,098 total actions and 439 recommended of 3,073 total actions, respectively). Moreover, 67% (295 of 439) of the actions for which hand washing was recommended at the chain stores and 86% (235 of 273) of those at the independent stores resulted from employees touching non-food contact surfaces prior to handling ready-to-eat food. Compliance with hand washing recommendations was generally low and varied depending on store type with independent stores exhibiting lower compliance than chain stores (5 instances of compliance for 273 recommended actions and 73 instances of compliance for 439 recommended actions, respectively). Potential risk mitigation measures that may reduce the frequency of hand washing actions needed during ready-to-eat food preparation in retail deli departments are discussed. More research is needed to determine the impact of such measures on food safety.

  16. Food Leftover Practices among Consumers in Selected Countries in Europe, South and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri; Higa, Federica; Godwin, Sandria; Gutierrez, Nelson; Shalimov, Roman; Cardinal, Paula; Di Donfrancesco, Brizio; Sosa, Miriam; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A; Timberg, Loreida; Chambers, Edgar

    2016-09-21

    Foodborne illnesses may be related to many food production factors with home practices of consumers playing an important role in food safety. Consumer behavior for handling food leftovers has been studied, however little work on comparisons among countries has been published. The objective of this study was to investigate home food leftover practices of people from North American, South American, and European countries. Surveys were conducted with approximately 100 or more consumers in Argentina, Colombia, the United States, Estonia, Italy, Russia, and Spain. The participants responded to questions related to the length of time different types of food leftovers; such as meat, fresh salads, or restaurant dishes would be kept refrigerated or would be left at room temperature before refrigeration. Researchers also investigated how consumers would determine if the food was still safe for consumption. Potentially risky behaviors were observed in all seven countries. For instance, 55.8% of Estonians, 25% of Russians and 25.8% of Argentinean participants left food out at room temperature for several hours before storing in the refrigerator. Furthermore, 25%-29% of Colombian, Estonian, and Spanish consumers would look, smell, and taste leftovers to determine its probable safety. Correct handling of leftovers is an important aspect of consumer food safety. Although the surveys cannot be representative of all consumers in each country, they do provide an initial overview of comparative practices for handling leftovers among different countries. This provides government and educators with information on potential universal and unique consumer food safety issues related to handling leftover foods among various countries.

  17. Gender difference in safe and unsafe practice of pesticide handling in tobacco farmers of malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Nordin, R; Araki, S; Sato, H; Yokoyama, K; Bin Wan Muda, W A; Win Kyi, D

    2001-01-01

    To identify gender difference in safe and unsafe practice of pesticide handling in tobacco farmers of Malaysia, we conducted a 20-item questionnaire interview on storage of pesticide (4 questions), mixing of pesticide (3 questions), use of personal protective equipment and clothing while spraying pesticide (7 questions), activities during and after spraying of pesticide (5 questions), and maintenance of pesticide sprayer (1 question) in 496 tobacco farmers (395 males and 101 females) in Bachok District, Kelantan, Malaysia. Duration of employment was significantly longer in females than those in males (pwork habit, (3) reading and following instructions on pesticide label, (4) security, storage and disposal of pesticide container, (5) safe work habit, (6) proper handling of pesticide and maintenance of pesticide sprayer, (7) use of personal protective clothing, and (8) safe handling of pesticide. Results of analysis of covariance for the eight factor scores of all male and female farmers, controlling for educational level and duration of employment, showed that: (1) factor scores for use of personal protective equipment (pwork habit (p0.05). We therefore conclude that: (1) for female tobacco farmers, choice of personal attire tend to result in lower scores on use of personal protective equipment and personal protective clothing while personal hygiene practices result in lower score on safe work habit; and, (2) for male tobacco farmers, the lower scores on reading and following instruction on pesticide label and mixing pesticide and maintenance of pesticide sprayer in good condition suggests that they were not primarily involved in these activities. It is postulated that these differences in safe and unsafe practices of pesticide handling across gender is related to the choice of personal attire, personal hygiene practices and division of labour within farming households which in turn is influenced by prevailing sociocultural norms in the community.

  18. Influence of Handling Practices on Material Recovery from Residential Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo F. Pereira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Material recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW is becoming widely adopted in several developing countries. Residential solid waste is one of the most important components of MSW and the handling practices of the MSW by the generators have a major impact on the quality and quantity of the materials for recovery. This article analyzes the generation and composition of residential solid waste and the handling practices by users in three municipalities in Colombia that have a solid waste management plant (SWMP. The findings show that, although there are significant amounts of useful materials, their handling of the materials as “garbage”, the low recognition of recovery work, and the inadequate storage and source management practices, affect material recovery and the operation of SWMPs. These results may be taken as a reference for this type of municipality, because the solid waste management system and the type of operation of the SWMPs analyzed is similar to all of the SWMPs in the country as well as in other countries in the region.

  19. The impact of food manufacturing practices on food borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Paiva de Sousa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne illness is a major international problem and an important cause of reduced economic growth. The contamination of the food supply with the pathogens and its persistence, growth, multiplication and/or toxin production has emerged as an important public health concern. Most of these problems could be controlled with the efforts on the part of the food handlers, whether in a processing plant, a restaurant, and others. In contrast with most chemical hazardous compounds, the concentration of food pathogens changes during the processing, storage, and meal preparation, making it difficult to estimate the number of the microorganisms or the concentration of their toxins at the time of ingestion by the consumer. This review shows main microorganisms related to the manipulation practices such as Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. and describes the factors regarding the food-borne illness highlighting the impact of good manipulation practices on the food safety and food quality.Doenças veiculadas por alimentos são um dos maiores problemas de Saúde Pública no mundo, sendo responsáveis por reduções no crescimento econômico global. A contaminação de alimentos com patógenos e sua persistência, crescimento, multiplicação e/ou produção de toxinas é de interesse da Saúde Pública. Estes problemas podem ser controlados com esforços e treinamento constante de manipuladores de alimentos. Em contraste com perigos químicos e físicos, a concentração de patógenos em alimentos é modificada durante etapas de processamento, acondicionamento e preparação, tornando difícil estimar e quantificar o número de microrganismos ou a concentração de suas toxinas no momento da ingestão do alimento. Esta revisão comenta sobre os principais microrganismos bacterianos relacionados à práticas de manipulação como Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli e Salmonella spp. ressaltando o consumo de alimentos em ruas, o

  20. Children of Stalingrad: Wartime Food Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryblova Marina Aleksandrovna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article gives analysis of food practices of children in Stalingrad during the War, based on an earlier published memories and also results of 264 interviews of Volgograd and Volgograd region citizens, whose childhood took place during the Great Patriotic War. Based on historical and anthropological approach, this study reveals and characterizes dramatic changes, which took place in those children’ dietary ration, methods of getting food, its processing and consumption during their life in the city ruined by bombardments, sieged and later occupied by enemy forces. The conducted analysis revealed that in most cases children of Stalingrad copied the experience of adults in their attempts to get food for themselves and provide it to their relatives. So, in a wide use there were such deviant practices of survival as marauding and stealing; archaic feeding methods as gathering and natural economy revival; and feeding anomalies as eating for such products that have been never used in the past. At the same time experience of previous generations who lived through wars and hunger and who preserved in their collective memory information about folk traditions of survival in the extreme circumstances, has been preserved and actualized in the life support system of all Stalingrad citizens. At the war time food practices of Stalingrad citizens downgraded were often to the level of simple physical satisfaction, traditions of feats settings were curtailed, and rules and restrictions related to the previous had disappeared. But even in difficult conditions of ruined and sieged city Stalingrad citizens and their children widely used methods and ways of hunger and its effects overcoming, that were formed in the Russian national environment, i.e. neighbours mutual aid traditions, caring attitude towards food, and methods of its search and consumption.

  1. Interpretation of food risks by mothers of kindergarten children in St.Petersburg, Russia, and their strategies of risk handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromasheva, O.

    2012-01-01

    This study discusses different types of food risks and different strategies of risk handling as conceived by mothers of kindergarten children in Russia. The research includes an analysis of Internet forum discussions and semi-structured interviews; it mainly used data from well-educated,

  2. 78 FR 27303 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ...-0178] Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron... electron beam and x-ray sources for irradiation of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. This action... CFR part 579) to provide for the safe use of electron beam and x-ray sources for irradiation of...

  3. 78 FR 34565 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... style for the strength units describing radiation sources. This correction is being made to improve the...). That document used incorrect style for the strength units describing radiation sources. This correction... HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD 0 1. The authority citation for 21 CFR part 579 continues to read as...

  4. Survey of postharvest handling, preservation and processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey of postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices along the camel milk chain in Isiolo district, Kenya. ... Despite the important contribution of camel milk to food security for pastoralists in Kenya, little is known about the postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices. In this study, existing ...

  5. Practical application of food irradiation in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.; Erhan, I.C.

    2002-01-01

    Turkey is the world's leading producer and exporter of dried fruits (dried figs, raisins,and dried apricots etc.) and nuts (hazelnuts, wall nuts, pistachios, peanuts etc.) all of which have to be fumigated by methyl bromide a few times prior to export. Last fumigation is obligatory before shipment according to current quarantine treatment. Methyl Bromide (MeBr) fumigation is the most commonly used insect quarantine treatment for dried fruits and nuts in Turkey to protect from potential infestations. In accordance with the Montreal Protocol, Turkey as an Article 5(1) country will take actions to regulate and take measures to phase-out MeBr use. So, Turkey has to total phase-out in 2015 but according to Turkey MeBr Phase-out Action Plan prepared and published by The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural affairs in 2001, using MeBr should be reduced for stored commodities by 50 % by 2002 and phased-out totally by 2004. Irradiation technology is ready as an alternative to MeBr fumigation under the Action Plan of Turkey. Intensive research studies on food irradiation in Turkey have started in early 1970's and have still been continued. After careful and intensive works of all related authorities and specialists for a long period and with the help of ICGFI, the food irradiation regulation of Turkey was published in Official Newspaper on November 6, 1999. Having the Food Irradiation Regulation has supported to initiate commercialization study in Turkey in Co-operation with IAEA (TUR 5022). Feasibility study of a commercial food irradiation facility for the potential application of food irradiation in Turkey was prepared by IAEA experts Dr.M.Ahmed and Ir. J.P.Lacroix and together with TUR 5022 Research Team in April 2001 in Izmir, Turkey. Gamma-Pak Irradiation Facility in Cerkeskoy-Tekirdag got the commercial food irradiation licence and registration certificate in Feb. 2002. Practical application of food irradiation is getting more attraction in Turkey in parallel with other

  6. GOOD PRACTICES FOR SUSTAINABLE URBAN FOOD POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Elena NICOLESCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper, based on the coordinates of the problems triggered by the negative externalities chain generated by the poor food supply and production system at the level of the urban collectivities, carries out an analysis focused on the identification of the tools, mechanisms, and good practices needed to ensure the sustainability of the local policies on public nutrition. The experiences in the field show that the progress is remarkable in the case of collaborative administrations aimed at enhancing the cooperation and partnership relations, based on common interests, on both internal and international collaboration level, such as The Milan Urban Food Policy Pact (2015. From this perspective, the paper presents a case study, a significant experience of improving the food supply system of Bucharest population, through local public nutrition policy and the public action set implemented by Bucharest local authorities with the support of State public bodies and the representatives of civil society, materialized in the establishment of peasant markets as flea markets on the territory of Bucharest.

  7. Hygiene practices among street food vendors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    giene regulations to keep street food save for consumers. Journal of Medical ... UDS Publishers Limited All Right Reserved 2026-6294 ... authorities to enforce food safety regulations, unlike .... (50%) school food vendors sampled in Konongo.

  8. Chemotherapy drug handling in first opinion small animal veterinary practices in the United Kingdom: results of a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edery, E G

    2017-05-27

    To investigate how first opinion small animal veterinary surgeons in the UK handled chemotherapeutic agents, a questionnaire was distributed at the 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association congress and by internet. Chemotherapy was regularly offered by 70.4 per cent of the respondents. Gold standards defined according to available guidelines for safe handling of antineoplastic drugs were poorly followed by general practitioners with only 2 per cent of respondents complying with all of them. Dedicated facilities for preparation and administration of cytotoxic drugs were variably available among participants. The level of training of staff indirectly involved in handling chemotherapy was appropriate in less than 50 per cent of practices. No association was found between demographic characteristics of the sampled population and the decision to perform chemotherapy. The results of this study raise concerns about the safety of the veterinary staff in first opinion practices involved in handling chemotherapy. British Veterinary Association.

  9. Healthy food access for urban food desert residents: examination of the food environment, food purchasing practices, diet and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Zenk, Shannon N; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Cohen, Deborah A; Beckman, Robin; Hunter, Gerald; Steiner, Elizabeth D; Collins, Rebecca L

    2015-08-01

    To provide a richer understanding of food access and purchasing practices among US urban food desert residents and their association with diet and BMI. Data on food purchasing practices, dietary intake, height and weight from the primary food shopper in randomly selected households (n 1372) were collected. Audits of all neighbourhood food stores (n 24) and the most-frequented stores outside the neighbourhood (n 16) were conducted. Aspects of food access and purchasing practices and relationships among them were examined and tests of their associations with dietary quality and BMI were conducted. Two low-income, predominantly African-American neighbourhoods with limited access to healthy food in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Household food shoppers. Only one neighbourhood outlet sold fresh produce; nearly all respondents did major food shopping outside the neighbourhood. Although the nearest full-service supermarket was an average of 2·6 km from their home, respondents shopped an average of 6·0 km from home. The average trip was by car, took approximately 2 h for the round trip, and occurred two to four times per month. Respondents spent approximately $US 37 per person per week on food. Those who made longer trips had access to cars, shopped less often and spent less money per person. Those who travelled further when they shopped had higher BMI, but most residents already shopped where healthy foods were available, and physical distance from full-service supermarkets was unrelated to weight or dietary quality. Improved access to healthy foods is the target of current policies meant to improve health. However, distance to the closest supermarket might not be as important as previously thought, and thus policy and interventions that focus merely on improving access may not be effective.

  10. Food packaging and shelf life: a practical guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robertson, Gordon L

    2010-01-01

    .... Food Packaging and Shelf Life: A Practical Guide provides package developers with the information they need to specify just the right amount of protective packaging to maintain food quality and maximize shelf life...

  11. Effects of the European Community directive on lifting and handling practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docker, S M

    1993-07-01

    The new legislation on lifting and handling requires the application of ergonomic principles to manual handling operations. A written assessment is required for all unavoidable manual handling operations which involve the risk of injury to employees. Employers are now expected to provide equipment to enable staff to avoid lifting heavy loads.

  12. Viral agents that cause infection through the consumption and handling of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Murillo, Ileana

    2014-01-01

    Viral agents: Norovirus, Rotavirus, Hepatitis A and E, Nipah virus, highly pathogenic avian influenza and coronavirus that cause the SARS are studied as protagonists in the production of food-borne infectious processes. The most common sources of pollution, viral characteristics that influence the control, routes, methods of detection and prevention of pathogens in food are analyzed. Methodological techniques are investigated to improve early detection of viral pathogens in food, control measures and prevention of food contamination [es

  13. Food Safety Knowledge and Practices of Older Adult Participants of the Food Stamp Nutrition Education Program

    OpenAIRE

    Rasnake, Crystal Michelle

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine food safety knowledge and practices of older adult participants in the Food Stamp Nutrition Education Program (FSNEP) in Virginia. One hundred and sixty-five FSNEP participants were assigned to two possible intervention groups, group one received the food safety lesson from the Healthy Futures Series currently used in FSNEP, while group two received the food safety lesson plus an additional food safety video. FSNEP participants completed food safet...

  14. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of food handlers in food safety: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Laís Mariano; da Cunha, Diogo Thimoteo; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera; Capriles, Vanessa Dias; Stedefeldt, Elke

    2017-10-01

    This study presents an overview of the relationship between knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of food handlers with training in food safety, in addition to proposing reflections on the training of food handlers, considering its responsibility for food safety and health of consumers. The review was based on the integrative method. The descriptors used were: (food handler), (knowledge, attitudes and practice) and (training). Six databases were searched, 253 articles were consulted and 36 original articles were included. Fifty per cent of the articles pointed that there was no proper translation of knowledge into attitudes/practices or attitudes into practices after training. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of food handlers are important for identifying how efficient training in food safety is allowing prioritize actions in planning training. The evaluation of KAP is the first step to understand the food handler's point of view. After this evaluation other diagnostic strategies become necessary to enhance this understanding. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. 21 CFR 58.107 - Test and control article handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Test and control article handling. 58.107 Section... GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Test and Control Articles § 58.107 Test and control article handling. Procedures shall be established for a system for the handling of the test and...

  16. Regulatory inspection practices for industrial safety (electrical, mechanical, material handling and conventional aspects)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, K.

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory Inspection (RI) of BARC facilities and projects are carried out under the guidance of BARC Safety Council (BSC) Secretariat. Basically facilities and projects have been divided into two board categories viz. radiological facilities and non-radiological facilities. The Rls of radiological facilities should be carried out under OPSRC and of non-radiological facilities under CFSRC. Periodicity of inspection shall be at least once in a year. The RI of projects is carried out under concerned DSRC. RI practices with industrial safety which includes electrical, mechanical, material handling and conventional aspect for these facilities starts with check lists. The inspection areas are prepared in the form of checklists which includes availability of approved documents, compliance status of previous RIT and various safety committee's recommendations, radiological status of facilities, prompt reporting of safety related unusual occurrences, major incident, site visit for verification of actual status of system/plant. The practices for inspection in the area of electrical safety shall include checking of maintenance procedure for all critical class IV system equipment's such as HT panel, LT panel, transformer and motors. Load testing of Class III system such as D.G. set etc. shall be carried out as technical specification surveillance schedule. Status of aviation lights, number of qualified staff, availability of qualified staff etc. shall be form of inspection

  17. Knowledge and practice of food hygiene and safety among food handlers in fast food restaurants in Benin City, Edo State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isara, A R; Isah, E C

    2009-09-01

    To assess the knowledge and practice of food hygiene and safety among food handlers in fast food restaurants in Benin City, Edo State. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 350 respondents who were selected by means of a systematic sampling method and interviewed using a semi-structured researcher-administered questionnaire. An observational checklist was thereafter used to inspect their personal hygiene status. The mean age of the food handlers was 26.4 +/- 6.1 years. Two hundred and twenty eight (65.1%) were females while 34.9% were males. A majority (98%) of the respondents had formal education. There was good knowledge and practice of food hygiene and safety among the respondents. Knowledge was significantly influenced by previous training in food hygiene and safety (p = 0.002). Food handlers who had worked for longer years in the fast food restaurants had better practice of food hygiene and safety (p = 0.036). The level of education of respondents did not significantly influenced their practice of food hygiene and safety (p = 0.084). Although, 299 (85.4%) food handlers were generally clean, skin lesions was seen in 4 (7.3%) of them. This study showed good knowledge and practice of food hygiene and safety by food handlers in the fast food restaurants in Benin City, but there is need for improvement through training and retraining of food handlers by the management of the restaurants and the local government authorities.

  18. Prerequisite programs and food hygiene in hospitals: food safety knowledge and practices of food service staff in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Murat; Temel, Mehtap Akçil; Ersun, Azmi Safak; Kivanç, Gökhan

    2005-04-01

    Our objective was to determine food safety practices related to prerequisite program implementation in hospital food services in Turkey. Staff often lack basic food hygiene knowledge. Problems of implementing HACCP and prerequisite programs in hospitals include lack of food hygiene management training, lack of financial resources, and inadequate equipment and environment.

  19. Food for talk: discursive identities, food choice and eating practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneijder, P.W.J.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the construction and use of identities in food interaction. Insights from discursive psychology and conversation analysis are drawn upon to examine the interactional functions of identities in online food talk.Discursive psychology (DP) explores how psychological

  20. Family food talk, child eating behavior, and maternal feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Elizabeth; Viechnicki, Gail B; Retzloff, Lauren B; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Lumeng, Julie C; Miller, Alison L

    2017-10-01

    Families discuss food and eating in many ways that may shape child eating habits. Researchers studying how families talk about food have examined this process during meals. Little work has examined parent-child food-related interactions outside of mealtime. We assessed family food talk at home outside of mealtime and tested whether food talk was associated with obesogenic child eating behaviors, maternal feeding practices, or child weight. Preschool and school-aged mother-child dyads (n = 61) participated in naturalistic voice recording using a LENA (Language ENvironment Analysis) recorder. A coding scheme was developed to reliably characterize different types of food talk from LENA transcripts. Mothers completed the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) and Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) to assess child eating behaviors and maternal feeding practices. Child weight and height were measured and body mass index z-score (BMIz) calculated. Bivariate associations among food talk types, as a proportion of total speech, were examined and multivariate regression models used to test associations between food talk and child eating behaviors, maternal feeding practices, and child BMIz. Proportion of child Overall Food Talk and Food Explanations were positively associated with CEBQ Food Responsiveness and Enjoyment of Food (p's < 0.05). Child food Desire/Need and child Prep/Planning talk were positively associated with CEBQ Enjoyment of Food (p < 0.05). Child Food Enjoyment talk and mother Overt Restriction talk were positively associated with CEBQ Emotional Over-Eating (p < 0.05). Mother Monitoring talk was positively associated with CFQ Restriction (p < 0.05). Mother Prep/Planning talk was negatively associated with child BMIz. Food talk outside of mealtimes related to child obesogenic eating behaviors and feeding practices in expected ways; examining food talk outside of meals is a novel way to consider feeding practices and child eating behavior

  1. Listening to food workers: Factors that impact proper health and hygiene practice in food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Megan L; Clegg Smith, Katherine; Neff, Roni A; Pollack, Keshia M; Ensminger, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne disease is a significant problem worldwide. Research exploring sources of outbreaks indicates a pronounced role for food workers' improper health and hygiene practice. To investigate food workers' perceptions of factors that impact proper food safety practice. Interviews with food service workers in Baltimore, MD, USA discussing food safety practices and factors that impact implementation in the workplace. A social ecological model organizes multiple levels of influence on health and hygiene behavior. Issues raised by interviewees include factors across the five levels of the social ecological model, and confirm findings from previous work. Interviews also reveal many factors not highlighted in prior work, including issues with food service policies and procedures, working conditions (e.g., pay and benefits), community resources, and state and federal policies. Food safety interventions should adopt an ecological orientation that accounts for factors at multiple levels, including workers' social and structural context, that impact food safety practice.

  2. Irradiation in the production, processing and handling of food. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of a 4.5 kilogray (kGy) maximum absorbed dose of ionizing radiation to treat unrefrigerated (as well as refrigerated) uncooked meat, meat byproducts, and certain meat food products to reduce levels of foodborne pathogens and extend shelf life. This action is in response to a petition filed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA/FSIS).

  3. Minor corral changes and adoption of good handling practices can improve the behavior and reduce cortisol release in Nellore cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Maria Lúcia Pereira; Negrão, João Alberto; de Paz, Claudia Cristina Paro; Grandin, Temple

    2018-03-01

    Inadequate corral facilities and improper handling are major causes of stress in beef cattle. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of minor changes in the corral and adoption of good handling practices on the behavior, cortisol release, and time spent taking blood samples in Nellore cows. Minor corral changes included obstructing the cow's vision when the handler walked deep into the animal's flight zone and the elimination of bright objects, color contrasts, puddles, shadows, and darkness in the corral. Handling was improved by eliminating dogs, electric goads (prods), and yelling, as well as adopting a calm behavior. A total of 141 Nellore cows from two typical extensive livestock farms were studied. The cows were evaluated individually before and after the corral changes. Blood samples were collected in the restraint device for cortisol measurement. The minor corral changes and the adoption of good handling practices result in better results for all variables studied. The results showed differences in the interactions between treatment and ranch for chute score (P = 0.0091) and exit score (P good handling practices were effective in improving cow behavior in the chute and in reducing exit velocity, cortisol released, and the time spent taking blood samples.

  4. Remote handling of JET in-torus components. A practical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, S.; Brade, R.; Edwards, P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarises the experiences gained from the extensive handling of JET components inside the torus. The problems involved with handling components not designed to be remotely handled and the methods used to overcome them are described and discussed with specific examples from recent JET remote operations. The method employed for remotely producing structural TIG welds is explained. The problems of dextrous manipulation in an inverted attitude are discussed and the methods of amelioration are described

  5. Food superstition, feeding practices and nutritional anthropometry of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food superstitions were held on foods like fufu, beans, snail, cocoa drink, okro, dika nut, etc. Conclusively, this research has revealed that 29% acknowledged that there is still an existence of food superstition among pregnant women that attend ante-natal in UNTH Ituku/Ozalla and about 19% of them still practice it.

  6. A mixed methods study of food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs in Hispanic families with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, Kristen M; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K; Perry, Christina; Albrecht, Julie A

    2014-12-01

    Children are at a higher risk for foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to explore food safety knowledge, beliefs and practices among Hispanic families with young children (≤10 years of age) living within a Midwestern state. A convergent mixed methods design collected qualitative and quantitative data in parallel. Food safety knowledge surveys were administered (n = 90) prior to exploration of beliefs and practices among six focus groups (n = 52) conducted by bilingual interpreters in community sites in five cities/towns. Descriptive statistics determined knowledge scores and thematic coding unveiled beliefs and practices. Data sets were merged to assess concordance. Participants were female (96%), 35.7 (±7.6) years of age, from Mexico (69%), with the majority having a low education level. Food safety knowledge was low (56% ± 11). Focus group themes were: Ethnic dishes popular, Relating food to illness, Fresh food in home country, Food safety practices, and Face to face learning. Mixed method analysis revealed high self confidence in preparing food safely with low safe food handling knowledge and the presence of some cultural beliefs. On-site Spanish classes and materials were preferred venues for food safety education. Bilingual food safety messaging targeting common ethnic foods and cultural beliefs and practices is indicated to lower the risk of foodborne illness in Hispanic families with young children. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Examining the predictive utility of an extended theory of planned behaviour model in the context of specific individual safe food-handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Barbara; Allom, Vanessa; Sainsbury, Kirby; Monds, Lauren A

    2015-07-01

    In order to minimise the occurrence of food-borne illness, it is recommended that individuals perform safe food-handling behaviours, such as cooking food properly, cleaning hands and surfaces before preparing food, keeping food at the correct temperature, and avoiding unsafe foods. Previous research examining the determinants of safe food-handling behaviour has produced mixed results; however, this may be due to the fact that this research examined these behaviours as a totality, rather than considering the determinants of each behaviour separately. As such, the objective for the present study was to examine the predictors of the four aforementioned safe food-handling behaviours by applying an extended theory of planned behaviour to the prediction of each distinct behaviour. Participants were 170 students who completed theory of planned behaviour measures, with the addition of moral norm and habit strength at time 1, and behaviour measures one week later. While the influence of injunctive and descriptive norm and perceived behavioural control differed between behaviours, it appeared that moral norm was an important predictor of intention to engage in each of the four behaviours. Similarly, habit strength was an important predictor of each of the behaviours and moderated the relationship between intention and behaviour for the behaviour of avoiding unsafe food. The implication of these findings is that examining safe food-handling behaviours separately, rather than as a totality, may result in meaningful distinctions between the predictors of these behaviours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Food skills confidence and household gatekeepers' dietary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Melissa; Reid, Mike; Worsley, Anthony; Mavondo, Felix

    2017-01-01

    Household food gatekeepers have the potential to influence the food attitudes and behaviours of family members, as they are mainly responsible for food-related tasks in the home. The aim of this study was to determine the role of gatekeepers' confidence in food-related skills and nutrition knowledge on food practices in the home. An online survey was completed by 1059 Australian dietary gatekeepers selected from the Global Market Insite (GMI) research database. Participants responded to questions about food acquisition and preparation behaviours, the home eating environment, perceptions and attitudes towards food, and demographics. Two-step cluster analysis was used to identify groups based on confidence regarding food skills and nutrition knowledge. Chi-square tests and one-way ANOVAs were used to compare the groups on the dependent variables. Three groups were identified: low confidence, moderate confidence and high confidence. Gatekeepers in the highest confidence group were significantly more likely to report lower body mass index (BMI), and indicate higher importance of fresh food products, vegetable prominence in meals, product information use, meal planning, perceived behavioural control and overall diet satisfaction. Gatekeepers in the lowest confidence group were significantly more likely to indicate more perceived barriers to healthy eating, report more time constraints and more impulse purchasing practices, and higher convenience ingredient use. Other smaller associations were also found. Household food gatekeepers with high food skills confidence were more likely to engage in several healthy food practices, while those with low food skills confidence were more likely to engage in unhealthy food practices. Food education strategies aimed at building food-skills and nutrition knowledge will enable current and future gatekeepers to make healthier food decisions for themselves and for their families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 77 FR 34212 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ...: Celeste Johnston, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-265), Food and Drug Administration... Salmonella growth. According to the study's results, the recovery of viable Salmonella bacteria from the... recovery of Salmonella from control oranges that were not etched by the carbon dioxide laser. The amount of...

  10. 77 FR 71312 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    .... FDA-1999-F-4617 (Formerly Docket No. 1999F-5321)] Irradiation in the Production, Processing and... Administration (FDA) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of a 4.5 kilogray (kGy... meat, meat byproducts, and certain meat food products to reduce levels of foodborne pathogens and...

  11. 77 FR 27586 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ..., Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-265), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch... sprouts, that nutrition data was submitted for irradiation doses of 6 kGy and not the petitioned maximum... Citizen also contends that FDA's statement that the ``petitioner submitted published articles and other...

  12. 76 FR 15841 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Food; Confirmation of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... Applied Nutrition (HFS-255), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740... summary reports from the ``Raltech studies'' and a 1984 trade press article that quotes Dr. Thayer of USDA... comments including journal articles and other publications that express concerns with food irradiation...

  13. Food Practices and School Connectedness: A Whole-School Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Eva; Walton, Mat; Stephens, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The health-promoting schools (HPSs) framework has emerged as a promising model for promoting school connectedness in the school setting. The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential for food practices to promote school connectedness within a HPSs framework. Design/methodology/approach: This study explores food practices within a…

  14. [Changes in the nutritive value of food products after thermal culinary handling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurikhin, I M

    1985-01-01

    The data were summarized for the first time concerning the losses of the basic food substances (protein, fats, carbohydrates, Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, vitamins A, B1, B2, PP, C) and caloric value as a result of the different methods of culinary treatment: cooking, frying, stewing, baking, and so forth. It was shown that the greatest losses of vegetable foods are observed during frying, those of animal foods during cooking. It was also shown that the least losses of nutritive substances of vegetable foods are observed during cooking without water pouring off. The losses of nutritive substances of animal foods were minimal during stewing, baking and cooking in the form of cutlets. For rough estimation of the daily diet the losses during thermal culinary treatment may be assumed on the average as 6% (proteins), 12% (fats), 9% (carbohydrates), and 10% (the caloric value).

  15. Evaluating Food Safety Knowledge and Practices of Food Processors and Sellers Working in Food Facilities in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach Xuan; DO, Hoa Thi; Nguyen, Luong Thanh; Boggiano, Victoria; LE, Huong Thi; LE, Xuan Thanh Thi; Trinh, Ngoc Bao; DO, Khanh Nam; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Nguyen, Thanh Trung; Dang, Anh Kim; Mai, Hue Thi; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Than, Selena; Latkin, Carl A

    2018-04-01

    Consumption of fast food and street food is increasingly common among Vietnamese, particularly in large cities. The high daily demand for these convenient food services, together with a poor management system, has raised concerns about food hygiene and safety (FHS). This study aimed to examine the FHS knowledge and practices of food processors and sellers in food facilities in Hanoi, Vietnam, and to identify their associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,760 food processors and sellers in restaurants, fast food stores, food stalls, and street vendors in Hanoi in 2015. We assessed each participant's FHS knowledge using a self-report questionnaire and their FHS practices using a checklist. Tobit regression was used to determine potential factors associated with FHS knowledge and practices, including demographics, training experience, and frequency of health examination. Overall, we observed a lack of FHS knowledge among respondents across three domains, including standard requirements for food facilities (18%), food processing procedures (29%), and food poisoning prevention (11%). Only 25.9 and 38.1% of participants used caps and masks, respectively, and 12.8% of food processors reported direct hand contact with food. After adjusting for socioeconomic characteristics, these factors significantly predicted increased FHS knowledge and practice scores: (i) working at restaurants and food stalls, (ii) having FHS training, (iii) having had a physical examination, and (iv) having taken a stool test within the last year. These findings highlight the need of continuous training to improve FHS knowledge and practices among food processors and food sellers. Moreover, regular monitoring of food facilities, combined with medical examination of their staff, should be performed to ensure food safety.

  16. Food suppliers' perceptions and practical implementation of food safety regulations in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Wen-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between the perceptions and practical implementation of food safety regulations by food suppliers in Taiwan were evaluated. A questionnaire survey was used to identify individuals who were full-time employees of the food supply industry with at least 3 months of experience. Dimensions of perceptions of food safety regulations were classified using the constructs of attitude of employees and corporate concern attitude for food safety regulation. The behavior dimension was cla...

  17. Young people's food practices and social relationships. A thematic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Eva; Walton, Mat; Stephens, Christine

    2014-11-01

    Food practices are embedded in everyday life and social relationships. In youth nutrition promotion little attention is awarded to this centrality of food practices, yet it may play a pivotal role for young people's overall health and wellbeing beyond the calories food provides. Limited research is available explicitly investigating how food practices affect social relationships. The aim of this synthesis was therefore to find out how young people use everyday food practices to build, strengthen, and negotiate their social relationships. Using a thematic synthesis approach, we analysed 26 qualitative studies exploring young people's food practices. Eight themes provided insight into the ways food practices affected social relationships: caring, talking, sharing, integrating, trusting, reciprocating, negotiating, and belonging. The results showed that young people use food actively to foster connections, show their agency, and manage relationships. This synthesis provides insight into the settings of significance for young people where more research could explore the use of food in everyday life as important for their social relationships. A focus on social relationships could broaden the scope of nutrition interventions to promote health in physical and psychosocial dimensions. Areas for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Generic Planning and Control of Automated Material Handling Systems: Practical Requirements Versus Existing Theroy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneyah, S.W.A.; Zijm, Willem H.M.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Schuur, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of generic planning and control of Automated Material Handling Systems (AMHSs). The paper illustrates the relevance of this research direction, and then addresses three different market sectors where AMHSs are used. These market sectors are: baggage handling,

  19. Generic planning and control of automated material handling systems : practical requirements versus existing theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneyah, S.W.A.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Schuur, Peter; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem to design a generic planning and control architecture for utomated material handling systems (AMHSs). We illustrate the relevance of this research direction, and then address three different market sectors where AMHSs are used, i.e., baggage handling, distribution,

  20. Factors affecting practical application of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    FAO and IAEA convened an Advisory Group Meeting on Commercial Use of Food Irradiation in order to discuss problems of the industry's acceptance of food irradiation and their remedies. Senior executives from major food industries, trade and consumer organizations were invited to discuss these problems and to prepare a report which would serve as the basis for future plan of action by sponsoring Organizations in the field of food irradiation. This publication contains the report of the meeting, papers presented by the participants and their recommendations to the sponsoring Organizations. Refs and tabs

  1. Semi-automatic handling of meteorological ground measurements using WeatherProg: prospects and practical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langella, Giuliano; Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; De Mascellis, Roberto; Manna, Piero; Terribile, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    WeatherProg is a computer program for the semi-automatic handling of data measured at ground stations within a climatic network. The program performs a set of tasks ranging from gathering raw point-based sensors measurements to the production of digital climatic maps. Originally the program was developed as the baseline asynchronous engine for the weather records management within the SOILCONSWEB Project (LIFE08 ENV/IT/000408), in which daily and hourly data where used to run water balance in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum or pest simulation models. WeatherProg can be configured to automatically perform the following main operations: 1) data retrieval; 2) data decoding and ingestion into a database (e.g. SQL based); 3) data checking to recognize missing and anomalous values (using a set of differently combined checks including logical, climatological, spatial, temporal and persistence checks); 4) infilling of data flagged as missing or anomalous (deterministic or statistical methods); 5) spatial interpolation based on alternative/comparative methods such as inverse distance weighting, iterative regression kriging, and a weighted least squares regression (based on physiography), using an approach similar to PRISM. 6) data ingestion into a geodatabase (e.g. PostgreSQL+PostGIS or rasdaman). There is an increasing demand for digital climatic maps both for research and development (there is a gap between the major of scientific modelling approaches that requires digital climate maps and the gauged measurements) and for practical applications (e.g. the need to improve the management of weather records which in turn raises the support provided to farmers). The demand is particularly burdensome considering the requirement to handle climatic data at the daily (e.g. in the soil hydrological modelling) or even at the hourly time step (e.g. risk modelling in phytopathology). The key advantage of WeatherProg is the ability to perform all the required operations and

  2. Food and nutrition security: challenges of post-harvest handling in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimiywe, J

    2015-11-01

    Presently, close to 1 billion people suffer from hunger and food insecurity. Statistics in Kenya indicates that over 10 million people suffer from chronic food insecurity and poor nutrition, 2-4 million people require emergency food assistance at any given time with nearly 30 % of Kenya's children being undernourished, 35 % stunted while micro-nutrient deficiency is wide spread. Key among the challenges contributing to inadequate foods include lack of certified seeds, seasonal production (rain-fed), high post-harvest losses and wastages, poor transportation, low value additions which reduce their market competitiveness. The present paper examines some of the underlying causes for high food wastage experience in Kenya and the associated challenges in addressing these problems. The paper also provides an overview of some of the basic solutions that have been recommended by various stakeholders. However, in spite of the recent efforts made to mitigate food wastage, there is still an urgent need to address these gaps through participatory, innovative community based interventions that will create resilience to climate change and enhance livelihoods of smallholder farmers in diverse ecosystems.

  3. Food suppliers' perceptions and practical implementation of food safety regulations in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wen-Hwa

    2015-12-01

    The relationships between the perceptions and practical implementation of food safety regulations by food suppliers in Taiwan were evaluated. A questionnaire survey was used to identify individuals who were full-time employees of the food supply industry with at least 3 months of experience. Dimensions of perceptions of food safety regulations were classified using the constructs of attitude of employees and corporate concern attitude for food safety regulation. The behavior dimension was classified into employee behavior and corporate practice. Food suppliers with training in food safety were significantly better than those without training with respect to the constructs of perception dimension of employee attitude, and the constructs of employee behavior and corporate practice associated with the behavior dimension. Older employees were superior in perception and practice. Employee attitude, employee behavior, and corporate practice were significantly correlated with each other. Satisfaction with governmental management was not significantly related to corporate practice. The corporate implementation of food safety regulations by suppliers was affected by employees' attitudes and behaviors. Furthermore, employees' attitudes and behaviors explain 35.3% of corporate practice. Employee behavior mediates employees' attitudes and corporate practices. The results of this study may serve as a reference for governmental supervision and provide training guidelines for workers in the food supply industry. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Food suppliers' perceptions and practical implementation of food safety regulations in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hwa Ko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between the perceptions and practical implementation of food safety regulations by food suppliers in Taiwan were evaluated. A questionnaire survey was used to identify individuals who were full-time employees of the food supply industry with at least 3 months of experience. Dimensions of perceptions of food safety regulations were classified using the constructs of attitude of employees and corporate concern attitude for food safety regulation. The behavior dimension was classified into employee behavior and corporate practice. Food suppliers with training in food safety were significantly better than those without training with respect to the constructs of perception dimension of employee attitude, and the constructs of employee behavior and corporate practice associated with the behavior dimension. Older employees were superior in perception and practice. Employee attitude, employee behavior, and corporate practice were significantly correlated with each other. Satisfaction with governmental management was not significantly related to corporate practice. The corporate implementation of food safety regulations by suppliers was affected by employees' attitudes and behaviors. Furthermore, employees' attitudes and behaviors explain 35.3% of corporate practice. Employee behavior mediates employees' attitudes and corporate practices. The results of this study may serve as a reference for governmental supervision and provide training guidelines for workers in the food supply industry.

  5. Sustainable food planning: evolving theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viljoen, A.; Wiskerke, J.S.C.

    2012-01-01

    Half the world’s population is now urbanised and cities are assuming a larger role in debates about the security and sustainability of the global food system. Hence, planning for sustainable food production and consumption is becoming an increasingly important issue for planners, policymakers,

  6. PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BONADIE, E.P.

    1999-01-01

    This document specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI) procured for PFP's Vault Operations system as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to perform its safety function. The changes in these specifications have no detrimental effect on the descriptions and parameters related to handling plutonium solids in the authorization basis. Because no parameters or sequences exceed the limits described in the authorization bases, no accident or abnormal conditions are affected. The specifications prescribed in this critical characteristics document do not represent an unreviewed safety question

  7. Belgian and Spanish consumption data and consumer handling practices for fresh fruits and vegetables useful for further microbiological and chemical exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacxsens, L; Ibañez, I Castro; Gómez-López, V M; Fernandes, J Araujo; Allende, A; Uyttendaele, M; Huybrechts, I

    2015-04-01

    A consumer survey was organized in Spain and Belgium to obtain consumption data and to gain insight into consumer handling practices for fresh vegetables consumed raw or minimally processed (i.e., heads of leafy greens, bell peppers, tomatoes, fresh herbs, and precut and packed leafy greens) and fruits to be consumed without peeling (i.e., apples, grapes, strawberries, raspberries, other berries, fresh juices, and precut mixed fruit). This information can be used for microbiological and/or chemical food safety research. After extensive cleanup of rough databases for missing and extreme values and age correction, information from 583 respondents from Spain and 1,605 respondents from Belgium (18 to 65 years of age) was retained. Daily intake (grams per day) was calculated taking into account frequency and seasonality of consumption, and distributions were obtained that can be used in quantitative risk assessment for chemical hazards with chronic effects on human health. Data also were recalculated to obtain discrete distributions of consumption per portion and the corresponding frequency of consumption, which can be used in acute microbiological risk assessment or outbreak investigations. The ranked median daily consumption of fruits and vegetables was similar in Spain and Belgium: apple > strawberry > grapes > strawberries and raspberries; and tomatoes > leafy greens > bell peppers > fresh herbs. However, vegetable consumption was higher (in terms of both portion and frequency of consumption) in Spain than in Belgium, whereas the opposite was found for fruit consumption. Regarding consumer handling practices related to storage time and method, Belgian consumers less frequently stored their fresh produce in a refrigerator and did so for shorter times compared with Spanish consumers. Washing practices for lettuce heads and packed leafy greens also were different. The survey revealed differences between these two countries in consumption and consumer handling practices

  8. Momentary Parental Stress and Food-Related Parenting Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Tate, Allan; Trofholz, Amanda; Fertig, Angela R; Miner, Michael; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-12-01

    Research suggests that stress and depressed mood are associated with food-related parenting practices (ie, parent feeding practices, types of food served at meals). However, current measures of parental stress, depressed mood, and food-related parenting practices are typically survey-based and assessed as static/unchanging characteristics, failing to account for fluctuations across time and context. Identifying momentary factors that influence parent food-related parenting practices will facilitate the development of effective interventions aimed at promoting healthy food-related parenting practices. In this study, we used ecological momentary assessment to examine the association between momentary factors (eg, stress, depressed mood) occurring early in the day and food-related parenting practices at the evening meal. Children aged 5 to 7 years and their families ( N = 150) from 6 racial and/or ethnic groups ( n = 25 each African American, Hispanic/Latino, Hmong, American Indian, Somali, and white families) were recruited for this mixed-methods study through primary care clinics. Higher stress and depressed mood earlier in the day predicted pressure-to-eat feeding practices and fewer homemade foods served at meals the same night. Effect modification was found for certain racial and/or ethnic groups with regard to engaging in pressure-to-eat feeding practices (ie, America Indian, Somali) or serving fewer homemade meals (ie, African American, Hispanic/Latino) in the face of high stress or depressed mood. Clinicians may want to consider discussing with parents the influence stress and depressed mood can have on everyday food-related parenting practices. Additionally, future researchers should consider using real-time interventions to reduce parental stress and depressed mood to promote healthy parent food-related parenting practices. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Microwave Cooking Practices in Minnesota Food Service Establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedeen, Nicole; Reimann, David; Everstine, Karen

    2016-03-01

    Uneven cooking due to consumer use of microwave ovens to cook food products that have been prepared but are not ready to eat has been a documented risk factor in several foodborne disease outbreaks. However, the use of microwave ovens in restaurants and other food service establishments has not been well documented. The aim of this study was to describe the types of food service establishments that use microwave ovens, how these ovens are used, types of foods heated or cooked in these ovens, types of microwave ovens used in food service establishments, and the level of compliance with U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines. From 2008 to 2009, the Minnesota Department of Health collected data from a convenience sample of 60 food establishments within the state. Facility types included fast-food restaurants, sit-down restaurants, school food service, nursing homes, hotels and motels, and daycare centers. Food preparation practices were classified as prep-serve, cookserve, or complex. Minnesota environmental health specialists administered a study questionnaire to managers during routine inspections. Establishments included in this study reported using microwave ovens primarily to warm commercial ready-to-eat products (67%) and to warm foods for palatability (50%). No minimum temperatures are required for these processes because these foods do not require pathogen destruction. However, food establishments using complex preparation practices more often reported using microwave ovens for multiple processes and for processes that require pathogen destruction. For establishments that did report microwave oven use for food requiring pathogen destruction, the majority of managers reported following most FDA recommendations for cooking and reheating for hot-holding potentially hazardous foods, but many did not report letting food stand for 2 min after cooking. Additional training on stand time after microwave cooking could be beneficial because of low reporting

  10. Food irradiation in the control of storage and handling losses in the Philippine onions and garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustre, A.O.; Dianco, A.M.; Vito, F.R.; Manalastas, Z.L.

