WorldWideScience

Sample records for food handling practices

  1. Factors affecting food handling Practices among food handlers of Dangila town food and drink establishments, North West Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tessema, Ayehu Gashe; Gelaye, Kassahun Alemu; Chercos, Daniel Haile

    2014-01-01

    Background Food borne diseases are major health problems in developed and developing countries including Ethiopia. The problem is more noticeable in developing countries due to prevailing poor food handling and sanitation practices, inadequate food safety laws, weak regulatory systems, lack of financial resources to invest on safer equipments, and lack of education for food handlers. Methods The objective of this study was to assess food handling practice and associated factors among food han...

  2. Sanitary Conditions of Food Vending Sites and Food Handling Practices of Street Food Vendors in Benin City, Nigeria: Implication for Food Hygiene and Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Okojie, P. W.; Isah, E C

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the sanitary conditions of vending sites as well as food handling practices of street food vendors in Benin City, Nigeria. Methodology. A descriptive cross-sectional study was done using an observational checklist and researcher-administered questionnaire. 286 randomly selected vending units were surveyed, and their operators interviewed on their food handling practices. Results. A higher proportion, 259 (90.5%), of the observed vending sites appeared clean. The follow...

  3. Safe Food Handling: Knowledge, Perceptions, and Self-Reported Practices of Turkish Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Gul F. Aygen

    2012-01-01

    This study examines Turkish consumers’ perceptions and knowledge of safe food handling practices. Theirattitudes, opinions, and self-reported practices in the purchase, transportation, storage, preparation, andconsumption of food were studied. Data was collected from a total of 440 consumers living in Istanbul, Turkeythrough the use of a self-administered, structured, and undisguised questionnaire. A combination of stratified andsystematic random sampling was used based on the incidence of ha...

  4. Microbiological Safety and Food Handling Practices of Seed Sprout Products in the Australian State of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Sally; Goldsmith, Paul; Haines, Heather

    2015-07-01

    Seed sprouts have been implicated as vehicles for numerous foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Seed sprouts pose a unique food safety concern because of the ease of microbiological seed contamination, the inherent ability of the sprouting process to support microbial growth, and their consumption either raw or lightly cooked. To examine seed sprout safety in the Australian state of Victoria, a survey was conducted to detect specific microbes in seed sprout samples and to investigate food handling practices relating to seed sprouts. A total of 298 seed sprout samples were collected from across 33 local council areas. Escherichia coli was detected in 14.8%, Listeria spp. in 12.3%, and Listeria monocytogenes in 1.3% of samples analyzed. Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the samples. A range of seed sprout handling practices were identified as potential food safety issues in some food businesses, including temperature control, washing practices, length of storage, and storage in proximity to unpackaged ready-to-eat potentially hazardous foods.

  5. Evaluation of the Implementation of Good Handling Practices in Food and Beverage Areas of Hotels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafim, A L; Hecktheuer, L H R; Stangarlin-Fiori, L; Medeiros, L B; Martello, L; Machado, C E

    2015-11-01

    Because of the major international-level events that have recently been held in Brazil, concerns about the sensory and hygienic-sanitary conditions of food have increased. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of good handling practices in food and beverage areas of hotels, with and without outsourced professional intervention. We evaluated 19 food and beverage areas in hotels in Porto Alegre, Rio do Sul, Brazil, using a checklist that was developed by a municipal surveillance team based on existing laws for good handling practices. The evaluation was done by a skilled professional in the food safety area on two occasions, at the beginning of the study (January to May 2013) and at the end (July to November 2014), and the establishments were classified as good, regular, or poor. After the baseline evaluation, an action plan listing the noncompliance found at each location was given to those responsible for the establishments, and a period of 1 year 6 months was stipulated for improvements to be made. In the repeat evaluation, those responsible for the establishments were asked whether they had hired an outsourced professional to assist them in the improvements. The hotels showed improvement during the repeat evaluation, but a significant increase in the percentage of overall adequacy was seen only in the food and beverages areas of the 12 hotels that used the intervention of an outsourced professional. The better percentage of adequacy in establishments with outsourced professional intervention underlines the importance of an external and impartial view of routine activities in the implementation of good handling practices.

  6. Evaluation of the Implementation of Good Handling Practices in Food and Beverage Areas of Hotels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafim, A L; Hecktheuer, L H R; Stangarlin-Fiori, L; Medeiros, L B; Martello, L; Machado, C E

    2015-11-01

    Because of the major international-level events that have recently been held in Brazil, concerns about the sensory and hygienic-sanitary conditions of food have increased. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of good handling practices in food and beverage areas of hotels, with and without outsourced professional intervention. We evaluated 19 food and beverage areas in hotels in Porto Alegre, Rio do Sul, Brazil, using a checklist that was developed by a municipal surveillance team based on existing laws for good handling practices. The evaluation was done by a skilled professional in the food safety area on two occasions, at the beginning of the study (January to May 2013) and at the end (July to November 2014), and the establishments were classified as good, regular, or poor. After the baseline evaluation, an action plan listing the noncompliance found at each location was given to those responsible for the establishments, and a period of 1 year 6 months was stipulated for improvements to be made. In the repeat evaluation, those responsible for the establishments were asked whether they had hired an outsourced professional to assist them in the improvements. The hotels showed improvement during the repeat evaluation, but a significant increase in the percentage of overall adequacy was seen only in the food and beverages areas of the 12 hotels that used the intervention of an outsourced professional. The better percentage of adequacy in establishments with outsourced professional intervention underlines the importance of an external and impartial view of routine activities in the implementation of good handling practices. PMID:26555528

  7. Varying influences of motivation factors on employees' likelihood to perform safe food handling practices because of demographic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jason D; Arendt, Susan W; Strohbehn, Catherine H; Meyer, Janell; Paez, Paola

    2010-11-01

    Food safety training has been the primary avenue for ensuring food workers are performing proper food handling practices and thus, serving safe food. Yet, knowledge of safe food handling practices does not necessarily result in actual performance of these practices. This research identified participating food service employees' level of agreement with four factors of motivation (internal motivations, communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and determined if respondents with different demographic characteristics reported different motivating factors. Data were collected from 311 food service employees who did not have any supervisory responsibilities. Intrinsic motivation agreement scores were consistently the highest of all four motivational factors evaluated and did not differ across any of the demographic characteristics considered. In contrast, motivation agreement scores for communication, reward-punishment, and resources did differ based on respondents' gender, age, place of employment, job status, food service experience, completion of food handler course, or possession of a food safety certification. In general, respondents agreed that these motivation factors influenced their likelihood to perform various safe food handling procedures. This research begins to illustrate how employees' demographic characteristics influence their responses to various motivators, helping to clarify the complex situation of ensuring safe food in retail establishments. Future research into why employee willingness to perform varies more for extrinsic motivation than for intrinsic motivation could assist food service managers in structuring employee development programs and the work environment, in a manner that aids in improving external motivation (communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and capitalizing on internal motivation. PMID:21219719

  8. Varying influences of motivation factors on employees' likelihood to perform safe food handling practices because of demographic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jason D; Arendt, Susan W; Strohbehn, Catherine H; Meyer, Janell; Paez, Paola

    2010-11-01

    Food safety training has been the primary avenue for ensuring food workers are performing proper food handling practices and thus, serving safe food. Yet, knowledge of safe food handling practices does not necessarily result in actual performance of these practices. This research identified participating food service employees' level of agreement with four factors of motivation (internal motivations, communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and determined if respondents with different demographic characteristics reported different motivating factors. Data were collected from 311 food service employees who did not have any supervisory responsibilities. Intrinsic motivation agreement scores were consistently the highest of all four motivational factors evaluated and did not differ across any of the demographic characteristics considered. In contrast, motivation agreement scores for communication, reward-punishment, and resources did differ based on respondents' gender, age, place of employment, job status, food service experience, completion of food handler course, or possession of a food safety certification. In general, respondents agreed that these motivation factors influenced their likelihood to perform various safe food handling procedures. This research begins to illustrate how employees' demographic characteristics influence their responses to various motivators, helping to clarify the complex situation of ensuring safe food in retail establishments. Future research into why employee willingness to perform varies more for extrinsic motivation than for intrinsic motivation could assist food service managers in structuring employee development programs and the work environment, in a manner that aids in improving external motivation (communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and capitalizing on internal motivation.

  9. SAFE HANDLING OF FOODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial food-borne illnesses pose a significant health problem in Japan. In 1996 the world's largest outbreak of Escherichia coli food illness occurred in Japan. Since then, new regulatory measures were established, including strict hygiene practices in meat and food processi...

  10. KNOWLEDGE OF HAND WASHING AND FOOD HANDLING PRACTICES OF THE STREET FOOD VENDORS OF AGARTALA, A NORTH EASTERN CITY OF INDIA .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taranga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge o f hand washing and food handling practices of the street food vendors. STUDY DESIGN: Community based cross - sectional study conducted in Agartala municipal area. METHODS: Structured interview schedule was administered to 234 street food vendors selected by probability proportionate to size sampling technique during 1 st July to 31 st August 2011. Microsoft Excel and Epi - info version - 6 were used for data entry and analysis and p ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: One hundred and seventeen vendors (50% were aged between 30 – 40 years and 98.29% were males. Forty eight (20.5% vendors were illiterate and 40.2% vendors were from rural areas. One hundred and five vendors (44.9% with primary and 78 (32.1% with secondary level education knew that unclean hands and dishes can transmit diseases while serving roadside foods. 58.3%, 6 1.9%, and 69.23% of the vendors were illiterate, primary and secondary educated respectively. Majority of them were not using soap for washing hands. 87.5%, 58.09%, 74.3% and 50% of the illiterate, primary educated, secondary educated, and senior secondary educated vendors did not use detergent for washing dishes before and after each serving. One hundred and sixty five (70.5% vendors stored unsold food for the next day, while 29.1% of the vendors discarded the left - over food. CONCLUSIONS: Basic food safet y knowledge and practice of hygiene and sanitation by the street food vendors was found to be inadequate. Issuing of food license to them should be subjected to fulfillment the above conditions or they should be trained regarding safe food handling.

  11. Development of Safe Food Handling Guidelines for Korean Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Jin; Lee, Min-Woo; Hwang, In-Kyeong; Kim, Jeong-Weon

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines for Korean consumers with regard to safe food handling practices at home by identifying current food handling issues. Korean consumers' behaviors regarding their safe food handling were identified via survey questionnaires that included items on individual hygiene practices, prepreparation steps when cooking, the cooking process, and the storage of leftover foods. The subjects were 417 Korean parents with elementary school children living in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province in the central area of Korea. The survey results revealed gaps between the knowledge or practices of Korean consumers and scientific evidence pertaining to safe food handling practices. Based on these findings, a leaflet on safe food handling guidelines was developed in accordance with Korean food culture. These guidelines suggest personal hygiene practices as well as fundamental principles and procedures for safe food handling from the stage of food purchase to that of keeping leftover dishes. A pilot application study with 50 consumers revealed that the guidelines effectively improved Korean consumers' safe food handling practices, suggesting that they can serve as practical educational material suitable for Korean consumers.

  12. 21 CFR 1250.35 - Health of persons handling food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health of persons handling food. 1250.35 Section 1250.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... SANITATION Food Service Sanitation on Land and Air Conveyances, and Vessels § 1250.35 Health of...

  13. Problems of food handling and trade in ASEAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand) with a population of some 280 million population is a major producer of several food commodities and also a large, and growing, market for many food items. The handling of food products in ASEAN is undertaken under many constraints, related mainly to small and traditional production structures with less than efficient distribution and marketing systems. Activities of the ASEAN Food Handling Project in promoting more efficient food handling methods and technologies in ASEAN are discussed in relation to the existing post harvest losses (50% in fish, 30% in grains and 20-40% in fruits and vegetables) and attempts to reduce these. Activities in this project include training courses and the establishment of laboratories as training and research centres pilot packing houses for fruit and vegetable handling, improvement of transportation systems for fish and livestock, and improvement of post harvest grain handling technologies. The extent of food trade in ASEAN is assessed and problems of food handling and trade are discussed, with special focus on problems of standardization of quality, and tariff and non-tariff barriers for external trade. (author)

  14. Assessing and Addressing Safe Food Handling Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of College Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Susan E.; Dirks, Brian P.; Quinlan, Jennifer J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors determined the food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of undergraduates (n = 1122) on an urban college campus using a previously piloted survey tool. Data obtained found that while students reported high levels of confidence in their ability to engage in safe food handling practices, their knowledge and self-reported behaviors…

  15. Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibbing, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determine the specializations for some

  16. Handling of bulk solids theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shamlou, P A

    1990-01-01

    Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

  17. Handling Practices of Fresh Leafy Greens in Restaurants: Receiving and Training†

    Science.gov (United States)

    COLEMAN, ERIK; DELEA, KRISTIN; EVERSTINE, KAREN; REIMANN, DAVID; RIPLEY, DANNY

    2015-01-01

    Multiple foodborne illness outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of fresh produce. Investigations have indicated that microbial contamination throughout the farm-to-fork continuum often contributed to these outbreaks. Researchers have hypothesized that handling practices for leafy greens in restaurants may support contamination by and proliferation and amplification of pathogens that cause foodborne illness outbreaks. However, limited data are available on how workers handle leafy greens in restaurants. The purpose of this study was to collect descriptive data on handling practices of leafy greens in restaurants, including restaurant characteristics, types of leafy greens used, produce receipt, and food safety training and certification. As a federal collaborative partner with the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended that EHS-Net participants survey handling practices for leafy greens in restaurants. The recommendations in the FDA’s Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards of Leafy Greens are significant to this study for comparison of the results. The survey revealed that appropriate handling procedures assist in the mitigation of other unsafe handling practices for leafy greens. These results are significant because the FDA guidance for the safe handling of leafy greens was not available until 2009, after the survey had been completed. The information provided from this study can be used to promote additional efforts that will assist in developing interventions to prevent future foodborne illness outbreaks associated with leafy greens. PMID:24290691

  18. Food Safety Posters for Safe Handling of Leafy Greens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Lakshman; Arendt, Susan W.; Shaw, Angela M.; Strohbehn, Catherine H.; Sauer, Kevin L.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes food safety educational tools depicting safe handling of leafy greens that are available as downloadable posters to Extension educators and practitioners (www.extension.iastate.edu). Nine visual-based minimal-text colored posters in English, Chinese, and Spanish were developed for use when formally or informally educating…

  19. Food Consumption and Handling Survey for Quantitative Microbiological Consumer Phase Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, Jurgen; Swart, Arno

    2016-07-01

    In the consumer phase of a typical quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA), mathematical equations identify data gaps. To acquire useful data we designed a food consumption and food handling survey (2,226 respondents) for QMRA applications that is especially aimed at obtaining quantitative data. For a broad spectrum of food products, the survey covered the following topics: processing status at retail, consumer storage, preparation, and consumption. Questions were designed to facilitate distribution fitting. In the statistical analysis, special attention was given to the selection of the most adequate distribution to describe the data. Bootstrap procedures were used to describe uncertainty. The final result was a coherent quantitative consumer phase food survey and parameter estimates for food handling and consumption practices in The Netherlands, including variation over individuals and uncertainty estimates.

  20. Microbiological surveillance of food handling at NASA-MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyerle, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    A microbiological surveillance program of cafeterias and snack bars was conducted to supplement the inspections by NASA Medical Center personnel and to gather information for cafeteria management to pinpoint areas of possible contamination. The work conducted under the program from its inception in January, 1972, to its termination on September 15, 1972 is summarized. Ten food handling facilities were included in the surveillance at NASA-MSFC.

  1. 76 FR 50740 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Procedures for Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Procedures for Handling Section 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  2. TO STUDY ON AWARENESS OF THE KITCHEN HOLDERS AND HOME MAKERS REGARDING SAFETY AND SANITARY HANDLING OF FOOD PRODUCT

    OpenAIRE

    Pooja Verma; Sunita Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Background: The chances of food contamination largely depend on the health status of food handlers & their hygiene behaviors and practices. The present study was conducted to assess health status of food handlers and kitchen holders, working in kitchen. Objective. : To assess the awareness of the kitchen holders and home makers regarding safety and sanitary handling of food product. Methodology: The study was carried out using the following tools for the analyze the awarenes...

  3. 76 FR 20509 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Production, Processing, and Handling of Food AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule... amend the regulations in part 179, Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Food (21... in other previous rulemakings regarding the irradiation of food (see, e.g., 53 FR 53176 at...

  4. Practical Evaluation and Handling of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bodil Ohlsson

    2012-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder by unknown aetiology. Several reviews are written about pharmacological and psychological treatment of the disease. Nevertheless, healthcare professionals consider these patients difficult to handle in daily practice. There is an uncertainty about how to measure symptoms and to evaluate the effect of any given treatment. In the absence of objective markers, professionals feel unsure of how to manage the condition and the patients d...

  5. Novel Additive Manufacturing Pneumatic Actuators and Mechanisms for Food Handling Grippers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Blanes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional pneumatic grippers are widely used in industrial pick and place robot processes for rigid objects. They are simple, robust and fast, but their design, motion and features are limited, and they do not fulfil the final purpose. Food products have a wide variety of shapes and textures and are susceptible to damaged. Robot grippers for food handling should adapt to this wide range of dimensions and must be fast, cheap, reasonably reliable, and with cheap and reasonable maintenance costs. They should not damage the product and must meet hygienic conditions. The additive manufacturing (AM process is able to manufacture parts without significant restrictions, and is Polyamide approved as food contact material by FDA. This paper presents that, taking the best of plastic flexibility, AM allows the implementation of novel actuators, original compliant mechanisms and practical grippers that are cheap, light, fast, small and easily adaptable to specific food products. However, if they are not carefully designed, the results can present problems, such as permanent deformations, low deformation limits, and low operation speed. We present possible solutions for the use of AM to design proper robot grippers for food handling. Some successful results, such as AM actuators based on deformable air chambers, AM compliant mechanisms, and grippers developed in a single part will be introduced and discussed.

  6. Practical Evaluation and Handling of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil Ohlsson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional bowel disorder by unknown aetiology. Several reviews are written about pharmacological and psychological treatment of the disease. Nevertheless, healthcare professionals consider these patients difficult to handle in daily practice. There is an uncertainty about how to measure symptoms and to evaluate the effect of any given treatment. In the absence of objective markers, professionals feel unsure of how to manage the condition and the patients do not feel that they are taken seriously. The development of the short, self-reported questionnaire, Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS, offers a practical guide to objective measurement of symptoms and effect of given treatments into numerical values in the daily practice.

  7. Safe meat-handling knowledge, attitudes and practices of private and government meat processing plants' workers: implications for future policy

    OpenAIRE

    H.K. Adesokan; RAJI, A.O.Q.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Introduction. Food-borne disease outbreaks remain a major global health challenge and cross-contamination from raw meat due to poor handling is a major cause in developing countries. Adequate knowledge of meat handlers is important in limiting these outbreaks. This study evaluated and compared the safe meat-handling knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of private (PMPP) and government meat processing plants' (GMPP) workers in south-western Nigeria. Methods. This cross sectional st...

  8. Good Postharvest-handling Application of Corn in Supporting Food Self-Sufficiency in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Zainal

    2015-01-01

    Corn is one of potential commodity to support food self-sufficiency in Indonesia. Some regions use corn as alternative food substituting rice. The corn production tend to increase every year. However, the quality is still low because of poor postharvest-handling. The objective of this research was to compare the corn quality from different postharvest-handling between farmers and the good handling method. The observed parameters were the moisture, the damage grain, the broken grain, and the a...

  9. 77 FR 34212 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Production, Processing, and Handling of Food AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule... April 11, 2007 (72 FR 18263), FDA announced that a food additive petition (FAP 7M4768) had been filed by... commonly used for food processing, such as cooking, toasting, and grilling. The carbon dioxide laser...

  10. Food hygiene practices in different food establishments

    OpenAIRE

    Djekic, I; Smigic, N.; Kalogianni, EP; Rocha, Ada; Zamioudi, L; Pacheco, R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate three dimensions of food hygiene in three European cities Belgrade, Thessaloniki and Porto. The first dimension of the survey was to evaluate the level of hygiene in different food establishments supplying food direct to consumers. A total of 91 food businesses were included in the survey with 30 food businesses from Belgrade and Porto, and 31 from Thessaloniki. In parallel with scoring the premises, the second dimension of the study was to examine the...

  11. Safety aspects in preparation and handling of infant food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Powdered infant formula (PIF) can become contaminated during production with harmful bacteria such as Cronobacter spp. (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii). Inadequate conditions of preparation and handling of PIF can therefore exacerbate the risk of severe infection, especially in preterm infants. The WHO emphasized three main interventions for preparation and handling of PIF: (1) to dilute the powdered milk in water at a temperature of at least 70°C to inactivate Cronobacter spp.; (2) to consume milk right after each preparation, and (3) to store reconstituted milk at warmers or thermos bottles. In institutional settings, written guidelines for preparation and handling of PIF should be established. The use of sterile liquid formula is encouraged for healthy newborn infants in maternity wards; PIF should be prepared on a daily basis. Safe infant feeding involves the production of microbiologically cleaner infant formula by industry, and both education and support for the caregivers in preparing and handling the formula. PMID:22699771

  12. 77 FR 27586 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 179 Irradiation in the Production, Processing... regulations in part 179 Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Food (21 CFR part 179) by... involving the specific food to be irradiated. As noted in the meat final rule (62 FR 64107 at 64112),...

  13. Control of food irradiation facilities and good irradiation practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expansion of irradiation facilities employing commercial scale processes is evident in several countries. The list compiled by the Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, Vienna (April 1988) showed that 34 counties have approved the use of irradiation process for more than 40 food commodities. In Asia and the Pacific Region, the main commercial application of irradiation process is still the sterilization of medical devices but applications to food processing are on the rise. To ensure the safety of irradiated foods, laws and regulations have to be promulgated to govern the facilities, the operations and the products. In most cases, there may be more than one governmental agency involved in regulatory control. The control activities include licensing/registration of a food irradiation premises as a food processing plant, registration of irradiated food in accordance with prescribed standards and regulating labelling practice as well as regularly conducting a comprehensive inspection of the facilities. The quality control programme must cover all aspects of treatment, handling, and distribution. It is emphasized that, as with all food technologies, effective quality control systems needs to be installed and adequately monitored at critical control points at the irradiation facility. Foods should be handled, stored, and transported according to GMP before, during, and after irradiation. Only foods meeting microbiological criteria and other quality standards should be accepted for irradiation. Besides, good irradiation practice (GIP) is also a fundamental principle of practice required specifically for food irradiation. With this recognition, the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) has elaborated a set of eight codes of GIP. The quality control system would also include proper packaging suitable for the product. Additional use of a logo to identify irradiated food should be permitted and may even become recognized as a symbol

  14. Food Handling Behaviors Observed in Consumers When Cooking Poultry and Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Chambers Iv, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Cates, Sheryl; Koppel, Kadri

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that many consumers do not follow recommended food safety practices for cooking poultry and eggs, which can lead to exposure to Salmonella and Campylobacter. Past research has been done primarily through surveys and interviews, rather than observations. The objective of this project was to determine through observations whether consumers follow food safety guidelines. Consumers (n = 101) divided among three locations (Manhattan, KS; Kansas City, MO area; and Nashville, TN) were observed as they prepared a baked whole chicken breast, a pan-fried ground turkey patty, a fried egg, and scrambled eggs. The end point temperature for the cooked products was taken (outside the view of consumers) within 30 s after the consumers indicated they were finished cooking. Thermometer use while cooking was low, although marginally higher than that of some previous studies: only 37% of consumers used a thermometer for chicken breasts and only 22% for turkey patties. No one used a thermometer for fried or scrambled eggs. Only 77% of the chicken and 69% of the turkey was cooked to a safe temperature (165°F [74°C]), and 77% of scrambled and 49% of fried eggs reached a safe temperature (160°F [71°C]). Safe hand washing was noted in only 40% of respondents after handling the chicken breast and 44% after handling the ground turkey patty. This value decreased to 15% after handling raw eggs for fried eggs and to 17% for scrambled eggs. These results show that there is a high prevalence of unsafe behaviors (undercooking and poor hand washing technique) when cooking poultry and eggs and a great need for improvement in consumer behavior with poultry and eggs.

  15. Food Handling Behaviors Observed in Consumers When Cooking Poultry and Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Chambers Iv, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Cates, Sheryl; Koppel, Kadri

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that many consumers do not follow recommended food safety practices for cooking poultry and eggs, which can lead to exposure to Salmonella and Campylobacter. Past research has been done primarily through surveys and interviews, rather than observations. The objective of this project was to determine through observations whether consumers follow food safety guidelines. Consumers (n = 101) divided among three locations (Manhattan, KS; Kansas City, MO area; and Nashville, TN) were observed as they prepared a baked whole chicken breast, a pan-fried ground turkey patty, a fried egg, and scrambled eggs. The end point temperature for the cooked products was taken (outside the view of consumers) within 30 s after the consumers indicated they were finished cooking. Thermometer use while cooking was low, although marginally higher than that of some previous studies: only 37% of consumers used a thermometer for chicken breasts and only 22% for turkey patties. No one used a thermometer for fried or scrambled eggs. Only 77% of the chicken and 69% of the turkey was cooked to a safe temperature (165°F [74°C]), and 77% of scrambled and 49% of fried eggs reached a safe temperature (160°F [71°C]). Safe hand washing was noted in only 40% of respondents after handling the chicken breast and 44% after handling the ground turkey patty. This value decreased to 15% after handling raw eggs for fried eggs and to 17% for scrambled eggs. These results show that there is a high prevalence of unsafe behaviors (undercooking and poor hand washing technique) when cooking poultry and eggs and a great need for improvement in consumer behavior with poultry and eggs. PMID:27296601

  16. Environmental Implications of Dynamic Policies on Food Consumption and Waste Handling in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Martin; Lina Danielsson

    2016-01-01

    This study will review the environmental implications of dynamic policy objectives and instruments outlined in the European Union 7th Framework Programme (EU-FP7) Project DYNAmic policy MIXes for absolute decoupling of EU resource use from economic growth (DYNAMIX) to address reductions in food consumption, food waste and a change in waste handling systems. The environmental implications of reductions in protein intake, food waste reductions, food waste management and donations are addressed ...

  17. Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, Shawn M; Harrison, Mark A [Food Science and Technology Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-2610 (United States); Law, S Edward, E-mail: edlaw@engr.uga.edu [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Applied Electrostatics Laboratory www.ael.engr.uga.edu, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-4435 (United States)

    2011-06-23

    Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic

  18. A practical guide to handling laser diode beams

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Haiyin

    2015-01-01

    This book offers the reader a practical guide to the control and characterization of laser diode beams.  Laser diodes are the most widely used lasers, accounting for 50% of the global laser market.  Correct handling of laser diode beams is the key to the successful use of laser diodes, and this requires an in-depth understanding of their unique properties. Following a short introduction to the working principles of laser diodes, the book describes the basics of laser diode beams and beam propagation, including Zemax modeling of a Gaussian beam propagating through a lens.  The core of the book is concerned with laser diode beam manipulations: collimating and focusing, circularization and astigmatism correction, coupling into a single mode optical fiber, diffractive optics and beam shaping, and manipulation of multi transverse mode beams.  The final chapter of the book covers beam characterization methods, describing the measurement of spatial and spectral properties, including wavelength and linewidth meas...

  19. Uranium hexafluoride: A manual of good handling practices. Revision 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is continuing the policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies in sharing with the nuclear industry their experience in the area of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) shipping containers and handling procedures. The USEC has reviewed Revision 6 or ORO-651 and is issuing this new edition to assure that the document includes the most recent information on UF6 handling procedures and reflects the policies of the USEC. This manual updates the material contained in earlier issues. It covers the essential aspects of UF6 handling, cylinder filling and emptying, general principles of weighing and sampling, shipping, and the use of protective overpacks. The physical and chemical properties of UF6 are also described. The procedures and systems described for safe handling of UF6 presented in this document have been developed and evaluated during more than 40 years of handling vast quantities of UF6. With proper consideration for its nuclear properties, UF6 may be safely handled in essentially the same manner as any other corrosive and/or toxic chemical

  20. Uranium hexafluoride: A manual of good handling practices. Revision 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is continuing the policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies in sharing with the nuclear industry their experience in the area of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) shipping containers and handling procedures. The USEC has reviewed Revision 6 or ORO-651 and is issuing this new edition to assure that the document includes the most recent information on UF{sub 6} handling procedures and reflects the policies of the USEC. This manual updates the material contained in earlier issues. It covers the essential aspects of UF{sub 6} handling, cylinder filling and emptying, general principles of weighing and sampling, shipping, and the use of protective overpacks. The physical and chemical properties of UF{sub 6} are also described. The procedures and systems described for safe handling of UF{sub 6} presented in this document have been developed and evaluated during more than 40 years of handling vast quantities of UF{sub 6}. With proper consideration for its nuclear properties, UF{sub 6} may be safely handled in essentially the same manner as any other corrosive and/or toxic chemical.

  1. Asymmetry in food handling behavior of a tree-dwelling rodent (Sciurus vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Polo-Cavia

    Full Text Available Asymmetry in motor patterns is present in a wide variety of animals. Many lateralized behaviors seem to depend on brain asymmetry, as it is the case of different tasks associated to food handling by several bird and mammal species. Here, we analyzed asymmetry in handling behavior of pine cones by red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris. Red squirrels devote most of their daily activity to feeding, thus this species constitutes an appropriate model for studying asymmetry in food processing. We aimed to explore 1 the potential lateralization in handling of pine cones by squirrels, 2 the dominant pattern for this behavior (left- vs. right-handed, and 3 whether this pattern varies among populations and depending on the pine tree species available. Results revealed that red squirrels handle pine cones in an asymmetrical way, and that direction of asymmetry varies among populations and seems to be determined more by local influences rather than by the pine tree species.

  2. Domestic food preparation practices: a review of the reasons for poor home hygiene practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sakkaf, Ali

    2015-09-01

    New Zealand has a much higher rate of reported campylobacteriosis cases than the rest of the developed world. It has been suggested that New Zealanders have worse home hygiene practices during food preparation than the citizens of other developed countries. Thus, it is necessary to recognize and understand the reasons for consumer's poor practices in order to help develop a more effective message to improve New Zealanders' practices in the domestic environment. This could in turn lead to a reduction in the number of campylobacteriosis cases. The objective is to review cited literature on consumer practices which is related to food poisoning and to attempt to list the factors related to poor consumer practice. There are many internationally identifiable reasons for the poor practices of consumers. These reasons include psychological, demographic and socioeconomic variables; personal interest in new information; prior knowledge; cultural influence; educational background; perception of risk, control and liability; and attitude towards the addressed practices or hazards. The results have indicated that 'optimistic bias', the 'illusion of control', habits and lack of knowledge concerning food safety during domestic food preparation are prevalent among consumers. The research indicated the influence of demographic factors (age, gender, level of education, income, work hours, race, location, culture), as they play a potential role in determining domestic food safety behaviour. It appears that all these factors are applicable for New Zealand consumers and should be addressed in any future education strategy aimed at improving New Zealanders' food handling practices. PMID:23945085

  3. Practice-specific risk perceptions and self-reported food safety practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Alan S; Choinière, Conrad J; Fein, Sara B

    2008-06-01

    The relationship between risk perception and risk avoidance is typically analyzed using self-reported measures. However, in domains such as driving or food handling, the validity of responses about usual behavior is threatened because people think about the situations in which they are self-aware, such as when they encounter a hazard. Indeed, researchers have often noted a divergence between what people say about their behavior and how they actually behave. Thus, in order to draw conclusions about risk perceptions and risk avoidance from survey data, it is important to identify particular cognitive elements, such as those measured by questions about risk and safety knowledge, risk perceptions, or information search behavior, which may be effective antecedents of self-reported safety behavior. It is also important to identify and correct for potential sources of bias that may exist in the data. The authors analyze the Food and Drug Administration's 1998 Food Safety Survey to determine whether there are consistent cognitive antecedents for three types of safe food practices: preparation, eating, and cooling of foods. An assessment of measurement biases shows that endogeneity of food choices affects reports of food preparation. In addition, response bias affects reports of cooling practices as evidenced by its relation to knowledge and information search, a pattern of cognitive effects unique to cooling practices. After correcting for these biases, results show that practice-specific risk perceptions are the primary cognitive antecedents of safe food behavior, which has implications for the design of effective education messages about food safety.

  4. 78 FR 27303 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ...) in part 579 Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food (21...--IRRADIATION IN THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD 0 1. The authority... / Friday, May 10, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food...

  5. 78 FR 34565 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 579 Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron Beam and X-Ray Sources for Irradiation of Poultry... THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD 0 1. The authority citation...

  6. Different ways to handle topography in practical geoid determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, O.C.; Forsberg, René

    1999-01-01

    In this paper two different methods of how to handle topography in geoid determination is investigated. First method employs the Residual Terrain Model (RTM) remove-restore technique and yields the quasigeoid, whereas the second method is the classical Helmert condensation method, yielding the ge...

  7. Food safety at home: knowledge and practices of consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langiano, Elisa; Ferrara, Maria; Lanni, Liana; Viscardi, Viviana; Abbatecola, Angela Marie; De Vito, Elisabetta

    2012-02-01

    AIM: To define food safety and risk perception of foodborne diseases in the private home setting and identify specific behaviours during food purchase, storage and preparation in a large survey study. SUBJECT AND METHODS: A large sample of individuals (n = 1,000) living in the area of Cassino, Italy, volunteered to participate in the study. All participants were randomly recruited and underwent a questionnaire-based interview at their home regarding food-safety measures. Logistic regression analyses were used to test for correlations between demographic characteristics and knowledge/behaviours of food diseases. Risks of hazardous practices in the home were calculated according to educational, physical, occupational and marital status. All analyses were performed using the EPIINFO 3.5 statistical program. RESULTS: Our data showed that there was an insufficient amount of knowledge regarding foodborne diseases and pathogens. In most families, we found that there was a lack of correct adherence to food hygiene, mainly due to errors during both food preparation and storage. There was a higher risk for food safety errors in families with children, older persons and pregnant women. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that the home environment represents an important site for the spread of pathogens responsible for foodborne diseases. In order to adopt good hygiene practices in the home setting, consumers need to be informed about safety procedures of domestic food handling, storage and preparation. PMID:22347771

  8. Uranium hexafluoride: A manual of good handling practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have shared with the nuclear industry their experience in the area of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) shipping containers and handling procedures. The information contained in this manual updates information contained in earlier issues. It covers the essential aspects of UF6 handling, cylinder filling and emptying, general principles of weighing and sampling, shipping, and the use of protective overpacks. The physical and chemical properties of UF6 are also described and tabulated. The nuclear industry is responsible for furnishing its own shipping cylinders and suitable protective overpacks. A substantial effort has been made by the industry to standardize UF6 cylinders, samples, and overpacks. The quality of feed materials is important to the safe and efficient operation of the enriching facilities, and the UF6 product purity from the enriching facilities is equally important to the fuel fabricator, the utilities, the operators of research reactors, and other users. The requirements have been the impetus for an aggressive effort by DOE and its contractors to develop accurate techniques for sampling and for chemical and isotopic analysis. A quality control program is maintained within the DOE enriching facilities to ensure that the proper degree of accuracy and precision are obtained for all the required measurements. The procedures and systems described for safe handling of UF6 presented in this document have been developed and evaluated in DOE facilities during more than 40 years of handling vast quantities of UF6. With proper consideration for its nuclear properties, UF6 may be safely handled in essentially the same manner as any other corrosive and/or toxic chemical

  9. Vaccine storage and handling. Knowledge and practice in primary care physicians' offices.

    OpenAIRE

    L. Yuan; Daniels, S.; Naus, M.; Brcic, B.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge and practice of vaccine storage and handling in primary care physicians' offices. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted from August to December 1992. Staff responsible for vaccine storage were interviewed about their knowledge and practices of vaccine handling and storage. Refrigerators were inspected to document refrigerator temperature and vaccine storage conditions. SETTING: General and pediatric practices in 12 regions of Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: P...

  10. Commercial food irradiation in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutch research showed great interest in the potential of food irradiation at an early stage. The positive research results and the potential applications for industry encouraged the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries to construct a Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation. In 1967 the Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation in Wageningen came into operation. The objectives of the plant were: research into applications of irradiation technology in the food industry and agricultural industry; testing irradiated products and test marketing; information transfer to the public. (author)

  11. 21 CFR 1250.45 - Food handling facilities on railroad conveyances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Equipment and Operation of Land and Air Conveyances § 1250.45 Food handling... for hand and face washing only: Provided, however, That where the kitchen and pantry on a dining car... them lavatory facilities shall be provided in both the kitchen and the pantry. (d) Wherever toilet...

  12. Food discard practices of householders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Garde, S J; Woodburn, M J

    1987-03-01

    Food discard patterns and reasons were determined for a sample of 243 households in Oregon. Personal interviews were conducted, and 7-day records of discards were collected. Discards over a 3-day period also were collected from a subsample of 50. The householder's estimate of amount, converted from measures to grams using food composition tables, was found to be 97% of the actual grams of food, as weighed in the laboratory. Households discarded an average of 1,587 gm ($2.88) food in a 7-day period on the basis of the 79% completed usable records. Major reasons were poor quality for fruits and vegetables; storage time for meat, fish, and poultry; non-use of leftovers for combination dishes; and plate waste for cereals and dairy products. Twenty-nine percent of the discarded food (by cost) was considered to be unsafe to eat by the householder. Aesthetic factors dominated decisions by the 18- to 25-year age group, but experiences related to food storage were the basis for decisions by half of the respondents more than 65 years old. Discards increased with number of members in the household and were influenced by age of children. Household income was not linearly related to amount of discard. As household refrigerator temperatures increased from 1.7 degrees C to 20 degrees C, the amount of discards also increased. Consumers generally lacked criteria for evaluating the safety of foods. PMID:3819252

  13. Hygienic food handling behaviors: attempting to bridge the intention-behavior gap using aspects from temporal self-regulation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulham, Elizabeth; Mullan, Barbara

    2011-06-01

    An estimated 25% of the populations of both the United States and Australia suffer from foodborne illness every year, generally as a result of incorrect food handling practices. The aim of the current study was to determine through the application of the theory of planned behavior what motivates these behaviors and to supplement the model with two aspects of temporal self-regulation theory--behavioral prepotency and executive function--in an attempt to bridge the "intention-behavior gap." A prospective 1-week design was utilized to investigate the prediction of food hygiene using the theory of planned behavior with the additional variables of behavioral prepotency and executive function. One hundred forty-nine undergraduate psychology students completed two neurocognitive executive function tasks and a self-report questionnaire assessing theory of planned behavior variables, behavioral prepotency, and intentions to perform hygienic food handling behaviors. A week later, behavior was assessed via a follow-up self-report questionnaire. It was found that subjective norm and perceived behavioral control predicted intentions and intentions predicted behavior. However, behavioral prepotency was found to be the strongest predictor of behavior, over and above intentions, suggesting that food hygiene behavior is habitual. Neither executive function measure of self-regulation predicted any additional variance. These results provide support for the utility of the theory of planned behavior in this health domain, but the augmentation of the theory with two aspects of temporal self-regulation theory was only partially successful. PMID:21669069

  14. Influence of Handling Practices on Material Recovery from Residential Solid Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Jairo F. Pereira; Katherine Erazo; Carolina Blanco; Mary H. Burbano; Mariela García; Diaz, Luis F.; Patricia Torres; Luis F. Marmolejo

    2010-01-01

    Material recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW) is becoming widely adopted in several developing countries. Residential solid waste is one of the most important components of MSW and the handling practices of the MSW by the generators have a major impact on the quality and quantity of the materials for recovery. This article analyzes the generation and composition of residential solid waste and the handling practices by users in three municipalities in Colombia that have a solid waste mana...

  15. How to handle topography in practical geoid determination: three examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omang, O.C.D.; Forsberg, René

    2000-01-01

    three methods were used with the geopotential model Earth Gravity Model (1996) (EGM96) as a reference, and the results were compared to precise global positioning system (GPS) levelling networks in Scandinavia. An investigation of the Helmert method, focusing on the different types of indirect effects...... and their effects on the geoid, was also carried out. The three different methods used produce almost identical results at the 5-cm level, when compared to the GPS levelling networks. However, small systematic differences existed.......Three different methods of handling topography in geoid determination were investigated. The first two methods employ the residual terrain model (RTM) remove-restore technique, yielding the quasi-geoid, whereas the third method uses the classical Helmert condensation method, yielding the geoid. All...

  16. Practice of the safe handling of radioisotopes using naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We proposed a practical protocol for the safe handling of radiation and radioisotopes using the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) 87Rb and 40K. The protocol can be utilized for the education and training course for radiation handling workers. Rubidium chloride solutions were used for the practice of dilution of unsealed radioisotopes instead of 32P. Rubidium chloride and potassium chloride solid radiation sources were used for the practice of monitoring of the surface contamination using the GM survey meter instead of 32P and 14C. Rubidium chloride solutions were also used for the practice of the contamination check by the smear method. Substitution of the radioisotopes under the Laws Concerning the Prevention from Radiation Hazards due to Radioisotope and others to NORMs can be successfully achieved without notable demerits. We supposed that most of the practice for the safe handling of radioisotopes could be carried out outside a controlled area. (author)

  17. Food Irradiation Regulations And Code Of Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Official attitude towards irradiated food is determined by factors such as: level of scientific knowledge, consumer habits, food shortages, agricultural production and technological know-how. To date, 39 countries have accepted the process for one or more food items while 27 nations carry out the process on a commercial basis. Regulations and codes of practice is essential for consumer confidence while uniformity of regulations, at the international level, will enhance international trade in irradiated food items. The internationally accepted Codex Standard on irradiated food and Codes of Practice for the operation of irradiation facilities, adopted in 1983, forms the basis for International regulations and a template for nations in the development of regulations. This paper discusses the basic legal requirements for licensing the process, procedures, facility and the operator and suggests a framework for a national regulation based on experiences of Hungary, Brazil and Israel

  18. Environmental Implications of Dynamic Policies on Food Consumption and Waste Handling in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Martin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study will review the environmental implications of dynamic policy objectives and instruments outlined in the European Union 7th Framework Programme (EU-FP7 Project DYNAmic policy MIXes for absolute decoupling of EU resource use from economic growth (DYNAMIX to address reductions in food consumption, food waste and a change in waste handling systems. The environmental implications of reductions in protein intake, food waste reductions, food waste management and donations are addressed using a life cycle approach to find the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, land use and water consumption. Data are provided from the Statistics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAOSTAT food balance sheets for the European Union (EU with a base year of 2010 and life cycle inventory (LCI data from a meta-study of available GHG, land use and water consumption data for major food products. The implications are reviewed using a number of scenarios for the years 2030 and 2050 assuming policy instruments are fully effective. Results indicate that reductions in animal-based protein consumption significantly reduce environmental impacts, followed thereafter by reductions in food waste (assuming this also reduces food consumption. Despite the positive implications the policy mixes may have for targets for decoupling, they are not enough to meet GHG emissions targets for the EU outlined in the DYNAMIX project, although land and water use have no significant change compared to 2010 levels.

  19. Critical control points of complementary food preparation and handling in eastern Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate microbial contamination and critical control points (CCPs) in the preparation and handling of complementary foods in 120 households in Imo state, Nigeria. METHODS: The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach was used to investigate processes and procedures that contributed to microbial contamination, growth and survival, and to identify points where controls could be applied to prevent or eliminate these microbiological hazards or reduce them to accep...

  20. Modern power station practice mechanical boilers, fuel-, and ash-handling plant

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2014-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Second Edition, Volume 2: Mechanical (Boilers, Fuel-, and Ash-Handling Plant) focuses on the design, manufacture and operation of boiler units and fuel-and ash-handling plants.This book is organized into five main topics-furnace and combustion equipment, steam and water circuits, ancillary plant and fittings, dust extraction and draught plant, and fuel-and ash-handling plant.In these topics, this text specifically discusses the influence of nature of coal on choice of firing equipment; oil-burner arrangements, ignition and control; disposition of the heating surf

  1. Handling Practices of Fresh Leafy Greens in Restaurants: Receiving and Training†

    OpenAIRE

    COLEMAN, ERIK; DELEA, KRISTIN; EVERSTINE, KAREN; REIMANN, DAVID; RIPLEY, DANNY

    2013-01-01

    Multiple foodborne illness outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of fresh produce. Investigations have indicated that microbial contamination throughout the farm-to-fork continuum often contributed to these outbreaks. Researchers have hypothesized that handling practices for leafy greens in restaurants may support contamination by and proliferation and amplification of pathogens that cause foodborne illness outbreaks. However, limited data are available on how workers handle lea...