    1996-01-01

    Information will be provided on the nature and magnitude of the control of postharvest losses in onions and garlic from the application of irradiation. Control of losses is measured in storage and during post storage marketing of the commodities. Information will also be presented on market tests and survey of consumer reaction to irradiated onions. The benefits of irradiation will be discussed in relation to the need to reduce postharvest losses in the food supply and to address consumer concerns over the safety of food due to the use of chemicals. (author)

  11. Moving and handling education in the community: technological innovations to improve practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanless, Stephen; Page, Andrea

    2009-12-01

    Efforts to reduce injuries associated with patient handling are often based on tradition and personal experience rather than sound educational theory. The purpose of this article is to summarize current evidence for educational interventions designed to reduce primary care staff injuries: a significant problem for decades. Evidence suggests that the current 'classroom' teaching of moving and handling is ineffective. There is a growing body of evidence to support newer interventions that are effective or show promise in reducing musculoskeletal injuries in health professionals (Freitag et al, 2007). The authors discuss potential solutions through moving and handling-related motion capture simulation and the use of e-learning to promote an understanding of the principles associated with patient handling tasks.

  12. FOOD NEOPHOBIA - IMPORTANCE IN CLINICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Silva

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The gustatory preferences are very stable and can follow up lifelong and we should pay particular attention to children and parents in the “taste education” process. By giving the child some favourite foods with new foods and to stay calm for temporary neophobias, may be the key to the development of taste preferences. The negative reinforcement, such pressures, should be avoided, and the positive reinforcement should be implemented.

  13. Microbiological challenge testing for Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat food: a practical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Spanu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Food business operators (FBOs are the primary responsible for the safety of food they place on the market. The definition and validation of the product’s shelf-life is an essential part for ensuring microbiological safety of food and health of consumers. In the frame of the Regulation (EC No 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs, FBOs shall conduct shelf-life studies in order to assure that their food does not exceed the food safety criteria throughout the defined shelf-life. In particular this is required for ready-to-eat (RTE food that supports the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. Among other studies, FBOs can rely on the conclusion drawn by microbiological challenge tests. A microbiological challenge test consists in the artificial contamination of a food with a pathogen microorganism and aims at simulating its behaviour during processing and distribution under the foreseen storage and handling conditions. A number of documents published by international health authorities and research institutions describes how to conduct challenge studies. The authors reviewed the existing literature and described the methodology for implementing such laboratory studies. All the main aspects for the conduction of L. monocytogenes microbiological challenge tests were considered, from the selection of the strains, preparation and choice of the inoculum level and method of contamination, to the experimental design and data interpretation. The objective of the present document is to provide an exhaustive and practical guideline for laboratories that want to implement L. monocytogenes challenge testing on RTE food.

  14. Microbiological Challenge Testing for Listeria Monocytogenes in Ready-to-Eat Food: A Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanu, Carlo; Scarano, Christian; Ibba, Michela; Pala, Carlo; Spanu, Vincenzo; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi

    2014-12-09

    Food business operators (FBOs) are the primary responsible for the safety of food they place on the market. The definition and validation of the product's shelf-life is an essential part for ensuring microbiological safety of food and health of consumers. In the frame of the Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs, FBOs shall conduct shelf-life studies in order to assure that their food does not exceed the food safety criteria throughout the defined shelf-life. In particular this is required for ready-to-eat (RTE) food that supports the growth of Listeria monocytogenes . Among other studies, FBOs can rely on the conclusion drawn by microbiological challenge tests. A microbiological challenge test consists in the artificial contamination of a food with a pathogen microorganism and aims at simulating its behaviour during processing and distribution under the foreseen storage and handling conditions. A number of documents published by international health authorities and research institutions describes how to conduct challenge studies. The authors reviewed the existing literature and described the methodology for implementing such laboratory studies. All the main aspects for the conduction of L. monocytogenes microbiological challenge tests were considered, from the selection of the strains, preparation and choice of the inoculum level and method of contamination, to the experimental design and data interpretation. The objective of the present document is to provide an exhaustive and practical guideline for laboratories that want to implement L. monocytogenes challenge testing on RTE food.

  15. 77 FR 71316 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... No. FDA-1999-F-1267 (formerly Docket No. 1999F-5322) by any of the following methods: Electronic... been obtained from irradiating various foods under various conditions support conclusions about the... acids, esters, aldehydes, ketones, alkanes, alkenes, and other hydrocarbons (Ref. 2). Identical or...

  16. 21 CFR 101.17 - Food labeling warning, notice, and safe handling statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... illness from bacteria: keep eggs refrigerated, cook eggs until yolks are firm, and cook foods containing eggs thoroughly. (2) The label statement required by paragraph (h)(1) of this section shall appear... significance that is likely to occur in the juice. (h) Shell eggs. (1) The label of all shell eggs, whether in...

  17. Restaurant Food Allergy Practices - Six Selected Sites, United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Taylor J; Brown, Laura G; Faw, Brenda; Hedeen, Nicole; Matis, Bailey; Perez, Priscela; Viveiros, Brendalee; Ripley, Danny

    2017-04-21

    Food allergies affect an estimated 15 million persons in the United States (1), and are responsible for approximately 30,000 emergency department visits and 150-200 deaths each year (2). Nearly half of reported fatal food allergy reactions over a 13-year period were caused by food from a restaurant or other food service establishment (3). To ascertain the prevalence of food allergy training, training topics, and practices related to food allergies, CDC's Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net), a collaborative forum of federal agencies and state and local health departments with six sites, interviewed personnel at 278 restaurants. Fewer than half of the 277 restaurant managers (44.4%), 211 food workers (40.8%), and 156 servers (33.3%) interviewed reported receiving food allergy training. Among those who reported receiving training, topics commonly included the major food allergens and what to do if a customer has a food allergy. Although most restaurants had ingredient lists for at least some menu items, few had separate equipment or areas designated for the preparation of allergen-free food. Restaurants can reduce the risk for allergic reactions among patrons by providing food allergy training for personnel and ingredient lists for all menu items and by dedicating equipment and areas specifically for preparing allergen-free food.

  18. Application of the WHO five keys of food safety to improve food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To apply the WHO five keys of food safety in evidence based training programme for food vendors to improve the handling of street food. Methods: A total of 127 food vendors in Accra, the capital city of Ghana were sampled for interviews. Data collection from the vendors focused on (i) food handling practices (ii) ...

  19. Biotechnology essay competition: biotechnology and sustainable food practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Judy; Schoeb, Helena; Lee, Gina

    2013-06-01

    Biotechnology Journal announces our second biotechnology essay competition with the theme "biotechnology and sustainable food practices", open to all undergraduate students. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Food safety knowledge and practices of street foodvendors in Atbara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the food safety knowledge and practices of street food vendors in Atbara city between March and April, 2008. The questionnaires respondents were 28% male and 72% were female, 48% of them had primary school education while 42% were illiterates. The most prevalent isolated ...

  1. Safety of vendor-prepared foods: evaluation of 10 processing mobile food vendors in Manhattan.

    OpenAIRE

    Burt, Bryan M.; Volel, Caroline; Finkel, Madelon

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Unsanitary food handling is a major public health hazard. There are over 4,100 mobile food vendors operating in New York City, and of these, approximately forty percent are processing vendors--mobile food units on which potentially hazardous food products are handled, prepared, or processed. This pilot study assesses the food handling practices of 10 processing mobile food vendors operating in a 38-block area of midtown Manhattan (New York City) from 43rd Street to 62nd Street bet...

  2. Attitudes and preferences of consumers toward food allergy labeling practices by diagnosis of food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Se-Young; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kwak, Tong-Kyoung; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate food allergens and prevalence rates of food allergies, followed by comparison of consumer attitudes and preferences regarding food allergy labeling by diagnosis of food allergies. A total of 543 individuals living in Seoul and Gyeonggi area participated in the survey from October 15 to 22 in 2013. The results show that the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed food allergies was 17.5%, whereas 6.4% of respondents self-reported food allergies. The most common allergens of doctor-diagnosed and self-reported food allergy respondents were peaches (30.3%) and eggs (33.3%), respectively, followed by peanuts, cow's milk, and crab. Regarding consumer attitudes toward food labeling, checking food allergens as an item was only significantly different between allergic and non-allergic respondents among all five items (P label, and addition of potential allergens) were necessary for an improved food allergen labeling system. PLSR analysis determined that the doctor-diagnosed group and checking of food allergens were positively correlated, whereas the non-allergy group was more concerned with checking product brands. An effective food labeling system is very important for health protection of allergic consumers. Additionally, government agencies must develop policies regarding prevalence of food allergies in Korea. Based on this information, the food industry and government agencies should provide clear and accurate food labeling practices for consumers.

  3. Attitudes and preferences of consumers toward food allergy labeling practices by diagnosis of food allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Se-young; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Kyu-earn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to investigate food allergens and prevalence rates of food allergies, followed by comparison of consumer attitudes and preferences regarding food allergy labeling by diagnosis of food allergies. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 543 individuals living in Seoul and Gyeonggi area participated in the survey from October 15 to 22 in 2013. RESULTS The results show that the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed food allergies was 17.5%, whereas 6.4% of respondents self-reported food allergies. The most common allergens of doctor-diagnosed and self-reported food allergy respondents were peaches (30.3%) and eggs (33.3%), respectively, followed by peanuts, cow's milk, and crab. Regarding consumer attitudes toward food labeling, checking food allergens as an item was only significantly different between allergic and non-allergic respondents among all five items (P food allergen labeling system. PLSR analysis determined that the doctor-diagnosed group and checking of food allergens were positively correlated, whereas the non-allergy group was more concerned with checking product brands. CONCLUSIONS An effective food labeling system is very important for health protection of allergic consumers. Additionally, government agencies must develop policies regarding prevalence of food allergies in Korea. Based on this information, the food industry and government agencies should provide clear and accurate food labeling practices for consumers. PMID:26425282

  4. Food Safety Practices in the Egg Products Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K; Noyes, Gary

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a national census survey of egg product plants (n = 57) to obtain information on the technological and food safety practices of the egg products industry and to assess changes in these practices from 2004 to 2014. The questionnaire asked about operational and sanitation practices, microbiological testing practices, food safety training for employees, other food safety issues, and plant characteristics. The findings suggest that improvements were made in the industry's use of food safety technologies and practices between 2004 and 2014. The percentage of plants using advanced pasteurization technology and an integrated, computerized processing system increased by almost 30 percentage points. Over 90% of plants voluntarily use a written hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan to address food safety for at least one production step. Further, 90% of plants have management employees who are trained in a written HACCP plan. Most plants (93%) conduct voluntary microbiological testing. The percentage of plants conducting this testing on egg products before pasteurization has increased by almost 30 percentage points since 2004. The survey findings identify strengths and weaknesses in egg product plants' food safety practices and can be used to guide regulatory policymaking and to conduct required regulatory impact analysis of potential regulations.

  5. Code of practice for the control and safe handling of radioactive sources used for therapeutic purposes (1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Code is intended as a guide to safe practices in the use of sealed and unsealed radioactive sources and in the management of patients being treated with them. It covers the procedures for the handling, preparation and use of radioactive sources, precautions to be taken for patients undergoing treatment, storage and transport of radioactive sources within a hospital or clinic, and routine testing of sealed sources [fr

  6. Recipe Modification Improves Food Safety Practices during Cooking of Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Chambers, Edgar

    2016-08-01

    Many consumers do not practice proper food safety behaviors when preparing food in the home. Several approaches have been taken to improve food safety behaviors among consumers, but there still is a deficit in actual practice of these behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess whether the introduction of food safety instructions in recipes for chicken breasts and ground turkey patties would improve consumers' food safety behaviors during preparation. In total, 155 consumers in two locations (Manhattan, KS, and Nashville, TN) were asked to prepare a baked chicken breast and a ground turkey patty following recipes that either did or did not contain food safety instructions. They were observed to track hand washing and thermometer use. Participants who received recipes with food safety instructions (n = 73) demonstrated significantly improved food safety preparation behaviors compared with those who did not have food safety instructions in the recipe (n = 82). In addition, the majority of consumers stated that they thought the recipes with instructions were easy to use and that they would be likely to use similar recipes at home. This study demonstrates that recipes could be a good source of food safety information for consumers and that they have the potential to improve behaviors to reduce foodborne illness.

  7. Sexuality and the Schools: Handling the Critical Issues. the Practicing Administrator's Leadership Series. Roadmaps to Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Joan L.; And Others

    This book provides suggestions for handling important and emotionally charged issues of sexuality in the schools. Six chapters offer information on teenage pregnancy, HIV and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), sexual orientation, sexual harassment, and sex education. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Searching for Intimacy"…

  8. Health Education in Practice: Employee Conflict Resolution Knowledge and Conflict Handling Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Alexis; Renschler, Lauren; Kramer, Alaina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine if a brief workplace conflict resolution workshop improved employee conflict resolution knowledge and to examine which conflict handling strategies (Yielding, Compromising, Forcing, Problem-Solving, Avoiding) were most used by employees when dealing with workplace conflict. A pre-test/post-test control…

  9. Domestic food practices: A study of food management behaviors and the role of food preparation planning in reducing waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Simona; Grappi, Silvia; Bagozzi, Richard P; Barone, Ada Maria

    2018-02-01

    Recent research has started to show the key role of daily food provision practices in affecting household food waste. Building on and extending these previous contributions, the objective of this paper is to investigate how individuals' everyday practices regarding food (e.g., shopping, cooking, eating, etc.) lead to food waste, and how policy makers and the food industry can implement effective strategies to influence such practices and ultimately help consumers reduce food waste. The research performs three Studies; a critical incident qualitative study (Study 1; N = 514) and a quantitative, survey-based study (Study 2; N = 456) to identify and examine relevant food management behaviors associated with domestic waste. Lastly, findings from a field experiment (Study 3; N = 210) suggest that a specific educational intervention, directed at increasing consumers' perceived skills related to food preparation planning behaviors, reduces domestic food waste. Implications of the research for policy makers and the food industry are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing knowledge and practice of food producers, retailers and consumers of food labels in Bostanabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghochani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of the information provided on food labels is important and will help the consumers to select standard food packaging. This knowledge can lead to improving the diet and health in the community. This study was carried out to determine the knowledge and practice of food producer retailers and consumers of food labels in Bostanabad, East-Azarbaijan province. In a descriptive and cross-sectional study, 1013 individuals were selected through random selection. Data on demographics and knowledge and practice of food retailers and consumers were collected by filling in a questionnaire and the results were compared. The age of participants ranged 16-65 years old and majority of them were between 40 and 60 years of age. According to the results, 75.7% of the participants read food labels during shopping.  Amongst mostly considered food labels to observe the production and expiry dates on labels. A minority of the participants read food labels for nutritional information, product weight, types of additives and artificial colors, etc. The results showed that knowledge of people about the nutritional information on food labels is very slight. Due to the high impact of nutritional knowledge on the performance of people, having an idea about the individual’s attention to the information on food labels is essential. It is important to achieve the proper nutritional behavior and reduce the risk of adverse effects associated with packaged foods.

  11. A survey of food allergen control practices in the U.S. food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendel, Steven M; Khan, Nazleen; Yajnik, Monali

    2013-02-01

    Despite awareness of the importance of food allergy as a public health issue, recalls and adverse reactions linked to undeclared allergens in foods continue to occur with high frequency. To reduce the overall incidence of such problems and to ensure that food-allergic consumers have the information they need to prevent adverse reactions, it is important to understand which allergen control practices are currently used by the food industry. Therefore, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration carried out directed inspections of registered food facilities in 2010 to obtain a broader understanding of industry allergen control practices in the United States. The results of these inspections show that allergen awareness and the use of allergen controls have increased greatly in the last decade, but that small facilities lag in implementing allergen controls.

  12. Food allergy: practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life.

  13. [Recomendations for clinical use of food enriched phytosterols/phytostanols handling hypercholesterolemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Jordi; Masana, Luis; Guijarro, Carlos; Ascaso, Juan; Lagares, Manuel; Civeira, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Raised low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) plasma concentration is a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Despite international recommendations on hypercholesterolemia management the percentage of individuals with LDLc plasma concentration above goals according to their global cardiovascular risk remains high, and additional therapeutic strategies should be evaluated. Consumption of functional foods enriched with phytosterols (PSRs) and phytostanols (PSNs) reduces LDLc concentrations by 10% as average. Although recommended as part of any lipid-lowering diet in the first intervention step, PSRs/PSNs maintain their LDL reduction capacity when administered with lipid-lowering drugs; therefore, they can be also considered in some cases as an adjuvant to drug therapy. In this document we summarise the latest evidence regarding the LDL reducing effects of PSR/PSN supplementation, alone or as an add-on to hipolipemic drugs and the international recommendations of its clinical use. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Food Safety Perceptions and Practices among Smallholder Pork Value Chain Actors in Hung Yen Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Xuan, Sinh; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Meeyam, Tongkorn; Fries, Reinhard; Nguyen-Thanh, Huong; Pham-Duc, Phuc; Lam, Steven; Grace, Delia; Unger, Fred

    2016-09-01

    Pork safety is an important public health concern in Vietnam and is a shared responsibility among many actors along the pork value chain. We examined the knowledge, perceptions, and practices regarding food safety, disease, and health risk among selected pork value chain actors (slaughterhouse owners and workers, people living around slaughterhouses, pork sellers, consumers, and veterinary and public health staff) in three districts in Hung Yen Province, Vietnam. We randomly selected 52 pork value chain actors to be surveyed through questionnaires, observation checklists, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. Most slaughterhouse workers acquired knowledge and experience of food safety through "learning by doing" rather than from training by a veterinary or public health professional. Both slaughterhouse worker and pork seller groups had some accurate perceptions about pig diseases and foodborne diseases; however, misperceptions of risk and, especially, of zoonoses were present. Furthermore, while workers and sellers often use cloths to dry the meat and clean equipment, they did not think this was a risk for meat contamination. Moreover, when sellers wear protective equipment, such as gloves, masks, or hats, consumers perceive that the sellers may have health issues they are trying to conceal and so consumers avoid buying from them. The perceived freshness of pork, along with trust in the seller and in the pork production process, were strong indicators of consumer preference. And yet, pork value chain actors tend to trust their own individual food safety practices more, rather than the practices of other actors along the chain. Veterinary and public health staff emphasized the gap between regulations and food safety practices. Education and training on food safety risks and proper handling are priorities, along with integrated and intensive efforts to improve food safety among pork value chain actors.

  15. Food governance transformation : aligning food security with sustainable farming practices in developing communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otsuki, K.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional approaches used to improve farming practices and access to food in developing communities are underpinned by policy, technology, and the science of modernization. The focus has been on securing a sufficient quantity of food derived from extensive monocultures. This quantity focus is

  16. Household food security and infant feeding practices in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owais, Aatekah; Kleinbaum, David G; Suchdev, Parminder S; Faruque, Asg; Das, Sumon K; Schwartz, Benjamin; Stein, Aryeh D

    2016-07-01

    To determine the association between household food security and infant complementary feeding practices in rural Bangladesh. Prospective, cohort study using structured home interviews during pregnancy and 3 and 9 months after delivery. We used two indicators of household food security at 3-months' follow-up: maternal Food Composition Score (FCS), calculated via the World Food Programme method, and an HHFS index created from an eleven-item food security questionnaire. Infant feeding practices were characterized using WHO definitions. Two rural sub-districts of Kishoreganj, Bangladesh. Mother-child dyads (n 2073) who completed the 9-months' follow-up. Complementary feeding was initiated at age ≤4 months for 7 %, at 5-6 months for 49 % and at ≥7 months for 44 % of infants. Based on 24 h dietary recall, 98 % of infants were still breast-feeding at age 9 months, and 16 % received ≥4 food groups and ≥4 meals (minimally acceptable diet) in addition to breast milk. Mothers' diet was more diverse than infants'. The odds of receiving a minimally acceptable diet for infants living in most food-secure households were three times those for infants living in least food-secure households (adjusted OR=3·0; 95 % CI 2·1, 4·3). Socio-economic status, maternal age, literacy, parity and infant sex were not associated with infant diet. HHFS and maternal FCS were significant predictors of subsequent infant feeding practices. Nevertheless, even the more food-secure households had poor infant diet. Interventions aimed at improving infant nutritional status need to focus on both complementary food provision and education.

  17. Evaluation of hygiene practices and microbiological quality of cooked meat products during slicing and handling at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, F; Castro, R; Posada-Izquierdo, G D; Valero, A; Carrasco, E; García-Gimeno, R M; Zurera, G

    2010-10-01

    Cooked meat ready-to-eat products are recognized to be contaminated during slicing which, in the last years, has been associated with several outbreaks. This work aimed to find out possible relation between the hygiene practice taking place at retail point during slicing of cooked meat products in small and medium-sized establishments (SMEs) and large-sized establishments (LEs) and the microbiological quality of sliced cooked meat products. For that, a checklist was drawn up and filled in based on scoring handling practice during slicing in different establishments in Cordoba (Southern Spain). In addition, sliced cooked meats were analyzed for different microbiological indicators and investigated for the presence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Results indicated that SMEs showed a more deficient handling practices compared to LEs. In spite of these differences, microbiological counts indicated similar microbiological quality in cooked meat samples for both types of establishments. On the other hand, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria inocua were isolated from 7.35% (5/68) and 8.82% (6/68) of analyzed samples, respectively. Positive samples for Listeria spp. were found in establishments which showed acceptable hygiene levels, though contamination could be associated to the lack of exclusiveness of slicers at retail points. Moreover, Listeria spp presence could not be statistically linked to any microbiological parameters; however, it was observed that seasonality influenced significantly (Phygiene practices, focused specially on SMEs. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Compliance With Recommended Food Safety Practices in Television Cooking Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Nancy L; Olson, Rita Brennan

    Examine compliance with recommended food safety practices in television cooking shows. Using a tool based on the Massachusetts Food Establishment Inspection Report, raters examined 39 episodes from 10 television cooking shows. Chefs demonstrated conformance with good retail practices for proper use and storage of utensils in 78% of episodes; preventing contamination (62%), and fingernail care (82%). However, 50% to 88% of episodes were found to be out of compliance with other personal hygiene practices, proper use of gloves and barriers (85% to 100%), and maintaining proper time and temperature controls (93%). Over 90% failed to conform to recommendations regarding preventing contamination through wiping cloths and washing produce. In only 13% of episodes were food safety practices mentioned. There appears to be little attention to food safety during most cooking shows. Celebrity and competing chefs have the opportunity to model and teach good food safety practices for millions of viewers. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sample handling in surface sensitive chemical and biological sensing: a practical review of basic fluidics and analyte transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgovan, Norbert; Patko, Daniel; Hos, Csaba; Kurunczi, Sándor; Szabó, Bálint; Ramsden, Jeremy J; Horvath, Robert

    2014-09-01

    This paper gives an overview of the advantages and associated caveats of the most common sample handling methods in surface-sensitive chemical and biological sensing. We summarize the basic theoretical and practical considerations one faces when designing and assembling the fluidic part of the sensor devices. The influence of analyte size, the use of closed and flow-through cuvettes, the importance of flow rate, tubing length and diameter, bubble traps, pressure-driven pumping, cuvette dead volumes, and sample injection systems are all discussed. Typical application areas of particular arrangements are also highlighted, such as the monitoring of cellular adhesion, biomolecule adsorption-desorption and ligand-receptor affinity binding. Our work is a practical review in the sense that for every sample handling arrangement considered we present our own experimental data and critically review our experience with the given arrangement. In the experimental part we focus on sample handling in optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) measurements, but the present study is equally applicable for other biosensing technologies in which an analyte in solution is captured at a surface and its presence is monitored. Explicit attention is given to features that are expected to play an increasingly decisive role in determining the reliability of (bio)chemical sensing measurements, such as analyte transport to the sensor surface; the distorting influence of dead volumes in the fluidic system; and the appropriate sample handling of cell suspensions (e.g. their quasi-simultaneous deposition). At the appropriate places, biological aspects closely related to fluidics (e.g. cellular mechanotransduction, competitive adsorption, blood flow in veins) are also discussed, particularly with regard to their models used in biosensing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Food safety knowledge, attitude and practices of meat handler in abattoir and retail meat shops of Jigjiga Town, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegegne, H A; Phyo, H W W

    2017-12-01

    A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 91 meat handlers by using structured questionnaire to determine the food safety knowledge, attitude and practices in abattoir and retail meat shops of Jigjiga Town. The result shows that majority of the meat handlers were illiterate (30.8%) and primary school leaver (52.7%), and no one went through any food safety training except one meat inspector. The food-handlers' knowledge and safety practices were below acceptable level with the mean score of 13.12 ± 2.33 and 7.7 ± 2.1 respectively. Only few respondents knew about Staphylococcus aureus (3.3% correct answer), hepatitis A virus (19.8% correct answer), and E. coli (5.5% correct answer) as food borne pathogens. About 64% of meat handlers have good attitude about safety of food with mean of total score 14.4 ± 2. All respondents answer correctly questions about proper meat handling and hand washing but they did not translate into strict food hygiene practices. Chi2 analysis testing for the association between knowledge, attitude and practices did not show any significant association. It may be due to meat handlers' below acceptable level safety practices regardless of sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge and attitude. However, there was strong association between level of education and knowledge, and knowledge and hand washing (p practices through better understanding and positive attitude.

  1. Applying the intention-to-treat principle in practice: Guidance on handling randomisation errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, Lisa N; Sullivan, Thomas R; Voysey, Merryn; Lee, Katherine J; Cook, Jonathan A; Forbes, Andrew B

    2015-08-01

    The intention-to-treat principle states that all randomised participants should be analysed in their randomised group. The implications of this principle are widely discussed in relation to the analysis, but have received limited attention in the context of handling errors that occur during the randomisation process. The aims of this article are to (1) demonstrate the potential pitfalls of attempting to correct randomisation errors and (2) provide guidance on handling common randomisation errors when they are discovered that maintains the goals of the intention-to-treat principle. The potential pitfalls of attempting to correct randomisation errors are demonstrated and guidance on handling common errors is provided, using examples from our own experiences. We illustrate the problems that can occur when attempts are made to correct randomisation errors and argue that documenting, rather than correcting these errors, is most consistent with the intention-to-treat principle. When a participant is randomised using incorrect baseline information, we recommend accepting the randomisation but recording the correct baseline data. If ineligible participants are inadvertently randomised, we advocate keeping them in the trial and collecting all relevant data but seeking clinical input to determine their appropriate course of management, unless they can be excluded in an objective and unbiased manner. When multiple randomisations are performed in error for the same participant, we suggest retaining the initial randomisation and either disregarding the second randomisation if only one set of data will be obtained for the participant, or retaining the second randomisation otherwise. When participants are issued the incorrect treatment at the time of randomisation, we propose documenting the treatment received and seeking clinical input regarding the ongoing treatment of the participant. Randomisation errors are almost inevitable and should be reported in trial publications. The

  2. Associations between general parenting styles and specific food-related parenting practices and children's food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Carine; Legiest, Erwin; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Maes, Lea

    2009-01-01

    Explore the impact of general parenting style and specific food-related parenting practices on children's dietary habits. Cross-sectional study of sixth graders and their parents. Data were gathered (in 2003) in 69 of 100 randomly selected elementary schools in Belgium. All sixth graders (N = 1957) were invited to participate; 82.4% of their parents gave consent and completed questionnaires, resulting in 1614 parent-child pairs. Children's consumption of breakfast, fruit, vegetables, soft drinks, and sweets was assessed by self-administered food frequency questionnaires. Parents completed questionnaires on sociodemographic characteristics, general parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent, or neglecting) and specific food-related parenting practices (pressure, reward, encouragement through negotiation, catering on children's demands, permissiveness, avoiding negative modeling, and praise). Logistic regression analyses were performed, with general parenting style and specific food-related parenting practices as predictors and dietary habits as dependent variables, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and children's weight status. General parenting style did not show any significant impact on dietary habits. In contrast, the food-related parenting practice "encouragement through negotiation" showed a significant positive impact, whereas "pressure," "catering on demand," and "permissiveness" were practices with an unhealthy impact. Nutrition education programs that guide parents in firm but not coercive food parenting skills are likely to have a positive impact upon children's dietary habits.

  3. Consumers' practical understanding of healthy food choices: a fake food experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mötteli, Sonja; Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael; Barbey, Jana; Bucher, Tamara

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about laypeople's practical understanding of a healthy diet, although this is important to successfully promote healthy eating. The present study is the first to experimentally examine how consumers define healthy and balanced food choices for an entire day compared with normal choices and compared with dietary guidelines. We used an extensive fake food buffet (FFB) with 179 foods commonly consumed in the Swiss diet. The FFB is a validated method to investigate food choice behaviour in a well-controlled laboratory setting. People from the general population in Switzerland (n 187; 51·9 % females), aged between 18 and 65 years, were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the control group, the participants were instructed to serve themselves foods they would eat on a normal day, whereas in the 'healthy' group they were instructed to choose foods representing a healthy diet. Participants chose significantly more healthy foods, with 4·5 g more dietary fibre, 2 % more protein and 2 % less SFA in the 'healthy' group compared with the control group. However, in both experimental conditions, participants served themselves foods containing twice as much sugar and salt than recommended by dietary guidelines. The results suggest that laypeople lack knowledge about the recommended portion sizes and the amounts of critical nutrients in processed food, which has important implications for communicating dietary guidelines. Furthermore, the energy of the food served was substantially correlated with the energy needs of the participants, demonstrating the potential of the fake food buffet method.

  4. Logistics Best Practices for Regional Food Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Mittal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern industrial food supply system faces many major environmental and social sustainability challenges. Regional food systems, in which consumers prefer geographically proximate food producers, offer a response to these challenges. However, the costs associated with distributing food from many small-scale producers to consumers have been a major barrier to long-term regional food system success. Logistics best practices from conventional supply chains have the potential to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of regional food supply chains (RFSCs. This paper provides a structured and in-depth review of the existing literature on RFSC logistics, including recommended and implemented best practices. The purpose of the review is to provide RFSC researchers and practitioners with convenient access to valuable information and knowledge derived from years of experimentation and research. This information will help to inform practitioners’ implementation decisions and to increase researchers’ awareness of the existing work on RFSC logistics, the unmet needs of practitioners, and topics that have not been fully explored, yielding insights into potential future directions for RFSC research. The overarching aim of the paper is to facilitate improvements in RFSC logistics, thereby improving regional food system viability.

  5. Food addiction in children: Associations with obesity, parental food addiction and feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, T; Skinner, J; Joyner, M A; Palmieri, J; Vaughan, K; Gearhardt, A N

    2017-08-01

    Food addiction research in children is limited, and to date addictive-like eating behaviors within families have not been investigated. The aim of this study is to understand factors associated with addictive-like eating in children. The association between food addiction in children with obesity, parental food addiction, and parental feeding practices (i.e., restriction, pressure to eat, monitoring) was investigated. Parents/primary caregivers (aged≥18years) of children aged 5-12years, recruited and completed an online cross-sectional survey including demographics, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), and the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Parents, reporting on themselves and one of their children, were given a food addiction diagnosis and symptom score according to the YFAS predefined criteria. The total sample consisted of 150 parents/primary caregivers (48% male) and 150 children (51% male). Food addiction was found to be 12.0% in parents and 22.7% in children. In children, food addiction was significantly associated with higher child BMI z-scores. Children with higher food addiction symptoms had parents with higher food addiction scores. Parents of FA children reported significantly higher levels of Restriction and Pressure to eat feeding practices, but not Monitoring. Children with elevated YFAS-C scores may be at greater risk for eating-related issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of courtyard counselling meeting in improving household food safety knowledge and practices in Munshiganj district of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Baizid Khoorshid; Alim, Md Abdul; Islam, Anm Shamsul; Amin, Km Bayzid; Sarker, Mohammad Abul Bashar; Hasan, Khaled; Ashad-Uz-Zaman, Md Noor; Selim, Shahjada; Quaiyum, Salman; Haque, Emdadul; Monir Hossain, Shah; Ryder, John; Khanam, Rokeya

    2016-12-01

    Unsafe food is linked to the deaths of an estimated two million people annually. Food containing harmful agents is responsible for more than 200 diseases ranging from diarrhoea to cancers. A one-sample pilot intervention study was conducted to evaluate the role of courtyard counselling meetings as the means of intervention for improving food safety knowledge and practices among household food handlers in a district of Bangladesh. The study was conducted in three phases: a baseline survey, the intervention and an end-line survey between April and November 2015 where 194 food handlers took part. Data were collected through observations and face-to-face interviews. The mean age of the respondents was 38.8 (±12.4) years, all of whom were females. Hand washing before eating, and washing utensils with soap were significantly improved at the end-line in comparison to the baseline (57% vs. 40% and 83% vs. 69%, respectively). Hand washing with soap was increased by 4%. The mean score of food handling practices was significantly increased after the intervention (20.5 vs. 22.1; Pfood and the necessity of thorough cooking were significantly increased after the intervention (88% from 64% and 34% from 21%, respectively). Mean scores of knowledge and practice on food safety were significantly increased by 1.9 and 1.6, respectively after the one month intervention. Thus this food safety education in rural communities should be scaled up and, indeed, strengthened using the courtyard counselling meetings in Bangladesh.

  7. European Model Code of safe practice in the storage and handling of petroleum products. Part I. Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-01-01

    This safe practice code was prepared by a working group consisting of experts from 10 Western European countries. It consists of short guidelines and technical advice on general precautions, injuries and medical services, permits to work, fire prevention and fighting, jetties, pipework, storage tanks, static electricity, electrical equipment, road vehicles, tank cars, handling of bitumen products, liquefied petroleum gases, packed products and training of personnel. The code is supplemented by 10 appendices, including a suggested syllabus for a 2-day course on fire prevention and emergency action for managers of oil installations.

  8. Subsistence Food Production Practices: An Approach to Food Security and Good Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankoana, Sejabaledi A

    2017-10-05

    Food security is a prerequisite for health. Availability and accessibility of food in rural areas is mainly achieved through subsistence production in which community members use local practices to produce and preserve food. Subsistence food production ensures self-sufficiency and reduction of poverty and hunger. The main emphasis with the present study is examining subsistence farming and collection of edible plant materials to fulfill dietary requirements, thereby ensuring food security and good health. Data collected from a purposive sample show that subsistence crops produced in the home-gardens and fields, and those collected from the wild, are sources of grain, vegetables and legumes. Sources of grain and legumes are produced in the home-gardens and fields, whereas vegetables sources are mostly collected in the wild and fewer in the home-gardens. These food sources have perceived health potential in child and maternal care of primary health care.

  9. A Pilot Feasibility Study to Improve Food Parenting Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amy M; Clair-Michaud, Mary; Melanson, Kathleen J; Tovar, Alison

    2018-03-01

    We examined the feasibility and acceptability of a novel home-based intervention to improve the food parenting practices of low-income mothers with preschool-aged children. Mother-child dyads (N = 15) were recruited from WIC in southern Rhode Island. A non-experimental, pretest-posttest design was used to assess changes in maternal food parenting practices. Dyads participated in 3 home-based sessions that included baseline measures and an evening meal video recording at session 1, a motivational interviewing (MI) intervention that included feedback on the evening meal video recording at session 2, and a satisfaction ques- tionnaire at session 3. Pretest-posttest measures included 5 subscales of the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire. Fifteen mother-child dyads (mothers: 32.3, SD = 4.6 years, 86.7% white; children: 3.2, SD = 0.9 years, male = 73.3%, 66.7% white) completed the study. Mothers reported improvements in food parenting practices following the home-based MI intervention. Overall, 93% of mothers 'strongly agreed' that it was worth their effort to participate in the study. A home-based MI intervention may be an effective strategy for improving maternal food parenting practices in low-income populations. Most mothers found that watching themselves was informative and applicable to their own lives.

  10. Implications of domestic food practices for the presence of bioactive components in meats with special reference to meat-based functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Cofrades, Susana; Herrero, Ana M; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia

    2017-06-14

    Although an essential component of the diet, the consumption of meat is in question. Meat is a major source of beneficial compounds but it also contains other substances with negative health implications. Functional foods, which are leading trends in the food industry, constitute an excellent opportunity for the meat sector to improve healthier meat options. Most studies on meat-based functional foods have focused mainly on the application of different strategies (animal production practices and meat transformation systems) to improve (increase/reduce) the presence of bioactive (healthy/unhealthy) compounds; these have led to the development of numerous products, many of them by the meat industry. However, like other foods, after purchase meats undergo certain processes before they are consumed, and these affect their composition. Although domestic handling practices can significantly alter the make-up of the marketed product in terms of healthy/unhealthy compounds, there are very few studies on their consequences. This paper provides an overview of the influence of different domestic practices (from shopping to eating) habitually followed by consumers on the presence of, and consequently on the levels of exposure to, (healthy and unhealthy) food components associated with the consumption of meats, with special reference to meat-based functional foods.

  11. Analysis of the Supply Chain and Logistics Practices of Warqe Food Products in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashenafi Chaka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Warqe (Enset is a multipurpose perennial plant, domesticated and grown as a food crop only in Ethiopia. Kocho, bulla, and amicho are food products of warqe. This study analysed the supply chain and logistics practices of warqe foods. Supply chain management concept was used to analyse the warqe-based food chain. Eight supply chain actors were identified. It was observed that the supply chain of warqe foods and the relationship between chain actors was very complex, long and overlapping. The major constraints identified in the chain were poor information flow, poor transportation system, using perishable packaging, lack of cooperation between actors, a poor infrastructure such as road and warehouse services, and poor policies concerning the warqe market. There is a need for cooperation and coordination between the chain actors to create an effective information sharing system. Shared warehouses need to be built near producers and market places. Transportation, packaging and handling need to be improved. Research is required to develop an integrated, efficient and effective logistics for warqe supply and marketing chain.

  12. Food retailer practices, attitudes and beliefs about the supply of healthy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Middleton, Ann E; Long, Michael W; Luedicke, Joerg; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2011-06-01

    Non-supermarket food retailers can be a promising channel for increasing the availability of healthy foods in underserved communities. The present paper reports on retailer practices, attitudes and beliefs about the supply of healthy foods before and after the introduction of new subsidies for healthy foods by the US Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in October 2009. We designed and conducted in-person standardized interviews with store owners and managers to assess perceptions of demand and profits for different foods, supply networks, barriers to stocking healthy foods and their changes following implementation of the new WIC packages. Non-supermarket retailers in five towns of Connecticut, USA (n 68 in 2009 and n 58 in 2010). Owners and managers of WIC-authorized and non-WIC convenience stores and non-chain grocery stores. Retailers identified customer demand as the primary factor in stocking decisions. They reported observing a significantly weaker demand for healthy foods compared with unhealthy foods, although it improved for certain foods with the new WIC subsidies. Less healthy foods were also perceived as more profitable. Supplier networks varied by product from convenient manufacturer delivery for salty snacks to self-supply for produce. WIC retailers were able to quickly adapt and supply healthy foods required under the new WIC programme guidelines. Retailers other than supermarkets currently perceive little demand for healthy foods, but new WIC subsidies have the power to change these perceptions. Supply barriers seem secondary in the limited offerings of healthy foods by stores and could be overcome when policy changes generate new demand for healthy foods.

  13. Masking foods for food challenge: practical aspects of masking foods for a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbers, G. B.; Colen, A. A.; Jansen, J. J.; Kardinaal, A. F.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Martens, B. P.

    1994-01-01

    In diagnosing a food allergy or food intolerance, a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) with the suspected food or food substance is the only method available for objective confirmation of an assumed relationship between a suspected agent and a complaint. When the use of

  14. Product development practice in medium-sized food processing companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Hanne

    Market orientation has in numerous empirical NPD-studies been identified as critical for success. However, this study reveals a severe gap between the normative implications regarding market orientation and current product development practice in number of Danish food-processing companies. Through...

  15. Food Preferences, Beliefs and Practices of Southeast Asian Refugee Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Mary; Harris, Linda J.

    1988-01-01

    Results from a study of 207 Southeast Asian refugee high school students indicate that these students have maintained strong ties to their native foods and traditional meal patterns. Cambodian, Vietnamese, and Hmong students showed varying degrees of nutritional awareness. Implications of beliefs, preferences, and practices for nutrition education…

  16. Designing for sustainable food practices in the home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Borja, J.; Kuijer, S.C.; Aprile, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Activities around food have implications for the environment, personal nutrition, identity, and social relationships. As a way of understanding how daily routines evolve, practice theory (a theory of social action from sociology) provides a framework through which the complexities around consumer

  17. Pooling raw shell eggs: Salmonella contamination and high risk practices in the United Kingdom food service sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, F J; Little, C L; Murphy, N; de Pinna, E; McLauchlin, J

    2010-03-01

    Salmonella contamination of pooled raw shelled egg mix (RSEM) used as an ingredient in lightly cooked or uncooked foods and high-risk kitchen hygiene practices in United Kingdom food service establishments using RSEM were investigated. Samples were collected from 934 premises. Salmonella was found in 1 (0.13%) of 764 RSEM samples, 2 (0.3%) of 726 samples from surfaces where ready-to-eat foods were prepared, and 7 (1.3%) of 550 cleaning cloths. Poor RSEM storage and handling practices were highlighted. Workers in 40% of the premises sampled failed to use designated utensils when RSEM was added to other ingredients, workers in 17% of the premises did not clean surfaces and utensils thoroughly after use with RSEM and before preparing other foods, only 42% of workers washed and dried their hands after handling eggs or RSEM, workers in 41% of the premises did not store RSEM at refrigeration temperature before use, and workers in 8% of the premises added RSEM to cooked rice at the end of cooking when preparing egg fried rice. Take-away premises, especially those serving Chinese cuisine, were least likely to have a documented food safety management system and awareness of the key food safety points concerning the use of RSEM compared with other food service premises (P < 0.0001). Food service businesses using RSEM must be aware of the continuing hazard from Salmonella, must adopt appropriate control measures, and must follow advice provided by national food agencies to reduce the risk of Salmonella infection.

  18. Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: initiatives, practices, and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-10-01

    Discarded electronic goods contain a range of toxic materials requiring special handling. Developed countries have conventions, directives, and laws to regulate their disposal, most based on extended producer responsibility. Manufacturers take back items collected by retailers and local governments for safe destruction or recovery of materials. Compliance, however, is difficult to assure, and frequently runs against economic incentives. The expense of proper disposal leads to the shipment of large amounts of e-waste to China, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and other developing countries. Shipment is often through middlemen, and under tariff classifications that make quantities difficult to assess. There, despite the intents of national regulations and hazardous waste laws, most e-waste is treated as general refuse, or crudely processed, often by burning or acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released, harm to the environment, workers, and area residents is inevitable. The faster growth of e-waste generated in the developing than in the developed world presages continued expansion of a pervasive and inexpensive informal processing sector, efficient in its own way, but inherently hazard-ridden. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of Food Safety Knowledge, Attitude, Self-Reported Practices, and Microbiological Hand Hygiene of Food Handlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hui Key; Abdul Halim, Hishamuddin; Thong, Kwai Lin; Chai, Lay Ching

    2017-01-01

    Institutional foodborne illness outbreaks continue to hit the headlines in the country, indicating the failure of food handlers to adhere to safe practices during food preparation. Thus, this study aimed to compare the knowledge, attitude, and self-reported practices (KAP) of food safety assessment and microbiological assessment of food handlers’ hands as an indicator of hygiene practices in food premises. This study involved 85 food handlers working in a university located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The food safety KAP among food handlers (n = 67) was assessed using a questionnaire; while the hand swabs (n = 85) were tested for the total aerobic count, coliforms, and Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The food handlers had moderate levels of food safety knowledge (61.7%) with good attitude (51.9/60) and self-reported practices (53.2/60). It is noteworthy that the good self-reported practices were not reflected in the microbiological assessment of food handlers’ hands, in which 65% of the food handlers examined had a total aerobic count ≥20 CFU/cm2 and Salmonella was detected on 48% of the food handlers’ hands. In conclusion, the suggestion of this study was that the food handlers had adequate food safety knowledge, but perceived knowledge failed to be translated into practices at work.

  20. Assessment of Food Safety Knowledge, Attitude, Self-Reported Practices, and Microbiological Hand Hygiene of Food Handlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Key Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Institutional foodborne illness outbreaks continue to hit the headlines in the country, indicating the failure of food handlers to adhere to safe practices during food preparation. Thus, this study aimed to compare the knowledge, attitude, and self-reported practices (KAP of food safety assessment and microbiological assessment of food handlers’ hands as an indicator of hygiene practices in food premises. This study involved 85 food handlers working in a university located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The food safety KAP among food handlers (n = 67 was assessed using a questionnaire; while the hand swabs (n = 85 were tested for the total aerobic count, coliforms, and Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The food handlers had moderate levels of food safety knowledge (61.7% with good attitude (51.9/60 and self-reported practices (53.2/60. It is noteworthy that the good self-reported practices were not reflected in the microbiological assessment of food handlers’ hands, in which 65% of the food handlers examined had a total aerobic count ≥20 CFU/cm2 and Salmonella was detected on 48% of the food handlers’ hands. In conclusion, the suggestion of this study was that the food handlers had adequate food safety knowledge, but perceived knowledge failed to be translated into practices at work.

  1. Food safety in hospital: knowledge, attitudes and practices of nursing staff of two hospitals in Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Guardia Maurizio

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food hygiene in hospital poses peculiar problems, particularly given the presence of patients who could be more vulnerable than healthy subjects to microbiological and nutritional risks. Moreover, in nosocomial outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, the mortality risk has been proved to be significantly higher than the community outbreaks and highest for foodborne outbreaks. On the other hand, the common involvement in the role of food handlers of nurses or domestic staff, not specifically trained about food hygiene and HACCP, may represent a further cause of concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning food safety of the nursing staff of two hospitals in Palermo, Italy. Association with some demographic and work-related determinants was also investigated. Methods The survey was conducted, by using a semi-structured questionnaire, in March-November 2005 in an acute general hospital and a paediatric hospital, where nursing staff is routinely involved in food service functions. Results Overall, 401 nurses (279, 37.1%, of the General Hospital and 122, 53.5%, of the Paediatric Hospital, respectively answered. Among the respondents there was a generalized lack of knowledge about etiologic agents and food vehicles associated to foodborne diseases and proper temperatures of storage of hot and cold ready to eat foods. A general positive attitude towards temperature control and using clothing and gloves, when handling food, was shared by the respondents nurses, but questions about cross-contamination, refreezing and handling unwrapped food with cuts or abrasions on hands were frequently answered incorrectly. The practice section performed better, though sharing of utensils for raw and uncooked foods and thawing of frozen foods at room temperatures proved to be widely frequent among the respondents. Age, gender, educational level and length of service were inconsistently

  2. Food safety in hospital: knowledge, attitudes and practices of nursing staff of two hospitals in Sicily, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccheri, Cecilia; Casuccio, Alessandra; Giammanco, Santo; Giammanco, Marco; La Guardia, Maurizio; Mammina, Caterina

    2007-01-01

    Background Food hygiene in hospital poses peculiar problems, particularly given the presence of patients who could be more vulnerable than healthy subjects to microbiological and nutritional risks. Moreover, in nosocomial outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, the mortality risk has been proved to be significantly higher than the community outbreaks and highest for foodborne outbreaks. On the other hand, the common involvement in the role of food handlers of nurses or domestic staff, not specifically trained about food hygiene and HACCP, may represent a further cause of concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning food safety of the nursing staff of two hospitals in Palermo, Italy. Association with some demographic and work-related determinants was also investigated. Methods The survey was conducted, by using a semi-structured questionnaire, in March-November 2005 in an acute general hospital and a paediatric hospital, where nursing staff is routinely involved in food service functions. Results Overall, 401 nurses (279, 37.1%, of the General Hospital and 122, 53.5%, of the Paediatric Hospital, respectively) answered. Among the respondents there was a generalized lack of knowledge about etiologic agents and food vehicles associated to foodborne diseases and proper temperatures of storage of hot and cold ready to eat foods. A general positive attitude towards temperature control and using clothing and gloves, when handling food, was shared by the respondents nurses, but questions about cross-contamination, refreezing and handling unwrapped food with cuts or abrasions on hands were frequently answered incorrectly. The practice section performed better, though sharing of utensils for raw and uncooked foods and thawing of frozen foods at room temperatures proved to be widely frequent among the respondents. Age, gender, educational level and length of service were inconsistently associated with the answer pattern

  3. MEMS product engineering handling the diversity of an emerging technology best practices for cooperative development

    CERN Document Server

    Ortloff, Dirk; Hahn, Kai; Bieniek, Tomasz; Janczyk, Grzegorz; Bruck, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the methodological background to directing cooperative product engineering projects in a micro and nanotechnology setting. The methodology is based on well-established methods like PRINCE2 and StageGate, which are supplemented by best practices that can be individually tailored to the actual nature and size of the project at hand. This book is intended for everyone who takes an active role in either practical product engineering or in teaching it. This includes project and product management staff and program management offices in companies working on innovation projects, those active in innovation, as well as professors and students in engineering and management.

  4. The role of order of practice in learning to handle an upper-limb prosthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwsema, Hanneke; van der Sluis, Corry K.; Bongers, Raoul M.

    Objective: To determine which Order of presentation of practice tasks had the highest effect oil using an upper-limb prosthetic simulator. Design: A cohort analytic Study. Setting: University laboratory. Participants: Healthy, able-bodied participants (N=72) randomly assigned to I Of 8 groups, each

  5. Biosafety in the Laboratory: Prudent Practices for the Handling and Disposal of Infectious Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    psittacosis, lymphogranuloma animal disease diagnostic laboratory). Biosafety Level venereum (LGV), and trachoma are documented APPENDIX A I11 hazards and...127 see also Facilities Lymphogranuloma venereum , 110-111 Laboratory practices academic laboratories, 68-69 M Biosafety Level 1, 90 Biosafety Level

  6. Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: Initiatives, practices, and consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sthiannopkao, Suthipong, E-mail: suthisuthi@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Dong-A University, 37 Nakdong-Daero 550 beon-gil Saha-gu, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Wong, Ming Hung [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-10-01

    Discarded electronic goods contain a range of toxic materials requiring special handling. Developed countries have conventions, directives, and laws to regulate their disposal, most based on extended producer responsibility. Manufacturers take back items collected by retailers and local governments for safe destruction or recovery of materials. Compliance, however, is difficult to assure, and frequently runs against economic incentives. The expense of proper disposal leads to the shipment of large amounts of e-waste to China, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and other developing countries. Shipment is often through middlemen, and under tariff classifications that make quantities difficult to assess. There, despite the intents of national regulations and hazardous waste laws, most e-waste is treated as general refuse, or crudely processed, often by burning or acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released, harm to the environment, workers, and area residents is inevitable. The faster growth of e-waste generated in the developing than in the developed world presages continued expansion of a pervasive and inexpensive informal processing sector, efficient in its own way, but inherently hazard-ridden. - Highlights: ► Much e-waste, expensive to process safely, illegally goes to developing countries. ► E-waste processing in developing countries pollutes with heavy metals and dioxins. ► Well-conceived developing world waste regulations lack enforceability. ► Crude e-waste processing cannot recover several rare materials. ► The amount of e-waste unsafely processed will continue to grow.

  7. Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: Initiatives, practices, and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-01-01

    Discarded electronic goods contain a range of toxic materials requiring special handling. Developed countries have conventions, directives, and laws to regulate their disposal, most based on extended producer responsibility. Manufacturers take back items collected by retailers and local governments for safe destruction or recovery of materials. Compliance, however, is difficult to assure, and frequently runs against economic incentives. The expense of proper disposal leads to the shipment of large amounts of e-waste to China, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and other developing countries. Shipment is often through middlemen, and under tariff classifications that make quantities difficult to assess. There, despite the intents of national regulations and hazardous waste laws, most e-waste is treated as general refuse, or crudely processed, often by burning or acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released, harm to the environment, workers, and area residents is inevitable. The faster growth of e-waste generated in the developing than in the developed world presages continued expansion of a pervasive and inexpensive informal processing sector, efficient in its own way, but inherently hazard-ridden. - Highlights: ► Much e-waste, expensive to process safely, illegally goes to developing countries. ► E-waste processing in developing countries pollutes with heavy metals and dioxins. ► Well-conceived developing world waste regulations lack enforceability. ► Crude e-waste processing cannot recover several rare materials. ► The amount of e-waste unsafely processed will continue to grow

  8. Command and Data Handling Flight Software test framework: A Radiation Belt Storm Probes practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T. A.; Reid, W. M.; Wortman, K. A.

    During the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission, a test framework was developed by the Embedded Applications Group in the Space Department at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The test framework is implemented for verification of the Command and Data Handling (C& DH) Flight Software. The RBSP C& DH Flight Software consists of applications developed for use with Goddard Space Flight Center's core Flight Executive (cFE) architecture. The test framework's initial concept originated with tests developed for verification of the Autonomy rules that execute with the Autonomy Engine application of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software. The test framework was adopted and expanded for system and requirements verification of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software. During the evolution of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software test framework design, a set of script conventions and a script library were developed. The script conventions and library eased integration of system and requirements verification tests into a comprehensive automated test suite. The comprehensive test suite is currently being used to verify releases of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software. In addition to providing the details and benefits of the test framework, the discussion will include several lessons learned throughout the verification process of RBSP C& DH Flight Software. Our next mission, Solar Probe Plus (SPP), will use the cFE architecture for the C& DH Flight Software. SPP also plans to use the same ground system as RBSP. Many of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software applications are reusable on the SPP mission, therefore there is potential for test design and test framework reuse for system and requirements verification.

  9. Practices and preferences: Exploring the relationships between food-related parenting practices and child food preferences for high fat and/or sugar foods, fruits, and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Baietto, Jamey

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between food-related parenting practices and child fruit, vegetable, and high fat/sugar food preferences. Parents (n = 148) of children (3-7 years old) completed the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ), the Preschool Adapted Food Liking Scale (PALS), and answered demographic questions. Separate linear regressions were conducted to test relationships between the different food categories on PALS (fruits, vegetables, and high fat/sugar foods) and each food-related parenting practice using race, ethnicity, and income level, and child age and gender as covariates. It was found that when a parent allows a child to control eating, it was negatively associated with a child's preference for fruit (β = -0.15, p = 0.032) and parent encouragement of child involvement in meal preparation was positively related to child preference for vegetables (β = 0.14, p = 0.048). Children preferred high fat and sugar foods more if parents used food to regulate child emotions (β = 0.24, p = 0.007), used food as a reward (β = 0.32, p food (β = 0.16, p = 0.045), and restricted unhealthy food (β = 0.20, p = 0.024). Conversely, children preferred high fat and sugar foods less if parents made healthy food available in the home (β = -0.13, p = 0.05), modeled healthy eating in front of the child (β = -0.21, p = 0.021), and if parents explained why healthy foods should be consumed (β = -0.24, p = 0.011). Although it cannot be determined if the parent is influencing the child or vice versa, this study provides some evidence that coercive feeding practices are detrimental to a child's food preferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Citizenship as practice: Handling communication problems in encounters between persons with dementia and social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jh, Österholm; L-C, Hydén

    2016-11-01

    The overall aim of the study was to investigate if and how persons with dementia were able to take part in negotiations for formal support, as cases of citizenship as practice The transcripts used for analysis were from 11 assessment meetings conducted in Sweden, in which the formal applicant was a person with dementia. The findings suggest that the actual participation of persons with dementia in assessment meetings varies. Communication problems were found in the meetings to different degrees and were dealt with differently and with various consequences. For those persons with dementia contributing at the same levels as the other participants, there was an attempt at mutual understanding. For those making fewer contributions, the other interlocutors took over the initiative and thus affected the practice of citizenship by persons with dementia in a negative way. The practice of citizenship is situation based and varies depending on all participants. When the person with dementia is able to participate in the conversation, social workers can facilitate for them to overcome communication problems by giving them more time and signaling acceptance. If the person with dementia has great problems in participating, the other participants can find different strategies to at least involve her or him in the conversation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Patterns of Food Parenting Practices and Children's Intake of Energy-Dense Snack Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Dorus W M; Kremers, Stef P J; de Vries, Nanne K; van Assema, Patricia

    2015-05-27

    Most previous studies of parental influences on children's diets included just a single or a few types of food parenting practices, while parents actually employ multiple types of practices. Our objective was to investigate the clustering of parents regarding food parenting practices and to characterize the clusters in terms of background characteristics and children's intake of energy-dense snack foods. A sample of Dutch parents of children aged 4-12 was recruited by a research agency to fill out an online questionnaire. A hierarchical cluster analysis (n = 888) was performed, followed by k-means clustering. ANOVAs, ANCOVAs and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations between cluster membership, parental and child background characteristics, as well as children's intake of energy-dense snack foods. Four distinct patterns were discovered: "high covert control and rewarding", "low covert control and non-rewarding", "high involvement and supportive" and "low involvement and indulgent". The "high involvement and supportive" cluster was found to be most favorable in terms of children's intake. Several background factors characterized cluster membership. This study expands the current knowledge about parental influences on children's diets. Interventions should focus on increasing parental involvement in food parenting.

  12. Food Practices in Transition - Changing Food Consumption, Retail and Production in the Age of Reflexive Modernity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaargaren, G.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Loeber, A.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    This edited volume presents and reflects upon empirical evidence of ‘sustainability’-induced and -related transition in food practices. The material collected in the various chapters contributes to our understanding of the ways in which ideas and preferences, sociotechnological developments and

  13. Food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the abattoir workers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Auwalu; Hassan, Azmi; Kadarman, Norizhar; Saleh, Ahmadu; Baraya, Yusha’u Shu’aibu; Lua, Pei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Foodborne diseases are common in the developing countries due to the predominant poor food handling and sanitation practices, particularly as a result of inadequate food safety laws, weak regulatory structures, and inadequate funding as well as a lack of appropriate education for food-handlers. The most frequently involved foods in disease outbreaks are of animal origin. However, in spite of the adequate legislation and laws governing the abattoir operation in Malaysia, compliance with food safety requirements during meat processing and waste disposal is inadequate. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers in Terengganu, Malaysia. Materials and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted using simple random sampling technique in the six districts of Terengganu: two districts were used for the pilot study and the remaining four were used for the main study. One hundred sixty-five abattoir workers from the selected districts were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results The mean and standard deviation of knowledge, attitude, and practice scores of the workers were 6.02 and 1.954, 45.16 and 4.496, and 18.03 and 3.186, respectively. The majority of the workers (38.8%) had a low level of knowledge and 91.7% had a positive attitude, while 77.7% had a good practice of compliance. Sex had a significant association with the level of knowledge (Plevel of knowledge than the males, while the males had a better practice of compliance than females. Similarly, knowledge also had a significant (P=0.009) association with the level of practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers. Conclusion The abattoir workers had a positive attitude and good practice, but a low level of knowledge toward compliance with the abattoir laws. Therefore, public awareness, workshops, and seminars relevant to the abattoir operations should be

  14. [Relations between maternal food practices and diet of preschool age Quebec children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulude, Geneviève; Marquis, Marie

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the relationships between mothers' food practices and the diets of their preschool children. Daycare facilities on the Island of Montréal recruited 122 mothers to complete a self-administered questionnaire that addressed the impact of parents' food practices on their children's diets, particularly the frequency of intake and food preferences. Correlations were observed between three maternal food practices--restrictions, pressure to eat and food reward--and children's eating behaviour. These three practices correlated with less desirable eating behaviours in children. This study suggests that in Quebec, mothers' food practices have a direct impact on the food practices of their children. Mothers must therefore be informed about the counterproductive nature of some food practices and given tools to develop healthier food strategies by focusing on children's appetites and emphasizing the pleasure of eating.

  15. Factors Influencing Knowledge, Food Safety Practices and Food Preferences During Warm Weather of Salmonella and Campylobacter Cases in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Adriana; Giles, Lynne C; Zhang, Ying; Koehler, Ann P; Hiller, Janet E; Bi, Peng

    2017-03-01

    To assess food safety practices, food shopping preferences, and eating behaviors of people diagnosed with Salmonella or Campylobacter infection in the warm seasons, and to identify socioeconomic factors associated with behavior and practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Salmonella and Campylobacter cases with onset of illness from January 1 to March 31, 2013. Multivariable logistic regression analyses examined relationships between socioeconomic position and food safety knowledge and practices, shopping and food preferences, and preferences, perceptions, and knowledge about food safety information on warm days. Respondents in our study engaged in unsafe personal and food hygiene practices. They also carried out unsafe food preparation practices, and had poor knowledge of foods associated with an increased risk of foodborne illness. Socioeconomic position did not influence food safety practices. We found that people's reported eating behaviors and food preferences were influenced by warm weather. Our study has explored preferences and practices related to food safety in the warm season months. This is important given that warmer ambient temperatures are projected to rise, both globally and in Australia, and will have a substantial effect on the burden of infectious gastroenteritis including foodborne disease. Our results provide information about modifiable behaviors for the prevention of foodborne illness in the household in the warm weather and the need for information to be disseminated across the general population. An understanding of the knowledge and factors associated with human behavior during warmer weather is critical for public health interventions on foodborne prevention.

  16. Practical handling of AIO admixtures – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanga, Z.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available All-in-one admixtures (AIO-admixtures provide safe, effective and low-risk PN (parenteral nutrition for practically all indications and applications. Water, energy (carbohydrates and lipids, amino acids, vitamins and trace elements are infused together with PN either as industrially-manufactured AIO admixtures provided as two- or three-chamber bags (shelf life usually more than 12 months completed with electrolytes and micronutrients where appropriate or as individually compounded ready-to-use AIO admixtures (compounding, usually prepared by a pharmacy on either a daily or weekly basis and stored at 2–8°C. Physico-chemical and microbial stability of an AIO admixture is essential for the safety and effectiveness of patient-specific PN, and its assurance requires specialist pharmaceutical knowledge. The stability should be documented for an application period of 24 (–48 hours. It is advisable to offer a limited selection of different PN regimes in each hospital. For reasons of drug and medication safety, PN admixtures prepared for individual patients must be correctly labelled and specifications for storage conditions must also be followed during transport. Monitoring is required where applicable. Micronutrients are usually administered separately to AIO admixtures. In case compatibility and stability have been well documented trace elements and/or combination preparations including water-soluble or water-soluble/fat soluble vitamin supplements can be added to PN admixtures under strict aseptic conditions. AIO admixtures are usually not used as vehicles for drugs (incompatibilities.

  17. Healthy food access for urban food desert residents: examination of the food environment, food purchasing practices, diet, and body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Zenk, Shannon N.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Cohen, Deborah; Beckman, Robin; Hunter, Gerald; Steiner, Elizabeth D.; Collins, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Provide a richer understanding of food access and purchasing practices among U.S. urban food desert residents and their association with diet and body mass. Design Data on food purchasing practices, dietary intake, height, and weight from the primary food shopper in randomly selected households (n=1372) was collected. Audits of all neighborhood food stores (n=24) and the most-frequented stores outside the neighborhood (n=16) were conducted. Aspects of food access and purchasing practices and relationships among them were examined and tests of their associations with dietary quality and body mass index (BMI) were conducted. Setting Two low-income predominantly African-American neighborhoods with limited access to healthy food in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Subjects Household food shoppers. Results Only one neighborhood outlet sold fresh produce; nearly all respondents did major food shopping outside the neighborhood. Although the nearest full-service supermarket was an average of 2.6 km from their home, respondents shopped an average of 6.0 km from home. The average trip was by car, took approximately two hours roundtrip, and occurred two to four times per month. Respondents spent approximately $37 per person per week on food. Those who made longer trips had access to cars, shopped less often, and spent less money per person. Those who traveled further when they shopped had higher BMIs, but most residents already shopped where healthy foods were available, and physical distance from full service groceries was unrelated to weight or dietary quality. Conclusions Improved access to healthy foods is the target of current policies meant to improve health. However, distance to the closest supermarket might not be as important as previously thought and thus policy and interventions that focus merely on improving access may not be effective. PMID:25475559

  18. Food beliefs and practices among the Kalenjin pregnant women in rural Uasin Gishu County, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riang'a, Roselyter Monchari; Broerse, Jacqueline; Nangulu, Anne Kisaka

    2017-01-01

    Background: Understanding food beliefs and practices is critical to the development of dietary recommendations, nutritional programmes, and educational messages. This study aimed to understand the pregnancy food beliefs and practices and the underlying reasons for these among the contemporary rural

  19. FOOD SAFETY KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES AMONG WOMEN IN FIELD PRACTICE AREA OF URBAN HEALTH TRAINING CENTRE, ANDHRA MEDICAL COLLEGE, VISAKHAPATNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Food safety describes handling, prep aration and storage of food in ways to prevent foodborne illness . The contamination of food may occur at any stage in the process from food production to consumption (“farm to plate” - theme for World Health Day 2015.Unsafe food creates a vicious cycle of disease and malnutrition, particularly affecting infants, young children, elderly and the sick. Foodborne diseases include a wide spectrum of illnesses and a growing public health problem worldwide. METHODOLOGY: A cross - sectional community based study was done among 150 women in the field practice area of urban health training centre, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam. Data was collected by administering questionnaire after taking informed consent. Data was entered in Epi data version 3.1 and analysed by usi ng SPSS version 16.Results were represented in form of proportions and Fischer’s Exact test was used to find significant association between variables. RESULTS: Among 150 participants, most of them were in age group of 21 - 30 years with mean age 33±11years.Ab out 68% belonged to low socioeconomic status, 76.7% were housewives, and 79.3% were literates. Among the participants, 94.7% had good knowledge regarding food safety, 30.7% had good practices showing gap between knowledge and practices. In 12% of cases ther e was history of foodborne illness. There was significant association between knowledge and literacy status; knowledge and past history of foodborne diseases (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: There is need for an education program in the community to improve the pract ices among women regarding food safety to fill the observed gap between knowledge and practices.

  20. USDA food and nutrient databases provide the infrastructure for food and nutrition research, policy, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Holden, Joanne M; Harris, Ellen

    2013-02-01

    The USDA food and nutrient databases provide the basic infrastructure for food and nutrition research, nutrition monitoring, policy, and dietary practice. They have had a long history that goes back to 1892 and are unique, as they are the only databases available in the public domain that perform these functions. There are 4 major food and nutrient databases released by the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), part of the USDA's Agricultural Research Service. These include the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database, the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies, and the USDA Food Patterns Equivalents Database. The users of the databases are diverse and include federal agencies, the food industry, health professionals, restaurants, software application developers, academia and research organizations, international organizations, and foreign governments, among others. Many of these users have partnered with BHNRC to leverage funds and/or scientific expertise to work toward common goals. The use of the databases has increased tremendously in the past few years, especially the breadth of uses. These new uses of the data are bound to increase with the increased availability of technology and public health emphasis on diet-related measures such as sodium and energy reduction. Hence, continued improvement of the databases is important, so that they can better address these challenges and provide reliable and accurate data.

  1. Food safety knowledge and practices of abattoir and butchery shops and the microbial profile of meat in Mekelle City, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haileselassie, Mekonnen; Taddele, Habtamu; Adhana, Kelali; Kalayou, Shewit

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the food safety knowledge and practices in meat handling, and to determine microbial load and pathogenic organisms in meat at Mekelle city. Methods A descriptive survey design was used to answer questions concerning the current status of food hygiene and sanitation practiced in the abattoir and butcher shops. Workers from the abattoir and butcher shops were interviewed through a structured questionnaire to assess their food safety knowledge. Bacterial load was assessed by serial dilution method and the major bacterial pathogens were isolated by using standard procedures. Results 15.4% of the abattoir workers had no health certificate and there was no hot water, sterilizer and cooling facility in the abattoir. 11.3% of the butchers didn't use protective clothes. There was a food safety knowledge gap within the abattoir and butcher shop workers. The mean values of bacterial load of abattoir meat, butcher shops and street meat sale was found to be 1.1×105, 5.6×105 and 4.3×106 cfu/g, respectively. The major bacterial pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Conclusions The study revealed that there is a reasonable gap on food safety knowledge by abattoir and butcher shop workers. The microbial profile was also higher compared to standards set by World Health Organization. Due attention should be given by the government to improve the food safety knowledge and the quality standard of meat sold in the city. PMID:23646306

  2. Older Adult Consumer Knowledge, Attitudes, and Self-Reported Storage Practices of Ready-to-Eat Food Products and Risks Associated with Listeriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ellen W; Redmond, Elizabeth C

    2016-02-01

    Consumer implementation of recommended food safety practices, specifically relating to time and temperature control of ready-to-eat (RTE) food products associated with listeriosis are crucial. This is particularly the case for at-risk consumers such as older adults, given the increased listeriosis incidence reported internationally among adults aged ≥60 years. However, data detailing older adults' cognitive risk factors associated with listeriosis are lacking. Combining data about knowledge, self-reported practices, and attitudes can achieve a cumulative multilayered in-depth understanding of consumer food safety behavior and cognition. This study aims to ascertain older adults' cognition and behavior in relation to domestic food handling and storage practices that may increase the risks associated with L. monocytogenes. Older adults (≥60 years) (n = 100) participated in an interview and questionnaire to determine knowledge, self-reported practices, and attitudes toward recommended practices. Although the majority (79%) had positive attitudes toward refrigeration, 84% were unaware of recommended temperatures (5°C) and 65% self-reported "never" checking their refrigerator temperature. Although most (72%) knew that "use-by" dates indicate food safety and 62% reported "always" taking note, neutral attitudes were held, with 67% believing it was safe to eat food beyond use-by dates and 57% reporting doing so. Attitudes toward consuming foods within the recommended 2 days of opening were neutral, with 55% aware of recommendations and , 84% reporting that they consume RTE foods beyond recommendations. Although knowledgeable of some key practices, older adults self-reported potentially unsafe practices when storing RTE foods at home, which may increase risks associated with L. monocytogenes. This study has determined that older adults' food safety cognition may affect their behaviors; understanding consumer food safety cognition is essential for developing targeted

  3. The role of informal dimensions of safety in high-volume organisational routines: an ethnographic study of test results handling in UK general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Suzanne; Checkland, Katherine; Bowie, Paul; Guthrie, Bruce

    2017-04-27

    The handling of laboratory, imaging and other test results in UK general practice is a high-volume organisational routine that is both complex and high risk. Previous research in this area has focused on errors and harm, but a complementary approach is to better understand how safety is achieved in everyday practice. This paper ethnographically examines the role of informal dimensions of test results handling routines in the achievement of safety in UK general practice and how these findings can best be developed for wider application by policymakers and practitioners. Non-participant observation was conducted of high-volume organisational routines across eight UK general practices with diverse organisational characteristics. Sixty-two semi-structured interviews were also conducted with the key practice staff alongside the analysis of relevant documents. While formal results handling routines were described similarly across the eight study practices, the everyday structure of how the routine should be enacted in practice was informally understood. Results handling safety took a range of local forms depending on how different aspects of safety were prioritised, with practices varying in terms of how they balanced thoroughness (i.e. ensuring the high-quality management of results by the most appropriate clinician) and efficiency (i.e. timely management of results) depending on a range of factors (e.g. practice history, team composition). Each approach adopted created its own potential risks, with demands for thoroughness reducing productivity and demands for efficiency reducing handling quality. Irrespective of the practice-level approach adopted, staff also regularly varied what they did for individual patients depending on the specific context (e.g. type of result, patient circumstances). General practices variably prioritised a legitimate range of results handling safety processes and outcomes, each with differing strengths and trade-offs. Future safety

  4. Food Defense Best Practices Reported by Public School Food Authorities in Seven Northern U.S. States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzke, Carol J.; Strohbehn, Catherine H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study reported food defense planning, training and best practices implemented in public schools in Montana, Wyoming, South Dakota, North Dakota, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Methods: An internet-administered survey was sent to 1,501 school food authorities or food service directors (FSDs) in public schools. Survey items…

  5. Outbreak of SRSV gastroenteritis at an international conference traced to food handled by a post-symptomatic caterer.

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, T.; Hutchings, P.; Palmer, S.

    1993-01-01

    In an outbreak of small round structured virus (SRSV) gastroenteritis at an international AIDS conference 67 people were ill with diarrhoea or vomiting, one requiring admission to hospital. Epidemiological investigations demonstrated that the vehicle of infection was food prepared by a foodhandler who was recovering from a mild gastrointestinal illness. The food most strongly associated with illness, coronation chicken, was prepared by the food handler on the second day after symptoms ceased....

  6. Outbreak of SRSV gastroenteritis at an international conference traced to food handled by a post-symptomatic caterer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, T; Hutchings, P; Palmer, S

    1993-08-01

    In an outbreak of small round structured virus (SRSV) gastroenteritis at an international AIDS conference 67 people were ill with diarrhoea or vomiting, one requiring admission to hospital. Epidemiological investigations demonstrated that the vehicle of infection was food prepared by a foodhandler who was recovering from a mild gastrointestinal illness. The food most strongly associated with illness, coronation chicken, was prepared by the food handler on the second day after symptoms ceased. The investigation confirms the view that foodhandlers may contaminate food with SRSVs after cessation of symptoms and should remain off work until at least 48 h after recovery.

  7. Knowledge, attitudes and practices evaluation on food hygiene and safety among perishable food handlers from a hypermarket in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ermelinda; Pires, Delphine Elisa; Ramalhosa, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate in loco the practices followed by the food handlers in three sections of a hypermarket, namely, butcher’s, charcuterie and fishery, as well as their level of knowledge, attitudes and practices in food hygiene and safety through the application of questionnaires. At the end it was also intended to relate the results with the training and professional experience, as well as demographic characteristics, such as sex, age and education level of food...

  8. Attitudes of western Canadian cow-calf producers towards the Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggy, Melissa; Pajor, Edmond; Thurston, Wilfreda; Parker, Sarah; Greter, Angela; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Karen; Campbell, John; Windeyer, M Claire

    2017-11-01

    This study describes western Canadian cow-calf producers' attitudes towards the Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Beef Cattle (COPB). Most respondents had not read the COPB. Of those familiar with the COPB, most agreed with it, but it did not have a major influence on their decisions.

  9. Dining with dad: Fathers' influences on family food practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding-Singh, Priya

    2017-10-01

    Scholars have documented multiple influences on family food practices. This article examines an overlooked contributor to family diet: fathers. Using 109 in-depth interviews with middle and upper-middle class mothers, adolescents, and fathers in the United States, I show how fathers can undermine mothers' efforts to provision a healthy diet. While family members perceive mothers as committed to provisioning a healthy diet, many fathers are seen as, at best, detached and, at worst, a threat to mothers' dietary aspirations. Fathers not only do little foodwork; they are also viewed as less concerned about their own and other family members' dietary health. When tasked with feeding, many fathers often turn to quick, unhealthy options explicitly avoided by mothers. Mothers report efforts to limit fathers' involvement in foodwork to ensure the healthiness of adolescents' diets, with variation across families by mothers' employment status. Fathers' dietary approaches reflect and reinforce traditional gender norms and expectations within families. In highlighting how and why fathers can undermine mothers' efforts to provision a healthy diet, this study deepens our understanding of the myriad dynamics shaping family food practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. FOOD QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND SAFETY

    OpenAIRE

    Rizwana Khatoon; Debkumar Chakraborty; R.C. Chandni; Amar Sankar; A.V. Raghu

    2017-01-01

    Food safety system mainly focuses on identifying and preventing hazards that may lead product to deteriorate. The main important of manufacturing practice is a system that ensures that products meet food safety, quality and legal requirements. The hazard analysis and critical control point system, applies to food safety management, uses the approach of controlling critical points in food handling to prevent food safety problems. Besides enhancing food safety, other benefits of applying HACCP ...

  11. Awareness, practice of safety measures and the handling of medical wastes at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, S O; Kayode, O O; Musa, O I

    2010-12-01

    The study is prompted by the significant public health impact of continuing rise in the emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases.and to determine the awareness and practice of safety measures in the handling of medical wastes among health workers in a teaching hospital. MATERIALS, SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Stratified sampling technique was used to choose 325 respondents from different professional groups and cadres of health workers and these included medical doctors, nurses/midwives, laboratory workers, ward attendants, porters, cleaners and laundry workers at the University of Ilorin teaching hospital between January and June 2008. Simple random sampling method by balloting was used to select subjects in each group. Data was collected using structured, self administered questionnaires which considered all the variables under study. Data collected were analyzed using Epi-Info computer software program. Three hundred and twenty five (325) questionnaires were administered, out of which 320 were returned giving a response rate of 98.5%. Respondents are nurses 128 (40.0%), doctors 107 (33.4%) and pharmacists 10 (3.1%). Years of work experience ranged from 3 to 27 years with respondents who had working experience between 11 to 15 years constituting over one quarter, 88 (27.5%) while those below 5 years were 8 (2.5'%). Two hundred and ninety eight (93.0%) respondents knew about hospital wastes while 193 (60.3%) only knew about general wastes. Majority of the health workers have appreciable knowledge of collection, minimization and personal risks associated with hospital wastes 299 (93.4%), 302 (94.4%) and 311 (97.2%) respectively. The most common routine safety practice is putting on protective clothing. This study revealed a high level of awareness of hospital wastes among health workers; however, the practice of standard safety measures was low. It is recommended that hospital wastes disposal and management policy be formulated and appropriate committee constituted to

  12. Healthy Choices for Every Body Adult Curriculum Improves Participants' Food Resource Management Skills and Food Safety Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, Omolola A; Plonski, Paula; Jenkins-Howard, Brooke; Cotterill, Debra B; Vail, Ann

    2018-04-03

    To evaluate the impact of the University of Kentucky's Healthy Choices for Every Body (HCEB) adult nutrition education curriculum on participants' food resource management (FRM) skills and food safety practices. A quasi-experimental design was employed using propensity score matching to pair 8 intervention counties with 8 comparison counties. Independent-samples t tests and ANCOVA models compared gains in FRM skills and food safety practices between the intervention and comparison groups (n = 413 and 113, respectively). Propensity score matching analysis showed a statistical balance and similarities between the comparison and intervention groups. Food resource management and food safety gain scores were statistically significantly higher for the intervention group (P food safety practices of participants. Copyright © 2018 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Food insecurity, food based coping strategies and suboptimal dietary practices of adolescents in Jimma zone Southwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tefera Belachew

    Full Text Available Despite the high prevalence of adolescent food insecurity in Ethiopia, there is no study which documented its association with suboptimal dietary practices. The objective of this study is to determine the association between adolescent food insecurity and dietary practices. We used data on 2084 adolescents in the age group of 13-17 years involved in the first round survey of the five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. Adolescents were selected using residence stratified random sampling methods. Food insecurity was measured using scales validated in developing countries. Dietary practices were measured using dietary diversity score, food variety score and frequency of consuming animal source food. Multivariable regression models were used to compare dietary behaviors by food security status after controlling for socio-demographic and economic covariates. Food insecure adolescents had low dietary diversity score (P<0.001, low mean food variety score (P<0.001 and low frequency of consuming animal source foods (P<0.001. After adjusting for other variables in a multivariable logistic regression model, adolescent food insecurity (P<0.001 and rural residence (P<0.001 were negatively associated with the likelihood of having a diversified diet (P<0.001 and frequency of consuming animal source foods, while a high household income tertile was positively associated. Similarly, multivariable linear regression model showed that adolescent food insecurity was negatively associated with food variety score, while residence in semi-urban areas (P<0.001, in urban areas (P<0.001 and high household income tertile (P = 0.013 were positively associated. Girls were less likely to have diversified diet (P = 0.001 compared with boys. Our findings suggest that food insecurity has negative consequence on optimal dietary intake of adolescents. Food security interventions should look into ways of targeting adolescents to mitigate these dietary consequences

  14. Fresh-cow handling practices and methods for identification of health disorders on 45 dairy farms in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espadamala, A; Pallarés, P; Lago, A; Silva-Del-Río, N

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe fresh-cow handling practices and techniques used during fresh cow evaluations to identify postpartum health disorders on 45 dairy farms in California ranging from 450 to 9,500 cows. Fresh cow practices were surveyed regarding (a) grouping and housing, (b) scheduling and work organization, (c) screening for health disorders, and (d) physical examination methods. Information was collected based on cow-side observations and responses from fresh cow evaluators. Cows were housed in the fresh cow pen for 3 to 14 (20%), 15 to 30 (49%), or >31 (31%) d in milk. Fresh cow evaluations were performed daily (78%), 6 times a week (11%), 2 to 5 times a week (9%), or were not routinely performed (2%). There was significant correlation between the duration of fresh cow evaluations and the number of cows housed in the fresh pen. Across all farms, the duration of evaluations ranged from 5 to 240 min, with an average of 16 s spent per cow. During fresh cow checks, evaluators always looked for abnormal vaginal discharge, retained fetal membranes, and down cows. Dairies evaluated appetite based on rumen fill (11%), reduction of feed in the feed bunk (20%), rumination sensors (2%), or a combination of these (29%). Milk yield was evaluated based on udder fill at fresh cow checks (40%), milk flow during milking (11%), milk yield records collected by milk meters (2%), or a combination of udder fill and milk meters (5%). Depressed attitude was evaluated on 64% of the dairies. Health-monitoring exams for early detection of metritis were implemented on 42% of the dairies based on rectal examination (13%), rectal temperature (22%), or both (7%). Dairies implementing health-monitoring exams took longer to perform fresh cow evaluations. Physical examination methods such as rectal examination, auscultation, rectal temperature evaluation, and cow-side ketosis tests were used on 76, 67, 38, and 9% of dairies, respectively. Across dairies, we found large

  15. "Current Good Manufacturing Practices" and the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Beth F.

    1995-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (hereinafter, FDA) regulates food, drugs, and cosmetics in order to ensure that these products are safe and truthfully labelled. As part of its responsibilities under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (hereinafter, Act), the FDA monitors the manufacturing practices of companies involved in the production of food, drugs, and medical devices. The manufacturing practices used by these companies must comply with certain standards, identified in the Act as "...

  16. Controlling food, controlling relationships: exploring the meanings and dynamics of family food practices through the diary-interview approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Sarah; Murphy, Simon; Elliott, Eva

    2018-04-06

    Potential merits of a social practice perspective for examining the meanings and dynamics of family food include moving beyond individual behaviour, and exploring how practices emerge, develop and change. However, researchers have struggled to encourage reflection on mundane practices, and how to understand associated meanings. Drawing on a study of families in South Wales, this article reflects on the value of the diary-interview approach in addressing these methodological challenges, and aims to explore and understand the dynamics of control across family contexts. Contemporary practice theories distinguish between practices as 'performances' and practices as 'entities' and the diary-interview method facilitated an examination of these dimensions. Detailed accounts of daily 'performances' (through diaries), alongside reflection on underlying contexts and 'entities' (through interviews), illustrated the entanglement of control, practices and context. The article adds further complexity to the concept of practice 'bundles' which facilitated an understanding of how food was interrelated with other practices - across family contexts and across generations. Sociological approaches with a practices perspective at the core, offer potential for developing public health interventions by acknowledging: the relational meaning of food; the embeddedness of food within everyday practices; and the need to consider interventions across a range of policy areas. © 2018 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  17. Culture and Food Practices of African American Women With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumlin, Lisa L; Brown, Sharon A

    2017-12-01

    Purpose The goals of this descriptive ethnographic study were to (1) describe the day-to-day selection, preparation, and consumption of food among African American women (AAW) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); (2) identify their typical food selections and consumption practices when dining out at restaurants and at social gatherings (ie, church functions, holidays); (3) highlight the valued behaviors and beliefs that influence these women's food practices; and (4) determine how social interactions influence those food practices. Methods Symbolic interactionism, a sensitizing framework, guided this study. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit 20 AAW from 35 to 70 years of age diagnosed with T2DM who shopped and prepared meals for their families and attended church functions where food was served. Data collection consisted of one-on-one interviews and observations of participants during church fellowship dinners, grocery shopping, and food preparation. A social anthropological approach to content analysis was used to describe behavioral regularities in food practices. Results Informants exhibited a constant struggle in food practices, particularly within the home setting. Difficulties in making dietary modifications resulted from conflicts between the need to change dietary practices to control diabetes and personal food preferences, food preferences of family members, and AAW's emotional dedication to the symbolism of food derived from traditional cultural food practices passed down from generation to generation. Conclusions African American women are the gatekeepers for family food practices, holding the keys to healthy dietary practices. This study helps to fill the research gap regarding cultural dietary food practices within this population.

  18. Food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the abattoir workers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Auwalu; Hassan, Azmi; Kadarman, Norizhar; Saleh, Ahmadu; Baraya, Yusha'u Shu'aibu; Lua, Pei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne diseases are common in the developing countries due to the predominant poor food handling and sanitation practices, particularly as a result of inadequate food safety laws, weak regulatory structures, and inadequate funding as well as a lack of appropriate education for food-handlers. The most frequently involved foods in disease outbreaks are of animal origin. However, in spite of the adequate legislation and laws governing the abattoir operation in Malaysia, compliance with food safety requirements during meat processing and waste disposal is inadequate. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers in Terengganu, Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using simple random sampling technique in the six districts of Terengganu: two districts were used for the pilot study and the remaining four were used for the main study. One hundred sixty-five abattoir workers from the selected districts were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The mean and standard deviation of knowledge, attitude, and practice scores of the workers were 6.02 and 1.954, 45.16 and 4.496, and 18.03 and 3.186, respectively. The majority of the workers (38.8%) had a low level of knowledge and 91.7% had a positive attitude, while 77.7% had a good practice of compliance. Sex had a significant association with the level of knowledge (P<0.001) and practice (P=0.044) among the workers. The females had a higher level of knowledge than the males, while the males had a better practice of compliance than females. Similarly, knowledge also had a significant (P=0.009) association with the level of practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers. The abattoir workers had a positive attitude and good practice, but a low level of knowledge toward compliance with the abattoir laws. Therefore, public awareness, workshops, and seminars relevant to the abattoir

  19. Home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions: A qualitative interview study with photo-elicitation

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Susanna; White, Martin; Wrieden, Wendy; Brown, Heather; Stead, Martine; Adams, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Food-related choices have an important impact on health. Food preparation methods may be linked to diet and health benefits. However, the factors influencing people's food choices, and how they are shaped by food preparation experiences, are still not fully understood. We aimed to study home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions amongst adults in North East England. A matrix was used to purposively sample participants with diverse socio-demographic characteristics. Participa...

  20. Evidence of bad recycling practices: BFRs in children's toys and food-contact articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzonato, A; Puype, F; Harrad, S J

    2017-07-19

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been used intentionally in a wide range of plastics, but are now found in an even wider range of such materials (including children's toys and food contact articles) as a result of recycling practices that mix BFR-containing waste plastics with "virgin" materials. In this study Br was quantified in toy and food contact samples on the assumption that its concentration can be used as a metric for BFR contamination. Subsequently, compound specific determination of BFRs was performed to evaluate the validity of the aforementioned assumption, crucial to render rapid, inexpensive, in situ Br determination in non-laboratory environments (such as waste handling facilities) a viable option for sorting wastes according to their BFR content. We report semi-quantitative compound specific BFR concentrations to give an overview of the distribution of individual BFRs in the analyzed samples. Finally, we evaluated the correlations between waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) related substances (Ca, Sb and rare earth elements (REEs)) and Br as a proxy for identifying poor sorting practices in different waste streams. 26 samples of toys, food-contact articles and WEEE were analyzed with a suite of different techniques in order to obtain comprehensive information about their elemental and molecular composition. The information obtained from principal component analysis about WEEE-related compounds provides new insights into the influence of sorting practices on the extent of products' contamination and bringing out polymer-related trends in the pollutants' signature. 61% of all samples were Br positive: of these samples, 45% had decaBDE concentrations exceeding the concentration limits for PBDEs and their main constituent polymer was - according to the REE signature of such samples - Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), uses of which include copying equipment, laptops and computers. The ability to better track chemicals of concern

  1. Facts about food irradiation: Microbiological safety of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet considers the microbiological safety of irradiated food, with especial reference to Clostridium botulinum. Irradiated food, as food treated by any ''sub-sterilizing'' process, must be handled, packaged and stored following good manufacturing practices to prevent growth and toxin production of C. botulinum. Food irradiation does not lead to increased microbiological hazards, nor can it be used to save already spoiled foods. 4 refs

  2. “Indigenizing” Food Sovereignty. Revitalizing Indigenous Food Practices and Ecological Knowledges in Canada and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Coté

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The food sovereignty movement initiated in 1996 by a transnational organization of peasants, La Via Campesina, representing 148 organizations from 69 countries, became central to self-determination and decolonial mobilization embodied by Indigenous peoples throughout the world. Utilizing the framework of decolonization and sustainable self-determination, this article analyzes the concept of food sovereignty to articulate an understanding of its potential for action in revitalizing Indigenous food practices and ecological knowledge in the United States and Canada. The food sovereignty movement challenged the hegemony of the globalized, neoliberal, industrial, capital-intensive, corporate-led model of agriculture that created destructive economic policies that marginalized small-scale farmers, removed them from their land, and forced them into the global market economy as wage laborers. Framed within a larger rights discourse, the food sovereignty movement called for the right of all peoples to healthy and culturally appropriate food and the right to define their own food and agricultural systems. “Indigenizing” food sovereignty moves beyond a rights based discourse by emphasizing the cultural responsibilities and relationships Indigenous peoples have with their environment and the efforts being made by Indigenous communities to restore these relationships through the revitalization of Indigenous foods and ecological knowledge systems as they assert control over their own foods and practices.