  2. Observations of 501c (3) food banks and safe food handling and storage recommendations for food pantries

    OpenAIRE

    Alphin, Jessie III

    2014-01-01

    When I was considering an area of study for my final project, I looked back over the many years of my experience in the food processing, purchasing, and distribution industry to consider a topic I was not as familiar with. I found the entire concept of food and subsistence for charity very interesting. In my 21 years of food service, I had limited exposure to any 501c (3) food pantry or food bank; I also had virtually no exposure to any 501c (4) food charities. I knew they were active organiz...

  3. Sheep pre-slaughter handling practices and their effect on meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gerardo Ríos-Rincón

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspects related to ovine production systems in Mexico were revisited, as well as the relationship between the transport and the ante-mortem handling with ovine welfare and pre slaughter operations. Animals stress evaluation is fundamental importance for this process, where the observation of animal behavior is basic to determinate and understands the scope of this biological phenomenon. Finally, we make reference to two of the main meat quality attributes that can be affected as consequence of non-appropriated handling practice and operations that implies the un-knowledge of animal conduct. The conclusion is that the handling practices previous to slaughter of ovine specie had a considerable influence on carcass quality. In Mexico is important to focus the cattle research on the productive systems improvement in consideration to animal welfare in the different productive process steps.

  4. Food Leftover Practices among Consumers in Selected Countries in Europe, South and North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Koppel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne illnesses may be related to many food production factors with home practices of consumers playing an important role in food safety. Consumer behavior for handling food leftovers has been studied, however little work on comparisons among countries has been published. The objective of this study was to investigate home food leftover practices of people from North American, South American, and European countries. Surveys were conducted with approximately 100 or more consumers in Argentina, Colombia, the United States, Estonia, Italy, Russia, and Spain. The participants responded to questions related to the length of time different types of food leftovers; such as meat, fresh salads, or restaurant dishes would be kept refrigerated or would be left at room temperature before refrigeration. Researchers also investigated how consumers would determine if the food was still safe for consumption. Potentially risky behaviors were observed in all seven countries. For instance, 55.8% of Estonians, 25% of Russians and 25.8% of Argentinean participants left food out at room temperature for several hours before storing in the refrigerator. Furthermore, 25%–29% of Colombian, Estonian, and Spanish consumers would look, smell, and taste leftovers to determine its probable safety. Correct handling of leftovers is an important aspect of consumer food safety. Although the surveys cannot be representative of all consumers in each country, they do provide an initial overview of comparative practices for handling leftovers among different countries. This provides government and educators with information on potential universal and unique consumer food safety issues related to handling leftover foods among various countries.

  5. Use of Health Belief Model Variables To Examine Self-Reported Food Handling Behaviors in a Sample of U.S. Adults Attending a Tailgate Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jennifer A; Hughes, Susan M; Liu, Pei

    2015-12-01

    Unsafe food handling behaviors are common among consumers, and, given the venue, individuals attending a tailgating event may be at risk for foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to measure the association between Health Belief Model variables and self-reported usual food handling behaviors in a convenience sample of men and women at a tailgate event. Participants (n = 128) completed validated subscales for self-reported food handling behaviors (i.e., cross-contamination, sanitation), perceived threat of foodborne illness (i.e., perceived severity, perceived susceptibility), and safe food handling cues to action (i.e., media cues, educational cues). Perceived severity of foodborne illness was associated with safer behaviors related to sanitation (r = 0.40; P < 0.001) and cross-contamination (r = 0.33; P = 0.001). Perceived severity of foodborne illness was also associated with exposure to safe food handling media cues (r = 0.20; P = 0.027) but not with safe food handling educational cues. A large proportion of participants reported that they never or seldom (i) read newspaper or magazine articles about foodborne illness (65.6%); (ii) read brochures about safe ways to handle food (61.7%); (iii) see store displays that explain ways to handle food (51.6%); or (iv) read the "safe handling instructions" on packages of raw meat and poultry (46.9%). Perceived severity of foodborne illness was positively related to both dimensions of safe food handling as well as with safe food handling media cues. Except for the weak correlation between media cues and perceived severity, the relationships between safe food handling cues and perceived threat, as well as between safe food handling cues and behaviors, were nonsignificant. This finding may be due, in part, to the participants' overall low exposure to safe food handling cues. The overall results of this study reinforce the postulate that perceived severity of foodborne illness may influence food handling behaviors.

  6. The impact of food manufacturing practices on food borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Paiva de Sousa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne illness is a major international problem and an important cause of reduced economic growth. The contamination of the food supply with the pathogens and its persistence, growth, multiplication and/or toxin production has emerged as an important public health concern. Most of these problems could be controlled with the efforts on the part of the food handlers, whether in a processing plant, a restaurant, and others. In contrast with most chemical hazardous compounds, the concentration of food pathogens changes during the processing, storage, and meal preparation, making it difficult to estimate the number of the microorganisms or the concentration of their toxins at the time of ingestion by the consumer. This review shows main microorganisms related to the manipulation practices such as Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. and describes the factors regarding the food-borne illness highlighting the impact of good manipulation practices on the food safety and food quality.Doenças veiculadas por alimentos são um dos maiores problemas de Saúde Pública no mundo, sendo responsáveis por reduções no crescimento econômico global. A contaminação de alimentos com patógenos e sua persistência, crescimento, multiplicação e/ou produção de toxinas é de interesse da Saúde Pública. Estes problemas podem ser controlados com esforços e treinamento constante de manipuladores de alimentos. Em contraste com perigos químicos e físicos, a concentração de patógenos em alimentos é modificada durante etapas de processamento, acondicionamento e preparação, tornando difícil estimar e quantificar o número de microrganismos ou a concentração de suas toxinas no momento da ingestão do alimento. Esta revisão comenta sobre os principais microrganismos bacterianos relacionados à práticas de manipulação como Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli e Salmonella spp. ressaltando o consumo de alimentos em ruas, o

  7. Milk postharvest handling practices across the supply chain in Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadele Amentie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to assess hygienic cow milk handling practices of milk producers, traders (informal collectors, transporters and vendors and consumers across the milk supply chain in the Eastern Ethiopia. Materials and methods: A total of 160 milk producers in Babile district were selected using multistage stratified sampling technique. Moreover, a total of 54 milk collectors and transporters (5, 40, 9 from Jigjiga, Harar and Dire Dawa town, respectively, 152 vendors (40 from Bable, Harar and Dire Dawa town and 32 from Jigjiga town and 160 consumers (40 from each town were selected using snowball sampling technique. Data from the selected actors were collected using focus group discussion, questionnaire survey and observations. Results: The study revealed that the majority of milk handling operations in the study area is carried out by females. The majority of respondent milk producers (87.5-92.5%, collectors and transporters (88.9-100%, vendors (77.5-90.7% and some consumers (37.5-47.5% performing milk handling operations were illiterate. Most of the observed actors in the study area perform malpractices (such as failure to stop milk handling while showing disease symptoms, improper hand washing and handling of risk factors while working with milk. Majority of respondent milk producers (87.5-97.5%, all traders and some consumers (12.5-32.5% use plastic containers for milk handling. Milk handling equipments were commonly washed using warm water, detergent and sand; however, in most case they were not properly protected from risk factors after washing. Majority of respondent milk producers (55-65%, collectors and transporters (60-66.7%, and some vendors (0-50% and consumers (0-55% use water from non-tap sources for hygienic practices. Conclusion: In general; the findings indicated that milk handling practices performed across the supply chain in the study area were unhygienic and therefore suggested the need for improving

  8. Regulation and practice of workers' protection from chemical exposures during container handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Fløe Pedersen, Randi; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Ádám, Balázs

    2014-01-01

    containers was investigated in a qualitative study based on a series of semi-structured interviews with key informants, including managers and health and safety representatives of organizations that handle containers. Results: Although several international and national regulations and local safety...... in practice, but their use is not consistent and does not necessarily ensure adequate protection. Conclusions: Managers, workers, even occupational health professionals have limited knowledge about the hazardous chemicals that can be released from containers. Detailed risk assessment and specific instructions...... on risk management are needed for safe handling of transport containers....

  9. Handling practice changes before and later slaughter to reduce the presence of DFD meat in beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pérez-Linares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the production chain, animals are exposed to a series of factors and commercial practices that result in stress. These factors are mainly climatic variations, transport, handling, pre-slaughter waiting, stunning and slaughter. Any negative effect is in function of the type, duration and intensity of the stressing factors before slaughter and the individual susceptibility of animals. These pre-slaughter adverse effects have impact not only on animal welfare, but they also have clear repercussion in meat quality and economic profit of livestock producers. The presence of DFD meat is an issue that affects the quality and economic aspects and this can be minimized through giving major importance to animal welfare, implying changes in animal handling before slaughter. Personal involved in animal handling must be capacitated besides preventive maintenance to equipment in order to improve production.

  10. Standard Practice for Sampling Airborne Particulate Contamination in Cleanrooms for Handling Aerospace Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for sampling airborne particulate matter larger than 5 m in size. The method is designed to be used in specific areas, commonly called cleanrooms in the aerospace industry, where aerospace fluids are handled. Note 1 Practice F 50 is an alternative procedure. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. Gender Difference in Safe and Unsafe Practice of Pesticide Handling in Tobacco Farmers of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    BIN NORDIN, Rusli; Araki, Shunichi; Sato, Hajime; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; BIN WAN MUDA, Wan Abdul Manan; WIN KYI, Daw

    2001-01-01

    To identify gender difference in safe and unsafe practice of pesticide handling in tobacco farmers of Malaysia, we conducted a 20-item questionnaire interview on storage of pesticide (4 questions), mixing of pesticide (3 questions), use of personal protective equipment and clothing while spraying pesticide (7 questions), activities during and after spraying of pesticide (5 questions), and maintenance of pesticide sprayer (1 question) in 496 tobacco farmers (395 males and 101 females) in Bacho...

  12. Handling practice changes before and later slaughter to reduce the presence of DFD meat in beef

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Pérez-Linares

    2011-01-01

    In the production chain, animals are exposed to a series of factors and commercial practices that result in stress. These factors are mainly climatic variations, transport, handling, pre-slaughter waiting, stunning and slaughter. Any negative effect is in function of the type, duration and intensity of the stressing factors before slaughter and the individual susceptibility of animals. These pre-slaughter adverse effects have impact not only on animal welfare, but they also have clear repercu...

  13. Pesticide-handling practices of smallholder coffee farmers in Eastern Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Feola; Dwayne Henry

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide use among smallholder coffee producers in Jamaica has been associated with significant occupational health effects. Research on pesticide handling practices, however, has been scarce, especially in eastern Jamaica. This explorative study aims at filling this gap and provides a first basis to develop effective interventions to promote a safer pesticide use. A random sample of 81 coffee farmers was surveyed. The majority of farmers reported to suffer from at least one health symptom a...

  14. Influence of Handling Practices on Material Recovery from Residential Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo F. Pereira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Material recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW is becoming widely adopted in several developing countries. Residential solid waste is one of the most important components of MSW and the handling practices of the MSW by the generators have a major impact on the quality and quantity of the materials for recovery. This article analyzes the generation and composition of residential solid waste and the handling practices by users in three municipalities in Colombia that have a solid waste management plant (SWMP. The findings show that, although there are significant amounts of useful materials, their handling of the materials as “garbage”, the low recognition of recovery work, and the inadequate storage and source management practices, affect material recovery and the operation of SWMPs. These results may be taken as a reference for this type of municipality, because the solid waste management system and the type of operation of the SWMPs analyzed is similar to all of the SWMPs in the country as well as in other countries in the region.

  15. Gender difference in safe and unsafe practice of pesticide handling in tobacco farmers of malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Nordin, R; Araki, S; Sato, H; Yokoyama, K; Bin Wan Muda, W A; Win Kyi, D

    2001-01-01

    To identify gender difference in safe and unsafe practice of pesticide handling in tobacco farmers of Malaysia, we conducted a 20-item questionnaire interview on storage of pesticide (4 questions), mixing of pesticide (3 questions), use of personal protective equipment and clothing while spraying pesticide (7 questions), activities during and after spraying of pesticide (5 questions), and maintenance of pesticide sprayer (1 question) in 496 tobacco farmers (395 males and 101 females) in Bachok District, Kelantan, Malaysia. Duration of employment was significantly longer in females than those in males (peducation in females was significantly higher than those in males (peducational level and duration of employment, showed that: (1) factor scores for use of personal protective equipment (p0.05). We therefore conclude that: (1) for female tobacco farmers, choice of personal attire tend to result in lower scores on use of personal protective equipment and personal protective clothing while personal hygiene practices result in lower score on safe work habit; and, (2) for male tobacco farmers, the lower scores on reading and following instruction on pesticide label and mixing pesticide and maintenance of pesticide sprayer in good condition suggests that they were not primarily involved in these activities. It is postulated that these differences in safe and unsafe practices of pesticide handling across gender is related to the choice of personal attire, personal hygiene practices and division of labour within farming households which in turn is influenced by prevailing sociocultural norms in the community. PMID:22973149

  16. Assessment of microbiological contamination in different catering units related to food handling in the district of Bragança

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado, Ana; Cunha, Joana; Abreu, Jacinta; BARROS, Pedro de; Pires, Bruno; Nogueira, António José M.; Afonso, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The catering industry has developed over time, increasing the concern about the health and nutritional quality of the food. Therefore producers and food establishments are under pressure to improve the quality of their products and services in order to assure that food is safe and suitable for consumption. The microbial contamination of food is a major public health problem since it affects millions of people worldwide. Poor hygiene practices within the food processing environment...

  17. Interpretation of food risks by mothers of kindergarten children in St.Petersburg, Russia, and their strategies of risk handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromasheva, O.

    2012-01-01

    This study discusses different types of food risks and different strategies of risk handling as conceived by mothers of kindergarten children in Russia. The research includes an analysis of Internet forum discussions and semi-structured interviews; it mainly used data from well-educated, middle-clas

  18. Practical nuclear power training for overseas trainees using reactor facilities and radiation handling facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research reactor of Tokyo City University Atomic Energy Research Laboratory (Musashi Institute of Technology reactor) is zirconium-moderated water-cooled solid homogeneous type (TRIGA-II type), and its maximum heat output is 100 kW. It got into the first critical state in January 1963, and since then, it has achieved success in many researches. Although its decommissioning was decided in 2013, the existing facilities are used in education, and the research related to the decommissioning of research reactor facilities is carried out. Radiation handling facilities are in place, and they are widely used in education and research activities. Atomic Energy Research Laboratory, as a place for education, is conducting education and research activities such as the education using radiation handling facilities, development of an actual feeling type reactor operation simulator using the control panel of Musashi Institute of Technology reactor and operation performance data. This paper reports the practical nuclear power training for overseas trainees using the reactor facilities and radiation handling facilities. It also reports training implementation plan, acceptance preparation, contents of training, and the results of training. (A.O.)

  19. Food Safety Knowledge and Practices of Older Adult Participants of the Food Stamp Nutrition Education Program

    OpenAIRE

    Rasnake, Crystal Michelle

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine food safety knowledge and practices of older adult participants in the Food Stamp Nutrition Education Program (FSNEP) in Virginia. One hundred and sixty-five FSNEP participants were assigned to two possible intervention groups, group one received the food safety lesson from the Healthy Futures Series currently used in FSNEP, while group two received the food safety lesson plus an additional food safety video. FSNEP participants completed food safet...

  20. Food Practices and School Connectedness: A Whole-School Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Eva; Walton, Mat; Stephens, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The health-promoting schools (HPSs) framework has emerged as a promising model for promoting school connectedness in the school setting. The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential for food practices to promote school connectedness within a HPSs framework. Design/methodology/approach: This study explores food practices within a…

  1. The Sanitary Conditions of Food Service Establishments and Food Safety Knowledge and Practices of Food Handlers in Bahir Dar Town

    OpenAIRE

    Kibret, Mulugeta; Abera, Bayeh

    2012-01-01

    Background Lack of basic infrastructure, poor knowledge of hygiene and practices in food service establishments can contribute to outbreaks of foodborne illnesses. The aims of this study were to investigate the food safety knowledge and practices of food handlers and to assess the sanitary conditions of food service establishments in Bahir Dar town. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bahir Dar in May 2011 and data were collected using questionnaire and observation checklist on e...

  2. Factors affecting practical application of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FAO and IAEA convened an Advisory Group Meeting on Commercial Use of Food Irradiation in order to discuss problems of the industry's acceptance of food irradiation and their remedies. Senior executives from major food industries, trade and consumer organizations were invited to discuss these problems and to prepare a report which would serve as the basis for future plan of action by sponsoring Organizations in the field of food irradiation. This publication contains the report of the meeting, papers presented by the participants and their recommendations to the sponsoring Organizations. Refs and tabs

  3. Food suppliers' perceptions and practical implementation of food safety regulations in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hwa Ko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between the perceptions and practical implementation of food safety regulations by food suppliers in Taiwan were evaluated. A questionnaire survey was used to identify individuals who were full-time employees of the food supply industry with at least 3 months of experience. Dimensions of perceptions of food safety regulations were classified using the constructs of attitude of employees and corporate concern attitude for food safety regulation. The behavior dimension was classified into employee behavior and corporate practice. Food suppliers with training in food safety were significantly better than those without training with respect to the constructs of perception dimension of employee attitude, and the constructs of employee behavior and corporate practice associated with the behavior dimension. Older employees were superior in perception and practice. Employee attitude, employee behavior, and corporate practice were significantly correlated with each other. Satisfaction with governmental management was not significantly related to corporate practice. The corporate implementation of food safety regulations by suppliers was affected by employees' attitudes and behaviors. Furthermore, employees' attitudes and behaviors explain 35.3% of corporate practice. Employee behavior mediates employees' attitudes and corporate practices. The results of this study may serve as a reference for governmental supervision and provide training guidelines for workers in the food supply industry.

  4. Can current dietary exposure models handle aggregated intake from different foods? A simulation study for the case of two foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, W.; Boer, de W.J.; Voet, van der H.

    2010-01-01

    Current dietary exposure models provide estimates of long-term intake distributions using short-term food consumption survey data, by statistically modeling the aggregated intakes from different foods consumed on the same day for each participant of the survey. Food consumption behaviour in a popula

  5. Can current dietary exposure models handle aggregated intake from different foods? A simulation study for the case of two foods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, W.; de Boer, W.J.; van der Voet, H.

    2010-01-01

    Current dietary exposure models provide estimates of long-term intake distributions using short-term food consumption survey data, by statistically modeling the aggregated intakes from different foods consumed on the same day for each participant of the survey. Food consumption behaviour in a popula

  6. Microwave Cooking Practices in Minnesota Food Service Establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedeen, Nicole; Reimann, David; Everstine, Karen

    2016-03-01

    Uneven cooking due to consumer use of microwave ovens to cook food products that have been prepared but are not ready to eat has been a documented risk factor in several foodborne disease outbreaks. However, the use of microwave ovens in restaurants and other food service establishments has not been well documented. The aim of this study was to describe the types of food service establishments that use microwave ovens, how these ovens are used, types of foods heated or cooked in these ovens, types of microwave ovens used in food service establishments, and the level of compliance with U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines. From 2008 to 2009, the Minnesota Department of Health collected data from a convenience sample of 60 food establishments within the state. Facility types included fast-food restaurants, sit-down restaurants, school food service, nursing homes, hotels and motels, and daycare centers. Food preparation practices were classified as prep-serve, cookserve, or complex. Minnesota environmental health specialists administered a study questionnaire to managers during routine inspections. Establishments included in this study reported using microwave ovens primarily to warm commercial ready-to-eat products (67%) and to warm foods for palatability (50%). No minimum temperatures are required for these processes because these foods do not require pathogen destruction. However, food establishments using complex preparation practices more often reported using microwave ovens for multiple processes and for processes that require pathogen destruction. For establishments that did report microwave oven use for food requiring pathogen destruction, the majority of managers reported following most FDA recommendations for cooking and reheating for hot-holding potentially hazardous foods, but many did not report letting food stand for 2 min after cooking. Additional training on stand time after microwave cooking could be beneficial because of low reporting

  7. Practical application of food irradiation in Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first regional seminar on food irradiation in Asia was held in Tokyo in 1981. In view of several significant international developments on food irradiation it was considered timely to convene the second seminar in this field to assess practical application of food irradiation in the Asian and Pacific region. Over 70 papers were submitted for the Seminar. Eight technical sessions covering practical aspects of food irradiation (e.g. technology transfer, legislation and control, food irradiation facilities and their economics, transportation trials, market testing and consumer acceptance, commercial development of food irradiation, etc.) were included in the Seminar programme. A Working Group to assess the present situation and future application of food irradiation in the region was convened during the Seminar. The report of the Working Group is included in the Proceedings. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Keeping Kids Safe: A Guide for Safe Food Handling & Sanitation for Child Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Because children under age 5 are susceptible to food-borne illnesses and children in diapers present special sanitation and health problems, food safety and sanitation are emerging as important issues for child care providers. This booklet is designed to give providers and parents a quick and easy reference for food safety and sanitation. The…

  9. 77 FR 71312 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... published in the Federal Register of December 22, 1999 (64 FR 71792), FDA announced that a food additive... produced by irradiating food (62 FR 64107 at 64111 and references cited therein). ] A class of radiolysis... relied on by the Agency in previous evaluations of the safety of irradiated foods (see 51 FR 13376,...

  10. 76 FR 15841 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Food; Confirmation of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 179 Irradiation in the Production, Processing... flesh foods (70 FR 48057 at 48066). In the Raltech studies, animals were fed chicken irradiated at a... foods were observed in any of these studies'' (62 FR 64107 at 64114). Although the objection...

  11. 77 FR 71316 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 179 Irradiation in the Production, Processing... Federal Register of December 21, 1999 (64 FR 71461), FDA announced that a food additive petition (FAP... irradiation of refrigerated flesh foods is safe at the absorbed doses that were reviewed (see 62 FR 64107...

  12. Microbiological Challenge Testing for Listeria Monocytogenes in Ready-to-Eat Food: A Practical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarano, Christian; Ibba, Michela; Pala, Carlo; Spanu, Vincenzo; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Food business operators (FBOs) are the primary responsible for the safety of food they place on the market. The definition and validation of the product’s shelf-life is an essential part for ensuring microbiological safety of food and health of consumers. In the frame of the Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs, FBOs shall conduct shelf-life studies in order to assure that their food does not exceed the food safety criteria throughout the defined shelf-life. In particular this is required for ready-to-eat (RTE) food that supports the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. Among other studies, FBOs can rely on the conclusion drawn by microbiological challenge tests. A microbiological challenge test consists in the artificial contamination of a food with a pathogen microorganism and aims at simulating its behaviour during processing and distribution under the foreseen storage and handling conditions. A number of documents published by international health authorities and research institutions describes how to conduct challenge studies. The authors reviewed the existing literature and described the methodology for implementing such laboratory studies. All the main aspects for the conduction of L. monocytogenes microbiological challenge tests were considered, from the selection of the strains, preparation and choice of the inoculum level and method of contamination, to the experimental design and data interpretation. The objective of the present document is to provide an exhaustive and practical guideline for laboratories that want to implement L. monocytogenes challenge testing on RTE food. PMID:27800369

  13. Microbiological challenge testing for Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat food: a practical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Spanu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Food business operators (FBOs are the primary responsible for the safety of food they place on the market. The definition and validation of the product’s shelf-life is an essential part for ensuring microbiological safety of food and health of consumers. In the frame of the Regulation (EC No 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs, FBOs shall conduct shelf-life studies in order to assure that their food does not exceed the food safety criteria throughout the defined shelf-life. In particular this is required for ready-to-eat (RTE food that supports the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. Among other studies, FBOs can rely on the conclusion drawn by microbiological challenge tests. A microbiological challenge test consists in the artificial contamination of a food with a pathogen microorganism and aims at simulating its behaviour during processing and distribution under the foreseen storage and handling conditions. A number of documents published by international health authorities and research institutions describes how to conduct challenge studies. The authors reviewed the existing literature and described the methodology for implementing such laboratory studies. All the main aspects for the conduction of L. monocytogenes microbiological challenge tests were considered, from the selection of the strains, preparation and choice of the inoculum level and method of contamination, to the experimental design and data interpretation. The objective of the present document is to provide an exhaustive and practical guideline for laboratories that want to implement L. monocytogenes challenge testing on RTE food.

  14. Looking at practice: revealing the knowledge demands of teaching data handling in the primary classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Aisling

    2015-09-01

    In the evolving field of mathematics education, there is the need to maintain the relationship between what is presented in college level preparation courses and the skills required to teach mathematics in classrooms. This research examines the knowledge demands placed on 73 pre-service primary teachers as they use lesson study to plan and teach data handling in primary classrooms. Pre-service teachers are observed as they plan, teach and re-teach data lessons in classrooms. Problems of practice are identified and categorized using the Ball, Thames and Phelps (2008) subdomains of common content knowledge (CCK), specialized content knowledge (SCK), knowledge of content and students (KCS) and knowledge of content and teaching (KCT). The results provide insights into the specific knowledge demands placed on early career teachers when teaching data and statistics and identifies foci area that can be addressed in teacher preparation programs. The results illustrate that development of understandings in one knowledge subdomain can motivate and impact learning in another subdomain. These interrelationships were found to exist both within and between the domains of content and pedagogical content knowledge.

  15. Practical approaches to handle the singularities of a wrist-partitioned space manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenfu; Liang, Bin; Xu, Yangsheng

    2011-01-01

    Space robotic systems are expected to play an increasingly important role in the future. However, the control methods based on the inverse kinematics are affected by singularities. In this paper, practical approaches are proposed to solve the problems of a wrist-partitioned space manipulator. For spacecraft-referenced end-point motion control, we presented the singularity separation plus damped reciprocal (SSPDR) method, which separates the singularity parameters from the inverse of the Jacobian, and replaces their reciprocals using the damped reciprocals. For another control strategy, i.e. inertially referenced end-point motion control, including spacecraft attitude-controlled mode and free-floating mode, the linear momentum equation is used to eliminate three independent variables. With modifying some expressions, the SSPDR method is utilized to solve the singularities of spacecraft attitude-controlled space robot. When the space robot is free-floating, the singularities, i.e. the so-called dynamic singularities, cannot be predicted according to its kinematic structure. Combining with the measured angular velocity of the base, the dynamic singularity handling problem is transformed into real-time kinematic singularity avoiding problem, which can be solved by the SSPDR method. Since the SVD decomposition, the estimation of the minimum singularity value, and the calculation of the generalized Jacobian matrix are not required, the algorithm has lower computation load. Another advantage is that, only the accuracy of part velocity components is reduced by adding the damped coefficients. Simulation results verify the proposed approaches.

  16. Food Safety Practices in the Egg Products Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K; Noyes, Gary

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a national census survey of egg product plants (n = 57) to obtain information on the technological and food safety practices of the egg products industry and to assess changes in these practices from 2004 to 2014. The questionnaire asked about operational and sanitation practices, microbiological testing practices, food safety training for employees, other food safety issues, and plant characteristics. The findings suggest that improvements were made in the industry's use of food safety technologies and practices between 2004 and 2014. The percentage of plants using advanced pasteurization technology and an integrated, computerized processing system increased by almost 30 percentage points. Over 90% of plants voluntarily use a written hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan to address food safety for at least one production step. Further, 90% of plants have management employees who are trained in a written HACCP plan. Most plants (93%) conduct voluntary microbiological testing. The percentage of plants conducting this testing on egg products before pasteurization has increased by almost 30 percentage points since 2004. The survey findings identify strengths and weaknesses in egg product plants' food safety practices and can be used to guide regulatory policymaking and to conduct required regulatory impact analysis of potential regulations.

  17. Recipe Modification Improves Food Safety Practices during Cooking of Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Chambers Iv, Edgar

    2016-08-01

    Many consumers do not practice proper food safety behaviors when preparing food in the home. Several approaches have been taken to improve food safety behaviors among consumers, but there still is a deficit in actual practice of these behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess whether the introduction of food safety instructions in recipes for chicken breasts and ground turkey patties would improve consumers' food safety behaviors during preparation. In total, 155 consumers in two locations (Manhattan, KS, and Nashville, TN) were asked to prepare a baked chicken breast and a ground turkey patty following recipes that either did or did not contain food safety instructions. They were observed to track hand washing and thermometer use. Participants who received recipes with food safety instructions (n = 73) demonstrated significantly improved food safety preparation behaviors compared with those who did not have food safety instructions in the recipe (n = 82). In addition, the majority of consumers stated that they thought the recipes with instructions were easy to use and that they would be likely to use similar recipes at home. This study demonstrates that recipes could be a good source of food safety information for consumers and that they have the potential to improve behaviors to reduce foodborne illness.

  18. Recipe Modification Improves Food Safety Practices during Cooking of Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Chambers Iv, Edgar

    2016-08-01

    Many consumers do not practice proper food safety behaviors when preparing food in the home. Several approaches have been taken to improve food safety behaviors among consumers, but there still is a deficit in actual practice of these behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess whether the introduction of food safety instructions in recipes for chicken breasts and ground turkey patties would improve consumers' food safety behaviors during preparation. In total, 155 consumers in two locations (Manhattan, KS, and Nashville, TN) were asked to prepare a baked chicken breast and a ground turkey patty following recipes that either did or did not contain food safety instructions. They were observed to track hand washing and thermometer use. Participants who received recipes with food safety instructions (n = 73) demonstrated significantly improved food safety preparation behaviors compared with those who did not have food safety instructions in the recipe (n = 82). In addition, the majority of consumers stated that they thought the recipes with instructions were easy to use and that they would be likely to use similar recipes at home. This study demonstrates that recipes could be a good source of food safety information for consumers and that they have the potential to improve behaviors to reduce foodborne illness. PMID:27497133

  19. Semi-automatic handling of meteorological ground measurements using WeatherProg: prospects and practical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langella, Giuliano; Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; De Mascellis, Roberto; Manna, Piero; Terribile, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    WeatherProg is a computer program for the semi-automatic handling of data measured at ground stations within a climatic network. The program performs a set of tasks ranging from gathering raw point-based sensors measurements to the production of digital climatic maps. Originally the program was developed as the baseline asynchronous engine for the weather records management within the SOILCONSWEB Project (LIFE08 ENV/IT/000408), in which daily and hourly data where used to run water balance in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum or pest simulation models. WeatherProg can be configured to automatically perform the following main operations: 1) data retrieval; 2) data decoding and ingestion into a database (e.g. SQL based); 3) data checking to recognize missing and anomalous values (using a set of differently combined checks including logical, climatological, spatial, temporal and persistence checks); 4) infilling of data flagged as missing or anomalous (deterministic or statistical methods); 5) spatial interpolation based on alternative/comparative methods such as inverse distance weighting, iterative regression kriging, and a weighted least squares regression (based on physiography), using an approach similar to PRISM. 6) data ingestion into a geodatabase (e.g. PostgreSQL+PostGIS or rasdaman). There is an increasing demand for digital climatic maps both for research and development (there is a gap between the major of scientific modelling approaches that requires digital climate maps and the gauged measurements) and for practical applications (e.g. the need to improve the management of weather records which in turn raises the support provided to farmers). The demand is particularly burdensome considering the requirement to handle climatic data at the daily (e.g. in the soil hydrological modelling) or even at the hourly time step (e.g. risk modelling in phytopathology). The key advantage of WeatherProg is the ability to perform all the required operations and

  20. Generic planning and control of automated material handling systems : practical requirements versus existing theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneyah, S.W.A.; Schutten, J.M.J.; Schuur, P.C.; Zijm, W.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem to design a generic planning and control architecture for utomated material handling systems (AMHSs). We illustrate the relevance of this research direction, and then address three different market sectors where AMHSs are used, i.e., baggage handling, distribution, a

  1. Generic Planning and Control of Automated Material Handling Systems: Practical Requirements Versus Existing Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneyah, Sameh; Zijm, Henk; Schutten, Marco; Schuur, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of generic planning and control of Automated Material Handling Systems (AMHSs). The paper illustrates the relevance of this research direction, and then addresses three different market sectors where AMHSs are used. These market sectors are: baggage handling, distrib

  2. 9 CFR 314.11 - Handling of certain condemned products for purposes other than human food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... permission therefor is obtained from the circuit supervisor: Anasarca, Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma (after... human food purposes; provided, such articles have not been condemned for other pathological...

  3. Food and nutrition security: challenges of post-harvest handling in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimiywe, J

    2015-11-01

    Presently, close to 1 billion people suffer from hunger and food insecurity. Statistics in Kenya indicates that over 10 million people suffer from chronic food insecurity and poor nutrition, 2-4 million people require emergency food assistance at any given time with nearly 30 % of Kenya's children being undernourished, 35 % stunted while micro-nutrient deficiency is wide spread. Key among the challenges contributing to inadequate foods include lack of certified seeds, seasonal production (rain-fed), high post-harvest losses and wastages, poor transportation, low value additions which reduce their market competitiveness. The present paper examines some of the underlying causes for high food wastage experience in Kenya and the associated challenges in addressing these problems. The paper also provides an overview of some of the basic solutions that have been recommended by various stakeholders. However, in spite of the recent efforts made to mitigate food wastage, there is still an urgent need to address these gaps through participatory, innovative community based interventions that will create resilience to climate change and enhance livelihoods of smallholder farmers in diverse ecosystems.

  4. Food and nutrition security: challenges of post-harvest handling in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimiywe, J

    2015-11-01

    Presently, close to 1 billion people suffer from hunger and food insecurity. Statistics in Kenya indicates that over 10 million people suffer from chronic food insecurity and poor nutrition, 2-4 million people require emergency food assistance at any given time with nearly 30 % of Kenya's children being undernourished, 35 % stunted while micro-nutrient deficiency is wide spread. Key among the challenges contributing to inadequate foods include lack of certified seeds, seasonal production (rain-fed), high post-harvest losses and wastages, poor transportation, low value additions which reduce their market competitiveness. The present paper examines some of the underlying causes for high food wastage experience in Kenya and the associated challenges in addressing these problems. The paper also provides an overview of some of the basic solutions that have been recommended by various stakeholders. However, in spite of the recent efforts made to mitigate food wastage, there is still an urgent need to address these gaps through participatory, innovative community based interventions that will create resilience to climate change and enhance livelihoods of smallholder farmers in diverse ecosystems. PMID:26260147

  5. Food allergy: practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life. PMID:27608473

  6. Food allergy: practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life.

  7. Food governance transformation : aligning food security with sustainable farming practices in developing communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otsuki, K.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional approaches used to improve farming practices and access to food in developing communities are underpinned by policy, technology, and the science of modernization. The focus has been on securing a sufficient quantity of food derived from extensive monocultures. This quantity focus is que

  8. Moving and handling education in the community: technological innovations to improve practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanless, Stephen; Page, Andrea

    2009-12-01

    Efforts to reduce injuries associated with patient handling are often based on tradition and personal experience rather than sound educational theory. The purpose of this article is to summarize current evidence for educational interventions designed to reduce primary care staff injuries: a significant problem for decades. Evidence suggests that the current 'classroom' teaching of moving and handling is ineffective. There is a growing body of evidence to support newer interventions that are effective or show promise in reducing musculoskeletal injuries in health professionals (Freitag et al, 2007). The authors discuss potential solutions through moving and handling-related motion capture simulation and the use of e-learning to promote an understanding of the principles associated with patient handling tasks. PMID:20216497

  9. Generic planning and control of automated material handling systems : practical requirements versus existing theory

    OpenAIRE

    Haneyah, Sameh; Zijm, Henk; Schutten, Marco; Schuur, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of generic planning and control of Automated Material Handling Systems (AMHSs). The paper illustrates the relevance of this research direction, and then addresses three different market sectors where AMHSs are used. These market sectors are: baggage handling, distribution, and parcel & postal. Research in these sectors is heavily motivated by a collaboration between the authors and a major global company supplying AMHSs. The paper analyzes requirements from pr...

  10. Toward practical definitions of quality for food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, H A

    2000-01-01

    A new practical approach to developing workable definitions of quality is presented to overcome the numerous semantic and conceptual difficulties that are common with the use of the word quality in food science. This approach links the concept of quality, through a general definition, by adding the missing link of specific definitions related to measurable attributes and properties determined by standard methods to provide values that can be used to evaluate foods or to set specifications. It is compatible with control, assurance, HACCP, regulatory, TQM, and other normal uses of the both the word quality, and the concept quality, in food science and technology.

  11. Toward practical definitions of quality for food science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremner, Allan

    2000-01-01

    A new practical approach to developing workable definitions of quality is presented to overcome the numerous semantic and conceptual difficulties that an common with the use of the word quality in food science. This approach links the concept of quality, through a general definition, by adding...... quality, and the concept quality, in food science and technology....... the missing link of specific definitions related to measurable attributes and properties determined by standard methods to provide values that can be used to evaluate foods or to set specifications. It is compatible with control, assurance, HACCP, regulatory, TQM, and other normal uses of the both the word...

  12. Code of practice for the control and safe handling of radioactive sources used for therapeutic purposes (1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Code is intended as a guide to safe practices in the use of sealed and unsealed radioactive sources and in the management of patients being treated with them. It covers the procedures for the handling, preparation and use of radioactive sources, precautions to be taken for patients undergoing treatment, storage and transport of radioactive sources within a hospital or clinic, and routine testing of sealed sources

  13. Consumers' practical understanding of healthy food choices: a fake food experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mötteli, Sonja; Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael; Barbey, Jana; Bucher, Tamara

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about laypeople's practical understanding of a healthy diet, although this is important to successfully promote healthy eating. The present study is the first to experimentally examine how consumers define healthy and balanced food choices for an entire day compared with normal choices and compared with dietary guidelines. We used an extensive fake food buffet (FFB) with 179 foods commonly consumed in the Swiss diet. The FFB is a validated method to investigate food choice behaviour in a well-controlled laboratory setting. People from the general population in Switzerland (n 187; 51·9 % females), aged between 18 and 65 years, were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the control group, the participants were instructed to serve themselves foods they would eat on a normal day, whereas in the 'healthy' group they were instructed to choose foods representing a healthy diet. Participants chose significantly more healthy foods, with 4·5 g more dietary fibre, 2 % more protein and 2 % less SFA in the 'healthy' group compared with the control group. However, in both experimental conditions, participants served themselves foods containing twice as much sugar and salt than recommended by dietary guidelines. The results suggest that laypeople lack knowledge about the recommended portion sizes and the amounts of critical nutrients in processed food, which has important implications for communicating dietary guidelines. Furthermore, the energy of the food served was substantially correlated with the energy needs of the participants, demonstrating the potential of the fake food buffet method. PMID:27256562

  14. Management accounting practices in the British food and drinks industry

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Kader, MG; Luther, R

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – This paper investigates and reports on the management accounting practices in the British food and drinks industry. Design/methodology/approach – The data is generated by a large-scale postal questionnaire which was informed by preliminary interviews. Further interviews were carried out to aid interpretation of the responses. Descriptive statistics on the importance and frequency of use of individual practices provide the basis for discussion. Findings – Direct costing is wi...

  15. 77 FR 49448 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Compliance, and Good Clinical Practice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Compliance, and Good Clinical Practice; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Baltimore District Office,...

  16. Standard Practice for Handling, Transporting, and Installing Nonvolatile Residue (NVR) Sample Plates Used in Environmentally Controlled Areas for Spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the handling, transporting, and installing of sample plates used for the gravimetric determination of nonvolatile residue (NVR) within and between facilities. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  17. Children's mouthing and food-handling behavior in an agricultural community on the US/Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Kathleen; Shalat, Stuart L; Freeman, Natalie C G; Jimenez, Marta; Donnelly, Kirby C; Calvin, James A

    2005-05-01

    Children's mouthing and food-handling activities were measured during a study of nondietary ingestion of pesticides in a south Texas community. Mouthing data on 52 children, ranging in age from 7 to 53 months, were collected using questionnaires and videotaping. Data on children's play and hand-washing habits were also collected. Children were grouped into four age categories: infants (7-12 months), 1-year-olds (13-24 months), 2-year-olds (25-36 months) and preschoolers (37-53 months). The frequency and type of events prompting hand washing did not vary by age category except for hand washing after using the bathroom; this increased with increasing age category. Reported contact with grass and dirt also increased with increasing age category. The median hourly hand-to-mouth frequency for the four age groups ranged from 9.9 to 19.4, with 2-year-olds having the lowest frequency and preschoolers having the highest. The median hourly object to mouth frequency ranged from 5.5 to 18.1 across the four age categories; the frequency decreased as age increased (adjusted R(2)=0.179; P=0.003). The median hourly hand-to-food frequency for the four age groups ranged from 10.0 to 16.1, with the highest frequency being observed in the 1-year-olds. Hand-to-mouth frequency was associated with food contact frequency, particularly for children over 12 months of age (adjusted R(2)=0.291; P=0.002). The frequency and duration of hand-to-mouth, object-to-mouth and food-handling behaviors were all greater indoors than outdoors. Infants were more likely to remain indoors than children in other age groups. The time children spent playing on the floor decreased with increasing age (adjusted R(2)=0.096; P=0.031). Parental assessment was correlated with hand-to-mouth activity but not with object-to-mouth activity. The highest combined (hand and object) mouthing rates were observed among infants, suggesting that this age group has the greatest potential for exposure to environmental toxins. PMID

  18. Practical issues in handling data input and uncertainty in a budget impact analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.C. Nuijten (Mark); T. Mittendorf (Thomas); U. Persson (Ulf)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of this paper was to address the importance of dealing systematically and comprehensively with uncertainty in a budget impact analysis (BIA) in more detail. The handling of uncertainty in health economics was used as a point of reference for addressing the uncertainty in a

  19. Analysis of the Supply Chain and Logistics Practices of Warqe Food Products in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashenafi Chaka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Warqe (Enset is a multipurpose perennial plant, domesticated and grown as a food crop only in Ethiopia. Kocho, bulla, and amicho are food products of warqe. This study analysed the supply chain and logistics practices of warqe foods. Supply chain management concept was used to analyse the warqe-based food chain. Eight supply chain actors were identified. It was observed that the supply chain of warqe foods and the relationship between chain actors was very complex, long and overlapping. The major constraints identified in the chain were poor information flow, poor transportation system, using perishable packaging, lack of cooperation between actors, a poor infrastructure such as road and warehouse services, and poor policies concerning the warqe market. There is a need for cooperation and coordination between the chain actors to create an effective information sharing system. Shared warehouses need to be built near producers and market places. Transportation, packaging and handling need to be improved. Research is required to develop an integrated, efficient and effective logistics for warqe supply and marketing chain.

  20. Food Buying Practices of Mexican Americans in East Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jane S.; And Others

    As part of a pilot study of the nutritional status of Mexican American preschool children attending Head Start in East Los Angeles in the spring of 1969, questions were asked concerning their families' buying and food practices. This paper reports on the information obtained from the 21 questionnaires which were returned. Answers to the following…

  1. Nutritional Beliefs and Food Practices of Mexican-American Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Shirley

    In the locale of Hanford, California, this 1968 nutritional study was made to explore and evaluate the nutritional beliefs and food practices of Mexican American mothers among low-income agricultural working families. Some 35 mothers whose children attended the Hanford Child Day-Care Center were interviewed at home to determine family…

  2. Semantic Provisioning of Children's Food: Commerce, Care and Maternal Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Daniel Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Drawing upon in-depth interviews with mothers in the US about feeding their young children, this article examines how consumer culture--broadly construed--constitutes part of the indispensable context of mothering practices. The argument put forward is that mothers not only provide food and sustenance for their children, but necessarily encounter,…

  3. Food Preferences, Beliefs and Practices of Southeast Asian Refugee Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Mary; Harris, Linda J.

    1988-01-01

    Results from a study of 207 Southeast Asian refugee high school students indicate that these students have maintained strong ties to their native foods and traditional meal patterns. Cambodian, Vietnamese, and Hmong students showed varying degrees of nutritional awareness. Implications of beliefs, preferences, and practices for nutrition education…

  4. Food-drug interactions: Putting evidence into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoteri, Jo Ann L

    2016-02-18

    Food-drug interactions occur more often than thought. This manuscript describes the most common interactions the NP may encounter in primary care practice. A thorough and detailed health history and dietary recall are essential for identifying potential problems when prescribing or evaluating medication efficacy. Prevention and education are vital. PMID:26795834

  5. Impacts of the Food Safety Modernization Act on On-Farm Food Safety Practices for Small and Sustainable Produce Growers

    OpenAIRE

    Adalja, Aaron; Lichtenberg, Erik

    2015-01-01

    We use data from a national survey of fruit and vegetable growers to examine the current prevalence and cost burden of food safety practices required in the proposed Produce Rule implementing the Food Safety Modernization Act. In particular, we analyze the influence of farm size and farming practices on the probability of adopting food safety measures that would be required by the Produce Rule; and we analyze how the costs of using those food safety practices vary by farm size and farm practi...

  6. Food safety in hospital: knowledge, attitudes and practices of nursing staff of two hospitals in Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Guardia Maurizio

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food hygiene in hospital poses peculiar problems, particularly given the presence of patients who could be more vulnerable than healthy subjects to microbiological and nutritional risks. Moreover, in nosocomial outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, the mortality risk has been proved to be significantly higher than the community outbreaks and highest for foodborne outbreaks. On the other hand, the common involvement in the role of food handlers of nurses or domestic staff, not specifically trained about food hygiene and HACCP, may represent a further cause of concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning food safety of the nursing staff of two hospitals in Palermo, Italy. Association with some demographic and work-related determinants was also investigated. Methods The survey was conducted, by using a semi-structured questionnaire, in March-November 2005 in an acute general hospital and a paediatric hospital, where nursing staff is routinely involved in food service functions. Results Overall, 401 nurses (279, 37.1%, of the General Hospital and 122, 53.5%, of the Paediatric Hospital, respectively answered. Among the respondents there was a generalized lack of knowledge about etiologic agents and food vehicles associated to foodborne diseases and proper temperatures of storage of hot and cold ready to eat foods. A general positive attitude towards temperature control and using clothing and gloves, when handling food, was shared by the respondents nurses, but questions about cross-contamination, refreezing and handling unwrapped food with cuts or abrasions on hands were frequently answered incorrectly. The practice section performed better, though sharing of utensils for raw and uncooked foods and thawing of frozen foods at room temperatures proved to be widely frequent among the respondents. Age, gender, educational level and length of service were inconsistently

  7. Food Practices in Transition - Changing Food Consumption, Retail and Production in the Age of Reflexive Modernity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaargaren, G.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Loeber, A.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    This edited volume presents and reflects upon empirical evidence of ‘sustainability’-induced and -related transition in food practices. The material collected in the various chapters contributes to our understanding of the ways in which ideas and preferences, sociotechnological developments and chan

  8. 21 CFR 108.25 - Acidified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-handling techniques, food protection principles, personal hygiene, plant sanitation practices, pH controls... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acidified foods. 108.25 Section 108.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  9. Service Scripts: A Tool for Teaching Pharmacy Students How to Handle Common Practice Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Objectives This paper describes the use of service scripts to teach pharmacy students how to manage specific practice situations by learning and following scripted behaviors. Design Based upon role theory, service scripts require specific behaviors for a broad range of practice problems and communicate consistent messages about the responsibilities of all people involved. Service scripts are developed by (1) identifying scenarios for the script, (2) eliciting the script's structure and content, and (3) documenting the reasoning behind the steps in the script. Assessment Students in a nontraditional doctor of pharmacy program developed scripts for their practice settings. They concluded that scripts were useful for quickly learning new, routine tasks, but expressed concern that scripts could be misused by pharmacists and managers. The process of script development itself was useful in gaining feedback about common practice problems. Conclusion By mastering managerial, clinical, and communication scripts, students can develop capabilities to provide professional services. PMID:17136145

  10. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among food handlers on food borne diseases: A hospital based study in tertiary care hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Anuradha, Mavilla; Dandekar, Rahul Hanumant

    2014-01-01

    Title: Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among food handlers on food borne diseases: A hospital based study in tertiary care hospital.Running title: KAP study among food handlers in a Hospital at Perambalur.Background: Food handlers play an important role in ensuring food safety throughout the chain of production, processing, storage and preparation.Staphylococcus aureus infections used to respond to ß-lactam and related group of antibiotics but the emergence of Methicillin-resistant S. Aureus...

  11. FOOD SAFETY KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES AMONG WOMEN IN FIELD PRACTICE AREA OF URBAN HEALTH TRAINING CENTRE, ANDHRA MEDICAL COLLEGE, VISAKHAPATNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Food safety describes handling, prep aration and storage of food in ways to prevent foodborne illness . The contamination of food may occur at any stage in the process from food production to consumption (“farm to plate” - theme for World Health Day 2015.Unsafe food creates a vicious cycle of disease and malnutrition, particularly affecting infants, young children, elderly and the sick. Foodborne diseases include a wide spectrum of illnesses and a growing public health problem worldwide. METHODOLOGY: A cross - sectional community based study was done among 150 women in the field practice area of urban health training centre, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam. Data was collected by administering questionnaire after taking informed consent. Data was entered in Epi data version 3.1 and analysed by usi ng SPSS version 16.Results were represented in form of proportions and Fischer’s Exact test was used to find significant association between variables. RESULTS: Among 150 participants, most of them were in age group of 21 - 30 years with mean age 33±11years.Ab out 68% belonged to low socioeconomic status, 76.7% were housewives, and 79.3% were literates. Among the participants, 94.7% had good knowledge regarding food safety, 30.7% had good practices showing gap between knowledge and practices. In 12% of cases ther e was history of foodborne illness. There was significant association between knowledge and literacy status; knowledge and past history of foodborne diseases (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: There is need for an education program in the community to improve the pract ices among women regarding food safety to fill the observed gap between knowledge and practices.

  12. MEMS product engineering handling the diversity of an emerging technology best practices for cooperative development

    CERN Document Server

    Ortloff, Dirk; Hahn, Kai; Bieniek, Tomasz; Janczyk, Grzegorz; Bruck, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the methodological background to directing cooperative product engineering projects in a micro and nanotechnology setting. The methodology is based on well-established methods like PRINCE2 and StageGate, which are supplemented by best practices that can be individually tailored to the actual nature and size of the project at hand. This book is intended for everyone who takes an active role in either practical product engineering or in teaching it. This includes project and product management staff and program management offices in companies working on innovation projects, those active in innovation, as well as professors and students in engineering and management.

  13. 76 FR 51308 - Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... unfair or deceptive act or practice for ``retail food stores'' to advertise ``food, grocery products or... Store Advertising and Marketing Practices: Statement of Basis and Purpose: The Rule, 36 FR 8777 (May 13... Rule Concerning Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices, 54 FR 35456 (Aug. 28, 1989)....

  14. Consumer Knowledge and Perceptions Towards Food Safety Practices: Implications for Consumer Education Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Sharma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Food safety knowledge and perceptions of consumers are important factors in preventing incidence of foodborne illnesses. The purpose of this study was to determine consumers’ knowledge and perceptions towards food safety and practices. In particular, this study assessed knowledge level of consumers related to key food safety practices and determined the perceptions of consumers regarding food safety practices in foodservice operations. Additionally, it determined consumers’ ability to observe food safety practices in foodservice operations. Results revealed that, in general, consumers were knowledgeable about food safety but did not understand certain basic processes of food safety, such as handwashing and preventing food safety hazards. This study also found that respondents were concerned about food safety and adhered to foodservice operations’ food safety practices. Implications and recommendations for Extension programming were drawn from study results.

  15. The role of order of practice in learning to handle an upper-limb prosthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwsema, Hanneke; van der Sluis, Corry K.; Bongers, Raoul M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine which Order of presentation of practice tasks had the highest effect oil using an upper-limb prosthetic simulator. Design: A cohort analytic Study. Setting: University laboratory. Participants: Healthy, able-bodied participants (N=72) randomly assigned to I Of 8 groups, each

  16. Command and Data Handling Flight Software test framework: A Radiation Belt Storm Probes practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T. A.; Reid, W. M.; Wortman, K. A.

    During the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission, a test framework was developed by the Embedded Applications Group in the Space Department at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The test framework is implemented for verification of the Command and Data Handling (C& DH) Flight Software. The RBSP C& DH Flight Software consists of applications developed for use with Goddard Space Flight Center's core Flight Executive (cFE) architecture. The test framework's initial concept originated with tests developed for verification of the Autonomy rules that execute with the Autonomy Engine application of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software. The test framework was adopted and expanded for system and requirements verification of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software. During the evolution of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software test framework design, a set of script conventions and a script library were developed. The script conventions and library eased integration of system and requirements verification tests into a comprehensive automated test suite. The comprehensive test suite is currently being used to verify releases of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software. In addition to providing the details and benefits of the test framework, the discussion will include several lessons learned throughout the verification process of RBSP C& DH Flight Software. Our next mission, Solar Probe Plus (SPP), will use the cFE architecture for the C& DH Flight Software. SPP also plans to use the same ground system as RBSP. Many of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software applications are reusable on the SPP mission, therefore there is potential for test design and test framework reuse for system and requirements verification.

  17. Imputation methods for handling item-nonresponse in practice: methodological issues and recent debates

    OpenAIRE

    Durrant, Gabriele B.

    2009-01-01

    Nonresponse is a major problem often faced by social scientists when analysing survey data. A range exists to impute the missing responses but the choice between these methods may be difficult. This paper reviews advantages and disadvantages of a range of imputation methods and provides guidance on how to use such methods in practice. The paper introduces the reader new to the imputation literature to key ideas and methods. For those already familiar with imputation, the paper highlights some...

  18. Food safety knowledge and practices of abattoir and butchery shops and the microbial profile of meat in Mekelle City, Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mekonnen Haileselassie; Habtamu Taddele; Kelali Adhana; Shewit Kalayou

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the food safety knowledge and practices in meat handling, and to determine microbial load and pathogenic organisms in meat at Mekelle city. Methods: A descriptive survey design was used to answer questions concerning the current status of food hygiene and sanitation practiced in the abattoir and butcher shops. Workers from the abattoir and butcher shops were interviewed through a structured questionnaire to assess their food safety knowledge. Bacterial load was assessed by serial dilution method and the major bacterial pathogens were isolated by using standard procedures. Results: 15.4% of the abattoir workers had no health certificate and there was no hot water, sterilizer and cooling facility in the abattoir. 11.3% of the butchers didn't use protective clothes. There was a food safety knowledge gap within the abattoir and butcher shop workers. The mean values of bacterial load of abattoir meat, butcher shops and street meat sale was found to be 1.1×105, 5.6×105 and 4.3×106 cfu/g, respectively. The major bacterial pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Conclusions: The study revealed that there is a reasonable gap on food safety knowledge by abattoir and butcher shop workers. The microbial profile was also higher compared to standards set by World Health Organization. Due attention should be given by the government to improve the food safety knowledge and the quality standard of meat sold in the city.

  19. Product development practice in medium-sized food processing companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Hanne

    Market orientation has in numerous empirical NPD-studies been identified as critical for success. However, this study reveals a severe gap between the normative implications regarding market orientation and current product development practice in number of Danish food-processing companies. Through...... an action-research project it is attempted to increase the level of market orientation. Results show that market orientation can be improved, but that the change process is difficult and time-con and improvements rather incremental. Implications of results include a questining of the possibility...

  20. Older Adult Consumer Knowledge, Attitudes, and Self-Reported Storage Practices of Ready-to-Eat Food Products and Risks Associated with Listeriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ellen W; Redmond, Elizabeth C

    2016-02-01

    Consumer implementation of recommended food safety practices, specifically relating to time and temperature control of ready-to-eat (RTE) food products associated with listeriosis are crucial. This is particularly the case for at-risk consumers such as older adults, given the increased listeriosis incidence reported internationally among adults aged ≥60 years. However, data detailing older adults' cognitive risk factors associated with listeriosis are lacking. Combining data about knowledge, self-reported practices, and attitudes can achieve a cumulative multilayered in-depth understanding of consumer food safety behavior and cognition. This study aims to ascertain older adults' cognition and behavior in relation to domestic food handling and storage practices that may increase the risks associated with L. monocytogenes. Older adults (≥60 years) (n = 100) participated in an interview and questionnaire to determine knowledge, self-reported practices, and attitudes toward recommended practices. Although the majority (79%) had positive attitudes toward refrigeration, 84% were unaware of recommended temperatures (5°C) and 65% self-reported "never" checking their refrigerator temperature. Although most (72%) knew that "use-by" dates indicate food safety and 62% reported "always" taking note, neutral attitudes were held, with 67% believing it was safe to eat food beyond use-by dates and 57% reporting doing so. Attitudes toward consuming foods within the recommended 2 days of opening were neutral, with 55% aware of recommendations and , 84% reporting that they consume RTE foods beyond recommendations. Although knowledgeable of some key practices, older adults self-reported potentially unsafe practices when storing RTE foods at home, which may increase risks associated with L. monocytogenes. This study has determined that older adults' food safety cognition may affect their behaviors; understanding consumer food safety cognition is essential for developing targeted

  1. Fecal contamination of drinking water in Kericho District, Western Kenya: role of source and household water handling and hygiene practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Too, Johana Kiplagat; Kipkemboi Sang, Willy; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Ngayo, Musa Otieno

    2016-08-01

    Inadequate protection of water sources, and poor household hygienic and handling practices have exacerbated fecal water contamination in Kenya. This study evaluated the rate and correlates of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) household water contamination in Kericho District, Western Kenya. Culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to characterize TTCs. The disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic susceptibility profiling of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Out of the 103 households surveyed, 48 (46.6%) had TTC contaminated drinking water (TTC levels of >10 cfu/100 mL). Five of these households were contaminated with pathogenic E. coli, including 40% enteroaggregative E. coli, 40% enterotoxigenic E. coli, and 20% enteropathogenic E. coli. All these pathogenic E. coli strains were multidrug resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, ampicillin, tetracycline and ampicillin/sulbactam. Rural household locality, drinking water hand contact, water storage container cleaning practice, hand washing before water withdrawal, water source total coliforms water. Significant proportions of household drinking water in Kericho District are contaminated with TTCs including with pathogenic multidrug-resistant E. coli. Source and household hygiene and practices contribute significantly to drinking water contamination. PMID:27441861

  2. Sustainability of Wastewater Treatment and Excess Sludge Handling Practices in the Federated States of Micronesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph D. Rouse

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of wastewater treatment facilities in the Federated States of Micronesia revealed a lack of fully functional treatment systems and conditions that potentially could lead to adverse environmental impacts and public health concerns. Due to inadequate facilities, the amount and composition of wastewater entering the plants as well as the degree of treatment being achieved is largely unknown. In some cases raw sewage is being discharged directly into the ocean and waste sludge is regularly taken by local residents for agricultural purposes without adequate treatment. In addition, the need to establish best management practices for placement and maintenance of septic tanks is urgent. Furthermore, development of eco-friendly solutions is needed to more effectively treat wastewater from industrial and agricultural sources in an effort to abate current pollution problems. Comparisons of treatment methods being used and problems encountered at different locations in the islands would provide valuable information to aid in the development of sustainable treatment practices throughout Micronesia.

  3. Hygienic Practices among Food Vendors in Educational Institutions in Ghana: The Case of Konongo

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac Monney; Dominic Agyei; Wellington Owusu

    2013-01-01

    With the booming street food industry in the developing world there is an urgent need to ensure food vendors adhere to hygienic practices to protect public health. This study assessed the adherence to food hygiene practices by food vendors in educational institutions in Konongo, Ghana. Structured questionnaires, extensive observation and interviews were used for the study involving 60 food vendors from 20 basic schools. Attributable to the influence of school authorities and the level of in-t...

  4. Practical handling of AIO admixtures – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanga, Z.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available All-in-one admixtures (AIO-admixtures provide safe, effective and low-risk PN (parenteral nutrition for practically all indications and applications. Water, energy (carbohydrates and lipids, amino acids, vitamins and trace elements are infused together with PN either as industrially-manufactured AIO admixtures provided as two- or three-chamber bags (shelf life usually more than 12 months completed with electrolytes and micronutrients where appropriate or as individually compounded ready-to-use AIO admixtures (compounding, usually prepared by a pharmacy on either a daily or weekly basis and stored at 2–8°C. Physico-chemical and microbial stability of an AIO admixture is essential for the safety and effectiveness of patient-specific PN, and its assurance requires specialist pharmaceutical knowledge. The stability should be documented for an application period of 24 (–48 hours. It is advisable to offer a limited selection of different PN regimes in each hospital. For reasons of drug and medication safety, PN admixtures prepared for individual patients must be correctly labelled and specifications for storage conditions must also be followed during transport. Monitoring is required where applicable. Micronutrients are usually administered separately to AIO admixtures. In case compatibility and stability have been well documented trace elements and/or combination preparations including water-soluble or water-soluble/fat soluble vitamin supplements can be added to PN admixtures under strict aseptic conditions. AIO admixtures are usually not used as vehicles for drugs (incompatibilities.

  5. Food and waste: negotiating conflicting social anxieties into the practices of provisioning

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, M.(School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom); MEAH, A.

    2013-01-01

    Two significant realms of social anxiety, visible in the discourses of media and public policy, potentially pull practices of home food provisioning in conflicting directions. On the one hand, campaigns to reduce the astonishing levels of food waste generated in the UK moralize acts of both food saving (such as keeping and finding creative culinary uses for leftovers) and food disposal. On the other hand, agencies concerned with food safety, including food-poisoning, problematize common pract...

  6. Perceived parental food controlling practices are related to obesogenic or leptogenic child life style behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van; Niekerk, R.E. van; Ouwens, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    To better understand whether the parental food controlling practices pressure and restriction to eat are obesity preventing or obesity promoting, this study examined whether these parenting practices are related to other (food or non-food) areas that are generally regarded as obesogenic or leptogeni

  7. 77 FR 49449 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Compliance, and Good Clinical Practice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Compliance, and Good Clinical Practice; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Office of Regulatory Affairs...

  8. Food allergy knowledge, perception of food allergy labeling, and level of dietary practice: A comparison between children with and without food allergy experience

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yongmi; Ju, Seyoung; Chang, Hyeja

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The prevalence of food allergies in Korean children aged 6 to 12 years increased from 10.9% in 1995 to 12.6% in 2012 according to nationwide population studies. Treatment for food allergies is avoidance of allergenic-related foods and epinephrine auto-injector (EPI) for accidental allergic reactions. This study compared knowledge and perception of food allergy labeling and dietary practices of students. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study was conducted with the fourth to sixth gr...

  9. An unsustainable state: contrasting food practices and state policies in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Jehlicka, Petr; Smith, Joe

    2011-01-01

    This paper brings together consideration of food policies and practices and of post-socialist transition to raise neglected questions about means of nurturing more sustainable food systems in the developed world. The last three decades have been marked by the growing salience of food as a political and scholarly concern. While market-based alternative food systems have been heralded for their potential to promote environmental sustainability, the benefits of non-market practices such as house...

  10. Practices of Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ræbild, Ulla

    introduces four ways whereby fashion designers apply their own bodies as tools for design; a) re-activating past garment-design experiences, b) testing present garment-design experiences c) probing for new garment-design experiences and d) design of future garment experiences by body proxy. The paper...

  11. Putting local food on the menu: comparing the food purchasing practices of Vancouver’s Chinese and fine dining restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Sarah M.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of local food has attracted a great amount of attention. Little is known, however, about the organization and particular characteristics of local agrifood systems in different regions. This research paper examines the extent to which Chinese and fine dining restaurants in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), purchase products from the local BC food system. The study also explores what factors affect the food purchasing practices, marketing strategies and supply chain...

  12. Food insecurity, food based coping strategies and suboptimal dietary practices of adolescents in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Lema, Tefera Belachew; Lindstrom, David; Gebremariam, Abebe; Hogan, Dennis; Lachat, Carl; Huybregts, Lieven; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of adolescent food insecurity in Ethiopia, there is no study which documented its association with suboptimal dietary practices. The objective of this study is to determine the association between adolescent food insecurity and dietary practices. We used data on 2084 adolescents in the age group of 13–17 years involved in the first round survey of the five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. Adolescents were selected using residence stratified ran...

  13. Food insecurity, food based coping strategies and suboptimal dietary practices of adolescents in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tefera Belachew; David Lindstrom; Abebe Gebremariam; Dennis Hogan; Carl Lachat; Lieven Huybregts; Patrick Kolsteren

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of adolescent food insecurity in Ethiopia, there is no study which documented its association with suboptimal dietary practices. The objective of this study is to determine the association between adolescent food insecurity and dietary practices. We used data on 2084 adolescents in the age group of 13-17 years involved in the first round survey of the five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. Adolescents were selected using residence stratified ran...

  14. “Indigenizing” Food Sovereignty. Revitalizing Indigenous Food Practices and Ecological Knowledges in Canada and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Coté

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The food sovereignty movement initiated in 1996 by a transnational organization of peasants, La Via Campesina, representing 148 organizations from 69 countries, became central to self-determination and decolonial mobilization embodied by Indigenous peoples throughout the world. Utilizing the framework of decolonization and sustainable self-determination, this article analyzes the concept of food sovereignty to articulate an understanding of its potential for action in revitalizing Indigenous food practices and ecological knowledge in the United States and Canada. The food sovereignty movement challenged the hegemony of the globalized, neoliberal, industrial, capital-intensive, corporate-led model of agriculture that created destructive economic policies that marginalized small-scale farmers, removed them from their land, and forced them into the global market economy as wage laborers. Framed within a larger rights discourse, the food sovereignty movement called for the right of all peoples to healthy and culturally appropriate food and the right to define their own food and agricultural systems. “Indigenizing” food sovereignty moves beyond a rights based discourse by emphasizing the cultural responsibilities and relationships Indigenous peoples have with their environment and the efforts being made by Indigenous communities to restore these relationships through the revitalization of Indigenous foods and ecological knowledge systems as they assert control over their own foods and practices.

  15. Purchasing Organic Food in U.S. Food Systems: A Study of Attitudes and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Onyango, Benjamin M.; Hallman, William K.; Bellows, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Consumers' preference for organic foods in the context of food aspects considered important in a consumption decision and socioeconomic variables has been examined in this study. The results indicate that food aspects related to naturalness, vegetarian-vegan and production location were critical enhancing regularity of organic food purchases. While the familiarity food aspect was viewed as a 'no' issue as far as organic food purchases are concerned. Results further indicate that females and y...

  16. A practical view of immunotherapy for food allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Tae Won

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is common and sometimes life threatening for Korean children. The current standard treatment of allergen avoidance and self-injectable epinephrine does not change the natural course of food allergy. Recently, oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapies have been studied for their effectiveness against food allergy. While various rates of desensitization (36% to 100%) and tolerance (28% to 75%) have been induced by immunotherapies for food allergy, no single established pro...

  17. Identifying Key Risk Behaviors Regarding Personal Hygiene and Food Safety Practices of Food Handlers Working in Eating Establishments Located Within a Hospital Campus in Kolkata

    OpenAIRE

    Prianka Mukhopadhyay*, Gautam Kr. Joardar, Kanad Bag, Amrita Samanta, Sonali Sain and Sesadri Koley

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hospital canteens cater to a large population group and personal hygiene and food safety practices of food handlers assume immense importance to prevent food borne disease outbreaks. Objectives: To assess the self-reported behaviour of food handlers on personal hygiene and food safety practices and to find out their morbidity profile. Methods: An observational study was conducted by interviewing 67 consenting food handlers working in different eateries inside a hospital campus, us...

  18. Natural Ingredients and Foods: A Practical Approach for Qualification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeres, H.L.; Jong, G.A.H. de; Hübner, F.; Wassink, G.

    2013-01-01

    The term “natural” in food labelling is increasingly used by producers to indicate that their products are “natural”. The use of this term is not well regulated in many countries, leading to confusion among consumers as well as food producers and legislators and to a lack of guidance for food produc

  19. Social transmission of food handling in the context of triadic interactions between adults and young canaries (Serinus canaria)

    OpenAIRE

    Cadieu, Nicole; Winterton, P.; Cadieu, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    International audience We studied the factors that enhance food recognition and consumption in young canaries when confronted with adults. In contrast to previous studies on canaries in which social transmission of food habits was studied in the context of dyadic interactions (one juvenile – one adult), we proposed a more realistic framework in which young canaries were studied in the context of triadic interactions, free or not, with adults of both sexes. We found that during free interac...

  20. Facts about food irradiation: Microbiological safety of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fact sheet considers the microbiological safety of irradiated food, with especial reference to Clostridium botulinum. Irradiated food, as food treated by any ''sub-sterilizing'' process, must be handled, packaged and stored following good manufacturing practices to prevent growth and toxin production of C. botulinum. Food irradiation does not lead to increased microbiological hazards, nor can it be used to save already spoiled foods. 4 refs

  1. Food Safety Education Using an Interactive Multimedia Kiosk in a WIC Setting: Correlates of Client Satisfaction and Practical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Newman, Frederick L.; Huffman, Fatma G.; Dixon, Zisca

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess acceptability of food safety education delivered by interactive multimedia (IMM) in a Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children Program (WIC) clinic. Methods: Female clients or caregivers (n = 176) completed the food-handling survey; then an IMM food safety education program on a computer kiosk.…

  2. Vector Potential of Blattella germanica (L. (Dictyoptera: Blattidae for Medically Important Bacteria at Food Handling Establishments in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fithamlak Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches have been regarded as possible vectors of human enteropathogens. Their presence and crawl particularly in food handling establishments could be risky for human health. Therefore, this study was done to determine the vector potential of cockroach for medically important bacterial pathogens in restaurants and cafeterias. A cross-sectional study was conducted on cockroaches from restaurants and cafeterias in Jimma town from May to September 2014. Standard taxonomic keys and microbiological techniques were applied for species identification and isolation. Data was analyzed in SPSS version 16.0. All cockroaches trapped were the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L. (Dictyoptera: Blattidae. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated followed by Salmonella species (serogroups B, D, E, C1, and NG, Bacillus cereus, and Shigella flexneri. Wide varieties of bacteria of medical relevance were also identified. Of which, Klebsiella spp. 49(40.8%, Bacillus spp., and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were predominant. Blattella germanica (L. (Dictyoptera: Blattidae could serve as a potential vector for the dissemination of foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Shigella flexneri, E. coli, S. aureus, and B. cereus and these bacteria could be a major threat to public health. Therefore, environmental sanitation and standard hygiene need to be applied in the food handling establishments in that locality.

  3. Vector Potential of Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) for Medically Important Bacteria at Food Handling Establishments in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belayneh, Fanuel; Kibru, Gebre

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches have been regarded as possible vectors of human enteropathogens. Their presence and crawl particularly in food handling establishments could be risky for human health. Therefore, this study was done to determine the vector potential of cockroach for medically important bacterial pathogens in restaurants and cafeterias. A cross-sectional study was conducted on cockroaches from restaurants and cafeterias in Jimma town from May to September 2014. Standard taxonomic keys and microbiological techniques were applied for species identification and isolation. Data was analyzed in SPSS version 16.0. All cockroaches trapped were the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae). Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated followed by Salmonella species (serogroups B, D, E, C1, and NG), Bacillus cereus, and Shigella flexneri. Wide varieties of bacteria of medical relevance were also identified. Of which, Klebsiella spp. 49(40.8%), Bacillus spp., and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were predominant. Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) could serve as a potential vector for the dissemination of foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Shigella flexneri, E. coli, S. aureus, and B. cereus and these bacteria could be a major threat to public health. Therefore, environmental sanitation and standard hygiene need to be applied in the food handling establishments in that locality. PMID:27294115

  4. Vector Potential of Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) for Medically Important Bacteria at Food Handling Establishments in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Fithamlak; Belayneh, Fanuel; Kibru, Gebre; Ali, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches have been regarded as possible vectors of human enteropathogens. Their presence and crawl particularly in food handling establishments could be risky for human health. Therefore, this study was done to determine the vector potential of cockroach for medically important bacterial pathogens in restaurants and cafeterias. A cross-sectional study was conducted on cockroaches from restaurants and cafeterias in Jimma town from May to September 2014. Standard taxonomic keys and microbiological techniques were applied for species identification and isolation. Data was analyzed in SPSS version 16.0. All cockroaches trapped were the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae). Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated followed by Salmonella species (serogroups B, D, E, C1, and NG), Bacillus cereus, and Shigella flexneri. Wide varieties of bacteria of medical relevance were also identified. Of which, Klebsiella spp. 49(40.8%), Bacillus spp., and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were predominant. Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) could serve as a potential vector for the dissemination of foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Shigella flexneri, E. coli, S. aureus, and B. cereus and these bacteria could be a major threat to public health. Therefore, environmental sanitation and standard hygiene need to be applied in the food handling establishments in that locality. PMID:27294115

  5. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is a promising technology in which food products are exposed to a controlled amount of radiant energy to eliminate disease-causing bacteria. The process can also control parasites and insects, reduce spoilage and inhibit ripening and sprouting. Food irradiation is endorsed by the most important health organisations (WHO, CDC, USDA, FDA, EFSA, etc.) and allowed in nearly 40 Countries. It is to remember that irradiation is not a substitute either for comprehensive food safety programs or for good food-handling practices. Irradiated foods must be labelled with either the statement treated with radiation or treated by irradiation and the international symbol for irradiation, the radura. Some consumer associations suppose negative aspects of irradiation, such as increase of the number of free radicals in food and decrease of antioxidant vitamins that neutralize them

  6. An outbreak of foodborne diarrheal illness among soldiers in mina during Hajj: The role of consumer food handling behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla S Al-Joudi

    2007-01-01

    Results: A total of 50 Saudi Male Soldiers were interviewed. Out of these, 16 (39% had developed gastroenteritis, most commonly manifested by diarrhea (100%, and abdominal colic (87.5%. The mean incubation period was 12.6 ± 4.9 hours and the epidemic curve suggested a common point source outbreak. Out of three served meals, lunch was found to have a statistically significant association with illness (p=0.0230. Out of five food items served, rice was the only food item found to have a statistically significant association with illness (p=0.0230. No food remnants were found for sampling. All results of stool cultures of all diarrhea patients, and rectal swabs from all food handlers were inconclusive. Conclusions: This outbreak was most likely caused by eating contaminated rice served at lunch on 3 rd January. The most likely organisms were Bacillus cereus, and/or Clostridium perfringens. Consuming food that was kept at an unsafe temperature wihout being reheated was the most probable important factor leading to this outbreak.

  7. Using Cross-practice Collaboration to Meet the Evolving Legal Needs of Local Food Entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Broad Leib, Emily Michele; Kool, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This article begins by highlighting several of the legal barriers commonly faced by local food businesses. The article then demonstrates that policy lawyers and transactional lawyers can effectively collaborate to improve the food system by providing synergistic feedback that informs each other’s practices, thereby improving service for food-related clients and enhancing the legal environment for future local food entrepreneurs. The article describes the methods that two clinics at Harvard...

  8. Developing a Multicomponent Model of Nutritious Food Access and Related Implications for Community and Policy Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    FREEDMAN, DARCY A.; BLAKE, CHRISTINE E.; LIESE, ANGELA D.

    2014-01-01

    Access to nutritious foods is limited in disenfranchised communities in the United States. Policies are beginning to focus on improving nutritious food access in these contexts; yet, few theories are available to guide this work. We developed a conceptual model of nutritious food access based on the qualitative responses of food consumers in 2 different regions of the American South. Five domains (economic, service delivery, spatial–temporal, social, and personal) and related dimensions of nutritious food access were identified. The conceptual model provides practical guidance to researchers, policy makers, and practitioners working to improve nutritious food access in communities. PMID:24563605

  9. Clarifying concepts of food parenting practices. A Delphi study with an application to snacking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, D W M; Kremers, S P J; de Vries, N K; van Assema, P

    2014-08-01

    Inconsistencies in measurements of food parenting practices continue to exist. Fundamental to this problem is the lack of clarity about what is understood by different concepts of food parenting practices. The purpose of this study was to clarify food parenting practice concepts related to snacking. A three round Delphi study among an international group of experts (n = 63) was conducted. In the first round, an open-ended survey was used to collect food parenting practice descriptions and concept labels associated with those practices. In the second round, participants were asked to match up descriptions with the appropriate concept labels. The third and final round allowed participants to reconsider how descriptions and concept labels were matched, taking into account the opinions expressed in round two. Round one produced 408 descriptions of food parenting practices and 110 different concept names. Round two started with 116 descriptions of food parenting practices and 20 concept names. On 40 descriptions, consensus regarding the underlying concept name was reached in round two. Of the remaining 76 descriptions, consensus on 47 descriptions regarding the underlying concept name was reached in round three. The present study supports the essential process of consensus development with respect to food parenting practices concepts. PMID:24732407

  10. Food quality management : a technological and managerial principles and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Marcelis, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    This book describes Food Quality Management in one integrated concept. Firstly, all relevant aspects of food quality management are brought into one model, which forms the framework for this book. Secondly, the authors introduce the techno-managerial approach. This approach starts from the idea that

  11. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-06-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderate effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent-child overweight preventive interventions.

  12. Exploring household food security in the Vaalharts area / Dorette van Wyk

    OpenAIRE

    Van Wyk, Dorette

    2014-01-01

    Food security is essential amongst households as it enables consumers to live a healthy and productive life. Determining factors for households to be classified as food secure is the availability, accessibility and utilisation of food in a sustainable manner as food availability and accessibility alone are not enough for households to be food secure. The food utilisation aspect of food security, which includes the type of food consumed, food knowledge and food handling practices, should there...

  13. Seed handling practices: four fast-growing hardwoods for humid tropical plantations in the Eighties. [Acacia mangium, Albizia falcataria, E. deglupta, Gmelina arborea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, M.R.; Eusebio, T.V.

    1984-01-01

    Research in Sabah in 1981/82 is reported on the phenology, harvesting, cleaning, testing and storage of the seed of Acacia mangium, Albizia falcataria, Eucalyptus deglupta and Gmelina arborea. Seed handling practices were standardized for all except G. arborea. In A. mangium, branch lopping was the preferred harvesting method, and variation was observed in the fruiting season and seed funicle type (probably due to introgression with A. auriculiformis).

  14. Microbial Quality, Nutritional Knowledge and Food Hygienic Practices among Street Food Vendors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowri, B.; Vasantha Devi, K. P.; Sivakumar, M.

    2011-01-01

    Since all categories of people from different socio-economic sectors purchase street foods; the street foods should not only be cheap but also hygienic and rich in nutrition. The investigators with their nutrition knowledge had an urge to study the nutrition knowledge of the vendors, whether the foods prepared are nutritionally sound or not?, are…

  15. Survey of Food-hygiene Practices at Home and Childhood Diarrhoea in Hanoi, Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    TAKANASHI, Kumiko; Chonan, Yuko; Quyen, Dao To; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Poudel, Krishna C; Jimba, Masamine

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the potential factors of food-hygiene practices of mothers on the prevalence of diarrhoea among their children. Mothers who had children aged 6 months–5 years were recruited in a hamlet in Viet Nam. The food-hygiene practices included hand-washing, method of washing utensils, separation of utensils for raw and cooked food, and the location where foods were prepared for cooking. A face-to-face interview was conducted, and data on 206 mothers...

  16. Balancing food values: Making sustainable choices within cooking practices

    OpenAIRE

    De JONG, A.; Kuijer, S.C.; Rydell, T.

    2013-01-01

    Within user-centred design and topics such as persuasive design, pleasurable products, and design for sustainable behaviour, there is a danger of over-determining, pacifying or reducing people’s diversity. Taking the case of sustainable food, we have looked into the social aspects of cooking at home, in specific related to the type of food that is purchased. This paper describes what it means for people to make more sustainable choices in food shopping and how that can be mediated while ta...

  17. 76 FR 9027 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Best Practices for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... Electronic Healthcare Data Sets; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... industry and FDA staff entitled ``Best Practices for Conducting and Reporting Pharmacoepidemiologic...

  18. CURRENT PRACTICES AND REGULATIONS REGARDING OPEN DATING OF FOOD PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Labuza, Theodore P.; Szybist, Lynn M.

    1999-01-01

    A federally regulated open dating system on food products, instead of the current somewhat random and non-uniform state mandated system, would most likely benefit today's consumers, retailers, and government agencies. Consumers have indicated a strong desire for open dates; it would enhance their ability to make educated choices about the freshness of the foods they consume. A mandatory/uniform system would also assist retail grocers with stock rotation, so that customers can be provided with...

  19. What do Andy Warhol, pecorino and wasabi have in common? Food practices in Ljubljana and Maribor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Kamin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present an analysis of food practices based on the research project »Media consumption, class and cultural stratification«. A cluster analysis of data obtained from a random sample of the adult population in Ljubljana and Maribor, the two biggest cities in Slovenia, revealed four food cultures: Aspiring traditionalists (27% of the sample, Struggling traditionalists (32%, Health conscious and socially responsible hedonists (29% and Traditionalists, adapted to urban trends (12%. The findings support previous research which recognises significant associations between food practices, socio-demographic factors (particularly education, values and cultural consumption. The data show that food practices in Ljubljana and Maribor are still primarily traditionalistic, as are several other practices of everyday life.

  20. Manual of Good Practice in Food Irradiation. Sanitary, Phytosanitary and Other Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensuring that the process of irradiating food delivers the desired result consistently is essential for the correct application of the technology and will help to inspire consumer confidence in irradiated food. This publication aims to help operators of irradiation facilities to appreciate and improve their practices and also to provide detailed, yet straightforward, technical information for stakeholders such as food regulators, manufacturers and traders, who also need to understand ‘good practice’

  1. Food and Nutrition Practices and Education Needs in Florida's Adult Family Care Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Wendy J.; Ford, Amanda L.; Gal, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    A statewide survey was carried out to determine food and nutrition practices and education needs of Florida's adult family care homes (AFCHs). The 30-item survey included questions on food and nutrition education, supplement use, and menu planning. Infrequent use of menus and nutrition supplements was reported. A strong need was indicated for…

  2. Food expenditures, cariogenic dietary practices and childhood dental caries in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldens, C A; Rodrigues, P H; Rauber, F; Chaffee, B W; Vitolo, M R

    2013-01-01

    Family expenditures on food for children may represent an important barrier to the adoption of healthy feeding practices in populations of low socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between cariogenic feeding practices, expenditures on food for children and dental caries. This cross-sectional study included 329 four-year-old children from São Leopoldo in southern Brazil. Cariogenic dietary practices were assessed at 4 years of age using two 24-hour recalls conducted with the children's mothers. Expenditures on food for children were estimated based on all reported food items and the respective amounts ingested. Early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries were assessed by clinical examination at 4 years of age. Cariogenic dietary habits were not associated with lower food expenditures. On the contrary, in multivariable regression analysis, the intake of chocolate (p = 0.007), soft drinks (p = 0.027) and a higher number of meals and snacks per day (p food for children. No statistically significant differences were observed in food expenditures or in the proportion of household income spent on feeding children between caries-free children, those with early childhood caries and those with severe early childhood caries. In conclusion, keeping children free of dental caries does not necessarily increase food expenditures or the proportion of household income spent on feeding children in low-socioeconomic status populations. Some cariogenic dietary practices were associated with greater expenditures on child feeding.

  3. Measuring parent food practices: a systematic review of existing measures and examination of instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughn, Amber E; Tabak, Rachel G.; Bryant, Maria J.; Ward, Dianne S

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in development of instruments to measure parent food practices. Because these instruments often measure different constructs, or define common constructs differently, an evaluation of these instruments is needed. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify existing measures of parent food practices and to assess the quality of their development. The initial search used terms capturing home environment, parenting behav...

  4. Balancing food values: Making sustainable choices within cooking practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, A.; Kuijer, S.C.; Rydell, T.

    2013-01-01

    Within user-centred design and topics such as persuasive design, pleasurable products, and design for sustainable behaviour, there is a danger of over-determining, pacifying or reducing people’s diversity. Taking the case of sustainable food, we have looked into the social aspects of cooking at home

  5. Impact of Food Allergies on School Nursing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Christopher; Munoz-Furlong, Anne; Furlong, Terence J.; Arbit, Julie

    2004-01-01

    Food allergies affect 11 million Americans, including 6-8% of children. The rate of peanut allergies in children doubled from 1997 to 2002. There is no cure; therefore, strict avoidance of the allergen is the only way to avoid a reaction. Fatalities are associated with delays in or lack of epinephrine administration. Severe reactions, called…

  6. Food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the abattoir workers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Auwalu Abdullahi,1–3 Azmi Hassan,1 Norizhar Kadarman,2 Ahmadu Saleh,4 Yusha’u Shu’aibu Baraya,5 Pei Lin Lua,61Institute for Community Development and Quality of Life  (i-CODE, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA, Kampus Gong Badak, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA, Kampus Kota, Jalan Sultan Mahmud, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 3Department of Animal Health and Husbandry, Audu Bako College of Agriculture, Dambatta, Kano, Nigeria; 4School of Animal Science, Faculty of Bio-resources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA, Terengganu, Malaysia; 5Department of Chemical Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM, Malaysia; 6Community Health Research Cluster, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA, Kampus Gong Badak, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia Purpose: Foodborne diseases are common in the developing countries due to the predominant poor food handling and sanitation practices, particularly as a result of inadequate food safety laws, weak regulatory structures, and inadequate funding as well as a lack of appropriate education for food-handlers. The most frequently involved foods in disease outbreaks are of animal origin. However, in spite of the adequate legislation and laws governing the abattoir operation in Malaysia, compliance with food safety requirements during meat processing and waste disposal is inadequate. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers in Terengganu, Malaysia. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using simple random sampling technique in the six districts of Terengganu: two districts were used for the pilot study and the remaining four were used for the main study. One hundred sixty

  7. Regulatory Monitoring of Fortified Foods: Identifying Barriers and Good Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthringer, Corey L; Rowe, Laura A; Vossenaar, Marieke; Garrett, Greg S

    2015-09-01

    While fortification of staple foods and condiments has gained enormous global traction, poor performance persists throughout many aspects of implementation, most notably around the critical element of regulatory monitoring, which is essential for ensuring foods meet national fortification standards. Where coverage of fortified foods is high, limited nutritional impact of fortification programs largely exists due to regulatory monitoring that insufficiently identifies and holds producers accountable for underfortified products. Based on quality assurance data from 20 national fortification programs in 12 countries, we estimate that less than half of the samples are adequately fortified against relevant national standards. In this paper, we outline key findings from a literature review, key informant interviews with 11 fortification experts, and semi-quantitative surveys with 39 individuals from regulatory agencies and the food fortification industry in 17 countries on the perceived effectiveness of regulatory monitoring systems and barriers to compliance against national fortification standards. Findings highlight that regulatory agencies and industry disagree on the value that enforcement mechanisms have in ensuring compliance against standards. Perceived political risk of enforcement and poorly resourced inspectorate capacity appear to adversely reinforce each other within an environment of unclear legislation to create a major hurdle for improving overall compliance of fortification programs against national standards. Budget constraints affect the ability of regulatory agencies to create a well-trained inspector cadre and improve the detection and enforcement of non-compliant and underfortified products. Recommendations to improve fortification compliance include improving technical capacity; ensuring sustained leadership, accountability, and funding in both the private and the public sectors; and removing political barriers to ensure consistent detection of

  8. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.271 Facility pest management practice standard. (a) The producer or handler of an...

  9. Food safety in family homes in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitakakis, Teresa Z; Sinclair, Martha I; Fairley, Christopher K; Lightbody, Pamela K; Leder, Karin; Hellard, Margaret E

    2004-04-01

    Poor food handling practices in the home are a likely cause of gastroenteritis. This study examined how often reported practices in Australian homes met public health food safety recommendations. During 1998 in Melbourne, Australia, food handling and food storage questionnaires were completed by an adult member in 524 and 515 families, respectively. Each family consisted of at least two adults and two children. Respondents were surveyed regarding washing of hands, cutting boards, and fresh produce; use of kitchen cloths; egg storage; where cooked foods were cooled; the duration before refrigeration of cooked foods; where food types were positioned in the refrigerator; and the method of thawing chicken. Nearly every household reported handling food in a way that could cause food to become contaminated. Overall, 99.0% of respondents reported some form of mishandling, which encompassed 70.3% who handled food preparation surfaces poorly, 46.6% who did not wash their hands appropriately or in a timely manner, 41.7% who mishandled raw foods, and 70.1% who mishandled cooked foods. Food was inappropriately located in the refrigerator by 81.2%, and chicken was thawed using unsafe means by 76.3% of respondents. People preparing food in the home need to be reminded of the increased risk of disease that can arise from poor food handling practices. PMID:15083738

  10. Survey of food-hygiene practices at home and childhood diarrhoea in Hanoi, Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanashi, Kumiko; Chonan, Yuko; Quyen, Dao To; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Poudel, Krishna C; Jimba, Masamine

    2009-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the potential factors of food-hygiene practices of mothers on the prevalence of diarrhoea among their children. Mothers who had children aged 6 months-5 years were recruited in a hamlet in Viet Nam. The food-hygiene practices included hand-washing, method of washing utensils, separation of utensils for raw and cooked food, and the location where foods were prepared for cooking. A face-to-face interview was conducted, and data on 206 mothers were analyzed. The risk of diarrhoea was significantly higher among children whose mothers prepared food for cooking somewhere other than the table (typically on the ground) compared to children whose mothers prepared food on the table (adjusted odds ratio = 2.85, 95% confidence interval 1.11-7.28). The results indicate that food-hygiene practices of mothers, such as avoiding preparing food for cooking on the ground, has a potential impact in preventing diarrhoea among children in Viet Nam.