  3. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of food allergies among food handlers in the state of Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, A A; Azman, A W

    2015-09-01

    Food handler's knowledge, attitude and practice regarding food allergies are important to prevent debilitating and sometimes fatal reactions. This study aimed to assess their food allergy knowledge, attitude and practice, which could help to maintain the safety and hygiene of food consumed by the public. Cross-sectional survey. A cross-sectional survey involving 121 conveniently sampled (81.76% response rate) respondents among the food handlers in the state of Penang, Malaysia, was conducted using a validated self-administered questionnaire. Their knowledge, attitude and work practice were captured using a 37-item questionnaire that elicited their responses using a mixture of closed-ended and Likert scale techniques. The mean knowledge score for respondents was 50.23 (SD = 14.03), attitude score was 54.26 (SD = 11.67) and practice score was 45.90 (SD = 24.78). Only 1.79% of the respondents were considered to have excellent knowledge, 21.37% had a low risk practice and 4.27% had positive attitudes towards food allergies. Most of the respondents (70%) knew about food allergies and their seriousness. There was a statistically significant correlation between the attitude and practice of respondents (r = 0.51). The type of establishment was the only characteristic significantly associated (P safety training programmes is needed to reduce food allergy risks and prevent fatal allergic reactions to food among their customers. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mealtime Structure and Responsive Feeding Practices Are Associated With Less Food Fussiness and More Food Enjoyment in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnane, Julia M; Jansen, Elena; Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne A

    2017-01-01

    To identify associations between structure-related and non-responsive feeding practices and children's eating behaviors. Cross-sectional online survey design. Parents (n = 413) of 1- to 10-year-old children. Parental feeding practices and child eating behaviors were measured via the validated Feeding Practices and Structure and Children's Eating Behaviour questionnaires. Associations between parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviors were tested using hierarchical multivariable linear regression models, adjusted for covariates. Feeding practices accounted for 28% and 21% of the variance in food fussiness and enjoyment of food, respectively (P practices was practices were associated with lower food fussiness and higher enjoyment of food. Overall, the findings suggested that mealtime structure and responsive feeding are associated with more desirable eating behaviors. Contrary to predictions, there was no evidence to indicate that these practices are associated with better self-regulation of energy intake. Longitudinal research and intervention studies are needed to confirm the importance of these feeding practices for children's eating behaviors and weight outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Food allergy knowledge, perception of food allergy labeling, and level of dietary practice: A comparison between children with and without food allergy experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongmi; Ju, Seyoung

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The prevalence of food allergies in Korean children aged 6 to 12 years increased from 10.9% in 1995 to 12.6% in 2012 according to nationwide population studies. Treatment for food allergies is avoidance of allergenic-related foods and epinephrine auto-injector (EPI) for accidental allergic reactions. This study compared knowledge and perception of food allergy labeling and dietary practices of students. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study was conducted with the fourth to sixth grade students from an elementary school in Yongin. A total of 437 response rate (95%) questionnaires were collected and statistically analyzed. RESULTS The prevalence of food allergy among respondents was 19.7%, and the most common food allergy-related symptoms were urticaria, followed by itching, vomiting and nausea. Food allergens, other than 12 statutory food allergens, included cheese, cucumber, kiwi, melon, clam, green tea, walnut, grape, apricot and pineapple. Children with and without food allergy experience had a similar level of knowledge on food allergies. Children with food allergy experience thought that food allergy-related labeling on school menus was not clear or informative. CONCLUSION To understand food allergies and prevent allergic reactions to school foodservice among children, schools must provide more concrete and customized food allergy education. PMID:25671074

  6. Food Safety Education Using an Interactive Multimedia Kiosk in a WIC Setting: Correlates of Client Satisfaction and Practical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Newman, Frederick L.; Huffman, Fatma G.; Dixon, Zisca

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess acceptability of food safety education delivered by interactive multimedia (IMM) in a Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children Program (WIC) clinic. Methods: Female clients or caregivers (n = 176) completed the food-handling survey; then an IMM food safety education program on a computer kiosk.…

  7. Natural Ingredients and Foods: A Practical Approach for Qualification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeres, H.L.; Jong, G.A.H. de; Hübner, F.; Wassink, G.

    2013-01-01

    The term “natural” in food labelling is increasingly used by producers to indicate that their products are “natural”. The use of this term is not well regulated in many countries, leading to confusion among consumers as well as food producers and legislators and to a lack of guidance for food

  8. Hygiene practices among street food vendors in Tamale Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study noted that street food business in the Tamale Metropolis was women dominated (76%). Majority of vendors (78%) were aged 20-39 years. Public toilets (pit latrines) were accessible to all vending sites. Though high number of street food vendors had some form of formal education (66%) and knowledge of food ...

  9. Food hygiene practices and its associated factors among model and non model households in Abobo district, southwestern Ethiopia: Comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okugn, Akoma; Woldeyohannes, Demelash

    2018-01-01

    In developing country most of human infectious diseases are caused by eating contaminated food. Estimated nine out ten of the diarrheal disease is attributable to the environment and associated with risk factors of poor food hygiene practice. Understanding the risk of eating unsafe food is the major concern to prevent and control food borne diseases. The main goal of this study was to assessing food hygiene practices and its associated factors among model and non model households at Abobo district. This study was conducted from 18 October 2013 to 13 June 2014. A community-based comparative cross-sectional study design was used. Pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 1247 households (417 model and 830 non model households) were included in the study from Abobo district. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with outcome variable. The study revealed that good food hygiene practice was 51%, of which 79% were model and 36.70% were non model households. Type of household [AOR: 2.07, 95% CI: (1.32-3.39)], sex of household head [AOR: 1.63, 95% CI: (1.06-2.48)], Availability of liquid wastes disposal pit [AOR: 2.23, 95% CI: (1.39,3.63)], Knowledge of liquid waste to cause diseases [AOR: 1.95, 95% (1.23,3.08)], and availability of functional hand washing facility [AOR: 3.61, 95% CI: (1.86-7.02)] were the factors associated with food handling practices. This study revealed that good food handling practice is low among model and non model households. While type of household (model versus non model households), sex, knowledge of solid waste to cause diseases, availability of functional hand washing facility, and availability of liquid wastes disposal pit were the factors associated with outcome variable. Health extension workers should play a great role in educating households regarding food hygiene practices to improve their knowledge and practices of the food hygiene.

  10. Food safety knowledge and hygiene practices among veterinary medicine students at Trakia University, Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratev, Deyan; Odeyemi, Olumide A; Pavlov, Alexander; Kyuchukova, Ralica; Fatehi, Foad; Bamidele, Florence A

    The results from the first survey on food safety knowledge, attitudes and hygiene practices (KAP) among veterinary medicine students in Bulgaria are reported in this study. It was designed and conducted from September to December 2015 using structured questionnaires on food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices. Data were collected from 100 undergraduate veterinary medicine students from the Trakia University, Bulgaria. It was observed that the age and the gender did not affect food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) on food safety knowledge and practices among students based on the years of study. A high level of food safety knowledge was observed among the participants (85.06%), however, the practice of food safety was above average (65.28%) while attitude toward food safety was high (70%). Although there was a significant awareness of food safety knowledge among respondents, there is a need for improvement on food safety practices, interventions on food safety and foodborne diseases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. 76 FR 51308 - Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... retail food stores of products for sale at a stated price. You can file a comment online or on paper. For... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 424 Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices..., and regulatory and economic impact of the FTC's rule for ``Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing...

  12. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  13. Weaning Foods and Practices in Central Uganda: A Cross-Sectional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weaning Foods and Practices in Central Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Study. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Breast milk is the natural first food for infants and should be fed alone for the first 4 to 6 months of ...

  14. Depiction of Wild Food Foraging Practices in the Media: Impact of the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonya Sachdeva; Marla R. Emery; Patrick T. Hurley

    2018-01-01

    The practice of gathering and harvesting wild foods has seen renewed interest in recent decades. In addition to contributing to food security and food sovereignty, foraging plays a role in promoting socioecological resilience and creating communities of belonging. However, foraging is generally prohibited by regulations governing public lands in the United States and...

  15. Microbial control and food Preservation: Theory and practice:Principles of food preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food preservation is an action or method used to maintain foods at certain desirable properties or quality to obtain maximum benefit. A good method of food preservation is one that slows down or prevents altogether the action of the agents of spoilage without damaging the food. To achieve this, cert...

  16. Food allergy: opportunities and challenges in the clinical practice of allergy and immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John M

    2004-10-01

    Food allergy offers numerous opportunities and challenges for the allergy and clinical immunology specialist. Physicians with board certification in allergy and clinical immunology should be the main source of reliable clinical information to educate patients with food-related disorders. There has been a wealth of reliable information published related to food allergy that can be utilized by health care providers in clinical practice. This includes information about the cross-reactivity of food allergens, the evaluation of potential new therapies, and the practical application of new diagnostic methods and management strategies. This article addresses some of the new developments in food allergy, with an emphasis on cross-reactvity of food allergens, recombinant food allergens, and potential future therapies for food allergy.

  17. A unified framework for developing effective hygiene procedures for hands, environmental surfaces and laundry in healthcare, domestic, food handling and other settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Sally F.; Carling, Philip C.; Exner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Hygiene procedures for hands, surfaces and fabrics are central to preventing spread of infection in settings including healthcare, food production, catering, agriculture, public settings, and home and everyday life. They are used in situations including hand hygiene, clinical procedures, decontamination of environmental surfaces, respiratory hygiene, food handling, laundry hygiene, toilet hygiene and so on. Although the principles are common to all, approaches currently used in different settings are inconsistent. A concern is the use of inconsistent terminology which is misleading, especially to people we need to communicate with such as the public or cleaning professionals. This paper reviews the data on current approaches, alongside new insights to developing hygiene procedures. Using this data, we propose a more scientifically-grounded framework for developing procedures that maximize protection against infection, based on consistent principles and terminology, and applicable across all settings. A key feature is use of test models which assess the state of surfaces after treatment rather than product performance alone. This allows procedures that rely on removal of microbes to be compared with those employing chemical or thermal inactivation. This makes it possible to ensure that a consistent “safety target level” is achieved regardless of the type of procedure used, and allows us deliver maximum health benefit whilst ensuring prudent usage of antimicrobial agents, detergents, water and energy. PMID:28670508

  18. Food Environment in Secondary Schools: À La Carte, Vending Machines, and Food Policies and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A.; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Gerlach, Anne Faricy

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This study described the food environment in 20 Minnesota secondary schools. Methods. Data were collected on school food policies and the availability and nutritional content of foods in school à la carte (ALC) areas and vending machines (VMs). Results. Approximately 36% and 35% of foods in ALC areas and in VMs, respectively, met the lower-fat criterion (≤ 5.5 fat grams/serving). The chips/crackers category constituted the largest share of ALC foods (11.5%). The median number of VMs per school was 12 (4 soft drink, 2 snack, 5 other). Few school food policies were reported. Conclusions. The availability of healthful foods and beverages in schools as well as school food policies that foster healthful food choices among students needs greater attention. PMID:12835203

  19. Isolation and identification of some unknown substances in disposable nitrile-butadiene rubber gloves used for food handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsuga, M; Wakui, C; Kawamura, Y; Maitani, T

    2002-11-01

    In Japan, disposable gloves made from nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) are frequently used in contact with foods. In a previous paper, we investigated substances migrating from various gloves made of polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, natural rubber and NBR. Zinc di-n-butyldithiocarbamate (ZDBC), diethyldithiocarbamate (ZDEC) used as vulcanization accelerators, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) used as a plasticizer and many unknown compounds that migrated from NBR gloves into n-heptane were detected by GC/MS. In this paper, six unknown compounds were obtained from one kind of NBR glove by n-hexane extraction and each was isolated by silica gel chromatography. From the results of NMR and mass spectral analysis of the six unknown compounds, their structures are proposed as 1,4-dione-2,5-bis(1,1-dimethylpropyl)cyclohexadiene (1), 2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetra methylbutyl)phenol (2), 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (3), 2,4-bis(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (4), 2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)4,6-bis(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (5) and 2,4,6-tris(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (6). Compound 1 was observed in five of the seven kinds of NBR gloves, and compounds 2-4 and 6, which are not listed in Chemical Abstract (CA), were present in four kinds of gloves.

  20. Clarifying concepts of food parenting practices. A Delphi study with an application to snacking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, D W M; Kremers, S P J; de Vries, N K; van Assema, P

    2014-08-01

    Inconsistencies in measurements of food parenting practices continue to exist. Fundamental to this problem is the lack of clarity about what is understood by different concepts of food parenting practices. The purpose of this study was to clarify food parenting practice concepts related to snacking. A three round Delphi study among an international group of experts (n = 63) was conducted. In the first round, an open-ended survey was used to collect food parenting practice descriptions and concept labels associated with those practices. In the second round, participants were asked to match up descriptions with the appropriate concept labels. The third and final round allowed participants to reconsider how descriptions and concept labels were matched, taking into account the opinions expressed in round two. Round one produced 408 descriptions of food parenting practices and 110 different concept names. Round two started with 116 descriptions of food parenting practices and 20 concept names. On 40 descriptions, consensus regarding the underlying concept name was reached in round two. Of the remaining 76 descriptions, consensus on 47 descriptions regarding the underlying concept name was reached in round three. The present study supports the essential process of consensus development with respect to food parenting practices concepts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Food quality management : a technological and managerial principles and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Marcelis, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    This book describes Food Quality Management in one integrated concept. Firstly, all relevant aspects of food quality management are brought into one model, which forms the framework for this book. Secondly, the authors introduce the techno-managerial approach. This approach starts from the idea that

  2. Theorizing Food Sharing Practices in a Junior High Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This reflective essay analyzes interactions where food was shared between a teacher and her junior high school students. The author describes the official uses of food in junior high school classrooms and in educational contexts in general. The author then theorizes these interactions, suggesting other semiotic, dialogic, and culturally encoded…

  3. Microbial Quality, Nutritional Knowledge and Food Hygienic Practices among Street Food Vendors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowri, B.; Vasantha Devi, K. P.; Sivakumar, M.

    2011-01-01

    Since all categories of people from different socio-economic sectors purchase street foods; the street foods should not only be cheap but also hygienic and rich in nutrition. The investigators with their nutrition knowledge had an urge to study the nutrition knowledge of the vendors, whether the foods prepared are nutritionally sound or not?, are…

  4. Past and present practices of the Malay food heritage and culture in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nazri Abdul Raji

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Malay heritage varies from north to south; however, there are various similarities and differences. Essentially, Malay heritage food is influenced by a myriad of cultures, such as Arab, Indian, Chinese, Siamese, Javanese, Minangkabau, and others. Different regions in Malaysia are known for their unique or signature dishes, such as beef rendang, laksa, nasi lemak, and tapai. Indeed, it is noted that Malay food is identical in terms of its spiciness. This can be seen from the prepreparation, methods of cooking, and availability and use of prominent ingredients, such as local aromatic herbs and spices. This article highlights the regional Malay food, past and present practices of Malay food culture, and characteristics of Malay food. In addition, this article also discusses the different occasions and table etiquette practices among Malay communities. The reported findings are expected to contribute to the literature on food culture, specifically in Malay heritage food.

  5. Food irradiation: Technology transfer in Asia, practical experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstadt, Peter; Eng, P.

    1993-10-01

    Nordion International Inc., in cooperation with the Thai Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) recently completed a unique food irradiation technology transfer project in Thailand. This complete food irradiation technology transfer project included the design and construction of an automatic multipurpose irradiation facility as well as the services of construction and installation management and experts in facility operation, maintenance and training. This paper provides an insight into the many events that led to the succesful conclusion of the world's first complete food irradiation technology transfer project.

  6. Food irradiation: technology transfer in Asia, practical experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.

    1993-01-01

    Nordion International Inc., in cooperation with the Thai Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) recently completed a unique food irradiation technology transfer project in Thailand. This complete food irradiation technology transfer project included the design and construction of an automatic multipurpose irradiation facility as well as the services of construction and installation management and experts in facility operation, maintenance and training. This paper provides an insight into the many events that led to the successful conclusion of the world's first complete food irradiation technology transfer project. (Author)

  7. Association between household food security and infant feeding practices in urban informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharia, T N; Ochola, S; Mutua, M K; Kimani-Murage, E W

    2018-02-01

    Studies in urban informal settlements show widespread inappropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices and high rates of food insecurity. This study assessed the association between household food security and IYCF practices in two urban informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. The study adopted a longitudinal design that involved a census sample of 1110 children less than 12 months of age and their mothers aged between 12 and 49 years. A questionnaire was used to collect information on: IYCF practices and household food security. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between food insecurity and IYFC practices. The findings showed high household food insecurity; only 19.5% of the households were food secure based on Household Insecurity Access Score. Infant feeding practices were inappropriate: 76% attained minimum meal frequency; 41% of the children attained a minimum dietary diversity; and 27% attained minimum acceptable diet. With the exception of the minimum meal frequency, infants living in food secure households were significantly more likely to achieve appropriate infant feeding practices than those in food insecure households: minimum meal frequency (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.26, P=0.530); minimum dietary diversity (AOR=1.84, P=0.046) and minimum acceptable diet (AOR=2.35, P=0.008). The study adds to the existing body of knowledge by demonstrating an association between household food security and infant feeding practices in low-income settings. The findings imply that interventions aimed at improving infant feeding practices and ultimately nutritional status need to also focus on improving household food security.

  8. Food packaging and shelf life: a practical guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robertson, Gordon L

    2010-01-01

    .... With an increasing focus on sustainability and cost-effectiveness, responsible companies no longer want to over-package their food products, yet many remain unsure just where reductions can effectively be made...

  9. 9744 the effects of household food practices and diseases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    Thus, interventions to eliminate malnutrition should focus on household food ... health environment; the basic causes are poor national policies, inadequate formal ..... Technology for knowledge provided, Rwanda Agriculture Board for material ...

  10. Some problems with the food packaging practices in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... lack of standards and specifications and environmental issues have all been discussed. The effect of the increasing use of plastics as the main packaging material ... How these problems impact on the country's drive towards food security as ...

  11. Nutrition knowledge and food consumption practices and barriers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and barriers in rural Ghana: The case of foods for preventing vitamin A and iron deficiencies. ... of the occurrence of iron deficiency anaemia especially in pregnant women; however, only 8 FGs had knowledge of the causes of anaemia.

  12. Disentangling practices, carriers and production-consumption systems : a mixed-method study of (sustainable) food consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backhaus, Julia; Wieser, Harald; Kemp, René; Huddart Kennedy, Emily; Cohen, Maurie J.; Krogman, Naomi T.

    2015-01-01

    With a focus on food consumption practices, this chapter provides conceptual contributions and methodological reflections. The central question is how far practice-based approaches help understanding human behavior, both conceptually and analytically. Food consumption is tied to family traditions,

  13. Household Food Insecurity, Mother's Feeding Practices, and the Early Childhood's Iron Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salarkia, Nahid; Neyestani, Tirang R; Omidvar, Nasrin; Zayeri, Farid

    2015-01-01

    Health consequences of food insecurity among infants and toddlers have not been fully examined. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between household food insecurity, mother's infant feeding practices and iron status of 6-24 months children. In this cross-sectional study, 423 mother-child pairs were randomly selected by multistage sampling method. Children blood samples were analyzed for hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations. Household food security was evaluated using a validated Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. The mother's feeding practices were evaluated using Infant and Young Child Feeding practice variables including: The duration of breastfeeding and the time of introducing of complementary feeding. Based on the results, of the studied households only 47.7% were food secure. Mild and moderate-severe household food insecurity was 39.5% and 12.8%, respectively. Anemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia were seen in 29.1%, 12.2%, and 4.8% of children, respectively. There was no significant association between household food insecurity; mother's feeding practices and child ID with or without anemia. We found no association between household food insecurity and the occurrence of anemia in the 6-24 months children. However, these findings do not rule out the possibility of other micronutrient deficiencies among the food-insecure household children.

  14. Beliefs and practices regarding solid food introduction among Latino parents in Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Amy L; Hoeft, Kristin S; Takayama, John I; Barker, Judith C

    2018-01-01

    Latino children are more likely to be obese than non-Hispanic white children, and feeding patterns that begin in infancy may contribute to this disparity. The objective of this study was to elucidate beliefs and practices related to the introduction of solids and solid food feeding in the first year of life among low-income Latino parents residing in Northern California. We conducted 26 semi-structured interviews that explored the timing of introduction of solids, selection of foods to serve to infants, feeding strategies, sources of information on solid food feeding and concerns about infant weight. We found that most parents relied on traditional practices in selecting first foods for infants and had a strong preference for homemade food, which was often chicken soup with vegetables. Parents generally described responsive feeding practices; however a minority used pressuring practices to encourage infants to eat more. Very few parents practiced repeated gentle introduction of unfamiliar food to increase acceptance. High calorie low nutrient foods were typically introduced at around 12 months of age and parents struggled to limit such foods once children were old enough to ask for them. Parents were concerned about the possibility of infants becoming overweight and considered health care providers to be an important source of information on infant weight status. The results of this study can be used to inform the development of interventions to prevent obesity in Latino children with similar demographics to our study population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Food-related parenting practices and child and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, K; Fulkerson, J A; Neumark-Sztainer, D

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has reached a concerning plateau in the past three decades, with overweight or obesity impacting approximately one-third of youth. Unhealthy weight-related behaviors, including dieting, unhealthy weight control practices and binge eating, are also a great public health concern for young people given both their high prevalence and harmful consequences. Food-related parenting practices, including food restriction and pressure-to-eat, have been associated with higher weight status, as well as the use of unhealthy weight-related behaviors, in children and adolescents. Physicians and other health care providers who work with families should discourage parents from using food restriction and pressure-to-eat parenting practices with their child or adolescent. Alternatively, parents should be empowered to promote healthy eating by focusing on making nutritious food items readily available within their home and modeling healthy food choices for their child or adolescent.

  16. Assessment of good manufacturing practice for small scale food industry in Malang region, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwantiningrum, I.; Widyhastuty, W.; Christian, J.; Sari, N.

    2018-03-01

    Enhancing food safety in developing countries, such as Indonesia, poses more challenges, especially those of the small- and medium-scale. Various food safety systems are available and readily implemented in the food industry. However, to ensure the effectiveness of such systems, pre-requisite programs should be applied prior to the implementation of food safety system. One of the most acknowledged pre-requisite program is Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP). The aim of this study is to assess the GMP compliance of some small-scale food companies in East Java. Three types of traditional food product were selected, include tempe chips, palm sugar, and instant herbal drink. A survey involving three companies for each type of traditional food was conducted. Data was obtained through observation and assessment based on tabulated criteria in GMP criteria. In essential, the result revealed the compliment level of the food companies being surveyed. There was different level of compliment between each type of the food industry, where the palm sugar industry had the lowest level of compliment compared to the other two. This difference is due to the food safety awareness, social and cultural influences, and also knowledge on food safety and hygiene practice.

  17. Directive and non-directive food-related parenting practices: Associations between an expanded conceptualization of food-related parenting practices and child dietary intake and weight outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, K A; Friend, S; Horning, M L; Neumark-Sztainer, D; Fulkerson, J A

    2016-12-01

    This study examines associations between an expanded conceptualization of food-related parenting practices, specifically, directive and non-directive control, and child weight (BMI z-score) and dietary outcomes [Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010, daily servings fruits/vegetables] within a sample of parent-child dyads (8-12 years old; n = 160). Baseline data from the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME Plus) randomized controlled trial was used to test associations between directive and non-directive control and child dietary outcomes and weight using multiple regression analyses adjusted for parental education. Overall variance explained by directive and non-directive control constructs was also calculated. Markers of directive control included pressure-to-eat and food restriction, assessed using subscales from the Child Feeding Questionnaire; markers of non-directive control were assessed with a parental role modeling scale and a home food availability inventory in which an obesogenic home food environment score was assigned based on the types and number of unhealthful foods available within the child's home food environment. Food restriction and pressure-to-eat were positively and negatively associated with BMI z-scores, respectively, but not with dietary outcomes. An obesogenic home food environment was inversely associated with both dietary outcomes; parental role modeling of healthful eating was positively associated with both dietary outcomes. Neither non-directive behavioral construct was significantly associated with BMI z-scores. Greater total variance in BMI-z was explained by directive control; greater total variance in dietary outcomes was explained by non-directive control. Including a construct of food-related parenting practices with separate markers for directive and non-directive control should be considered for future research. These concepts address different forms of parental control and, in the present study, yielded

  18. Analysis of School Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kevin R.; Sauer, Kevin; Sneed, Jeannie; Kwon, Junehee; Olds, David; Cole, Kerri; Shanklin, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine how school districts have implemented food safety programs based on HACCP principles. Specific objectives included: (1) Evaluate how schools are implementing components of food safety programs; and (2) Determine foodservice employees food-handling practices related to food safety.…

  19. Manual of Good Practice in Food Irradiation. Sanitary, Phytosanitary and Other Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Ensuring that the process of irradiating food delivers the desired result consistently is essential for the correct application of the technology and will help to inspire consumer confidence in irradiated food. This publication aims to help operators of irradiation facilities to appreciate and improve their practices and also to provide detailed, yet straightforward, technical information for stakeholders such as food regulators, manufacturers and traders, who also need to understand ‘good practice’

  20. Manual of Good Practice in Food Irradiation. Sanitary, Phytosanitary and Other Applications (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring that the process of irradiating food delivers the desired result consistently is essential for the correct application of the technology and will help to inspire consumer confidence in irradiated food. This publication aims to help operators of irradiation facilities to appreciate and improve their practices and also to provide detailed, yet straightforward, technical information for stakeholders such as food regulators, manufacturers and traders, who also need to understand ‘good practice’.

  1. Improving safety-related knowledge, attitude and practices of nurses handling cytotoxic anticancer drug: pharmacists' experience in a general hospital, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keat, Chan Huan; Sooaid, Nor Suhada; Yun, Cheng Yi; Sriraman, Malathi

    2013-01-01

    An increasing trend of cytotoxic drug use, mainly in cancer treatment, has increased the occupational exposure among the nurses. This study aimed to assess the change of nurses' safety-related knowledge as well as attitude levels and subsequently to assess the change of cytotoxic drug handling practices in wards after a series of pharmacist-based interventions. This prospective interventional study with a before and after design requested a single group of 96 nurses in 15 wards actively providing chemotherapy to answer a self-administered questionnaire. A performance checklist was then used to determine the compliance of all these wards with the recommended safety measures. The first and second assessments took 2 months respectively with a 9-month intervention period. Pharmacist-based interventions included a series of technical, educational and administrative support measures consisting of the initiation of closed-system cytotoxic drug reconstitution (CDR) services, courses, training workshops and guideline updates. The mean age of nurses was 32.2∓6.19 years. Most of them were female (93.8%) and married (72.9%). The mean knowledge score of nurses was significantly increased from 45.5∓10.52 to 73.4∓8.88 out of 100 (p<0.001) at the end of the second assessment. Overall, the mean practice score among the wards was improved from 7.6∓5.51 to 15.3∓2.55 out of 20 (p<0.001). The pharmacist-based interventions improved the knowledge, attitude and safe practices of nurses in cytotoxic drug handling. Further assessment may help to confirm the sustainability of the improved practices.

  2. [Food and health risks: views on healthy food and food consumption practices among middle-class women and men in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidin, Betina

    2016-01-01

    In this article we analyze notions about healthy food and the perceptions of risks related to industrialized foodstuffs within a group of young and middle-aged females and males who belong to the middle class and live in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires. Data come from eight focus groups that were carried out in 2013. The study shows that the participants of the focus group have incorporated scientific-nutritional knowledge into their conceptions of healthy food. However, few discuss the risks of industrialized food beyond the growing public attention regarding trans fats and salt content. Although organic foods are positively valued, participants object to their high cost and the location of their commercialization. We show how in their food practices, the participants of the focus groups weigh their concern about health against other priorities such as costs, convenience, aesthetics, pleasure and sociability.

  3. Food and Nutrition Practices and Education Needs in Florida's Adult Family Care Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Wendy J.; Ford, Amanda L.; Gal, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    A statewide survey was carried out to determine food and nutrition practices and education needs of Florida's adult family care homes (AFCHs). The 30-item survey included questions on food and nutrition education, supplement use, and menu planning. Infrequent use of menus and nutrition supplements was reported. A strong need was indicated for…

  4. Food expenditures, cariogenic dietary practices and childhood dental caries in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldens, C A; Rodrigues, P H; Rauber, F; Chaffee, B W; Vitolo, M R

    2013-01-01

    Family expenditures on food for children may represent an important barrier to the adoption of healthy feeding practices in populations of low socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between cariogenic feeding practices, expenditures on food for children and dental caries. This cross-sectional study included 329 four-year-old children from São Leopoldo in southern Brazil. Cariogenic dietary practices were assessed at 4 years of age using two 24-hour recalls conducted with the children's mothers. Expenditures on food for children were estimated based on all reported food items and the respective amounts ingested. Early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries were assessed by clinical examination at 4 years of age. Cariogenic dietary habits were not associated with lower food expenditures. On the contrary, in multivariable regression analysis, the intake of chocolate (p = 0.007), soft drinks (p = 0.027) and a higher number of meals and snacks per day (p food for children. No statistically significant differences were observed in food expenditures or in the proportion of household income spent on feeding children between caries-free children, those with early childhood caries and those with severe early childhood caries. In conclusion, keeping children free of dental caries does not necessarily increase food expenditures or the proportion of household income spent on feeding children in low-socioeconomic status populations. Some cariogenic dietary practices were associated with greater expenditures on child feeding. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. An unsustainable state: Contrasting food practices and state policies in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jehlička, Petr; Smith, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 3 (2011), s. 362-372 ISSN 0016-7185 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP404/10/0521 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : food policies * household consumption * food practices Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 1.927, year: 2011

  6. Influence of gender roles and rising food prices on poor, pregnant women's eating and food provisioning practices in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Adrienne V; Mumtaz, Zubia; Faiz Rashid, Sabina; Willows, Noreen

    2013-09-26

    Maternal malnutrition in Bangladesh is a persistent health issue and is the product of a number of complex factors, including adherence to food 'taboos' and a patriarchal gender order that limits women's mobility and decision-making. The recent global food price crisis is also negatively impacting poor pregnant women's access to food. It is believed that those who are most acutely affected by rising food prices are the urban poor. While there is an abundance of useful quantitative research centered on maternal nutrition and food insecurity measurements in Bangladesh, missing is an understanding of how food insecurity is experienced by people who are most vulnerable, the urban ultra-poor. In particular, little is known of the lived experience of food insecurity among pregnant women in this context. This research investigated these lived experiences by exploring food provisioning strategies of urban, ultra-poor, pregnant women. This knowledge is important as discussions surrounding the creation of new development goals are currently underway. Using a focused-ethnographic approach, household food provisioning experiences were explored. Data from participant observation, a focus group discussion and semi-structured interviews were collected in an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Interviews were undertaken with 28 participants including 12 pregnant women and new mothers, two husbands, nine non-pregnant women, and five health care workers. The key findings are: 1) women were aware of the importance of good nutrition and demonstrated accurate, biomedically-based knowledge of healthy eating practices during pregnancy; 2) the normative gender rules that have traditionally constrained women's access to nutritional resources are relaxing in the urban setting; however 3) women are challenged in accessing adequate quality and quantities of food due to the increase in food prices at the market. Rising food prices and resultant food insecurity due to insufficient incomes are

  7. Food insecurity is associated with unhealthy dietary practices among US veterans in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Monideepa B; Hassija, Christina M; Becerra, Benjamin J

    2017-10-01

    US veterans (hereafter, 'veterans') are at risk for being overweight or obese and associated unhealthy behaviours, including poor diet; although limited studies have examined the underlying factors associated with such outcomes. As such, the present study evaluated the association between food insecurity and dietary practices among veterans. A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the California Health Interview Survey (2009, 2011/2012) was conducted. Survey weights were applied to identify univariate means, population estimates and weighted percentages. Bivariate analyses followed by survey-weighted negative binomial regression were used to model the association between food insecurity and dietary practices of fruit, vegetable, fast food and soda intakes. California Health Interview Survey 2009-2011/2012. The present study included a total of 11 011 veterans from California. Nearly 5 % of the studied veteran population reported living in poverty with food insecurity. Compared with those at or above the poverty level and those in poverty but food secure, the mean intakes of fruits and vegetables were lower, while the mean intakes of soda and fast foods (P for trend insecurity. Food insecurity was associated with 24 and 142 % higher average consumption of fast foods and soda, respectively, and 24 % lower fruit intake. Food insecurity remains a burden among veterans and is associated with unhealthy dietary practices. Targeted interventions to improve diet quality are imperative.

  8. Impact of Food Allergies on School Nursing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Christopher; Munoz-Furlong, Anne; Furlong, Terence J.; Arbit, Julie

    2004-01-01

    Food allergies affect 11 million Americans, including 6-8% of children. The rate of peanut allergies in children doubled from 1997 to 2002. There is no cure; therefore, strict avoidance of the allergen is the only way to avoid a reaction. Fatalities are associated with delays in or lack of epinephrine administration. Severe reactions, called…

  9. Toward practical definitions of quality for food science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremner, Allan

    2000-01-01

    the missing link of specific definitions related to measurable attributes and properties determined by standard methods to provide values that can be used to evaluate foods or to set specifications. It is compatible with control, assurance, HACCP, regulatory, TQM, and other normal uses of the both the word...

  10. Perception and practice of food hygiene and safety among youth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food borne diseases remain public health issue in the developing countries as outbreaks often result in devastating health and economic outcomes. The significant morbidity resulting from its toll on the socio-economic status of the country makes it imperative that an urgent need to stem the disease and prevent further ...

  11. Balancing food values : Making sustainable choices within cooking practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, A.; Kuijer, S.C.; Rydell, T.

    2013-01-01

    Within user-centred design and topics such as persuasive design, pleasurable products, and design for sustainable behaviour, there is a danger of over-determining, pacifying or reducing people’s diversity. Taking the case of sustainable food, we have looked into the social aspects of cooking at

  12. Climate Induced Food Insecurity, Coping Strategies and Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Close examination and analysis of household food security and its responses is very important not only from the economic point of view but also because of its high ... Some of the responses included out-migration of household members, diversification of income, multiple cropping, involvement in local/indigenous social ...

  13. Climate Induced Food Insecurity, Coping Strategies and Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Close examination and analysis of household food security and its responses is very important not only from the economic point of view but also because of its high ... Some of the responses include out-migration of household members, diversification of income, multiple cropping, and involvement in local/indigenous social ...

  14. Food and nutrition security as gendered social practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehof, A.

    2016-01-01

    In many parts of the world, the food security of households and the nutrition security of individual household members, in particular that of children, are still at risk, in spite of the progress made in combatting hunger at the global level. The prevailing opinion among scientists and development

  15. Knowledge and practices of food hygiene and safety among camel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The respondents showed low knowledge in answering questions regarding spoilage microorganisms and effective cleaning of containers. About 53% of women retailers used rejected/spoiled milk for household consumption. This could result in a high food safety risk. Therefore, training of actors along the camel milk value ...

  16. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercader, J.P.; Emily Leong

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  17. Regulatory Monitoring of Fortified Foods: Identifying Barriers and Good Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Laura A; Vossenaar, Marieke; Garrett, Greg S

    2015-01-01

    While fortification of staple foods and condiments has gained enormous global traction, poor performance persists throughout many aspects of implementation, most notably around the critical element of regulatory monitoring, which is essential for ensuring foods meet national fortification standards. Where coverage of fortified foods is high, limited nutritional impact of fortification programs largely exists due to regulatory monitoring that insufficiently identifies and holds producers accountable for underfortified products. Based on quality assurance data from 20 national fortification programs in 12 countries, we estimate that less than half of the samples are adequately fortified against relevant national standards. In this paper, we outline key findings from a literature review, key informant interviews with 11 fortification experts, and semi-quantitative surveys with 39 individuals from regulatory agencies and the food fortification industry in 17 countries on the perceived effectiveness of regulatory monitoring systems and barriers to compliance against national fortification standards. Findings highlight that regulatory agencies and industry disagree on the value that enforcement mechanisms have in ensuring compliance against standards. Perceived political risk of enforcement and poorly resourced inspectorate capacity appear to adversely reinforce each other within an environment of unclear legislation to create a major hurdle for improving overall compliance of fortification programs against national standards. Budget constraints affect the ability of regulatory agencies to create a well-trained inspector cadre and improve the detection and enforcement of non-compliant and underfortified products. Recommendations to improve fortification compliance include improving technical capacity; ensuring sustained leadership, accountability, and funding in both the private and the public sectors; and removing political barriers to ensure consistent detection of

  18. Food parenting practices and their association with child nutrition risk status: comparing mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterworth, Jessica C; Hutchinson, Joy M; Buchholz, Andrea C; Darlington, Gerarda; Randall Simpson, Janis A; Ma, David W L; Haines, Jess

    2017-06-01

    In Canada, little is known about how food parenting practices are associated with young children's dietary intakes and no studies have examined food parenting practices of Canadian fathers. This study aimed to examine associations between food parenting practices and preschool-age children's nutrition risk. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of thirty-one 2-parent families; 31 mothers, 31 fathers, and 40 preschool-age children. Parents completed an adapted version of the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire. We calculated children's nutrition risk using their NutriSTEP score. To account for sibling association, we used generalized estimating equations, adjusting for child age, sex, household income, and parental body mass index. Both mothers' and fathers' involvement of children in meal preparation were associated with lower child nutrition risk (mother [Formula: see text] = -3.45, p = 0.02; father [Formula: see text] = -1.74, p = 0.01), as were their healthy home environment scores (mother [Formula: see text] = -8.36, p food as a reward was associated with higher nutrition risk ([Formula: see text] = 4.67, p food parenting practices are associated with their children's nutrition status. Fathers should be included in food parenting practices interventions.

  19. "I spy, with my little sensor": fair data handling practices for robots between privacy, copyright and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Burkhard; Edwards, Lilian

    2017-07-01

    The paper suggests an amendment to Principle 4 of ethical robot design, and a demand for "transparency by design". It argues that while misleading vulnerable users as to the nature of a robot is a serious ethical issue, other forms of intentionally deceptive or unintentionally misleading aspects of robotic design pose challenges that are on the one hand more universal and harmful in their application, on the other more difficult to address consistently through design choices. The focus will be on transparent design regarding the sensory capacities of robots. Intuitive, low-tech but highly efficient privacy preserving behaviour is regularly dependent on an accurate understanding of surveillance risks. Design choices that hide, camouflage or misrepresent these capacities can undermine these strategies. However, formulating an ethical principle of "sensor transparency" is not straightforward, as openness can also lead to greater vulnerability and with that security risks. We argue that the discussion on sensor transparency needs to be embedded in a broader discussion of "fair data handling principles" for robots that involve issues of privacy, but also intellectual property rights such as copyright.

  20. Home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions: A qualitative interview study with photo-elicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Martin; Wrieden, Wendy; Brown, Heather; Stead, Martine; Adams, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Food-related choices have an important impact on health. Food preparation methods may be linked to diet and health benefits. However, the factors influencing people’s food choices, and how they are shaped by food preparation experiences, are still not fully understood. We aimed to study home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions amongst adults in North East England. A matrix was used to purposively sample participants with diverse socio-demographic characteristics. Participants developed photographic food diaries that were used as prompts during semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using the Framework Method. Interviews were conducted with 18 adults (five men and 13 women), aged approximately 20 to 80 years, to reach data saturation. Participants’ practices varied widely, from reliance on pre-prepared foods, to preparing complex meals entirely from basic ingredients. Key themes emerged regarding the cook (identity), the task (process of cooking), and the context (situational drivers). Resources, in terms of time, money and facilities, were also underpinning influences on food preparation. Participants’ practices were determined by both personal motivations to cook, and the influence of others, and generally reflected compromises between varied competing demands and challenges in life. Most people appeared to be overall content with their food preparation behaviour, though ideally aspired to cook more frequently, using basic ingredients. This often seemed to be driven by social desirability. Home food preparation is complex, with heterogeneous practices, experiences and perceptions both between individuals and within the same individual over time, according to shifting priorities and circumstances. Generalisability of these findings may be limited by the regional participant sample; however the results support and build upon previous research. Focussing interventions on life transition points at which priorities and circumstances

  1. Home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions: A qualitative interview study with photo-elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Susanna; White, Martin; Wrieden, Wendy; Brown, Heather; Stead, Martine; Adams, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Food-related choices have an important impact on health. Food preparation methods may be linked to diet and health benefits. However, the factors influencing people's food choices, and how they are shaped by food preparation experiences, are still not fully understood. We aimed to study home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions amongst adults in North East England. A matrix was used to purposively sample participants with diverse socio-demographic characteristics. Participants developed photographic food diaries that were used as prompts during semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using the Framework Method. Interviews were conducted with 18 adults (five men and 13 women), aged approximately 20 to 80 years, to reach data saturation. Participants' practices varied widely, from reliance on pre-prepared foods, to preparing complex meals entirely from basic ingredients. Key themes emerged regarding the cook (identity), the task (process of cooking), and the context (situational drivers). Resources, in terms of time, money and facilities, were also underpinning influences on food preparation. Participants' practices were determined by both personal motivations to cook, and the influence of others, and generally reflected compromises between varied competing demands and challenges in life. Most people appeared to be overall content with their food preparation behaviour, though ideally aspired to cook more frequently, using basic ingredients. This often seemed to be driven by social desirability. Home food preparation is complex, with heterogeneous practices, experiences and perceptions both between individuals and within the same individual over time, according to shifting priorities and circumstances. Generalisability of these findings may be limited by the regional participant sample; however the results support and build upon previous research. Focussing interventions on life transition points at which priorities and circumstances change

  2. Home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions: A qualitative interview study with photo-elicitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Mills

    Full Text Available Food-related choices have an important impact on health. Food preparation methods may be linked to diet and health benefits. However, the factors influencing people's food choices, and how they are shaped by food preparation experiences, are still not fully understood. We aimed to study home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions amongst adults in North East England. A matrix was used to purposively sample participants with diverse socio-demographic characteristics. Participants developed photographic food diaries that were used as prompts during semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using the Framework Method. Interviews were conducted with 18 adults (five men and 13 women, aged approximately 20 to 80 years, to reach data saturation. Participants' practices varied widely, from reliance on pre-prepared foods, to preparing complex meals entirely from basic ingredients. Key themes emerged regarding the cook (identity, the task (process of cooking, and the context (situational drivers. Resources, in terms of time, money and facilities, were also underpinning influences on food preparation. Participants' practices were determined by both personal motivations to cook, and the influence of others, and generally reflected compromises between varied competing demands and challenges in life. Most people appeared to be overall content with their food preparation behaviour, though ideally aspired to cook more frequently, using basic ingredients. This often seemed to be driven by social desirability. Home food preparation is complex, with heterogeneous practices, experiences and perceptions both between individuals and within the same individual over time, according to shifting priorities and circumstances. Generalisability of these findings may be limited by the regional participant sample; however the results support and build upon previous research. Focussing interventions on life transition points at which priorities and

  3. Dosimetry. Standard practice for dosimetry in gamma irradiation facilities for food and non-food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This Ghana Standard outlines the installation qualification program for an irradiator and the dosimetry procedures to be followed during operational qualification, performance qualification and routine processing in facilities that process food and non-food with gamma rays. This is to ensure that the product has been treated with predetermined range of absorbed dose. It is not intended for use in X-ray and electron beam facilities and therefore dosimetry systems in such facilities are not covered

  4. Effects of Variety and Postharvest Handling Practices on Microbial Population at Different Stages of the Value Chain of Fresh Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in Western Terai of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Ram B; Marasini, Madan; Rawal, Ranjana; Gautam, Durga M; Acedo, Antonio L

    2017-01-01

    Background . Fresh vegetables such as tomato should have low microbial population for safe consumption and long storage life. The aerobic bacterial count (ABC) and coliform bacterial count (CBC), yeast, and mold population are the most widely used microbial indicators in fresh vegetables which should be lower than 4 log CFU g -1 for safe consumption. The stages of the supply chain, postharvest handling methods, and crop varieties had significant effects on microbial population. ABC, CBC, yeast, and mold population were significantly highest ( P < 0.05) at retail market (5.59, 4.38, 2.60, and 3.14 log CFU g -1 , resp.), followed by wholesale market (4.72, 4.71, 2.43, and 2.44 log CFU g -1 , resp.), and were least at farm gate (3.89, 3.63, 2.38, and 2.03 log CFU g -1 , resp.). Improved postharvest practices (washing in clean water and grading and packaging in clean plastic crate) helped to reduce ABC, CBC, and mold population by 2.51, 32.70, and 29.86 percentage as compared to the conventional method (no washing and no grading and packaging in mud plastered bamboo baskets). Among varieties, Pusa ruby had the lowest microbial load of 2.58, 4.53, 0.96, and 1.77 log CFU g -1 for ABC, CBC, yeast, and mold count, respectively. Significantly negative correlation ( P < 0.05) was observed between fruit pH & ABC and pH & mold count. Although the microbial quality of fresh tomato is safe in the local market of western Terai of Nepal both in conventional and in improved practices however still it is essential to follow improved postharvest handling practices in production and marketing of newly introduced tomato cultivars (high-pH cultivars) for ensuring the safe availability of fresh tomato in the market.