  11. Fundamental constructs in food parenting practices: a content map to guide future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Amber E; Ward, Dianne S; Fisher, Jennifer O; Faith, Myles S; Hughes, Sheryl O; Kremers, Stef P J; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R; O'Connor, Teresia M; Patrick, Heather; Power, Thomas G

    2016-02-01

    Although research shows that "food parenting practices" can impact children's diet and eating habits, current understanding of the impact of specific practices has been limited by inconsistencies in terminology and definitions. This article represents a critical appraisal of food parenting practices, including clear terminology and definitions, by a working group of content experts. The result of this effort was the development of a content map for future research that presents 3 overarching, higher-order food parenting constructs--coercive control, structure, and autonomy support--as well as specific practice subconstructs. Coercive control includes restriction, pressure to eat, threats and bribes, and using food to control negative emotions. Structure includes rules and limits, limited/guided choices, monitoring, meal- and snacktime routines, modeling, food availability and accessibility, food preparation, and unstructured practices. Autonomy support includes nutrition education, child involvement, encouragement, praise, reasoning, and negotiation. Literature on each construct is reviewed, and directions for future research are offered. Clear terminology and definitions should facilitate cross-study comparisons and minimize conflicting findings resulting from previous discrepancies in construct operationalization. PMID:26724487

  12. Fundamental constructs in food parenting practices: a content map to guide future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Amber E; Ward, Dianne S; Fisher, Jennifer O; Faith, Myles S; Hughes, Sheryl O; Kremers, Stef P J; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R; O'Connor, Teresia M; Patrick, Heather; Power, Thomas G

    2016-02-01

    Although research shows that "food parenting practices" can impact children's diet and eating habits, current understanding of the impact of specific practices has been limited by inconsistencies in terminology and definitions. This article represents a critical appraisal of food parenting practices, including clear terminology and definitions, by a working group of content experts. The result of this effort was the development of a content map for future research that presents 3 overarching, higher-order food parenting constructs--coercive control, structure, and autonomy support--as well as specific practice subconstructs. Coercive control includes restriction, pressure to eat, threats and bribes, and using food to control negative emotions. Structure includes rules and limits, limited/guided choices, monitoring, meal- and snacktime routines, modeling, food availability and accessibility, food preparation, and unstructured practices. Autonomy support includes nutrition education, child involvement, encouragement, praise, reasoning, and negotiation. Literature on each construct is reviewed, and directions for future research are offered. Clear terminology and definitions should facilitate cross-study comparisons and minimize conflicting findings resulting from previous discrepancies in construct operationalization.

  13. Food beliefs and practices during pregnancy in Ghana: implications for maternal health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Graft Aikins, Ama

    2014-01-01

    Ghanaian women's food beliefs and practices during pregnancy and the scope for developing more effective maternal health interventions were explored in this study. Thirty-five multiethnic Ghanaian women between the ages of 29 and 75 were interviewed about pregnancy food beliefs and practices. I show that, based on the data analysis, their knowledge about food was drawn from lifeworlds (family and friends), educational settings, health professionals, mass media, and body-self knowledge (unique pregnancy experiences). Core lay ideas converged with expert knowledge on maternal health nutrition. Multiple external factors (e.g., economics, cultural representations of motherhood) and internal factors (e.g., the unpredictable demands of the pregnant body) influenced pregnancy food practices. I suggest and discuss a need for culturally situated multilevel interventions.

  14. Food parenting practices and child dietary behavior. Prospective relations and the moderating role of general parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleddens, E.F.C.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Stafleu, A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Vries, N.K. de; Thijs, C.

    2014-01-01

    Research on parenting practices has focused on individual behaviors while largely failing to consider the context of their use, i.e., general parenting. We examined the extent to which food parenting practices predict children's dietary behavior (classified as unhealthy: snacking, sugar-sweetened be

  15. Analysis of School Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kevin R.; Sauer, Kevin; Sneed, Jeannie; Kwon, Junehee; Olds, David; Cole, Kerri; Shanklin, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine how school districts have implemented food safety programs based on HACCP principles. Specific objectives included: (1) Evaluate how schools are implementing components of food safety programs; and (2) Determine foodservice employees food-handling practices related to food safety.…

  16. Hygiene Practices During Food Preparation in Rural Bangladesh: Opportunities to Improve the Impact of Handwashing Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizame, Fosiul A; Leontsini, Elli; Luby, Stephen P; Nuruzzaman, Md; Parveen, Shahana; Winch, Peter J; Ram, Pavani K; Unicomb, Leanne

    2016-08-01

    This study explored the steps of food preparation, related handwashing opportunities, current practices, and community perceptions regarding foods at high-risk of contamination such as mashed foods and salads. In three rural Bangladeshi villages, we collected qualitative and observational data. Food preparation was a complex and multistep process. Food preparation was interrupted by tasks that could contaminate the preparers' hands, after which they continued food preparation without washing hands. Community members typically ate hand-mixed, uncooked mashed food and salad as accompaniments to curry and rice at meals. Hand-mixed dried foods were mostly consumed as a snack. Observers recorded handwashing during preparation of these foods. Among 24 observed caregivers, of 85 opportunities to wash hands with soap during food preparation, washing hands with soap occurred twice, both times after cutting fish, whereas washing hands with water alone was common. A simple and feasible approach is promotion of handwashing with soap upon entering and re-entering the food preparation area, and ensuring that everything needed for handwashing should be within easy reach. PMID:27296388

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  18. Community gardens as learning spaces for sustainable food practices

    OpenAIRE

    Vercauteren, C.; Quist, J.N.; Van Bueren, E.M.; Van Veen, E.

    2013-01-01

    Urban agriculture is an emerging topic and it is widely argued that it has considerable potential for sustainable consumption and production. Community gardening is a promising type of urban agriculture and questions have been raised like whether it has additional benefits for sustainable lifestyles and behavior, and we can understand community gardens from a social practices perspective. This paper aims to provide first insights to these questions by looking at community gardens in the city ...

  19. Retail food environments in Canada: Maximizing the impact of research, policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaker, Leia M

    2016-01-01

    Retail food environments are gaining national and international attention as important determinants of population dietary intake. Communities across Canada are beginning to discuss and implement programs and policies to create supportive retail food environments. Three considerations should drive the selection of food environment assessment methods: relevance (What is the problem, and how is it related to dietary outcomes?); resources (What human, time and financial resources are required to undertake an assessment?); and response (How will policy-makers find meaning out of and act on the information gained through the food environment assessment?). Ultimately, food environment assessments should be conducted in the context of stakeholder buy-in and multi-sectoral partnerships, since food environment solutions require multi-sectoral action. Partnerships between public health actors and the food and beverage industry can be challenging, especially when mandates are not aligned. Clarifying the motivations, expectations and roles of all stakeholders takes time but is important if the impact of food environment research, policy and practice is to be maximized. The articles contained in this special supplementary issue describe ongoing food environments research across Canada and fill some of the important gaps in the current body of Canadian food environments literature. PMID:27281525

  20. Eat this, not that! Parental demographic correlates of food-related parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Katie A; MacLehose, Richard F; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    To understand how parents of adolescents attempt to regulate their children's eating behaviors, the prevalence of specific food-related parenting practices (restriction, pressure-to-eat) by sociodemographic characteristics (parent gender, race/ethnicity, education level, employment status, and household income) were examined within a population-based sample of parents (n=3709) of adolescents. Linear regression models were fit to estimate the association between parent sociodemographic characteristics and parental report of food restriction and pressure-to-eat. Overall, findings suggest that use of controlling food-related parenting practices, such as pressuring children to eat and restricting children's intake, is common among parents of adolescents, particularly among parents in racial/ethnic minority subgroups, parents with less than a high school education, and parents with a low household income. Results indicate that that social or cultural traditions, as well as parental access to economic resources, may contribute to a parent's decision to utilize specific food-related parenting practices. Given that previous research has found that restriction and pressure-to-eat food-related parenting practices can negatively impact children's current and future dietary intake, differences in use of these practices by sociodemographic characteristics may contribute, in part, to the disparities that exist in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents by their race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

  1. Risk factors in street food practices in developing countries: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buliyaminu Adegbemiro Alimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Street food trading solves major social and economic problems in developing countries through the provision of ready-made meals at relatively inexpensive prices and employment for teeming rural and urban populace along its value chain. However, due to informal nature of the enterprise, the activities of the practitioners are not regulated. This gives ample room for unwholesome practices. The results are the risks such activities pose to the health and safety of practitioners along the value chain. This review paper, a summary of literature reports on risk factors in street food trade in developing countries and recommended safety intervention, is written with the hope of providing global baseline for intervention to ensure safe food practices. Adoption of safety approaches that permeates the entire chain of street food business from good agricultural practices through hazard analysis critical control points strategy to good hygiene practices by farmers, vendors and consumers would significantly reduce risks in street food consumption. Above all, active collaboration of all stakeholders toward the strengthening and proper enforcement of public health policies to ensure safe practices and engender safer and healthier society is recommended.

  2. Food Safety Knowledge and Beliefs of Middle School Children: Implications for Food Safety Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Abbot, Jaclyn Maurer; Quick, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    To create effective educational interventions that address the food safety informational needs of youth, a greater understanding of their knowledge and skills is needed. The purposes of this study were to explore, via focus groups, the food-handling responsibilities of middle school youth and obstacles they face in practicing safe food handling…

  3. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice between Medical and Non-Medical Sciences Students about Food Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Malek Mahdavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the significant role of consumers’ awareness about food labels in making healthy food choices, this study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and prac-tice of university students about food labeling.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 332 students aged 18-25 yr in five different academic ma-jors (including Nutrition, Public Health, Health Services Administration, Paramedical and En-gineering were asked to complete an approved questionnaire contained fifteen questions. The chi-square test was applied to examine the differences across various major groups.Results: 89.2% of the students believed that food labels had effect on nutritional awareness. 77.4% were agreed with the usefulness of the food labels and 79.2% did not feel that nutrition claims on food label were truthful. For 84% of students, the expiry date and storage conditions information were the most important informational cues to appear on the food labels. From 47.6% of students who reported the use of nutrition facts label in their often or always shopping; only 32.3% used the information on labels to fit the food into their daily diet. Surprisingly, fatty acids were the least noteworthy items (1.9% on nutrition facts labels. Regarding students’ major, there was significant difference in their knowledge, attitude and practice about truth of the nutri-tion claims, using food labels and importance of health claims (P<0.05.Conclusion: Food labels were more useful tools for students and had an effect on their nutri-tional awareness. Designing and implementation of the educational programs in order to increase the level of knowledge about food labels is suggested.

  4. Food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different ways. Some food products may already contain bacteria or parasites. These germs can be spread during ... your hands have any cuts or sores, wear gloves suitable for handling food or avoid preparing food. ...

  5. Impact of Media and Education on Food Practices in Urban Area of Varanasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Shuchi R, Bhatt Sheeendra M, Singh Anita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Currently food malpractices are increasing in various metro cities of India and all the measures taken by agencies are failed to detect rapidly and many times it becomes late when the adulteration is detected. Worst scenario is the adulteration of some branded items of the children’s and in the women’s use such as milk cheese, ghee and oils. Therefore, Study for food practices and safety measures was done in selected area of Varanasi which was also validated by the wetlab methods. Methods: For this objective, questionnaire was prepared and distributed among selected people depending on their age group, sex and educational background. Statistical test were carried out on the basis of frequency of male and female respondents obtained in total respondents (n = 300. Chi square test were done and the calculated value were compared with value of t test (0.05 and on this basis, conclusion were drawn. Results: Result shows that regardless of the age income and religion, all of the groups are well aware the food adulteration and educated people are less prone to the effect. In terms of adulteration any how all the stores contains adulterated food however branded items contains less %age of adulteration than local item. This may be caused due to inactive agencies or longer process of legal system Conclusions: Study show that there is lag in following the food practices by all the ages in spite of having good media awareness program and knowledge of food practices.

  6. Anthropology as an inspiration to food studies: building theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Siewicz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the role of anthropological inquiry in the development of a new, interdisciplinary approach to food in culture - namely: food studies. Early anthropologists, for example, Bronislaw Malinowski and Edward Evans-Pritchard, stressed the social meaning of food while analyzing the outcome of their fieldwork. When the functional approach had been replaced by structuralism, the symbolic meaning of food was given priority. Therefore, Claude Lévi-Strauss constructed his famous culinary triangle to show the connection between culture and nature in human thought; however, the triangle was not based on his own fieldwork, but rather many examples from other works were used to support this theoretical approach. This paper shows that without the theoretical and practical contribution of these three anthropologists, the flourishing of food studies as a new discipline would have been seriously delayed.

  7. A Study of impact of Education on Awareness, Personal Hygiene and Practices of food handlers of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kashmir, India

    OpenAIRE

    Hina; Wani MA; Rehana K; Jan Farooq; Pandita K.K

    2013-01-01

    Background Each year 9.4 million people suffer from food borne diseases throughout the world; everyday cases related to food borne diseases are recorded in all countries from the most to the least developed ones. A major risk of food contamination lies with the food handlers.Several food borne disease outbreaks have been reported to have been associated with poor personal hygiene of people handling food stuffs. Method A questionnaire was structured for the purpose of data collection to find ...

  8. Basics for Handling Food Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and variety meats within 2 days; other beef, veal, lamb, or pork, within 3 to 5 days. · ... and poultry immediately after microwave thawing. Cooking · Beef, veal, and lamb steaks, roasts, and chops may be ...

  9. Knowledge, attitudes, and poultry-handling practices of poultry workers in relation to avian influenza in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir C Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (AI is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The recent pandemics caused by highly pathogenic AIA (H5N1 in domestic poultry is currently rated phase 3 by the World Health Organization on the pandemic alert scale. Materials and Methods: A pretested and semistructured survey instrument was administered to both live bird market and poultry farm workers in two most populous cities in Karnataka in South India to collect data on demographics, knowledge, attitude, and practices among them. Results: The mean age was similar among both population groups (31.5 years. There was a higher level of biosecurity practices adopted in poultry farms compared with those adopted in live bird market. Knowledge regarding AI was acceptable but poorly correlated with actual biosecurity practices. Discussion: Live bird market and poultry farm workers have been identified as the weakest link in the prevention and control of the spread of AI in the two most populous cities studied in Karnataka. Conclusion: Risk reduction models of behavior change targeting these groups are important toward the control and prevention of AI spread.

  10. Mafia Practices and Italian Entrepreneurial Activities in the Belgian Food Sector. Research Objectives

    OpenAIRE

    De Biase, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to study the social and economic processes which encourage the spread of mafia practices among some Italian entrepreneurs in the Belgian food sector. My working hypothesis is that mafia practices are violent and predatory strategies to monopolize the economic market, which rely on the use of heterogeneous and cross-class social networks. In this view, these activities of old and new Italian entrepreneurs in Belgium are not the result of the exportation of mafia methods thro...

  11. A World of Plastic: Packaging practices amongst Icelandic food-retailers and suppliers.

    OpenAIRE

    Vidarsson, Sævar Logi

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is extensive use of polystyrene (PS6), polypropylene (PP5) and other plastics in packaging practices in Iceland today, despite these materials being a threat to the environment. As Iceland is portrayed as one of the most environmentally clean countries in the world one cannot but wonder why the discussion on packaging practices has not arisen sooner. The research focuses on food-retailers and suppliers as well as their associated packaging companies within Iceland. It explor...

  12. Handling of injectable antineoplastic agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, R S; Virden, J E

    1980-01-01

    Although the clinical toxicity of antineoplastic drugs has been well documented there is little or no information on the problems that may arise on the handling and mishandling of such agents. This paper attempts to highlight the importance of taking precautions to prevent adverse effects resulting from contact with cytotoxic drugs during handling and to suggest a practical guide for the handling of such agents.

  13. [A guide to good practice for information security in the handling of personal health data by health personnel in ambulatory care facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Henarejos, Ana; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Toval, Ambrosio; Hernández-Hernández, Isabel; Sánchez-García, Ana Belén; Carrillo de Gea, Juan Manuel

    2014-04-01

    The appearance of electronic health records has led to the need to strengthen the security of personal health data in order to ensure privacy. Despite the large number of technical security measures and recommendations that exist to protect the security of health data, there is an increase in violations of the privacy of patients' personal data in healthcare organizations, which is in many cases caused by the mistakes or oversights of healthcare professionals. In this paper, we present a guide to good practice for information security in the handling of personal health data by health personnel, drawn from recommendations, regulations and national and international standards. The material presented in this paper can be used in the security audit of health professionals, or as a part of continuing education programs in ambulatory care facilities.

  14. Food and Eating Practices during the Transition from Secondary School to New Social Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Wendy J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines how the new social contexts experienced by young people after leaving school are related to everyday food practices and eating habits. Findings from in-depth interviews with 31 young people aged 16-24 years studying at a college of further education in South East England are used to explore the role of new social spaces and…

  15. Food parenting practices and child dietary behavior. Prospective relations and the moderating role of general parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F C; Kremers, Stef P J; Stafleu, Annette; Dagnelie, Pieter C; De Vries, Nanne K; Thijs, Carel

    2014-08-01

    Research on parenting practices has focused on individual behaviors while largely failing to consider the context of their use, i.e., general parenting. We examined the extent to which food parenting practices predict children's dietary behavior (classified as unhealthy: snacking, sugar-sweetened beverage; and healthy: water and fruit intake). Furthermore, we tested the moderating role of general parenting on this relationship. Within the KOALA Birth Cohort Study, in the Netherlands, questionnaire data were collected at 6 and 8 years (N = 1654). Correlations were computed to assess the association between food parenting practices and general parenting (i.e., nurturance, behavioral control, structure, coercive control, and overprotection). Linear regression models were fitted to assess whether food parenting practices predict dietary behavior. Instrumental and emotional feeding, and pressure to eat were found to have associations with undesirable child dietary behavior (increased unhealthy intake/decreased healthy intake), whereas associations were in the desirable direction for covert control, encouragement and restriction. Moderation analyses were performed by evaluating interactions with general parenting. The associations of encouragement and covert control with desirable child dietary behaviors were found to be stronger for children who were reared in a positive parenting context. Future research should assess the influence of contextual parenting factors moderating the relationships between food parenting and child dietary behavior as the basis for the development of more effective family-based interventions. PMID:24727101

  16. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior: Interacting sources of influence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, J.K.; Hermans, R.C.J.; Sleddens, E.F.C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Fisher, J.O.; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children'

  17. Relationship between Parental Feeding Practices and Neural Responses to Food Cues in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Harriet A; Chambers, Alison; Blissett, Jacqueline; Chechlacz, Magdalena; Barrett, Timothy; Higgs, Suzanne; Nouwen, Arie

    2016-01-01

    Social context, specifically within the family, influences adolescent eating behaviours and thus their health. Little is known about the specific mechanisms underlying the effects of parental feeding practices on eating. We explored relationships between parental feeding practices and adolescent eating habits and brain activity in response to viewing food images. Fifty- seven adolescents (15 with type 2 diabetes mellitus, 21 obese and 21 healthy weight controls) underwent fMRI scanning whilst viewing images of food or matched control images. Participants completed the Kids Child Feeding Questionnaire, the Childrens' Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) and took part in an observed meal. Parents completed the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionniare and the DEBQ. We were particularly interested in brain activity in response to food cues that was modulated by different feeding and eating styles. Healthy-weight participants increased activation (compared to the other groups) to food in proportion to the level of parental restriction in visual areas of the brain such as right lateral occipital cortex (LOC), right temporal occipital cortex, left occipital fusiform gyrus, left lateral and superior LOC. Adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus had higher activation (compared to the other groups) with increased parental restrictive feeding in areas relating to emotional control, attention and decision-making, such as posterior cingulate, precuneus, frontal operculum and right middle frontal gyrus. Participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus also showed higher activation (compared to the other groups) in the left anterior intraparietal sulcus and angular gyrus when they also reported higher self restraint. Parental restriction did not modulate food responses in obese participants, but there was increased activity in visual (visual cortex, left LOC, left occipital fusiform gyrus) and reward related brain areas (thalamus and parietal operculum) in response to

  18. The consumer-producer relationship on local food systems: analysis of practices and narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Papaoikonomou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Local food systems have gained popularity over the last years. Previous research discusses the counter hegemonic potential of these initiatives placing emphasis on the reconnection of the producer and consumer of food and against the anonymous and disconnected production model offered by industrial agriculture. However, such romantic discourses do not always apply according to empirical evidence. In this paper we carry out an empirical comparison between two local food systems: the Community Supported Agriculture in Manhattan, New York and the the Responsible Consumption Cooperatives in Catalonia, Spain. Using a qualitative methodology we explore practices and narratives that surround the consumer-producer relationship, also defined by the orientation and raison d’être of the local food system.

  19. Corrupt practices negatively influenced food security and live expectancy in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchendu, Florence Ngozi; Abolarin, Thaddeus Olatunbosun

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a global public health problem more prevalent in developing countries than in developed countries. Indicators of malnutrition include household food security and life expectancy. Corruption might be one of socio-political problems fuelling malnutrition in developing countries. The aim of this paper is to compare influence of corruption on food security, live expectancy (LE) and population in developed and developing countries. Thirty two least corrupt countries (LCC) and most corrupt countries (MCC) representing developed and developing countries were systematically selected using Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI). Countries' data on population, food security index (FSI) and LE scores were obtained from Global food security index (GFSI) and Population reference bureau. T-test, Multivariate (Wilks' Lambda), Pearson product moment analysis were performed to determine relationship between CPI, FSI, LE, and population in LCC and MCC at p corrupt practices and promoting good governance should be embraced to eradicate malnutrition in developing countries.

  20. Retrospective reports of parental feeding practices and emotional eating in adulthood: The role of food preoccupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cin Cin; Ruhl, Holly; Chow, Chong Man; Ellis, Lillian

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined the role of food preoccupation as a potential mediator of the associations between parental feeding behaviors during childhood (i.e., restriction for weight, restriction for health, emotion regulation) and emotional eating in adulthood. Participants (N = 97, Mage = 20.3 years) recalled their parents' feeding behaviors during early and middle childhood and reported on current experiences of food preoccupation and emotional eating. Findings revealed that recalled parental feeding behaviors (restriction for weight, restriction for health, emotion regulation) and food preoccupation were positively associated with later emotional eating (correlations ranged from 0.21 to 0.55). In addition, recalled restriction for weight and emotion regulation feeding were positively associated with food preoccupation, r = 0.23 and 0.38, respectively. Further, food preoccupation mediated the association between emotion regulation feeding and later emotional eating (CI95% = 0.10 to 0.44). These findings indicate that parental feeding practices in childhood are related to food preoccupation, and that food preoccupation mediates the association between emotion regulation feeding in childhood and emotional eating in adulthood. PMID:27289008

  1. How the Organic Food System Supports Sustainable Diets and Translates These into Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassner, Carola; Cavoski, Ivana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Lairon, Denis; Lampkin, Nicolas; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Matt, Darja; Niggli, Urs; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g., organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards, and useful metrics. By 2015, data for organic production and consumption are recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic food system puts the land (agri-cultura) back into the diet; it is the land from which the diet in toto is shaped. Therefore, the organic food system provides essential components of a sustainable diet.

  2. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  3. CoP in focus : community of practice on metropolitan food clusters, resource use efficiency and climate adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, R.P.; Hoechstetter, S.; Castillo, A.; Smeets, P.J.A.M.; Mansfeld, van M.J.M.; Eetgerink, F.; Cserhaty, M.; Kalas, N.; Schneider, U.

    2014-01-01

    This Pathfinder project develops a focused EU Community of Practice (CoP) on development of Agro food-clusters that focuses on innovation of high tech, large scale, industrialized and sustainable agriculture and food production for Metropoles. The Metropolitan food clusters significantly contribute

  4. A practical approach to handling the uncertainty analysis in gamma spectroscopy with the software's Gamma Vision and Genie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The national Swedish network of laboratories in emergency response and preparedness should provide with fast and reliable measurements. That is why these results should be given with a measure of its quality, which is the measurement uncertainty, as has been stated in several international standards. Many gamma spectroscopy software packages contain advance algorithms for calculation of the activity and its measurement uncertainty. They even include elements of quality assurance and quality control. Despite of that, not all sources of uncertainty are always taken into account. The two most used analysis software packages in the Swedish network of laboratories in emergency response are Gamma Vision from Ortec and Genie (with and without APEX) from Canberra. The purpose of this paper is to present two groups of practical evaluations of uncertainty components for the same kind of gamma-spectroscopy analysis, one that would suit Gamma Vision users and other for Genie users, including the Labsocs tool. The main idea is to profit as much as possible of the software capabilities and semi-manually add the contribution of uncertainty sources that are not been taken into account. The reports from both the software packages are modified so as to reflect the contribution of all sources of uncertainty into the reported relative combined uncertainty. The examples of gamma spectroscopy analysis are for samples of the same matrix and the different geometries foreseen in the context of emergency response by the Swedish emergency network. Together with the evaluation of the uncertainty components a review on the uncertainty propagation and the assumptions taken in each of the software packages is presented. (author)

  5. Best Practices for Serving Students with Special Food and/or Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Alexandra; Carr, Deborah; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research project was to identify goals and establish best practices for school nutrition (SN) programs that serve students with special food and/or nutrition needs based on the four practice categories identified in previous National Food Service Management Institute, Applied Research Division (NFSMI, ARD)…

  6. Investigation of Food Acceptability and Feeding Practices for Lipid Nutrient Supplements and Blended Flours Used to Treat Moderate Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Richard J.; Trehan, Indi; LaGrone, Lacey N.; Weisz, Ariana J.; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie M.; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Manary, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine acceptability and feeding practices associated with different supplementary food items and identify practices associated with weight gain. Methods: Caregivers (n = 409) whose children had been enrolled in a trial comparing a fortified corn-soy blended flour (CSB++), soy ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF), and soy/whey…

  7. Focus Group Studies on Food Safety Knowledge, Perceptions, and Practices of School-Going Adolescent Girls in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaravarapu, Subba Rao M.; Vemula, Sudershan R.; Rao, Pratima; Mendu, Vishnu Vardhana Rao; Polasa, Kalpagam

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To understand food safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices of adolescent girls. Design: Focus group discussions (FGDs) with 32 groups selected using stratified random sampling. Setting: Four South Indian states. Participants: Adolescent girls (10-19 years). Phenomena of Interest: Food safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices.…

  8. Association of food-hygiene practices and diarrhea prevalence among Indonesian young children from low socioeconomic urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agustina, R.; Sari, T.P.; Satroamidjojo, S.; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kok, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Information on the part that poor food-hygiene practices play a role in the development of diarrhea in low socioeconomic urban communities is lacking. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the contribution of food-hygiene practice to the prevalence of diarrhea among Indonesian chil

  9. Best practices in school food and nutrition units of public schools of Bayeux, PB, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Carolina de Carvalho; Pinto, Helen Ramalho Farias; Costa, Deborah Camila Ismael de Oliveira; Mascarenhas, Robson de Jesus; Aquino, Jailane de Souza

    2015-07-01

    The occurrence of foodborne illness outbreaks is increasing in schools, and due to the number of children who consume school meals as the only daily meal, this factor becomes even more worrisome. In this sense, the aim of this study was to evaluate the hygienic-health aspects of Food and Nutrition Units (SFNU) of public schools of Bayeux / PB in relation to the adoption of best practices in school food and nutrition. Data were collected through SFNU checklist during visits to units in 29 schools. The health risk of units evaluated was from regular to very high regarding structure and facilities, hygiene of food handlers, environment and food preparation. It was found that 10.3% of handlers used clean and adequate uniforms, and environment and equipment showed poor conservation status in 75.9% and 89.7% of Units, respectively; control of urban pests and vectors was not effective and cleaning of fresh produce was incorrectly conducted in 51.7% of SFNU of schools evaluated. It could be concluded that the production of meals in SFNU of schools evaluated does not meet the requirements established by the best practices in school food and nutrition. PMID:26132265

  10. Consumers' purchase of organic food products. A matter of convenience and reflexive practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmar, Ulf

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the purchase of organic food products by consumers and to explore the main factors driving this process. This paper uses evidence from 16 in-depth interviews with consumers in Denmark carried out in 2008-2009. On the basis of the analysis two broad concepts are suggested: convenience behaviours and reflexive practices. Convenience behaviours are characteristic of pragmatic organic consumers. This type of shopping behaviour requires organic foods to be available in the local supermarket, they have to be clearly visible (preferably with an eco-label), and the price differential vis-à-vis conventional products have to be minimal. The analysis also showed that politically/ethically minded consumers have reflexive practices when purchasing organic food products: health considerations, ethical considerations (animal welfare), political considerations (environmentalism) and quality considerations (taste) play an important part for these consumers. Reflexive shopping practices can be sparked by life events (e.g. having children), "shocking" news about conventional food products and similar events, and news capable of creating a "cognitive dissonance" among consumers. The Danish case illustrates that the government needs to actively implement reforms and promote activities which make organic products a convenient choice for the pragmatic oriented consumer if their market share is to increase substantially.

  11. Safe handling of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance and recommendations on operational radiation protection aspects related to the safe handling of tritium in laboratories, industrial-scale nuclear facilities such as heavy-water reactors, tritium removal plants and fission fuel reprocessing plants, and facilities for manufacturing commercial tritium-containing devices and radiochemicals. The requirements of nuclear fusion reactors are not addressed specifically, since there is as yet no tritium handling experience with them. However, much of the material covered is expected to be relevant to them as well. Annex III briefly addresses problems in the comparatively small-scale use of tritium at universities, medical research centres and similar establishments. However, the main subject of this publication is the handling of larger quantities of tritium. Operational aspects include designing for tritium safety, safe handling practice, the selection of tritium-compatible materials and equipment, exposure assessment, monitoring, contamination control and the design and use of personal protective equipment. This publication does not address the technologies involved in tritium control and cleanup of effluents, tritium removal, or immobilization and disposal of tritium wastes, nor does it address the environmental behaviour of tritium. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Impact of Media and Education on Food Practices in Urban Area of Varanasi

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt Shuchi R, Bhatt Sheeendra M, Singh Anita

    2012-01-01

    Background: Currently food malpractices are increasing in various metro cities of India and all the measures taken by agencies are failed to detect rapidly and many times it becomes late when the adulteration is detected. Worst scenario is the adulteration of some branded items of the children’s and in the women’s use such as milk cheese, ghee and oils. Therefore, Study for food practices and safety measures was done in selected area of Varanasi which was also validated by the wetlab methods....

  13. Rights for resilience: food sovereignty, power, and resilience in development practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marygold Walsh-Dilley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Even as resilience thinking becomes evermore popular as part of strategic programming among development and humanitarian organizations, uncertainty about how to define, operationalize, measure, and evaluate resilience for development goals prevails. As a result, many organizations and institutions have undertaken individual, collective, and simultaneous efforts toward clarification and definition. This has opened up a unique opportunity for a rethinking of development practices. The emergent consensus about what resilience means within development practice will have important consequences both for development practitioners and the communities in which they work. Incorporating resilience thinking into development practice has the potential to radically transform this arena in favor of social and environmental justice, but it could also flounder as a way to dress old ideas in new clothes or, at worst, to further exploit, disempower, and marginalize the world's most vulnerable populations. We seek to make an intervention into the definitional debates surrounding resilience that supports the former and helps prevent the latter. We argue that resilience thinking as it has been developed in social-ecological systems and allied literatures has a lot in common with the concept of food sovereignty and that paying attention to some of the lessons and claims of food sovereignty movements could contribute toward building a consensus around resilience that supports social and environmental justice. In particular, the food sovereignty movement relies on a strategy that elevates rights. We suggest that a rights-based approach to resilience-oriented development practice could contribute to its application in just and equitable ways.

  14. Concepts, tools/methods, and practices of water-energy-food NEXUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, A.; Tsurita, I.; Orencio, P. M.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The needs to consider the NEXUS on food and water were emphasized in international dialogues and publications around the end of the 20th century. In fact, in 1983, the United Nations University already launched a Food-Energy Nexus Programme to fill the gaps between the issues of food and energy. The term "NEXUS" to link water, food, and trade was also used in the World Bank during 1990s. The idea of NEXUS is likely to have further developed under the discussion of "virtual water" and "water footprints". With experiencing several international discussions such as Kyoto World Water Forum 2003, scholars and practitioners around the globe acknowledged the need to include energy for the pillars of NEXUS. Finally, the importance of three NEXUS pillars, "water, energy, and food" was officially announced in the BONN 2011 NEXUS Conference, which is a turning point of NEXUS idea in the international community , in order to contribute to the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) in 2012 that highlighted the concept of "green economy". The concept of NEXUS is becoming a requisite to achieve sustainable development due to the global concerns embedded in society, economy, and environment. The concept stresses to promote the cooperation with the sectors such as water, energy, food, and climate change since these complex global issues are dependent and inter-connected, which can no longer be solved by the sectorial approaches. The NEXUS practices are currently shared among different stakeholders through various modes including literatures, conferences, workshops, and research projects. However, since the NEXUS practices are not led by a particular organization, its concept, theory, policy, tools, methods, and applications are diverse and incoherent. In terms of tools/methods, the potential of integrated modeling approach is introduced to avoid pressures and to promote interactions among water, energy and food. This paper explores the concepts, tools

  15. Handling tongs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design is presented of remotely controlled handling tongs for placing fuel assemblies of a fast nuclear reactor in the desired positions in the reactor vessel. The tongs consist of a head and clamps pivoted an the head. The head machined at the end of an inner pull rod which is swing connected to the main pull rod guide bar. The connection is effected from the inner pull rod side. Grip pins are pivoted on the main pull rod guide bar. The side projections of the grip pins engage the inner wall of the channel while the grip pin bodies lean against the opening link. The link pull rod and its height is adjustable. Its inner cut-outs engage the upper tips of the clamps. A fixing ring which the grip pin bodies engage is attached to the opening link such that it can be deflected to both sides. (E.S.)

  16. State Master Gardeners Knowledge and Behavior Regarding Food Safety and Good Agricultural Practices Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Christy

    2009-01-01

    Master Gardener’s (MG) are volunteers that dedicate their time and resources to complete advanced training on gardening practices. They are a valuable resource to state Cooperative Extension services, like the one in Virginia (VCE), by volunteering to share gardening knowledge with the public. MG’s assist the public in starting and maintaining personal and community fruit and vegetable gardens. Food producing gardens should be treated differently from recreational gardens. Gardening and harve...

  17. Food choices and practices during pregnancy of immigrant and Aboriginal women in Canada: a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Higginbottom Gina MA; Vallianatos Helen; Forgeron Joan; Gibbons Donna; Malhi Rebecca; Mamede Fabiana

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Facilitating the provision of appropriate health care for immigrant and Aboriginal populations in Canada is critical for maximizing health potential and well-being. Numerous reports describe heightened risks of poor maternal and birth outcomes for immigrant and Aboriginal women. Many of these outcomes may relate to food consumption/practices and thus may be obviated through provision of resources which suit the women's ethnocultural preferences. This project aims to unders...

  18. 7 CFR 205.238 - Livestock health care practice standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling... as organic. (c) The producer of an organic livestock operation must not: (1) Sell, label,...

  19. 7 CFR 205.205 - Crop rotation practice standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements §...

  20. Handling uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Jesper Bosse; Fold, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Small-scale mining supports the livelihoods of several hundred thousand rural households in Africa. Nonetheless, the understanding of the organizational dynamics of small-scale miners' activities is modest. The paper outlines the small-scale mining codes in Tanzania and contrasts them to prevalen...... possible to design a robust and resilient regulatory framework for small-scale mining. A number of policy adjustments are consequently proposed.......Small-scale mining supports the livelihoods of several hundred thousand rural households in Africa. Nonetheless, the understanding of the organizational dynamics of small-scale miners' activities is modest. The paper outlines the small-scale mining codes in Tanzania and contrasts them to prevalent...... organizational practices in two Tanzanian small-scale mining settlements. It is argued that there is a need to adjust the regulatory mechanisms to well-consolidated practices: If basic practices differ substantially from official prescriptions of the mining codes over an extended period of time, certain elements...

  1. How the organic food system supports sustainable diets and translates these into practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola eStrassner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g. organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards and useful metrics. By 2015 data for organic production and consumption is recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic fo

  2. Factors associated with parental use of restrictive feeding practices to control their children's food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Wendy N; Janicke, David M; Wistedt, Kristin M; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn C

    2010-10-01

    There is a critical need to identify risk factors that make parents more likely to restrict their child's food intake. Child weight and ethnicity, parent weight, parent body dissatisfaction, and parent concern of child weight were examined as correlates of parent use of restrictive feeding practices in a diverse sample of 191 youth (ages 7-17). Participants attending a pediatric outpatient visit completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (parent feeding practices and beliefs), the Figure Rating Scale (body dissatisfaction) and a demographic form. Parent BMI and child degree of overweight were calculated. Parent use of restrictive feeding practices was positively associated with parent BMI and was moderated by parent body dissatisfaction. Parent concern of child weight mediated the relationship between increasing child degree of overweight and parent use of restrictive feeding practices. There were no differences by child gender or ethnicity in parent use of restrictive feeding practices. These preliminary findings highlight the importance of assessing for underlying parent motivations for utilizing restrictive feeding practices and may help to identify and intervene with families at-risk for engaging in counterproductive weight control strategies. Continued identification of correlates of parent use of restrictive feeding practices is needed across child development and among individuals from diverse backgrounds. PMID:20633586

  3. Environmental and health impacts of household solid waste handling and disposal practices in third world cities: the case of the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadi, Kwasi Owusu; Kuitunen, Markku

    2005-11-01

    Inadequate provision of solid waste management facilities in Third World cities results in indiscriminate disposal and unsanitary environments, which threatens the health of urban residents. The study reported here examined household-level waste management and disposal practices in the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana. The residents of Accra currently generate large amounts of solid waste, beyond the management capabilities of the existing waste management system. Because the solid waste infrastructure is inadequate, over 80 percent of the population do not have home collection services. Only 13.5 percent of respondents are served with door-to-door collection of solid waste, while the rest dispose of their waste at communal collection points, in open spaces, and in waterways. The majority of households store their waste in open containers and plastic bags in the home. Waste storage in the home is associated with the presence of houseflies in the kitchen (r = .17, p solid waste facilities result in indiscriminate burning and burying of solid waste. There is an association between waste burning and the incidence of respiratory health symptoms among adults (r = .25, p handling and disposal of waste are major causes of environmental pollution, which creates breeding grounds for pathogenic organisms, and the spread of infectious diseases. Improving access to solid waste collection facilities and services will help achieve sound environmental health in Accra. PMID:16334095

  4. Practice Paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Selecting Nutrient-Dense Foods for Good Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingle, Melanie D; Kandiah, Jayanthi; Maggi, Annette

    2016-09-01

    The 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans encourage selection of nutrient-dense foods for health promotion and disease prevention and management. The purpose of this Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics practice paper is to provide an update regarding the science and practice of nutrient-dense food identification and selection. Characterization of tools used to identify nutrient density of foods is provided and recommendations for how registered dietitian nutritionists and nutrition and dietetics technicians, registered, might use available profiling tools to help consumers select nutrient-dense foods is discussed. PMID:27568089

  5. Food consumption by young children: a function of parental feeding goals and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison E; Hoffmann, Debra A; Meers, Molly R; Koball, Afton M; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2014-03-01

    Staggering health implications are associated with poor child diet. Given the importance of parents in impacting children's eating outcomes, the current study examined a theoretical framework in which both parental feeding goals and practices impact specific healthy and unhealthy child eating behaviors. Participants were 171 mothers of 3-6year old children who were diverse both socioeconomically and with regard to BMI. Mothers completed questionnaires via Mechanical Turk, an online workforce through Amazon.com. Structural Equation Modeling showed an adequate model fit in which Negative Feeding Practices (e.g., using food as a reward) mediated the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals (i.e., feeding children with health-oriented goals in mind) and Negative Eating Behaviors (e.g., consumption of candy and snacks). However, Negative Feeding Practices did not mediate the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals and Positive Eating Behaviors (i.e., fruits and vegetables). These findings suggest the important role of habitual food parenting practices in children's eating and have implications for parental health education programs.

  6. 7 CFR 205.201 - Organic production and handling system plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Organic production and handling system plan. 205.201... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and...

  7. Intervention effects on kindergarten and first-grade teachers' classroom food practices and food-related beliefs in American Indian reservation schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcan, Chrisa; Hannan, Peter J; Himes, John H; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Smyth, Mary; Story, Mary

    2013-08-01

    Prevalence of obesity among American Indian children is higher than the general US population. The school environment and teachers play important roles in helping students develop healthy eating habits. The aim of this prospective study was to examine teachers' classroom and school food practices and beliefs and the effect of teacher training on these practices and beliefs. Data were used from the Bright Start study, a group-randomized, school-based trial that took place on the Pine Ridge American Indian reservation (fall 2005 to spring 2008). Kindergarten and first-grade teachers (n=75) from 14 schools completed a survey at the beginning and end of the school year. Thirty-seven survey items were evaluated using mixed-model analysis of variance to examine the intervention effect for each teacher-practice and belief item (adjusting for teacher type and school as random effect). At baseline, some teachers reported classroom and school food practices and beliefs that supported health and some that did not. The intervention was significantly associated with lower classroom use of candy as a treat (P=0.0005) and fast-food rewards (P=0.008); more intervention teachers disagreed that fast food should be offered as school lunch alternatives (P=0.019), that it would be acceptable to sell unhealthy foods as part of school fundraising (P=0.006), and that it would not make sense to limit students' food choices in school (P=0.035). School-based interventions involving teacher training can result in positive changes in teachers' classroom food practices and beliefs about the influence of the school food environment in schools serving American Indian children on reservations.

  8. Assessment of food, nutrition, and physical activity practices in Oklahoma child-care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Susan B; Campbell, Janis E; May, Kellie B; Brittain, Danielle R; Monroe, Lisa A; Guss, Shannon H; Ladner, Jennifer L

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the obesogenic practices in all-day child-care centers caring for preschool-aged children. This study used a cross-sectional, self-reported survey mailed to centers across Oklahoma (n=314). Frequency of responses and χ(2) were calculated comparing region and star rating. Items where the majority of centers frequently report best practices include: daily fruits served (76%), daily nonfried vegetables served (71%), rarely/never served sugary drinks (92%), rarely/never used food to encourage good behaviors (88%), staff join children at table most of the time (81%), staff rarely eat different foods in view of children (69%), visible self-serve or request availability of water (93%), regular informal communication about healthy eating (86%), opportunities for outdoor play (95%), not withholding activity for punishment (91%), accessible play equipment (59% to 80% for different types of equipment), and minimization of extended sitting time (78%). Practices where centers can improve include increasing variety of vegetables (18%), reducing frequency of high-fat meats served (74% serve more than once per week), increasing high-fiber and whole-grain foods (35% offer daily), serving style of "seconds" (28% help kids determine whether they are still hungry), nonfood holiday celebrations (44% use nonfood treats), having toys and books that encourage healthy eating (27%) and physical activity (25%) in all rooms in the center, a standard nutrition (21%) and physical education (50%) curriculum, and following a written physical activity policy (43%). Practitioners can use these data to develop benchmarks and interventions, as this was the first study to assess statewide obesogenic practices in child care.

  9. Survey of food safety practices on small to medium-sized farms and in farmers markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Judy A; Gaskin, Julia W; Harrison, Mark A; Cannon, Jennifer L; Boyer, Renee R; Zehnder, Geoffrey W

    2013-11-01

    As produce consumption has increased, so have foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh produce. Little research has addressed food safety practices used on small to medium-sized farms selling locally or in farmers markets. This study evaluated current food safety practices used by farmers on small to medium-sized farms and managers of farmers markets in Georgia, Virginia, and South Carolina based on responses to surveys. Surveys were developed, pretested, and revised before implementation with target audiences and were implemented via mail and the Web to maximize participation, with reminders sent to nonrespondents. Data were collected from 226 farmers and 45 market managers. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for all response variables. Responses from farmers indicated that more than 56% of them use manures. Of those who use manures, 34% use raw or mixtures of raw and composted manure, and over 26% wait fewer than 90 days between application of raw manure and harvest. Over 27% use water sources that have not been tested for safety for irrigation, and 16% use such water sources for washing produce. Over 43% do not sanitize surfaces that touch produce at the farm. Only 33% of farmers always clean transport containers between uses. Responses from market managers indicated that over 42% have no food safety standards in place for the market. Only 2 to 11% ask farmers specific questions about conditions on the farm that could affect product safety. Less than 25% of managers sanitize market surfaces. Only 11% always clean market containers between uses. Over 75% of markets offer no sanitation training to workers or vendors. While farmers and market managers are using many good practices, the results indicate that some practices being used may put consumers at risk of foodborne illness. Consequently, there is a need for training for both farmers and market managers.

  10. Technological Implications of Supply Chain Practices in Agri-Food Sector: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Mor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, the global business environment compels enterprises to consider rest of the world in their competitive strategy analysis where firms ignore external factors such as economic trends, competitive positions or technology advancement in other countries. While going truly global with supply chain management, a company develops product in the United States, produce in India and trade in Europe, and they have changed the traditional operation management & logistical activities. This change in trade and the modernization of transport infrastructures have elevated the importance of flow management to new levels. Manufacturers and researchers have noticed many problems concerning supply chain activities, and usually either a system or subcomponent in supply chains is discussed in the literature, but they fails to answer the rational (why, what, how behind them. This paper addresses a review of the principles, bottlenecks and strategies of supply chain practices for organizations with an emphasis on the implications of Indian agri-food sector. Findings of this review reveal that the human & environmental issues, improved product visibility, food safety/quality and the associated economic benefits in sustainable agri-food supply chains can be achieved through innovation, collaboration, elimination of uncertainties and introducing global SCM practices into green & lean initiatives.

  11. [Permanence of the piamontese culture on food practices in third generation descendants in Piamonte (Province of Santa Fe, Argentina)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreatta, María M; Muñoz, Sonia E; Navarro, Alicia

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the influence of the piemontese culture on food practices of students living in Piamonte, Santa Fe, Argentina. Food practices of 96 students with Piamontese ancestry (PA) (n = 57) and without Piamontese ancestry (No-PA) (n = 39) were studied along 2002 using a self-administered questionnare. Data were analysed by Chi square test, Fisher's exact test, multiple correspondance analysis and logistic regression. Consumption of bagna cauda (p elaboration of polenta and pasta were found: PA add them cheese (p tomato sauce (p elaboration and the serving of the food were similar on both groups. In conclusion, food practices of Piamontese's descendants recall the food culture of their ancestry with some reasonable adaptations to the local context.

  12. Radiation processing of food and agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing post-harvest food losses is becoming increasingly important for sustaining food supplies. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for improving food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Preservation of food by ionizing radiation involves controlled application of energy of ionizing radiation such as gamma rays, X-rays, and accelerated electrons to agricultural commodities, food products and ingredients, for improving their storage life, hygiene and safety. The process employs either gamma rays emitted by radioisotopes such as cobalt-60 or high-energy electrons or X-rays generated from machine sources

  13. Identifying practical solutions to meet America's fiber needs: proceedings from the Food & Fiber Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Amy R; Jones, Julie Miller; Rodriguez, Judith; Slavin, Joanne; Zelman, Kathleen M

    2014-07-08

    Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit and whole-grain intakes, average fiber consumption has remained flat at approximately half of the recommended daily amounts. Research indicates that consumers report increasingly attempting to add fiber-containing foods, but there is confusion around fiber in whole grains. The persistent and alarmingly low intakes of fiber prompted the "Food & Fiber Summit," which assembled nutrition researchers, educators and communicators to explore fiber's role in public health, current fiber consumption trends and consumer awareness data with the objective of generating opportunities and solutions to help close the fiber gap. The summit outcomes highlight the need to address consumer confusion and improve the understanding of sources of fiber, to recognize the benefits of various types of fibers and to influence future dietary guidance to provide prominence and clarity around meeting daily fiber recommendations through a variety of foods and fiber types. Potential opportunities to increase fiber intake were identified, with emphasis on meal occasions and food categories that offer practical solutions for closing the fiber gap.

  14. Child feeding practices, food habits, anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance among preschoolers in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Norimah, Abdul Karim; Hazizi, Abu Saad; Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Loh, Siow Hon; Suraya, Ibrahim

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between child feeding practices, food habits, and anthropometric indicators with cognitive performance of preschoolers aged 4-6 years in Peninsular Malaysia (n=1933). Parents were interviewed on socio-demographic background, nutrition knowledge, child feeding practices and food habits. Height and weight of the preschoolers were measured; BMI-for-age, weight-for-age and height-for-age were determined. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices. The mean monthly household income was RM3610 and 59.6% of parents attained secondary education. Thirty-three percent of parents had good knowledge on nutrition, 39% satisfactory and 28% poor. For child feeding practices, perceived responsibility had the highest mean score (M=3.99, SD=0.72), while perceived child weight had the lowest (M=2.94, SD=0.38). The prevalence of possible risk of overweight, being overweight, and obesity were 3.9%, 7.9% and 8.1%, respectively, whereas the prevalence of underweight and stunting were 8.0% and 8.4%, respectively. Breakfast was the second most frequently skipped meal (16.8%) after dinner (18.1%). The mean cognitive score was 103.5 (SD=14.4). Height-for-age and consumption of dinner were found to contribute significantly towards cognitive performance after controlling for socio-demographic background and parent's nutrition knowledge. PMID:22265752

  15. Association of food-hygiene practices and diarrhea prevalence among Indonesian young children from low socioeconomic urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Agustina, R.; Sari, T.P.; Satroamidjojo, S.; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I M J; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kok, F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Information on the part that poor food-hygiene practices play a role in the development of diarrhea in low socioeconomic urban communities is lacking. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the contribution of food-hygiene practice to the prevalence of diarrhea among Indonesian children. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 274 randomly selected children aged 12-59 months in selected low socioeconomic urban areas of East Jakarta. The prevalence of diarrhea was...

  16. Buying Practices and Prevalence of Adulteration in Selected Food items in a Rural Area of Wardha District: A Cross - Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Khapre MP; Mudey A; Sonali Chaudhary; Wagh V; Ajay Dawale

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Food adulteration in India includes both willful adulteration and substandard food which do not confirm to prescribe food standard. There is striking paucity of reliable data with regard to extent of adulteration and documentation of food borne illnesses reflecting lack of attention and focus on this problem. Objectives: To find the prevalence of food adulteration, buying practices of selected food items and their awareness towards food adulteration act. Also assess relationship...

  17. Handle with Care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    InesaPleskacheuskaya

    2004-01-01

    THE Chinese people are justly proud of their food,martial arts and traditional medicine,regarding them as China's national treasure.Millions overseas enjoy Chinese cuisine,and also practice Chinese martial arts for physical fitness as traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) is concerned ,many have heard of it ,but few put it to the test.

  18. Fed up with the right to food? : The Netherlands' policies and practices regarding the human right to adequate food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospes, O.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    There is no one in this world who would deny the importance of access to adequate food for every human being. In fact, access to food has been declared a human right in 1948 with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In spite of the right to food to be more than half a century old, many are not

  19. Food safety and risk communication: cases history and best practice (in avian flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piermarco Aroldi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of institutional communication in the case of health risks and emergencies. The article is divided in three sections. The first section examines the most recent theories on risk and on its communicational aspect; the second analyses a recent state of emergency crisis, specifically the panic which stemmed from the perceived danger of an avian flu pandemic in Italy; and finally an example of best practice in the form of a food safety handbook designed and edited by the Italian Ministry of Rural Affairs, which was based on the skills and knowledge acquired during the avian flu emergency.

  20. Food choices and practices during pregnancy of immigrant and Aboriginal women in Canada: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higginbottom Gina MA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facilitating the provision of appropriate health care for immigrant and Aboriginal populations in Canada is critical for maximizing health potential and well-being. Numerous reports describe heightened risks of poor maternal and birth outcomes for immigrant and Aboriginal women. Many of these outcomes may relate to food consumption/practices and thus may be obviated through provision of resources which suit the women's ethnocultural preferences. This project aims to understand ethnocultural food and health practices of Aboriginal and immigrant women, and how these intersect with respect to the legacy of Aboriginal colonialism and to the social contexts of cultural adaptation and adjustment of immigrants. The findings will inform the development of visual tools for health promotion by practitioners. Methods/Design This four-phase study employs a case study design allowing for multiple means of data collection and different units of analysis. Phase 1 consists of a scoping review of the literature. Phases 2 and 3 incorporate pictorial representations of food choices (photovoice in Phase 2 with semi-structured photo-elicited interviews (in Phase 3. The findings from Phases 1-3 and consultations with key stakeholders will generate key understandings for Phase 4, the production of culturally appropriate visual tools. For the scoping review, an emerging methodological framework will be utilized in addition to systematic review guidelines. A research librarian will assist with the search strategy and retrieval of literature. For Phases 2 and 3, recruitment of 20-24 women will be facilitated by team member affiliations at perinatal clinics in one of the city's most diverse neighbourhoods. The interviews will reveal culturally normative practices surrounding maternal food choices and consumption, including how women negotiate these practices within their own worldview and experiences. A structured and comprehensive integrated knowledge

  1. Trichinella diagnostics and control: Mandatory and best practices for ensuring food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajadhar, A. A.; Pozio, E.; Gamble, H. R.;

    2009-01-01

    Because of its role in human disease, there are increasing global requirements for reliable diagnostic and control methods for Trichinella in food animals to ensure meat safety and to facilitate trade. Consequently, there is a need for standardization of methods, programs, and best practices used...... in various porcine and equine pre- and post-slaughter programs, including farm or herd certification programs is also discussed. A brief review of the effectiveness of meat processing methods, such as freezing, cooking and preserving is provided. The importance of proper quality assurance and its application...

  2. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  3. Evaluation of the safety of domestic food preparation in Malaysia.

    OpenAIRE

    Desmarchelier, P M; Apiwathnasorn, C.; Vilainerun, D.; Watson, C.; Johari, M. R.; Z. Ahmad; Barnes, A.

    1994-01-01

    Food-handling practices were studied in 119 and 158 households, respectively, in an urban and a rural community in Peninsular Malaysia. Hazard analyses, including microbiological analysis of foods, were carried out in two households in each community and in a house that prepared food for distribution in the urban area. Kitchen hygiene was generally acceptable, although rated "poor" in some instances in the rural area. Food prepared for lunch was usually sufficient for dinner also, the leftove...

  4. Ensuring Microbial Safety in Food Product/Process Development: Alternative Processing of Meat Products and Pathogen Survival in Low-Salt Cheddar Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Subash

    2012-01-01

    Most outbreaks of foodborne illness in the United States occur as a result of improper food-handling and preparation practices in homes or food establishments. Some food-safety recommendations that are difficult to incorporate into handling and cooking procedures have contributed to a gap between food-safety knowledge and the actual behavior. The first part (Chapter 3, 4) of this study sought to ensure microbial safety by establishing alternative processing of meat products that can be easily...

  5. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice ... Allergy Bubble Game with Mr. Nose-it-All. Test your knowledge about food allergies. » Food Allergy Symptoms & ...

  6. Food Safety Practices Assessment Tool: An Innovative Way to Test Food Safety Skills among Individuals with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Elena T.; Scarpati, Stanley E.; Pivarnik, Lori F.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an innovative assessment tool designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a food safety skills curriculum for learners receiving special education services. As schools respond to the increased demand for training students with special needs about food safety, the need for effective curricula and tools is also increasing. A…

  7. Food Avoidance and Food Modification Practices of Older Rural Adults: Association with Oral Health Status and Implications for Service Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Dietary variation is important for health maintenance and disease prevention among older adults. However, oral health deficits impair ability to bite and chew foods. This study examines the association between oral health and foods avoided or modified in a multiethnic rural population of older adults. It considers implications for…

  8. 7 CFR 205.203 - Soil fertility and crop nutrient management practice standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling... materials. (c) The producer must manage plant and animal materials to maintain or improve soil...

  9. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling... substance included on the National List of synthetic substances allowed for use in organic crop...

  10. 7 CFR 205.204 - Seeds and planting stock practice standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling... and planting stock may be used to produce an organic crop when an equivalent organically...

  11. 7 CFR 205.207 - Wild-crop harvesting practice standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling..., labeled, or represented as organic must be harvested from a designated area that has had no...

  12. 7 CFR 205.272 - Commingling and contact with prohibited substance prevention practice standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.272 Commingling and contact with prohibited...

  13. Use of Food Practices by Childcare Staff and the Association with Dietary Intake of Children at Childcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S. Gubbels

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study explored the associations between various childcare staff food practices and children’s dietary intake at childcare. A total of 398 one- to four-year-old children and 24 childcare staff members from 24 Dutch childcare centers participated in the study. Children’s dietary intake (fruit, vegetable, sweet snack, savory snack, water, and sweet drink intake at childcare was registered on two weekdays, using observations by dieticians and childcare staff. Thirteen childcare staff practices were assessed using questionnaires administered by dieticians. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression analyses. Children consumed relatively much fruit and many sweet snacks at childcare, and they mainly drank sweet drinks. Various staff practices were associated with children’s dietary intake. When staff explained what they were doing to the children during food preparation, children ate significantly more fruit. Children ate less sweet snacks when they were allowed to help prepare the meals. When staff encouraged children to continue eating, they ate more vegetables. In conclusion, the study showed the importance of childcare staff food practices for children’s food intake at childcare. More research is needed to examine the specific conditions under which food practices can have a positive impact on children’s dietary intake.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcal Food-Borne Disease: An Ongoing Challenge in Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Jhalka Kadariya; Smith, Tara C.; Dipendra Thapaliya

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcal food-borne disease (SFD) is one of the most common food-borne diseases worldwide resulting from the contamination of food by preformed S. aureus enterotoxins. It is one of the most common causes of reported food-borne diseases in the United States. Although several Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) have been identified, SEA, a highly heat-stable SE, is the most common cause of SFD worldwide. Outbreak investigations have found that improper food handling practices in the retail ...

  15. Practical issues in adopting a traveling wave thermoacoustic cooler for use in a food storage refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoor, Philip S.

    2005-09-01

    CFIC/QDrive has developed a food storage refrigerator for the Army based on thermoacoustic technology. This ``Phase II'' SBIR project is a continuation of a ``Phase I'' effort that explored using a standing-wave thermoacoustic cooler for the refrigerator. The standing-wave cooler was found to be too inefficient with too low a power density to be practical, so it was switched to an acoustic Stirling, or traveling-wave thermoacoustic (regenerator based) cooler for Phase II. The major challenges of this project were adapting the Stirling-style cooler to a food storage application, and not the fundamentals of the cooler itself (the one exception being the issue of acoustic streaming). The challenges include: Running at 60 Hz (without frequency-shifting electronics), heat exchange without circulating fluids, dynamic balance, guarantee of long life, efficiency, and compactness (power density). How these challenges were met and how they drove the design, in most cases away from what would be ideal for the cycle itself, will be discussed. Time permitting, how the additional pressure of low unit cost would affect this type of product development will also be discussed. [Research supported by the U. S. Army through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant.

  16. Nutrient Intake and Food Habits of Soccer Players: Analyzing the Correlates of Eating Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo M. García-Rovés

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player’s career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players.

  17. Contact handle decompositions

    OpenAIRE

    Özbağcı, Burak

    2009-01-01

    We review Giroux’s contact handles and contact handle attachments in dimension three and show that a bypass attachment consists of a pair of contact 1 and 2-handles. As an application we describe explicit contact handle decompositions of infinitely many pairwise non-isotopic overtwisted 3-spheres. We also give an alternative proof of the fact that every compact contact 3-manifold (closed or with convex boundary) admits a contact handle decomposition, which is a result originally due to Giroux.

  18. The influence of maternal infant feeding practices and beliefs on the expression of food neophobia in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassells, Erin L; Magarey, Anthea M; Daniels, Lynne A; Mallan, Kimberley M

    2014-11-01

    Food neophobia is a highly heritable trait characterized by the rejection of foods that are novel or unknown and potentially limits dietary variety, with lower intake and preference particularly for fruits and vegetables. Understanding non-genetic (environmental) factors that may influence the expression of food neophobia is essential to improving children's consumption of fruits and vegetables and encouraging the adoption of healthier diets. The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal infant feeding beliefs (at 4 months) were associated with the expression of food neophobia in toddlers and whether controlling feeding practices mediated this relationship. Participants were 244 first-time mothers (M=30.4, SD=5.1 years) allocated to the control group of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial. The relationships between infant feeding beliefs (Infant Feeding Questionnaire) at 4 months and controlling child feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire) and food neophobia (Child Food Neophobia Scale) at 24 months were tested using correlational and multiple linear regression models (adjusted for significant covariates). Higher maternal Concern about infant under-eating and becoming underweight at 4 months was associated with higher child food neophobia at 2 years. Similarly, lower Awareness of infant hunger and satiety cues was associated with higher child food neophobia. Both associations were significantly mediated by mothers' use of Pressure to eat. Intervening early to promote positive feeding practices to mothers may help reduce the use of controlling practices as children develop. Further research that can further elucidate the bi-directional nature of the mother-child feeding relationship is still required. PMID:25014743

  19. Promising practices in food security and nutrition assistance to vulnerable households in the Tonle Sap Region, Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) seeks to reduce poverty and improve food security for many small-scale fishers and farmers who are dependent on aquatic agriculture systems by partnering with local, national and international partners to achieve large-scale development impact. This study on promising practices in food security and nutrition assistance to vulnerable households in the Tonle Sap region forms part of the preliminary research that informs AAS work i...

  20. Development of an item bank for food parenting practices based on published instruments and reports from Canadian and US parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Teresia M; Pham, Truc; Watts, Allison W; Tu, Andrew W; Hughes, Sheryl O; Beauchamp, Mark R; Baranowski, Tom; Mâsse, Louise C

    2016-08-01

    Research to understand how parents influence their children's dietary intake and eating behaviors has expanded in the past decades and a growing number of instruments are available to assess food parenting practices. Unfortunately, there is no consensus on how constructs should be defined or operationalized, making comparison of results across studies difficult. The aim of this study was to develop a food parenting practice item bank with items from published scales and supplement with parenting practices that parents report using. Items from published scales were identified from two published systematic reviews along with an additional systematic review conducted for this study. Parents (n = 135) with children 5-12 years old from the US and Canada, stratified to represent the demographic distribution of each country, were recruited to participate in an online semi-qualitative survey on food parenting. Published items and parent responses were coded using the same framework to reduce the number of items into representative concepts using a binning and winnowing process. The literature contributed 1392 items and parents contributed 1985 items, which were reduced to 262 different food parenting concepts (26% exclusive from literature, 12% exclusive from parents, and 62% represented in both). Food parenting practices related to 'Structure of Food Environment' and 'Behavioral and Educational' were emphasized more by parent responses, while practices related to 'Consistency of Feeding Environment' and 'Emotional Regulation' were more represented among published items. The resulting food parenting item bank should next be calibrated with item response modeling for scientists to use in the future. PMID:27131416

  1. Food Avoidance and Food Modification Practices of Older Rural Adults: Association With Oral Health Status and Implications for Service Provision

    OpenAIRE

    Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Arcury, Thomas A

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Dietary variation is important for health maintenance and disease prevention among older adults. However, oral health deficits impair ability to bite and chew foods. This study examines the association between oral health and foods avoided or modified in a multiethnic rural population of older adults. It considers implications for nutrition and medical service provision to this population. Design and Methods: In-home interviews and oral examinations were conducted with 635 adults in ...

  2. Food as a reward in the classroom: school district policies are associated with practices in US public elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lindsey; Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-09-01

    The use of food as a reward for good student behavior or academic performance is discouraged by many national organizations, yet this practice continues to occur in schools. Our multiyear cross-sectional study examined the use of food as a reward in elementary schools and evaluated the association between district policies and school practices. School data were gathered during the 2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2009-2010 school years via mail-back surveys (N=2,069) from respondents at nationally representative samples of US public elementary schools (1,525 unique schools, 544 of which also participated for a second year). During every year, the corresponding district policy for each school was gathered and coded for provisions pertaining to the use of food as a reward. School practices did not change over time and as of the 2009-2010 school year, respondents in 42.1% and 40.7% of schools, respectively, indicated that food was not used as a reward for academic performance or for good student behavior. In multivariate logistic regression analyses controlling for school characteristics and year, having a district policy that prohibited the use of food as a reward was significantly associated with school respondents reporting that food was not used as a reward for academic performance (P<0.05) or for good student behavior (P<0.05). School-level respondents in the West and the Midwest were less likely to report that food was not used as a reward than were respondents in the South and Northeast. As of 2009-2010, only 11.9% of the districts in our study prohibited the use of food as a reward. Strengthening district policies may reduce the use of food rewards in elementary schools.

  3. What does it mean to be a 'picky eater'? A qualitative study of food related identities and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Claire; Cummins, Steven; Brown, Tim; Kyle, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Picky eaters are defined as those who consume an inadequate variety of food through rejection of a substantial amount of food stuffs that are both familiar and unfamiliar. Picky eating is a relatively recent theoretical concept and while there is increasing concern within public health over the lack of diversity in some children's diets, adult picky eaters remain an under researched group. This paper reports on the findings of a qualitative study on the routine food choices and practices of 26 families in Sandwell, West Midlands, UK. Photo elicitation and go-along interview data collection methods were used to capture habitual food related behaviours and served to describe the practices of nine individuals who self identified or were described as picky eaters. A thematic analysis revealed that those with the food related identity of picky eater had very restricted diets and experienced strong emotional and physical reactions to certain foods. For some this could be a distressing and alienating experience that hindered their ability to engage in episodes of social eating. Further research is needed to illuminate the specific practices of adult picky eaters, how this impacts on their lives, and how possible interventions might seek to address the challenges they face. PMID:25450986

  4. Vegan Killjoys at the Table—Contesting Happiness and Negotiating Relationships with Food Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Twine

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reports upon research on vegan transition, which I bring into dialogue with Sara Ahmed’s figure of the killjoy. Ahmed’s work on affect and the feminist killjoy is found to be apt for considering contemporary vegans and their transgression of normative scripts of happiness and commensality in a dominant meat and dairy consuming culture. The decentring of joy and happiness is also found to be integral to the critical deconstructive work of the vegan killjoy. Ahmed’s ideas further complement the frame of practice theory that I draw upon to understand the process of transition especially in the sense of opposing the meanings of dominant practices. Although food and veganism are not commented upon by Ahmed, the vegan subject constitutes, I argue, a potent further example of what she terms an “affect alien” who must willfully struggle against a dominant affective order and community. Drawing upon interviews with 40 vegans based in the UK, I illustrate examples of contestation and negotiation by vegans and those close to them. The article finds in the figure of the killjoy not only a frame by which to partly understand the negotiation of relationships between vegans and non-vegans but also an opportunity for further intersectional labour between veganism and feminism.

  5. Implementing Good Practices Programs to Encourage Production of High-Quality, Safer Produce in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Barakat S. M.; Stafne, Eric T.; Coker, Christine H.; Bachman, Gary R.; Bell, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Fifty-four growers/producers attended four 1-day good agricultural practices (GAP) and good handling practices (GHP) workshops at four locations in Mississippi. Pre- and post workshop survey data indicated that the participants' food safety knowledge increased by 15%. Furthermore, the workshops helped producers develop their own food safety plans.…

  6. School Foodservice Employees' Perceptions of Practice: Differences by Generational Age and Hours Worked

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohbehn, Catherine; Jun, Jinhyun; Arendt, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study investigated the influences of school foodservice employees' age and average number of hours worked per week on perceived safe food handling practices, barriers, and motivators. Methods: A bilingual survey (English and Spanish) was developed to assess reported food safety practices, barriers, and motivators to…

  7. Food choices and practices during pregnancy of immigrant women with high-risk pregnancies in Canada: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Higginbottom, Gina MA; Vallianatos, Helen; Forgeron, Joan; Gibbons, Donna; Mamede, Fabiana; Barolia, Rubina

    2014-01-01

    Background Immigrant women may be regarded as a vulnerable population with respect to access and navigation of maternity care services. They may encounter difficulties when accessing culturally safe and appropriate maternity care, which may be further exacerbated by language difficulties and discriminatory practices or attitudes. The project aimed to understand ethnocultural food and health practices and how these intersect in a particular social context of cultural adaptation and adjustment ...

  8. Helping Kids Handle Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Helping Kids Handle Worry KidsHealth > For Parents > Helping Kids Handle ... master life's challenges, big and small. What Do Kids Worry About? What kids worry about is often ...

  9. Association between Travel Times and Food Procurement Practices among Female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participants in Eastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Moore, Justin B.; Wall-Bassett, Elizabeth D.; Liu, Haiyong; Saelens, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between self-reported vehicular travel behaviors, perceived stress, food procurement practices, and body mass index among female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. Analysis: The authors used correlation and regression analyses to examine cross-sectional associations between travel time…

  10. The Influence of the Secondary School Setting on the Food Practices of Young Teenagers from Disadvantaged Backgrounds in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, W.; Backett-Milburn, K.; Gregory, S.; Lawton, J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the secondary school environment as an important context for understanding young teenagers eating habits and food practices. We draw on data collected during semi-structured interviews with 36 young teenagers (aged 13/14 years) living in disadvantaged circumstances in Scotland. We found that the systems inherent in school…

  11. Towards sustainable food systems: the concept of agroecology and how it questions current research practices. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatt, S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Multiple environmental and socio-economic indicators show that our current agriculture and the organization of the food system need to be revised. Agroecology has been proposed as a promising concept for achieving greater sustainability. This paper offers an overview and discussion of the concept based on existing literature and case studies, and explores the way it questions our current research approaches and education paradigms. Literature. In order to improve the sustainability of agriculture, the use of external and chemical inputs needs to be minimized. Agroecological farming practices seek to optimize ecological processes, thus minimizing the need for external inputs by providing an array of ecosystem services. Implementing such practices challenges the current structure of the food system, which has been criticized for its lack of social relevance and economic viability. An agroecological approach includes all stakeholders, from field to fork, in the discussion, design and development of future food systems. This inclusion of various disciplines and stakeholders raises issues about scientists and their research practices, as well as about the education of the next generation of scientists. Conclusions. Agroecology is based on the concept that agricultural practices and food systems cannot be dissociated because they belong to the same natural and socio-economic context. Clearly, agroecology is not a silver-bullet, but its principles can serve as avenues for rethinking the current approaches towards achieving greater sustainability. Adapting research approaches in line with indicators that promote inter- and transdisciplinary research is essential if progress is to be made.

  12. Construction and Practice of Complaint Handling Management System in Anhui Telecom Mobile Network%安徽电信移动网络投诉处理管理体系的构建与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小伟; 袁亘; 施兆阳; 彭东升

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the problems existing in the complaint handling process in Anhui Telecom mobile network, and then optimize the complaint handling flow. We build the management system in the aspects from complaints pretreatment and closed loop control of complaint results to assessment and evaluation, realizing the accurate positioning of consumers’ complaint phenomena and their reasons, as well as the closed loop management of complaint handling results. The practices show that the management system has potential application values because it accomplishes both the quality of service of the operator and the perception of users.%通过剖析安徽电信移动网络投诉处理存在的问题,全面优化了投诉处理工作流程,从投诉预处理、投诉结果闭环管控、考核与评价等方面建立了管理体系,实现了用户投诉现象与投诉原因的准确定位、投诉处理结果闭环管理。实践验证表明,该管理体系实现了运营商服务水平和用户感知的双提升,具有较大的应用价值。

  13. Radiation technology for value addition to food and agro commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while reducing post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy has played a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

  14. The influence of the secondary school setting on the food practices of young teenagers from disadvantaged backgrounds in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, W; Backett-Milburn, K; Gregory, S; Lawton, J

    2005-08-01

    In this paper, we explore the secondary school environment as an important context for understanding young teenagers' eating habits and food practices. We draw on data collected during semi-structured interviews with 36 young teenagers (aged 13/14 years) living in disadvantaged circumstances in Scotland. We found that the systems inherent in school had an impact on what, where and when participants ate their lunch. Each school had rules governing use of the school dining hall and participants sometimes chose to leave this environment to buy food outside school premises. Our interviews showed that parents determined how much money young people took to school and, therefore, had some control over their food choices. Participants rarely spoke of giving priority to food and eating during the non-curriculum parts of the school day, preferring to spend time 'hanging out' with friends. Eating with friends was sometimes reported as a cause of anxiety, particularly when participants had concerns about body image, appetite or appearance. We suggest that young teenagers' dislike for queuing for food, their ability to budget for food at school and their desire to maximize time spent with friends influence food choices; therefore, these are issues which have implications for health education and will be of interest to those responsible for school meal provision. PMID:15507490

  15. A Study of Assessment and Acting Factors on Young Teachers’ Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP for Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changfa Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Young teachers have been a drive for development to our country’s universities. In order to follow their awareness of food security and physical status with interest, we, firstly, carry out an investigation into the young teachers’ Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP under the age of 40 by cluster sampling in the 14 universities in Anhui province, then, make analysis of the data through statistic methods of T test and the other tests concerned, with conclusions that the positive correlations lie between the knowledge and the attitude, the attitude and the practice while the knowledge and the practice have not interrelated evidently. Finally, we submit proposals for how to improve the young teachers’ consciousness for food security from the respects of KAP in universities in Anhui province.

  16. Limited Evidence That Competitive Food and Beverage Practices Affect Adolescent Consumption Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vericker, Tracy C.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is emerging as a considerable public health problem with no clear antidote. The school food environment is a potential intervention point for policy makers, with competitive food and beverage regulation as a possible policy lever. This research examines the link between competitive food and beverage availability in school and…

  17. Toward Determining Best Practices for Recruiting Future Leaders in Food Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Clinton D.

    2016-01-01

    There is a shortage of qualified food scientists in the workforce that has adverse consequences for the quality and safety of our food supply. The Institute of Food Technologists and other institutions have initiated and continue to initiate outreach programs; however, an analysis of the effectiveness of these efforts has not yet come to fruition.…

  18. JUNK FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERN AND OBESITY AMONG SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN IN AN URBAN FIELD PRACTICE AREA: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Junk food simply means an empty calorie food; it lacks in micronutrients such as vitamins, minerals, or amino acids, and fibre but has high energy (calories. During school - age years, children begin to establish habits for eating and exercise that stick w ith them for their entire lives. If children establish healthy habits, their risk for developing many chronic diseases will be greatly decreased. The family, friends, schools, and community resources in a child’s environment reinforce lifestyle habits rega rding diet and activity. OBJECTIVES: To study the fast food consumptions pattern and fast food preferences among the school going children (9 - 13yrs and some of the determinants related to fast food consumption . STUDY SETTING: Department of Community Medic ine in an Urban field practice area of Rajarajeswari Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. STUDY DESIGN: Cross - sectional study. STUDY DURATION: Three months duration ( Oct – Dec 2014. STUDY POPULATION: school students studying in V th standard to X th standar d. SAMPLE SIZE : The selected school had a strength of 200 students. Hence complete enumeration of the students was considered for this study. DATA COLLECTION : by using pre - structured questionnaire by interview method. The variables included were socio - demographic profile, measurement of height, weight and questions related to junk food consumption and its patterns. DATA ANALYSIS: using statistics software SPSS 20. Mean and standard deviation was calculated for anthropometric measurements. Test of significance for proportions was done by Chi - square test. RESULTS: Among 200 study subjects, 107 were male (53.5% and 93 females (46.5%. Majority of the students wer e in the age group of 12 - 15 years ( 66% and 9 - 11 years ( 34%. Snacks (41%, Fast food (25.50%, soft drinks (17.50% and candies (16% were the favourite junk foods among the study subjects. Taste and time factors, watching television while consuming

  19. Assessment of Land Management Practices in Food Crops Production among Small Scale Farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulazeez, Muhammad-Lawal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study carried out an assessment of agricultural land management practices in food crops production among small scale farmers in Kwara Sate, Nigeria. Specifically, the study determined the socio economic characteristics of crop farmers in Kwara State; ascertained the cropping patterns common among them; highlighted the soil conservation methods adopted by the farmers; examined the relationship between selected socio-economic characteristics of the farmers and their adoption of major agricultural land management practices; and investigated the constraints to adoption of sustainable agricultural practices among crop farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria A three stage random sampling technique was used in selecting a total of one hundred and forty four small scale food crops farmers. Descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression model and four point Likert-type scale were used to analyse the data for the study. The study revealed that food crops production in Kwara State is dominated by middle aged men who are poorly educated and have poor access to agricultural extension services. Half of the respondents (48.60% adopted cereal-based cropping systems. 48.6% of the farmers adopted a minimum of three management practices. Crop rotation was mostly adopted by all the farmers while irrigation was the least adopted by only 29.3% of the respondents. Furthermore, the study revealed that farm size, age, education status, number of contacts with extension agents, household size and number of farm plots of the respondents were the significant factors affecting their adoption of land management practices. The study also revealed that the major constraints to the use of sustainable crop management practices among the farmers included inadequate supply of fertilizer, inadequacy of labour and credit, poor knowledge of improved agricultural practices, poor transportation, low produce prices and high cost of production. The study recommended the need for training

  20. What Bacteria Are Living in My Food?: An Open-Ended Practical Series Involving Identification of Unknown Foodborne Bacteria Using Molecular Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Prascilla; Turner, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    This open-ended practical series titled "Molecular Identification of Unknown Food Bacteria" which extended over a 6-week period was designed with the aims of giving students an opportunity to gain an understanding of naturally occurring food bacteria and skills in contemporary molecular methods using real food samples. The students first isolated…

  1. The Domestic Foodscapes of Young Low-Income Women in Montreal: Cooking Practices in the Context of an Increasingly Processed Food Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler-Stringer, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Over the course of the past century, the quantity of prepackaged, pre-prepared foods available in the North American context has increased dramatically. This study examines the shifts in food practices that are taking place through an exploration of the day-to-day cooking practices of a group of young, low-income women in Montreal and considers…

  2. Current situation of food irradiation practice in U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is essential that private food companies adopt the process and retail stores sell irradiated food products in order to popularize food irradiation among consumers. FOOD TECHnology Inc. (former Vindicator Inc.), which is founded in Florida 1992 for the purpose of decontamination of fruit flies infected in Oranges using 60Co gamma-irradiation, and Carrot Top, which has been selling irradiated foods since 1992, are well known to be actively involved in PA activity of irradiated foods. Carrot Top is now strongly interested in selling tropical fruits from Hawaii, which has been prohibited to ship from Hawaii to the mainland without decontamination treatment by US government because of fruit fly infestation. They got a temporal permit for the shipment of those fruits with irradiation at Chicago. FOOD TECHnology Inc. irradiates chicken, tomatoes, strawberries and mushrooms. Foods for hospitalized patients and astronauts are also irradiated at FOOD TECHnology Inc.. All food supply for the 'Space Shuttle' program has been provided. Recently they began to irradiate frozen shrimps and salmons. Carrot Top says that irradiated food items gain popularity among their customers although they changed the information transfer method from news letter to news paper advertisement as well as minimizing the description in the store. They noted that the goods sold well whether or not they are irradiated if they are fresh, good-looking and reasonable in price. FOOD TECHnology also commented that food industries has become more friendly towards food irradiation and they petitioned FDA for clearance of beef irradiation to decontaminate E. coli 0157:H7, but the private companies still hesitated to pick up this process therefore we need more efforts of PR. (J.P.N.)

  3. Consumer contribution to food contamination in Brazil: modelling the food safety risk in the home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Paulo Olinto da Motta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne diseases are among the most widespread public health issues, killing about 2.2 million people annually, and costing hundreds of billions of US dollars for governments, companies, families and consumers (WHO, 2007. In Brazil, foodborne diseases acquired in the home account for 55% of notified outbreaks (BRASIL, 2012. Several studies have investigated aspects of consumer behaviour concerning food poisoning, mapping practices in the home, but it remains a challenge to obtain a full picture of the consumer contribution to food contamination (REDMOND and GRIFFITH, 2003. This study aimed to assess the risks of food contamination in the home. A questionnaire containing 140 questions concerning food safety knowledge, handling practices, personal hygiene and basic health care, covering the stages when the food is under the control of the consumer, was developed and used to gather data for analysis. Appropriate scores were attributed to the questions (consequences to food safety and answers (likelihood of food contamination. A risk estimate algorithm and an appropriate risk ranking scale were used to assess the results. From August 2011 to March 2012, survey questionnaires were collected from 2,775 consumers in Brazil across 19 out of 27 state capitals. The study found risky practices with the potential to lead to food poisoning occurrences in the domestic environment in the following handling steps: food transportation, food preparation, cooking and the handling of leftovers. The personal hygiene, age, formal education, family income and basic health care habits represented the factors most related to the risky practices of consumers, which could orientate food safety educational campaigns for the Brazilian population.

  4. Looking beyond borders: integrating best practices in benefit-risk analysis into the field of food and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijhuis, M J; Pohjola, M V; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Kalogeras, N; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken-Schröder, G; Poto, M; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, O; White, B C; Holm, F; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    An integrated benefit-risk analysis aims to give guidance in decision situations where benefits do not clearly prevail over risks, and explicit weighing of benefits and risks is thus indicated. The BEPRARIBEAN project aims to advance benefit-risk analysis in the area of food and nutrition by learning from other fields. This paper constitutes the final stage of the project, in which commonalities and differences in benefit-risk analysis are identified between the Food and Nutrition field and other fields, namely Medicines, Food Microbiology, Environmental Health, Economics and Marketing-Finance, and Consumer Perception. From this, ways forward are characterized for benefit-risk analysis in Food and Nutrition. Integrated benefit-risk analysis in Food and Nutrition may advance in the following ways: Increased engagement and communication between assessors, managers, and stakeholders; more pragmatic problem-oriented framing of assessment; accepting some risk; pre- and post-market analysis; explicit communication of the assessment purpose, input and output; more human (dose-response) data and more efficient use of human data; segmenting populations based on physiology; explicit consideration of value judgments in assessment; integration of multiple benefits and risks from multiple domains; explicit recognition of the impact of consumer beliefs, opinions, views, perceptions, and attitudes on behaviour; and segmenting populations based on behaviour; the opportunities proposed here do not provide ultimate solutions; rather, they define a collection of issues to be taken account of in developing methods, tools, practices and policies, as well as refining the regulatory context, for benefit-risk analysis in Food and Nutrition and other fields. Thus, these opportunities will now need to be explored further and incorporated into benefit-risk practice and policy. If accepted, incorporation of these opportunities will also involve a paradigm shift in Food and Nutrition benefit

  5. Looking beyond borders: integrating best practices in benefit-risk analysis into the field of food and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijhuis, M J; Pohjola, M V; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Kalogeras, N; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken-Schröder, G; Poto, M; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, O; White, B C; Holm, F; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    An integrated benefit-risk analysis aims to give guidance in decision situations where benefits do not clearly prevail over risks, and explicit weighing of benefits and risks is thus indicated. The BEPRARIBEAN project aims to advance benefit-risk analysis in the area of food and nutrition by learning from other fields. This paper constitutes the final stage of the project, in which commonalities and differences in benefit-risk analysis are identified between the Food and Nutrition field and other fields, namely Medicines, Food Microbiology, Environmental Health, Economics and Marketing-Finance, and Consumer Perception. From this, ways forward are characterized for benefit-risk analysis in Food and Nutrition. Integrated benefit-risk analysis in Food and Nutrition may advance in the following ways: Increased engagement and communication between assessors, managers, and stakeholders; more pragmatic problem-oriented framing of assessment; accepting some risk; pre- and post-market analysis; explicit communication of the assessment purpose, input and output; more human (dose-response) data and more efficient use of human data; segmenting populations based on physiology; explicit consideration of value judgments in assessment; integration of multiple benefits and risks from multiple domains; explicit recognition of the impact of consumer beliefs, opinions, views, perceptions, and attitudes on behaviour; and segmenting populations based on behaviour; the opportunities proposed here do not provide ultimate solutions; rather, they define a collection of issues to be taken account of in developing methods, tools, practices and policies, as well as refining the regulatory context, for benefit-risk analysis in Food and Nutrition and other fields. Thus, these opportunities will now need to be explored further and incorporated into benefit-risk practice and policy. If accepted, incorporation of these opportunities will also involve a paradigm shift in Food and Nutrition benefit

  6. Human health risk from heavy metal via food crops consumption with wastewater irrigation practices in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Usman; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Muhammad, Said

    2013-11-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the potential human health risks associated with consumption of food crops contaminated with toxic heavy metals. Cadmium (Cd) concentration in surface soils; Cd, lead (Pb) and chromium (Cr) in the irrigation water and food crops were above permissible limits. The accumulation factor (AF) was >1 for manganese (Mn) and Pb in different food crops. The Health Risk Index (HRI) was >1 for Pb in all food crops irrigated with wastewater and tube well water. HRI >1 was also recorded for Cd in all selected vegetables; and for Mn in Spinacia oleracea irrigated with wastewater. All wastewater irrigated samples (soil and food crops) exhibited high relative contamination level as compared to samples irrigated with tube well water. Our results emphasized the need for pretreatment of wastewater and routine monitoring in order to avoid contamination of food crops from the wastewater irrigation system.

  7. What economic theory tells us about the impacts of reducing food losses and/or waste: implications for research, policy and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Rutten, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background - Whereas the prevalence of hunger and food insecurity is often cited as a motivation for reducing losses and waste in agriculture and food systems, the impacts of such reduction on food security and the wider economy have not yet been investigated. This paper gives insights into these effects, the factors of influence, and derives implications for applied research, policy and practice. Methods - We used economic theory to analyse the impacts of food loss reductions on the supply s...

  8. Practical discrimination of good and bad cooked food using metal oxide semiconductor odour sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essiet Ima O.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing concentration of ammonia in cooked food is in direct proportion to the extent of decay. This fact is used to design an electronic nose (e-nose based on metal oxide semiconductor odour sensor circuit capable of discriminating good and bad cooked food. On the basis of the data produced by the e-nose circuit, a feedforward multilayer neural network is designed and trained to recognize varying concentrations of ammonia in the food. Test results of the prototype e-nose system show that it is capable of classifying cooked food as being good or bad with over 92% average success rate.

  9. Menu Planning, Food Consumption, and Sanitation Practices in Day Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuratko, Connye N.; Martin, Ruth E.; Lan, William Y.; Chappell, James A.; Ahmad, Mahassen

    2000-01-01

    In 102 day care centers, data were collected on nutritional content of menus, compliance with guidelines, children's food consumption, and safety/sanitation. Although menus exceeded recommended daily allowances, quantities of food were below recommendations. No menu components were consumed by more than 65% of children. Sanitation problems were…

  10. A Practical Guide for Estimating Dietary Fat and Fiber Using Limited Food Frequency Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Anne Victoria; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A methodology is presented for estimating daily intake of dietary fat and fiber based on limited food frequency data. The procedure, which relies on National Food Consumption Survey data and daily consumption rates, can provide baseline estimates of dietary patterns for health promotion policymakers. (SLD)

  11. Local French Food Initiatives in Practice: The Emergence of a Social Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Giovanangeli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the development of local food systems from a social movement perspective. It examines the case study of a farm market located in France and considers whether and how local initiatives in food distribution can be viewed as a social movement, using social theory as the conceptual framework.

  12. Nutrition, Health, and Food Security Practices, Concerns, and Perceived Barriers of Latino Farm/Industry Workers in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Essa, Jumanah S.

    2001-01-01

    Nutrition, Health, and Food Security Practices, Concerns, and Perceived Barriers of Latino Farm/Industry Workers in Virginia Jumanah S. Essa ABSTRACT Farm and industry workers are a growing population in the United States (U.S.) and are critical to the success of the agriculture industry. In 1993, the Migrant Legal Services estimated that there were 42,000 migrant and seasonal farm workers in the state of Virginia (Wilson, 1998). These workers are essential in the state's producti...

  13. Using fuzzy cognitive mapping to understand farmers' perception of sustainable agricultural practices for enhanced food security in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Halbrendt, Jacqueline; Gray, S.; Crow, S.; Shariq, L.; Tamang, Bishal B.

    2012-01-01

    With the world population having reached unprecedented levels, the need for improved food security and sustainable agricultural practices has become all the more pressing. This is especially relevant for subsistence farmers, such as those in the Mid-hill region of Nepal, who typically rely on crop yields for sustenance and have limited access to opportunities for income generation. Although promoting agricultural development in areas like the Mid-hill region has been a priority for NGOs and r...

  14. Use of Food Practices by Childcare Staff and the Association with Dietary Intake of Children at Childcare

    OpenAIRE

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Gerards, Sanne M. P. L.; Stef P. J. Kremers

    2015-01-01

    The study explored the associations between various childcare staff food practices and children’s dietary intake at childcare. A total of 398 one- to four-year-old children and 24 childcare staff members from 24 Dutch childcare centers participated in the study. Children’s dietary intake (fruit, vegetable, sweet snack, savory snack, water, and sweet drink intake) at childcare was registered on two weekdays, using observations by dieticians and childcare staff. Thirteen childcare staff practi...