  5. Using food as a reward: An examination of parental reward practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lindsey; Marx, Jenna M; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2018-01-01

    Eating patterns and taste preferences are often established early in life. Many studies have examined how parental feeding practices may affect children's outcomes, including food intake and preference. The current study focused on a common food parenting practice, using food as a reward, and used Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) to examine whether mothers (n = 376) and fathers (n = 117) of children ages 2.8 to 7.5 (M = 4.7; SD = 1.1) grouped into profiles (i.e., subgroups) based on how they use of food as a reward. The 4-class model was the best-fitting LPA model, with resulting classes based on both the frequency and type of reward used. Classes were: infrequent reward (33%), tangible reward (21%), food reward (27%), and frequent reward (19%). The current study also explored whether children's eating styles (emotional overeating, rood fussiness, food responsiveness, and satiety responsiveness) and parenting style (Authoritative, Authoritarian, and Permissive) varied by reward profile. Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) revealed that the four profiles differed significantly for all outcome variables except satiety responsiveness. It appears that the use of tangible and food-based rewards have important implications in food parenting. More research is needed to better understand how the different rewarding practices affect additional child outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to plastic containers for food and drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasemsup, Rachada; Neesanan, Naiyana

    2011-08-01

    Plastic is widely used in daily life especially as food and drink containers. If these containers are used inappropriately, some chemicals such as bisphenol A, phthalate, and styrene from plastic may accumulate and impair organ function. To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices relating to plastic containers for food and drinks among parents and health personnel. 100 parents and 100 health personnel from Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health are included in the present study. The questionnaires which contained 6 parts measuring knowledge, attitudes and practices about plastic containers for food and drinks are used to collect the data. There are no differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to plastic containers between parents and health personnel. Even though, 80 percent of participants usually use plastic containers for food and drinks, their knowledge about plastic is inadequate. Parents and health personnel are aware of health effects of plastic containers, but they do not know how to use and purchase plastics properly.

  7. Food beliefs and practices during pregnancy in Ghana: implications for maternal health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Graft Aikins, Ama

    2014-01-01

    Ghanaian women's food beliefs and practices during pregnancy and the scope for developing more effective maternal health interventions were explored in this study. Thirty-five multiethnic Ghanaian women between the ages of 29 and 75 were interviewed about pregnancy food beliefs and practices. I show that, based on the data analysis, their knowledge about food was drawn from lifeworlds (family and friends), educational settings, health professionals, mass media, and body-self knowledge (unique pregnancy experiences). Core lay ideas converged with expert knowledge on maternal health nutrition. Multiple external factors (e.g., economics, cultural representations of motherhood) and internal factors (e.g., the unpredictable demands of the pregnant body) influenced pregnancy food practices. I suggest and discuss a need for culturally situated multilevel interventions.

  8. Fundamental constructs in food parenting practices: a content map to guide future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Amber E; Ward, Dianne S; Fisher, Jennifer O; Faith, Myles S; Hughes, Sheryl O; Kremers, Stef P J; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R; O'Connor, Teresia M; Patrick, Heather; Power, Thomas G

    2016-02-01

    Although research shows that "food parenting practices" can impact children's diet and eating habits, current understanding of the impact of specific practices has been limited by inconsistencies in terminology and definitions. This article represents a critical appraisal of food parenting practices, including clear terminology and definitions, by a working group of content experts. The result of this effort was the development of a content map for future research that presents 3 overarching, higher-order food parenting constructs--coercive control, structure, and autonomy support--as well as specific practice subconstructs. Coercive control includes restriction, pressure to eat, threats and bribes, and using food to control negative emotions. Structure includes rules and limits, limited/guided choices, monitoring, meal- and snacktime routines, modeling, food availability and accessibility, food preparation, and unstructured practices. Autonomy support includes nutrition education, child involvement, encouragement, praise, reasoning, and negotiation. Literature on each construct is reviewed, and directions for future research are offered. Clear terminology and definitions should facilitate cross-study comparisons and minimize conflicting findings resulting from previous discrepancies in construct operationalization. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Australia's evolving food practices: a risky mix of continuity and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn, Danielle; Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane

    2017-10-01

    To investigate trends in five key aspects of Australian food practice which have been implicated in diet-related health risks, specifically energy intake. They are: the replacement of home-prepared foods by commercially prepared foods; consumer reliance on ultra-processed foods; de-structured dining; increased pace of eating; and a decline in commensal eating. Data were from repeated cross-sections from the national Household Expenditure and Time Use Surveys. Trends in food practice aspects were examined using indicators of food expenditure across different food groups and time spent eating and cooking, including where, when and with whom eating activities took place. Australia, 1989-2010. Nationally representative samples of Australian households. The share of the total food budget spent on food away from home rose steadily from 22·8 % in 1989 to 26·5 % in 2010, while spending on ultra-processed foods increased. The basic patterning of meals and the pace of eating changed little, although people spent more time eating alone and at restaurants. Cooking time declined considerably, particularly for women. These changes have occurred over the same time that obesity and diet-related, non-communicable diseases have increased rapidly in Australia. Some aspects are implicated more than others: particularly the shift from domestic cooking to use of pre-prepared and ultra-processed foods, a reduction in time spent in food preparation and cooking, as well as an upsurge in time and money devoted to eating away from home. These are all likely to operate through the higher energy content of commercially prepared, compared with unprocessed or lightly processed, foods.

  10. Food parenting practices and child dietary behavior. Prospective relations and the moderating role of general parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleddens, E.F.C.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Stafleu, A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Vries, N.K. de; Thijs, C.

    2014-01-01

    Research on parenting practices has focused on individual behaviors while largely failing to consider the context of their use, i.e., general parenting. We examined the extent to which food parenting practices predict children's dietary behavior (classified as unhealthy: snacking, sugar-sweetened

  11. Shifting configurations of shopping practices and food safety dynamics in Hanoi, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O.; Spaargaren, Gert

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a historical analysis of contemporary practices of shopping for vegetables in the highly dynamic context of urban Hanoi during the period from 1975 to 2014. Focusing on everyday shopping practices from a food safety perspective, we assess the extent to which the policy-enforced

  12. Exploring the perceived usefulness of practical food groups in day treatment for individuals with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddiscombe, Rachel J; Scanlan, Justin Newton; Ross, Jessica; Horsfield, Sarah; Aradas, Jessica; Hart, Susan

    2018-04-01

    Recovery from eating disorders is a challenging process. Emerging literature suggests that occupational therapists may provide a useful contribution in delivering purposeful eating-related interventions as a potential treatment to support sustained cognitive and behavioural changes for individuals with eating disorders. This study aimed to evaluate participants' perceptions of the contribution of occupational therapy practical food groups (food based outings and cooking groups) in supporting their functional recovery. Individuals attended practical food groups as part of standard treatment at an outpatient eating disorders day program. Ninety-nine participants completed questionnaires at discharge and up to three follow-up points (6, 12 and 24 months). Questions related to practical food groups were analysed, exploring participants' experiences and perceived usefulness of groups using rating-scale and open-ended questions. Open-ended responses were analysed using thematic analysis. Descriptive statistics were calculated for responses to rating-scale questions. At discharge, participants rated the importance and usefulness of practical food groups as high (4.73 and 4.43 on 5-point scales, respectively), but tended to rate their enjoyment of the groups lower (3.50 on a 5-point scale). Some skill transfer was typically reported by participants at discharge (3.92 on a 5-point scale). One core theme, 'success through participation', emerged from qualitative comments. Six subthemes were also identified: helpful components of practical food groups; perceived benefit of exposure; impact of applying cognitive and behavioural skills; challenges affecting participation; facilitating adaptation; and influence of eating disorders on challenging feared foods. This study highlights that participation in practical food groups was perceived as useful in assisting individuals to improve eating behaviours and, in some circumstances, transfer these skills into their lives outside of

  13. Vitamin profile of cooked foods: how healthy is the practice of ready-to-eat foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agte, Vaishali; Tarwadi, Kirtan; Mengale, Sangeeta; Hinge, Ashwini; Chiplonkar, Shashi

    2002-05-01

    During recent years importance of B complex vitamins, beta-carotene and vitamin C has been realised in terms of their antioxidative and anticarcinogenic properties. Fruits and vegetables are the rich sources of these vitamins. However, there are considerable cooking losses of vitamins, and information on vitamin contents of cooked foods is essential for assessing the adequacy of vitamin intakes. Secondly, there is a growing trend to consume ready-to-eat foods such as stuffed pancakes (samosa, patties), pastries, French fries; replacing traditional foods for lunch or dinner like roti, vegetable curry, bread, non-vegetarian items. Ready-to-eat foods are considered to give empty calories rather than a balanced diet. A study was undertaken to estimate ascorbic acid, folic acid, riboflavin, thiamine and beta-carotene of 263 cooked food samples and 260 meals representing dietary patterns of Asia, Africa, Europe, USA and Latin America by spectrophotometry and photoflurometry. A broad range of beta-carotene (84-2038 mcg%), riboflavin (0.01-0.48 mg%), thiamine (0.04-0.36 mg%), vitamin C (1-28 mg%) and folate (26-111 mcg%) was observed in individual foods. Bakery products and sweets were found to be poor sources and green leafy vegetables and fruits were good sources of these five vitamins. The differences between ready-to-eat foods and meals consumed during lunch or dinner were prominent for beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, riboflavin and folic acid (P < 0.05). The cooking losses were 34.6, 30, 52.2, 45.9 and 32.2% in case of ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, beta-carotene and folic acid respectively. Irrespective of whether it is ready-to-eat or a lunch/dinner food item, the contribution of vegetables in the preparations was found to make a marked impact on the vitamin profile. While results justify the concept of a food pyramid, emphasis needs to be given to types of fruits and vegetables rich in vitamins; preferably in their uncooked form, rather than considering their

  14. "Our" food versus "my" food. Investigating the relation between childhood shared food practices and adult prosocial behavior in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Fisher, Maryanne L; Poels, Karolien; Ponnet, Koen

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the connection between prosocial behavior, defined as acting in ways that benefit others, and shared meals, defined as meals that consist of food(s) shared with others. In contrast to individual meals, where consumers eat their own food and perhaps take a sample of someone else's dish as a taste, shared meals are essentially about sharing all the food with all individuals. Consequently, these meals create situations where consumers are confronted with issues of fairness and respect. One should not be greedy and consume most of a dish; instead, rules of polite food sharing need to be obeyed. It is therefore proposed that those who have often engaged in shared meals during childhood will have a more prosocial personality, as compared to those who less often took part in shared meals during childhood. To test this hypothesis, data about frequency of shared meals during childhood and altruistic personality in early adulthood were collected using a cross-sectional survey in Belgium (n = 487). Results confirm that higher levels of shared meal consumption correspond to higher scores on the self-report altruism scale among students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Economics of soil conservation practices among food crop farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... improvement and maintenance of short/medium term productivity of soils. The study recommends that farmers should be encouraged to invest more in structural and agronomic soil conservation practices along side soil productivity maintenance measure. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development Vol.

  16. [A guide to good practice for information security in the handling of personal health data by health personnel in ambulatory care facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Henarejos, Ana; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Toval, Ambrosio; Hernández-Hernández, Isabel; Sánchez-García, Ana Belén; Carrillo de Gea, Juan Manuel

    2014-04-01

    The appearance of electronic health records has led to the need to strengthen the security of personal health data in order to ensure privacy. Despite the large number of technical security measures and recommendations that exist to protect the security of health data, there is an increase in violations of the privacy of patients' personal data in healthcare organizations, which is in many cases caused by the mistakes or oversights of healthcare professionals. In this paper, we present a guide to good practice for information security in the handling of personal health data by health personnel, drawn from recommendations, regulations and national and international standards. The material presented in this paper can be used in the security audit of health professionals, or as a part of continuing education programs in ambulatory care facilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Safe handling of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance and recommendations on operational radiation protection aspects related to the safe handling of tritium in laboratories, industrial-scale nuclear facilities such as heavy-water reactors, tritium removal plants and fission fuel reprocessing plants, and facilities for manufacturing commercial tritium-containing devices and radiochemicals. The requirements of nuclear fusion reactors are not addressed specifically, since there is as yet no tritium handling experience with them. However, much of the material covered is expected to be relevant to them as well. Annex III briefly addresses problems in the comparatively small-scale use of tritium at universities, medical research centres and similar establishments. However, the main subject of this publication is the handling of larger quantities of tritium. Operational aspects include designing for tritium safety, safe handling practice, the selection of tritium-compatible materials and equipment, exposure assessment, monitoring, contamination control and the design and use of personal protective equipment. This publication does not address the technologies involved in tritium control and cleanup of effluents, tritium removal, or immobilization and disposal of tritium wastes, nor does it address the environmental behaviour of tritium. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Retail food environments in Canada: Maximizing the impact of research, policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaker, Leia M

    2016-06-09

    Retail food environments are gaining national and international attention as important determinants of population dietary intake. Communities across Canada are beginning to discuss and implement programs and policies to create supportive retail food environments. Three considerations should drive the selection of food environment assessment methods: relevance (What is the problem, and how is it related to dietary outcomes?); resources (What human, time and financial resources are required to undertake an assessment?); and response (How will policy-makers find meaning out of and act on the information gained through the food environment assessment?). Ultimately, food environment assessments should be conducted in the context of stakeholder buy-in and multi-sectoral partnerships, since food environment solutions require multi-sectoral action. Partnerships between public health actors and the food and beverage industry can be challenging, especially when mandates are not aligned. Clarifying the motivations, expectations and roles of all stakeholders takes time but is important if the impact of food environment research, policy and practice is to be maximized. The articles contained in this special supplementary issue describe ongoing food environments research across Canada and fill some of the important gaps in the current body of Canadian food environments literature.

  19. Quantitative data analysis to determine best food cooling practices in U.S. restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Donald W; Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Reimann, Dave; Koktavy, Nicole; Blade, Henry; Nicholas, David

    2015-04-01

    Data collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show that improper cooling practices contributed to more than 500 foodborne illness outbreaks associated with restaurants or delis in the United States between 1998 and 2008. CDC's Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) personnel collected data in approximately 50 randomly selected restaurants in nine EHS-Net sites in 2009 to 2010 and measured the temperatures of cooling food at the beginning and the end of the observation period. Those beginning and ending points were used to estimate cooling rates. The most common cooling method was refrigeration, used in 48% of cooling steps. Other cooling methods included ice baths (19%), room-temperature cooling (17%), ice-wand cooling (7%), and adding ice or frozen food to the cooling food as an ingredient (2%). Sixty-five percent of cooling observations had an estimated cooling rate that was compliant with the 2009 Food and Drug Administration Food Code guideline (cooling to 41 °F [5 °C] in 6 h). Large cuts of meat and stews had the slowest overall estimated cooling rate, approximately equal to that specified in the Food Code guideline. Pasta and noodles were the fastest cooling foods, with a cooling time of just over 2 h. Foods not being actively monitored by food workers were more than twice as likely to cool more slowly than recommended in the Food Code guideline. Food stored at a depth greater than 7.6 cm (3 in.) was twice as likely to cool more slowly than specified in the Food Code guideline. Unventilated cooling foods were almost twice as likely to cool more slowly than specified in the Food Code guideline. Our data suggest that several best cooling practices can contribute to a proper cooling process. Inspectors unable to assess the full cooling process should consider assessing specific cooling practices as an alternative. Future research could validate our estimation method and study the effect of specific practices on the full

  20. Quantitative Data Analysis To Determine Best Food Cooling Practices in U.S. Restaurants†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Donald W.; Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Reimann, Dave; Koktavy, Nicole; Blade, Henry; Nicholas, David

    2017-01-01

    Data collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show that improper cooling practices contributed to more than 500 foodborne illness outbreaks associated with restaurants or delis in the United States between 1998 and 2008. CDC's Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) personnel collected data in approximately 50 randomly selected restaurants in nine EHS-Net sites in 2009 to 2010 and measured the temperatures of cooling food at the beginning and the end of the observation period. Those beginning and ending points were used to estimate cooling rates. The most common cooling method was refrigeration, used in 48% of cooling steps. Other cooling methods included ice baths (19%), room-temperature cooling (17%), ice-wand cooling (7%), and adding ice or frozen food to the cooling food as an ingredient (2%). Sixty-five percent of cooling observations had an estimated cooling rate that was compliant with the 2009 Food and Drug Administration Food Code guideline (cooling to 41°F [5°C] in 6 h). Large cuts of meat and stews had the slowest overall estimated cooling rate, approximately equal to that specified in the Food Code guideline. Pasta and noodles were the fastest cooling foods, with a cooling time of just over 2 h. Foods not being actively monitored by food workers were more than twice as likely to cool more slowly than recommended in the Food Code guideline. Food stored at a depth greater than 7.6 cm (3 in.) was twice as likely to cool more slowly than specified in the Food Code guideline. Unventilated cooling foods were almost twice as likely to cool more slowly than specified in the Food Code guideline. Our data suggest that several best cooling practices can contribute to a proper cooling process. Inspectors unable to assess the full cooling process should consider assessing specific cooling practices as an alternative. Future research could validate our estimation method and study the effect of specific practices on the full

  1. Perceived parental food controlling practices are related to obesogenic or leptogenic child life style behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Tatjana; van Niekerk, Rianne; Ouwens, Machteld A

    2009-08-01

    To better understand whether the parental food controlling practices pressure and restriction to eat are obesity preventing or obesity promoting, this study examined whether these parenting practices are related to other (food or non-food) areas that are generally regarded as obesogenic or leptogenic. Are these foods controlling practices more indicative of obesogenic or leptogenic child life style behaviors? In a sample of 7-12-year-old boys and girls (n = 943) the perceived parental food controlling practices were related to various measures for unhealthy life style. Using factor analysis we assessed whether there is a constellation of lifestyle behaviors that is potentially obesogenic or leptogenic. Remarkably, perceived parental restriction and pressure loaded on two different factors. Perceived parental restriction to eat had a negative loading on a factor that further comprised potential obesogenic child life style behaviors, such as snacking (positive loading), time spend with screen media (television or computer) (positive loadings) and frequency of fruit consumption (negative loading). Perceived parental pressure to eat had a positive loading on a factor that further comprised potential leptogenic life style behaviors such as frequency of eating a breakfast meal and sporting (positive loadings). It is concluded that low perceived parental restriction in regard to food may perhaps be a sign of more uninvolved 'neglecting' or indulgent parenting/obesogenic home environment, whereas high perceived parental pressure to eat may be sign of a more 'concerned' leptogenic parenting/home environment, though more research into style of parenting is needed.

  2. Food-related practices and beliefs of rural US elementary and middle school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findholt, Nancy E; Izumi, Betty T; Shannon, Jackilen; Nguyen, Thuan

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity disproportionately affects rural populations; therefore, promoting healthy eating among rural children is essential. Teachers are important role models for children and can influence children's eating behaviors through their own behaviors and beliefs about food. This study examined the food-related practices and beliefs of rural elementary and middle school teachers. Data were used from the SNACZ study, a school- and community-based trial conducted in rural Oregon. Kindergarten through eighth-grade teachers (n=87), teaching students usually aged 5-14 years, from eight rural school districts completed a baseline survey in November 2012 concerning their classroom food practices, eating behaviors at school, beliefs about the school food environment, and nutrition knowledge. Frequencies of responses to each item were calculated. Nearly all teachers (97.6%) agreed that a healthy school food environment is important, but fewer agreed that teachers' behaviors and the foods available at school influence students' eating behaviors (71.0% and 67.0%, respectively). Nearly 86% of teachers used candy as a reward for students, while 78.2% consumed unhealthy snacks and 42.5% consumed sweetened beverages in the classroom. The results suggest that most rural teachers recognize that having a healthy school food environment is important, but are less aware of factors within the school that influence students' eating behaviors - including their own eating behaviors and classroom food practices - and, perhaps for this reason, many rural teachers engage in classroom practices and behaviors that do not promote healthy eating. Teacher training and expanded school policies that focus on teacher behavior may be needed to ensure a healthier rural school food environment.

  3. Food Safety Knowledge and Practices of Male Adolescents in West of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Amin; Nourmoradi, Heshmatollah; Zavareh, Mohammad Sadegh Abedzadeh; Jalilian, Mohsen; Mansourian, Morteza; Mazloomi, Sajad; Mokhtari, Neda; Mokhtari, Fariba

    2018-05-20

    Every year many people around the world become infected with food-borne infections. Insufficient knowledge and skills related to food safety and hygiene are among the factors affecting the incidence of food-borne diseases, especially in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and practices associated with food safety and hygiene in Ilam city male adolescents. Three hundred and eighty of male adolescents aged 13 to 19 were selected randomly and entered the cross-sectional study. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire From December 2016 to February 2017. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, independent t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to analyse the data in SPSS software (version 19.0). The findings of the study showed a positive and significant relationship between knowledge and practices related to food safety and hygiene (r = 0.122; p = 0.018). Also, the findings showed that food safety knowledge and practice of adolescents were significantly affected by the level of their education, parental education level, parental employment status and household economic conditions, (p < 0.005). Also, the results showed that the participants generally obtained 57.74% of the knowledge score and 57.63% of practices score. The subjects had the most knowledge about food supply and storage (60%), and the highest practice was related to personal and environmental hygiene, (61.73%). The inadequacy of knowledge and performance of adolescents about food safety and hygiene shows the need for implementation of health education interventions in this area.

  4. Family food practices: relationships, materiality and the everyday at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Julie

    2018-02-01

    This article draws on data from a research project that combined participant observation with in-depth interviews to explore family relationships and experiences of everyday life during life-threatening illness. In it I suggest that death has often been theorised in ways that make its 'mundane' practices less discernible. As a means to foreground the everyday, and to demonstrate its importance to the study of dying, this article explores the (re)negotiation of food and eating in families facing the end of life. Three themes that emerged from the study's broader focus on family life are discussed: 'food talk' and making sense of illness; food, family and identity; and food 'fights'. Together the findings illustrate the material, social and symbolic ways in which food acts relationally in the context of dying, extending conceptual work on materiality in death studies in novel directions. The article also contributes new empirical insights to a limited sociological literature on food, families and terminal illness, building on work that theorises the entanglements of materiality, food, bodies and care. The article concludes by highlighting the analytical value of everyday materialities such as food practices for future research on dying as a relational experience. © 2018 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.

  5. Risk factors in street food practices in developing countries: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buliyaminu Adegbemiro Alimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Street food trading solves major social and economic problems in developing countries through the provision of ready-made meals at relatively inexpensive prices and employment for teeming rural and urban populace along its value chain. However, due to informal nature of the enterprise, the activities of the practitioners are not regulated. This gives ample room for unwholesome practices. The results are the risks such activities pose to the health and safety of practitioners along the value chain. This review paper, a summary of literature reports on risk factors in street food trade in developing countries and recommended safety intervention, is written with the hope of providing global baseline for intervention to ensure safe food practices. Adoption of safety approaches that permeates the entire chain of street food business from good agricultural practices through hazard analysis critical control points strategy to good hygiene practices by farmers, vendors and consumers would significantly reduce risks in street food consumption. Above all, active collaboration of all stakeholders toward the strengthening and proper enforcement of public health policies to ensure safe practices and engender safer and healthier society is recommended.

  6. A Study of impact of Education on Awareness, Personal Hygiene and Practices of food handlers of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kashmir, India

    OpenAIRE

    Hina; Wani MA; Rehana K; Jan Farooq; Pandita K.K

    2013-01-01

    Background Each year 9.4 million people suffer from food borne diseases throughout the world; everyday cases related to food borne diseases are recorded in all countries from the most to the least developed ones. A major risk of food contamination lies with the food handlers.Several food borne disease outbreaks have been reported to have been associated with poor personal hygiene of people handling food stuffs. Method A questionnaire was structured for the purpose of data collection to find ...

  7. A Study of impact of Education onAwareness, Personal Hygiene and Practices of food handlers of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kashmir, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pandita K.K

    2013-01-01

    Background Each year 9.4 million people suffer from food borne diseases throughout the world; everyday cases related to food borne diseases are recorded in all countries from the most to the least developed ones. A major risk of food contamination lies with the food handlers.Several food borne disease outbreaks have been reported to have been associated with poor personal hygiene of people handling food stuffs. Method A questionnaire was structured for the purpose of data collection to fin...

  8. 76 FR 9027 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Best Practices for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0057] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Best Practices for Conducting and...: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is...

  9. Handling uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Jesper Bosse; Fold, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Small-scale mining supports the livelihoods of several hundred thousand rural households in Africa. Nonetheless, the understanding of the organizational dynamics of small-scale miners' activities is modest. The paper outlines the small-scale mining codes in Tanzania and contrasts them to prevalent...... organizational practices in two Tanzanian small-scale mining settlements. It is argued that there is a need to adjust the regulatory mechanisms to well-consolidated practices: If basic practices differ substantially from official prescriptions of the mining codes over an extended period of time, certain elements...... manoeuvring of local small-scale mining operators and the reasons for the variations are essential to understand for policymakers and development practitioners. By incorporating prevalent practices and context-dependent variations in some of the crucial organizational components, it is possible to design...

  10. Development of a Comprehensive Assessment of Food Parenting Practices: The Home Self-Administered Tool for Environmental Assessment of Activity and Diet Family Food Practices Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Amber E; Dearth-Wesley, Tracy; Tabak, Rachel G; Bryant, Maria; Ward, Dianne S

    2017-02-01

    Parents' food parenting practices influence children's dietary intake and risk for obesity and chronic disease. Understanding the influence and interactions between parents' practices and children's behavior is limited by a lack of development and psychometric testing and/or limited scope of current measures. The Home Self-Administered Tool for Environmental Assessment of Activity and Diet (HomeSTEAD) was created to address this gap. This article describes development and psychometric testing of the HomeSTEAD family food practices survey. Between August 2010 and May 2011, a convenience sample of 129 parents of children aged 3 to 12 years were recruited from central North Carolina and completed the self-administered HomeSTEAD survey on three occasions during a 12- to 18-day window. Demographic characteristics and child diet were assessed at Time 1. Child height and weight were measured during the in-home observations (following Time 1 survey). Exploratory factor analysis with Time 1 data was used to identify potential scales. Scales with more than three items were examined for scale reduction. Following this, mean scores were calculated at each time point. Construct validity was assessed by examining Spearman rank correlations between mean scores (Time 1) and children's diet (fruits and vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages, snacks, sweets) and body mass index (BMI) z scores. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine differences in mean scores between time points, and single-measure intraclass correlations were calculated to examine test-retest reliability between time points. Exploratory factor analysis identified 24 factors and retained 124 items; however, scale reduction narrowed items to 86. The final instrument captures five coercive control practices (16 items), seven autonomy support practices (24 items), and 12 structure practices (46 items). All scales demonstrated good internal reliability (α>.62), 18 factors demonstrated construct

  11. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice between Medical and Non-Medical Sciences Students about Food Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Malek Mahdavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the significant role of consumers’ awareness about food labels in making healthy food choices, this study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and prac-tice of university students about food labeling.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 332 students aged 18-25 yr in five different academic ma-jors (including Nutrition, Public Health, Health Services Administration, Paramedical and En-gineering were asked to complete an approved questionnaire contained fifteen questions. The chi-square test was applied to examine the differences across various major groups.Results: 89.2% of the students believed that food labels had effect on nutritional awareness. 77.4% were agreed with the usefulness of the food labels and 79.2% did not feel that nutrition claims on food label were truthful. For 84% of students, the expiry date and storage conditions information were the most important informational cues to appear on the food labels. From 47.6% of students who reported the use of nutrition facts label in their often or always shopping; only 32.3% used the information on labels to fit the food into their daily diet. Surprisingly, fatty acids were the least noteworthy items (1.9% on nutrition facts labels. Regarding students’ major, there was significant difference in their knowledge, attitude and practice about truth of the nutri-tion claims, using food labels and importance of health claims (P<0.05.Conclusion: Food labels were more useful tools for students and had an effect on their nutri-tional awareness. Designing and implementation of the educational programs in order to increase the level of knowledge about food labels is suggested.

  12. Practice for dosimetry in electron and bremsstrahlung irradiation facilities for food processing. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This practice describes dosimetric procedures to be followed in facility characterization, process qualification, and routine processing for electron beam and bremsstrahlung irradiation facilities for food processing to ensure that product receives an acceptable range of absorbed doses. Other procedures related to facility characterization, process qualification, and routine product processing that may influence and be used to monitor absorbed dose in the product are also discussed. Information about effective or regulatory dose limits for food products is not within the scope of this practice (see ASTM Guides F 1355 and F 1356). The electron energy range covered in this practice is from 0.3 MeV to 10 MeV. Such electrons can be generated in continuous or pulse modes. The maximum electron energy of bremsstrahlung facilities covered in this practice is 10 MeV. A photon beam can be generated by inserting a bremsstrahlung converter in the electron beam path (See ISO/ASTM Practice 51608

  13. Evaluation practices in the field of Food and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Felipe Vianna GASPARINI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to characterize and analyze the different existing methods for the evaluation of food and nutrition programs and services in Brazil, through a systematic review of the literature focused on complete articles published in national indexed journals. We searched the PubMed, MedLine and LILACS databases using the following search terms and Boolean operators: “evaluation and program”; “project”; “intervention”; “servisse”; “actions and nutrition”; “nutritional”. The research was restricted to articles written in Portuguese, English and Spanish and published between 2001 and 2015. Twenty-two studies were selected and the analysis indicates; most were carried out through quantitative approaches and external evaluations based on epidemiological theory; participatory evaluation strategies are still uncommon; Impact assessments and implementation were predominant; there is little diversity in terms of references to the theoretical framework in the field of evaluation of health care programs in the planning and execution of the evaluation processes analyzed. The results of this study indicate the need for a more comprehensive evaluation considering the complexity of the interventions evaluated using the theoretical-methodological apparatus available in the literature to understand the importance of the different perspectives of the agents involved in the evaluation processes.

  14. Evidence and Experience of Open Sustainability Innovation Practices in the Food Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriella Arcese; Serena Flammini; Maria Caludia Lucchetti; Olimpia Martucci

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of an “open sustainability innovation” approach in business could be a strategic advantage to reach both industry objectives and sustainability goals. The food sector is facing a constant increase in competition. In order to address the high competition that involves the food industry, sustainability and innovation practices can be strategically effective, especially with an open sustainability innovation approach. In the literature, we found many examples of open innovation app...

  15. TEACH FOOD – Developing a teacher’s community of practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Vigre, Håkan; Andersson, Pernille Hammar

    2017-01-01

    and enhance the development of community of practice, i.e. a Professional Learning Community (PLC) focusing on optimizing the learning outcome of the students. To achieve this, a 1½ residential seminar for all teachers was arranged. In the first seminar 76% of the teachers and the head of institute...... of TEACH FOOD. These activities illustrate the extended willingness to discuss teaching and learning as well as share experiences from teaching at DTU FOOD exemplifying the growing PLC....

  16. A Study of impact of Education on Awareness, Personal Hygiene and Practices of food handlers of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Each year 9.4 million people suffer from food borne diseases throughout the world; everyday cases related to food borne diseases are recorded in all countries from the most to the least developed ones. A major risk of food contamination lies with the food handlers.Several food borne disease outbreaks have been reported to have been associated with poor personal hygiene of people handling food stuffs. Method A questionnaire was structured for the purpose of data collection to find out effect of educational background on personal hygiene, awareness regarding transmission of food borne infections and routine practices among food handler of the food establishments of a super speciality teaching hospital of Kashmir. Results Out of 121 respondents (33.05 percent cooks, 42.97 percent stewards and 23.97 percent dishwashers, 90.90 percent were males and 9.10 percent females. Majority (90.90 percent have educational background below high school level (group B and the rest (9.10% have education above 10th standard (group A. Soap was used by majority(90.9% of group A in comparison to group B(59.1% before entering kitchen.72.7% of group A employees change their shoes and use kitchen slippers in the kitchen, whereas only 31.8% of group B employees do so and the rest(68.2% do not change the foot wear before entering the kitchen.While 81.8% of group A employees responded that diarrhoeal diseases spread by contaminated food,majority of group B(62.7% responded other reasons.81.8% of group A feel it necessary to chlorinate or filter visibly clean water, whereas only 52.7% of group B feel so. Conclusion Food handlers of any food establishment, in particular hospital kitchen should have high standard of educational background to have enough awareness regarding food borne diseases and importance of personal hygiene to prevent transmission of diseases. Because of poor educational background, the food handlers in our study didn’t know the importance of use

  17. A Study of impact of Education onAwareness, Personal Hygiene and Practices of food handlers of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandita K.K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Each year 9.4 million people suffer from food borne diseases throughout the world; everyday cases related to food borne diseases are recorded in all countries from the most to the least developed ones. A major risk of food contamination lies with the food handlers.Several food borne disease outbreaks have been reported to have been associated with poor personal hygiene of people handling food stuffs. Method A questionnaire was structured for the purpose of data collection to find out effect of educational background on personal hygiene, awareness regarding transmission of food borne infections and routine practices among food handler of the food establishments of a super speciality teaching hospital of Kashmir. Results Out of 121 respondents (33.05 percent cooks, 42.97 percent stewards and 23.97 percent dishwashers, 90.90 percent were males and 9.10 percent females. Majority (90.90 percent have educational background below high school level (group B and the rest (9.10% have education above 10th standard (group A. Soap was used by majority(90.9% of group A in comparison to group B(59.1% before entering kitchen.72.7% of group A employees change their shoes and use kitchen slippers in the kitchen, whereas only 31.8% of group B employees do so and the rest(68.2% do not change the foot wear before entering the kitchen.While 81.8% of group A employees responded that diarrhoeal diseases spread by contaminated food,majority of group B(62.7% responded other reasons.81.8% of group A feel it necessary to chlorinate or filter visibly clean water, whereas only 52.7% of group B feel so. Conclusion Food handlers of any food establishment, in particular hospital kitchen should have high standard of educational background to have enough awareness regarding food borne diseases and importance ofpersonal hygiene to prevent transmission of diseases. Because of poor educational background, the food handlers in our study didn’t know the importance of use

  18. Survival or growth of inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on yellow onions (Allium cepa) under conditions simulating food service and consumer handling and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Vanessa M; Zhao, Irene Y; Schaffner, Donald W; Danyluk, Michelle D; Harris, Linda J

    2015-01-01

    Whole and diced yellow onions (Allium cepa) were inoculated with five-strain cocktails of rifampin-resistant Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella and stored under conditions to simulate food service or consumer handling. The inoculum was grown in broth (for both whole and diced onion experiments) or on agar plates (for whole onion experiments). Marked circles (3.3 cm in diameter) on the outer papery skin of whole onions were spot inoculated (10 μl in 10 drops) at 7 log CFU per circle, and onions were stored at 4°C, 30 to 50 % relative humidity, or at ambient conditions (23°C, 30 to 50 % relative humidity). Diced onions were inoculated at 3 log CFU/g and then stored in open or closed containers at 4°C or ambient conditions. Previously inoculated and ambient-stored diced onions were also mixed 1:9 (wt/wt) with refrigerated uninoculated freshly diced onions and stored in closed containers at ambient conditions. Inoculated pathogens were recovered in 0.1 % peptone and plated onto selective and nonselective media supplemented with 50 μg/ml rifampin. Both E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella populations declined more rapidly on onion skins when the inoculum was prepared in broth rather than on agar. Agar-prepared E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella declined by 0.4 and 0.3 log CFU per sample per day, respectively, at ambient conditions; at 4°C the rates of reduction were 0.08 and 0.06 log CFU per sample per day for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella, respectively. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella did not change over 6 days of storage at 4°C in diced onions. Lag times of 6 to 9 h were observed with freshly inoculated onion at ambient conditions; no lag was observed when previously inoculated and uninoculated onions were mixed. Growth rates at ambient conditions were 0.2 to 0.3 log CFU/g/h for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in freshly inoculated onion and 0.2 log CFU/g/h in mixed product. Diced onions support pathogen growth and should be kept refrigerated.

  19. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-06-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderate effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent-child overweight preventive interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Explaining use of food parenting practices: the importance of predisposing factors and parental cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Dorus Wm; van Assema, Patricia; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef Pj

    2017-09-01

    The high energy intake from energy-dense foods among children in developed countries is undesirable. Improving food parenting practices has the potential to lower snack intakes among children. To inform the development of interventions, we aimed to predict food parenting practice patterns around snacking (i.e. 'high covert control and rewarding', 'low covert control and non-rewarding', 'high involvement and supportive' and 'low involvement and indulgent'). A cross-sectional survey was conducted. To predict the patterns of food parenting practices, multinomial logistic regression analyses were run with 888 parents. Predictors included predisposing factors (i.e. parents' and children's demographics and BMI, parents' personality, general parenting, and parenting practices used by their own parents) and parents' cognitions (i.e. perceived behaviour of other parents, subjective norms, attitudes, self-efficacy and outcome expectations). The Netherlands (October-November 2014). Dutch parents of children aged 4-12 years old. After backward elimination, nineteen factors had a statistically significant contribution to the model (Nagelkerke R 2=0·63). Overall, self-efficacy and outcome expectations were among the strongest explanatory factors. Considering the predisposing factors only, the general parenting factor nurturance most strongly predicted the food parenting clusters. Nurturance particularly distinguished highly involved parents from parents employing a pattern of low involvement. Parental cognitions and nurturance are important factors to explain the use of food parenting practices around snacking. The results suggest that intervention developers should attempt to increase self-efficacy and educate parents about what constitute effective and ineffective parenting practices. Promoting nurturance might be a prerequisite to achieve prolonged change.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF GOOD PRACTICES IN HOSPITAL FOOD SERVICE BY COMPARING EVALUATION TOOLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo Gonçalves, Juliana; Lameiro Rodrigues, Kelly; Santiago Almeida, Ângela Teresinha; Pereira, Giselda Maria; Duarte Buchweitz, Márcia Rúbia

    2015-10-01

    since food service in hospitals complements medical treatment, it should be produced in proper hygienic and sanitary conditions. It is a well-known fact that food-transmitted illnesses affect with greater severity hospitalized and immunosuppressed patients. good practices in hospital food service are evaluated by comparing assessment instruments. good practices were evaluated by a verification list following Resolution of Collegiate Directory n. 216 of the Brazilian Agency for Sanitary Vigilance. Interpretation of listed items followed parameters of RCD 216 and the Brazilian Association of Collective Meals Enterprises (BACME). Fisher's exact test was applied to detect whether there were statistically significant differences. Analysis of data grouping was undertaken with Unweighted Pair-group using Arithmetic Averages, coupled to a correlation study between dissimilarity matrixes to verify disagreement between the two methods. Good Practice was classified with mean total rates above 75% by the two methods. There were statistically significant differences between services and food evaluated by BACME instrument. Hospital Food Services have proved to show conditions of acceptable good practices. the comparison of interpretation tools based on RCD n. 216 and BACME provided similar results for the two classifications. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Materials Selection And Fabrication Practices For Food Processing Equipment Manufacturers In Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Baptist Kirabira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The food processing industry is one of the fast-growing sub-sectors in Uganda. The industry which is majorly composed of medium and small scale firms depends on the locally developed food processing equipment. Due to lack of effective materials selection practices employed by the equipment manufacturers the materials normally selected for most designs are not the most appropriate ones hence compromising the quality of the equipment produced. This has not only led to poor quality food products due to contamination but could also turn out health hazardous to the consumers of the food products. This study involved the assessment of the current materials selection and fabrication procedures used by the food processing equipment manufacturers with a view of devising best practices that can be used to improve the quality of the food products processed by the locally fabricated equipment. Results of the study show that designers experience biasness and desire to minimize cost compromise the materials selection procedure. In addition to failing to choose the best material for a given application most equipment manufacturers are commonly fabricating equipment with inadequate surface finish and improper weldments. This hinders the equipments ability to meet food hygiene standards.

  3. What do prisoners eat? Nutrient intakes and food practices in a high-secure prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan-Jones, Mary; Capra, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    There are limited studies on the adequacy of prisoner diet and food practices, yet understanding these are important to inform food provision and assure duty of care for this group. The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intakes of prisoners to inform food and nutrition policy in this setting. This research used a cross-sectional design with convenience sampling in a 945-bed male high-secure prison. Multiple methods were used to assess food available at the group level, including verification of food portion, quality and practices. A pictorial tool supported the diet history method. Of 276 eligible prisoners, 120 dietary interviews were conducted and verified against prison records, with 106 deemed plausible. The results showed the planned food to be nutritionally adequate, with the exception of vitamin D for older males and long-chain fatty acids, with Na above upper limits. The Australian dietary targets for chronic disease risk were not achieved. High energy intakes were reported with median 13·8 (se 0·3) MJ. Probability estimates of inadequate intake varied with age groups: Mg 8 % (>30 years), 2·9 % (70 years), 1·5 % (food provision in the prison environment and also poses questions for population-level dietary guidance in delivering appropriate nutrients within energy limits.

  4. Food beliefs and practices in urban poor communities in Accra: implications for health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatemaa, Sandra; Badasu, Delali Margaret; de-Graft Aikins, Ama

    2018-04-02

    Poor communities in low and middle income countries are reported to experience a higher burden of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and nutrition-related NCDs. Interventions that build on lay perspectives of risk are recommended. The objective of this study was to examine lay understanding of healthy and unhealthy food practices, factors that influence food choices and the implications for developing population health interventions in three urban poor communities in Accra, Ghana. Thirty lay adults were recruited and interviewed in two poor urban communities in Accra. The interviews were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed thematically. The analysis was guided by the socio-ecological model which focuses on the intrapersonal, interpersonal, community, structural and policy levels of social organisation. Food was perceived as an edible natural resource, and healthy in its raw state. A food item retained its natural, healthy properties or became unhealthy depending on how it was prepared (e.g. frying vs boiling) and consumed (e.g. early or late in the day). These food beliefs reflected broader social food norms in the community and incorporated ideas aligned with standard expert dietary guidelines. Healthy cooking was perceived as the ability to select good ingredients, use appropriate cooking methods, and maintain food hygiene. Healthy eating was defined in three ways: 1) eating the right meals; 2) eating the right quantity; and 3) eating at the right time. Factors that influenced food choice included finances, physical and psychological state, significant others and community resources. The findings suggest that beliefs about healthy and unhealthy food practices are rooted in multi-level factors, including individual experience, family dynamics and community factors. The factors influencing food choices are also multilevel. The implications of the findings for the design and content of dietary and health interventions are discussed.

  5. Food Sanitation and Safety Self-Assessment Instrument for School Nutrition Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Like food-service establishments, child nutrition programs are responsible for preserving the quality and wholesomeness of food. Proper food-handling practices prevent contamination and job-related accidents. Application of the evaluation instrument presented in this document to individual programs helps to define proper practices, assess the…

  6. Effects of home-based food preparation practices on the micronutrient content of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severi, S; Bedogni, G; Zoboli, G P; Manzieri, A M; Poli, M; Gatti, G; Battistini, N

    1998-08-01

    We studied the effects of cooking on the vitamin and mineral content of vegetables (vegetable soup, cauliflower), meat (beefsteak) and fish (sole) and those of cutting (fruit salad) and squeezing (orange juice) on the vitamin content of fruits. In cooked dishes, vitamin retention ranged between 0 (folic acid, all dishes) and 94% (retinol, sole) and mineral retention between 63 (copper, cauliflower) and 96% (iron, vegetable soup). In orange juice, ascorbic acid appeared to be protected from oxidation for at least 12 h as compared with fruit salad. Our study shows that preparation of foods with techniques available at home may be responsible for losses of vitamins and minerals. Further studies are needed to ascertain the effects of these losses on nutritional status.

  7. The Child-care Food and Activity Practices Questionnaire (CFAPQ): development and first validation steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Sleddens, Ester Fc; Raaijmakers, Lieke Ch; Gies, Judith M; Kremers, Stef Pj

    2016-08-01

    To develop and validate a questionnaire to measure food-related and activity-related practices of child-care staff, based on existing, validated parenting practices questionnaires. A selection of items from the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ) and the Preschooler Physical Activity Parenting Practices (PPAPP) questionnaire was made to include items most suitable for the child-care setting. The converted questionnaire was pre-tested among child-care staff during cognitive interviews and pilot-tested among a larger sample of child-care staff. Factor analyses with Varimax rotation and internal consistencies were used to examine the scales. Spearman correlations, t tests and ANOVA were used to examine associations between the scales and staff's background characteristics (e.g. years of experience, gender). Child-care centres in the Netherlands. The qualitative pre-test included ten child-care staff members. The quantitative pilot test included 178 child-care staff members. The new questionnaire, the Child-care Food and Activity Practices Questionnaire (CFAPQ), consists of sixty-three items (forty food-related and twenty-three activity-related items), divided over twelve scales (seven food-related and five activity-related scales). The CFAPQ scales are to a large extent similar to the original CFPQ and PPAPP scales. The CFAPQ scales show sufficient internal consistency with Cronbach's α ranging between 0·53 and 0·96, and average corrected item-total correlations within acceptable ranges (0·30-0·89). Several of the scales were significantly associated with child-care staff's background characteristics. Scale psychometrics of the CFAPQ indicate it is a valid questionnaire that assesses child-care staff's practices related to both food and activities.