  15. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it has been considered an urgent task to provide users of radioisotopes with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. Such a manual is presented here and represents the first of a series of manuals and codes to be issued by the Agency. It has been prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety, by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. At the same time it is recommended that the manual be taken into account as a basic reference document by Member States of the Agency in the preparation of national health and safety documents covering the use of radioisotopes.

  16. Effect of good hygiene practices intervention on food safety in senior secondary schools in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Ababio, Patricia; Taylor, Tony; Swainson, Mark; Daramola, Bukola

    2016-01-01

    Eleven schools in three different hygiene categories were given hygiene training as an intervention to reported low hygiene standards. Staff hygiene knowledge scores, food temperature, food service time and microbiological quality of jollof rice (cooked rice in tomato sauce and fish) were measured before and after the intervention. Descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon’s Signed- Rank Test for repeated measures on SPSS were used to evaluate the effect of GHP intervention. Staff hygiene knowledge...

  17. Communication practices in engineering, manufacturing, and research for food and water safety

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates some of the ways in which communication and developing technologies can improve global food and water safety by providing a historical background on outbreaks and public resistance, as well as generating interest in youth and potential professionals in the field : History of muckraking in the food industry ; Case study on groundwater regulation ; Interviews with members of the beef industry and livestock market owners.

  18. Human factors issues in fuel handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The staff of the Atomic Energy Control Board wish to further their understanding of human factors issues of potential concern associated with fuel handling in CANDU nuclear power stations. This study contributes to that objective by analysing the role of human performance in the overall fuel handling process at Ontario Hydro's Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, and reporting findings in several areas. A number of issues are identified in the areas of design, operating and maintenance practices, and the organizational and management environment

  19. School nutritional capacity, resources and practices are associated with availability of food/beverage items in schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The school food environment is important to target as less healthful food and beverages are widely available at schools. This study examined whether the availability of specific food/beverage items was associated with a number of school environmental factors. Methods Principals from elementary (n = 369) and middle/high schools (n = 118) in British Columbia (BC), Canada completed a survey measuring characteristics of the school environment. Our measurement framework integrated constructs from the Theories of Organizational Change and elements from Stillman’s Tobacco Policy Framework adapted for obesity prevention. Our measurement framework included assessment of policy institutionalization of nutritional guidelines at the district and school levels, climate, nutritional capacity and resources (nutritional resources and participation in nutritional programs), nutritional practices, and school community support for enacting stricter nutritional guidelines. We used hierarchical mixed-effects logistic regression analyses to examine associations with the availability of fruit, vegetables, pizza/hamburgers/hot dogs, chocolate candy, sugar-sweetened beverages, and french fried potatoes. Results In elementary schools, fruit and vegetable availability was more likely among schools that have more nutritional resources (OR = 6.74 and 5.23, respectively). In addition, fruit availability in elementary schools was highest in schools that participated in the BC School Fruit and Vegetable Nutritional Program and the BC Milk program (OR = 4.54 and OR = 3.05, respectively). In middle/high schools, having more nutritional resources was associated with vegetable availability only (OR = 5.78). Finally, middle/high schools that have healthier nutritional practices (i.e., which align with upcoming provincial/state guidelines) were less likely to have the following food/beverage items available at school: chocolate candy (OR = .80) and sugar

  20. Food and dietary pattern-based recommendations: an emerging approach to clinical practice guidelines for nutrition therapy in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievenpiper, John L; Dworatzek, Paula D N

    2013-02-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the nutritional management of diabetes mellitus have evolved considerably over the last 25 years. As major diabetes associations have focussed on the individualization of nutrition therapy, there has been a move toward a broader more flexible macronutrient distribution that emphasizes macronutrient quality over quantity. There is now a call for the integration of food- and dietary pattern-based approaches into diabetes association CPGs. The main argument has been that an approach that focuses on nutrients alone misses important nutrient interactions oversimplifying the complexity of foods and dietary patterns, both of which have been shown to have a stronger influence on disease risk than nutrients alone. Although cancer and heart associations have begun to integrate this approach into their dietary guidelines, diabetes associations have not yet adopted this approach. We provide a rationale for the adoption of this approach for The Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA) 2013 CPGs for nutrition therapy. The systematic review for the development of these guidelines revealed emerging evidence to support the use of vegetarian, Mediterranean, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary patterns as well as specific foods such as dietary pulses and nuts in people with diabetes. Popular and conventional weight loss diets were also found to have similar advantages in people with diabetes, although poor dietary adherence remains an issue with these diets. The CDA 2013 CPGs will support an even greater individualization of nutrition therapy for people with diabetes and appeal to a broader range of practice styles of health professionals. PMID:24070749

  1. Land Management Practices and Their Effects on Food Crop Yields in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Asuming-Brempong, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural land use and the management of agricultural lands in Ghana as evidenced from farmer practices have been analysed using descriptive and regression analysis. The analysis shows that different land management practices affect crop yields differently in the different ecological zones. Also, the types of land management practices farmers use differ across the different ecological zones. The policy implication is that agricultural interventions should be developed on the basis of agro-...

  2. Practical Value of Food Pathogen Traceability through Building a Whole-Genome Sequencing Network and Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Marc W; Strain, Errol; Melka, David; Bunning, Kelly; Musser, Steven M; Brown, Eric W; Timme, Ruth

    2016-08-01

    The FDA has created a United States-based open-source whole-genome sequencing network of state, federal, international, and commercial partners. The GenomeTrakr network represents a first-of-its-kind distributed genomic food shield for characterizing and tracing foodborne outbreak pathogens back to their sources. The GenomeTrakr network is leading investigations of outbreaks of foodborne illnesses and compliance actions with more accurate and rapid recalls of contaminated foods as well as more effective monitoring of preventive controls for food manufacturing environments. An expanded network would serve to provide an international rapid surveillance system for pathogen traceback, which is critical to support an effective public health response to bacterial outbreaks. PMID:27008877

  3. Handling Pyrophoric Reagents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Haynie, Todd O.

    2009-08-14

    Pyrophoric reagents are extremely hazardous. Special handling techniques are required to prevent contact with air and the resulting fire. This document provides several methods for working with pyrophoric reagents outside of an inert atmosphere.

  4. Handling Stability of Tractor Semitrailer Based on Handling Diagram

    OpenAIRE

    Ren Yuan-yuan; Zheng Xue-lian; Li Xian-sheng

    2012-01-01

    Handling instability is a serious threat to driving safety. In order to analyze the handling stability of a tractor semitrailer, a handling diagram can be used. In our research, considering the impact of multiple nonsteering rear axles and nonlinear characteristics of tires on vehicle handling stability, the handling equations are developed for description of stability of tractor semi-trailer. Then we obtain handling diagrams so as to study the influence of driving speed, loaded mass, and fif...

  5. Unfolding farm practices: Working toward sustainable food production in the Netherlands and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swagemakers, P.; Dominguez Garcia, M.D.; Fernández, X.S.; Wiskerke, J.S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The modernization of agriculture has caused and continues to cause an increasing disconnection between farming, nature, and society, which has also created a series of social, economic, and ecological crises in the food chain. Case study research of farmers responding to this situation can show us w

  6. Food safety and ecologization: practical solutions to problems at the regional level in current economic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysochenko Alla, A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring food security and greening both at the level of the country, and at the level of regions are main objectives of modern agroeconomic policy. The state support creates favorable conditions for dynamic development of agrarian and industrial complex, raises investment opportunities and competitiveness of agricultural producers. A realization of the actions directed on assistance to the enterprises making import-substituting production of the regional agro-industrial complex is actual in modern economic conditions. The solution of this problem consists of investment projects implementation and production expansion of the operating enterprises. Considering new economic conditions, the ensuring financial stability of agricultural producers, availability of the food to needy segments of the population, production of valeologically safe food, and also increase efficiency of use of natural resources and conditions along with preservation of quality of environment at the local, regional and global levels are particularly acute challenges. State regulation of development of an agrofood complex of Russia remains a necessary condition for its reproduction functioning, and the social and economic policy has to provide economic availability of the food to all groups of the population that causes need of standard and legal fixing of mechanisms offood security achievement at the regional level.

  7. Best On-Farm Food Safety Practices: Risks Associated with Rat Lungworm and Human Eosinophilic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent cases of eosinophilic meningitis in Hawai’i have drawn attention to a food-borne parasitic infection that occurs in Hawai‘i, the Pacific Islands, southern and eastern Asia, and elsewhere. In late 2008, the Hawai‘i Department of Health reported that four people on the island of Hawai‘i had bee...

  8. On-The-Job Training: A Practical Guide for Food Service Supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospital Research and Educational Trust, Chicago, IL.

    The on-the-job training guide was developed to assist food service supervisors in preparing, presenting, and evaluating a Job Instruction Training (JIT) lesson, a method which employs step-by-step learning of job-related tasks. Part 1, preparing for a JIT lesson, discusses the checklist of duties, the job description, the skills inventory, the…

  9. Normalizing ideological food choice and eating practices: identity work in online discussions on veganism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneijder, P.W.J.; Molder, te H.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we use discursive psychology to explore the relation between ideologically based food choice and identity in an online forum on veganism. The discursive psychological perspective underlines the notion of identities being part of social actions performed in talk, and thus designed and d

  10. 9 CFR 313.2 - Handling of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling of livestock. 313.2 Section 313.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.2 Handling of livestock. (a) Driving of livestock from...

  11. Discrepancy between theory and practice: procurement of local and organic food in public catering systems

    OpenAIRE

    Haack, Michaela; Münchhausen, von, Susanne; Häring, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Research results and local development strategies highlight the procurement of local and organic food products as an instrument that contributes to the improvement of both, the sustainable use of natural resources and the regional economy. Although a number of directives and agreements such as the reform of European legislation on public procurement in 2004 or the European “Green Public Procurement”-criteria enable member states to include environmental and social criteria in award process...

  12. Modeling food web interactions in benthic deep-sea ecosystems. A practical guide

    OpenAIRE

    Soetaert, K.E.R.; Van Oevelen, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Deep-sea benthic systems are notoriously difficult to sample. Even more than for other benthic systems, many flows among biological groups cannot be directly measured, and data sets remain incomplete and uncertain. In such cases, mathematical models are often used to quantify unmeasured biological interactions. Here, we show how to use so-called linear inverse models (LIMs) to reconstruct material and energy flows through food webs in which the number of measurements is a fraction of the tota...

  13. The planning system and fast food outlets in London: lessons for health promotion practice

    OpenAIRE

    Caraher, M.; O'Keefe, E; S. Lloyd; Madelin, T.

    2013-01-01

    This article considers how health promotion can use planning as a tool to enhance healthy eating choices. It draws on research in relation to the availability and concentration of fast food outlets in a London borough. Current public health policy is confining planning to local settings within a narrow framework drawing on discourses from social psychology and libertarian economics. Policy is focusing on behaviour change, voluntary agreements and devolution of the public health function to lo...

  14. Regulation in Practice: Power, Resources and Context at the Local Scale in UK Food Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, SM; Alexander, A.

    2016-01-01

    This article uses a relational lens to explore the conflict between the regulatory state and a leading food retailer seeking store expansion within one catchment in south-east England over an eight year period. The research highlights the relational power geometries which play out in context between regulators and a regulated corporate firm to emphasise the role of power, resources, and scale. The research teases out how the power of the state to uphold an interpretation of market rules is co...

  15. The impact of kitchen and food service preparation practices on the volatile aroma profile in ripe tomatoes: Effects of refrigeration and blanching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both refrigeration and blanching of red stage tomatoes are common practices in Japan home kitchens and in food service operations. However, little is reported on the impact of such practices on aroma profiles in tomato fruits. In this study, ‘FL 47’ tomatoes at red stage were dipped in 50 °C hot wat...

  16. TRANSPORT/HANDLING REQUESTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe ST/HM

    2002-01-01

    A new EDH document entitled 'Transport/Handling Request' will be in operation as of Monday, 11th February 2002, when the corresponding icon will be accessible from the EDH desktop, together with the application instructions. This EDH form will replace the paper-format transport/handling request form for all activities involving the transport of equipment and materials. However, the paper form will still be used for all vehicle-hire requests. The introduction of the EDH transport/handling request form is accompanied by the establishment of the following time limits for the various services concerned: 24 hours for the removal of office items, 48 hours for the transport of heavy items (of up to 6 metric tons and of standard road width), 5 working days for a crane operation, extra-heavy transport operation or complete removal, 5 working days for all transport operations relating to LHC installation. ST/HM Group, Logistics Section Tel: 72672 - 72202

  17. Remote handling at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental area A at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) encompasses a large area. Presently there are four experimental target cells along the main proton beam line that have become highly radioactive, thus dictating that all maintenance be performed remotely. The Monitor remote handling system was developed to perform in situ maintenance at any location within area A. Due to the complexity of experimental systems and confined space, conventional remote handling methods based upon hot cell and/or hot bay concepts are not workable. Contrary to conventional remote handling which require special tooling for each specifically planned operation, the Monitor concept is aimed at providing a totally flexible system capable of remotely performing general mechanical and electrical maintenance operations using standard tools. The Monitor system is described

  18. Food, Globalization and Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Sonnenfeld, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Food is increasingly traded internationally, thereby transforming the organisation of food production and consumption globally and influencing most food-related practices. This transition is generating unfamiliar challenges related to sustainability of food provision, the social impacts of internati

  19. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ACHIEVEMENTS IN THE IODINE FORTIFICATION OF THE FOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Sturza

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was the investigation of the principles of food fortification with iodine. It was researched the opportunity of molecular iodine incorporation in vegetable oil, physical and chemical properties of iodized vegetable oil and other food products fortified with iodized oil. By physical and chemical methods it was established the presence of iodine-triglyceride compounds in iodized oil, formed by fixing the molecular iodine at the double bound of the unsaturated fatty acids. The results of the investigations of the physical-chemical, microbiological and organoleptic properties, the oxidation stability of iodine fortified products compared to the control samples, indicate the absence of sensitive difference during the maturation and storage processes. The iodine bioavailability in fortified lipid products has been investigated in vitro and in vivo conditions. It was established, that the recovery percent of iodine represents 57-92�0(in vitro. In vivo researches have proved that iodized lipid products are influencing the metabolic processes by accumulation of iodine in animal’s body, as a result of an efficient digestion and a high iodine bioavailability from the present complexes.

  20. Food safety-related refrigeration and freezer practices and attitudes of consumers in Peoria and surrounding counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Ruth E; Cullen, Robert W; Memken, Jean A; Nnakwe, Nweze E

    2006-07-01

    Government agencies have recently emphasized the importance of food safety. Reducing the risk of foodborne illnesses within the home requires American consumers to put government refrigeration and freezer recommendations into practice; however, little research has been conducted regarding the use of proper refrigeration and freezer storage practices by consumers. A random sample survey was conducted to examine attitudes and practices of proper refrigeration and storage techniques of consumers in Peoria County, Illinois, and to determine whether gender, age, education, and income level have an effect on these variables. Eighty-one of 500 random sample surveys mailed were returned between 10 January and 15 February 2005. The majority of the participants were female (56, 69.1%), were 50 to 59 years old (18, 22.2%), had a bachelor's degree (33, 40.7%), and had a reported total household income of 60,000 dollars or greater (39, 91.4%). Average attitudinal scores indicated that participants thought it was important to take proper steps to prevent foodborne illnesses in the home; however, 68.8% of participants scored poorly on the practice portion of the survey. Only 12.3% of participants stated that they had a thermometer in their freezer, and 24.7% had one in their refrigerator. Eighty-four percent of respondents did not store eggs correctly in the refrigerator. No significant relationships (P < 0.05) were found within this sample population. These results suggest that further evaluation of consumer practices and attitudes is needed to better understand consumers so that they can be effectively educated about the prevention of foodborne illnesses at home. PMID:16865898

  1. Improving coal handling effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, S.

    2003-10-01

    Appropriate coal handling systems are essential for successful coal utilisation. The paper looks at some of the options available, including crushers and hammer mills, wear-resistant liners for chutes and wagons, and dewatering systems. These are individual components within larger systems such as stockyard stacking and reclaiming installations. 5 photos.

  2. Colonic potassium handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Vaarby; Matos, Joana E.; Prætorius, Helle;

    2010-01-01

    Homeostatic control of plasma K+ is a necessary physiological function. The daily dietary K+ intake of approximately 100 mmol is excreted predominantly by the distal tubules of the kidney. About 10% of the ingested K+ is excreted via the intestine. K+ handling in both organs is specifically regul...

  3. Meet the good child. ‘Childing’ practices in family food co-shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Malene; Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-01-01

    This article explores ‘childing’ pratices in relation to family supermarket shopping in Denmark. ‘Parenting’ practices have been explored for long but little attention has been given to how children strive to be ‘good’ children, who live up to certain standards and recognize what they perceive...... to be appropriate child and parental behavior. The study takes a practice theoretical perspective, building on previous research on family consumption, and draws empirically on 35 interviews with 5–6 year-olds and 13 family interviews. Findings show that the children recognize the position of ‘the good child......’ and most often prefer to take on this position, which is confirmed by their parents. The children can describe how ‘the good child’—in their eyes—should behave. They prefer consensus and not being embarrassing or embarrassed. The study concludes that the children are strongly immersed in social norms...

  4. Food, farm and environment development and sustainability: from theory to practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Segrè

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available International cooperation for development has always been looked at with scepticism since it exists. In fact, the different assistance projects which are carried out to help developing countries bring benefits more to the donor countries than to the receiving ones, triggering a process of economic development in the former. The “investments” of the various projects come back multiplied. FAO themselves, instead of using their resources on real projects helping to reduce world famine, waste away billion dollars to pay salaries, benefits, transfers and general expenses.While in underdeveloped countries million people die for famine, in the rich countries tons of food are destroyed because they aren’t considered marketable anymore. This is a huge waste of resources besides being a serious damage to the environment and an unsustainable system on the long term.

  5. Manual handling the deceased child in a children's hospice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Anne M

    2004-09-01

    The introduction of the Manual Handling Operation Regulations 1992 has forced organizations to review all manual handling carried out in the work-place. Safe manual handling is now a legislative requirement to enable the workforce to carry out their jobs in a safe and structured environment. This project looked in detail at the manual handling that was being carried out when caring for a child after they have died. It was undertaken at CHASE Children's Hospice in the period up until December 2002, with a telephone survey investigating practice at six other children's hospices. It aimed to identify incorrect procedures and, by applying the theory of ergonomics, identify changes that needed to occur in practice, making recommendations for environmental changes. The study led to the production of a policy for handling the children, devising child-specific handling guidelines, reducing the number of times the children are moved after they have died and providing appropriate equipment.

  6. Effects of handling on fear reactions in young Icelandic horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsbøll, Anna Feldberg; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2015-01-01

    Reasons for performing the study Inclusion of objective temperament tests at practical horse breeding evaluations is of increased interest. It has been debated whether such tests may involve human handling, since there may be considerable differences in horses' handling experience. Objectives...... To investigate the effect of a short-term standardised handling procedure on reactions of young horses in 2 types of fear tests (including and excluding human handling). Study design An experimental study with 3-year-old Icelandic horses (n = 24). Methods Handled horses (n = 12) were trained according...... of the handling procedure on the horses' behavioural and heart rate responses in the novel object test, nor in the HFT-unknown. In the HFT-known, however, handled horses showed a significantly shorter duration of reluctance behaviour compared with controls, whereas heart rates did not differ. Heart rates...

  7. Knowledge, attitude, and practices concerning presence of molds in foods among members of the general public in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matumba, Limbikani; Monjerezi, Maurice; Kankwamba, Henry; Njoroge, Samuel M C; Ndilowe, Peter; Kabuli, Hilda; Kambewa, Daimon; Njapau, Henry

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of the public in Malawi on issues related to molds in foodstuffs. A survey involving structured questionnaire was conducted with 805 respondents from seven districts of Malawi. Descriptive statistics, t tests, and analyses of variance were calculated. A majority of respondents recognized that molds were dangerous to human health (88%); however, about 50% of respondents were not informed that mold toxins are thermally stable and that they are not destroyable by normal cooking processes. About 33% of the respondents asserted that they buy moldy maize, while approximately 20% of respondents reported that they consume moldy fruits having discarded moldy fraction. There were significant differences in knowledge scores among different demographic groups. Females had significantly (p public's knowledge about health risks associated with spoilage molds in food and prevention and management options.

  8. Practical use of herb mixture preparations as functional foods for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran and others

    2006-01-15

    This research project was intended to verify biological efficacy and to develop optimal manufacturing process of a novel herbal preparation (HemoHIM), and finally to practicalize it as a functional food for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance. HemoHIM alleviated the suppression of immune and hematopoietic functions in irradiated or anticancer drug(cyclophosphamide)-treated mice, enhanced the anticancer immune activity, and reduced the biological damage by oxidative stress. From these results, the optical application condition of HemoHIM was established. Then, the biologically active components, polysaccharide fraction for immune and hematopoiesis, and 5 antioxidant compounds, were isolated and identified. Based on these results, the standards for the active component contents were established and the optimal manufacturing process was developed. The contents of heavy metals and pesticides were analyzed by US FDA and the pilot product was shown to contain no heavy metals and pesticides. Also the pilot product showed no biological toxicity in the animal toxicity test including the long-term administration, teratogenicity, and local toxicity test. These results confirmed the safety of HemoHIM as a food. Finally, the human efficacy was evaluated. In result, the pilot product alleviated the suppression of immune cell numbers in cancer patients who received the radiation or chemotherapy, and enhanced the immune cell numbers and functions in the immune-depressed sub-healthy volunteers. Based on these results, KAERI and Kolmar Korea, Co. founded the joint venture company, SunBioTech Co. and two herbal preparation products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) were partially commercialized. This herbal preparation is expected to be applied as a heath functional food for immune and hematopoiesis modulation, and also as a general medicine for the alleviation of immune and hematopoiesis suppression during cancer treatments in the future through further study.

  9. Practical use of herb mixture preparations as functional foods for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research project was intended to verify biological efficacy and to develop optimal manufacturing process of a novel herbal preparation (HemoHIM), and finally to practicalize it as a functional food for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance. HemoHIM alleviated the suppression of immune and hematopoietic functions in irradiated or anticancer drug(cyclophosphamide)-treated mice, enhanced the anticancer immune activity, and reduced the biological damage by oxidative stress. From these results, the optical application condition of HemoHIM was established. Then, the biologically active components, polysaccharide fraction for immune and hematopoiesis, and 5 antioxidant compounds, were isolated and identified. Based on these results, the standards for the active component contents were established and the optimal manufacturing process was developed. The contents of heavy metals and pesticides were analyzed by US FDA and the pilot product was shown to contain no heavy metals and pesticides. Also the pilot product showed no biological toxicity in the animal toxicity test including the long-term administration, teratogenicity, and local toxicity test. These results confirmed the safety of HemoHIM as a food. Finally, the human efficacy was evaluated. In result, the pilot product alleviated the suppression of immune cell numbers in cancer patients who received the radiation or chemotherapy, and enhanced the immune cell numbers and functions in the immune-depressed sub-healthy volunteers. Based on these results, KAERI and Kolmar Korea, Co. founded the joint venture company, SunBioTech Co. and two herbal preparation products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) were partially commercialized. This herbal preparation is expected to be applied as a heath functional food for immune and hematopoiesis modulation, and also as a general medicine for the alleviation of immune and hematopoiesis suppression during cancer treatments in the future through further study.

  10. Sustainable, alternative farming practices as a means to simultaneously secure food production and reduce air pollution in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, A. P. K.; Fung, K. M.; Yong, T.; Liu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Proper agricultural land management is essential for securing food supply and minimizing damage to the environment. Among available farming practices, relay strip intercropping and fertilizer application are commonly used, but to study their wider environmental implications and possible feedbacks we require an Earth system modeling framework. In this study, the effectiveness of a maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system and fertilizer reduction is investigated using a multi-model method. The DNDC (DeNitrification-DeComposition) model is used to simulate agricultural activities and their impacts on the environment through nitrogen emissions and changes in soil chemical composition. Crop yield, soil nutrient content and nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere in major agricultural regions of China are predicted under various cultivation scenarios. The GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model is then used to estimate the effects on downwind particle and ozone air pollution. We show that relay strip intercropping and optimal fertilization not only improve crop productivity, but also retain soil nutrients, reduce ammonia emission and mitigate downwind air pollution. By cutting 25% fertilization inputs but cultivating maize and soybean together in a relay strip intercropping system used with field studies, total crop production was improved slightly by 4.4% compared to monoculture with conventional amount of fertilizers. NH3 volatilization decreases by 29%, equivalent to saving the pollution-induced health damage costs by about US$2.5 billion per year. The possible feedback effects from atmospheric nitrogen deposition onto the croplands are also investigated. We show that careful management and better quantitative understanding of alternative farming practices hold huge potential in simultaneously addressing different global change issues including the food crisis, air pollution and climate change, and calls for greater collaboration between scientists, farmers and

  11. Case Studies for Practical Food Effect Assessments across BCS/BDDCS Class Compounds using In Silico, In Vitro, and Preclinical In Vivo Data

    OpenAIRE

    Heimbach, Tycho; Xia, Binfeng; Lin, Tsu-Han; He, Handan

    2012-01-01

    Practical food effect predictions and assessments were described using in silico, in vitro, and/or in vivo preclinical data to anticipate food effects and Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS)/Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) class across drug development stages depending on available data: (1) limited in silico and in vitro data in early discovery; (2) preclinical in vivo pharmacokinetic, absorption, and metabolism data at candidate selection; and (3) ph...

  12. Bulk materials handling review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    The paper provides details of some of the most important coal handling projects and technologies worldwide. It describes development by Aubema Crushing Technology GmbH, Bedeschi, Cimbria Moduflex, DBT, Dynamic Air Conveying Systems, E & F Services, InBulk Technologies, Nord-Sen Metal Industries Ltd., Pebco Inc, Primasonics International Ltd., R.J.S. Silo Clean (International) Ltd., Takraf GmbH, and The ACT Group. 17 photos.

  13. Food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Arazim, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    This thesis looks into issues related to food waste and consists of a theoretical and a practical part. Theoretical part aims to provide clear and complex definition of wood waste related problems, summarize current findings in Czech and foreign sources. Introduction chapter explains important terms and legal measures related to this topic. It is followed by description of causes, implications and possibilities in food waste reduction. Main goal of practical part is analyzing food waste in Cz...

  14. Uranium hexafluoride handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF6 from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride

  15. Puck Handling Glovebox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This project will disposition excess weapons grade plutonium in a solid ceramic form. The plutonium, in oxide powder form, will be mixed with uranium oxide powder, ceramic precursors and binders. The combined powder mixture will be milled and possibly granulated; this processed powder will then be dispensed to a (dual action) cold press where it will be formed into green (unsintered) compacts. The compact will have the shape of a puck measuring approximately 3 1/2'' in diameter and 1 3/8'' thick. The green puck, once ejected from the press die, will be picked up by a robot and transferred into the Puck Handling Glovebox. Here the green puck will be inspected and then palletized onto furnace trays. The loaded furnace trays will be stacked/assembled and transported to the furnace where sintering operations will be performed. Finally the sintered pucks will be off loaded, inspected and transferred onto Transfer Trays which will carry the pucks from the Puck Handling Glovebox downstream to subsequent Bagless Transfer Can (BTC) operations. Due to contamination potential and high radiation rates, all Puck Handling Glovebox operations will be performed remotely using robots and specialized automation

  16. Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Liberalisation of municipal waste handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Ole Gunni

    2006-01-01

    for improved performance of municipal waste management. The study stresses the need for training and guidance of municipal administrators. Highlighting ‘best practice’ examples the study shows, however, that it is perfectly possible to end up with quality service on contract. It takes a mixture of careful...... design of requirement specifications in the tender material and deployment of resources to follow up on the contract and cooperate with the contractor in problem-solving. The study finds the municipalities in a key position to break the ‘vicious circle’ of renouncement of responsibility, untamed market......Liberalisation of municipal waste handling: How are sustainable practices pursued? In the process of liberalization of public services in Europe contracting out the collection of municipal waste has surged. Research in Denmark has shown that municipalities in general have pursued a narrow policy...

  18. An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig W. Hedberg

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they cleaned and sanitized food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999, cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992, and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878. The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri.

  19. Breastfeeding status and marketing practices of baby food manufactured in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, G P; Pandey, P K; Mathur, S; Mishra, V K; Singh, K; Bhatt, O P; Loomba, R K; Luthra, C; Taneja, S; Kapoor, R

    1993-11-01

    In January 1993 in Kanpur, India, a survey of 7 private nursing homes revealed that infant formula was given to most newborns (52.4%). The most common brands included Lactogen-I, Milk Care, Raptakos, Dexolac Special Care, and Lactodex. Staff at 5 nursing homes gave prelacteal feeds (water, glucose water, and infant formula) to newborns when they were separated from their mothers. Staff at only 2 nursing homes gave the newborn to the mother immediately after delivery. The longest period between delivery and giving the newborn to the mother was 24 hours. All but one of the nursing homes did not know about the government policy and the recent bill that bars free or low-cost infant formula supplies to hospitals. The administration of the nursing homes did not inform the procurement department, in writing, of the government policy. 4 nursing homes bought low-cost supplies of infant formula from the companies. The companies sold the infant formula to the nursing homes at a price 48.3% to 86.7% lower than the market price. Medical stores inside or outside the nursing homes sold the infant formula to parents at the other 3 homes. The nursing homes used, on average, 2-50 kg/month. Nestle (Lactogen-I) and Dalmia Industries (Milk Care) had a monopoly in infant formula in 4 and 3 nursing homes, respectively. Infant formula was in stock in 5 nursing homes. None of the nursing homes gave mothers free or low-cost infant formula at discharge. Lower than market price and increased number of calls to the hospitals and physicians by company personnel were marketing techniques used by the manufacturers to maintain market share. These results show that, despite government policy and the bill, hospitals continue to use infant formula. The government should use the mass media to increase awareness about its policy on infant foods and the concept of the Baby Friendly Hospital.

  20. Breastfeeding status and marketing practices of baby food manufactured in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, G P; Pandey, P K; Mathur, S; Mishra, V K; Singh, K; Bhatt, O P; Loomba, R K; Luthra, C; Taneja, S; Kapoor, R

    1993-11-01

    In January 1993 in Kanpur, India, a survey of 7 private nursing homes revealed that infant formula was given to most newborns (52.4%). The most common brands included Lactogen-I, Milk Care, Raptakos, Dexolac Special Care, and Lactodex. Staff at 5 nursing homes gave prelacteal feeds (water, glucose water, and infant formula) to newborns when they were separated from their mothers. Staff at only 2 nursing homes gave the newborn to the mother immediately after delivery. The longest period between delivery and giving the newborn to the mother was 24 hours. All but one of the nursing homes did not know about the government policy and the recent bill that bars free or low-cost infant formula supplies to hospitals. The administration of the nursing homes did not inform the procurement department, in writing, of the government policy. 4 nursing homes bought low-cost supplies of infant formula from the companies. The companies sold the infant formula to the nursing homes at a price 48.3% to 86.7% lower than the market price. Medical stores inside or outside the nursing homes sold the infant formula to parents at the other 3 homes. The nursing homes used, on average, 2-50 kg/month. Nestle (Lactogen-I) and Dalmia Industries (Milk Care) had a monopoly in infant formula in 4 and 3 nursing homes, respectively. Infant formula was in stock in 5 nursing homes. None of the nursing homes gave mothers free or low-cost infant formula at discharge. Lower than market price and increased number of calls to the hospitals and physicians by company personnel were marketing techniques used by the manufacturers to maintain market share. These results show that, despite government policy and the bill, hospitals continue to use infant formula. The government should use the mass media to increase awareness about its policy on infant foods and the concept of the Baby Friendly Hospital. PMID:8039859

  1. Food for Work Program and its Implications on Food Security: A Critical Review with a Practical Example from the Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashenafi Gedamu

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A systematic evaluation of food-for-work (FFW programs in Ethiopia is seriously lacking. Most of the few available reports indicate that these programs have reached very few achievements in terms of food security and reduction of poverty at large. As expressed by Holden et al. (2005, FFW programs are commonly aimed to produce or maintain potentially valuable public goods necessary to stimulate productivity and thus income growth. Natural resources management, like rural road construction, erosion control and afforestation of degraded lands can be mentioned as valuable measures which could stimulate productivity and agricultural growth. The poverty reduction and food security impact of food or cash for work activities are larger if they offer not only seasonal job opportunities to the rural community but also long term employment possibilities. This is more likely if the projects are regionally dispersed and combined with basic education. In the Ethiopian context, it was always questionable if the continuous boom in food aid (regardless of cash or food for work purposes was the solution for the long standing food insecurity and poverty crises in the country. The study discusses the efficiency of FFW programs that aimed to reduce rural poverty and ensure food security on the one hand, and the impact of the food aid on resource and time allocation of the participating households for own food production on the other. The study is based on a field research conducted at a FFW program project, in the Amhara region, Ethiopia run by the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ with the view of improving food security in the Amhara region, Ethiopia. A household theoretical model is used to analyze the sample data, whether FFW program may indeed reduce household food insecurity and/or has some crowding-out effects on labour allocation of participating households for own field production.

  2. Food irradiation: Public opinion surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian government are discussing the legislation, regulations and practical protocol necessary for the commercialization of food irradiation. Food industry marketing, public relations and media expertise will be needed to successfully introduce this new processing choice to retailers and consumers. Consumer research to date including consumer opinion studies and market trials conducted in the Netherlands, United States, South Africa and Canada will be explored for signposts to successful approaches to the introduction of irradiated foods to retailers and consumers. Research has indicated that the terms used to describe irradiation and information designed to reduce consumer fears will be important marketing tools. Marketers will be challenged to promote old foods, which look the same to consumers, in a new light. Simple like or dislike or intention to buy surveys will not be effective tools. Consumer fears must be identified and effectively handled to support a receptive climate for irradiated food products. A cooperative government, industry, health professional, consumer association and retailer effort will be necessary for the successful introduction of irradiated foods into the marketplace. Grocery Products Manufacturers of Canada is a national trade association of more than 150 major companies engaged in the manufacture of food, non-alcoholic beverages and array of other national-brand consumer items sold through retail outlets

  3. 78 FR 28228 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Best Practices for Conducting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff... Healthcare Data; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry and FDA...

  4. 《食品感官鉴评》实践教学的研究与改革%Research and reform of food sensory evaluation practice teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    豆成林

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the characteristics and present situation of the food sensory evaluation practice teaching . We make interpretations and propose reform measures in the aspects of standardizing laboratory building , training practice teaching staff , improving the connotation of food sensory practical teaching , standardizing teaching process and practice teaching methods .%本文阐述了食品感官鉴评课程实践教学的特点和现状,就规范实验室的建设、实践教学人员的培训、实践教学内涵的提升、教学过程的实施及教学方法的科学与规范等做了诠释,并提出相应的改革措施。

  5. Radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the

  6. Current classroom practice in the teaching of food technology: is it fit for purpose in the 21st Century?

    OpenAIRE

    Owen-Jackson, Gwyneth; Rutland, Marion

    2012-01-01

    This paper builds on a research project exploring what secondary school pupils in England should learn in a modern food technology curriculum. The early stages of the research investigated the views of a range of professionals interested in teaching food technology and suggested a framework for a modern food technology curriculum, which would include: • Designing and making food products; • Underpinned by an understanding of the science of food, cooking and nutrition; • Incorporati...

  7. The role of market forces and food safety institutions in the adoption of sustainable farming practices: The case of the fresh tomato export sector in Morocco and Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Codron, Jean Marie; Adanacioglu, Hakan; Aubert, Magali; Bouhsina, Zouhair; El Mekki, Abdelkader Ait; Rousset, Sylvain; Tozanli, Selma; Yercan, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Fresh produce growers are the main source of food contamination by chemical pesticides. In their choice of farming practices, producers are influenced by market forces as well as public and private safety regulations – or “macro-drivers” – as opposed to farm-level micro-drivers. Growers respond to their business and regulatory environment by implementing integrated pest management (IPM) and other good agricultural practices (GAP), where profitable through certification schemes. Our paper atte...

  8. A high intensity beam handling system at the KEK-PS new experimental hall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We would like to summarize newly developed technology for handling high-intensity beams. This was practically employed in the beam-handling system of primary protons at the KEK-PS new experimental hall. (author)

  9. Handling during neonatal intensive care.

    OpenAIRE

    Murdoch, D R; Darlow, B A

    1984-01-01

    The handling received by very low birthweight newborns undergoing intensive care in the first few days of life and the effects of this were studied. Infants were handled an average of 4.3 hours (18%) of the total 24 hour observation time and received a mean 234 handling procedures. Parental handling contributed 35% of the total time but was usually benign except in that it could interfere with the infant's rest. Many procedures were associated with undesirable consequences. Endotracheal sucti...

  10. Traditional Fish Handling and Preservation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Tawari

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The time elapsing between lifting of the nets and delivery to the shore can vary with the distance that has to be covered. It can at times be a period of several hours. The fish, when brought aboard is usually more or less alive. It is stored simply on the bottom of the canoe, lying there in a pool of warm, dirty water. The fish is never gutted and freely exposed to the sun. Needless to say the product thus handled has an extremely short keeping period that could be improved by more hygienic handling and by keeping the fish in shade. The ultimate aim at least for the fish to be entered into the fresh fish trade should of course be to have the fish iced. The same applies to the handling after landing. No precautions are taken to prevent the fish from being covered with sand, leaves, sticks, etc. Better handling practices would be a prerequisite to the development of a fresh fish export trade towards the larger towns in the north and south. It is a well known fact that fishes' rigor mortis period lasts longest with fish kept at a low temperature and is also favourably influenced by killing the fish as soon as possible after catching; in other words by shortening its death struggle and avoiding chemical and enzymic deterioration after passing the rigor mortis period at the lowest possible level. It is recommended that future research tries to establish whether the relationship between killing the fish right after landing on board and a consequent extension of the rigor mortis period is of sufficient significance to be taken up in a programme of improvement of fish handling. Fish handling, filleting, fish preservation, chilling, super chilling, freezing, drying, smoking, salting and fermentation are reviewed in this article to provide information for improvement of culture fisheries management and practices in Nigeria.

  11. Cooper-Harper Experience Report for Spacecraft Handling Qualities Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Bilimoria, Karl D.; Mueller, Eric R.; Frost, Chad R.; Alderete, Thomas S.

    2009-01-01

    A synopsis of experience from the fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft communities in handling qualities development and the use of the Cooper-Harper pilot rating scale is presented as background for spacecraft handling qualities research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E). In addition, handling qualities experiences and lessons-learned from previous United States (US) spacecraft developments are reviewed. This report is intended to provide a central location for references, best practices, and lessons-learned to guide current and future spacecraft handling qualities RDT&E.

  12. Exploring the concepts of food sovereignty and social capital in relation to The organic principles, practices and policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette

    Food sovereignty is a concept based on an idea of food security (a varied diet with diversified, nutritious and culturally appropriate food) for everybody including the right of people, communities and nations to define their own food and agriculture, to protect and regulate domestic agricultural...... of losing power over land, food, other agricultural products and trade. The food sovereignty concept can be argued to be strongly related to the organic principles. This paper explores the concept of food sovereignty and the potential role of active social capital building to develop organic farming built...... on agro-ecological methods. Social and learning networks for farmers, processors and small businesses for collective action and common learning can be important pathways to organic farming and food systems with food sovereignty....

  13. Maternal feeding styles and food parenting practices as predictors of longitudinal changes in weight status in Hispanic preschoolers from low-income families

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) an...

  14. Food and Personal Hygiene Perceptions and Practices among Caregivers Whose Children Have Diarrhea: A Qualitative Study of Urban Mothers in Tangerang, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usfar, Avita A.; Iswarawanti, Dwi N.; Davelyna, Devy; Dillon, Drupadi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine caregivers' perceptions and practices related to food and personal hygiene and its association with diarrhea in children 6 to 36 months of age who suffered recurrent diarrhea. Design: This qualitative study, conducted in March and April 2006, used both in-depth interviews and direct observation data. Setting: Urban Tangerang,…

  15. Household food insecurity, maternal nutritional status, and infant feeding practices among HIV-infected Ugandan women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sera L; Plenty, Albert H J; Luwedde, Flavia A; Natamba, Barnabas K; Natureeba, Paul; Achan, Jane; Mwesigwa, Julia; Ruel, Theodore D; Ades, Veronica; Osterbauer, Beth; Clark, Tamara D; Dorsey, Grant; Charlebois, Edwin D; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane V; Cohan, Deborah L

    2014-11-01

    Household food insecurity (HHFI) may be a barrier to both optimal maternal nutritional status and infant feeding practices, but few studies have tested this relationship quantitatively, and never among HIV-infected individuals. We therefore described the prevalence of HHFI and explored if it was associated with poorer maternal nutritional status, shorter duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and fewer animal-source complementary foods. We assessed these outcomes using bivariate and multivariate analyses among 178 HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding (BF) women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in the PROMOTE trial (NCT00993031), a prospective, longitudinal cohort study in Tororo, Uganda. HHFI was common; the prevalence of severe, moderate, and little to no household hunger was 7.3, 39.9, and 52.8 %, respectively. Poor maternal nutritional status was common and women in households experiencing moderate to severe household hunger (MSHH) had statistically significantly lower body mass index (BMIs) at enrollment (21.3 vs. 22.5, p < 0.01) and prior to delivery (22.6 vs. 23.8, p < 0.01). BMI across time during pregnancy, but not gestational weight gain, was significantly lower for MSHH [adjusted beta (95 % CI) -0.79 (-1.56, -0.02), p = 0.04; -2.06 (-4.31, 0.19), p = 0.07], respectively. The prevalence (95 % CI) of EBF at 6 months was 67.2 % (59.7-73.5 %), and the proportion of women BF at 12 months was 80.4 % (73.3-85.7 %). MSHH was not associated with prevalence of EBF at 6 months or BF at 12 months. However, among those women still EBF at 4 months (81.4 % of population), those experiencing MSHH were significantly more likely to cease EBF between 4 and 6 months (aHR 2.38, 95 % CI 1.02-5.58). The prevalence of HHFI, maternal malnutrition, and suboptimal infant feeding practices are high and the causal relationships among these phenomena must be further explored.

  16. Assessment of Caregiver's Knowledge, Complementary Feeding Practices, and Adequacy of Nutrient Intake from Homemade Foods for Children of 6-23 Months in Food Insecure Woredas of Wolayita Zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeshu, Motuma Adimasu; Adish, Abdulaziz; Haki, Gulelat D; Lelisa, Azeb; Geleta, Bekesho

    2016-01-01

    Complementary feeding should fill the gap in energy and nutrients between estimated daily needs and amount obtained from breastfeeding from 6-month onward. However, homemade complementary foods are often reported for inadequacy in key nutrients despite reports of adequacy for energy and proteins. The aim of this study was to assess caregiver's complementary feeding knowledge, feeding practices, and to evaluate adequacy daily intakes from homemade complementary foods for children of 6-23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study assessing mothers/caregiver's knowledge and complementary feeding practice, adequacy of daily energy, and selected micronutrient intakes using weighed food record method. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was also used to select 68 households. Caregivers had good complementary feeding knowledge. Sixty (88.2%) children started complementary feeding at 6 months and 48 (70.6%) were fed three or more times per day. Daily energy intake, however, was significantly lower (p foods were energy dense. Daily energy, Ca, Zn, and Fe (except 12-23 months) intake, however, was lower than estimated daily requirements. PMID:27574604

  17. Control of good irradiation practices and the role of the ICGFI guidelines and codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable guidance is available to managers of an irradiator plant on ways and means to produce safe, wholesome, quality irradiated foods. The foundation for good manufacturing practices (GMPs), which apply to all food processes, is the Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene. These principles provide good common sense procedures in the handling of food for human consumption in order to ensure safe, wholesome quality products. The GMPs cover the growing, harvesting, preparation, processing, packaging, storage, transport, distribution and sale of food. They provide good check lists for safety and quality. More detailed guidelines specifically aimed at food irradiation are found in the Codex Code of Practice for the Operation of Irradiation Facilities and in the Codes of Good Irradiation Practice (GIPs) developed by the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation. GIPs are available for eight commodity groups. They provide guidance on pre-irradiation handling (including microbiological guidelines), packaging, pre-irradiation storage and transport, irradiation facilities and absorbed doses, post-irradiation storage and handling, final product specifications, labelling, re-irradiation and the quality of irradiated products. In order to apply GIPs effectively, it recommended that the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point concept (HACCP) be implemented. The HACCP concept emphasizes prevention of, rather than detection of defects. The HACCP concept has been adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and is being applied to Codex Codes of Practice. (author). 7 refs

  18. Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    Practice refers to a characteristic way professionals use common standards to customize solutions to a range of problems. Practice includes (a) standards for outcomes and processes that are shared with one's colleagues, (b) a rich repertoire of skills grounded in diagnostic acumen, (c) an ability to see the actual and the ideal and work back and forth between them, (d) functional artistry, and (e) learning by doing that transcends scientific rationality. Communities of practice, such as dental offices, are small groups that work together in interlocking roles to achieve these ends. PMID:19413050

  19. Ensuring Food Security Through Enhancing Microbiological Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Kumar, Amit; Yang, Yishan; Zheng, Qianwang; Kim, Min-Jeong; Ghate, Vinayak; Yuan, Wenqian; Pang, Xinyi

    2015-10-01

    Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts with a profound impact on the quality of human life. Food security describes the overall availability of food at different levels from global to individual household. While, food safety focuses on handling, preparation and storage of foods in order to prevent foodborne illnesses. This review focuses on innovative thermal and non-thermal technologies in the area of food processing as the means to ensure food security through improving food safety with emphasis on the reduction and control of microbiological risks. The antimicrobial efficiency and mechanism of new technologies to extend the shelf life of food product were also discussed.

  20. MFTF exception handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the design of large experimental control systems, a major concern is ensuring that operators are quickly alerted to emergency or other exceptional conditions and that they are provided with sufficient information to respond adequately. This paper describes how the MFTF exception handling system satisfies these requirements. Conceptually exceptions are divided into one of two classes. Those which affect command status by producing an abort or suspend condition and those which fall into a softer notification category of report only or operator acknowledgement requirement. Additionally, an operator may choose to accept an exception condition as operational, or turn off monitoring for sensors determined to be malfunctioning. Control panels and displays used in operator response to exceptions are described

  1. The NOURISH randomised control trial: Positive feeding practices and food preferences in early childhood - a primary prevention program for childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrell Ann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary prevention of childhood overweight is an international priority. In Australia 20-25% of 2-8 year olds are already overweight. These children are at substantially increased the risk of becoming overweight adults, with attendant increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Early feeding practices determine infant exposure to food (type, amount, frequency and include responses (eg coercion to infant feeding behaviour (eg. food refusal. There is correlational evidence linking parenting style and early feeding practices to child eating behaviour and weight status. A focus on early feeding is consistent with the national focus on early childhood as the foundation for life-long health and well being. The NOURISH trial aims to implement and evaluate a community-based intervention to promote early feeding practices that will foster healthy food preferences and intake and preserve the innate capacity to self-regulate food intake in young children. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial (RCT aims to recruit 820 first-time mothers and their healthy term infants. A consecutive sample of eligible mothers will be approached postnatally at major maternity hospitals in Brisbane and Adelaide. Initial consent will be for re-contact for full enrolment when the infants are 4-7 months old. Individual mother- infant dyads will be randomised to usual care or the intervention. The intervention will provide anticipatory guidance via two modules of six fortnightly parent education and peer support group sessions, each followed by six months of regular maintenance contact. The modules will commence when the infants are aged 4-7 and 13-16 months to coincide with establishment of solid feeding, and autonomy and independence, respectively. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, with follow up at nine and 18 months. These will include infant intake (type and amount of foods, food preferences, feeding behaviour and growth and self

  2. Food Safety and the Implementation of Quality System in Food

    OpenAIRE

    Noveria Sjafrina; Alvi Yani

    2013-01-01

    One of the goals the development of the food sector in Indonesia is food secured the release of which is characterized by the type of food that are harmful to health. In some way of avoiding the kind of food that is harmful to health, strengthen institutional food sector, and increase the number of food industry comply with regulations. Implementation of Good Handling Pratice (GHP) and Good Manufacturing Pratice (GMP) and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) are a responsibility and...

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation can have a number of beneficial effects, including prevention of sprouting; control of insects, parasites, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, moulds and yeasts; and sterilization, which enables commodities to be stored for long periods. It is most unlikely that all these potential applications will prove commercially acceptable; the extend to which such acceptance is eventually achieved will be determined by practical and economic considerations. A review of the available scientific literature indicates that food irradiation is a thoroughly tested food technology. Safety studies have so far shown no deleterious effects. Irradiation will help to ensure a safer and more plentiful food supply by extending shelf-life and by inactivating pests and pathogens. As long as requirement for good manufacturing practice are implemented, food irradiation is safe and effective. Possible risks of food irradiation are not basically different from those resulting from misuse of other processing methods, such as canning, freezing and pasteurization. (author)

  4. New transport and handling contract

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Department

    2008-01-01

    A new transport and handling contract entered into force on 1.10.2008. As with the previous contract, the user interface is the internal transport/handling request form on EDH: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TransportRequest/ To ensure that you receive the best possible service, we invite you to complete the various fields as accurately as possible and to include a mobile telephone number on which we can reach you. You can follow the progress of your request (schedule, completion) in the EDH request routing information. We remind you that the following deadlines apply: 48 hours for the transport of heavy goods (up to 8 tonnes) or simple handling operations 5 working days for crane operations, transport of extra-heavy goods, complex handling operations and combined transport and handling operations in the tunnel. For all enquiries, the number to contact remains unchanged: 72202. Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 72672 - 160319

  5. Unvented Drum Handling Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This drum-handling plan proposes a method to deal with unvented transuranic drums encountered during retrieval of drums. Finding unvented drums during retrieval activities was expected, as identified in the Transuranic (TRU) Phase I Retrieval Plan (HNF-4781). However, significant numbers of unvented drums were not expected until excavation of buried drums began. This plan represents accelerated planning for management of unvented drums. A plan is proposed that manages unvented drums differently based on three categories. The first category of drums is any that visually appear to be pressurized. These will be vented immediately, using either the Hanford Fire Department Hazardous Materials (Haz. Mat.) team, if such are encountered before the facilities' capabilities are established, or using internal capabilities, once established. To date, no drums have been retrieved that showed signs of pressurization. The second category consists of drums that contain a minimal amount of Pu isotopes. This minimal amount is typically less than 1 gram of Pu, but may be waste-stream dependent. Drums in this category are assayed to determine if they are low-level waste (LLW). LLW drums are typically disposed of without venting. Any unvented drums that assay as TRU will be staged for a future venting campaign, using appropriate safety precautions in their handling. The third category of drums is those for which records show larger amounts of Pu isotopes (typically greater than or equal to 1 gram of Pu). These are assumed to be TRU and are not assayed at this point, but are staged for a future venting campaign. Any of these drums that do not have a visible venting device will be staged awaiting venting, and will be managed under appropriate controls, including covering the drums to protect from direct solar exposure, minimizing of container movement, and placement of a barrier to restrict vehicle access. There are a number of equipment options available to perform the venting. The

  6. Traditional and alternative community food security interventions in Montréal, Québec: different practices, different people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncarolo, Federico; Adam, Caroline; Bisset, Sherri; Potvin, Louise

    2015-04-01

    Food insecurity is steadily increasing in developed countries. Traditional interventions adopted to tackle food insecurity, like food banks, address the urgent need for food. By contrast, alternative interventions, such as community gardens and kitchens, are oriented towards social integration and the development of mutual aid networks. The objective of this paper is to examine whether the populations served by traditional and alternative interventions in food security differ according to measures of vulnerability. We studied newly registered participants to food security interventions. Participants were selected from a random sample of food security community organizations in a two-stage cluster sampling frame. The categorizing variable was participation in a community organization providing either traditional interventions or alternative interventions. Seven measures of vulnerability were used: food security; perceived health; civic participation; perceived social support of the primary network, social isolation, income and education. Regression multilevel models were used to assess associations. 711 participants in traditional interventions and 113 in alternative interventions were enrolled in the study. Between group differences were found with respect to food insecurity, health status perception, civic participation, education and income, but not with respect to social isolation or perceived social support from primary social network. Traditional and alternative food security interventions seem to reach different populations. Participants in traditional interventions were found to have less access to resources, compared to those in alternative interventions. Thus, new participants in traditional interventions may have higher levers of vulnerability than those in alternative interventions.

  7. Fermentation--a traditional anti-diarrhoeal practice lost? The use of fermented foods in urban and rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, F E; Ngesa, A; Onyang'o, J; Alnwick, D; Tomkins, A M

    1996-03-01

    Whereas modern dietary advice emphasizes the importance of freshly preparing food, many African communities leave food to ferment. Fermentation of cereals is a traditional method of reducing the microbial contamination of porridges. Beliefs and consumption patterns of fermented food were examined among mothers of children aged under five and health workers in a rural and urban community in Kenya. The majority (83%) of rural mothers reported that their families regularly consumed fermented food and over half (66%) gave their young children fermented food. In the urban area, fewer mothers (56%) reported that their families ate fermented food and only (40%) gave their children some kind of fermented food. Several reasons for the declining uses of fermented food were given including education by health workers that fermented foods were bad, declining production and availability, and substitution of traditional foods by commercial products such as soft drinks. Health educators need to consider that mothers may be missing out on a potentially useful means of preventing diarrhoea in their children.

  8. 7 CFR 205.270 - Organic handling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT..., fermenting, eviscerating, preserving, dehydrating, freezing, chilling, or otherwise manufacturing, and the packaging, canning, jarring, or otherwise enclosing food in a container may be used to process...

  9. SOS! Ayuda para Padres: Una Guia Practica para Manejar Problemas de Conducta Comunes y Corrientes. (SOS! Help for Parents: A Practical Guide for Handling Common Everyday Behavior Problems.) Leader's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lynn

    This Spanish-language version of "SOS" provides parents with guidance for handling a variety of common behavior problems based on the behavior approach to child rearing and discipline. This approach suggests that good and bad behavior are both learned and can be changed, and proposes specific methods, skills, procedures, and strategies for parents…

  10. Trends in Modern Exception Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kuta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Exception handling is nowadays a necessary component of error proof information systems. The paper presents overview of techniques and models of exception handling, problems connected with them and potential solutions. The aspects of implementation of propagation mechanisms and exception handling, their effect on semantics and general program efficiency are also taken into account. Presented mechanisms were adopted to modern programming languages. Considering design area, formal methods and formal verification of program properties we can notice exception handling mechanisms are weakly present what makes a field for future research.

  11. CLINICAL WASTE HANDLING AND OBSTACLES IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaidatul Shida Razali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As in many other developing countries, the generation of clinical waste in Malaysia has increased significantly over the last few decades. Even though the serious impact of the clinical waste on human beings and the environment is significant, only minor attention is directed to its proper handling and legal aspects. This study seeks to examine the management of clinical waste in Selangor’s government hospitals as well as problems that arise from the current practice of clinical waste management. A depth interview with the responsible concession who handles the clinical waste management in those hospitals also has been taken. In general, it was found that the consortium’s administration was reasonably aware of the importance of clinical waste management. However, significant voids were presented that need to be addressed in future including efficient segregation, better handling and transfer means, as well as the need for training and awareness programs for the personnel. Other obstacles faced by consortiums were to handle the clinical waste including the operational costs. Waste minimizing and recycling, as well as the alternative treatment methods for incineration are regarded to be major challenges in the future.

  12. The Development of Training Model Based on Theory of Planned Behavior and Willingness to Behave Higienic Practices for The Food Handler at Foodcourt Baseball in Unesa Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Handajani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Training is not always change the personal behavior. According to the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 2005, the behavior intention is influence by three factors including the attitude, the subjective norms and the perceived behavior control (PBC. Willingness is the independent concept of the presumption behavior and influenced by intention as well. The aim of  this study was to develop training model based on the theory of planned behavior and and willingness to higienic behavior for the food handler at foodcourt Baseball in Unesa Surabaya and implementation analysis of the development of training model. The development of the training model is using preliminary investigation phase, design phase and implementation. Partial Least Square (PLS was performed. The effectiveness of training model was analyzed by using t test with two paired samples (paired t - test. The result of food handlers hygienic behavioral analisys showed: PBC had contributed the most to the intentions through the willingness to behave hygienic practices, compared to the contribution of the attitude, subjective norm and PBC directly against the intention. These results could be used to develop a model of training for food handlers at the venue. The training was significantly effective (paired t test, p <0,05 in increasing the knowledge, practicing the hygienic behavior, attitude, subjective norm, PBC, intention and willingness of hygienic behavior of food handlers. The practicality of evaluation model was obtained by instructor assessment activities in very good result (88,42, 96% of trainees could participate well, and 89% of trainees responded well to the training. This training model was effectively proven to be used in increasing the intention of hygienic behavior of food handlers.

  13. The influence of flexible management practices on the sharing of experiential knowledge in the workplace: a case study of food service helpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Elise; Cloutier, Esther; Fournier, Pierre-Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the job knowledge and prudent knowledge of experienced workers constitute a wealth that needs to be shared in workplaces to promote worker integration, job retention and occupational health and safety. It appears, however, that certain management practices undermine this knowledge sharing process. This case study of food service helpers in institutional food service departments is part of a research project aimed at comparing the impact of different work organization methods on knowledge sharing in the workplace on the basis of case studies carried out in several organizations. The results of this case study reveal that by destabilizing and weakening the work teams, flexible management practices create an environment that is not conducive to experiential knowledge sharing. PMID:22317521

  14. Lunchtime Food and Drink Purchasing: Young People's Practices, Preferences and Power within and beyond the School Gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, W. J.; Danesi, G.; Kapetanaki, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights factors that influence young people aged 13-15 years when purchasing food or drink within or beyond the school catering service. The paper draws from a qualitative study of secondary schools in Scotland, which varied in terms of relative socio-economic deprivation and density of food and drink businesses within a 10-min walk.…

  15. Assessment of Issue Handling Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijten, B.; Visser, J.; Zaidman, A.

    2013-01-01

    We mined the issue database of GNOME to assess how issues are handled. How many issues are submitted and resolved? Does the backlog grow or decrease? How fast are issues resolved? Does issue resolution speed increase or decrease over time? In which subproject are issues handled most efficiently? To

  16. Level of knowledge, attitude and practice of night market food outlet operators in Kuala Lumpur regarding the usage of repeatedly heated cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, A; Mohd Shahrul, S; Chan, S X; Noorhazliza, A P; Khairunnisak, M; Nur Azlina, M F; Qodriyah, H M S; Kamisah, Y; Jaarin, K

    2012-02-01

    Consumption of repeatedly heated oil can be detrimental to health. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of night market food outlet operators in Kuala Lumpur regarding the usage of repeatedly heated cooking oil. The quality of cooking oil was also investigated. A cross-sectional study involving pretested questionnaire was undertaken in April 2009. The questionnaire was designed as a tool to collect data from the respondents (n=100) by face-to-face interview. The results showed that majority of respondents had only moderate (53.0%) or low (18.0%) level of knowledge regarding this issue. Most respondents (67.0%) agreed that it is not a good practice. The majority (69.0%) agreed that the usage of repeatedly heated cooking oil is detrimental to health. Despite that, most respondents (63.0%) admitted that they had used cooking oil repeatedly. Most (62.0%) of the cooking oil samples taken from the night market food outlets were considered fit for human consumption. In conclusion, the level of knowledge of night market food outlet operators in Kuala Lumpur regarding this issue needs to be improved in order to ensure the safety of fried food purchased from such establishments.

  17. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G.; O’Connor, Teresia M; Jennifer Orlet Fisher; Tzu-An Chen

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children’s weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (...

  18. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G.; O’Connor, Teresia M; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Chen, Tzu-An

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (...

  19. Cellular Manufacturing System with Dynamic Lot Size Material Handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khannan, M. S. A.; Maruf, A.; Wangsaputra, R.; Sutrisno, S.; Wibawa, T.

    2016-02-01

    Material Handling take as important role in Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS) design. In several study at CMS design material handling was assumed per pieces or with constant lot size. In real industrial practice, lot size may change during rolling period to cope with demand changes. This study develops CMS Model with Dynamic Lot Size Material Handling. Integer Linear Programming is used to solve the problem. Objective function of this model is minimizing total expected cost consisting machinery depreciation cost, operating costs, inter-cell material handling cost, intra-cell material handling cost, machine relocation costs, setup costs, and production planning cost. This model determines optimum cell formation and optimum lot size. Numerical examples are elaborated in the paper to ilustrate the characterictic of the model.

  20. Educação alimentar e nutricional no contexto da promoção de práticas alimentares saudáveis Food and nutrition education in the context of promoting healthy food practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Amparo da Silva Santos

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo fazer uma reflexão sobre a educação alimentar e nutricional no contexto da promoção das práticas alimentares saudáveis, apontada como importante estratégia para enfrentar os novos desafios no campo da saúde, alimentação e nutrição. O ponto de partida é a análise de publicações oficiais e documentos recentes do governo brasileiro que norteiam as políticas nesse campo. Embora a relevância da educação alimentar e nutricional seja reconhecida nesse contexto, poucas referências são feitas a ela no que tange à delimitação dos seus limites e possibilidades, como também sobre os elementos que norteiam a sua prática. Os documentos indicam que o objetivo das propostas educativas em alimentação e nutrição é mais subsidiar os indíviduos com informações adequadas, corretas e consistentes sobre alimentos, alimentação e prevenção de problemas nutricionais do que os auxiliar na tomada de decisões. Dessa forma, cresce a importância dos campos da informação e da comunicação, nos quais se enfatizam as estratégias de produção, circulação e controle das informações referentes à alimentação e nutrição, em detrimento das estratégias da educação alimentar e nutricional. Os dois campos parecem se confundir. Argumenta-se, no entanto, que embora os campos do acesso à informação e à comunicação sejam de extrema relevância, eles não são suficientes para a construção de práticas alimentares saudáveis. Assim, urge uma reflexão sobre as bases da educação alimentar e nutricional no contexto que se configura e as possibilidades de sua contribuição.This article deals with food and nutrition education in the context of promoting healthy food practices, considered as an important strategy to face the challenges of health, food and nutrition problems. An analysis of official publications about food and nutrition policies was the starting point. It concluded that food and

  1. Assessment of caregiver’s knowledge, complementary feeding practices, and adequacy of nutrient intake from homemade foods for children of 6-23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motuma A Abeshu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Complementary feeding should fill the gap in energy and nutrients between estimated daily needs and amount obtained from breastfeeding from 6 month onwards. Homemade complementary foods, however, are often reported for inadequacy in key nutrients despite reports of adequacy for energy and proteins. The aim of this study was to assess caregiver’s complementary feeding knowledge, feeding practices, and to evaluate adequacy daily intakes from homemade complementary foods for children of 6 – 23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia.A cross sectional study assessing mothers/caregiver’s knowledge and complementary feeding practice, adequacy of daily energy and selected micronutrient intakes using weighed food record method. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was also used to select 68 households.Caregivers had good complementary feeding knowledge. Sixty (88.2% children started complementary feeding at 6 months and 48 (70.6% were fed 3 or more times per day. Daily energy intake however was significantly lower (P<0.05 than estimated daily needs, with only 151.25, 253.77 and 364.76 (kcal/dayfor 6–8, 9–11 and 12–23 months, respectively. Similarly, Ca and Zn intakes (mg/day were below the daily requirements (p=0.000, with value of 37.76, 0.96; 18.83, 1.21; 30.13, 1.96; for the 6-8, 9-11 and 12-23 months, respectively. Significant shortfall in daily intake of Fe (p=0.000 was observed among the 6-8 and 9-11months (3.25, 4.17mg/day, respectively, even accounting for high bioavailability.The complementary foods were energy dense. Daily energy, Ca, Zn and Fe (except 12 – 23 months intake, however, was lower than estimated daily requirements.

  2. Assessment of Caregiver's Knowledge, Complementary Feeding Practices, and Adequacy of Nutrient Intake from Homemade Foods for Children of 6-23 Months in Food Insecure Woredas of Wolayita Zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeshu, Motuma Adimasu; Adish, Abdulaziz; Haki, Gulelat D; Lelisa, Azeb; Geleta, Bekesho

    2016-01-01

    Complementary feeding should fill the gap in energy and nutrients between estimated daily needs and amount obtained from breastfeeding from 6-month onward. However, homemade complementary foods are often reported for inadequacy in key nutrients despite reports of adequacy for energy and proteins. The aim of this study was to assess caregiver's complementary feeding knowledge, feeding practices, and to evaluate adequacy daily intakes from homemade complementary foods for children of 6-23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study assessing mothers/caregiver's knowledge and complementary feeding practice, adequacy of daily energy, and selected micronutrient intakes using weighed food record method. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was also used to select 68 households. Caregivers had good complementary feeding knowledge. Sixty (88.2%) children started complementary feeding at 6 months and 48 (70.6%) were fed three or more times per day. Daily energy intake, however, was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than estimated daily needs, with only 151.25, 253.77, and 364.76 (kcal/day) for 6-8, 9-11, and 12-23 months, respectively. Similarly, Ca and Zn intakes (milligrams per day) were below the daily requirements (p = 0.000), with value of 37.76, 0.96; 18.83, 1.21; 30.13, 1.96; for the 6-8, 9-11, and 12-23 months, respectively. Significant shortfall in daily intake of Fe (p = 0.000) was observed among the 6-8 and 9-11 months (3.25 and 4.17 mg/day, respectively), even accounting for high bioavailability. The complementary foods were energy dense. Daily energy, Ca, Zn, and Fe (except 12-23 months) intake, however, was lower than estimated daily requirements.

  3. Managing allergens in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, C.; Wichers, H.J.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.

    2007-01-01

    Controlling allergens in food is a matter of increasing importance for the food industry, especially in light of recent legislation. Effective handling of allergens depends on identifying allergenic ingredients, creating separate production lines for allergen-free products, and effective labelling t

  4. Waste Handling Building Conceptual Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the ''Waste Handling Building Conceptual Study'' is to develop proposed design requirements for the repository Waste Handling System in sufficient detail to allow the surface facility design to proceed to the License Application effort if the proposed requirements are approved by DOE. Proposed requirements were developed to further refine waste handling facility performance characteristics and design constraints with an emphasis on supporting modular construction, minimizing fuel inventory, and optimizing facility maintainability and dry handling operations. To meet this objective, this study attempts to provide an alternative design to the Site Recommendation design that is flexible, simple, reliable, and can be constructed in phases. The design concept will be input to the ''Modular Design/Construction and Operation Options Report'', which will address the overall program objectives and direction, including options and issues associated with transportation, the subsurface facility, and Total System Life Cycle Cost. This study (herein) is limited to the Waste Handling System and associated fuel staging system

  5. Introduction to the Microbiological Spoilage of Foods and Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, William H.

    Though direct evidence of ancient food-handling practices is difficult to obtain and examine, it seems safe to assume that over the span of several million years, prehistoric humans struggled to maintain an adequate food supply. Their daily food needed to be hunted or harvested and consumed before it spoiled and became unfit to eat. Freshly killed animals, for example, could not have been kept for very long periods of time. Moreover, many early humans were nomadic, continually searching for food. We can imagine that, with an unreliable food supply, their lives must have often been literally "feast or famine." Yet, our ancestors gradually learned by accident, or by trial and error, simple techniques that could extend the storage time of their food (Block, 1991). Their brain capacity was similar to that of modern humans; therefore, some of them were likely early scientists and technologists. They would have learned that primitive cereal grains, nuts and berries, etc. could be stored in covered vessels to keep them dry and safer from mold spoilage. Animal products could be kept in cool places or dried and smoked over a fire, as the controlled use of fire by humans is thought to have begun about 400,000 years ago. Quite likely, naturally desiccated or fermented foods were also noticed and produced routinely to provide a more stable supply of edible food. Along with the development of agricultural practices for crop and animal production, the "simple" food-handling practices developed during the relatively countless millennia of prehistory paved the way for human civilizations.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal food-borne disease: an ongoing challenge in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadariya, Jhalka; Smith, Tara C; Thapaliya, Dipendra

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcal food-borne disease (SFD) is one of the most common food-borne diseases worldwide resulting from the contamination of food by preformed S. aureus enterotoxins. It is one of the most common causes of reported food-borne diseases in the United States. Although several Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) have been identified, SEA, a highly heat-stable SE, is the most common cause of SFD worldwide. Outbreak investigations have found that improper food handling practices in the retail industry account for the majority of SFD outbreaks. However, several studies have documented prevalence of S. aureus in many food products including raw retail meat indicating that consumers are at potential risk of S. aureus colonization and subsequent infection. Presence of pathogens in food products imposes potential hazard for consumers and causes grave economic loss and loss in human productivity via food-borne disease. Symptoms of SFD include nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps with or without diarrhea. Preventive measures include safe food handling and processing practice, maintaining cold chain, adequate cleaning and disinfection of equipment, prevention of cross-contamination in home and kitchen, and prevention of contamination from farm to fork. This paper provides a brief overview of SFD, contributing factors, risk that it imposes to the consumers, current research gaps, and preventive measures. PMID:24804250

  7. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcal Food-Borne Disease: An Ongoing Challenge in Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhalka Kadariya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal food-borne disease (SFD is one of the most common food-borne diseases worldwide resulting from the contamination of food by preformed S. aureus enterotoxins. It is one of the most common causes of reported food-borne diseases in the United States. Although several Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs have been identified, SEA, a highly heat-stable SE, is the most common cause of SFD worldwide. Outbreak investigations have found that improper food handling practices in the retail industry account for the majority of SFD outbreaks. However, several studies have documented prevalence of S. aureus in many food products including raw retail meat indicating that consumers are at potential risk of S. aureus colonization and subsequent infection. Presence of pathogens in food products imposes potential hazard for consumers and causes grave economic loss and loss in human productivity via food-borne disease. Symptoms of SFD include nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps with or without diarrhea. Preventive measures include safe food handling and processing practice, maintaining cold chain, adequate cleaning and disinfection of equipment, prevention of cross-contamination in home and kitchen, and prevention of contamination from farm to fork. This paper provides a brief overview of SFD, contributing factors, risk that it imposes to the consumers, current research gaps, and preventive measures.

  8. Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.)

  9. Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary)); Zukal, E. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary))

    1992-01-01

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.)

  10. Conducting food Chemistry experiments on the basis of the practical applications%以实际应用为基础开展食品化学实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王可兴

    2014-01-01

    Food chemical experiments as a compulsory course play an important role in college student professional education. Food Chemistry experiments innovation is the inevitable outcome with social development. Based on the innovation of food Chemistry experiments and combined with teaching experience for many years, the view conducting food Chemistry experiments on the basis of the practical applications was point out and expected to widen the road of innovation in food Chemistry experiment courses.%食品化学实验是食品科学专业必修课程,对大学生职业化教育起重要作用。近年来,随着社会对人才培养要求的不断提高,食品化学实验课程改革已是社会发展的必然。以创新食品化学实验为起点,结合多年教学经验,提出以实际应用为基础展开食品化学实验的观点,拓宽食品化学实验课程的创新之路。

  11. Work activity in food service: The significance of customer relations, tipping practices and gender for preventing musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laperrière, Ève; Messing, Karen; Bourbonnais, Renée

    2017-01-01

    Some evidence shows that food servers are exposed to an elevated risk of musculoskeletal disorders and injuries, and that their work activity varies by gender. Interviews of servers and observations of food service in Québec, Canada, were carried out in three restaurants and a questionnaire was administered to 64 workers from 44 other restaurants. The relationship with the customer has specific effects on work activity and transforms the physical, emotional and cognitive work. Strategies intended to speed service or otherwise related to the customer relationship can involve health risks. Women reported more direct food service (p disorders in this population and that women are at particular risk.

  12. Food Safety-Related Aspects of Parasites in Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watthanakulpanich, Dorn

    2015-01-01

    As natural foods derive from soil or water environments, they may contain the infective stages of parasites endemic to these environments. Infective stages may enter the human food supply via infected animal hosts so there is a need for increased awareness of the impact of parasites on the food supply. Safe handling of food and good kitchen hygiene can prevent or reduce the risk posed by contaminated foodstuffs. In addition, parasites cannot cause a health problem in any thoroughly cooked foods.

  13. Poor nutrition status and associated feeding practices among HIV-positive children in a food secure region in Tanzania: a call for tailored nutrition training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno F Sunguya

    Full Text Available METHODS: We conducted this mixed-method study among 748 children aged 6 months-14 years attending 9 of a total of 32 care and treatment centers in Tanga region, Tanzania. We collected quantitative data using a standard questionnaire and qualitative data through seven focus group discussions (FGDs. RESULTS: HIV-positive children had high magnitudes of undernutrition. Stunting, underweight, wasting, and thinness were prevalent among 61.9%, 38.7%, 26.0%, and 21.1% of HIV-positive children, respectively. They also had poor feeding practices: 88.1% were fed at a frequency below the recommendations, and 62.3% had a low level of dietary diversity. Lower feeding frequency was associated with stunting (β = 0.11, p = 0.016; underweight (β = 0.12, p = 0.029; and thinness (β = 0.11, p = 0.026. Lower feeding frequency was associated with low wealth index (β = 0.06, p<0.001, food insecurity (β =  -0.05, p<0.001, and caregiver's education. In the FGDs, participants discussed the causal relationships among the key associations; undernutrition was mainly due to low feeding frequency and dietary diversity. Such poor feeding practices resulted from poor nutrition knowledge, food insecurity, low income, and poverty. CONCLUSION: Feeding practices and nutrition status were poor among HIV-positive children even in food rich areas. Improving feeding frequency may help to ameliorate undernutrition. To improve it, tailored interventions should target children of poor households, the food insecure, and caregivers who have received only a low level of education.

  14. JUNK FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERN AND OBESITY AMONG SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN IN AN URBAN FIELD PRACTICE AREA: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Vidya; Damayanthi; Sharada; Shashikala

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Junk food simply means an empty calorie food; it lacks in micronutrients such as vitamins, minerals, or amino acids, and fibre but has high energy (calories). During school - age years, children begin to establish habits for eating and exercise that stick w ith them for their entire lives. If children establish healthy habits, their risk for developing many chronic diseases will be greatly decreased. The family, friends, ...

  15. Advanced technologies for remote handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Master slave manipulators (MSMs), in-cell cranes and power manipulators are the general-purpose remote handling tools used in nuclear industry. In-cell cranes and power manipulators can handle heavy objects; whereas MSMs can handle objects with precision and dexterity. The department had identified the importance of indigenising these technologies and developed a variety of mechanical MSMs and Servo Manipulators. This paper traces the history and evolution of these technologies. It also mentions about the telepresence technologies that are set to transform the operator's experience of manipulation by bringing in visual, haptic and aural immersion in the slave environment. (author)

  16. Tritium handling in vacuum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, J.T. [Monsanto Research Corp., Miamisburg, OH (United States). Mound Facility; Coffin, D.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1986-10-01

    This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

  17. Handling device for stud tensioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The handling device for a stud tensioner machine used by example for fixing the reactor vessel head has an extension module, joining elements and means for displacement in vertical and horizontal axis

  18. Lunar Materials Handling System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Materials Handling System (LMHS) is a method for transfer of lunar soil into and out of process equipment in support of in situ resource utilization...

  19. Order Handling in Convergent Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Vrtanoski, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    The rapid development of IT&T technology had big impact on the traditional telecommunications market, transforming it from monopolistic market to highly competitive high-tech market where new services are required to be created frequently. This paper aims to describe a design approach that puts order management process (as part of enterprise application integration) in function of rapid service creation. In the text we will present a framework for collaborative order handling supporting convergent services. The design splits the order handling processes in convergent environments in three business process groups: order capture, order management and order fulfillment. The paper establishes abstract framework for order handling and provides design guidelines for transaction handling implementation based on the checkpoint and inverse command strategy. The proposed design approach is based in a convergent telecommunication environment. Same principles are applicable in solving problems of collaboration in fun...

  20. Lunar Materials Handling System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Materials Handling System (LMHS) is a method for transfer of bulk materials and products into and out of process equipment in support of lunar and Mars in...

  1. Supermarket and Grocery Store–Based Interventions to Promote Healthful Food Choices and Eating Practices: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinen, Amy M.; Nitzke, Susan A.; Martinez-Donate, Ana P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Increasingly high rates of obesity have heightened interest among researchers and practitioners in identifying evidence-based interventions to increase access to healthful foods and beverages. Because most food purchasing decisions are made in food stores, such settings are optimal for interventions aimed at influencing these decisions. The objective of this review was to synthesize the evidence on supermarket and grocery store interventions to promote healthful food choices. Methods We searched PubMed through July 2012 to identify original research articles evaluating supermarket and grocery store interventions that promoted healthful food choices. We categorized each intervention by type of intervention strategy and extracted and summarized data on each intervention. We developed a scoring system for evaluating each intervention and assigned points for study design, effectiveness, reach, and availability of evidence. We averaged points for each intervention category and compared the strength of the evidence for each category. Results We identified 58 articles and characterized 33 interventions. We found 7 strategies used alone or in combination. The most frequently used strategy was the combination of point-of-purchase and promotion and advertising (15 interventions); evidence for this category was scored as sufficient. On average, of 3 points possible, the intervention categories scored 2.6 for study design, 1.1 for effectiveness, 0.3 for reach, and 2 for availability of evidence. Three categories showed sufficient evidence; 4 showed insufficient evidence; none showed strong evidence. Conclusion More rigorous testing of interventions aimed at improving food and beverage choices in food stores, including their effect on diet and health outcomes, is needed. PMID:23578398

  2. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of sweet food and beverage consumption and its association with dental caries among schoolchildren in Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadri, F A; Hendriyani, H; Pramono, A; Jafer, M

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of dental decay is expected to rise in many developing countries due to the growing consumption of sugars. This study aimed to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of sweet food and beverage consumption among schoolchildren in Jazan, Saudi Arabia and to determine the relationship with dental caries. In a cross-sectional, descriptive study 853 children aged 6-15 years (520 boys and 333 girls) were assessed by questionnaire and clinical examinations. Caries prevalence (≥ 1 dft/DMFT) was high (91.3%). While knowledge was generally good, 83.5% boys and 85.8% girls had poor attitudes to sweet foods and > 90% frequently consumed sweet foods/beverages. Multiple regression analysis showed that children whose mothers were less educated (OR 2.46; 95% CI: 1.15-5.28) and children with poor dietary attitudes and practices (OR 4.05; 95% CI: 2.33-7.03 and OR 7.80; 95% CI: 4.50-13.52 respectively) were more likely to have dental caries. Well-directed health promotion programmes are needed in Jazan. PMID:26369999

  3. Civilsamfundets ABC: H for Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anker Brink; Meyer, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til H for Handling.......Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til H for Handling....

  4. Keeping Food Alive: Surplus Food Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sedef Sert; Paola Garrone; Marco Melacini

    2014-01-01

    This paper is motivated by the paradoxical reality of food waste in a world of food insecurity, which is an important issue even for developed countries. Today, in Europe,nearly 43.6 million people are estimated to be food insecure, while European countries are reported to generate 179 kg per capita of food waste every year. Previous empirical studies highlight the potential of surplus food management, i.e. managerial processes and practices that strike a balance between social, environmental...

  5. Reducing the risk of heart disease among Indian Australians: knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding food practices – a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritin Fernandez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Australia has a growing number of Asian Indian immigrants. Unfortunately, this population has an increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD. Dietary adherence is an important strategy in reducing risk for CHD. This study aimed to gain greater understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs relating to food practices in Asian Indian Australians. Methods: Two focus groups with six participants in each were recruited using a convenience sampling technique. Verbatim transcriptions were made and thematic content analysis undertaken. Results: Four main themes that emerged from the data included: migration as a pervasive factor for diet and health; importance of food in maintaining the social fabric; knowledge and understanding of health and diet; and elements of effective interventions. Discussion: Diet is a complex constructed factor in how people express themselves individually, in families and communities. There are many interconnected factors influencing diet choice that goes beyond culture and religion to include migration and acculturation. Conclusions: Food and associated behaviors are an important aspect of the social fabric. Entrenched and inherent knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and traditions frame individuals’ point of reference around food and recommendations for an optimal diet.

  6. Prevalence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in street-vended food of open markets (tianguis) and general hygienic and trading practices in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Garcia, T; Lopez-Saucedo, C; Zamarripa-Ayala, B; Thompson, M R; Gutierrez-Cogco, L; Mancera-Martinez, A; Escobar-Gutierrez, A

    2004-12-01

    Street-vendors in Mexico City provide ready-to-eat food to a high proportion of the inhabitants. Nevertheless, their microbiological status, general hygienic and trading practices are not well known. During spring and summer 2000, five tianguis (open markets) were visited and 48 vendors in 48 stalls interviewed. A total of 103 taco dressings were sampled for E. coli and Salmonella spp.: 44 (43%) contained E. coli and 5 (5%) Salmonella (2 S. Enteritidis phage type 8, 1 S. Agona, 2 S. B group). Both E. coli and salmonellas were isolated from three samples. Of Salmonella-positive stalls 80% (4/5) had three or more food-vendors and 80% of vendors were males, compared with 37.3% (16/43) and 46.4% (20/43) in the Salmonella-negative stalls respectively. Food-vendors kept water in buckets (reusing it all day), lacked toilet facilities, and prepared taco dressings the day before which remained at the tianguis without protection for 7.8 h on average. Consumption of street-vended food by local and tourist populations poses a health risk.

  7. Work activity in food service: The significance of customer relations, tipping practices and gender for preventing musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laperrière, Ève; Messing, Karen; Bourbonnais, Renée

    2017-01-01

    Some evidence shows that food servers are exposed to an elevated risk of musculoskeletal disorders and injuries, and that their work activity varies by gender. Interviews of servers and observations of food service in Québec, Canada, were carried out in three restaurants and a questionnaire was administered to 64 workers from 44 other restaurants. The relationship with the customer has specific effects on work activity and transforms the physical, emotional and cognitive work. Strategies intended to speed service or otherwise related to the customer relationship can involve health risks. Women reported more direct food service (p server-customer relationship could be important in preventing musculoskeletal disorders in this population and that women are at particular risk. PMID:27633201

  8. Investigation on knowledge, attitude and practice about food safety among students in Qingdao%青岛市学生食品安全知信行调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建新; 孙健平; 高汝钦; 逄增昌; 靳晓梅; 孔东池

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解青岛市学生食品安全知识、态度、行为,为进一步在学生中开展健康教育和行为干预提供理论依据.方法 整群随机抽取青岛市12所学校的915名学生进行问卷调查.结果 学生食品安全知识平均得分为(10.21±3.63)分,小学生得分最低(9.05±3.27),大学生最高(11.53±3.20),不同文化程度间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);食品安全行为平均得分为(4.75±1.48)分,小学生得分最高(5.31±1.31),大学生最低(3.88±1.47),不同文化程度间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).41.0%的学生认为我国食品安全现状较差.电视新闻(81.2%)、报纸杂志(53.7%)和网络(47.7%)是学生获取食品安全知识的主要途径.结论 青岛市学生的食品安全知识知晓率和行为形成率较低,应大力开展食品安全健康教育.%Objective To investigate knowledge, attitude and practice about food safety among students in Qingdao, and to provide scientific information for further health education and practice intervention to students. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among 915 students drawn from 12 schools in Qingdao by cluster random sampling. Their knowledge about food safety, attitude and practice were investigated. Results The average score of food safety among these students was ( 10. 21 ±3.63), the score of pupils was the lowest (9. 05 ± 3. 27) and it of college students was the highest (11.53 ±3. 20) , higher grade students got higher scores, difference had statistics significance( P < 0.05 ). The average score of health behavior was (4. 75 ± 1. 48 ) , the score of pupils was the highest (5.31 ±1.31) and it of college students was the highest(3. 88 ± 1.47) , higher grade students got lower scores, difference had statistics significance( P <0. 05 ). About 41. 0% of the students considered that food safety situation in China was poor and worried about it. Students acquired food safety knowledge mainly through television ( 81. 2

  9. Implementing Student-Centered Learning Practices in a Large Enrollment, Introductory Food Science and Human Nutrition Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Debra; Reitz, Nicholas; Schmidt, Shelly J.

    2016-01-01

    Informed by the latest research on how people learn, effective teachers address both aspects of the teaching-learning equation--they engage students in the course material by implementing best teaching practices and they prepare students for learning by sharing best learning practices. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of…

  10. Síndrome HaNDL / HaNDL Syndrome / Síndrome HaNDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ernesto Barros-Gutiérrez, MD., Esp.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El Síndrome HaNDL (Headache and neurologic deficits with cerebroespinal fluid lymphocytosis por sus siglas en inglés, es una patología que cursa con cefalea, focalización neurológica y linfocitosis en el líquido cefalorraquídeo. Objetivo: este artículo busca presentar un caso de Síndrome de HaNDL, puesto que esta condición nosológica implica un reto diagnóstico. Resultados y conclusiones: Se presenta el caso de un paciente con diagnóstico de síndrome de HaNDL los hallazgos al examen físico y del líquido cefalorraquídeo. [Barros-Gutiérrez CE, Silva-Monsalve E, Gualtero-Trujillo S. Síndrome HaNDL. MedUNAB 2015; 17(3: xx-xx]. Introduction: The syndrome of transient Headache and Neurological Deficits with cerebrospinal fluid Lymphocytosis, is a pathology that presents cephalalgia, neurological focalization and lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid. Objective: This article presents a HaNDL Syndrome case, since this nosological condition implies a diagnostic challenge. Results and conclusions: A case of a patient with HaNDL syndrome diagnosis, physical examination findings and cerebrospinal fluid are presented. [Barros-Gutiérrez CE, Silva-Monsalve E, Gualtero-Trujillo S. HaNDL Syndrome. MedUNAB 2015; 17(3: xx-xx]. Introdução: A síndrome de HaNDL (Headache and neurologic déficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis por sua sigla em inglês é uma doença que causa dor de cabeça, foco neurológico e linfocitose no líquido cefalorraquidiano. Objetivo: Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar um caso de Síndrome de HaNDL, uma vez que esta condição nosológica envolve um desafio diagnóstico. Resultados e conclusões: Apresenta-se o caso de um paciente diagnosticado com a síndrome de HaNDL, o encontrado no exame físico e o líquido cefalorraquidiano. [Barros-Gutiérrez CE, Silva-Monsalve E, Gualtero-Trujillo S. Síndrome HaNDL. MedUNAB 2015; 17(3: xx-xx].

  11. 9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. 381.151 Section 381.151 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...; Processing Requirements § 381.151 Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. (a)...

  12. Assessment of Caregiver’s Knowledge, Complementary Feeding Practices, and Adequacy of Nutrient Intake from Homemade Foods for Children of 6–23 Months in Food Insecure Woredas of Wolayita Zone, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeshu, Motuma Adimasu; Adish, Abdulaziz; Haki, Gulelat D.; Lelisa, Azeb; Geleta, Bekesho

    2016-01-01

    Complementary feeding should fill the gap in energy and nutrients between estimated daily needs and amount obtained from breastfeeding from 6-month onward. However, homemade complementary foods are often reported for inadequacy in key nutrients despite reports of adequacy for energy and proteins. The aim of this study was to assess caregiver’s complementary feeding knowledge, feeding practices, and to evaluate adequacy daily intakes from homemade complementary foods for children of 6–23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study assessing mothers/caregiver’s knowledge and complementary feeding practice, adequacy of daily energy, and selected micronutrient intakes using weighed food record method. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was also used to select 68 households. Caregivers had good complementary feeding knowledge. Sixty (88.2%) children started complementary feeding at 6 months and 48 (70.6%) were fed three or more times per day. Daily energy intake, however, was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than estimated daily needs, with only 151.25, 253.77, and 364.76 (kcal/day) for 6–8, 9–11, and 12–23 months, respectively. Similarly, Ca and Zn intakes (milligrams per day) were below the daily requirements (p = 0.000), with value of 37.76, 0.96; 18.83, 1.21; 30.13, 1.96; for the 6–8, 9–11, and 12–23 months, respectively. Significant shortfall in daily intake of Fe (p = 0.000) was observed among the 6–8 and 9–11 months (3.25 and 4.17 mg/day, respectively), even accounting for high bioavailability. The complementary foods were energy dense. Daily energy, Ca, Zn, and Fe (except 12–23 months) intake, however, was lower than estimated daily requirements. PMID:27574604

  13. 食品化学教学方法改革与实践%Teaching Reform and Practice in Course of Food Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢爱英; 周玲; 汪学荣; 刘安荣

    2011-01-01

    介绍了在食品化学教学改革中采用的4种方法即研讨式教学法、自助式教学法、案例教学法和试错教学法,并提出食品化学教学改革的方向。%Four methods in practice of chemistry were introduced,including inquiry,self-help,example of case and try out method,then teaching reform direction of food chemistry course was put forward.