  8. Parenting practices toward food and children's behavior: Eating away from home versus at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparian, Michelle; Mann, Georgianna; Serrano, Elena L; Farris, Alisha R

    2017-07-01

    Parenting style influences a child's overall diet quality and establishes food preferences. Parenting style and "food rules" for children differ by eating at home or away from home. Eating meals away from home is increasing despite associations with consumption of unhealthy foods and higher weight status. The objective of the current study was to compare parenting practices and decision-making at restaurants versus at home. A mixed methods approach was utilized: facilitated, individual interviews to explore decision-making and parenting practices; written questionnaires for socio-demographic information; and body mass index. Summaries and emergent themes were generated based on examination of tapes and transcripts. Descriptive statistics were computed for questionnaire data. Twenty-five mothers of children of five to eight years who ate at restaurants at least two times per week participated. Mothers reported more permissive food rules at restaurants yet maintained higher behavioral expectations. Mothers were also more likely to make decisions about whether they eat out, where to eat, and children's meal selections than their children. The findings suggest that parenting practices toward overall behavior and food choices may differ at restaurants than at home, highlighting the importance of healthy menu options, further research, and educational strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Differences in healthy food supply and stocking practices between small grocery stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Harnack, Lisa; Erickson, Darin J; Laska, Melissa N

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the practices for stocking and procuring healthy food in non-traditional food retailers (e.g., gas-marts, pharmacies). The present study aimed to: (i) compare availability of healthy food items across small food store types; and (ii) examine owner/manager perceptions and stocking practices for healthy food across store types. Descriptive analyses were conducted among corner/small grocery stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores. Data from store inventories were used to examine availability of twelve healthy food types and an overall healthy food supply score. Interviews with managers assessed stocking practices and profitability. Small stores in Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN, USA, not participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. One hundred and nineteen small food retailers and seventy-one store managers. Availability of specific items varied across store type. Only corner/small grocery stores commonly sold fresh vegetables (63% v. 8% of gas-marts, 0% of dollar stores and 23% of pharmacies). More than half of managers stocking produce relied on cash-and-carry practices to stock fresh fruit (53%) and vegetables (55%), instead of direct store delivery. Most healthy foods were perceived by managers to have at least average profitability. Interventions to improve healthy food offerings in small stores should consider the diverse environments, stocking practices and supply mechanisms of small stores, particularly non-traditional food retailers. Improvements may require technical support, customer engagement and innovative distribution practices.

  10. Children's Visual Representations of Food and Meal Time: Towards an Understanding of Nutrition and Educational Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoie-Zajc, Lorraine

    2005-01-01

    Within the broad perspective of school and social exclusion, this article pays attention to an important factor of exclusion: overweight and obesity in primary school children. An interdisciplinary research was conducted and aimed at the study of social representations and practices surrounding food which primary school children, their parents and…

  11. Food hygiene practices of mothers of under-fives and prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diarrhoea remains one of the major public health problems in developing countries. The objective of this study was to investigate potential factors of food hygiene practices of mothers in the home on the prevalence of diarrhoea among under five children in Edjemuonyavwe community, Oghara, Delta State. This descriptive ...

  12. Food parenting practices and child dietary behavior. Prospective relations and the moderating role of general parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F C; Kremers, Stef P J; Stafleu, Annette; Dagnelie, Pieter C; De Vries, Nanne K; Thijs, Carel

    2014-08-01

    Research on parenting practices has focused on individual behaviors while largely failing to consider the context of their use, i.e., general parenting. We examined the extent to which food parenting practices predict children's dietary behavior (classified as unhealthy: snacking, sugar-sweetened beverage; and healthy: water and fruit intake). Furthermore, we tested the moderating role of general parenting on this relationship. Within the KOALA Birth Cohort Study, in the Netherlands, questionnaire data were collected at 6 and 8 years (N = 1654). Correlations were computed to assess the association between food parenting practices and general parenting (i.e., nurturance, behavioral control, structure, coercive control, and overprotection). Linear regression models were fitted to assess whether food parenting practices predict dietary behavior. Instrumental and emotional feeding, and pressure to eat were found to have associations with undesirable child dietary behavior (increased unhealthy intake/decreased healthy intake), whereas associations were in the desirable direction for covert control, encouragement and restriction. Moderation analyses were performed by evaluating interactions with general parenting. The associations of encouragement and covert control with desirable child dietary behaviors were found to be stronger for children who were reared in a positive parenting context. Future research should assess the influence of contextual parenting factors moderating the relationships between food parenting and child dietary behavior as the basis for the development of more effective family-based interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 77 FR 49449 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Compliance, and Good Clinical Practice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... investigator initiated research. Topics for discussion include the following: (1) What FDA Expects in a...] Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Compliance, and Good Clinical Practice...-sponsorship with the Society of Clinical Research Associates (SoCRA) is announcing a public workshop. The...

  14. Food Defense Practices of School Districts in Northern U.S. States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzke, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed implementation of food defense practices in public schools in Montana, Wyoming, South Dakota, North Dakota, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. The first phase involved a qualitative multi-site case study: one-day visits were made to five school districts in the states of Iowa, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. A principal,…

  15. Low-Income Mothers' Food Practices with Young Children: A Qualitative Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Jeni; Dickson, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Young children living in socioeconomically deprived areas of Scotland have an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese. To enhance understanding of the wider contexts within which family food practices are developed, this study examined the experiences of low-income mothers with young children. Design: Qualitative longitudinal…

  16. Suburban Families' Experience With Food Insecurity Screening in Primary Care Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakshappa, Deepak; Doupnik, Stephanie; Vasan, Aditi; Khan, Saba; Seifu, Leah; Feudtner, Chris; Fiks, Alexander G

    2017-07-01

    Food insecurity (FI) remains a major public health problem. With the rise in suburban poverty, a greater understanding of parents' experiences of FI in suburban settings is needed to effectively screen and address FI in suburban practices. We conducted 23 semistructured interviews with parents of children practices and screened positive for FI. In the interviews, we elicited parents' perceptions of screening for FI, how FI impacted the family, and recommendations for how practices could more effectively address FI. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. We used a modified grounded theory approach to code the interviews inductively and identified emerging themes through an iterative process. Interviews continued until thematic saturation was achieved. Of the 23 parents interviewed, all were women, with 39% white and 39% African American. Three primary themes emerged: Parents expressed initial surprise at screening followed by comfort discussing their unmet food needs; parents experience shame, frustration, and helplessness regarding FI, but discussing FI with their clinician helped alleviate these feelings; parents suggested practices could help them more directly access food resources, which, depending on income, may not be available to them through government programs. Although most parents were comfortable discussing FI, they felt it was important for clinicians to acknowledge their frustrations with FI and facilitate access to a range of food resources. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Knowledge, attitude and practice on regional food among families of preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Lima Silveira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to verify the knowledge, attitude and practice on the use of regional food of families of preschool children at a rural area. Descriptive-exploratory study with quantitative approach, conducted with 200 families of preschool children, residing in two rural districts of Maranguape-CE, Brazil. We applied a Knowledge, Attitude and Practice survey, focusing on the use of regional food. The districts presented similarities with regard to gender (p=1.000, marital status (p=0.603, education (p=0.349, number of preschool children (p=0.104, and workplace (p=0.632, but had different results regarding family income (p=0.033. As for the regional foods, there was no statistically significant association in knowledge (p=0.731, attitude (p=0.362, and practice (p=0.600 in the study locations, prevailing the inadequate level in the three axes. We verified that the people responsible for preschool children in the two locations were unaware of the regional foods terminology and presented inappropriate knowledge, attitude and practice regarding their use.

  18. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, J.K.; Hermans, R.C.J.; Sleddens, E.F.C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Fisher, J.O.; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on

  19. Identifying and Clarifying Values and Reason Statements that Promote Effective Food Parenting Practices, Using Intensive Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Alicia; Hingle, Melanie D.; Knesek, Jessica; O'Connor, Teresia; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Generate and test parents' understanding of values and associated reason statements to encourage effective food parenting practices. Methods: This study was cross-sectional. Sixteen parents from different ethnic groups (African American, white, and Hispanic) living with their 3- to 5-year-old child were recruited. Interested parents…

  20. Relationship between Parental Feeding Practices and Neural Responses to Food Cues in Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet A Allen

    Full Text Available Social context, specifically within the family, influences adolescent eating behaviours and thus their health. Little is known about the specific mechanisms underlying the effects of parental feeding practices on eating. We explored relationships between parental feeding practices and adolescent eating habits and brain activity in response to viewing food images. Fifty- seven adolescents (15 with type 2 diabetes mellitus, 21 obese and 21 healthy weight controls underwent fMRI scanning whilst viewing images of food or matched control images. Participants completed the Kids Child Feeding Questionnaire, the Childrens' Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ and took part in an observed meal. Parents completed the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionniare and the DEBQ. We were particularly interested in brain activity in response to food cues that was modulated by different feeding and eating styles. Healthy-weight participants increased activation (compared to the other groups to food in proportion to the level of parental restriction in visual areas of the brain such as right lateral occipital cortex (LOC, right temporal occipital cortex, left occipital fusiform gyrus, left lateral and superior LOC. Adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus had higher activation (compared to the other groups with increased parental restrictive feeding in areas relating to emotional control, attention and decision-making, such as posterior cingulate, precuneus, frontal operculum and right middle frontal gyrus. Participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus also showed higher activation (compared to the other groups in the left anterior intraparietal sulcus and angular gyrus when they also reported higher self restraint. Parental restriction did not modulate food responses in obese participants, but there was increased activity in visual (visual cortex, left LOC, left occipital fusiform gyrus and reward related brain areas (thalamus and parietal operculum in

  1. Relationship between Parental Feeding Practices and Neural Responses to Food Cues in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Alison; Blissett, Jacqueline; Chechlacz, Magdalena; Barrett, Timothy; Higgs, Suzanne; Nouwen, Arie

    2016-01-01

    Social context, specifically within the family, influences adolescent eating behaviours and thus their health. Little is known about the specific mechanisms underlying the effects of parental feeding practices on eating. We explored relationships between parental feeding practices and adolescent eating habits and brain activity in response to viewing food images. Fifty- seven adolescents (15 with type 2 diabetes mellitus, 21 obese and 21 healthy weight controls) underwent fMRI scanning whilst viewing images of food or matched control images. Participants completed the Kids Child Feeding Questionnaire, the Childrens’ Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) and took part in an observed meal. Parents completed the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionniare and the DEBQ. We were particularly interested in brain activity in response to food cues that was modulated by different feeding and eating styles. Healthy-weight participants increased activation (compared to the other groups) to food in proportion to the level of parental restriction in visual areas of the brain such as right lateral occipital cortex (LOC), right temporal occipital cortex, left occipital fusiform gyrus, left lateral and superior LOC. Adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus had higher activation (compared to the other groups) with increased parental restrictive feeding in areas relating to emotional control, attention and decision-making, such as posterior cingulate, precuneus, frontal operculum and right middle frontal gyrus. Participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus also showed higher activation (compared to the other groups) in the left anterior intraparietal sulcus and angular gyrus when they also reported higher self restraint. Parental restriction did not modulate food responses in obese participants, but there was increased activity in visual (visual cortex, left LOC, left occipital fusiform gyrus) and reward related brain areas (thalamus and parietal operculum) in response to

  2. Corrupt practices negatively influenced food security and live expectancy in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchendu, Florence Ngozi; Abolarin, Thaddeus Olatunbosun

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a global public health problem more prevalent in developing countries than in developed countries. Indicators of malnutrition include household food security and life expectancy. Corruption might be one of socio-political problems fuelling malnutrition in developing countries. The aim of this paper is to compare influence of corruption on food security, live expectancy (LE) and population in developed and developing countries. Thirty two least corrupt countries (LCC) and most corrupt countries (MCC) representing developed and developing countries were systematically selected using Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI). Countries’ data on population, food security index (FSI) and LE scores were obtained from Global food security index (GFSI) and Population reference bureau. T-test, Multivariate (Wilks’ Lambda), Pearson product moment analysis were performed to determine relationship between CPI, FSI, LE, and population in LCC and MCC at pcorrupt practices and promoting good governance should be embraced to eradicate malnutrition in developing countries. PMID:26090058

  3. Kitchen safety in hospitals: practices and knowledge of food handlers in istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Aydan; Kiziltan, Gul

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to identify the practices and knowledge of food handlers about workplace safety in hospital kitchens (four on-premises and eight off-premises) in Istanbul. A kitchen safety knowledge questionnaire was administered and a kitchen safety checklist was completed by dietitians. The mean total scores of the on-premise and off-premise hospital kitchens were 32.7 ± 8.73 and 37.0 ± 9.87, respectively. The mean scores for the items about machinery tools, electricity, gas, and fire were lower in off-premise than on-premise hospital kitchen workers. The kitchen safety knowledge questionnaire had five subsections; 43.7% of the food handlers achieved a perfect score. Significant differences were found in the knowledge of food handlers working in both settings about preventing slips and falls (p kitchen safety knowledge of the food handlers (p < .05). Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Gender relations, prostate cancer and diet: re-inscribing hetero-normative food practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mróz, Lawrence William; Chapman, Gwen E; Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L

    2011-05-01

    Although diet might be a valuable adjunct to prostate cancer care, men typically have poorer diets than women and are less likely to change the way they eat after a cancer diagnosis. Gender theory suggests that dominant ideals of masculinity shape men's health and food practices; however, the role of female partners in men's diets is poorly understood. Through qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews, this article explores accounts of 14 Canadian couples' food practices guided by a gender relations framework to expose how tacit performances of masculinity and femininity interact to shape the diets of men with prostate cancer. Findings show that many men became more interested and involved in their diets after a prostate cancer diagnosis, practices that might be theorized as a counter hegemonic project or 'feminization', adding to other prostate cancer induced emasculations (i.e., treatment induced incontinence and impotence). At the same time, however, couples mutually limited men's engagement with diet while concurrently reinforcing women's traditional femininities in nurturing the men in their lives through food provision. Also embedded here were women's attempts to mitigate subordinate productions of masculinity by catering to their partner's tastes as well as monitoring their diets. Most couples mutually maintained traditional gender food 'roles' by positioning women as proficient leaders in domestic food provision and men as unskilled 'try-hard' and sometimes uninterested assistants. Findings also revealed complex gender power dynamics that predominated as complicit in sustaining hegemonic masculinity through women's deference to men's preferences and careful negotiation of instrumental support for men's diet changes. Overall men and women jointly worked to re-inscribe hetero-normative family food practices that shaped men's diets and nutritional health. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diversity in fathers’ food parenting practices: A qualitative exploration within a heterogeneous sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandpur, Neha; Charles, Jo; Blaine, Rachel E.; Blake, Christine; Davison, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Background Food parenting practices (FPPs) are important in shaping children’s dietary behaviors. However, existing FPP knowledge is largely based on research with mothers. Purpose This study (1) identified fathers’ FPPs; (2) described differences in FPP use by fathers’ education and residential status. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 fathers (39 ± 9.1 years; 37.5% non-residential; 40% ≥college education). Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. NVivo 10 was used for theme detection, categorization and classification using inductive and deductive approaches. FPPs were identified and their relative distribution was examined across education and residential status. Results Twenty FPPs were identified - 13 responsive practices and 7 unresponsive practices. Having food rules was the most common responsive FPP (81.5%), followed by feeding on schedule (60%) and making healthy food accessible (60%). Common unresponsive FPPs were letting child dictate preferences (70%), incentivizing food consumption (60%) and pressuring the child to eat (35%). Compared to fathers with a college education, more fathers without a college education reported letting child dictate preferences (92% vs. 37%), educating their children about food (37% vs 12%), fewer reported feeding on schedule (50% vs. 75%), modeling healthy practices (29% vs. 50%), and using distraction to feed (4% vs. 37%). Compared to residential fathers, more non-residential fathers monitored (60% vs. 40%) or encouraged (60% vs. 36%) child food intake and let child dictate preferences (87% vs. 60%). Conclusions Fathers used an extensive variety of FPPs, similar to those identified in mothers. Further study on the influence of fathers’ education and residential status on FPP use is warranted. PMID:26930383

  6. Diversity in fathers' food parenting practices: A qualitative exploration within a heterogeneous sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandpur, Neha; Charles, Jo; Blaine, Rachel E; Blake, Christine; Davison, Kirsten

    2016-06-01

    Food parenting practices (FPPs) are important in shaping children's dietary behaviors. However, existing FPP knowledge is largely based on research with mothers. This study (1) identified fathers' FPPs; (2) described differences in FPP use by fathers' education and residential status. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 fathers (39 ± 9.1 years; 37.5% non-residential; 40% ≥college education). Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. NVivo 10 was used for theme detection, categorization and classification using inductive and deductive approaches. FPPs were identified and their relative distribution was examined across education and residential status. Twenty FPPs were identified - 13 responsive practices and 7 unresponsive practices. Having food rules was the most common responsive FPP (81.5%), followed by feeding on schedule (60%) and making healthy food accessible (60%). Common unresponsive FPPs were letting child dictate preferences (70%), incentivizing food consumption (60%) and pressuring the child to eat (35%). Compared to fathers with a college education, more fathers without a college education reported letting child dictate preferences (92% vs. 37%), educating their children about food (37% vs 12%), fewer reported feeding on schedule (50% vs. 75%), modeling healthy practices (29% vs. 50%), and using distraction to feed (4% vs. 37%). Compared to residential fathers, more non-residential fathers monitored (60% vs. 40%) or encouraged (60% vs. 36%) child food intake and let child dictate preferences (87% vs. 60%). Fathers used an extensive variety of FPPs, similar to those identified in mothers. Further study on the influence of fathers' education and residential status on FPP use is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Handling Practices During Distribution of Kinnow-Mandarins (Citrus nobilis x Citrus deliciosa Used for Preparation of Fresh-Squeezed Juices and their Effects on Microbiological Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghosh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the microbiological safety of Kinnow-mandarins (Citrus nobilis X Citrus deliciosa used for preparation of fresh squeezed juices by street vendors. One hundred and fifty Kinnow mandarin samples were collected from different points in the distribution chain from the same lot, washed and aliquots of the wash samples were analyzed for total aerobes, Staphylococcus, total and fecal coliforms, Salmonella and Shigella. Although, there was no notable increase in the total aerobic, total or fecal coliform counts, total staphylococcal counts increased significantly (P<0.05 during distribution to street vendors; seventy-two samples from the street vendors showed the presence of coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus, twenty-three of these produced enterotoxins B and C. Salmonella and Shigella were not detected in any of the samples. Sources of high numbers of enterotoxigenic S. aureus were traced to unhygienic manual handling by middle level buyers and by street vendors. The results of our study demonstrate the poor microbiological quality of Kinnow-mandarins, the possible entry points of contaminants in the distribution chain of these fruits and unhygienic vending practices. Appropriate intervention measures are needed to ensure safe fresh squeezed juices for consumers.

  8. Best Practices for Financial Sustainability of Healthy Food Service Guidelines in Hospital Cafeterias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie; Schwartz, Brittany; Graham, John; Warnock, Amy Lowry; Mojica, Angelo; Marziale, Erin; Harris, Diane

    2018-05-17

    In February and March 2017 we examined barriers and facilitators to financial sustainability of healthy food service guidelines and synthesized best practices for financial sustainability in retail operations. We conducted qualitative, in-depth interviews with 8 hospital food service directors to learn more about barriers and facilitators to financial sustainability of healthy food service guidelines in retail food service operations. Analysts organized themes around headers in the interview guide and also made note of emerging themes not in the original guide. They used the code occurrence and co-occurrence features in Dedoose version 7.0.23 (SocioCultural Research Consultants) independently to analyze patterns across the interviews and to pull illustrative quotes for analysis. Two overarching themes emerged, related to 1) the demand for and sales of healthy foods and beverages, and 2) the production and supply of healthy foods and beverages. Our study provides insights into how hospital food service directors can maximize revenue and remain financially viable while selling healthier options in on-site dining facilities.

  9. How the Organic Food System Supports Sustainable Diets and Translates These into Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassner, Carola; Cavoski, Ivana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Lairon, Denis; Lampkin, Nicolas; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Matt, Darja; Niggli, Urs; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g., organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards, and useful metrics. By 2015, data for organic production and consumption are recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic food system puts the land (agri-cultura) back into the diet; it is the land from which the diet in toto is shaped. Therefore, the organic food system provides essential components of a sustainable diet.

  10. Retrospective reports of parental feeding practices and emotional eating in adulthood: The role of food preoccupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cin Cin; Ruhl, Holly; Chow, Chong Man; Ellis, Lillian

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined the role of food preoccupation as a potential mediator of the associations between parental feeding behaviors during childhood (i.e., restriction for weight, restriction for health, emotion regulation) and emotional eating in adulthood. Participants (N = 97, Mage = 20.3 years) recalled their parents' feeding behaviors during early and middle childhood and reported on current experiences of food preoccupation and emotional eating. Findings revealed that recalled parental feeding behaviors (restriction for weight, restriction for health, emotion regulation) and food preoccupation were positively associated with later emotional eating (correlations ranged from 0.21 to 0.55). In addition, recalled restriction for weight and emotion regulation feeding were positively associated with food preoccupation, r = 0.23 and 0.38, respectively. Further, food preoccupation mediated the association between emotion regulation feeding and later emotional eating (CI95% = 0.10 to 0.44). These findings indicate that parental feeding practices in childhood are related to food preoccupation, and that food preoccupation mediates the association between emotion regulation feeding in childhood and emotional eating in adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. How the Organic Food System Supports Sustainable Diets and Translates These into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassner, Carola; Cavoski, Ivana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Lairon, Denis; Lampkin, Nicolas; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Matt, Darja; Niggli, Urs; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g., organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards, and useful metrics. By 2015, data for organic production and consumption are recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic food system puts the land (agri-cultura) back into the diet; it is the land from which the diet in toto is shaped. Therefore, the organic food system provides essential components of a sustainable diet. PMID:26176912

  12. Using the Systems-Practice Framework to Understand Food Allergen Management Practices at College Catering Operations: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstappen, Jennie; Mirosa, Miranda; Thomson, Carla

    2018-03-01

    The number of individuals with food allergies or intolerances attending catered university residential colleges is increasing, and safe dining options are required to minimize the risk of allergic reactions and food-induced death. This qualitative research study sought to advance professional knowledge of the factors affecting allergen management practices, particularly pertaining to college foodservices. Three catered residential colleges affiliated with a major university in New Zealand were selected as research sites. The study used an ethnographic approach and systems-practice theory as a framework for data collection and organizing results. Data collection techniques included document analyses (3 hours per site), observations (6 to 8 hours per site), focus groups with foodservice workers (30 to 45 minutes per site, n=16), and interviews with foodservice managers (45 to 90 minutes per interview, n=5). Notes and transcripts were coded through the process of thematic analysis using NVivo for Mac software, version 11.1.1, to identify factors affecting allergen management practices. The main factors affecting allergen management practices at college foodservices included information provided by residents about dietary requirements; communication between residents and foodservice staff; systems for allergen management; attitude of foodservice staff; and college size. Detailed dietary information, effective communication with residents, sufficient resources, clarification of responsibilities, and thorough systems are required for staff to perform safe allergen management practices. Ultimately, successful implementation was predominantly determined by staff attitude. Foodservice managers are advised to identify motivators and address barriers of staff attitudes toward allergen management practices to promote successful implementation. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Adolescents' perspectives and food choice behaviors in terms of the environmental impacts of food production practices: application of a psychosocial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonnette, M M; Contento, I R

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate adolescents' perspectives about the environmental impacts of food production practices and whether these perspectives are related to their food choice. Food choice was operationalized as consumption and purchase of organic foods and locally grown foods. A survey questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of adolescents and analyzed for descriptive information and relationships among variables. Subjects were 651 ethnically diverse, urban and suburban high school senior students in a major metropolitan area. Variables of an Expanded Theory of Planned Behavior were measured including beliefs, attitudes, perceived social influences, motivation to comply, perceived behavioral control, self-identity, perceived responsibility, behavioral intention, and behavior. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used. Surveyed adolescents did not have strong or consistent beliefs or attitudes about the environmental impact of food production practices. Cognitive-motivational processes were at work, however, since their perspectives were significantly correlated with behavioral intentions and food choice behaviors. Behavioral intention was best accounted for by attitudes and perceived social influences (and perceived responsibility for organic food), and behavior was best accounted for by behavioral intentions, beliefs, and perceived social influences (and self-identity for local food). There is a need to make salient to adolescents the environmental impact of food production practices through both cognitive and experiential approaches.

  14. 4D Model on Assessing Psychomotor Aspect in Continental Food Processing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurafiati, P.; Ana, A.; Ratnasusanti, H.; Maulana, I.

    2018-02-01

    This research aims to develop and find out the response of observers for the assessment instrument of student’s psychomotor aspect on continental food processing practice. This research belongs to development research with 4P model that confined till the definition, design, and development stages. The data that gained during the research is analyzed descriptively. Research’s product is assessment instrument rubric form that consists of performance’s aspect which should be assessed and performance’s quality which stated in gradation score with 0-4 level and performance description that completed with picture illustration in every single score. Product was validate and responded based on material, construction, language, objectively, systematic, and practicability aspects. The result show that assessment instrument of student’s psychomotor aspect on continental food processing practice which developed gain very good response with percentage of 84,47%.

  15. Practice for dosimetry in gamma irradiation facilities for food processing. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This practice outlines the installation qualification program for an irradiator and the dosimetric procedures to be followed during operational qualification, performance qualification, and routine processing in facilities that process food with ionizing radiation from radionuclide gamma sources to ensure that product has been treated within a predetermined range of absorbed dose. Other procedures related to operational qualification, performance qualification, and routine processing that may influence absorbed dose in the product are also discussed. Information about effective or regulatory dose limits for food products is not within the scope of this practice (see ASTM Guides F 1355, F 1356, F 1736, and F 1885). This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use

  16. Insects are not ‘the new sushi’: theories of practice and the acceptance of novel foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    House, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    Food geographies have long grappled with the interplay between production and consumption. Theories of practice offer productive new ways of conceptualising the mutual implication of supply and demand in shaping food consumption, yet little work has approached the subject of novel foods from this

  17. Best practices in school food and nutrition units of public schools of Bayeux, PB, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Carolina de Carvalho; Pinto, Helen Ramalho Farias; Costa, Deborah Camila Ismael de Oliveira; Mascarenhas, Robson de Jesus; Aquino, Jailane de Souza

    2015-07-01

    The occurrence of foodborne illness outbreaks is increasing in schools, and due to the number of children who consume school meals as the only daily meal, this factor becomes even more worrisome. In this sense, the aim of this study was to evaluate the hygienic-health aspects of Food and Nutrition Units (SFNU) of public schools of Bayeux / PB in relation to the adoption of best practices in school food and nutrition. Data were collected through SFNU checklist during visits to units in 29 schools. The health risk of units evaluated was from regular to very high regarding structure and facilities, hygiene of food handlers, environment and food preparation. It was found that 10.3% of handlers used clean and adequate uniforms, and environment and equipment showed poor conservation status in 75.9% and 89.7% of Units, respectively; control of urban pests and vectors was not effective and cleaning of fresh produce was incorrectly conducted in 51.7% of SFNU of schools evaluated. It could be concluded that the production of meals in SFNU of schools evaluated does not meet the requirements established by the best practices in school food and nutrition.

  18. Awareness of food nutritive value and eating practices among Nigerian bank workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Ngozi M.; Maduabum, Felicia O.; Onyeke, Nkechi G.; Anyaegunam, Ngozi J.; Ayogu, Chinwe A.; Ezeanwu, Bibian Amaka; Eseadi, Chiedu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Adequate nutrition is an important aspect of a healthy lifestyle for all individuals, including bank staff. The objective of this study was to investigate the awareness of food nutritive value and eating practices among bank workers in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study adopted a cross-sectional descriptive survey design. A purposive sample of 250 bank workers took part in the study. Means and Student t tests were employed for data analysis. Results showed that bank workers were aware of the nutritive value of foods, and that eating practices commonly adopted included skipping breakfast, eating breakfast at work, buying food at work from the bank canteen, eating in between meals, buying snacks as lunch, and consuming soft drinks daily, among others. There were no significant differences between male and female bank workers in mean responses on food nutritive value or in eating practices adopted. Good eating habits will help bank workers not only to improve their nutritional well-being, but also to prevent nutrition-related diseases. The implications for nutritional counseling and education are discussed in the context of these findings. PMID:28272248

  19. Consumers' purchase of organic food products. A matter of convenience and reflexive practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmar, Ulf

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the purchase of organic food products by consumers and to explore the main factors driving this process. This paper uses evidence from 16 in-depth interviews with consumers in Denmark carried out in 2008-2009. On the basis of the analysis two broad concepts are suggested: convenience behaviours and reflexive practices. Convenience behaviours are characteristic of pragmatic organic consumers. This type of shopping behaviour requires organic foods to be available in the local supermarket, they have to be clearly visible (preferably with an eco-label), and the price differential vis-à-vis conventional products have to be minimal. The analysis also showed that politically/ethically minded consumers have reflexive practices when purchasing organic food products: health considerations, ethical considerations (animal welfare), political considerations (environmentalism) and quality considerations (taste) play an important part for these consumers. Reflexive shopping practices can be sparked by life events (e.g. having children), "shocking" news about conventional food products and similar events, and news capable of creating a "cognitive dissonance" among consumers. The Danish case illustrates that the government needs to actively implement reforms and promote activities which make organic products a convenient choice for the pragmatic oriented consumer if their market share is to increase substantially. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Attitudes and evaluative practices: category vs. item and subjective vs. objective constructions in everyday food assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Sally; Potter, Jonathan

    2003-12-01

    In social psychology, evaluative expressions have traditionally been understood in terms of their relationship to, and as the expression of, underlying 'attitudes'. In contrast, discursive approaches have started to study evaluative expressions as part of varied social practices, considering what such expressions are doing rather than their relationship to attitudinal objects or other putative mental entities. In this study the latter approach will be used to examine the construction of food and drink evaluations in conversation. The data are taken from a corpus of family mealtimes recorded over a period of months. The aim of this study is to highlight two distinctions that are typically obscured in traditional attitude work ('subjective' vs. 'objective' expressions, category vs. item evaluations). A set of extracts is examined to document the presence of these distinctions in talk that evaluates food and the way they are used and rhetorically developed to perform particular activities (accepting/refusing food, complimenting the food provider, persuading someone to eat). The analysis suggests that researchers (a) should be aware of the potential significance of these distinctions; (b) should be cautious when treating evaluative terms as broadly equivalent and (c) should be cautious when blurring categories and instances. This analysis raises the broader question of how far evaluative practices may be specific to particular domains, and what this specificity might consist in. It is concluded that research in this area could benefit from starting to focus on the role of evaluations in practices and charting their association with specific topics and objects.

  1. Best Practices for Serving Students with Special Food and/or Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Alexandra; Carr, Deborah; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research project was to identify goals and establish best practices for school nutrition (SN) programs that serve students with special food and/or nutrition needs based on the four practice categories identified in previous National Food Service Management Institute, Applied Research Division (NFSMI, ARD)…

  2. Investigation of Food Acceptability and Feeding Practices for Lipid Nutrient Supplements and Blended Flours Used to Treat Moderate Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Richard J.; Trehan, Indi; LaGrone, Lacey N.; Weisz, Ariana J.; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie M.; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Manary, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine acceptability and feeding practices associated with different supplementary food items and identify practices associated with weight gain. Methods: Caregivers (n = 409) whose children had been enrolled in a trial comparing a fortified corn-soy blended flour (CSB++), soy ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF), and soy/whey…

  3. Food parenting practices for 5 to 12 year old children: A concept map analysis of parenting and nutrition experts input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parents are an important influence on children's dietary intake and eating behaviors. However, the lack of a conceptual framework and inconsistent assessment of food parenting practices limits our understanding of which food parenting practices are most influential on children. The aim of this study...

  4. 21 CFR 820.140 - Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Handling. 820.140 Section 820.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures to ensure that mixups, damage, deterioration...

  5. International cooperation for food and nutrition security: Systematization of the participatory, contextualized, and intersectoral educational practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene BURLANDY

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study systematized the experience gained with the project Construindo capacidades em segurança alimentar e nutricional no Brasil, Canadá e Angola (2004-2010, Building food and nutrition security skills in Brazil, Canada, and Angola, whose objective was to qualify actions that promote food and nutrition security in the three countries using different educational practices. The activities were organized in the following subprojects: (a online distance learning courses; (b workshops to train managers, government technicians, representatives of civil society organizations, and social subjects who offered to act as a link between communities; and (c local pilot projects. The present study reports this experience. The educational practices implemented in the municipalities of Araçuaí (MG, Juazeiro (BA, and Fortaleza (CE were analyzed based on systematized information in the project reports and activity records (texts and photographs. The analytical reference was based on the concept of food and nutrition education, guided by the fundamentals of Popular Education and Paulo Freire; on the concept of food and nutrition security; and on the following analytical dimensions: participation, contextualization of educational practices, and intersectoriality. The results evidenced how educational practices contributed to the construction of shared concepts of food and nutrition security from an intersectoral and participatory perspective that values the peculiarities of diet in different socioeconomic and cultural contexts, and highlights daily situations and local traditions. They also expose the limits and potentialities of an experience of this magnitude, conducted from an interdisciplinarity perspective and using participatory methods.

  6. Becoming ecological citizens: connecting people through performance art, food matter and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Emma; Buser, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Engaging the interest of Western citizens in the complex food connections that shape theirs’ and others’ personal wellbeing around issues such as food security and access is challenging. This article is critical of the food marketplace as the site for informing consumer behaviour and argues instead for arts-based participatory activities to support the performance of ecological citizens in non-commercial spaces. Following the ongoing methodological and conceptual fascination with performance, matter and practice in cultural food studies, we outline what the ecological citizen, formed through food’s agentive potential, does and could do. This is an ecological citizen, defined not in its traditional relation to the state but rather to the world of humans and non-humans whose lives are materially interconnected through nourishment. The article draws on the theories of Berlant, Latour, Bennett and Massumi. Our methodology is a collaborative arts-led research project that explored and juxtaposed diverse food practices with artist Paul Hurley, researchers, community partners, volunteers and participants in Bristol, UK. It centred on a 10-day exhibition where visitors were exposed to a series of interactive explorations with and about food. Our experience leads us to outline two steps for enacting ecological citizenship. The first step is to facilitate sensory experiences that enable the agential qualities of foodstuffs to shape knowledge making. The second is to create a space where people can perform, or relate differently, in unusual manners to food. Through participating in the project and visiting the exhibition, people were invited to respond not only as ‘ethical consumers’ but also as ‘ecological citizens’. This participatory approach to research can contribute to understandings of human-world entanglements. PMID:29708123

  7. Food Safety Practices Linked with Proper Refrigerator Temperatures in Retail Delis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura G; Hoover, Edward Rickamer; Faw, Brenda V; Hedeen, Nicole K; Nicholas, David; Wong, Melissa R; Shepherd, Craig; Gallagher, Daniel L; Kause, Janell R

    2018-05-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) causes the third highest number of foodborne illness deaths annually. L. monocytogenes contamination of sliced deli meats at the retail level is a significant contributing factor to L. monocytogenes illness. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) conducted a study to learn more about retail delis' practices concerning L. monocytogenes growth and cross-contamination prevention. This article presents data from this study on the frequency with which retail deli refrigerator temperatures exceed 41°F, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-recommended maximum temperature for ready-to-eat food requiring time and temperature control for safety (TCS) (such as retail deli meat). This provision was designed to control bacterial growth in TCS foods. This article also presents data on deli and staff characteristics related to the frequency with which retail delis refrigerator temperatures exceed 41°F. Data from observations of 445 refrigerators in 245 delis showed that in 17.1% of delis, at least one refrigerator was >41°F. We also found that refrigeration temperatures reported in this study were lower than those reported in a related 2007 study. Delis with more than one refrigerator, that lacked refrigerator temperature recording, and had a manager who had never been food safety certified had greater odds of having a refrigerator temperature >41°F. The data from this study suggest that retail temperature control is improving over time. They also identify a food safety gap: some delis have refrigerator temperatures that exceed 41°F. We also found that two food safety interventions were related to better refrigerated storage practices: kitchen manager certification and recording refrigerated storage temperatures. Regulatory food safety programs and the retail industry may wish to consider encouraging or requiring kitchen manager certification and recording refrigerated

  8. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  9. Concepts, tools/methods, and practices of water-energy-food NEXUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, A.; Tsurita, I.; Orencio, P. M.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The needs to consider the NEXUS on food and water were emphasized in international dialogues and publications around the end of the 20th century. In fact, in 1983, the United Nations University already launched a Food-Energy Nexus Programme to fill the gaps between the issues of food and energy. The term "NEXUS" to link water, food, and trade was also used in the World Bank during 1990s. The idea of NEXUS is likely to have further developed under the discussion of "virtual water" and "water footprints". With experiencing several international discussions such as Kyoto World Water Forum 2003, scholars and practitioners around the globe acknowledged the need to include energy for the pillars of NEXUS. Finally, the importance of three NEXUS pillars, "water, energy, and food" was officially announced in the BONN 2011 NEXUS Conference, which is a turning point of NEXUS idea in the international community , in order to contribute to the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) in 2012 that highlighted the concept of "green economy". The concept of NEXUS is becoming a requisite to achieve sustainable development due to the global concerns embedded in society, economy, and environment. The concept stresses to promote the cooperation with the sectors such as water, energy, food, and climate change since these complex global issues are dependent and inter-connected, which can no longer be solved by the sectorial approaches. The NEXUS practices are currently shared among different stakeholders through various modes including literatures, conferences, workshops, and research projects. However, since the NEXUS practices are not led by a particular organization, its concept, theory, policy, tools, methods, and applications are diverse and incoherent. In terms of tools/methods, the potential of integrated modeling approach is introduced to avoid pressures and to promote interactions among water, energy and food. This paper explores the concepts, tools

  10. Foods served in child care facilities participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program: Menu match and agreement with the new meal patterns and best practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to assess the agreement of posted menus with foods served to 3- to 5-year-old children attending federal Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)-enrolled facilities, and the degree to which the facilities met the new meal patterns and best practices. On-site observations and menu...

  11. State-Level Guidance and District-Level Policies and Practices for Food Marketing in US School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Caitlin L; Michael, Shannon; Brener, Nancy D; Blanck, Heidi

    2018-06-07

    State agencies play a critical role in providing school districts with guidance and technical assistance on school nutrition issues, including food and beverage marketing practices. We examined associations between state-level guidance and the policies and practices in school districts regarding food and beverage marketing and promotion. State policy guidance was positively associated with districts prohibiting advertisements for junk food or fast food restaurants on school property. Technical assistance from states was negatively associated with 2 district practices to restrict marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages, but positively associated with 1 practice to promote healthy options. These findings may help inform the guidance that states provide to school districts and help identify which districts may need additional assistance to address marketing and promotion practices.

  12. Implications of food insecurity on global health policy and nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kregg-Byers, Claudia M; Schlenk, Elizabeth A

    2010-09-01

    The purpose is to discuss the concept of food insecurity (FI) and its impact on current global health policy and nursing practice. Food insecurity. Literature review. FI means a nonsustainable food system that interferes with optimal self-reliance and social justice. Individuals experiencing FI lack nutritionally adequate and safe foods in their diet. Resources play a significant role in FI by affecting whether or not people obtain culturally, socially acceptable food through regular marketplace sources as opposed to severe coping strategies, such as emergency food sources, scavenging, and stealing. Persons who are living in poverty, female heads of household, single parents, people living with many siblings, landless people, migrants, immigrants, and those living in certain geographical regions constitute populations at risk and most vulnerable to FI. FI influences economics through annual losses of gross domestic product due to reduced human productivity. FI affects individuals and households and is largely an unobservable condition, making data collection and analysis challenging. Policy and research have focused on macronutrient sufficiency and deprivation, making it difficult to draw attention and research dollars to FI. Persons experiencing FI exhibit clinical signs such as less healthy diets, poor health status, poor diabetes and chronic disease management, and impaired cognitive function. Nurses can recognize the physical, psychosocial, and personal consequences that those with FI face and manage daily.

  13. Rights for resilience: food sovereignty, power, and resilience in development practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marygold Walsh-Dilley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Even as resilience thinking becomes evermore popular as part of strategic programming among development and humanitarian organizations, uncertainty about how to define, operationalize, measure, and evaluate resilience for development goals prevails. As a result, many organizations and institutions have undertaken individual, collective, and simultaneous efforts toward clarification and definition. This has opened up a unique opportunity for a rethinking of development practices. The emergent consensus about what resilience means within development practice will have important consequences both for development practitioners and the communities in which they work. Incorporating resilience thinking into development practice has the potential to radically transform this arena in favor of social and environmental justice, but it could also flounder as a way to dress old ideas in new clothes or, at worst, to further exploit, disempower, and marginalize the world's most vulnerable populations. We seek to make an intervention into the definitional debates surrounding resilience that supports the former and helps prevent the latter. We argue that resilience thinking as it has been developed in social-ecological systems and allied literatures has a lot in common with the concept of food sovereignty and that paying attention to some of the lessons and claims of food sovereignty movements could contribute toward building a consensus around resilience that supports social and environmental justice. In particular, the food sovereignty movement relies on a strategy that elevates rights. We suggest that a rights-based approach to resilience-oriented development practice could contribute to its application in just and equitable ways.

  14. Food hygiene training in small to medium-sized care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Phillip; Eves, Anita

    2008-10-01

    Adoption of safe food handling practices is essential to effectively manage food safety. This study explores the impact of basic or foundation level food hygiene training on the attitudes and intentions of food handlers in care settings, using questionnaires based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Interviews were also conducted with food handlers and their managers to ascertain beliefs about the efficacy of, perceived barriers to, and relevance of food hygiene training. Most food handlers had undertaken formal food hygiene training; however, many who had not yet received training were preparing food, including high risk foods. Appropriate pre-training support and on-going supervision appeared to be lacking, thus limiting the effectiveness of training. Findings showed Subjective Norm to be the most significant influence on food handlers' intention to perform safe food handling practices, irrespective of training status, emphasising the role of important others in determining desirable behaviours.

  15. Codex general standard for irradiated foods and recommended international code of practice for the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission was established to implement the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. The purpose of this programme is to protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair practices in the food trade. At its 15th session, held in July 1983, the Commission adopted a Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and a Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities used for the Treatment of Foods. This Standard takes into account the recommendations and conclusions of the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committees convened to evaluate all available data concerning the various aspects of food irradiation. This Standard refers only to those aspects which relate to the processing of foods by ionising energy. The Standard recognizes that the process of food irradiation has been established as safe for general application to an overall average level of absorbed dose of 10 KGy. The latter value shold not be regarded as a toxicological upper limit above which irradiated foods become unsafe; it is simply the level at or below which safety has been established. The Standard provides certain mandatory provisions concerning the facilities used and for the control of the process in the irradiation plants. The present Standard requires that shipping documents accompanying irradiated foods moving in trade should indicate the fact of irradiation. The labelling of prepackaged irradiated foods intended for direct sale to the consumer is not covered in this Standard

  16. Codex general standard for irradiated foods and recommended international code of practice for the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission was established to implement the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. The purpose of this programme is to protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair practices in the food trade. At its 15th session, held in July 1983, the Commission adopted a Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and a Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities used for the Treatment of Foods. This Standard takes into account the recommendations and conclusions of the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committees convened to evaluate all available data concerning the various aspects of food irradiation. This Standard refers only to those aspects which relate to the processing of foods by ionising energy. The Standard recognizes that the process of food irradiation has been established as safe for general application to an overall average level of absorbed dose of 10 kGy. The latter value should not be regarded as a toxicological upper limit above which irradiated foods become unsafe; it is simply the level at or below which safety has been established. The Standard provides certain mandatory provisions concerning the facilities used and for the control of the process in the irradiation plants. The present Standard requires that shipping documents accompanying irradiated foods moving in trade should indicate the fact of irradiation. The labelling of prepackaged irradiated foods intended for direct sale to the consumer is not covered in this Standard

  17. KNOWLEDGE BASED ECONOMY VS. SUSTAINABLE AGRO-FOOD SYSTEMS; BEST PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Beatrice PĂUNA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge based economy, found in more than one fields, started – considering agriculture – from a transition premise towards sustainable agro-food systems. The conceptual boundaries between the two major paradigms on sustainable development of agriculture, namely the agro-industrial paradigm and the integrated territorial paradigm, is used nowadays for teaching and research purpose, as a comparison basis with an ideal case, mostly because we only have hybrid models which tend to coexist, always improving the food and goods production, also promoting innovative agro-food systems. This paper highlights the idea that the establishment of an institutional and legal framework, will have a catalytic role acting as an engine of economic growth and boosting the development of agricultural systems by mobilizing entrepreneurs in agriculture and related areas. In this regard, we present best practices of economic actors engaged in meta network of agriculture clusters.

  18. Garden as Education: Learning the ‘Old Ways’ of Traditional Mediterranean Food Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Harrisson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A former red-brick housing commission house in the bay-side suburbs ofMelbourne has been transformed by Mark Dymiotis to replicate traditional villageMediterranean practices of his heritage. For many years, people have come into thegarden through the Council of Adult Education and the Open Garden scheme tolearn wine making and bread baking and other traditional Greek–Mediterraneaneveryday food practices. Mark draws on his own heritage and the knowledge ofolder people, the migrants who brought these practices to this land, about whichhe has been researching, writing and teaching for over 20 years. The garden is aplatform for teaching about healthy and aff ordable everyday dietary practices

  19. Zolpidem prescribing practices before and after Food and Drug Administration required product labeling changes

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, Jessica L; Fixen, Danielle R; Saseen, Joseph J; Saba, Laura M; Linnebur, Sunny A

    2017-01-01

    Background: Women have higher morning serum zolpidem concentrations than men after taking an evening dose, potentially leading to increased risk of harm. On 19 April 2013, the United States Food and Drug Administration required labeling changes for zolpidem, recommending an initial dose of no greater than 5 mg (immediate release) or 6.25 mg (controlled release) per night in women. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to compare prescribing practices before and after the 2013 zo...

  20. Evidence and Experience of Open Sustainability Innovation Practices in the Food Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Arcese

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of an “open sustainability innovation” approach in business could be a strategic advantage to reach both industry objectives and sustainability goals. The food sector is facing a constant increase in competition. In order to address the high competition that involves the food industry, sustainability and innovation practices can be strategically effective, especially with an open sustainability innovation approach. In the literature, we found many examples of open innovation applications and their implications for sustainable strategy. These applications are important for reducing cost and time to market, as well as for a company’s impact on the environment and food security. In this paper, the authors show the evidence of these implications. In particular, starting from the state of the art of the food sector, we highlight the empirical results of ten case studies. By analyzing these cases, we can gain a better awareness on how and why these approaches are currently being applied by food sector companies.

  1. How the organic food system supports sustainable diets and translates these into practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola eStrassner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g. organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards and useful metrics. By 2015 data for organic production and consumption is recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic fo

  2. Radiation processing of food and agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Reducing post-harvest food losses is becoming increasingly important for sustaining food supplies. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for improving food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Preservation of food by ionizing radiation involves controlled application of energy of ionizing radiation such as gamma rays, X-rays, and accelerated electrons to agricultural commodities, food products and ingredients, for improving their storage life, hygiene and safety. The process employs either gamma rays emitted by radioisotopes such as cobalt-60 or high-energy electrons or X-rays generated from machine sources

  3. Feeding style differences in food parenting practices associated with fruit and vegetable intake in children from low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Maria A; Cross, Matthew B; Power, Thomas G; Liu, Yan; Qu, Haiyan; Shewchuk, Richard M; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2013-01-01

    To examine the moderating effects of feeding styles on the relationship between food parenting practices and fruit and vegetable (F & V) intake in low-income families with preschool-aged children. Focus group meetings with Head Start parents were conducted by using the nominal group technique. Parents completed information on food parenting practices and feeding styles. Three dietary recalls were collected on each child. Parents completed measures in Head Start centers and/or over the telephone. 667 parents of preschool-aged children participated. Food parenting practices and F & V intake. Mean differences in the food parenting practices across the 4 feeding styles were established through multivariate general linear modeling using MANOVA. Moderated multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the moderating role of feeding style on food parenting practices and child F & V intake. The indulgent feeding style moderated the relationship between food parenting practices and child F & V intake. This study indicates that parents' feeding styles have a moderating effect on the relationship between the food parenting practices and children's F & V intake. This finding can facilitate the development of interventions aimed at reducing childhood overweight. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors associated with parental use of restrictive feeding practices to control their children's food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Wendy N; Janicke, David M; Wistedt, Kristin M; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn C

    2010-10-01

    There is a critical need to identify risk factors that make parents more likely to restrict their child's food intake. Child weight and ethnicity, parent weight, parent body dissatisfaction, and parent concern of child weight were examined as correlates of parent use of restrictive feeding practices in a diverse sample of 191 youth (ages 7-17). Participants attending a pediatric outpatient visit completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (parent feeding practices and beliefs), the Figure Rating Scale (body dissatisfaction) and a demographic form. Parent BMI and child degree of overweight were calculated. Parent use of restrictive feeding practices was positively associated with parent BMI and was moderated by parent body dissatisfaction. Parent concern of child weight mediated the relationship between increasing child degree of overweight and parent use of restrictive feeding practices. There were no differences by child gender or ethnicity in parent use of restrictive feeding practices. These preliminary findings highlight the importance of assessing for underlying parent motivations for utilizing restrictive feeding practices and may help to identify and intervene with families at-risk for engaging in counterproductive weight control strategies. Continued identification of correlates of parent use of restrictive feeding practices is needed across child development and among individuals from diverse backgrounds.

  5. Food and Drug Administration upscheduling of hydrocodone and the effects on nurse practitioner pain management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Rachel

    2018-06-01

    In 2013, the Advisory Committee of the Food and Drug Administration determined hydrocodone combination medications (HCMs) needed tighter regulation due to high abuse potential; they recommended upscheduling HCMs from Schedule III to II. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of upscheduling of HCMs on pain management practices of advanced practiced registered nurses (APRNs) in Oklahoma. In this qualitative study, 25 participants described their primary care experiences after the upscheduling. A thematic analysis was used to understand the effects on APRN pain management practices. The upscheduling of HCMs has greatly affected the pain management practices of APRNs in a state where Schedule II narcotic prescribing is forbidden. Findings will assist APRNs with improving patient access to care, implementing practice regulations, and exploring options for alternative pain therapies in primary care. Upscheduling of HCMs has had a severe impact on APRNs, affecting their prescribing practices and leading to increased referrals. They noted limited treatment options, increased health care costs, and decreased access to care. The APRNs understand the problem of prescription opioid abuse, diversion, and misuse. A consensus model could standardize the regulatory process for APRNs, increase interstate mobility for practice, and increase access to APRN care nationwide.

  6. Radiation processing of food and allied products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while reducing post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy has played a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

  7. Food consumption by young children: a function of parental feeding goals and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison E; Hoffmann, Debra A; Meers, Molly R; Koball, Afton M; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2014-03-01

    Staggering health implications are associated with poor child diet. Given the importance of parents in impacting children's eating outcomes, the current study examined a theoretical framework in which both parental feeding goals and practices impact specific healthy and unhealthy child eating behaviors. Participants were 171 mothers of 3-6year old children who were diverse both socioeconomically and with regard to BMI. Mothers completed questionnaires via Mechanical Turk, an online workforce through Amazon.com. Structural Equation Modeling showed an adequate model fit in which Negative Feeding Practices (e.g., using food as a reward) mediated the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals (i.e., feeding children with health-oriented goals in mind) and Negative Eating Behaviors (e.g., consumption of candy and snacks). However, Negative Feeding Practices did not mediate the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals and Positive Eating Behaviors (i.e., fruits and vegetables). These findings suggest the important role of habitual food parenting practices in children's eating and have implications for parental health education programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Behavioral Observation and Microbiological Analysis of Older Adult Consumers' Cross-Contamination Practices in a Model Domestic Kitchen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ellen W; Redmond, Elizabeth C

    2018-04-01

    The incidence of foodborne illness is higher in older adults because of their increased susceptibility; therefore, food safety practices are important. However, inadequate knowledge and negative attitudes toward food safety have been reported, which may increase use of unsafe food handling practices. Data on the actual food safety behaviors of older adults are lacking. In this study, food safety practices of older adults were observed and linked to microbiological analysis of kitchen surfaces to identify suspected routes of contamination. Older adults (≥60 years, n = 100) prepared a set meal in a model domestic kitchen sanitized according to a validated protocol to ensure minimal and consistent microbiological loads. Food safety behaviors were observed using ceiling-mounted cameras and recorded using a predetermined behavioral checklist. Surface microbiological contamination also was determined after food preparation. Overall, older adults frequently implemented unsafe food handling practices; 90% failed to implement adequate hand decontamination immediately after handling raw chicken. For older adults who used a larger number of adequate hand decontamination attempts, microbiological contamination levels in the kitchen following the food preparation session were significantly lower ( P food handling practices as suspected routes of microbiological cross-contamination in a model domestic kitchen. Findings indicate the potential impact on domestic food safety of unsafe food handling practices used by older adult consumers. This innovative approach revealed that a large proportion of older adults implement behaviors resulting in microbiological cross-contamination that may increase the risk of foodborne illness in the home.

  9. Comparison of fast food consumption and dietary guideline practices for children and adolescents by clustering of fast food outlets around schools in the Gyeonggi area of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Soonnam; Ju, Seyoung; Chang, Hyeja

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution density of fast food outlets around schools, and the relationship between dietary health of children and adolescents and the density of fast food outlets in Korea. A distribution map of fast food outlets was drawn by collecting information on 401 locations of 16 brands within a 15-minute walk (800 meter) of 342 elementary and secondary schools in Suwon, Hwaseong and Osan. A questionnaire was used to gather data on the dietary life of 243 sixth and eighth grade students at eight schools. Schools in the upper 20% and lower 20% of the fast food outlet distribution were classified as high-density and low-density groups, respectively. The practice rate of dietary guidelines published by the Health and Welfare Ministry and the fast food consumption pattern of children and adolescents from low and high density groups were determined. The number of schools with a fast food outlet within 200 meters or in the Green Food Zone around its location was 48 of 189 (25.4%) in Suwon and 14 of 153 (9.2%) in Hwaseong and Osan. Students in the low-density group visited fast food outlets less often than those in the high-density group (pfast food outlets within 200 meters of schools was useful for identifying the effectiveness of the Green Food Zone Act and nutrition education programs.

  10. Intervention effects on kindergarten and first-grade teachers' classroom food practices and food-related beliefs in American Indian reservation schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcan, Chrisa; Hannan, Peter J; Himes, John H; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Smyth, Mary; Story, Mary

    2013-08-01

    Prevalence of obesity among American Indian children is higher than the general US population. The school environment and teachers play important roles in helping students develop healthy eating habits. The aim of this prospective study was to examine teachers' classroom and school food practices and beliefs and the effect of teacher training on these practices and beliefs. Data were used from the Bright Start study, a group-randomized, school-based trial that took place on the Pine Ridge American Indian reservation (fall 2005 to spring 2008). Kindergarten and first-grade teachers (n=75) from 14 schools completed a survey at the beginning and end of the school year. Thirty-seven survey items were evaluated using mixed-model analysis of variance to examine the intervention effect for each teacher-practice and belief item (adjusting for teacher type and school as random effect). At baseline, some teachers reported classroom and school food practices and beliefs that supported health and some that did not. The intervention was significantly associated with lower classroom use of candy as a treat (P=0.0005) and fast-food rewards (P=0.008); more intervention teachers disagreed that fast food should be offered as school lunch alternatives (P=0.019), that it would be acceptable to sell unhealthy foods as part of school fundraising (P=0.006), and that it would not make sense to limit students' food choices in school (P=0.035). School-based interventions involving teacher training can result in positive changes in teachers' classroom food practices and beliefs about the influence of the school food environment in schools serving American Indian children on reservations. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intervention effects on kindergarten and 1st grade teachers’ classroom food practices and food-related beliefs in American Indian reservation schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcan, Chrisa; Hannan, Peter J.; Himes, John H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Smyth, Mary; Story, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of obesity among American Indian (AI) children is higher than the general US population. The school environment and teachers play important roles in helping students develop healthy eating habits. The aim of this prospective study was to examine teachers’ classroom and school food practices and beliefs and the effect of teacher training on these practices and beliefs. Data were used from the Bright Start study, a group-randomized, school-based trial on the Pine Ridge AI reservation (Fall 2005 to Spring 2008). Kindergarten and first grade teachers (n=75) from 14 schools completed a survey at the beginning and end of the school year. Thirty-seven survey items were evaluated using mixed-model analysis of variance to examine the intervention effect for each teacher-practice and belief item (adjusting for teacher type and school as random effect). At baseline, some teachers reported classroom and school food practices and beliefs that supported health and some that did not. The intervention was significantly associated with lower classroom use of candy as a treat (p=0.0005) and fast food rewards (p=0.008); more intervention teachers disagreed that fast food should be offered as school lunch alternatives (p=0.019), that it would be acceptable to sell unhealthy foods as part of school fund-raising (p=0.006), and that it would not make sense to limit students’ food choices in school (p=0.035). School-based interventions involving teacher training can result in positive changes in teachers’ classroom food practices and beliefs about the influence of the school food environment in schools serving AI children on reservations. PMID:23885704

  12. Food Safety and Sanitary Practices of Selected Hotels in Batangas Province, Philippines: Basis of Proposed Enhancement Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April M. Perez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the extent of food safety and sanitary practices of selected hotels in Batangas province as basis of proposed enhancement measures. The study utilized descriptive method to describe food safety and sanitary practices of selected hotels in Batangas province with a total of 8 hotels (256 respondents. Purposive sampling was used in the study. The questionnaires were designed using the provision of the Sanitation Code of the Philippines, validated and finalized to come up with legitimate results. The study showed that there were eight (8 hotel respondents classified as two, three, four star with considerable years of experience and adequate number of employees. The hotels demonstrated the food safety and sanitary practices always in the areas of restaurant, bar service, catering and banquet and room service. The significant pair-wise comparison for restaurant, bar service, catering and banquet and room service shows that 2 star hotels greatly differs. The researcher recommends that the management should maintain high standard of food safety and sanitary practices among its staff, upgrade the food safety and sanitary practices for food safety accreditation, continuous training of the hotel managers/employees on food safety and sanitary practices.

  13. Infant feeding practices and reported food allergies at 6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luccioli, Stefano; Zhang, Yuanting; Verrill, Linda; Ramos-Valle, Moraima; Kwegyir-Afful, Ernest

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the frequency of physician-diagnosed food allergies among 6-year-old US children and study the impact of exclusive breastfeeding and complementary food introduction on this frequency. Data were analyzed from children who participated in the Infant Feeding Practices Study II Year 6 Follow-Up Study (Y6FU). Children with probable food allergy (pFA) were defined as children with report of physician-diagnosed food allergy at age 6 years. Subgroups of pFA included children who were not diagnosed before 1 year of age (new pFA) and those with atopic risk factors (high risk). Prevalence of total pFA in the Y6FU was 6.34%. The majority of these children had new pFA and high-risk factors. Higher maternal education, higher family income, family history of food allergy, and reported eczema before 1 year of age were significantly associated with higher odds of total or new pFA. Exclusive breastfeeding duration and timing of complementary food introduction were not significantly associated with total pFA. However, exclusive breastfeeding of ≥4 months compared with no breastfeeding was marginally associated with lower odds of new pFA (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51; P = .07); this effect was not observed with high-risk children. Analysis of infant and maternal variables in the Y6FU cohort of US children revealed that socioeconomic and atopic factors were the main predictors of pFA at age 6 years. Exclusive breastfeeding of ≥4 months may have a preventive effect on development of pFA after 1 year of age in non high-risk children. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Technological Implications of Supply Chain Practices in Agri-Food Sector: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Mor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, the global business environment compels enterprises to consider rest of the world in their competitive strategy analysis where firms ignore external factors such as economic trends, competitive positions or technology advancement in other countries. While going truly global with supply chain management, a company develops product in the United States, produce in India and trade in Europe, and they have changed the traditional operation management & logistical activities. This change in trade and the modernization of transport infrastructures have elevated the importance of flow management to new levels. Manufacturers and researchers have noticed many problems concerning supply chain activities, and usually either a system or subcomponent in supply chains is discussed in the literature, but they fails to answer the rational (why, what, how behind them. This paper addresses a review of the principles, bottlenecks and strategies of supply chain practices for organizations with an emphasis on the implications of Indian agri-food sector. Findings of this review reveal that the human & environmental issues, improved product visibility, food safety/quality and the associated economic benefits in sustainable agri-food supply chains can be achieved through innovation, collaboration, elimination of uncertainties and introducing global SCM practices into green & lean initiatives.

  15. Child feeding practices and household food insecurity among low-income mothers in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Ferarro, Mabel; Franchello, Alejandra; Barrera, Raul de La; Machado, Marcia Maria Tavares; Pfeiffer, Martha Erin; Peterson, Karen Eileen

    2012-03-01

    This qualitative study of low-income mothers in Buenos Aires, Argentina, examines the influence of socio-economic conditions, organizational structures, family relationships, and food insecurity on child feeding practices and weight status. Thirty-eight mothers of preschool children living in urban Buenos Aires participated in four focus group discussions. The results indicated that many mothers were aware that obesity may be detrimental to the child's health, but most of them are unclear about the specific consequences. Maternal employment, family pressures, food insecurity and financial worries seem to influence child feeding practices. These findings have important implications for developing strategies for nutritional assistance that could benefit the health of children and provide opportunities for educational programs that are directed to nutritional awareness in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The right to eat regularly and properly is an obligation of the State and must be implemented taking into account the notion of food sovereignty and respecting the importance of preserving the culture and eating habits of a country and its diverse population groups.

  16. Identifying Practical Solutions to Meet America’s Fiber Needs: Proceedings from the Food & Fiber Summit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy R. Mobley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit and whole-grain intakes, average fiber consumption has remained flat at approximately half of the recommended daily amounts. Research indicates that consumers report increasingly attempting to add fiber-containing foods, but there is confusion around fiber in whole grains. The persistent and alarmingly low intakes of fiber prompted the “Food & Fiber Summit,” which assembled nutrition researchers, educators and communicators to explore fiber’s role in public health, current fiber consumption trends and consumer awareness data with the objective of generating opportunities and solutions to help close the fiber gap. The summit outcomes highlight the need to address consumer confusion and improve the understanding of sources of fiber, to recognize the benefits of various types of fibers and to influence future dietary guidance to provide prominence and clarity around meeting daily fiber recommendations through a variety of foods and fiber types. Potential opportunities to increase fiber intake were identified, with emphasis on meal occasions and food categories that offer practical solutions for closing the fiber gap.

  17. Identifying Practical Solutions to Meet America’s Fiber Needs: Proceedings from the Food & Fiber Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Amy R.; Jones, Julie Miller; Rodriguez, Judith; Slavin, Joanne; Zelman, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit and whole-grain intakes, average fiber consumption has remained flat at approximately half of the recommended daily amounts. Research indicates that consumers report increasingly attempting to add fiber-containing foods, but there is confusion around fiber in whole grains. The persistent and alarmingly low intakes of fiber prompted the “Food & Fiber Summit,” which assembled nutrition researchers, educators and communicators to explore fiber’s role in public health, current fiber consumption trends and consumer awareness data with the objective of generating opportunities and solutions to help close the fiber gap. The summit outcomes highlight the need to address consumer confusion and improve the understanding of sources of fiber, to recognize the benefits of various types of fibers and to influence future dietary guidance to provide prominence and clarity around meeting daily fiber recommendations through a variety of foods and fiber types. Potential opportunities to increase fiber intake were identified, with emphasis on meal occasions and food categories that offer practical solutions for closing the fiber gap. PMID:25006857

  18. When and how should multiple imputation be used for handling missing data in randomised clinical trials - a practical guide with flowcharts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2017-01-01

    the missingness. Therefore, the analysis of trial data with missing values requires careful planning and attention. METHODS: The authors had several meetings and discussions considering optimal ways of handling missing data to minimise the bias potential. We also searched PubMed (key words: missing data; randomi...

  19. Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of food hygiene among schools students' in Majmaah city, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansour, Mohammed; Sami, Waqas; Al-Rashedy, Oliyan Shoqer; Alsaab, Rayan Saad; Alfayez, Abdulrahman Saad; Almarri, Nawaf Rashed

    2016-04-01

    To determine the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice of food hygiene among primary, intermediate and high school students and explore association, if any, with socio-demographic differences. The observational cross-sectional study was conducted at boy's schools in Majmaah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from February to May 2014. Data was collected using stratified random sampling technique from students aged 8-25 year. Two schools from each level (primary, intermediate and high school) were randomly selected and data was collected from the selected schools using simple random sampling method. A self-administered modified Sharif and Al-Malki questionnaire for knowledge, attitude and practice of food hygiene was used with Arabic translation. The mean age of 377 male students in the study was 14.53±2.647 years. Knowledge levels was less in primary school students compared to high school students (p=0.026). Attitude level was high in primary school students compared to intermediate school students (pstudents exhibited good practice levels, despite fair knowledge and attitude levels.

  20. Implementation of Good Agricultural Practices Food Safety Standards on Mid-Atlantic States and New York Produce Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Roshan

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of multistate outbreaks and subsequent economic cost and health causalities, food industry stakeholders formulated policies for their produce suppliers. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's guidance on Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) have been the basis for most of the industry initiated GAP certifications or audit processes. In…

  1. Validity and practicability of smartphone-based photographic food records for estimating energy and nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Kaimeng; Zhang, Lulu; Huang, Lisu; Tao, Yexuan

    2017-05-01

    Image-assisted dietary assessment methods are frequently used to record individual eating habits. This study tested the validity of a smartphone-based photographic food recording approach by comparing the results obtained with those of a weighed food record. We also assessed the practicality of the method by using it to measure the energy and nutrient intake of college students. The experiment was implemented in two phases, each lasting 2 weeks. In the first phase, a labelled menu and a photograph database were constructed. The energy and nutrient content of 31 randomly selected dishes in three different portion sizes were then estimated by the photograph-based method and compared with a weighed food record. In the second phase, we combined the smartphone-based photographic method with the WeChat smartphone application and applied this to 120 randomly selected participants to record their energy and nutrient intake. The Pearson correlation coefficients for energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate content between the weighed and the photographic food record were 0.997, 0.936, 0.996, and 0.999, respectively. Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement between the two methods. The estimated protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake by participants was in accordance with values in the Chinese Residents' Nutrition and Chronic Disease report (2015). Participants expressed satisfaction with the new approach and the compliance rate was 97.5%. The smartphone-based photographic dietary assessment method combined with the WeChat instant messaging application was effective and practical for use by young people.

  2. Fed up with the right to food? : The Netherlands' policies and practices regarding the human right to adequate food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospes, O.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    There is no one in this world who would deny the importance of access to adequate food for every human being. In fact, access to food has been declared a human right in 1948 with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In spite of the right to food to be more than half a century old, many are not

  3. Association of food-hygiene practices and diarrhea prevalence among Indonesian young children from low socioeconomic urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustina, Rina; Sari, Tirta P; Satroamidjojo, Soemilah; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg M J; Feskens, Edith J M; Kok, Frans J

    2013-10-19

    Information on the part that poor food-hygiene practices play a role in the development of diarrhea in low socioeconomic urban communities is lacking. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the contribution of food-hygiene practice to the prevalence of diarrhea among Indonesian children. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 274 randomly selected children aged 12-59 months in selected low socioeconomic urban areas of East Jakarta. The prevalence of diarrhea was assessed from 7-day records on frequency and consistency of the child's defecation pattern. Food-hygiene practices including mother's and child's hand washing, food preparation, cleanliness of utensils, water source and safe drinking water, habits of buying cooked food, child's bottle feeding hygiene, and housing and environmental condition were collected through home visit interviews and observations by fieldworkers. Thirty-six practices were scored and classified into poor (median and below) and better (above median) food-hygiene practices. Nutritional status of children, defined anthropometrically, was measured through height and weight. Among the individual food-hygiene practices, children living in a house with less dirty sewage had a significantly lower diarrhea prevalence compared to those who did not [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.03-0.73]. The overall food-hygiene practice score was not significantly associated with diarrhea in the total group, but it was in children aged hygiene practices did not contribute to the occurrence of diarrhea in Indonesian children. However, among children < 2 years from low socioeconomic urban areas they were associated with more diarrhea.

  4. Disentangling practices, carriers and production-consumption systems: a mixed-method study of (sustainable) food consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Backhaus, Julia; Wieser, Harald; Kemp, René; Huddart Kennedy, Emily; Cohen, Maurie J.; Krogman, Naomi T.

    2015-01-01

    With a focus on food consumption practices, this chapter provides conceptual contributions and methodological reflections. The central question is how far practice-based approaches help understanding human behavior, both conceptually and analytically. Food consumption is tied to family traditions, individual taste, nutritional needs, and preferences. At the same time, its provision, obtainment, preparation, and consumption have economic, political, social, and cultural significance. The empir...

  5. Association of food-hygiene practices and diarrhea prevalence among Indonesian young children from low socioeconomic urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Information on the part that poor food-hygiene practices play a role in the development of diarrhea in low socioeconomic urban communities is lacking. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the contribution of food-hygiene practice to the prevalence of diarrhea among Indonesian children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 274 randomly selected children aged 12–59 months in selected low socioeconomic urban areas of East Jakarta. The prevalence of diarrhea was assessed from 7-day records on frequency and consistency of the child’s defecation pattern. Food-hygiene practices including mother’s and child’s hand washing, food preparation, cleanliness of utensils, water source and safe drinking water, habits of buying cooked food, child’s bottle feeding hygiene, and housing and environmental condition were collected through home visit interviews and observations by fieldworkers. Thirty-six practices were scored and classified into poor (median and below) and better (above median) food-hygiene practices. Nutritional status of children, defined anthropometrically, was measured through height and weight. Results Among the individual food-hygiene practices, children living in a house with less dirty sewage had a significantly lower diarrhea prevalence compared to those who did not [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.03-0.73]. The overall food-hygiene practice score was not significantly associated with diarrhea in the total group, but it was in children aged practices did not contribute to the occurrence of diarrhea in Indonesian children. However, among children < 2 years from low socioeconomic urban areas they were associated with more diarrhea. PMID:24138899

  6. Food beliefs and practices among the Kalenjin pregnant women in rural Uasin Gishu County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riang'a, Roselyter Monchari; Broerse, Jacqueline; Nangulu, Anne Kisaka

    2017-05-25

    Understanding food beliefs and practices is critical to the development of dietary recommendations, nutritional programmes, and educational messages. This study aimed to understand the pregnancy food beliefs and practices and the underlying reasons for these among the contemporary rural Kalenjin communities of Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Through semi-structured interviews, data was collected from 154 pregnant and post-natal Kalenjin women about restricted and recommended foods, and why they are restricted or recommended during pregnancy. Respondents were purposively selected (based on diversity) from those attending Maternal and Child Health (MCH) care in 23 rural public health facilities. Key informant interviews (n = 9) with traditional Birth Attendants (TBA) who were also herbalists, community health workers, and nursing officers in charge of MCH were also conducted. Quantitative data was analysed using SPSS software. Data from respondents who gave consent to be tape recorded (n = 42) was transcribed and qualitatively analysed using MAXQDA software. The restriction of animal organs specifically the tongue, heart, udder and male reproductive organs, meat and eggs, and the recommendation of traditional green vegetables and milk was reported by more than 60% of the respondents. Recommendation of fruits, traditional herbs, ugali (a dish made of maize flour, millet flour, or Sorghum flour, sometimes mixed with cassava flour), porridge and liver, and restriction of avocadoes and oily food were reported by more than 20% of the respondents. The reasons for observing these dietary precautions were mainly fears of: big foetuses, less blood, lack of strength during birth, miscarriages or stillbirths, and maternal deaths as well as child's colic and poor skin conditions after birth. Pregnancy food beliefs were widely known and practised mainly to protect the health of the mother and child, and ensuring successful pregnancy outcome. Given the deep-rooted nature of the

  7. The preschool child in Suka Village, North Sumatera. I. Feeding practices and measured food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusin, J A; Parlindungan Sinaga, H S; Purba, K; Rengvist, U; Houtkooper, J M

    1981-01-01

    The primary objective of a prospective study conducted over the July 1976-August 1977 period, as part of the joint project of the University of North Sumatra, Medan and the University of Amsterdam, was to determine the duration of prevention against hypovitaminosis A by 1 oral dose of 300,000 IU vitamin A. At 3-month intervals children were examined critically, fresh stool specimens were analyzed on the presence of parasite ova and protozoa, blood specimens were collected for analysis of protein and vitamin A status. Anthropometric measurements were scheduled at monthly (weight, height) and 6 monthly intervals (upper arm circumference and skinfolds). A dietary history was taken at the start of the study. Food consumption was measured separately. In this discussion only the dietary aspects of the study were reported. Families with children age 0-5 years in Suka Vilage, North Sumatra, were included in the prospective study. Childfeeding practices were recorded by interview (dietary history and 24 hour recall method for types of food eaten) and by observation during home visits. For the 1st period 59 children, age 1-4 years, were chosen at random from the total number of children in the respective age group. In the 2nd period in 39 of the same children and in 13 of their older siblings food weighing was repeated. As in most rural areas in Indonesia infants were put to the breast after birth and breastfeeding was continued for about 2 years. After the 1st year the percentage of chidlren breastfed dropped gradually. Exclusive breastfeeding was practiced by most mothers during the 1st 5 months. Few mothers supplemented her own milk with fresh cow's milk or milk formula. The 1st supplementary food given to the infant was almost exclusively rice in different consistencies. After 1 year of age fish was introduced. At age 2 children were given part of the family diet composed of rice, fish, and some vegetables mainly of the nonleafy type. In 2 seasons food consumption of the

  8. Quantitative microbiological risk assessment in food industry: Theory and practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membré, Jeanne-Marie; Boué, Géraldine

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this article is to bring scientific background as well as practical hints and tips to guide risk assessors and modelers who want to develop a quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) in an industrial context. MRA aims at determining the public health risk associated with biological hazards in a food. Its implementation in industry enables to compare the efficiency of different risk reduction measures, and more precisely different operational settings, by predicting their effect on the final model output. The first stage in MRA is to clearly define the purpose and scope with stakeholders, risk assessors and modelers. Then, a probabilistic model is developed; this includes schematically three important phases. Firstly, the model structure has to be defined, i.e. the connections between different operational processing steps. An important step in food industry is the thermal processing leading to microbial inactivation. Growth of heat-treated surviving microorganisms and/or post-process contamination during storage phase is also important to take into account. Secondly, mathematical equations are determined to estimate the change of microbial load after each processing step. This phase includes the construction of model inputs by collecting data or eliciting experts. Finally, the model outputs are obtained by simulation procedures, they have to be interpreted and communicated to targeted stakeholders. In this latter phase, tools such as what-if scenarios provide an essential added value. These different MRA phases are illustrated through two examples covering important issues in industry. The first one covers process optimization in a food safety context, the second one covers shelf-life determination in a food quality context. Although both contexts required the same methodology, they do not have the same endpoint: up to the human health in the foie gras case-study illustrating here a safety application, up to the food portion in the

  9. Food choices and practices during pregnancy of immigrant and Aboriginal women in Canada: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higginbottom Gina MA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facilitating the provision of appropriate health care for immigrant and Aboriginal populations in Canada is critical for maximizing health potential and well-being. Numerous reports describe heightened risks of poor maternal and birth outcomes for immigrant and Aboriginal women. Many of these outcomes may relate to food consumption/practices and thus may be obviated through provision of resources which suit the women's ethnocultural preferences. This project aims to understand ethnocultural food and health practices of Aboriginal and immigrant women, and how these intersect with respect to the legacy of Aboriginal colonialism and to the social contexts of cultural adaptation and adjustment of immigrants. The findings will inform the development of visual tools for health promotion by practitioners. Methods/Design This four-phase study employs a case study design allowing for multiple means of data collection and different units of analysis. Phase 1 consists of a scoping review of the literature. Phases 2 and 3 incorporate pictorial representations of food choices (photovoice in Phase 2 with semi-structured photo-elicited interviews (in Phase 3. The findings from Phases 1-3 and consultations with key stakeholders will generate key understandings for Phase 4, the production of culturally appropriate visual tools. For the scoping review, an emerging methodological framework will be utilized in addition to systematic review guidelines. A research librarian will assist with the search strategy and retrieval of literature. For Phases 2 and 3, recruitment of 20-24 women will be facilitated by team member affiliations at perinatal clinics in one of the city's most diverse neighbourhoods. The interviews will reveal culturally normative practices surrounding maternal food choices and consumption, including how women negotiate these practices within their own worldview and experiences. A structured and comprehensive integrated knowledge

  10. Trichinella diagnostics and control: Mandatory and best practices for ensuring food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajadhar, A. A.; Pozio, E.; Gamble, H. R.

    2009-01-01

    Because of its role in human disease, there are increasing global requirements for reliable diagnostic and control methods for Trichinella in food animals to ensure meat safety and to facilitate trade. Consequently, there is a need for standardization of methods, programs, and best practices used...... in various porcine and equine pre- and post-slaughter programs, including farm or herd certification programs is also discussed. A brief review of the effectiveness of meat processing methods, such as freezing, cooking and preserving is provided. The importance of proper quality assurance and its application...

  11. Differences in Food and Beverage Marketing Policies and Practices in US School Districts, by Demographic Characteristics of School Districts, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Shannon; Brener, Nancy D.; Coffield, Edward; Kingsley, Beverly S.; Zytnick, Deena; Blanck, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Foods and beverages marketed in schools are typically of poor nutritional value. School districts may adopt policies and practices to restrict marketing of unhealthful foods and to promote healthful choices. Students’ exposure to marketing practices differ by school demographics, but these differences have not yet been examined by district characteristics. Methods We analyzed data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine how food and beverage marketing and promotion policies and practices varied by district characteristics such as metropolitan status, size, and percentage of non-Hispanic white students. Results Most practices varied significantly by district size: a higher percentage of large districts than small or medium-sized districts restricted marketing of unhealthful foods and promoted healthful options. Compared with districts whose student populations were majority (>50%) non-Hispanic white, a higher percentage of districts whose student populations were minority non-Hispanic white (≤50% non-Hispanic white) prohibited advertising of soft drinks in school buildings and on school grounds, made school meal menus available to students, and provided families with information on school nutrition programs. Compared with suburban and rural districts, a higher percentage of urban districts prohibited the sale of soft drinks on school grounds and used several practices to promote healthful options. Conclusion Preliminary findings showing significant associations between district demographics and marketing policies and practices can be used to help states direct resources, training, and technical assistance to address food and beverage marketing and promotion to districts most in need of improvement. PMID:27978408

  12. Differences in Food and Beverage Marketing Policies and Practices in US School Districts, by Demographic Characteristics of School Districts, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Caitlin L; Michael, Shannon; Brener, Nancy D; Coffield, Edward; Kingsley, Beverly S; Zytnick, Deena; Blanck, Heidi

    2016-12-15

    Foods and beverages marketed in schools are typically of poor nutritional value. School districts may adopt policies and practices to restrict marketing of unhealthful foods and to promote healthful choices. Students' exposure to marketing practices differ by school demographics, but these differences have not yet been examined by district characteristics. We analyzed data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine how food and beverage marketing and promotion policies and practices varied by district characteristics such as metropolitan status, size, and percentage of non-Hispanic white students. Most practices varied significantly by district size: a higher percentage of large districts than small or medium-sized districts restricted marketing of unhealthful foods and promoted healthful options. Compared with districts whose student populations were majority (>50%) non-Hispanic white, a higher percentage of districts whose student populations were minority non-Hispanic white (≤50% non-Hispanic white) prohibited advertising of soft drinks in school buildings and on school grounds, made school meal menus available to students, and provided families with information on school nutrition programs. Compared with suburban and rural districts, a higher percentage of urban districts prohibited the sale of soft drinks on school grounds and used several practices to promote healthful options. Preliminary findings showing significant associations between district demographics and marketing policies and practices can be used to help states direct resources, training, and technical assistance to address food and beverage marketing and promotion to districts most in need of improvement.

  13. Foods Served in Child Care Facilities Participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program: Menu Match and Agreement with the New Meal Patterns and Best Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Jayna M; Cullen, Karen W

    2018-02-20

    To assess the agreement of posted menus with foods served to 3- to 5-year-old children attending federal Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)-enrolled facilities, and the degree to which the facilities met the new meal patterns and best practices. On-site observations and menu coding. Nine early care and education centers. Agreement of posted menus with foods served, and comparison of foods served and consumed with the new CACFP meal guidelines and best practices. Data were compiled for each meal (breakfast, lunch, and snacks). Frequencies and percentages of agreement with the posted menu (coded matches, substitutions, additions, and omissions) were calculated for each food component in the CACFP menu guidelines. Menu total match was created by summing the menu match plus acceptable substitutions. Menus were compared with the new CACFP meal guidelines and best practices. The match between the posted menus and foods actually served to children at breakfast, lunch, and snack was high when the acceptable menu substitutions were considered (approximately 94% to 100% total match). Comparing the menus with the new meal guidelines and best practices, the 1 guideline that was fully implemented was serving only unflavored, low-fat, or 1% milk; fruit and vegetable guidelines were partially met; fruit juice was not served often, nor were legumes; the guideline for 1 whole grain-rich serving/d was not met; and regular beef and full-fat cheese products were commonly served. Early care and education centers enrolled in CACFP provided meals that met the current CACFP guidelines. Some menu improvements are needed for the centers to meet the new guidelines and best practices. Copyright © 2018 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Local and Regional Food Aid Procurement: An Assessment of Experience in Africa and Elements of Good Donor Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Tschirley, David L.; del Castillo, Anne Marie

    2008-01-01

    This Policy Synthesis is a summary of a longer report that discusses the procurement of food aid within the country or region where it is needed. Referred to as local and regional procurement – LRP – this practice has become a major element in multilateral food aid response over the past decade1. The paper examines the relevance and the rationale for using LRP, reviews the efficiency of World Food Program (WFP) LRP activities in Africa relative to inkind food aid and to prices in the markets ...

  15. Knowledge Attitude And Practice Of Street Food Vendors In Selected Schools Within Bo City Southern Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.T. Lamin-Boima

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate the lack of knowledge attitude and practices of street food vendors in Bo the Southern Province of Sierra Leone. A cross sectional study conducted among eighty-seven respondents vendors in forty-four in Bo City. Data was collected using a structured and semi structured questionnaire. The collected data is analysed using a simple descriptive statistics with the help Excel Microsoft ware. A statistical significance was found in relation to knowledge. Attitude towards food safety was negative self-reported practices by Street Food Vendors were statistically significant with low hygiene standards while predisposing factors showed relatively low personal hygiene poor environmental sanitation and low food safety practice. The realize consequences are utmost health risks of consuming street foods as food contamination has caused food borne diseases and outbreaks. It is recommended that standard training be provided for these vendors by the Bo City Council in collaboration with Njala University. It is essential that poor people in a developing country such as Sierra Leone be allowed to earn their livelihood by means of an easy-to-enter business such as street food vending when hygiene standards are sustained.

  16. Opportunistic Market-Driven Regional Shifts of Cropping Practices Reduce Food Production Capacity of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Shuqing; Dong, Wenjie; Tao, Fulu; Chen, Min; Lin, Hui

    2018-04-01

    China is facing the challenge of feeding a growing population with the declining cropland and increasing shortage of water resources under the changing climate. This study identified that the opportunistic profit-driven shifts of planting areas and crop species composition have strongly reduced the food production capacity of China. First, the regional cultivation patterns of major crops in China have substantially shifted during the past five decades. Southeast and South China, the regions with abundant water resources and fewer natural disasters, have lost large planting areas of cropland in order to pursue industry and commerce. Meanwhile, Northeast and Northwest China, the regions with low water resources and frequent natural disasters, have witnessed increases in planting areas. These macroshifts have reduced the national food production by 1.02% per year. The lost grain production would have been enough to feed 13 million people. Second, the spatial shifts have been accompanied by major changes in crop species composition, with substantial increases in planting area and production of maize, due to its low water consumption and high economic returns. Consequently, the stockpile of maize in China has accounted for more than half of global stockpile, and the stock to use ratio of maize in China has exceeded the reliable level. Market-driven regional shifts of cropping practices have resulted in larger irrigation requirements and aggravated environmental stresses. Our results highlighted the need for Chinese food policies to consider the spatial shifts in cultivation, and the planting crop compositions limited by regional water resources and climate change.

  17. The practical analysis of food: the development of Sakalar quantification table of DNA (SQT-DNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakalar, Ergün

    2013-11-15

    Practical and highly sensitive Sakalar quantification table of DNA (SQT-DNA) has been developed for the detection% of species-specific DNA amount in food products. Cycle threshold (Ct) data were obtained from multiple curves of real-time qPCR. The statistical analysis was done to estimate the concentration of standard dilutions. Amplicon concentrations versus each Ct value were assessed by the predictions of targets at known concentrations. SQT-DNA was prepared by using the percentage versus each Ct values. The applicability of SQT-DNA to commercial foods was proved by using sausages containing varying ratios of beef, chicken, and soybean. The results showed that SQT-DNA can be used to directly quantify food DNA by a single PCR without the need to construct a standart curve in parallel with the samples every time the experiment is performed, and also quantification by SQT-DNA is as reliable as standard curve quantification for a wide range of DNA concentrations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Consumer perception and preference for suboptimal food under the emerging practice of expiration date based pricing in supermarkets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    , it is unclear which contextual, individual, and product-related factors impact consumer likelihood of choice and thus acceptance of the practice in the long run. The study aimed at exploring the effect of communicating different motives for purchase, the product being organic, familiarity with the practice...... and the interaction with gender is observed for milk in particular. Overall, perceived quality and estimated likelihood of consumption at home majorly determine likelihood of choice. Consumer acceptance of expiration date based pricing of suboptimal food can be increased through furthering consumer familiarity......Consumers have been found to majorly prefer ‘optimal’ food over ‘suboptimal’ when purchasing food. To provide an incentive for consumers to select suboptimal food and thus decrease food waste in the supply chain, expiration date based pricing is suggested and increasingly applied. However...

  19. Consumer perception and preference for suboptimal food under the emerging practice of expiration date based pricing in supermarkets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    Consumers have been found to majorly prefer ‘optimal’ food over ‘suboptimal’ when purchasing food. To provide an incentive for consumers to select suboptimal food and thus decrease food waste in the supply chain, expiration date based pricing is suggested and increasingly applied. However......, it is unclear which contextual, individual, and product-related factors impact consumer likelihood of choice and thus acceptance of the practice in the long run. The study aimed at exploring the effect of communicating different motives for purchase, the product being organic, familiarity with the practice......, individual preferences, and product-related factors. An online survey experiment among 842 Danish consumers realistically mimicked the current market context. Findings reveal that neither communicating budget saving or food waste avoidance nor the product being organic has an influence. However...

  20. Intervention effects on kindergarten and 1st grade teachers’ classroom food practices and food-related beliefs in American Indian reservation schools

    OpenAIRE

    Arcan, Chrisa; Hannan, Peter J.; Himes, John H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Smyth, Mary; Story, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of obesity among American Indian (AI) children is higher than the general US population. The school environment and teachers play important roles in helping students develop healthy eating habits. The aim of this prospective study was to examine teachers’ classroom and school food practices and beliefs and the effect of teacher training on these practices and beliefs. Data were used from the Bright Start study, a group-randomized, school-based trial on the Pine Ri...