  14. Asthma, guides for diagnostic and handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper defines the asthma, includes topics as diagnostic, handling of the asthma, special situations as asthma and pregnancy, handling of the asthmatic patient's perioperatory and occupational asthma

  15. Food Service Worker. Supplemental Individualized Student Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasty, Liswa E.; Bridwell, Terry B.

    Developed to supplement the food service worker modules published in 1977, this handbook provides fourteen additional individualized student modules. The topics included are as follow: (1) personal grooming; (2) safe handling of food and eating utensils; (3) setting up tables; (4) handling customers; (5) menus; (6) taking and placing the order;…

  16. Transition to organic food in Danish public procurement: can a top-down approach capture the practice?

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, N.H.; Hansen, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is addressing the attention towards organic transition processes which takes place in a Danish political context at the moment. With departure in the explicit propositions in an organic vision 2020 launched by the Danish government the practice in public kitchens is presented and discussed. The main findings in several recent studies address the lack of relations between key actors in the field and the challenges in embedding the change into a resilient practice. Especially the rel...

  17. Glove Changing When Handling Money: Observational and Microbiological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Wahrman, Miryam Z; Shah, Jay; Guerra, Laura A; MacDonald, Zerlina; Marte, Myladys; Basch, Charles E

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of glove changing by mobile food vendors after monetary transactions, and the presence of bacterial contamination on a sample of dollar bills obtained from 25 food vendors near five hospitals in Manhattan, New York City. During 495 monetary transactions observed there were only seven glove changes performed by the workers. Eleven of 34 food workers wore no gloves at all while handling money and food. Nineteen of 25 one-dollar bills collected (76 %) had 400 to 42,000 total bacterial colony-forming units. Colonies were of varied morphology and size. Of these 19 samples, 13 were selected (based on level of growth), and tested for the presence of coliform bacteria, which was found in 10 of the 13 samples. Effective strategies to monitor and increase glove wearing and changing habits of mobile food vendors are needed to reduce risk of foodborne illness.

  18. Glove Changing When Handling Money: Observational and Microbiological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Wahrman, Miryam Z; Shah, Jay; Guerra, Laura A; MacDonald, Zerlina; Marte, Myladys; Basch, Charles E

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of glove changing by mobile food vendors after monetary transactions, and the presence of bacterial contamination on a sample of dollar bills obtained from 25 food vendors near five hospitals in Manhattan, New York City. During 495 monetary transactions observed there were only seven glove changes performed by the workers. Eleven of 34 food workers wore no gloves at all while handling money and food. Nineteen of 25 one-dollar bills collected (76 %) had 400 to 42,000 total bacterial colony-forming units. Colonies were of varied morphology and size. Of these 19 samples, 13 were selected (based on level of growth), and tested for the presence of coliform bacteria, which was found in 10 of the 13 samples. Effective strategies to monitor and increase glove wearing and changing habits of mobile food vendors are needed to reduce risk of foodborne illness. PMID:26463082

  19. Supplier development practice: arising the problems of upstream delivery for a food distribution SME in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Shokri, Alireza; Nabhani, Farhad; Hodgson, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The paper aims to emphasize on the impacts of the supplier development on reducing the defects in supplier quality for a food distribution small–medium sized enterprise (SME). An empirical study was conducted to measure the performance of the suppliers in three different key performance indicators of the outsourcing and supplier’s performance to arise the existing problems via information exchange, data collection and data analysis. It was found that supplier development through data and info...

  20. How Retailers Handle Complaint Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Wilke, Ricky; Zaichkowsky, Judy

    2009-01-01

    This article fills a gap in the literature by providing insight about the handling of complaint management (CM) across a large cross section of retailers in the grocery, furniture, electronic and auto sectors. Determinants of retailers’ CM handling are investigated and insight is gained...... as to the links between CM and redress of consumers’ complaints. The results suggest that retailers who attach large negative consequences to consumer dissatisfaction are more likely than other retailers to develop a positive strategic view on customer complaining, but at the same time an increase in perceived...

  1. The handling of chemical data

    CERN Document Server

    Lark, P D; Bosworth, R C L

    1968-01-01

    The Handling of Chemical Data deals with how measurements, such as those arrived at from chemical experimentation, are handled. The book discusses the different kinds of measurements and their specific dimensional characteristics by starting with the origin and presentation of chemical data. The text explains the units, fixed points, and relationships found between scales, the concept of dimensions, the presentation of quantitative data (whether in a tabular or graphical form), and some uses of empirical equations. The book also explains the relationship between two variables, and how equatio

  2. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Teresia M.; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline) was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest) and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children's weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored.

  3. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; O'Connor, Teresia M; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Chen, Tzu-An

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline) was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest) and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children's weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored. PMID:27429801

  4. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl O. Hughes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children’s weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children’s weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored.

  5. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; O'Connor, Teresia M; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Chen, Tzu-An

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline) was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest) and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children's weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored.

  6. Facts about food irradiation: Irradiation and food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fact sheet focusses on the question of whether irradiation can be used to make spoiled food good. No food processing procedures can substitute for good hygienic practices, and good manufacturing practices must be followed in the preparation of food whether or not the food is intended for further processing by irradiation or any other means. 3 refs

  7. 气浮新技术处理霜害甘蔗糖桨的实践%Practice of Using Floating Clarification to Handle Syrup of Frostbitten Sugar Cane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖凤英; 林庆生; 黎锡流; 许斯欣; 段德雄; 罗哲如

    2001-01-01

    During the last two sugar production campaigns,Maoyuan Sugar Company used the floating clarification technology to handle the syrup from frostbitten sugar cane. After thefloating clarification,the deeolorization rate of the syrup was 18.36% on average,the output rate of the first grade white granulated sugar was increased 35.5%.In white sugar,the conductivity ash,color and tarbidity were decreased 35.8%,15.8%and 45.1%respectively.%广东茂源糖业公司近两个榨季用糖浆气浮新技术处理霜害蔗及岗地蔗,经气浮后糖浆脱色率平均达18.36%,产品白糖一级率提高35.5%,白糖电导灰分下降35.8%,色值下降15.8%,混浊度降低45.1%。

  8. The Dφ Data Handling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.White; D.Adams; 等

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we highlight strategies and choices that make the Dφ Data Handling system markedly different from many other experiments' systems,We emphasize how far the Dφ system has come in innovating and implementing a Dφ-specific Data Grid system.We discuss experiences during the first months of detector commissioning and give some future plans for the system.

  9. TNO reticle handling test platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crowcombe, W.E.; Hollemans, C.L.; Fritz, E.C.; Donck, J.C.J. van der; Koster, N.B.

    2014-01-01

    Particle free handling of EUV reticles is a major concern in industry. For reaching economically feasible yield levels, it is reported that Particle-per-Reticle-Pass (PRP) levels should be better than 0.0001 for particles larger than 18 nm. Such cleanliness levels are yet to be reported for current

  10. Software for handling MFME1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals with SEMFIP, a computer code for determining magnetic field measurements. The program is written in FORTRAN and ASSEMBLER. The preparations for establishing SEMFIP, the actual measurements, data handling and the problems that were experienced are discussed. Details on the computer code are supplied in an appendix

  11. Empowering Students to Handle Conflicts through the Use of Drama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Birgitte; Lofgren, Horst

    2007-01-01

    DRACON (DRAma for CONflict management) is an interdisciplinary and comparative action research project aimed at improving conflict handling among adolescent schoolchildren through the use of educational drama. The main purpose of our research has been to develop an integrated programme using conflict management as the theory and practice, and…

  12. Impacts of Strategic Learning Practices on Employees’ Commitment in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs Engaged in Agriculture and Protein Food Production Sectors in Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Sedighi Pashaki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The survival of the firms depends on the adoption of techniques and methods for encouraging learning among people. On other hand, it is necessary to have an attitude for interaction and endeavour in order for the learning to be built and conserved. Therefore, committed people in organizations have always been emphasized as a driving force of the extension and creation of learning. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of strategic learning practices on employees’ commitment in small and medium-sized sized enterprises (SMEs engaged in agriculture and protein food production sectors in Guilan Province. The statistical society was composed of 650 key people of SMEs in agriculture and food sector in Guilan Province. Stratified sampling method was applied. Tseng’s standard questionnaire was used as main tool for data collection. The research is a practical study in terms of objective and a correlation-based descriptive studied in terms of data collection methodology. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis and stepwise regression was used for inferential statistics. In inferential section, Pearson’s coefficient of correlation was used to examine the relationships between strategic learning methods and people’s commitment. Furthermore, stepwise regression was used to examine the impact of various aspects of strategic learning methods on people’s commitment. SPSS Software Package was applied for statistical analyses. It was found that strategic learning practices were significantly correlated with employees commitment. Based on the regression results, create system, strategic leadership and empower people were ranked as the first, second and third strongest factors influencing employees’ commitment, respectively.

  13. Food irradiation seminar: Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report covers the Seminar for Asia and the Pacific on the practical application of food irradiation. The seminar assessed the practical application of food irradiation processes, commercial utilisation and international trade of irradiated food

  14. Inter-process handling automating system; Koteikan handling jidoka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-10-18

    This paper introduces automation of loading works in production site by using robots. Loading robots are required of complex movements, and are used for loading work in processing machines requiring six degrees of freedom and for relatively simple palletizing work that can be dealt with by four degrees of freedom. The `inter-machine handling system` is an automated system performed by a ceiling running robot in which different workpiece model determination and positional shift measurement are carried out by image processing. A robot uses the image information to exchange hands automatically as required, and clamp a workpiece; then runs to an M/C to replace the processed workpiece; and put the M/C processes workpiece onto a multi-axial dedicated machine. Five processing machines are operated in parallel with the cycle time matched with that of this handling process, and a processing machine finished of processing is given a handling work in preferential order. As a result, improvement in productivity and elimination of two workers were achieved simultaneously. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Optimization of General Arrangement for Fuel Handling Equipment in Fuel Handling Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Sanggyoon; Choi, Taeksang [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Duckhee [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to provide an optimized general arrangement for fuel handling in fuel handling area for APR1400. The general arrangement for fuel handling area should be optimized in the viewpoints of safety functions for fuel handling, efficiency for operation and maintenance of fuel handling equipment during the fuel handling from receipt of new fuel to shipment of spent fuel. In this study, general arrangement for the fuel handling area was evaluated and proposed to ensure a safe and efficient operation and maintenance for the fuel handling equipment in the fuel handling area. The results of this study can be a beneficial suggestion regarding the general arrangement of the fuel handling areas and equipment. The general arrangement in the fuel handling area is optimized in the viewpoints of safety functions for fuel handling, efficiency for operation and maintenance for fuel handling equipment.

  16. Potential of conservation agriculture practices (CAPs) in enhancing food security of tribal people in central mid-hills of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, B.; T.J.K. Radovich; Halbrendt, Jacqueline; Thapa, K

    2012-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in central mid hills of Nepal is characterized by cultivation of steep sloping lands, resulting lower productivity, degradation of soil health and reduction of livelihood options. The Sustainable Management of Agro-ecological Resources in Tribal Societies (SMARTS) project applied a participatory agro-ecological framework to develop improved conservation practices (CAPs) to contribute to sustainable livelihood of Chepang tribal people in central Nepal. CAPs were identif...

  17. The Effects of Total Quality Management Practices on Performance within a Company for Frozen Food in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeta Mitreva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is designing and implementation of the TQM philosophy within a frozen food company which deals with processing, manufacturing, distribution and sale of products from snails which is exclusively for export. Analysing the business processes within the company for snail processing using the TQM methodology it was proven that the performance has been significantly improved. The results of this research have shown that the TQM implementation at this company has not only contributed to the quality improvement of the snail processing products but also to the increase of productivity and optimization of the quality costs. In future the implementation of this methodology in this company will provide contentment not only to the consumers but also to the suppliers, employers and the community.

  18. Recommendations for Collection and Handling of Specimens From Group Breast Cancer Clinical Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Leyland-Jones, Brian R.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bartlett, John; Ellis, Matthew J. C.; Enos, Rebecca A.; Raji, Adekunle; Pins, Michael R.; Zujewski, Jo Anne; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Forbes, John F.; Abramovitz, Mark; Braga, Sofia; Cardoso, Fatima; Harbeck, Nadia; Denkert, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    Recommendations for specimen collection and handling have been developed for adoption across breast cancer clinical trials conducted by the Breast International Group (BIG)-sponsored Groups and the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored North American Cooperative Groups. These recommendations are meant to promote identifiable standards for specimen collection and handling within and across breast cancer trials, such that the variability in collection/handling practices that currently exist...

  19. Incidence Handling and Response System

    CERN Document Server

    Kalbande, Prof Dhananjay R; Singh, Mr Manish

    2009-01-01

    A computer network can be attacked in a number of ways. The security-related threats have become not only numerous but also diverse and they may also come in the form of blended attacks. It becomes difficult for any security system to block all types of attacks. This gives rise to the need of an incidence handling capability which is necessary for rapidly detecting incidents, minimizing loss and destruction, mitigating the weaknesses that were exploited and restoring the computing services. Incidence response has always been an important aspect of information security but it is often overlooked by security administrators. in this paper, we propose an automated system which will handle the security threats and make the computer network capable enough to withstand any kind of attack. we also present the state-of-the-art technology in computer, network and software which is required to build such a system.

  20. Keeping up appearances: perceptions of street food safety in urban Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Olsen, Mette; Bakang, John Abubakar; Takyi, Harriet; Konradsen, Flemming; Samuelsen, Helle

    2008-11-01

    The growing street food sector in low-income countries offers easy access to inexpensive food as well as new job opportunities for urban residents. While this development is positive in many ways, it also presents new public health challenges for the urban population. Safe food hygiene is difficult to practice at street level, and outbreaks of diarrheal diseases have been linked to street food. This study investigates local perceptions of food safety among street food vendors and their consumers in Kumasi, Ghana in order to identify the most important aspects to be included in future public health interventions concerning street food safety. This qualitative study includes data from a triangulation of various qualitative methods. Observations at several markets and street food vending sites in Kumasi were performed. Fourteen street food vendors were chosen for in-depth studies, and extensive participant observations and several interviews were carried out with case vendors. In addition, street interviews and Focus Group Discussions were carried out with street food customers. The study found that although vendors and consumers demonstrated basic knowledge of food safety, the criteria did not emphasize basic hygiene practices such as hand washing, cleaning of utensils, washing of raw vegetables, and quality of ingredients. Instead, four main food selection criteria could be identified and were related to (1) aesthetic appearance of food and food stand, (2) appearance of the food vendor, (3) interpersonal trust in the vendor, and (4) consumers often chose to prioritize price and accessibility of food--not putting much stress on food safety. Hence, consumers relied on risk avoidance strategies by assessing neatness, appearance, and trustworthiness of vendor. Vendors were also found to emphasize appearance while vending and to ignore core food safety practices while preparing food. These findings are discussed in this paper using social and anthropological theoretical

  1. Keeping up appearances: perceptions of street food safety in urban Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Olsen, Mette; Bakang, John Abubakar; Takyi, Harriet; Konradsen, Flemming; Samuelsen, Helle

    2008-11-01

    The growing street food sector in low-income countries offers easy access to inexpensive food as well as new job opportunities for urban residents. While this development is positive in many ways, it also presents new public health challenges for the urban population. Safe food hygiene is difficult to practice at street level, and outbreaks of diarrheal diseases have been linked to street food. This study investigates local perceptions of food safety among street food vendors and their consumers in Kumasi, Ghana in order to identify the most important aspects to be included in future public health interventions concerning street food safety. This qualitative study includes data from a triangulation of various qualitative methods. Observations at several markets and street food vending sites in Kumasi were performed. Fourteen street food vendors were chosen for in-depth studies, and extensive participant observations and several interviews were carried out with case vendors. In addition, street interviews and Focus Group Discussions were carried out with street food customers. The study found that although vendors and consumers demonstrated basic knowledge of food safety, the criteria did not emphasize basic hygiene practices such as hand washing, cleaning of utensils, washing of raw vegetables, and quality of ingredients. Instead, four main food selection criteria could be identified and were related to (1) aesthetic appearance of food and food stand, (2) appearance of the food vendor, (3) interpersonal trust in the vendor, and (4) consumers often chose to prioritize price and accessibility of food--not putting much stress on food safety. Hence, consumers relied on risk avoidance strategies by assessing neatness, appearance, and trustworthiness of vendor. Vendors were also found to emphasize appearance while vending and to ignore core food safety practices while preparing food. These findings are discussed in this paper using social and anthropological theoretical

  2. Waste battery collection and handling

    OpenAIRE

    Degenek, Marko

    2010-01-01

    In the following thesis, we focused on waste battery collection and handling. Since batteries are known for their possible containing of dangerous substances, it seems sensible to collect and reuse them - not only from the perspective of economy, but also when it comes to regaining some valuable raw materials. That is why the battery issue is not only topical, but also in need of thorough analysis and discussion. Wrongly disposed batterries are a huge environmental issue, since they pollute g...

  3. Portable vacuum object handling device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G.H.

    1983-08-09

    The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuatable to apply the vacuum to lift the object. 1 fig.

  4. Follow the Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    With the newly opened Torvehallerne Market in Copenhagen as the central case, this chapter discusses how what one might call an urban or perhaps a performative turn within food consumption together with a profound longing for the good life and for belonging to a community as a way of handling...

  5. Error handling strategies in multiphase inverse modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finsterle, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Parameter estimation by inverse modeling involves the repeated evaluation of a function of residuals. These residuals represent both errors in the model and errors in the data. In practical applications of inverse modeling of multiphase flow and transport, the error structure of the final residuals often significantly deviates from the statistical assumptions that underlie standard maximum likelihood estimation using the least-squares method. Large random or systematic errors are likely to lead to convergence problems, biased parameter estimates, misleading uncertainty measures, or poor predictive capabilities of the calibrated model. The multiphase inverse modeling code iTOUGH2 supports strategies that identify and mitigate the impact of systematic or non-normal error structures. We discuss these approaches and provide an overview of the error handling features implemented in iTOUGH2.

  6. Evaluation of food hygiene in commercial food service establishments in Hyderabad

    OpenAIRE

    Kauser, Naazia; N., Santoshi Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Food handlers have a prime role to play in food businesses, and that is to guarantee the meals served are hygienic for consumption. The unhygienic working practices and attitude of the food handlers often play a major role in the food contamination process.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of knowledge, attitude and Food hygiene practices among food handlers in commercial food service outlets in Hyderabad. Two hundred food handlers from 20 food service outlets in the vicinity...

  7. Research status of food irradiation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on food preservation by gamma irradiation in Malaysia encompasses various food items such as paddy, milled rice, pepper, fruits, tomatoes, groundnuts and frozen prawns. Studies were mainly aimed to determine disinfestation efficacy against insects and microorganisms and the storability in terms of effects on organoleptic properties of these postharvest raw agricultural produce. Researches in important commodities such as rice and pepper include intergrating irradiation treatments with improved handling (packaging materials) and in rice, comparison with conventional treatments was also evaluated. Generally, irradiation method is effective in suppressing insects, moulds and bacterial load in all commodities associated with the problems. In the case of stored rice, irradiation provided better protection than insecticides, phosphine gas (fumigant) and insect repellant, though reinfestation prevailed over extended storage period as in other methods. Storage life of perishable items were variably extended due to irradiation-induced biochemical changes. Practical application of irradiation is possible, foreseeably as complimentary treatment, considering the inadequacy of present preservation methods its applicability to a wide range of food commodities, and the possible cost-benefit under existing postharvest system. Actual utilization of irradiation can be economically justified if sited at the port of entry for preservations of various food and non-food items that enter/leave the country. (author)

  8. Keeping Food Safe During Emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    Chezem, Jo Carol; Burgess, Wilella D; Mason, April C.

    1994-01-01

    Disasters can come in many forms, including tornadoes, fires, floods, and snowstorms. In any of these emergency situations, two problems commonly arise. The first is a lack of incoming supplies. The second is damage to gas and electrical power systems. This publication discusses how to handle foods before, during, and after an emergency to keep them safe and to avoid food poisoning.

  9. Guidelines for safe handling, use and disposal of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health, safety and environmental (HSE) risks of a technology is an inseparable part of it which threatens all exposed employees. It has been proved for many years that exposure to particles, in an occupational setting, could be linked with the onset of lung diseases, such as pneumoconiosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and mesotelioma and lung cancer. Nanoparticles, due to their unique characteristics including; small size, shape, high surface area, charge, chemical properties, solubility, and degree of agglomeration can cross cell boundaries or pass directly from the lungs into the blood stream and ultimately reach to all of the organs in the body. This is the reason why they may pose higher risk than the same mass and material of larger particles. Moreover, biodegradation of nanoparticles by some kinds of fungi (like wood decay fungi) may result in metabolites which may be toxic to microorganisms under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Bacteria and living cells can take up nanoparticles, providing the basis for potential bioaccumulation in the food chain. Considering Iran's prominent position in nanotechnologies and fast-growing in research and industrial activities, controlling nanoparticles related HSE risks should be highly considered. In general, there are three main approaches to risk and exposure control: engineering techniques, administrative means and personal protective equipments. These complementary approaches especially engineering techniques should be considered starting with the design stage of an industrial process. Administrative means of control constitute an additional approach when the other methods have not achieved the expected control levels. Administrative means of control must never substitute for engineering techniques, which always be performed according to standard practices. In some situations, due to insufficiently advanced technology and prohibitive costs, engineering measerus can not be implemended. In these

  10. 30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... drilling fluid-handling areas? You must classify drilling fluid-handling areas according to API RP 500... API RP 505, Recommended Practice for Classification of Locations for Electrical Installations at... areas where adequate ventilation is provided by natural means. You must test and recalibrate...

  11. Personal Food System Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsey, David; Dover, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Personal food system mapping is a practical means to engage community participants and educators in individualized and shared learning about food systems, decisions, and behaviors. Moreover, it is a useful approach for introducing the food system concept, which is somewhat abstract. We developed the approach to capture diversity of personal food…

  12. Development of an On-line Food Safety Training Course for Food Distributors.

    OpenAIRE

    Barker-Smith, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Food Distribution is integral to the food supply system in the United States. Our food comes from many sources and must be shipped to many more before the consumer is able to take control. Product handling and storage conditions during this phase are critical to the overall quality and safety of the food. Having worked for a major foodservice distribution organization in the area of quality assurance, for 25 years, it became apparent that food quality and food safety was becoming more and ...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.312 - Handle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.312 Handle. Handle means to harvest, gin, warehouse, compress, purchase, market, transport, or otherwise acquire ownership or control of cotton....

  14. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Handling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records for all handling and measurement of Hawaiian monk seals since 1981. Live seals are handled and measured during a variety of events...

  15. 7 CFR 983.14 - Handle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.14 Handle. Handle means to engage in: (a) Receiving pistachios; (b... of interstate or foreign commerce; and/or (d) Placing pistachios into the current of commerce...

  16. 7 CFR 1207.307 - Handle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack,...

  17. Optimizing water management practices for enhancing rice production and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in Asia: The food-water-climate nexus approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Tian, H.; Lu, C.; Yang, J.; Ren, W.

    2015-12-01

    Rice fields, supporting over half of the global population, consumed around 30% of the freshwater used for global crop growth and identified as one of the major methane (CH4) sources. Asia, in where 90% of rice is consumed, took over 90% of the total CH4 emission from the global rice field. With the increasing water scarcity and rapidly growth population, it is urgent to address how to simultaneously maintain or even increase food production, reduce water consumption, and benefit climate. In this study, we used a process-based model (Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model), which has the capability to simultaneously simulate the carbon, water, and nitrogen fluxes and storages within the terrestrial ecosystem, and also the exchanges of greenhouse gases between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, to quantify the magnitude, spatial and temporal variation of rice production and CH4 emissions under different water management practices. Simulated results have been evaluated against field observations, inventory-based and atmospheric inversion estimates. By implementing a set of experimental simulations, the results could provide insights for reasonable implementation of optimum water management practices, which is also crucial for policy maker to make trade-off decisions to increase yield and reduce GHG emissions through effective mitigation strategies.

  18. 赣州市大学生食品安全知识态度行为调查%Investigation on the knowledge-attitude-practice abuot food safety among college students in ganzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小华; 占华剑; 李舒梅; 邱伟

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate knowledge -attitude -practice ( KAP) about food safety among college students in Ganzhou, and to provide bases for food safety education. METHODS A questionnaire survey was conducted among 1800 college students drawn from three colleges in Ganzhou by cluster sampling. Their KAP about food safety were investigated. RESULTS The scores and witting degree of knowledge about food safety were very low. There was statistical difference among specialties and genders respectively but not among grades in knowledge about food safely. In attitude about food safety, the college students were active, but unsure about the current situation of food safety. In practice about food safety, the main sources of information about food safety were broadcast television and network. Some students still had some bad habits of food consumption. CONCLUSION It is necessary to carry out food safely education among college students, which help them to obtain more food safely knowledge, get rid of bad habits in their practice, and improve their consciousness of safety food.%目的 调查赣州市大学生食品安全知识态度行为现况,为大学生食品安全教育提供依据.方法 采取整群随机抽样法,利用自制问卷表对赣州市3所高校1 800名大学生进行食品安全知识态度行为调查.结果 赣州市大学生食品安全知识得分和知晓率较低,不同专业、性别大学生食品安全知识存在统计学差异,不同年级学生食品安全知识无统计学差异.大学生对食品安全态度较为积极,但对当前食品安全形势缺乏信心.在食品安全行为方面,广播电视及网络是大学生获得食品安全知识重要途径,也存在一些不良食品消费习惯.结论 高校应加强对大学生的食品安全教育,使他们获得更多食品安全知识,改变不良的行为习惯,提高其食品安全意识.

  19. The hazard analysis and critical control point system in food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Anavella Gaitan

    2004-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is a preventive method of ensuring food safety. Its objectives are the identification of consumer safety hazards that can occur in the production line and the establishment of a control process to guarantee a safer product for the consumer; it is based on the identification of potential hazards to food safety and on measures aimed at preventing these hazards. HACCP is the system of choice in the management of food safety. The principles of HACCP are applicable to all phases of food production, including basic husbandry practices, food preparation and handling, food processing, food service, distribution systems, and consumer handling and use. The HACCP system is involved in every aspect of food safety production (according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO] and the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods [ICMSF]). The most basic concept underlying the HACCP system is that of prevention rather than inspection. The control of processes and conditions comprises the critical control point (CCP) element. HACCP is simply a methodical, flexible, and systematic application of the appropriate science and technology for planning, controlling, and documenting the safe production of foods. The successful application of HACCP requires the full commitment and involvement of management and the workforce, using a multidisciplinary approach that should include, as appropriate, expertise in agronomy, veterinary health, microbiology, public health, food technology, environmental health, chemistry, engineering, and so on according to the particular situation. Application of the HACCP system is compatible with the implementation of total quality management (TQM) systems such as the ISO 9000 series.

  20. Lignite and conditioned ash handling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibolini, P.; Di Giacomo, L.; Ruga, A.M. [Techint (Italy)

    2001-10-01

    This article discusses Techint's latest contract for the engineering and supply of a lignite and conditioned ash handling system. Techint Italimpianti, the materials handling unit of Techint Technologies has served the market for over 40 years as a leading supplier of a range of systems for the handling of iron ore, pellets, coal, cement, bauxite, and aluminium. 6 figs.

  1. Food for Thought: A Critical Overview of Current Practical and Conceptual Challenges in Trace Element Analysis in Natural Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Filella

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The practical and conceptual challenges faced by the analysis of trace elements present in natural waters are not merely, as is often thought, an endless race towards lower detection limits or to the development of techniques allowing the determination of any possible chemical species formed by all chemical elements. Rather, as discussed in this paper, they include the development of (i robust, cheap, and reliable methods that could also be used by laypeople (the experience gained in the development of field kits for As is discussed as an example from which similar developments for other elements may be drawn; (ii more environmentally-friendly methods (the current guiding criteria probably being too simplistic; and (iii methods making it possible to follow diel concentration changes and sharp concentration variations caused by the probable increase of heavy rainfall events. This paper also claims that neither the measurement of total concentrations (reliable methods are lacking for many elements of the periodic table of trace elements, as illustrated through the cases of Bi, Te, and Sb, nor chemical speciation analysis, are as mature as often thought. In particular, chemical speciation studies demand the development of a better, comprehensive conceptual framework. A trial is carried out to lay the basis of such a framework.

  2. Impact of traditional practices on food safety: a case of acute toxoplasmosis related to the consumption of contaminated raw pork sausage in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Maria; Tumino, Giovanni; Partanna, Samanta; La Chiusa, Stella; Mancuso, Giorgio; Giglia, Maria La; Presti, Vincenzo Di Marco Lo

    2014-04-01

    A case of acute toxoplasmosis in an adolescent girl, almost certainly related to the consumption of raw sausage, is described. The girl suffered of fever and weakness and presented a swollen lymph node in the submandibular region. Serology analysis was positive for Toxoplasma gondii and excluded other infections. Further analysis, with avidity test and immunoblot, confirmed the acute toxoplasmosis. She reported that about a month before the appearance of the symptoms, she had eaten a piece of raw sausage while it was being prepared by her father. We analyzed sausage samples prepared from this same batch that had been frozen for later consumption, and they demonstrated evidence of T. gondii DNA when using a specific nested PCR assay. The sausage was prepared from the meat of a pig that had been backyard raised and slaughtered at home, a traditional practice in rural communities in many countries. The tasting of fresh prepared raw sausage is a common practice throughout Italy, and it could be a major cause for toxoplasmosis as suggested by the results of a questionnaire administered in the province of Palermo, Sicily. Contact with cats and, to a lesser extent, raw salad consumption were also referred to as presumptive causes for the symptomatic cases. Two additional cases of acute toxoplasmosis reported during questionnaire administration were alleged to have been caused by the consumption of fresh sausage made with the meat of a pig raised in the yard. Traditional practices in animal farming, and the processing of meat from animals raised in the backyard or meat from wild game animals, might have a big impact on food safety.

  3. Food irradiation and habitual consumption of food; A irradiacao de alimentos e os habitos alimentares atuais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omi, Nelson M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: nminoru@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    In the last years, an increasing amount of people is consuming more fruits, vegetables, seeds and sprouts, with the health effects of food in mind. Otherwise, the accepted shelf food safety found in some countries led to a growing trust in the product's hygienic quality, that leads to behaviors like opening a package and immediately consume the contents. Besides the well disseminated knowledge of good cooking practices, the lack of time, found mainly in big cities, may take to the dinning tables food with an increasing potential of pathogenic organisms contamination. For instance, the alfalfa, beam, clover and radish sprouts caused many reported Salmonella and E. coli outbreaks in countries like the USA, United Kingdom, Japan, Sweden, Finland, Canada and Denmark. Many of the likely source of contaminations were the contamination of the seeds before sprouting. To control these contaminations, the irradiation doses over 1 kGy is effective and the association of irradiation and chemical treatments is being studied. The bacteriological control performance of the irradiation becomes this technique one of the most applied to dry herbs and spices witch, without adequate treatment, could be important sources of foodborne outbreaks. Good production, handling, packing and distribution practices may, with the use of ionizing radiation to reach the desired bacteriological inactivation or decontamination level, significantly contribute to the necessary food safety, allowing it to be safely ready to eat. (author)

  4. Remote Handling System for Ignitor^*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbiati, L.; Bianchi, A.; Lucca, F.; Coppi, B.

    2005-10-01

    Since access in Ignitor is through the limited width of the equatorial ports, the use of remote handling (RH) technology for any in-vessel intervention is required, even before the vessel becomes activated. In particular, the first wall of Ignitor, which is made of TZM (Molybdenum) tiles mounted on Inconel tile-carriers covering the entire plasma chamber, has been designed to be installed and replaced entirely by the RH system. The presence of radiation screens inside the cryostat and around the ports ensure a sufficiently low level of activation around the machine to avoid the need of ex-vessel RH techniques. The in-vessel RH system is based on two transporters carrying an articulated boom with end-effectors, supported by a movable structure over a transport system that can be lifted and set in position adjacent to two opposite horizontal ports. The design of the in-vessel RH system, of the boom and its enclosure, and of the most significant end-effectors (welding and cutting tools, and tools for the removal and handling of tile carriers) has been completed. A series of other dedicated tools for installation and maintainances of diagnostics components, of the RF antennas, vacuum cleaners, tools for general inspection and metrology are included in the design. ^*Sponsored in part by ENEA of Italy and by the U.S. DOE.

  5. Coal handling equipment and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodds-Ely, L.

    2008-02-15

    A series of short articles highlights developments in the coal handling sector. These include contracts awarded to Sanvik Mining and Construction to supply equipment to ports in Greater Vancouver, Canada, Bulgaria, the UK and Australia. At the Profen mine near Leipzig, Germany, hydraulic excavators and a fleet of 12 Volvo A35D articulated haulers were employed and operated as a 'mobile coal team' by MIBRAG to recover lignite that would otherwise have been lost. Two floating terminals have recently been set up by the E-Crane - one on Venezuela and the other in the Congo. Inspectorate International has increased its inspection activities in the coal sector in Europe and Asia. Westmar Consultants increased capacity at Westshore Terminals LP (WTLP) coal exporting terminal in Roberts Bank, BC, Canada. Scantech International Pty specialises a real time analysis of minerals and coal on conveyors. Big Lift Trucks supplies stackers and open belt feeders for the coal mining industry. Takraf has supplied coal handling equipment to the new Wanino export harbor on Russia's east coast. Other developments are mentioned by Horizon Conveyor Equipment Ltd., Phoenix Yale Ltd., Martin Engineering, SGS and Bedeschi. 15 photos.

  6. Exploration on improving the undergraduate overall capacity by project practice of food safety case%利用食品安全案例项目实践提升大学生综合能力的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄光荣; 金露; 陈文伟; 关荣发; 贾振宝

    2012-01-01

    食品安全事件的不断出现,激发了食品相关专业大学生对食品安全的高度关注。为提高食品专业大学生的食品质量安全与控制方面综合能力,提出了以食品安全典型案例项目实践式的课外综合能力培养模式,初步取得了较好效果,为食品专业大学生食品安全综合能力培养提供一条借鉴途径。%Recently, food safety incidents were appeared ceaselessly and it stimulated the food undergraduate to give high attention to food safety. In order to improve the food undergraduate's overall capacity of food quality controlling and safety, this paper gave one kind of outside class overall capacity training model based on project practice of food safety case. This training model gave good effects on undergraduate's overall capacity and provided one of references about improving the food undergraduate's overall capacity of food quality controlling and safety.

  7. Food hygiene on the wards

    OpenAIRE

    Steuer, Walter

    2007-01-01

    A problem that is often overlooked or simply not given enough attention: the food served to patients from the kitchen is not sterile. If food is allowed to stand at room temperature for a long time, both in the case of food cooked for lunch and of food intended for supper which has been previously chilled, there is the possibility of massive spore germination or of dangerous toxin formation. Therefore regulations on how to handle food and beverages (e.g. tea) must be set out in the infection ...

  8. A Review on Quantitative Models for Sustainable Food Logistics Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soysal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades food logistics systems have seen the transition from a focus on traditional supply chain management to food supply chain management, and successively, to sustainable food supply chain management. The main aim of this study is to identify key logistical aims in these three phases and analyse currently available quantitative models to point out modelling challenges in sustainable food logistics management (SFLM. A literature review on quantitative studies is conducted and also qualitative studies are consulted to understand the key logistical aims more clearly and to identify relevant system scope issues. Results show that research on SFLM has been progressively developing according to the needs of the food industry. However, the intrinsic characteristics of food products and processes have not yet been handled properly in the identified studies. The majority of the works reviewed have not contemplated on sustainability problems, apart from a few recent studies. Therefore, the study concludes that new and advanced quantitative models are needed that take specific SFLM requirements from practice into consideration to support business decisions and capture food supply chain dynamics.

  9. Safety Enhancements for TRU Waste Handling - 12258

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Curt N. [Perma-Fix Northwest Richland, Inc., Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    For years, proper Health Physics practices and 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable' (ALARA) principles have fostered the use of glove boxes or other methods of handling (without direct contact) high activities of radioactive material. The physical limitations of using glove boxes on certain containers have resulted in high-activity wastes being held in storage awaiting a path forward. Highly contaminated glove boxes and other remote handling equipment no longer in use have also been added to the growing list of items held for storage with no efficient method of preparation for proper disposal without creating exposure risks to personnel. This is especially true for wastes containing alpha-emitting radionuclides such as Plutonium and Americium that pose significant health risks to personnel if these Transuranic (TRU) wastes are not controlled effectively. Like any good safety program or root cause investigation PFNW has found that the identification of the cause of a negative change, if stopped, can result in a near miss and lessons learned. If this is done in the world of safety, it is considered a success story and is to be shared with others to protect the workers. PFNW believes that the tools, equipment and resources have improved over the past number of years but that the use of them has not progressed at the same rate. If we use our tools to timely identify the effect on the work environment and immediately following or possibly even simultaneously identify the cause or some of the causal factors, we may have the ability to continue to work rather than succumb to the start and stop-work mentality trap that is not beneficial in waste minimization, production efficiency or ALARA. (authors)

  10. Overview on Hydrate Coring, Handling and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon Burger; Deepak Gupta; Patrick Jacobs; John Shillinglaw

    2003-06-30

    Gas hydrates are crystalline, ice-like compounds of gas and water molecules that are formed under certain thermodynamic conditions. Hydrate deposits occur naturally within ocean sediments just below the sea floor at temperatures and pressures existing below about 500 meters water depth. Gas hydrate is also stable in conjunction with the permafrost in the Arctic. Most marine gas hydrate is formed of microbially generated gas. It binds huge amounts of methane into the sediments. Worldwide, gas hydrate is estimated to hold about 1016 kg of organic carbon in the form of methane (Kvenvolden et al., 1993). Gas hydrate is one of the fossil fuel resources that is yet untapped, but may play a major role in meeting the energy challenge of this century. In June 2002, Westport Technology Center was requested by the Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare a ''Best Practices Manual on Gas Hydrate Coring, Handling and Analysis'' under Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41327. The scope of the task was specifically targeted for coring sediments with hydrates in Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and from the present Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) drillship. The specific subjects under this scope were defined in 3 stages as follows: Stage 1: Collect information on coring sediments with hydrates, core handling, core preservation, sample transportation, analysis of the core, and long term preservation. Stage 2: Provide copies of the first draft to a list of experts and stakeholders designated by DOE. Stage 3: Produce a second draft of the manual with benefit of input from external review for delivery. The manual provides an overview of existing information available in the published literature and reports on coring, analysis, preservation and transport of gas hydrates for laboratory analysis as of June 2003. The manual was delivered as draft version 3 to the DOE Project Manager for distribution in July 2003. This Final Report is provided for records purposes.

  11. Transfer Area Mechanical Handling Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Dianda

    2004-06-23

    This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAX Company L.L. C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC28-01R W12101'' (Arthur, W.J., I11 2004). This correspondence was appended by further Correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC28-OIRW12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (BSC 2004a). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The purpose of this calculation is to establish preliminary bounding equipment envelopes and weights for the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) transfer areas equipment. This calculation provides preliminary information only to support development of facility layouts and preliminary load calculations. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process. It is intended that this calculation is superseded as the design advances to reflect information necessary to support License Application. The design choices outlined within this calculation represent a demonstration of feasibility and may or may not be included in the completed design. This calculation provides preliminary weight, dimensional envelope, and equipment position in building for the purposes of defining interface variables. This calculation identifies and sizes major equipment and assemblies that dictate overall equipment dimensions and facility interfaces. Sizing of components is based on the selection of commercially available products, where applicable. This is not a specific recommendation for the future use

  12. Handling reality: three paths to understanding the knowledge society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Muriel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The "knowledge society" hypothesis is a useful heuristic for understanding contemporary society after the crisis of modernity that arose in the second half of the 20th century.  I shall examine the ways in which reality can be handled (reality handlings, that is, all those material-semiotic practices  through which we try to influence the world that surrounds us. I shall focus especially on the epistemological problems of current scientific and political practices.  I conclude with three specific, but not mutually exclusive avenues that might (or might not help us fully articulate the idea of the "knowledge society": the modern-sociological, the actantial-articulative, and the genealogical.  

  13. Prey handling and consumption by northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) : a feeding experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Sæther, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    Although the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) is a well-studied raptor, little is known about its prey handling behaviour and food requirement in different temperatures. Such knowledge is important for understanding its prey selection. I collected data on four wild female goshawks by video monitoring their handling of presented prey, 9 mammalian prey and 31 avian prey. I also conducted eight feeding trials, where I presented a mammalian and avian prey simultaneously, to see what the gosh...

  14. The Course Design and Teaching Practice of Food Beverage Operation and Service%《餐饮运作与服务》课程设计与教学实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐丽; 李新元

    2011-01-01

    《餐饮运作与服务》课程是酒店管理专业的一门核心课程,操作性、使用性强,因此,笔者以餐饮岗位职业活动的工作过程为依据,对《餐饮运作与服务》课程进行了设计与实践。%Food beverage operation and service is the core course of hotel management.It demands strong practicability and operability.Therefore,we have developed,designed and practiced the food beverage operation and service on the basis of working process of food beverage post vocational activity.

  15. 新乡医学院学生食品安全知识态度行为分析%Knowledge attitude and practice of food safety among undergraduates in Xinxiang Medical University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玉慧; 杜玮; 卜勇军; 张国富; 刘晓婷; 孙翔; 宋旭; 卢少峰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To find out the state of the knowledge, attitude and practice of food safety between different level, major,grade and sex, and to explore the main factors affecting the food safety practice among medical college students. Methods By using cluster random sampling method, 1 506 students were recruited from clinical medicinedeparment and medical English department. All the participants were surveyed with a self-designed questionnaire about the food safety knowledge, attitude and practice, and the data were statistically analyzed. Results The scores of knowledge, attitude and practice of food safety had no significant difference between different levels ( P >0.05 ) . The scores of knowledge, attitude and practice of food safety was significant different between different genders and different majors ( P < 0. 01 ) ; The scores of knowledge, attitude of food safety was significant different between different grades ( P <0.01 ) , but the scores of practice of food safety had no significant difference( P >0.05 ). The results of multiple regression analysis showed that the main factors affecting the food safety practice for medical college students were the attitude, knowledge of food safety, major and gender( P <0.05 or P <0. 01 ). Conclusion It is not only necessary to carry out food safety knowledge education among the medical college students through the class-lecture, campus network and broadcast of college, but that is more important to increase the right attitude education about food safety so as to cultivate good practice of food safety.%目的 了解医学院校不同专业、年级和性别大学生的食品安全知识、态度及行为,探讨影响医学院大学生食品安全行为的主要因素.方法 自制食品安全知识、态度和行为的调查问卷,采用随机整群抽样的方法,抽取新乡医学院校临床专业和医学英语专业共1 506名大学生进行问卷调查及统计学分析.结果 不同层次大学生食

  16. CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.F. Beesley

    2005-04-21

    The purpose of this facility description document (FDD) is to establish requirements and associated bases that drive the design of the Canister Handling Facility (CHF), which will allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This FDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This FDD identifies the requirements and describes the facility design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This FDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This FDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the facility. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The FDD follows the design with regard to the description of the facility. The description provided in this FDD reflects the current results of the design process.

  17. Fuel Handling Facility Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the facility description document (FDD) is to establish the requirements and their bases that drive the design of the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) to allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This FDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. It identifies the requirements and describes the facility design as it currently exists, with emphasis on design attributes provided to meet the requirements. This FDD was developed as an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the facility. Knowledge of these requirements is essential to performing the design process. It trails the design with regard to the description of the facility. This description is a reflection of the results of the design process to date

  18. Need for a uniform system of control for ensuring acceptance of irradiated food in trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As national and international trade in food increases, and as markets become more knowledgeable and demanding, all food preservation techniques must be applied in a consistent, uniform manner using recognized systems of control. Such systems are particularly relevant to irradiation since inspection of the final product cannot reveal previous handling or the treatment applied. Several UN agencies provide governments with food control assistance. FAO has a major programme to provide assistance and training on food laws and regulations, on food laboratories and inspection systems, on monitoring of contaminants, and on the formulation of national strategies for the control of food quality. Other agencies have specialized programmes relating to their primary interest. For example, the WHO focuses on food safety, both chemical and microbiological. It also promotes processes, such as irradiation which can make a contribution to primary health care. The IAEA has training and support programmes for the appropriate use of nuclear techniques in food and agriculture. Together, the three agencies support the work of the International Consultative Groups on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) which provides codes of Good Irradiation Practice, guidelines, training courses and inventories of use to regulators and industry. The key areas for control in food irradiation facilities are the design, construction and operation of the facility; personnel training; raw materials; product processing, including packaging materials; record maintenance; and the environmental impact of the overall operation. (author). 6 refs

  19. Informed food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2014-01-01

    Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea...... of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....

  20. Informed Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea...... of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....