  1. How practice contributes to trolley food waste. A qualitative study among staff involved in serving meals to hospital patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofei, K T; Holst, M; Rasmussen, H H; Mikkelsen, B E

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the generation of trolley food waste at the ward level in a hospital in order to provide recommendations for how practice could be changed to reduce food waste. Three separate focus group discussions were held with four nurses, four dietitians and four service assistants engaged in food service. Furthermore, single qualitative interviews were conducted with a nurse, a dietitian and two service assistants. Observations of procedures around trolley food serving were carried out during lunch and supper for a total of 10 weekdays in two different wards. All unserved food items discarded as waste were weighed after each service. Analysis of interview and observation data revealed five key themes. The findings indicate that trolley food waste generation is a practice embedded within the limitations related to the procedures of meal ordering. This includes portion size choices and delivery, communication, tools for menu information, portioning and monitoring of food waste, as well as the use of unserved food. Considering positive changes to these can be a way forward to develop strategies to reduce trolley food waste at the ward level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Community gardening in poor neighborhoods in France: A way to re-think food practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Pauline; Consalès, Jean-Noël; Scheromm, Pascale; Marchand, Paul; Ghestem, Florence; Darmon, Nicole

    2017-09-01

    Social inequalities in diet are attributed to sociocultural determinants, economic constraints, and unequal access to healthy food. Fruits and vegetables are lacking in the diets of disadvantaged populations. The objective was to test the hypothesis that, in poor neighborhoods, community gardeners will have larger supply of healthy food, especially fruit and vegetables, than non-gardeners. We examined community gardens from the perspective of production, economics and nutrition, and social and symbolic dimensions, through multidisciplinary investigations involving women with access to a community garden plot in a poor neighborhood of Marseille, France. Gardeners' monthly household food supplies (purchases and garden production) were analyzed and compared with those of women with a similar socio-economic profile living in the same neighborhoods, without access to a garden. Twenty-one gardeners participated. Only eleven of them harvested during the month of the study, and the amount they collected averaged 53 g of produce per household member per day. Whether they harvested or not, most gardeners gave preference to diversity, taste and healthiness of produce over quantity produced. Interviews revealed a value assigned to social, cultural and symbolic dimensions: pride in producing and cooking their own produce, related self-esteem, and sharing their produce at the meal table. The only significant difference between the food supplies of gardener and non-gardener households was seen for fruit and vegetables (369 vs. 211 g/d per person). This difference was due to larger purchases of fruit and vegetables, and not to higher quantities produced. In spite of the cross-sectional nature of our study and the small quantities harvested, our results suggest that having access to a community garden could encourage socio-economically disadvantaged women to adopt dietary practices that more closely meet dietary recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Building a framework for theory-based ethnographies for studying intergenerational family food practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Sanne Siete; Hutter, Inge; Haisma, Hinke

    2016-02-01

    The growing rates of (childhood) obesity worldwide are a source concern for health professionals, policy-makers, and researchers. The increasing prevalence of associated diseases-such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and psychological problems-shows the impact of obesity on people's health, already from a young age. In turn, these problems have obvious consequences for the health care system, including higher costs. However, the treatment of obesity has proven to be difficult, which makes prevention an important goal. In this study, we focus on food practices, one of the determinants of obesity. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that interventions designed to encourage healthy eating of children and their families are not having the desired impact, especially among groups with a lower socioeconomic background (SEB). To understand why interventions fail to have an impact, we need to study the embedded social and cultural constructions of families. We argue that we need more than just decision-making theories to understand this cultural embeddedness, and to determine what cultural and social factors influence the decision-making process. By allowing families to explain their cultural background, their capabilities, and their opportunities, we will gain new insights into how families choose what they eat from a complex set of food choices. We have thus chosen to build a framework based on Sen's capability approach and the theory of cultural schemas. This framework, together with a holistic ethnographic research approach, can help us better understand what drives the food choices made in families. The framework is built to serve as a starting point for ethnographic research on food choice in families, and could contribute to the development of interventions that are embedded in the cultural realities of the targeted groups. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Safety of vendor-prepared foods: evaluation of 10 processing mobile food vendors in Manhattan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Bryan M; Volel, Caroline; Finkel, Madelon

    2003-01-01

    Unsanitary food handling is a major public health hazard. There are over 4,100 mobile food vendors operating in New York City, and of these, approximately forty percent are processing vendors--mobile food units on which potentially hazardous food products are handled, prepared, or processed. This pilot study assesses the food handling practices of 10 processing mobile food vendors operating in a 38-block area of midtown Manhattan (New York City) from 43rd Street to 62nd Street between Madison and Sixth Avenues, and compares them to regulations stipulated in the New York City Health Code. Ten processing mobile food vendors located in midtown Manhattan were observed for a period of 20 minutes each. Unsanitary food handling practices, food storage at potentially unsafe temperatures, and food contamination with uncooked meat or poultry were recorded. Over half of all vendors (67%) were found to contact served foods with bare hands. Four vendors were observed vending with visibly dirty hands or gloves and no vendor once washed his or her hands or changed gloves in the 20-minute observation period. Seven vendors had previously cooked meat products stored at unsafe temperatures on non-heating or non-cooking portions of the vendor cart for the duration of the observation. Four vendors were observed to contaminate served foods with uncooked meat or poultry. Each of these actions violates the New York City Code of Health and potentially jeopardizes the safety of these vendor-prepared foods. More stringent adherence to food safety regulations should be promoted by the New York City Department of Health.

  5. Examining within- and across-day relationships between transient and chronic stress and parent food-related parenting practices in a racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant population : Stress types and food-related parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Tate, Allan; Trofholz, Amanda; Fertig, Angela; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Miner, Michael

    2018-01-16

    Although prior research suggests that stress may play a role in parent's use of food-related parenting practices, it is unclear whether certain types of stress (e.g., transient, chronic) result in different food-related parenting practices. Identifying whether and how transient (i.e., momentary; parent/child conflict) and chronic (i.e., long-term; unemployment >6 months) sources of stress are related to parent food-related parenting practices is important with regard to childhood obesity. This is particularly important within racially/ethnically diverse parents who may be more likely to experience both types of stress and who have higher levels of obesity and related health problems. The current study examined the association between transient and chronic stressors and food-related parenting practices in a racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant sample. The current study is a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Parents (mean age = 35; 95% mothers) of children ages 5-7 years old (n = 61) from six racial/ethnic groups (African American, American Indian, Hispanic, Hmong, Somali, White) participated in this ten-day in-home observation with families. Transient stressors, specifically interpersonal conflicts, had significant within-day effects on engaging in more unhealthful food-related parenting practices the same evening with across-day effects weakening by day three. In contrast, financial transient stressors had stronger across-day effects. Chronic stressors, including stressful life events were not consistently associated with more unhealthful food-related parenting practices. Transient sources of stress were significantly associated with food-related parenting practices in racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant households. Chronic stressors were not consistently associated with food-related parenting practices. Future research and interventions may want to assess for transient sources of stress in

  6. Food Avoidance and Food Modification Practices of Older Rural Adults: Association with Oral Health Status and Implications for Service Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Dietary variation is important for health maintenance and disease prevention among older adults. However, oral health deficits impair ability to bite and chew foods. This study examines the association between oral health and foods avoided or modified in a multiethnic rural population of older adults. It considers implications for…

  7. Food Safety Practices Assessment Tool: An Innovative Way to Test Food Safety Skills among Individuals with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Elena T.; Scarpati, Stanley E.; Pivarnik, Lori F.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an innovative assessment tool designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a food safety skills curriculum for learners receiving special education services. As schools respond to the increased demand for training students with special needs about food safety, the need for effective curricula and tools is also increasing. A…

  8. Food parenting practices for 5 to 12 year old children: a concept map analysis of parenting and nutrition experts input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Teresia M; Mâsse, Louise C; Tu, Andrew W; Watts, Allison W; Hughes, Sheryl O; Beauchamp, Mark R; Baranowski, Tom; Pham, Truc; Berge, Jerica M; Fiese, Barbara; Golley, Rebecca; Hingle, Melanie; Kremers, Stef P J; Rhee, Kyung E; Skouteris, Helen; Vaughn, Amber

    2017-09-11

    Parents are an important influence on children's dietary intake and eating behaviors. However, the lack of a conceptual framework and inconsistent assessment of food parenting practices limits our understanding of which food parenting practices are most influential on children. The aim of this study was to develop a food parenting practice conceptual framework using systematic approaches of literature reviews and expert input. A previously completed systematic review of food parenting practice instruments and a qualitative study of parents informed the development of a food parenting practice item bank consisting of 3632 food parenting practice items. The original item bank was further reduced to 110 key food parenting concepts using binning and winnowing techniques. A panel of 32 experts in parenting and nutrition were invited to sort the food parenting practice concepts into categories that reflected their perceptions of a food parenting practice conceptual framework. Multi-dimensional scaling produced a point map of the sorted concepts and hierarchical cluster analysis identified potential solutions. Subjective modifications were used to identify two potential solutions, with additional feedback from the expert panel requested. The experts came from 8 countries and 25 participated in the sorting and 23 provided additional feedback. A parsimonious and a comprehensive concept map were developed based on the clustering of the food parenting practice constructs. The parsimonious concept map contained 7 constructs, while the comprehensive concept map contained 17 constructs and was informed by a previously published content map for food parenting practices. Most of the experts (52%) preferred the comprehensive concept map, while 35% preferred to present both solutions. The comprehensive food parenting practice conceptual map will provide the basis for developing a calibrated Item Response Modeling (IRM) item bank that can be used with computerized adaptive testing

  9. Influence of gender roles and rising food prices on poor, pregnant women’s eating and food provisioning practices in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal malnutrition in Bangladesh is a persistent health issue and is the product of a number of complex factors, including adherence to food 'taboos’ and a patriarchal gender order that limits women’s mobility and decision-making. The recent global food price crisis is also negatively impacting poor pregnant women’s access to food. It is believed that those who are most acutely affected by rising food prices are the urban poor. While there is an abundance of useful quantitative research centered on maternal nutrition and food insecurity measurements in Bangladesh, missing is an understanding of how food insecurity is experienced by people who are most vulnerable, the urban ultra-poor. In particular, little is known of the lived experience of food insecurity among pregnant women in this context. This research investigated these lived experiences by exploring food provisioning strategies of urban, ultra-poor, pregnant women. This knowledge is important as discussions surrounding the creation of new development goals are currently underway. Methods Using a focused-ethnographic approach, household food provisioning experiences were explored. Data from participant observation, a focus group discussion and semi-structured interviews were collected in an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Interviews were undertaken with 28 participants including 12 pregnant women and new mothers, two husbands, nine non-pregnant women, and five health care workers. Results The key findings are: 1) women were aware of the importance of good nutrition and demonstrated accurate, biomedically-based knowledge of healthy eating practices during pregnancy; 2) the normative gender rules that have traditionally constrained women’s access to nutritional resources are relaxing in the urban setting; however 3) women are challenged in accessing adequate quality and quantities of food due to the increase in food prices at the market. Conclusions Rising food prices and resultant food

  10. Money handling influences BMI: a survey of cashiers

    OpenAIRE

    Shraddha Karve; Ketaki Shurpali; Neelesh Dahanukar; Maithili Jog; Milind Watve

    2008-01-01

    Money is a recent phenomenon in the evolutionary history of man and therefore no separate brain centre to handle money is likely to have evolved. The brain areas activated by food reward and money reward are extensively overlapping. In an experimental set-up, hunger was demonstrated to influence money related decisions and money related thoughts to influence hunger. This suggests that the brain areas evolved for handling food related emotions are exapted to handle money and therefore there co...

  11. Globalization, localization and food culture: perceived roles of social and cultural capitals in healthy child feeding practices in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Keiko; Ominami, Chihiro; Song, Chunyan; Murayama, Nobuko; Wolff, Cindy

    2014-03-01

    The current study examined parental perceptions of sociocultural factors associated with healthy child feeding practices among parents of preschool-age children in rural Japan. Fifteen Japanese mothers of preschool-age children participated in this qualitative study. These participants were aged 22-39 years and resided in a rural town in western Japan. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews to assess parental perceptions of healthy child feeding practices and their relationships with globalization and localization. These interviews were transcribed, translated into English and coded, based on the principles of grounded theory. A codebook was developed and pre-identified, and the newly-identified themes from this codebook were examined and compared. Overall, local and seasonal foods, along with traditional Japanese foods and simple foods (soshoku), were considered to be beneficial for children. Participants also noted that children were expected to be mindful and exhibit good table manners that reflect cultural values related to meal-time socializing or family bonding, and food appreciation. On the other hand, the majority of the participants stated that foods containing food additives and imported foods were unsuitable for children. Participants noted that strong social capital, especially social support from their mothers or mothers-in-law, as well as social networks for obtaining fresh local foods, contributed to healthy child feeding practices. Cultural capital (including the preservation of traditional Japanese dietary habits, eating rules and inter-generational commensality), was also identified as being key to healthy feeding practices. Identifying and promoting the social and cultural capital that positively support healthy child feeding practices may be an important component of nutrition education programs.

  12. Assessing farmer use of climate change adaptation practices and impacts on food security and poverty in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhter Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is set to be particularly disruptive in poor agricultural communities. We assess the factors influencing farmers’ choice of climate change adaptation practices and associated impacts on household food security and poverty in Pakistan using comprehensive data from 950 farmers from its major provinces. A probit model was used to investigate the factors influencing the use of climate-change adaptation practices; the censored least absolute deviation (CLAD was used to analyze the determinants of the number of adaptation practices used; and a propensity score matching (PSM approach was employed to evaluate the impact of adaptation practices on food security and poverty levels. Adjustment in sowing time (22% households, use of drought tolerant varieties (15% and shifting to new crops (25% were the three major adaptation practices used by farmers in the study area. Results show that younger farmers and farmers with higher levels of education are more likely to use these adaptation practices, as do farmers that are wealthier, farm more land and have joint families. The number of adaptation practices used was found to be positively associated with education, male household heads, land size, household size, extension services, access to credit and wealth. Farmers adopting more adaptation practices had higher food security levels (8–13% than those who did not, and experienced lower levels of poverty (3–6%. Climate change adaptation practices at farm level can thereby have significant development outcomes in addition to reducing exposure to weather risks.

  13. Capturing change in European food assistance practices: a transformative social innovation perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hebinck, Aniek; Galli, Francesca; Arcuri, Sabrina; Carroll, Brídín; O’connor, Deirdre; Oostindie, Henk

    2018-01-01

    The food system’s decreasing ability to deliver food security has led to the emergence of food assistance initiatives. Food assistance is highly contested; as some argue, it is a “failure of the state”, while others regard food assistance to be an “extension of the welfare state”. Either way,

  14. Pedagogies That Explore Food Practices: Resetting the Table for Improved Eco-Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Carol E.; Barter, Barbara G.

    2015-01-01

    As health threats appear with increasing regularity in our food systems and other food crises loom worldwide, we look to rural areas to provide local and nutritious foods. Educationally, we seek approaches to food studies that engage students and their communities and, ultimately, lead to positive action. Yet food studies receive only generic…

  15. Preferred Healthy Food Nudges, Food Store Environments, and Customer Dietary Practices in 2 Low-Income Southern Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Wu, Qiang; Sharpe, Patricia A; Rafferty, Ann P; Elbel, Brian; Ammerman, Alice S; Payne, Collin R; Hopping, Beth N; McGuirt, Jared T; Wall-Bassett, Elizabeth D

    To examine how food store environments can promote healthful eating, including (1) preferences for a variety of behavioral economics strategies to promote healthful food purchases, and (2) the cross-sectional association between the primary food store where participants reported shopping, dietary behaviors, and body mass index. Intercept survey participants (n = 342) from 2 midsized eastern North Carolina communities completed questionnaires regarding preferred behavioral economics strategies, the primary food store at which they shopped, and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and sugary beverages. Frequently selected behavioral economic strategies included: (1) a token and reward system for fruit and vegetable purchases; and (2) price discounts on healthful foods and beverages. There was a significant association between the primary food store and consumption of fruits and vegetables (P = .005) and sugary beverages (P = .02). Future studies should examine associations between elements of the in-store food environment, purchases, and consumption. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of food practices by childcare staff and the association with dietary intake of children at childcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Gerards, Sanne M P L; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-03-27

    The study explored the associations between various childcare staff food practices and children's dietary intake at childcare. A total of 398 one- to four-year-old children and 24 childcare staff members from 24 Dutch childcare centers participated in the study. Children's dietary intake (fruit, vegetable, sweet snack, savory snack, water, and sweet drink intake) at childcare was registered on two weekdays, using observations by dieticians and childcare staff. Thirteen childcare staff practices were assessed using questionnaires administered by dieticians. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression analyses. Children consumed relatively much fruit and many sweet snacks at childcare, and they mainly drank sweet drinks. Various staff practices were associated with children's dietary intake. When staff explained what they were doing to the children during food preparation, children ate significantly more fruit. Children ate less sweet snacks when they were allowed to help prepare the meals. When staff encouraged children to continue eating, they ate more vegetables. In conclusion, the study showed the importance of childcare staff food practices for children's food intake at childcare. More research is needed to examine the specific conditions under which food practices can have a positive impact on children's dietary intake.

  17. Confinement facilities for handling plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraman, W.J.; McNeese, W.D.; Stafford, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    Plutonium handling on a multigram scale began in 1944. Early criteria, equipment, and techniques for confining contamination have been superseded by more stringent criteria and vastly improved equipment and techniques for in-process contamination control, effluent air cleaning and treatment of liquid wastes. This paper describes the evolution of equipment and practices to minimize exposure of workers and escape of contamination into work areas and into the environment. Early and current contamination controls are compared. (author)

  18. Screening food-borne and zoonotic pathogens associated with livestock practices in the Sumapaz region, Cundinamarca, Colombia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenas, Nelson E.; Abril, Diego A.; Valencia, Paola

    2017-01-01

    -borne and zoonotic pathogens associated with local livestock practices. We evaluated 1098 cows from 46 livestock farms in the Sumapaz region that were selected by random. Of the total population of cattle, 962 animals (88%) were tested for bovine TB using a caudal-fold tuberculin test and 546 (50%) for brucellosis...... findings suggest that livestock products could be a source of exposure to Brucella and multidrug-resistant E. coli and S. aureus strains as a result of unhygienic livestock practices in the Sumapaz region. Training in good farming practices is the key to improving safety in food production.......Hazardous practices regarding antibiotics misuse, unsanitary milking procedures, and the commercial sales of raw milk and unpasteurized dairy products are currently being practiced by livestock farmers in the Sumapaz region (Colombia). The purpose of this study was to screen for food...

  19. Nutrient intake and food habits of soccer players: analyzing the correlates of eating practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rovés, Pablo M; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Angeles M; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2014-07-18

    Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player's career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players.

  20. Nutrient Intake and Food Habits of Soccer Players: Analyzing the Correlates of Eating Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo M. García-Rovés

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player’s career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players.

  1. Nutrient Intake and Food Habits of Soccer Players: Analyzing the Correlates of Eating Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rovés, Pablo M.; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Ángeles M.; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player’s career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players. PMID:25045939

  2. Nuclear fuel handling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, C.; Dupen, C.F.G.; Noyes, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    A fuel handling machine for a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor in which a retractable handling tube and gripper are lowered into the reactor to withdraw a spent fuel assembly into the handling tube. The handling tube containing the fuel assembly immersed in liquid sodium is then withdrawn completely from the reactor into the outer barrel of the handling machine. The machine is then used to transport the spent fuel assembly directly to a remotely located decay tank. The fuel handling machine includes a decay heat removal system which continuously removes heat from the interior of the handling tube and which is capable of operating at its full cooling capacity at all times. The handling tube is supported in the machine from an articulated joint which enables it to readily align itself with the correct position in the core. An emergency sodium supply is carried directly by the machine to provide make up in the event of a loss of sodium from the handling tube during transport to the decay tank. 5 claims, 32 drawing figures

  3. The influence of maternal infant feeding practices and beliefs on the expression of food neophobia in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassells, Erin L; Magarey, Anthea M; Daniels, Lynne A; Mallan, Kimberley M

    2014-11-01

    Food neophobia is a highly heritable trait characterized by the rejection of foods that are novel or unknown and potentially limits dietary variety, with lower intake and preference particularly for fruits and vegetables. Understanding non-genetic (environmental) factors that may influence the expression of food neophobia is essential to improving children's consumption of fruits and vegetables and encouraging the adoption of healthier diets. The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal infant feeding beliefs (at 4 months) were associated with the expression of food neophobia in toddlers and whether controlling feeding practices mediated this relationship. Participants were 244 first-time mothers (M=30.4, SD=5.1 years) allocated to the control group of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial. The relationships between infant feeding beliefs (Infant Feeding Questionnaire) at 4 months and controlling child feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire) and food neophobia (Child Food Neophobia Scale) at 24 months were tested using correlational and multiple linear regression models (adjusted for significant covariates). Higher maternal Concern about infant under-eating and becoming underweight at 4 months was associated with higher child food neophobia at 2 years. Similarly, lower Awareness of infant hunger and satiety cues was associated with higher child food neophobia. Both associations were significantly mediated by mothers' use of Pressure to eat. Intervening early to promote positive feeding practices to mothers may help reduce the use of controlling practices as children develop. Further research that can further elucidate the bi-directional nature of the mother-child feeding relationship is still required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of an item bank for food parenting practices based on published instruments and reports from Canadian and US parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Teresia M; Pham, Truc; Watts, Allison W; Tu, Andrew W; Hughes, Sheryl O; Beauchamp, Mark R; Baranowski, Tom; Mâsse, Louise C

    2016-08-01

    Research to understand how parents influence their children's dietary intake and eating behaviors has expanded in the past decades and a growing number of instruments are available to assess food parenting practices. Unfortunately, there is no consensus on how constructs should be defined or operationalized, making comparison of results across studies difficult. The aim of this study was to develop a food parenting practice item bank with items from published scales and supplement with parenting practices that parents report using. Items from published scales were identified from two published systematic reviews along with an additional systematic review conducted for this study. Parents (n = 135) with children 5-12 years old from the US and Canada, stratified to represent the demographic distribution of each country, were recruited to participate in an online semi-qualitative survey on food parenting. Published items and parent responses were coded using the same framework to reduce the number of items into representative concepts using a binning and winnowing process. The literature contributed 1392 items and parents contributed 1985 items, which were reduced to 262 different food parenting concepts (26% exclusive from literature, 12% exclusive from parents, and 62% represented in both). Food parenting practices related to 'Structure of Food Environment' and 'Behavioral and Educational' were emphasized more by parent responses, while practices related to 'Consistency of Feeding Environment' and 'Emotional Regulation' were more represented among published items. The resulting food parenting item bank should next be calibrated with item response modeling for scientists to use in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluating the green practice of food service supply chain management based on fuzzy DEMATEL-ANP model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoying; Zhu, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    The question on how to evaluate a company's green practice has recently become a key strategic consideration for the food service supply chain management. This paper proposed a novel hybrid model that combines a fuzzy Decision Making Trial And Evaluation Laboratory(DEMATEL) and Analysis Network Process(ANP) methods, which developed the green restaurant criteria and demonstrated the complicated relations among various criteria to help the food service operation to better analyze the real-world situation and determine the different weight value of the criteria .The analysis of the evaluation of green practices will help the food service operation to be clear about the key measures of green practice to improve supply chain management.

  6. 'We eat together; today she buys, tomorrow I will buy the food': adolescent best friends' food choices and dietary practices in Soweto, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorend, Carlijn G N; Norris, Shane A; Griffiths, Paula L; Sedibe, Modiehi H; Westerman, Marjan J; Doak, Colleen M

    2013-03-01

    To explore if and how female adolescents engage in shared eating and joint food choices with best friends within the context of living in urban Soweto, South Africa. A qualitative, exploratory, multiple case study was conducted using semi-structured duo interviews of best friend pairs to ascertain their eating patterns, friendship and social interactions around dietary habits. Participants were recruited from three high schools in the urban township of Soweto, South Africa. Fifty-eight female adolescents (twenty-nine friend pairs) still in high school (mean age of 18 years) were enrolled. Although overweight rates were high, no association between friends was found; neither did friends share dieting behaviours. Both at school and during visits to the shopping mall, foods were commonly shared and money pooled together by friends to make joint purchases. Some friends carefully planned expenditures together. Foods often bought at school were mostly unhealthy. Availability, price and quality were reported to affect choice of foods purchased at school. Preference shaped joint choices within the shopping mall environment. Food sharing practices should be investigated in other settings so as to identify specific behaviours and contexts for targeted and tailored obesity prevention interventions. School-based interventions focusing on price and portion size should be considered. In the Sowetan context, larger portions of healthy food may improve dietary intake of fruit and vegetables where friends are likely to share portions.

  7. Implementing Good Practices Programs to Encourage Production of High-Quality, Safer Produce in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Barakat S. M.; Stafne, Eric T.; Coker, Christine H.; Bachman, Gary R.; Bell, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Fifty-four growers/producers attended four 1-day good agricultural practices (GAP) and good handling practices (GHP) workshops at four locations in Mississippi. Pre- and post workshop survey data indicated that the participants' food safety knowledge increased by 15%. Furthermore, the workshops helped producers develop their own food safety plans.…

  8. School Foodservice Employees' Perceptions of Practice: Differences by Generational Age and Hours Worked

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohbehn, Catherine; Jun, Jinhyun; Arendt, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study investigated the influences of school foodservice employees' age and average number of hours worked per week on perceived safe food handling practices, barriers, and motivators. Methods: A bilingual survey (English and Spanish) was developed to assess reported food safety practices, barriers, and motivators to…

  9. What does it mean to be a 'picky eater'? A qualitative study of food related identities and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Claire; Cummins, Steven; Brown, Tim; Kyle, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Picky eaters are defined as those who consume an inadequate variety of food through rejection of a substantial amount of food stuffs that are both familiar and unfamiliar. Picky eating is a relatively recent theoretical concept and while there is increasing concern within public health over the lack of diversity in some children's diets, adult picky eaters remain an under researched group. This paper reports on the findings of a qualitative study on the routine food choices and practices of 26 families in Sandwell, West Midlands, UK. Photo elicitation and go-along interview data collection methods were used to capture habitual food related behaviours and served to describe the practices of nine individuals who self identified or were described as picky eaters. A thematic analysis revealed that those with the food related identity of picky eater had very restricted diets and experienced strong emotional and physical reactions to certain foods. For some this could be a distressing and alienating experience that hindered their ability to engage in episodes of social eating. Further research is needed to illuminate the specific practices of adult picky eaters, how this impacts on their lives, and how possible interventions might seek to address the challenges they face. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Surface-near geothermal power. Handling of hydro-economic requirements in the practice; Oberflaechennahe Geothermie. Umgang mit den wasserwirtschaftlichen Anforderungen in der Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    Within the meeting of the Bavarian Environment Agency (Augsburg, Federal Republic of Germany) at 1st December, 2009, the following lectures were held: (1) Hydro-economical requirements and working assistance of the Bavarian Environment Agency (Hannes Berger); (2) Technology, dimensioning and safety devices for heat pumps and heat source plants soil - groundwater (Erich Ramming); (3) Well devices for the thermal utilization of the groundwater - planning, production and quality assurance (Michael Thoren); (4) Geothermal probes: Handling of raw materials and welding at the building site (Hubert Graf); (5) Geothermal probes - planning and calculation (Burkhard Sanner); (6) Geothermal probes - drilling operations (Sven Tewes); (7) Certification of drilling companies according to W 120 (Udo Peth); (8) Operation of geothermal plants - Examples from one-family house to football stadium (Arno Poehlmann).

  11. Economics from a Different Point of View − Good Practice in Teacher Training: How to Handle, Use and Judge External Standardized Tests in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Claire Prieß-Buchheit

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Economic Actions in Education training module (EAE teaches how to handle, use and judge external standardized tests in schools. The EAE programme was implemented in teacher training at the University of Kiel, because teachers are increasingly under external scrutiny and are being held accountable for student and school achievements. The EAE programme includes a reader (in English, through which prospective teachers understand and analyze core terms of the field. Furthermore, different didactical methods such as think-pair-share, role play and short lectures provide a group dynamic in which students gain an insight into standardized tests at a macro level. Students learn what is involved in standardized tests and they develop the ability to make a critical judgement about how they will use or refuse standardized tests in schools. EAE enables teachers to use standardized tests for curriculum and instruction improvement as well as refuse standardized tests to highlight autonomous teaching and decline governance from outside.

  12. [Infant food diversification. Assessment of practices in relation to French recommendations in pediatricians and pediatric residents in southern France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banti, T; Carsin, A; Chabrol, B; Reynaud, R; Fabre, A

    2016-10-01

    Infant food diversification has undergone a rapid succession of good practice recommendations in France, but there has been no assessment of pediatrician practices on food diversification. To assess the practices of pediatricians in relation to current recommendations of the French Society of Pediatrics on infant food diversification. This was an observational study conducted from 1 November 2014 to 31 March 2015. The study population consisted of 97 pediatricians in the Var department and 84 pediatric residents assigned to the University of Aix-Marseille in France. A questionnaire was sent by email or post to determine physician characteristics, food diversification methods in healthy children and those at atopic risk, and how the pediatric consultation was conducted. The expected answers were based on the most recent recommendations of the French Society of Pediatrics published in 2008, updated from 2003. In summary, breastfeeding is recommended up to 6 months. Food diversification can be started between 4 and 6 months in children with no allergy risk. Gluten, honey, legumes and cow's milk are introduced between 4 and 7 months, after 12 months and after 36 months, respectively. In atopic children, food diversification is delayed until after 6 months and the most allergenic foods (nuts, exotic fruits, peanuts, and shellfish) are introduced after the age of 12 months. Eighty-four responses were obtained (51%): 50 pediatricians and 34 pediatric residents. Sixteen items were classified depending on whether or not an update after 2003 existed. Over 80% of the physicians responded as recommended for the recently updated items for the age of introduction of "solid food in healthy children", "gluten", "cow's milk protein hydrolysates", and "the time until introduction of cow's milk in the atopic child". At best, 65% of physicians responded in accordance with recommendations for items without a recent update, age of introduction of "cow's milk", "milk desserts

  13. Cracking the Egg Potential: Traditional Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices in a Food-Based Nutrition Intervention in Highland Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, William F; Gallegos, Carlos Andres; Karp, Celia; Lutter, Chessa; Stewart, Christine; Iannotti, Lora

    2018-06-01

    Food-based interventions can reduce the prevalence of undernutrition and improve household food security, but nutritious and accessible foods may be underutilized. In Ecuador, eggs are inexpensive and widely available, but while they are a valuable source of essential nutrients for infants and young children, medical advice and community-based information have limited their inclusion in infants' diets. A qualitative component was conducted to understand local perceptions, knowledge, and practices to complement a randomized control trial that studied the effect of introducing eggs on nutritional status and growth in infants from 6 to 9 months in rural communities in the highland province of Cotopaxi, Ecuador. The qualitative inquiry consisted of key informant interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs), and structured observations in order to understand perceptions, knowledge, and practices related to household egg consumption and to the introduction of eggs in infants' diets. The two principal findings were that: (i) eggs are an available and culturally acceptable food source although they are not always a part of the diet; and (ii) perceptions and practices related to household consumption and the introduction of eggs into the diet of infants are shaped by local knowledge and practices, which are shaped by biomedical information and advice provided by public health professionals. Through an effective food-based intervention that includes qualitative research and a social marketing component, the behaviors of mothers and other caregivers can be modified, enabling children to realize the nutritional advantages of early introduction of eggs into their diet.

  14. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1958-01-01

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it has been considered an urgent task to provide users of radioisotopes with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. Such a manual is presented here and represents the first of a series of manuals and codes to be issued by the Agency. It has been prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety, by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. At the same time it is recommended that the manual be taken into account as a basic reference document by Member States of the Agency in the preparation of national health and safety documents covering the use of radioisotopes.

  15. Allergist-reported trends in the practice of food allergen oral immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhawt, Matthew J; Vickery, Brian P

    2015-01-01

    Food allergen oral immunotherapy (OIT) is an experimental, immune-modifying therapy that may induce clinical desensitization in some patients. OIT is still in early phase clinical research, but some providers may offer OIT as a clinical service. To understand the current practices of allergists who perform OIT, an online survey was sent by e-mail to members of the American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology. Among 442 respondents, 61 reported participating in using OIT (13.8%), including 28 in nonacademic settings. Informed consent for OIT was obtained by 91.3%, institutional review board approval by 47.7% and Investigational New Drug approval by 38.1%. Compared with nonacademic participants, more academic participants used peanut OIT, obtained institutional review board and Investigational New Drug (P challenged patients before entry (P = .008). More nonacademic providers billed the patient or insurance for reimbursement (P product (increased odds), and a high regard for better safety data (decreased odds) were associated with considering offering OIT as a service. Significant differences exist with OITs that occur in academic versus nonacademic settings. Further assessment is needed regarding the different motivations and practice styles among providers who offer OIT and those who are considering doing so. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vegan Killjoys at the Table—Contesting Happiness and Negotiating Relationships with Food Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Twine

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reports upon research on vegan transition, which I bring into dialogue with Sara Ahmed’s figure of the killjoy. Ahmed’s work on affect and the feminist killjoy is found to be apt for considering contemporary vegans and their transgression of normative scripts of happiness and commensality in a dominant meat and dairy consuming culture. The decentring of joy and happiness is also found to be integral to the critical deconstructive work of the vegan killjoy. Ahmed’s ideas further complement the frame of practice theory that I draw upon to understand the process of transition especially in the sense of opposing the meanings of dominant practices. Although food and veganism are not commented upon by Ahmed, the vegan subject constitutes, I argue, a potent further example of what she terms an “affect alien” who must willfully struggle against a dominant affective order and community. Drawing upon interviews with 40 vegans based in the UK, I illustrate examples of contestation and negotiation by vegans and those close to them. The article finds in the figure of the killjoy not only a frame by which to partly understand the negotiation of relationships between vegans and non-vegans but also an opportunity for further intersectional labour between veganism and feminism.

  17. Hygienic and sanitary practices of vendors of street foods in Nairobi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tindi

    African Journal of Food Agriculture and Nutritional Development (AJFAND): Volume 5 No 1 2005. 1. ABSTRACT. The street food industry has an important role in the cities and towns of many developing countries in meeting the food demands of the urban dwellers. It feeds millions of people daily with a wide variety of foods ...

  18. Screening food-borne and zoonotic pathogens associated with livestock practices in the Sumapaz region, Cundinamarca, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Nelson E; Abril, Diego A; Valencia, Paola; Khandige, Surabhi; Soto, Carlos Yesid; Moreno-Melo, Vilma

    2017-04-01

    Hazardous practices regarding antibiotics misuse, unsanitary milking procedures, and the commercial sales of raw milk and unpasteurized dairy products are currently being practiced by livestock farmers in the Sumapaz region (Colombia). The purpose of this study was to screen for food-borne and zoonotic pathogens associated with local livestock practices. We evaluated 1098 cows from 46 livestock farms in the Sumapaz region that were selected by random. Of the total population of cattle, 962 animals (88%) were tested for bovine TB using a caudal-fold tuberculin test and 546 (50%) for brucellosis by a competitive ELISA. In the population tested, 23 cows were positive for Brucella sp. representing a 4.2% seroprevalence and no cases of bovine tuberculosis were found. In addition, food-borne contamination with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was assessed together with antibiotic susceptibility for ten different antibiotics in milk samples from 16 livestock farms. We found that 12 of the farms (75%) were contaminated with these food-borne pathogens. Noteworthy, all of the isolated pathogenic strains were resistant to multiple antibiotics, primarily to oxytetracycline and erythromycin. Our findings suggest that livestock products could be a source of exposure to Brucella and multidrug-resistant E. coli and S. aureus strains as a result of unhygienic livestock practices in the Sumapaz region. Training in good farming practices is the key to improving safety in food production.

  19. How to Handle Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Handle Abuse KidsHealth / For Kids / How to Handle Abuse What's in this article? Tell Right Away How Do You Know Something Is Abuse? ... babysitter, teacher, coach, or a bigger kid. Child abuse can happen anywhere — at ... building. Tell Right Away A kid who is being seriously hurt ...

  20. Grain Handling and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Troy G.; Minor, John

    This text for a secondary- or postecondary-level course in grain handling and storage contains ten chapters. Chapter titles are (1) Introduction to Grain Handling and Storage, (2) Elevator Safety, (3) Grain Grading and Seed Identification, (4) Moisture Control, (5) Insect and Rodent Control, (6) Grain Inventory Control, (7) Elevator Maintenance,…

  1. Radiation technology for value addition to food and agro commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2012-01-01

    Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while reducing post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy has played a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

  2. Radiation processing of food and agricultural commodities: opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while eliminating post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy can play a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

  3. Food as a reward in the classroom: school district policies are associated with practices in US public elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lindsey; Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-09-01

    The use of food as a reward for good student behavior or academic performance is discouraged by many national organizations, yet this practice continues to occur in schools. Our multiyear cross-sectional study examined the use of food as a reward in elementary schools and evaluated the association between district policies and school practices. School data were gathered during the 2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2009-2010 school years via mail-back surveys (N=2,069) from respondents at nationally representative samples of US public elementary schools (1,525 unique schools, 544 of which also participated for a second year). During every year, the corresponding district policy for each school was gathered and coded for provisions pertaining to the use of food as a reward. School practices did not change over time and as of the 2009-2010 school year, respondents in 42.1% and 40.7% of schools, respectively, indicated that food was not used as a reward for academic performance or for good student behavior. In multivariate logistic regression analyses controlling for school characteristics and year, having a district policy that prohibited the use of food as a reward was significantly associated with school respondents reporting that food was not used as a reward for academic performance (Preward than were respondents in the South and Northeast. As of 2009-2010, only 11.9% of the districts in our study prohibited the use of food as a reward. Strengthening district policies may reduce the use of food rewards in elementary schools. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of parental practices on child promotive and preventive food consumption behaviors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Andrew Z H; Lwin, May O; Ho, Shirley S

    2017-04-11

    The family is an important social context where children learn and adopt eating behaviors. Specifically, parents play the role of health promoters, role models, and educators in the lives of children, influencing their food cognitions and choices. This study attempts to systematically review empirical studies examining the influence of parents on child food consumption behavior in two contexts: one promotive in nature (e.g., healthy food), and the other preventive in nature (e.g., unhealthy food). From a total of 6,448 titles extracted from Web of Science, ERIC, PsycINFO and PubMED, seventy eight studies met the inclusion criteria for a systematic review, while thirty seven articles contained requisite statistical information for meta-analysis. The parental variables extracted include active guidance/education, restrictive guidance/rule-making, availability, accessibility, modeling, pressure to eat, rewarding food consumption, rewarding with verbal praise, and using food as reward. The food consumption behaviors examined include fruits and vegetables consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, and snack consumption. Results indicate that availability (Healthy: r = .24, p parental modeling effects (Healthy: r = .32, p parenting practices might be dependent on the food consumption context and the age of the child. For healthy foods, active guidance/education might be more effective (r = .15, p children 7 and older, restrictive guidance/rule-making could be more effective in preventing unhealthy eating (r = - .20, p children 6 and younger, rewarding with verbal praise can be more effective in promoting healthy eating (r = .26, p parental behaviors are strong correlates of child food consumption behavior. More importantly, this study highlights 3 main areas in parental influence of child food consumption that are understudied: (1) active guidance/education, (2) psychosocial mediators, and (3) moderating influence of general parenting styles.

  5. Traditional foods and practices of Spanish-speaking latina mothers influence the home food environment: Implications for future interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to obtain in-depth information from low income, Spanish-speaking Latino families with young children to guide the development of culturally appropriate nutrition interventions. Focus groups were used to assess parent’s knowledge about healthful eating, the home food enviro...

  6. Getting to grips with remote handling and robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, D [Ontario Hydro, Toronto (Canada)

    1984-12-01

    A report on the Canadian Nuclear Society Conference on robotics and remote handling in the nuclear industry, September 1984. Remote handling in reactor operations, particularly in the Candu reactors is discussed, and the costs and benefits of use of remote handling equipment are considered. Steam generator inspection and repair is an area in which practical application of robotic technology has made a major advance.

  7. Zolpidem prescribing practices before and after Food and Drug Administration required product labeling changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Jessica L; Fixen, Danielle R; Saseen, Joseph J; Saba, Laura M; Linnebur, Sunny A

    2017-01-01

    Women have higher morning serum zolpidem concentrations than men after taking an evening dose, potentially leading to increased risk of harm. On 19 April 2013, the United States Food and Drug Administration required labeling changes for zolpidem, recommending an initial dose of no greater than 5 mg (immediate release) or 6.25 mg (controlled release) per night in women. The primary objective of this study was to compare prescribing practices before and after the 2013 zolpidem labeling change. A secondary objective was to evaluate serious adverse events potentially related to zolpidem. Electronic medical records of adults receiving care through the University of Colorado Health system were accessed for study inclusion if patients were provided a first-time prescription for zolpidem either prior to or after the Food and Drug Administration labeling change. Patients were randomly chosen from eight strata based on age, gender, and date of zolpidem initiation (before/after the labeling change). Demographic and zolpidem prescribing data were collected. Low-dose zolpidem was considered 5 mg (immediate release) or 6.25 mg (controlled release) daily or less. Documentation of potentially related serious adverse events within the patients' records was also evaluated. A total of 400 patients were included in the study. The overall percentage of patients prescribed low-dose zolpidem increased from 44% to 58% after the labeling change (p = 0.0020). In a pre-specified subgroup analysis, the percentage of patients prescribed low-dose zolpidem increased in all groups, including young men (38%-50%, p = 0.23), elderly men (34%-40%, p = 0.53), and elderly women (60%-74%, p = 0.14), but the change was only significant in young women (42%-70%, p = 0.0045). After Food and Drug Administration-mandated labeling changes for zolpidem in 2013, the percentage of overall patients in our health system, and specifically young women, with initial prescriptions for low

  8. Zolpidem prescribing practices before and after Food and Drug Administration required product labeling changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Norman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women have higher morning serum zolpidem concentrations than men after taking an evening dose, potentially leading to increased risk of harm. On 19 April 2013, the United States Food and Drug Administration required labeling changes for zolpidem, recommending an initial dose of no greater than 5 mg (immediate release or 6.25 mg (controlled release per night in women. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to compare prescribing practices before and after the 2013 zolpidem labeling change. A secondary objective was to evaluate serious adverse events potentially related to zolpidem. Methods: Electronic medical records of adults receiving care through the University of Colorado Health system were accessed for study inclusion if patients were provided a first-time prescription for zolpidem either prior to or after the Food and Drug Administration labeling change. Patients were randomly chosen from eight strata based on age, gender, and date of zolpidem initiation (before/after the labeling change. Demographic and zolpidem prescribing data were collected. Low-dose zolpidem was considered 5 mg (immediate release or 6.25 mg (controlled release daily or less. Documentation of potentially related serious adverse events within the patients’ records was also evaluated. Results: A total of 400 patients were included in the study. The overall percentage of patients prescribed low-dose zolpidem increased from 44% to 58% after the labeling change (p = 0.0020. In a pre-specified subgroup analysis, the percentage of patients prescribed low-dose zolpidem increased in all groups, including young men (38%–50%, p = 0.23, elderly men (34%–40%, p = 0.53, and elderly women (60%–74%, p = 0.14, but the change was only significant in young women (42%–70%, p = 0.0045. Conclusion: After Food and Drug Administration–mandated labeling changes for zolpidem in 2013, the percentage of overall patients in our health

  9. Feeding style differences in food parenting practices associated with fruit and vegetable intake in children fromlow-income families

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to examine the moderating effects of feeding styles on the relationship between food parenting practices and fruit and vegetable intake in low-income families with preschool-aged children. Focus group meetings with Head Start parents were conducted by using the nomina...

  10. Association between Travel Times and Food Procurement Practices among Female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participants in Eastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Moore, Justin B.; Wall-Bassett, Elizabeth D.; Liu, Haiyong; Saelens, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between self-reported vehicular travel behaviors, perceived stress, food procurement practices, and body mass index among female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. Analysis: The authors used correlation and regression analyses to examine cross-sectional associations between travel time…

  11. Consumer contribution to food contamination in Brazil: modelling the food safety risk in the home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Paulo Olinto da Motta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne diseases are among the most widespread public health issues, killing about 2.2 million people annually, and costing hundreds of billions of US dollars for governments, companies, families and consumers (WHO, 2007. In Brazil, foodborne diseases acquired in the home account for 55% of notified outbreaks (BRASIL, 2012. Several studies have investigated aspects of consumer behaviour concerning food poisoning, mapping practices in the home, but it remains a challenge to obtain a full picture of the consumer contribution to food contamination (REDMOND and GRIFFITH, 2003. This study aimed to assess the risks of food contamination in the home. A questionnaire containing 140 questions concerning food safety knowledge, handling practices, personal hygiene and basic health care, covering the stages when the food is under the control of the consumer, was developed and used to gather data for analysis. Appropriate scores were attributed to the questions (consequences to food safety and answers (likelihood of food contamination. A risk estimate algorithm and an appropriate risk ranking scale were used to assess the results. From August 2011 to March 2012, survey questionnaires were collected from 2,775 consumers in Brazil across 19 out of 27 state capitals. The study found risky practices with the potential to lead to food poisoning occurrences in the domestic environment in the following handling steps: food transportation, food preparation, cooking and the handling of leftovers. The personal hygiene, age, formal education, family income and basic health care habits represented the factors most related to the risky practices of consumers, which could orientate food safety educational campaigns for the Brazilian population.

  12. Remote handling for an ISIS target change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broome, T.A.; Holding, M.

    1989-01-01

    During 1987 two ISIS targets were changed. This document describes the main features of the remote handling aspects of the work. All the work has to be carried out using remote handling techniques. The radiation level measured on the surface of the reflector when the second target had been removed was about 800 mGy/h demonstrating that hands on operations on any part of the target reflector moderator assembly is not practical. The target changes were the first large scale operations in the Target Station Remote Handling Cell and a great deal was learned about both equipment and working practices. Some general principles emerged which are applicable to other active handling tasks on facilities like ISIS and these are discussed below. 8 figs

  13. Maternal Food-Related Practices, Quality of Diet, and Well-Being: Profiles of Chilean Mother-Adolescent Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Grunert, Klaus G; Lobos, Germán; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Denegri, Marianela; Hueche, Clementina

    2018-04-03

    To identify mother-adolescent dyad profiles according to food-related parenting practices and to determine differences in diet quality, family meal frequency, life satisfaction, and sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional study. Mothers and children were surveyed in their homes or at schools in Temuco, Chile. A total of 300 mothers (average age, 41.6 years) and their adolescent children (average age, 13.2 years; 48.7% female). Maternal feeding practices using the abbreviated Family Food Behavior Survey (AFFBS), life satisfaction, food-related and family life satisfaction, diet quality, and eating habits. Principal component factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to verify Family Food Behavior Survey components in mother and adolescent subsamples. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify profiles. Three AFFBS components were detected: maternal control of child snacking behavior, maternal presence during eating, and child involvement in food consumption. Cluster analysis identified 3 mother-adolescent dyad profiles with different food-related parenting practices (P ≤ .001), mother (P ≤ .05) and child (P ≤ .001) diet quality, frequency of shared family meals (P ≤ .001), and mother (P ≤ .001) and child (P ≤ .05) life satisfaction levels. Results indicated that maternal well-being increased with an increased frequency of shared mealtime. Significantly, in contrast to the findings of previous studies, greater control over child eating habits was shown to affect adolescent well-being positively. These findings, among others, may contribute to the development of strategies for improving diet quality, overall well-being, and well-being in the food and family domains for all family members. Copyright © 2018 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The personal and general hygiene